Sample records for aspergillus sp nr4617

  1. Pectin lyase from Aspergillus sp. CHY1043

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Delgado; Blanca A. Trejo; Carlos Huitrón; Guillermo Aguilar

    1993-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. CH-Y-1043 synthesizes pectin lyase when grown on citrus pectin at 37° C. Production is favoured by increased esterification degree of the pectin used as carbon source. This enzyme displays higher activity at pH values of 8.5–8.8 and temperatures of 40–45° C. The optimal substrate for the enzyme was highly esterified pectin and no enzymatic activity was registered on

  2. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (?=?ITAL 270/06?=?IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  3. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

  4. A new sesquiterpene from endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Liu Luo; Guo-Hong Li; Fang-Fang Liu; Li-Ping Lei; Zhen-Yuan Xia; Ke-Qin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A fungal strain named YLF-14 was isolated from the leaf of Altingia yunnunensis. Based on the sequence at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the strain was identified as an Aspergillus sp.. A new sesquiterpene 5?,8a?-dimethyl-3,4,4a?,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene-1,2,5?-trimethanol (1) and a known compound 12-N-methylcyclo-(L-tryptophyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2) were isolated from the culture of this strain. Bioassay experiments showed that the two compounds had no

  5. A new sesquiterpene from endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Liu Luo; Guo-Hong Li; Fang-Fang Liu; Li-Ping Lei; Zhen-Yuan Xia; Ke-Qin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A fungal strain named YLF-14 was isolated from the leaf of Altingia yunnunensis. Based on the sequence at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the strain was identified as an Aspergillus sp.. A new sesquiterpene 5?,8a?-dimethyl-3,4,4a?,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene-1,2,5?-trimethanol (1) and a known compound 12-N-methylcyclo-(L-tryptophyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2) were isolated from the culture of this strain. Bioassay experiments showed that the two compounds had no

  6. Sucrose Biotransformation to Fructooligosaccharides by Aspergillus sp. N74 Free Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Fernando Sánchez; Ana M. Rodriguez; Edelberto Silva; Luis A. Caicedo

    2010-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharide production with the fructosyltransferase from free cells of the native strain Aspergillus sp. N74 at laboratory level was evaluated. The biomass of the native strain Aspergillus sp. N74 was produced in a sucrose fermentation medium and was employed in the enzymatic reaction in solutions of sucrose\\u000a and phosphate buffer, where pH, temperature, and initial sucrose concentration effect were evaluated.

  7. Enhanced Endoglucanase Production by Soil Isolates of Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. through Submerged Fermentation Process (Topraktan Batik Kültür Fermentasyonu ile ?zole Edilen Fusarium sp. ve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulchamy Chellapandi; Abha Apurvabhai Jani

    Objective: The objective was to optimize the fermentation media components and condi- tions to improve the production yield of endoglucanase by filamentous fungi isolated from garden soil. Methods: Cellulolytic fungi were screened from garden soil and identified as Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. by using conidial morphology. The influences of various culture condi- tions including incubation time, temperature, pH, carbon,

  8. Degradation of polycaprolactone at 50 °C by a thermotolerant Aspergillus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Sanchez; Akio Tsuchii; Yutaka Tokiwa

    2000-01-01

    A thermotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain ST-01 degrading poly(e-caprolactone) films was isolated. The polyester was degraded and assimilated giving 36 mg of cell from 100 mg sample and 10 mg yeast extract after 6 days at 50 °C. The degradation products were identified as succinic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and caproic acid. The isolate also degraded more than 90% film

  9. Stimulation of polygalacturonase production in an immobilized system by Aspergillus sp.: effect of pectin and glucose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwil A. L. Gattás; Marcia R. Bueno; Maria H. L. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of polygalacturonases (PG) is known to be influenced by Aspergillus growth conditions, namely, environmental factors and pectin content in the cultivation medium containing a mixed carbon source.\\u000a Optimal conditions were attained at a temperature of 30 °C and an initial pH of 4.5. PG activity (3.29 and 2.48 U\\/mL) was\\u000a determined after a two-day culture of Aspergillus sp. HC1 and

  10. Chemical investigation of metabolites produced by an endophytic Aspergillus sp. isolated from Limonia acidissima.

    PubMed

    Siriwardane, A M D A; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-07-01

    Endophytic fungi are considered as a good source to produce important secondary metabolites with interesting bioactivities. In a continuation of our studies towards the search for environmentally friendly bioactive compounds from Sri Lankan flora, we investigated the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungi Aspergillus sp. isolated from the seeds of the popular edible fruit Limonia acidissima L. of the family Rutaceae. The pure culture of the Aspergillus sp. was grown on potato dextrose broth media. After 4 weeks fermentation, fungal media were extracted with organic solvents. Chromatographic separation of the fungal extracts over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC furnished flavasperone (1), rubrofusarin B (2), aurasperone A (3), fonsecinone D (4) and aurasperone B (5). Compounds 1-4 showed moderate activities in brine shrimp toxicity assay. This is the first report of the (13)C NMR data of compounds 4 and 5. PMID:25809933

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of capsaicin 4-O-?-xylooligosaccharides by ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus sp.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Ohara, Takahiro; Hamada, Hiroki

    2011-06-01

    Capsaicin 4-O-?-xylooligosaccharides were synthesized by a biocatalytic xylosylation using Aspergillus sp. ?-xylosidase. Capsaicin was converted into three new capsaicin glycosides, i.e. capsaicin 4-O-?-xyloside, capsaicin 4-O-?-xylobioside, and capsaicin 4-O-?-xylotrioside in 15, 12 and 10% yield, respectively. All products were isolated from the reaction mixtures by preparative HPLC. The structures of the products were determined by NMR spectroscopic method. PMID:21555267

  12. Immobilization of fungus Aspergillus sp. by a novel cryogel technique for production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin A. Lusta; Il Kyung Chung; Ill Whan Sul; Hee Sung Park; Dong Ill Shin

    2000-01-01

    Aerobic cells of a fungus isolate Aspergillus sp. CX-1 have been immobilized in macroporous cryoPAG and in different composite cryoPAGs — fibrous adjunct carriers. The productivity of the extracellular enzymes (exo-1.4-?-glucanase, endo-1.4-?-glucanase, ?-glucosidase and xylanase), and the viability, growth and ultrastructure of the immobilized fungus have been studied. The enzyme activities and stability during long-term repeated batch cultivation in the

  13. Gliotoxin Isolated from Marine Fungus Aspergillus sp. Induces Apoptosis of Human Cervical Cancer and Chondrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van-Tinh; Lee, Jung Suck; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Li, Yong-Xin; Kim, Kil-Nam; Heo, Soo-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Je, Jae-Young; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Gliotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by marine fungus Aspergillus sp., possesses various biological activities including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism underlying gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity on human cervical cancer (Hela) and human chondrosarcoma (SW1353) cells remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the effect of gliotoxin induction on apoptosis, the activating expressions of caspase family enzymes in the cells. Apoptotic cell levels were measured through DAPI and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) double staining analysis. The apoptotic protein expression of Bcl-2 and caspase family was detected by Western blot in Hela and SW1353 cells. Our results showed that gliotoxin treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced significant morphological changes. Gliotoxin induced apoptosis was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. Gliotoxin-induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and cytochromec (cyt c) release showed evidence for the gliotoxin activity on apoptosis. These findings suggest that gliotoxin isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp. induced apoptosis in Hela and SW1353 cells via the mitochondrial pathway followed by downstream events leading to apoptotic mode of cell death. PMID:24368570

  14. Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synozol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synozol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synozol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50°C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synozol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes. PMID:23369298

  15. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Yang, Rui-Yun; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Yi-Yan; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Qian, Pei-Yuan; She, Zhi-Gang; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (?)-sydonol (2), (?)-sydonic acid (3), and (?)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2?,6?,6?-trimethyltetrahydro-2H- pyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1–4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 µM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined. PMID:22363233

  16. Biosorption of reactive dye from textile wastewater by non-viable biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud A. Khalaf

    2008-01-01

    The potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a biosorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi component textile wastewater. The results showed that pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomasses with autoclaving increased the removal of dye than pre-treatment with gamma-irradiation. The effects of operational parameters (pH, temperature, biomass

  17. Natural phenolic metabolites from endophytic Aspergillus sp. IFB-YXS with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wei, Wei; Shi, Jing; Chen, Chaojun; Zhao, Guoyan; Jiao, Ruihua; Tan, Renxiang

    2015-07-01

    Prompted by the pressing necessity to conquer phytopathogenic infections, the antimicrobial compounds were characterized with bioassay-guided method from the ethanol extract derived from the solid-substrate fermentation of Aspergillus sp. IFB-YXS, an endophytic fungus residing in the apparently healthy leave of Ginkgo biloba L. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and mechanism(s) of these bioactive compounds against phytopathogens. Among the compounds, xanthoascin (1) is significantly inhibitory on the growth of the phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganense subsp. Sepedonicus with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.31?g/ml, which is more potent than streptomycin (MIC 0.62?g/ml), an antimicrobial drug co-assayed herein as a positive reference. Moreover, terphenyl derivatives 3, 5 and 6 are also found to be active against other phytopathogens including Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Swings, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Swings, Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans etc. The antibacterial mechanism of xanthoascin (1) was addressed to change the cellular permeability of the phytopathogens, leading to the remarkable leakage of nucleic acids out of the cytomembrane. The work highlights the possibility that xanthoascin (1), an analogue of xanthocillin which is used to be an approved antibiotic, may find its renewed application as a potent antibacterial agrichemical. This study contributes to the development of new antimicrobial drugs, especially against C. michiganense subsp. Sepedonicus. PMID:26004581

  18. Diphenyl ethers from Aspergillus sp. and their anti-A??? aggregation activities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan; Wang, Gao-Qian; Tong, Xu-Peng; Chen, Guo-Dong; Huang, Yuan-Fan; Cui, Jia-Yu; Kong, Ming-Zhu; Guo, Liang-Dong; Zheng, Yi-Zhi; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2014-10-01

    Two new compounds with the character of diphenyl ether structure, oxisterigmatocystin D (1) and 9-acetyldiorcinol B (6), were isolated from the endolichenic fungal strain Aspergillus sp. (No. 16-20-8-1), along with six known compounds, oxisterigmatocystin A (2), oxisterigmatocystin C (3), sterigmatocystin (4), diorcinol B (5), violaceol-I (7), and violaceol-II (8). The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, the A?42 aggregation inhibitory activities of 5-8 were evaluated by the standard thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as the positive control. Compounds 7 and 8 displayed significant anti-A?42 aggregation activity with IC50 values of 5.1 and 2.3?M, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship of these diphenyl ethers as anti-A?42 aggregation inhibitors was proposed. PMID:25038471

  19. Bioactive Metabolites from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yayue; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Zhaoming; Lu, Yongjun; Xia, Guoping; Liu, Hongju; He, Lei; She, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5B cultured on Czapek's medium led to the isolation of four new metabolites, aspergifuranone (1), isocoumarin derivatives (±) 2 and (±) 3, and (R)-3-demethylpurpurester A (4), together with the known purpurester B (5) and pestaphthalides A (6). Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of Compound 1 was determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, and that of Compound 4 was revealed by comparing its optical rotation data and CD with those of the literature. The structure of Compound 6 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using CuK? radiation. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and Compound 1 showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 9.05 ± 0.60 ?M. Kinetic analysis showed that Compound 1 was a noncompetitive inhibitor of ?-glucosidase. Compounds 2 and 6 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities. PMID:25996099

  20. Treatment of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus wastewater utilizing phytoremediation of microalgae, Chlorella sp. with Aspergillus niger bio-harvesting.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Nurfarahana Mohd; Bakar, Nur Syuhada Abu; Lananan, Fathurrahman; Abdul Hamid, Siti Hajar; Lam, Su Shiung; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of the performance of Chlorella sp. in removing nutrient in aquaculture wastewater and its correlation with the kinetic growth of Chlorella sp. The treatment was applied with various Chlorella sp. inoculation dosage ranging from 0% to 60% (v/v) of wastewater. The optimum inoculation dosage was recorded at 30% (v/v) with effluent concentration of ammonia and orthophosphate recording at 0.012mgL(-1) and 0.647mgL(-1), respectively on Day 11. The optimum dosage for bio-flocculation process was obtained at 30mgL(-1) of Aspergillus niger with a harvesting efficiency of 97%. This type of development of phytoremediation with continuous bio-harvesting could promote the use of sustainable green technology for effective wastewater treatment. PMID:25791330

  1. Isolation of antipodal (?)-versicolamide B and notoamides L-N from a marine-derived Aspergillus sp

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Tetsuro; Kato, Hikaru; Greshock, Thomas J.; Hirota, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tomihisa

    2010-01-01

    Antipodal (?)-versicolamide B and notoamides L-N were isolated from a marine-derived Aspergillus sp. The possible biosynthetic pathway of enantiomeric pairs of notoamide B and versicolamide B are proposed. Notoamide L is the first metabolite containing twenty-five carbons in the related prenylated indole alkaloids. Notoamide M is potentially a precursor to the proposed azadiene species involved in the putative intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction in the biogenesis of the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane ring system. PMID:19281134

  2. Biosorption of reactive dye from textile wastewater by non-viable biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mahmoud A

    2008-09-01

    The potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a biosorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi component textile wastewater. The results showed that pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomasses with autoclaving increased the removal of dye than pre-treatment with gamma-irradiation. The effects of operational parameters (pH, temperature, biomass concentration and time) on dye removal were examined. The results obtained revealed that dried autoclaved biomass of A. niger and Spirogyra sp. exhibited maximum dye removal (88% and 85%, respectively) at pH3, temperature 30 degrees C and 8 gl(-1)(w/v) biomass conc. after 18h contact time. The stability and efficiency of both organisms in the long-term repetitive operation were also investigated. The results showed that the non-viable biomasses possessed high stability and efficiency of dye removal over 3 repeated batches. PMID:18242981

  3. Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov., a New Pathogen That Causes Invasive Disease Refractory to Antifungal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Peterson, Stephen W.; Clark, Lily P.; Nardone, Glenn; Folio, Les; Riedlinger, Gregory; Zerbe, Christa S.; Shea, Yvonne; Henderson, Christina M.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is Aspergillus fumigatus followed by A. nidulans; other aspergilli rarely cause the disease. Here we review two clinical cases of fatal IA in CGD patients and describe a new etiologic agent of IA refractory to antifungal therapy. Unlike typical IA caused by A. fumigatus, the disease caused by the new species was chronic and spread from the lung to multiple adjacent organs. Mycological characteristics and the phylogenetic relationship with other aspergilli based on the sequence analysis of Mcm7, RPB2, and Tsr1 indicated that the new species, which we named as A. tanneri, belongs to Aspergillus section Circumdati. The species has a higher amphotericin B, voriconazole, and itraconazole MIC and causes more chronic infection in CGD mice than A. fumigatus. This is the first report documenting IA in CGD patients caused by a species belonging to the Aspergillus section Circumdati that is inherently resistant to azoles and amphotericin B. Unlike the results seen with many members of Aspergillus section Circumdati, ochratoxin was not detected in filtrates of cultures grown in various media. Our phenotypic and genetic characterization of the new species and the case reports will assist future diagnosis of infection caused by A. tanneri and lead to more appropriate patient management. PMID:22855513

  4. Robusta coffee beans post-harvest microflora: Lactobacillus plantarum sp. as potential antagonist of Aspergillus carbonarius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Djossou; Isabelle Perraud-Gaime; Fatma Lakhal Mirleau; Gabriela Rodriguez-Serrano; Germain Karou; Sebastien Niamke; Imene Ouzari; Abdellatif Boudabous; Sevastianos Roussos

    Coffee contamination by ochratoxigenic fungi affects both coffee quality as well as coffee price with harmful consequences on the economy of the coffee exporting countries for whom which is their main source of income. Fungal strains were isolated from coffee beans and identified as black Aspergilli. Ochratoxigenic moulds like Aspergillus carbonarius were screened and selected for detailed studies. Also lactic

  5. Asperlones A and B, Dinaphthalenone Derivatives from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5C

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ze’en; Lin, Shao’e; Tan, Chunbing; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Racemic dinaphthalenone derivatives, (±)-asperlone A (1) and (±)-asperlone B (2), and two new azaphilones, 6?-hydroxy-(R)-mitorubrinic acid (3) and purpurquinone D (4), along with four known compounds, (?)-mitorubrinic acid (5), (?)-mitorubrin (6), purpurquinone A (7) and orsellinic acid (8), were isolated from the cultures of Aspergillus sp. 16-5C. The structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the structures of 1 further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configuration of 3 and 4 were determined by comparing their optical rotation and CD with those of the literature, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with IC50 values of 4.24 ± 0.41, 4.32 ± 0.60 and 3.99 ± 0.34 ?M, respectively. PMID:25591039

  6. Anti-respiratory syncytial virus prenylated dihydroquinolone derivatives from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Shao, Chang-Lun; Meng, Hong; She, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-12-26

    Two new prenylated dihydroquinolone derivatives, 22-O-(N-Me-l-valyl)aflaquinolone B (1) and 22-O-(N-Me-l-valyl)-21-epi-aflaquinolone B (2), and two known analogues, aflaquinolones A (3) and D (or a diastereomer of D, 4), were isolated from the mycelia of a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, ECD spectra, Marfey's method, and chemical conversion. Compounds 1 and 2 display an unusual esterification of N-Me-l-Val to the side-chain prenyl group. Compound 2 exhibited outstanding anti-RSV activity with an IC50 value of 42 nM, approximately 500-fold stronger than that of the positive control ribavirin (IC50 = 20 ?M), and showed a comparatively higher therapeutic ratio (TC50/IC50 = 520). PMID:25420212

  7. Aspergiloid I, an unprecedented spirolactone norditerpenoid from the plant-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhi Kai; Wang, Rong; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiao Nian; Jiang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Summary An unusual C18 norditerpenoid, aspergiloid I (1), was isolated from the culture broth of Aspergillus sp. YXf3, an endophytic fungus derived from Ginkgo biloba. Its structure was unambiguously established by analysis of HRMS–ESI and spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration was determined by low-temperature (100 K) single crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu K? radiation. This compound is structurally characterized by a new carbon skeleton with an unprecedented 6/5/6 tricyclic ring system bearing an ?,?-unsaturated spirolactone moiety in ring B, and represents a new subclass of norditerpenoid, the skeleton of which is named aspergilane. The hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for 1 was also proposed. The cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of 1 were evaluated. PMID:25550731

  8. Nine New and Five Known Polyketides Derived from a Deep Sea-Sourced Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Wen; Li, Chang-Wei; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Hua, Wei; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Nine new C9 polyketides, named aspiketolactonol (1), aspilactonols A–F (2–7), aspyronol (9) and epiaspinonediol (11), were isolated together with five known polyketides, (S)-2-(2?-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-?-butyrolactone (8), dihydroaspyrone (10), aspinotriol A (12), aspinotriol B (13) and chaetoquadrin F (14), from the secondary metabolites of an Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1 that was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample. Structures of the new compounds, including their absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially the 2D NMR, circular dichroism (CD), Mo2-induced CD and Mosher’s 1H NMR analyses. Compound 8 was isolated from natural sources for the first time, and the possible biosynthetic pathways for 1–14 were also proposed and discussed. Compounds 1–14 inhibited human cancer cell lines, K562, HL-60, HeLa and BGC-823, to varying extents. PMID:24871461

  9. Alteration of substrate selectivity through mutation of two arginine residues in the binding site of amadoriase II from Aspergillus sp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinle; Chen, Shu G; Petrash, J Mark; Monnier, Vincent M

    2002-04-01

    Amadoriases I and II are deglycation isoenzymes from Aspergillus sp. of potential relevance for treatment of diabetic complications resulting from excessive protein glycation. Amadoriase II has a preference for anionic substrate with a K(m) of 0.23 and 2.53 mM for fructosylglycine and fructosylpropylamine, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding K(m) values for amadoriase I are 9.75 and 0.023 mM, respectively. Chemical modification of amadoriase II with p-hydroxyphenylglyoxal, a specific arginine-modifying reagent, resulted in an inhibition of enzyme activity toward fructosylglycine, while having less effect on the enzymatic activity toward fructosylpropylamine. Peptide mapping and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis suggest that Arg(112) is one of the sites of p-hydroxyphenylglyoxal modification. Sequence alignment between amadoriase I and amadoriase II revealed that two glutamic acids in amadoriase I align to Arg(112) and Arg(114) in amadoriase II. Site-directed mutation of amadoriase II (R112E, R114E) resulted in reversal of the enzymatic activities toward fructosylglycine and fructosylpropylamine. Our results suggested that Arg(112) and Arg(114) are responsible for the high affinity of amadoriase II toward anionic substrates and determine the substrate selectivity of the enzyme. PMID:11914093

  10. Decolorization of adsorbed textile dyes by developed consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Telke, Amar A; Jagtap, Sujit S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop consortium using Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 to decolorize adsorbed dyes from textile effluent wastewater under solid state fermentation. Among various agricultural wastes rice bran showed dye adsorption up to 90, 62 and 80% from textile dye reactive navy blue HE2R (RNB HE2R) solution, mixture of textile dyes and textile industry wastewater, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 showed 62 and 38% decolorization of RNB HE2R adsorbed on rice bran in 24h under solid state fermentation. However, the consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 (consortium-PA) showed 80% decolorization in 24h. The consortium-PA showed effective ADMI removal ratio of adsorbed dyes from textile industry wastewater (77%), mixture of textile dyes (82%) and chemical precipitate of textile dye effluent (CPTDE) (86%). Secretion of extracellular enzymes such as laccase, azoreductase, tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase and their significant induction in the presence of adsorbed dye suggests their role in the decolorization of RNB HE2R. GCMS and HPLC analysis of product suggests the different fates of biodegradation of RNB HE2R when used Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 and consortium PA. PMID:21414720

  11. The potential hazards of Aspergillus sp. in foods and feeds, and the role of biological treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Ali, Sheikh Imranudin; Ahmad, Akil; Mohd-Setapar, Siti-Hamidah; Zakaria, Zainul Akmal; Abdul-Talib, Norfahana; Khamis, Aidee Kamal; Hoque, Md Enamul

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of food and feed by Aspergillus has become a global issue with a significant worldwide economic impact. The growth of Aspergillus is unfavourable to the development of food and feed industries, where the problems happen mostly due to the presence of mycotoxins, which is a toxic metabolite secreted by most Aspergillus groups. Moreover, fungi can produce spores that cause diseases, such as allergies and asthma, especially to human beings. High temperature, high moisture, retarded crops, and poor food storage conditions encourage the growth of mold, as well as the development of mycotoxins. A variety of chemical, biological, and physical strategies have been developed to control the production of mycotoxins. A biological approach, using a mixed culture comprised of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus resulted in the inhibition of the growth of fungi when inoculated into fermented food. The results reveal that the mixed culture has a higher potential (37.08%) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus (producer of Aflatoxin) compared to either single culture, L. rhamnosus NRRL B-442 and S. cerevisiae, which inhibit the growth by 63.07% and 64.24%, respectively. PMID:25269603

  12. Antifungal activity of metabolites from the marine sponges Amphimedon sp. and Monanchora arbuscula against Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Arevabini, Cynthia; Crivelenti, Yasmin D; de Abreu, Mariana H; Bitencourt, Tamires A; Santos, Mário F C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Hajdu, Eduardo; Beleboni, Renę O; Fachin, Ana L; Marins, Mozart

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of preharvest and stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) by aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is an important economical and food safety problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The present investigation reports the antifungal activity of a halitoxins/amphitoxins enriched extract obtained from the sponge Amphimedon sp. (HAEEAsp), and of batzelladine L isolated from the sponge Monanchora arbuscula on Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored peanuts. A PCR system directed against the ITS region and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes of A. flavus was applied for identification of aflatoxin producing strains. The HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range between 1.9 to 15.6 microg/mL and between 1.9 to 7.8 microg/mL, respectively. The minimal fungicide concentration (MFC) of HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L was in the range between 3.9 to 31.3 microg/mL and 3.9 to 15.6 microg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that these marine alkaloids may be further explored for the development of potential lead compounds active against aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:24660456

  13. New Isocoumarin Derivatives and Meroterpenoids from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013

    PubMed Central

    Prompanya, Chadaporn; Dethoup, Tida; Bessa, Lucinda J.; Pinto, Madalena M. M.; Gales, Luís; Costa, Paulo M.; Silva, Artur M. S.; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-01-01

    Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6) were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a), reticulol (2c), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4), and pyripyropene E (5) from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2a–c and 3–6 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3) was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:25317534

  14. Biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-citronellol by Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., and the use of solid-phase microextraction for screening.

    PubMed

    Demyttenaere, Jan C R; Vanoverschelde, Jan; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2004-02-20

    The biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-citronellol by fungi was studied. For screening experiments, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used as analytical sampling technique. It was found that sporulated surface cultures of Aspergillus niger were able to convert the substrate into cis- and trans-rose oxides and nerol oxide. The relative contents in the headspace SPME extract of the three bioconversion products cis- and trans-rose oxide and nerol oxide were up to 54, 21 and 12%, respectively. Rose oxide is found in minor amounts in some essential oils, such as Bulgarian rose oil and geranium oil and contributes to its unique odor. It is one of the most important fragrance materials in perfumery in creating rosy notes. Other bioconversion products were 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, limonene, terpinolene, linalool and alpha-terpineol. These bioconversion reactions were confirmed by sporulated surface cultures on larger scale and sampling by dynamic headspace sweep and steam distillation solvent extraction. The same conversions were noticed with A. tubingensis and Penicillium roqueforti. This bioconversion was enantioselective since more of the chiral cis- than trans-rose oxide was obtained (cisitrans ratio up to 95/5). Submerged liquid cultures of P. roqueforti yielded two unidentified metabolites after conversion of citronellol (yield up to 5%). The stability and acid-catalyzed conversion of citronellol was also investigated. No chemical oxidation or auto-oxidation products were detected in acidified liquid control broths up to pH 3.5. However, when control tests were run with solid media, acid-catalyzed conversion of the substrate to small amounts of cis- and trans-rose oxides, nerol oxide, linalool and alpha-terpineol was observed at pH 3.5 and when heat treatment (steam distillation solvent extraction) was applied. PMID:14971495

  15. Regulation of Aspergillus Mycotoxin Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus produces a number of mycotoxins that pose adverse economic and health impacts on humans and animals. These include the toxic and carcinogenic polyketide-derived mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin and aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus, respectively. ...

  16. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  17. Aspergillus Overlap Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman O. Soubani

    \\u000a \\u000a Aspergillus causes a variety of clinical syndromes that are influenced by the patients’ immune status and lung function and structure.\\u000a Whilst these syndromes (such as chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus sinusitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis – ABPA – and invasive aspergillosis) tend to have their unique clinical,\\u000a serological, and radiological presentations, there are rare situations where these may overlap, co-exist or

  18. Aspergillus flavus endocarditis--to prevaricate is to posture.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J F; Mullany, D; Natani, S; Chinthamuneedi, M; Hovarth, R

    2006-03-01

    Fungal endocarditis represents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the treating team. The critical care physician will see a rising incidence as older and more immuno-compromised patients are being supported in their intensive care units. Aspergillus sp. endocarditis represents less than 25% of all cases of fungal endocarditis and is associated with a mortality of around 80%. Early diagnosis may assist with definitive management. We review a case of Aspergillus endocarditis, and review the literature as to optimal methods of detection, imaging modalities of choice, and management, both surgical and medical. PMID:16536720

  19. Development in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

  20. GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

  1. The Pathology of Aspergillus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Kradin

    \\u000a \\u000a Aspergillus spp. are responsible for a broad spectrum of human disorders ranging from benign colonisation of mucosal surfaces to life-threatening\\u000a angioinvasive infection. Diagnosing the array of disorders caused by Aspergillus spp. can be challenging. In the case of the hypersensitivity responses to Aspergillus species, i.e., allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis,\\u000a the surgical pathologist must be cognisant of

  2. Aspergillus: sex and recombination.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

  3. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by agar gel double immunodiffusion and IgG ELISA in feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Ujvari, B; Dhand, N K; Peters, I R; Talbot, J; Johnson, L R; Billen, F; Martin, P; Beatty, J A; Belov, K

    2015-03-01

    Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) is an emerging infectious disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the diagnostic value of detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies using an agar gel double immunodiffusion (AGID) assay and an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA; and (2) to determine if an aspergillin derived from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus can be used to detect serum antibodies against cryptic Aspergillus spp. in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Sera from cats with URTA (group 1: n?=?21) and two control groups (group 2: cats with other upper respiratory tract diseases, n?=?25; group 3: healthy cats and cats with non-respiratory, non-fungal illness, n?=?84) were tested. Isolates from cats with URTA comprised A. fumigatus (n?=?5), A. flavus (n?=?1) and four cryptic species: Aspergillus felis (n?=?12), Aspergillus thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri, n?=?1), Aspergillus lentulus (n?=?1) and Aspergillus udagawae (n?=?1). Brachycephalic purebred cats were significantly more likely to develop URTA than other breeds (P?=?0.013). The sensitivity (Se) of the AGID was 43% and the specificity (Sp) was 100%. At a cut-off value of 6 ELISA units/mL, the Se of the IgG ELISA was 95.2% and the Sp was 92% and 92.9% for groups 2 and 3 cats, respectively. Aspergillus-specific antibodies against all four cryptic species were detected in one or both assays. Assay Se was not associated with species identity. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by IgG ELISA has high Se and Sp for diagnosis of feline URTA. PMID:25634077

  4. Treatment strategies for Aspergillus infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom M. Chiller; David A. Stevens

    2000-01-01

    Infections caused by Aspergillus species consist of many different disease presentations, ranging from relatively benign asthma in atopic disease to life-threatening systemic invasive infections. The spectrum of disease manifestations is determined by a combination of genetic predisposition, host immune system defects, and virulence of theAspergillus species. For the purposes of this discussion, we will address three principal entities: invasive aspergillosis,

  5. X-ray Structure Analysis and Characterization of AFUEI, an Elastase Inhibitor from Aspergillus fumigatus*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Mayuko; Imada, Katsumi; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Yamashita, Nobuo; Ogawa, Kenji; Hijikata, Atsushi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Michio; Nikai, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Elastase from Aspergillus sp. is an important factor for aspergillosis. AFUEI is an inhibitor of the elastase derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. AFUEI is a member of the I78 inhibitor family and has a high inhibitory activity against elastases of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, human neutrophil elastase and bovine chymotrypsin, but does not inhibit bovine trypsin. Here we report the crystal structure of AFUEI in two crystal forms. AFUEI is a wedge-shaped protein composed of an extended loop and a scaffold protein core. The structure of AFUEI shows remarkable similarity to serine protease inhibitors of the potato inhibitor I family, although they are classified into different inhibitor families. A structural comparison with the potato I family inhibitors suggests that the extended loop of AFUEI corresponds to the binding loop of the potato inhibitor I family, and AFUEI inhibits its cognate proteases through the same mechanism as the potato I family inhibitors. PMID:23640894

  6. Metabolomics of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian F; Larsen, Thomas O

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important species in Aspergillus causing infective lung diseases. This species has been reported to produce a large number of extrolites, including secondary metabolites, acids, and proteins such as hydrophobins and extracellular enzymes. At least 226 potentially bioactive secondary metabolites have been reported from A. fumigatus that can be ordered into 24 biosynthetic families. Of these families we have detected representatives from the following families of secondary metabolites: fumigatins, fumigaclavines, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin and monomethylsulochrin, fumagillins, gliotoxins, pseurotins, chloroanthraquinones, fumitremorgins, verruculogen, helvolic acids, and pyripyropenes by HPLC with diode array detection and mass spectrometric detection. There is still doubt whether A. fumigatus can produce tryptoquivalins, but all isolates produce the related fumiquinazolines. We also tentatively detected sphingofungins in A. fumigatus Af293 and in an isolate of A. lentulus. The sphingofungins may have a similar role as the toxic fumonisins, found in A. niger. A further number of mycotoxins, including ochratoxin A, and other secondary metabolites have been reported from A. fumigatus, but in those cases either the fungus or its metabolite appear to be misidentified. PMID:18763205

  7. Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

    1996-01-01

    Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

  8. Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048=NRRL 58570), ...

  9. Actin Dynamics in Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Quintanilla, Laura

    2013-04-08

    and rings. In Aspergillus nidulans actin patch and ring dynamics have been documented using fluorescent proteins tagged to actin. However, fluorescently tagged actin does not reveal the presence of actin cables. Recently, the Lifeact construct has been...

  10. Innate Immunity to Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Park, Stacy J.; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-01-01

    Summary: All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results in a uniquely diverse set of illnesses caused by Aspergillus species, which includes diseases caused by the colonization of the respiratory tract, invasive infection, and hypersensitivity. A key concept in immune responses to Aspergillus species is that the susceptibilities of the host determine the morphological form, antigenic structure, and physical location of the fungus. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the multiple layers of innate defenses against Aspergillus species that dictate the outcome of this host-microbe interaction. PMID:19822887

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaďs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaďde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  12. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Latgé, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

  13. Aspergillus arthritis and organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cantarovich, Diego; Tattevin, Pierre; Le Pogamp, Patrick; Polard, Jean-Louis; Stock, Nathalie; Blancho, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a kidney and pancreas transplanted patient, hospitalized for septic hip arthritis. The whole diagnostic work-up including synovial and bone biopsies remained negative. After inefficient empirical anti-bacterial antibiotic treatment, femoral head resection was performed and tissue analysis revealed Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. Treatment with voriconazole along with hip replacement led to complete recovery. However, drug interaction between immunosuppressive and anti-fungal drugs was complicated by cellular acute graft rejection. Aspergillus fumigatus arthritis is an uncommon and serious infection that should be evoked especially in the case of resistance to anti-microbial antibiotics and/or an atypical clinical picture.

  14. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  15. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide and is also an important opportunistic human pathogen in aspergillosis. The sexual state of this heterothallic fungus is described from crosses between strains of the opposite mating type. Sexual reproduction oc...

  16. Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

  17. What Does Genetic Diversity of Aspergillus flavus Tell Us About Aspergillus oryzae?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. ...

  18. Effect of vanillin concentration, pH and incubation temperature on Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A López-Malo; S. M Alzamora; A Argaiz

    1997-01-01

    The effects of incubation temperature (10–30°C), pH (3.0–4.0) and vanillin concentration (350–1200ppm) on the growth ofAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceusandAspergillus parasiticuswere evaluated using potato–dextrose agar adjusted to water activity (aw) 0.98. The radial growth rates after a lag period followed zero-order kinetics with constants that varied from 0 (no growth) to 0.63mmh?1. The lag period depended on vanillin concentration,

  19. Lysine aminopeptidase of Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. J. W. Basten; Jaap Visser; Peter J. Schaap

    2001-01-01

    Conserved regions within the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases have been used to clone a zinc aminopeptidase from the industrially used fungus Aspergillus niger. The derived amino acid sequence of ApsA is highly similar to two yeast zinc aminopeptidases, LAPI and AAPI (53.3 and 50.9?verall similarity, respectively), two members of the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases. The encoding gene was successfully overexpressed

  20. Osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus spp. in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: comparison of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dotis; Emmanuel Roilides

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes fail to generate reactive antimicrobial oxidants. Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD patients, with Aspergillus spp. being the most frequent fungal pathogens. We reviewed the reported cases of osteomyelitis in CGD patients due to Aspergillus nidulans and

  1. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

  2. Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    1 Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Aspergillus Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu The fungus Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin

  3. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  4. Surfactant protein D binding to Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae is calcineurin-sensitive.

    PubMed

    Geunes-Boyer, Scarlett; Heitman, Joseph; Wright, Jo Rae; Steinbach, William J

    2010-06-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a central role in pulmonary innate immune responses to microbes and allergens, often enhancing clearance of inhaled material. Although SP-D functions during bacterial and viral infections are well established, much less is known about its possible roles during invasive fungal infections. Aspergillus fumigatus is a prominent fungal pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, and can cause allergic or invasive aspergillosis. SP-D has been shown to be protective against both of these disease modalities. The moieties present on the fungal surface responsible for SP-D binding remain largely unclear, although cell wall 1,3-beta-D-glucan is bound by SP-D in other fungal species. There is little information regarding the interaction of SP-D with A. fumigatus hyphae which are responsible for the invasive form of disease. Here, we show that SP-D binding to A. fumigatus hyphae is sensitive to the activity of the calcium-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin. Deletion of the catalytic subunit calcineurin A (DeltacnaA) or pharmacologic inhibition of calcineurin through FK506 abrogated SP-D binding. In contrast, SP-D binding to Cruptococcus neoformans was calcineurin-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of A. fumigatus cell wall components by caspofungin (inhibits 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthesis) and nikkomycin Z (inhibits chitin synthesis) increased SP-D binding to the wild-type strain. In contrast, SP-D binding increased in the DeltacnaA strain only after nikkomycin Z treatment. We conclude that SP-D binding to A. fumigatus hyphae is calcineurin-sensitive, presumably as a consequence of calcineurin's role in regulating production of key cell wall binding partners, such as 1,3-beta-D-glucan. Elucidation of the interaction between lung innate immune factors and A. fumigatus could lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:20141481

  5. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. PMID:25737146

  6. Characterization and population analysis of the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge H. Ramirez-Prado; Geromy G. Moore; Bruce W. Horn; Ignazio Carbone

    2008-01-01

    We characterize the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus parasiticus and Petromyces alliaceus. A single MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 gene was detected in the genomes of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which is consistent with a potential heterothallic organization of MAT genes in these species. In contrast, the only known, functionally homothallic species in Aspergillus section Flavi, P. alliaceus, has tightly linked

  7. Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthetic gene cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the carcinogenic aflatoxins has been reported from members of Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus section Nidulantes, and a newly proposed section, Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei that consists of Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and A. rambellii. Unlike members of section Flavi, A. oc...

  8. Aspergillus granuloma of the trigeminal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, C M; Kocen, R S; Symon, L; Scaravilli, F

    1981-01-01

    A patient is described with aspergillus flavus granuloma of the trigeminal ganglion. The patient was effectively treated by surgical excision of most of the infected tissue followed by intensive chemotherapy with amphotericin B and flucytosine. Images PMID:6973615

  9. Aflaquinolones A–G: Secondary Metabolites from Marine and Fungicolous Isolates of Aspergillus Spp.†

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Scott A.; Lee, Sang Un; Asami, Yukihiro; Ahn, Jong Seog; Oh, Hyuncheol; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gloer, James B.; Wicklow, Donald T.

    2012-01-01

    Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A – G; 1 – 7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048 = NRRL 58570), while the others were obtained from a marine Aspergillus isolate (SF-5044) collected in Korea. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of NMR and MS data. Relative and absolute configurations were assigned on the basis of NOESY data and 1H NMR J-values, comparison of calculated and experimental ECD spectra, and analysis of a Mosher’s ester derivative of 2. Several known compounds, including alantrypinone, aspochalasins I and J, methyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-2((2-((3-pyridinylcarbonyl)amino) benzoyl)amino) benzoate, and trans-dehydrocurvularin were also encountered in the extract of the Hawaiian isolate. PMID:22295903

  10. Aspergillus and Penicillium allergens: Focus on proteases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horng-Der Shen; Ming F. Tam; Ren-Bin Tang; Hong Chou

    2007-01-01

    Penicillium and Aspergillus species are prevalent airborne fungi. It is imperative to identify and characterize their major allergens. Alkaline and\\/or\\u000a vacuolar serine proteases are major allergens of several prevalent Penicillium and Aspergillus species. They are also major immunoglobulin (Ig) E-reacting components of the most prevalent airborne yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and the most prevalent Cladosporium species, C. cladosporioides. IgE cross-reactivity has

  11. Aspergillus Infections in Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nina; Paterson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Aspergillus infections are occurring with an increasing frequency in transplant recipients. Notable changes in the epidemiologic characteristics of this infection have occurred; these include a change in risk factors and later onset of infection. Management of invasive aspergillosis continues to be challenging, and the mortality rate, despite the use of newer antifungal agents, remains unacceptably high. Performing molecular studies to discern new targets for antifungal activity, identifying signaling pathways that may be amenable to immunologic interventions, assessing combination regimens of antifungal agents or combining antifungal agents with modulation of the host defense mechanisms, and devising diagnostic assays that can rapidly and reliably diagnose infections represent areas for future investigations that may lead to further improvement in outcomes. PMID:15653818

  12. CLATHRIN DYNAMICS AND ENDOCYTIC ORGANIZATION IN Aspergillus nidulans

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Tyler

    2013-09-26

        CLATHRIN DYNAMICS AND ENDOCYTIC ORGANIZATION IN Aspergillus nidulans An Undergraduate Research Scholars Thesis by TYLER BERNARD JOHNSON Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... ..................................................................................................... 13 Clathrin in Aspergillus nidulans ........................................................................... 13 REFERENCES...

  13. Relative reactivity of Aspergillus allergens used in serological tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bowyer; O. Blightman; D. W. Denning

    2006-01-01

    Aspergillus is a common disease-causing agent, both as an allergen causing ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) and as a pathogen causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals and chronic cavitating disease (CCPA) in apparently immune competent individuals. Currently detection of Aspergillus is problematic and some of the most useful tests rely on detection of antibody response to Aspergillus

  14. Extracellular siderophores from Aspergillus ochraceous.

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, M A; Mocharla, R; Barnes, C L; Hossain, M B; Powell, D R; Eng-Wilmot, D L; Grayson, S L; Benson, B A; van der Helm, D

    1984-01-01

    A large number of iron-chelating compounds (siderophores) were isolated from supernatants of iron-deficient cultures of a mold isolate, subsequently identified as Aspergillus ochraceous . Siderophores in their iron chelate form were purified to homogeneity by using Bio-Gel P2, silica gel, and C-18 bonded silica gel (reverse-phase) columns. Most of these compounds, as identified by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, belong to the ferrichrome family. The organism produces ferrirubin and ferrichrysin as the predominant and the second major compound (62 and 15% of the total siderophores), respectively. Ferrichrysin appears as the first siderophore in the medium on day 2 of growth. Several of the other siderophores are novel and ranged in quantities from 0.2 to 5% of the total. The trivial names asperchrome A, B1, B2, C, D1, D2, and D3 are proposed for these novel compounds, which are all members of the ferrichrome family, and all but the first one contain a common Orn1 - Orn2 - Orn3 - Ser1 -Ser2-Gly cyclic hexapeptide ring with three dissimilar ornithyl delta-N-acyl groups. Another compound which appeared late in the growth period was similar to fusarinine C ( fusigen ). All of these compounds showed growth factor activity to various extents in bioassays with Arthrobacter flavescens Jg-9. None of these compounds showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium. PMID:6233261

  15. Calmodulin inhibitors from Aspergillus stromatoides.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Martín; Del Valle, Paulina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Del Carmen González, María; Mata, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    An organic extract was prepared from the culture medium and mycelia of the marine fungus Aspergillus stromatoides RAPER & FENNELL. The extract was fractionated via column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were tested for their abilities to quench the fluorescence of the calmodulin (CaM) biosensor hCaM M124C-mBBr. From the active fraction, emodin (1) and ?-hydroxyemodin (2) were isolated as CaM inhibitors. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 quenched the fluorescence of the hCaM M124C-mBBr biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner with K(d) values of 0.33 and 0.76 ?M, respectively. The results were compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a classical inhibitor of CaM, with a K(d) value of 1.25 ?M. Docking analysis revealed that 1 and 2 bind to the same pocket of CPZ. The CaM inhibitor properties of 1 and 2 were correlated with some of their reported biological properties. Citrinin (3), methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), and coniochaetone A (5) were also isolated in the present study. The X-ray structure of 5 is reported for the first time. PMID:23495150

  16. The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

  17. FT-IR Spectroscopy for Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus parasiticus and Characterization of Aflatoxigenic Isolates Collected from Agricultural Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Garon; Anne El Kaddoumi; Alexandra Carayon; Caroline Amiel

    2010-01-01

    In agricultural areas, Aspergillus\\u000a flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus are commonly identified in various feedstuffs and bioaerosols originated from feed handling. Some isolates belonging to these\\u000a fungal species could produce mycotoxins and constitute a risk factor for human and animal health. In this study, Fourier-transform\\u000a infrared spectroscopy was used for a rapid detection and characterization of 99 isolates collected

  18. Aerobiological, biochemical and immunological studies on some of the dominant Aspergillus species of South Assam (India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhruba Sharma; B. K. Dutta; A. B. Singh; B. R. Shome

    2007-01-01

    Two years atmospheric survey of air-borne Aspergillus was carried out in the environmental conditions of South Assam. The survey revealed a total of 16 different species of Aspergillus with marked seasonal and annual variations. Aspergillus fumigatus was found to be the dominant atmospheric fungal species followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, etc. Among the sample extracts tested, highest quantity of

  19. Genomics of peanut-Aspergillus flavus interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to...

  20. Genomic analysis of aspergillus flavus pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides colonize developing maize seeds and contaminate them with mycotoxins. Maize genotypes differ in resistance to these fungi, but incorporation of adequate resistance into desirable hybrids has been challenging.Little is known about pathogenesis of seeds...

  1. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  2. Inactivation of Aspergillus spp. by Ozone Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zotti; R. Porro; A. Vizzini; M. G. Mariotti

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the effectiveness of ozone in inhibiting the growth of two Aspergillus species, (A. flavus, A. niger) isolated from a nail affected by onychomycosis and from a biodeteriorated paper. Specifically, two main goals are to establish (i) whether differently aged colonies show different responses to the ozonization process, and (ii) whether a repeated ozone exposure can enhance the

  3. Interaction between maize seed and Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes maize seeds and contaminates them with aflatoxin. The fungus is localized in the endosperm and aleurone. To investigate the plant microbe interaction, we conducted histological and molecular studies to characterize the internal co...

  4. Endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent individual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailaja Valluri; Ramana S. Moorthy; Peter E. Liggett; Narsing A. Rao

    1993-01-01

    We present an unusual case ofAspergillus fumigatus endogenous endophthalmitis in a 27 year old Hispanic male with no history of ocular trauma, surgery, hematologic malignancy, compromised immune system, or intravenous drug use. The patient presented with a two-day history of pain, redness, and visual acuity of bare count fingers in his right eye. He was originally suspected of having toxoplasmic

  5. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence an...

  6. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  7. SP Fonts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you're looking for funky fonts to include in Web designs, papers, or posters, SP Fonts may be your answer. Scholars Press (SP) Fonts "are a set of simple, public domain fonts" designed for print and non-commercial Web use. This site currently offers eight public domain fonts that may be downloaded and used free of charge. Three of the fonts are Hebrew/Aramaic fonts: "SPTiberian (a standard Hebrew font), SPDamascus (a thinner font with Palestinian as well as Tiberian vowel points), and SPEzra (a simple, fixed-width Hebrew font)." Two are Greek fonts: "SPIonic (a more complete Greek font) and SPDoric (a simpler, uncial font)." Other fonts include "SPEdessa (a Syriac Estrangela font), SPAchmim (a Coptic font), and SPAtlantis (a transliteration font that includes diacriticals and other special characters that allow the representation of numerous Indo-European, Semitic, and other languages"-- available in both Roman and Italic type). All fonts are TrueType fonts and are compatible with PC (Windows) and Mac computers. In addition, each font has a .readme file that explains the standard keyboard mapping used by the font. Although the fonts are free to the public, the Web site requests permission from the copyright holder before including the typefaces in commercial electronic products.

  8. Amino acid supplementation reveals differential regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357 and Aspergillus parasiticus SRRC 143

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Wilkinson; J. Yu; J. M. Bland; W. C. Nierman; D. Bhatnagar; T. E. Cleveland

    2007-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate aflatoxin production, the biosynthesis of the toxin in A. flavus and A. parasticus grown in yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with 50 mM tryptophan (Trp) were examined. Aspergillus flavus grown in the presence of 50 mM tryptophan was

  9. Alkaline Serine Proteinase Is a Major Allergen of Aspergillus flavus, a Prevalent Airborne Aspergillus Species in the Taipei Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Chou; Ming F. Tam

    1999-01-01

    Background:Aspergillus species are prevalent indoor airborne fungi and have been identified to be a causative agent of human allergic disorders. In the present study, we identified, purified and characterized the allergen(s) from Aspergillus flavus, a predominant airborne Aspergillus species in the Taipei area. Methods: The IgE–binding components of A. flavus were identified by SDS–PAGE immunoblotting with sera from asthmatic patients.

  10. Aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.

    PubMed

    Vivek, V; Kavar, B; Hogg, M; Eisen, D P; Butzkueven, H

    2013-08-01

    This report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. We describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. He subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with Aspergillus terreus. PMID:23685108

  11. Nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert N. Arst; David J. Cove

    1973-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, mutations, designated areAr, can result in the inability to utilise a wide variety of nitrogen sources including amino acids, purines, amides, nitrate, and nitrite, whilst not affecting growth on ammonium. Other allelic areA mutations, designated areAd, lead to derepression of one or more activities which are ammonium repressible in wild type (areA+) strains, whilst not affecting their

  12. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R.; et al.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl ? pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  13. AFLATOXIGENICITY IN ASPERGILLUS: MOLECULAR GENETICS, PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by isolates of Aspergillus section Flavi, as well as a number of Aspergillus isolates that are classified outside of section Flavi. Characterization of the aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin gene clusters and analysis of factors gover...

  14. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Samson, R A; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Hong, S-B; Hubka, V; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Susca, A; Tanney, J B; Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Szigeti, G; Yaguchi, T; Frisvad, J C

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, ?-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  15. Health effects of Aspergillus in food and air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren A Klich

    This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produce them, affected crops, and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as are the major mycoses caused by aspergilli. The current status of the relationship between Aspergillus in

  16. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

  17. WHOLE GENOME COMPARISON OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND A. ORYZAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fu...

  18. Prospective multicenter international surveillance of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, J W M; Arendrup, M C; Warris, A; Lagrou, K; Pelloux, H; Hauser, P M; Chryssanthou, E; Mellado, E; Kidd, S E; Tortorano, A M; Dannaoui, E; Gaustad, P; Baddley, J W; Uekötter, A; Lass-Flörl, C; Klimko, N; Moore, C B; Denning, D W; Pasqualotto, A C; Kibbler, C; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Andes, D; Meletiadis, J; Naumiuk, L; Nucci, M; Melchers, W J G; Verweij, P E

    2015-06-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  19. Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Arendrup, M.C.; Warris, A.; Lagrou, K.; Pelloux, H.; Hauser, P.M.; Chryssanthou, E.; Mellado, E.; Kidd, S.E.; Tortorano, A.M.; Dannaoui, E.; Gaustad, P.; Baddley, J.W.; Uekötter, A.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Klimko, N.; Moore, C.B.; Denning, D.W.; Pasqualotto, A.C.; Kibbler, C.; Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Andes, D.; Meletiadis, J.; Naumiuk, L.; Nucci, M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  20. Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...

  1. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Jurjevi?, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Stea, Gaetano; Solfrizzo, Michele; Varga, János; Hubka, Vit; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillus floridensis and A. trinidadensis spp. nov. are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA), creatine agar culture (CREA) and malt extract agar culture (MEA), with support by molecular analysis of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and translation elongation factor-alpha (TEF) gene amplified and sequenced from 56 air isolates and one isolate from almonds belonging to Aspergillus sectionNigri.Aspergillus floridensis is closely related to A. aculeatus, and A. trinidadensis is closely related to A. aculeatinus. Aspergillus brunneoviolaceus (syn. A. fijiensis) and A. uvarum are reported for the first time from the USA and from the indoor air environment. The newly described species do not produce ochratoxin A. PMID:23355969

  2. Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation is repressed by Sp3.

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, G; Müller, S; Beato, M; Suske, G

    1994-01-01

    Sp1, Sp3 (SPR-2) and Sp4 (SPR-1) are human sequence-specific DNA binding proteins with very similar structural features. In this report, we have analyzed Sp3 in direct comparison with Sp1. We have raised antibodies against both Sp1 and Sp3, and show that Sp3 protein, like Sp1, is expressed in various cell lines. Co-transfection experiments in different mammalian cell lines reveal that in contrast to Sp1 and Sp4, Sp3 is not able to activate several Sp1 responsive promoters. In addition, Sp3 also fails to activate reporter constructs in Drosophila SL2 cells lacking endogenous Sp factors. Instead, we find that Sp3 represses Sp1-mediated activation in a linear dose-dependent manner. A mutant of Sp3 lacking the DNA binding domain does not affect activation by Sp1, suggesting that the inhibition is most likely due to the competition with Sp1 for their common binding sites. To determine if any structurally similar domain of Sp3 is able to replace partially homologous domains of Sp1, we have generated chimeric proteins and tested their activation characteristics in gene transfer experiments. It appears that neither the glutamine-rich domains A and B nor the D domain of Sp1 can be replaced by the homologous regions of Sp3. Our results suggest that Sp3 is an inhibitory member of the Sp family. Images PMID:8070411

  3. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

  4. Reduction of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in interaction with Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Diaz, R; Mathieu, F

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate aflatoxin gene expression during Streptomyces-Aspergillus interaction. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. A previous study has shown that Streptomyces-A. flavus interaction can reduce aflatoxin content in vitro. Here, we first validated this same effect in the interaction with A. parasiticus. Moreover, we showed that growth reduction and aflatoxin content were correlated in A. parasiticus but not in A. flavus. Secondly, we investigated the mechanisms of action by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. As microbial interaction can lead to variations in expression of household genes, the most stable [act1, ?tub (and cox5 for A. parasiticus)] were chosen using geNorm software. To shed light on the mechanisms involved, we studied during the interaction the expression of five genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS). Overall, the results of aflatoxin gene expression showed that Streptomyces repressed gene expression to a greater level in A. parasiticus than in A. flavus. Expression of aflR and aflS was generally repressed in both Aspergillus species. Expression of aflM was repressed and was correlated with aflatoxin B1 content. The results suggest that aflM expression could be a potential aflatoxin indicator in Streptomyces species interactions. Therefore, we demonstrate that Streptomyces can reduce aflatoxin production by both Aspergillus species and that this effect can be correlated with the repression of aflM expression. PMID:25741015

  5. Phytase production through response surface methodology and molecular characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus NF191.

    PubMed

    Gangoliya, Shivraj Singh; Gupta, Raj Kishor; Singh, Nand Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Phytase play an important role in phytic acid catalysis that act as a food inhibitor in cereals. Here, we isolated high phytase producing isolates NF191 closely related to Aspergillus fumigatus sp. from piggery soil. DNA was isolated from the fungal culture and amplified the ITS region using ITS1 and ITS4 primer using PCR. The 400-900 bp amplicon was gel eluted and subjected to sequencing. The sequencing results were assembled and compared with NCBI data base which showed the 99% identity of Aspergillus fumigatus. Different carbon sources viz., fructose, galactose, lactose, dextrose, sucrose, maltose and different nitrogen sources (organic & inorganic) NH4Cl, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, KNO3, NaNO3, urea, yeast extract, peptone, beef extract were tested for optimal production. The 0.3% dextrose, 0.5% NH4NO3 and 96 h incubation time showed the best production and enzyme activity at 45 degrees C incubation temperature. The selected parameters, dextrose, ammonium sulphate and incubation time, when employed with statistical optimization approach involving response surface optimization using Box Behnken Design, gave a 1.3 fold increase in phytase production compared to unoptimized condition. PMID:26155674

  6. Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

  7. The Aspergillus giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353 activates the cell wall integrity pathway and perturbs calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The antifungal protein AFPNN5353 is a defensin-like protein of Aspergillus giganteus. It belongs to a group of secretory proteins with low molecular mass, cationic character and a high content of cysteine residues. The protein inhibits the germination and growth of filamentous ascomycetes, including important human and plant pathogens and the model organsims Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger. Results We determined an AFPNN5353 hypersensitive phenotype of non-functional A. nidulans mutants in the protein kinase C (Pkc)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mpk) signalling pathway and the induction of the ?-glucan synthase A (agsA) promoter in a transgenic A. niger strain which point at the activation of the cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP) and the remodelling of the cell wall in response to AFPNN5353. The activation of the CWIP by AFPNN5353, however, operates independently from RhoA which is the central regulator of CWIP signal transduction in fungi. Furthermore, we provide evidence that calcium (Ca2+) signalling plays an important role in the mechanistic function of this antifungal protein. AFPNN5353 increased about 2-fold the cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) of a transgenic A. niger strain expressing codon optimized aequorin. Supplementation of the growth medium with CaCl2 counteracted AFPNN5353 toxicity, ameliorated the perturbation of the [Ca2+]c resting level and prevented protein uptake into Aspergillus sp. cells. Conclusions The present study contributes new insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of the A. giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353. We identified its antifungal activity, initiated the investigation of pathways that determine protein toxicity, namely the CWIP and the Ca2+ signalling cascade, and studied in detail the cellular uptake mechanism in sensitive target fungi. This knowledge contributes to define new potential targets for the development of novel antifungal strategies to prevent and combat infections of filamentous fungi which have severe negative impact in medicine and agriculture. PMID:21943024

  8. Regioselective glucosylation of inositols catalyzed by Thermoanaerobacter sp. CGTase.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Marquina-Bahena, Silvia; López-Munguía, Agustín; Alvarez, Laura; Castillo, Edmundo

    2012-10-01

    Monoglucosylated products of L-chiro-, D-chiro-, muco-, and allo-inositol were synthesized by regioselective ?-D-glucosylation with cyclodextrin glucosyl transferase from Thermoanaerobacter sp. after hydrolysis of by products with Aspergillus niger glucoamylase. While the reactions carried out with D-chiro-, muco-, and allo-inositol resulted in the regioselective formation of monoglucosylated products, two products were obtained in the reaction with L-chiro-inositol. Through the structural characterization of the glucosylated inositols here we demonstrated that the selectivity observed in the glucosylation of several inositols by Thermoanaerobacter sp. CGTase, is analogous to the specificity observed for the glucosylation of ?-D-glucopyranose and equivalent glucosides. PMID:22940181

  9. Phytase activity in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, E J; Daly, C B; Sethumadhavan, K; Rodriquez, E; Lei, X G; Ullah, A H

    2000-09-01

    Extracellular phytase from Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was characterized and their genes were cloned and sequenced. Based on their banding pattern in SDS-PAGE all phytases were found to be glycosylated and have similar molecular mass. A correlation between lower optimum pH (4.0) and a higher optimum temperature (70 degrees C) was found in these enzymes. All enzymes characterized displayed a lower specific activity for phytic acid and were more susceptible to proteolytic degradation than the Aspergillus niger phytase that is now commercially available. DNA sequencing established almost no sequence variation in any of the genes and no correlation is evident between a specific amino acid sequence and any physicochemical and catalytic properties of the enzymes. Despite two of the isolates having identical deduced amino acid sequence, characterization of the enzymes encoded by these two identical genes revealed differences in both pH and temperature optimum. This suggests that differences in pH and temperature optimum in these four isolates of A. fumigatus may be due in part to subtle differences in posttranslational modification. PMID:10973795

  10. Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perng-Kuang Chang

    \\u000a Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. The commonly recognized producers of aflatoxins include A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. pseudotamarii, A. bombycis, and A. ochraceoroseus (Cary et al. 2005). Aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities can arise from field conditions conducive to fungal\\u000a growth before harvest as

  11. Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp. 

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Anitha

    2002-01-01

    A complex and fascinating aspect of fungal development is the production of secondary metabolites. One of the best characterized secondary metabolite pathway is the aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) pathway, found in many Aspergillus spp...

  12. Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp. 

    E-print Network

    Hinze, Lori Lynn

    2013-02-22

    Three species of the genus Aspergillus (A.) A. nidulans, A. parasiticus, and A. flavus are currently being observed in our lab to determine the effects of seed metabolites on fungal development. A. nidulans reproduces asexually through the formation...

  13. Sexual reproduction in aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction was examined in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus nomius. Crosses between sexually compatible strains resulted in the formation of multiple nonostiolate ascocarps within stromata, which places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Ascocarp and ascospore morphology in...

  14. Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp.

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Anitha

    2002-01-01

    A complex and fascinating aspect of fungal development is the production of secondary metabolites. One of the best characterized secondary metabolite pathway is the aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) pathway, found in many Aspergillus spp...

  15. Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp.

    E-print Network

    Hinze, Lori Lynn

    2013-02-22

    Three species of the genus Aspergillus (A.) A. nidulans, A. parasiticus, and A. flavus are currently being observed in our lab to determine the effects of seed metabolites on fungal development. A. nidulans reproduces asexually through the formation...

  16. Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, Kerry L.

    2009-05-15

    conducted through inoculation with a highly concentrated solution of Aspergillus flavus FR: Link spores, a naturally occurring fungus which infects maize and produces a toxic metabolite (aflatoxin) to humans and animals consuming the grain. No commercial...

  17. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi. PMID:18949322

  18. Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus 

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, Kerry L.

    2009-05-15

    conducted through inoculation with a highly concentrated solution of Aspergillus flavus FR: Link spores, a naturally occurring fungus which infects maize and produces a toxic metabolite (aflatoxin) to humans and animals consuming the grain. No commercial...

  19. Production of cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita.

    PubMed Central

    Dorner, J W

    1983-01-01

    Production of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita is reported for the first time. Examination of 23 isolates of the fungus showed that 22 produced the toxin under the culture conditions utilized. PMID:6660879

  20. Heterologous expression of lysergic acid and novel ergot alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sarah L; Panaccione, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    Different lineages of fungi produce distinct classes of ergot alkaloids. Lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids produced by fungi in the Clavicipitaceae are particularly important in agriculture and medicine. The pathway to lysergic acid is partly elucidated, but the gene encoding the enzyme that oxidizes the intermediate agroclavine is unknown. We investigated two candidate agroclavine oxidase genes from the fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii × Epichloë typhina isolate Lp1 (henceforth referred to as Epichloë sp. Lp1), which produces lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids. Candidate genes easH and cloA were expressed in a mutant strain of the mold Aspergillus fumigatus, which typically produces a subclass of ergot alkaloids not derived from agroclavine or lysergic acid. Candidate genes were coexpressed with the Epichloë sp. Lp1 allele of easA, which encodes an enzyme that catalyzed the synthesis of agroclavine from an A. fumigatus intermediate; the agroclavine then served as the substrate for the candidate agroclavine oxidases. Strains expressing easA and cloA from Epichloë sp. Lp1 produced lysergic acid from agroclavine, a process requiring a cumulative six-electron oxidation and a double-bond isomerization. Strains that accumulated excess agroclavine (as a result of Epichloë sp. Lp1 easA expression in the absence of cloA) metabolized it into two novel ergot alkaloids for which provisional structures were proposed on the basis of mass spectra and precursor feeding studies. Our data indicate that CloA catalyzes multiple reactions to produce lysergic acid from agroclavine and that combining genes from different ergot alkaloid pathways provides an effective strategy to engineer important pathway molecules and novel ergot alkaloids. PMID:25107976

  1. Aspergillus parasellar abscess mimicking radiation-induced neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiki Endo; Yoshihiro Numagami; Hidefumi Jokura; Hidetoshi Ikeda; Reizo Shirane; Takashi Yoshimoto

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDTranssphenoidal surgery is a safe procedure for treatment of pituitary adenomas. However, several complications, including post-surgical infection, are known. We describe a case of Aspergillus parasellar abscess that presented with cranial neuropathies following transsphenoidal surgery and radiosurgery. We initially diagnosed the case as radiation-induced neuropathies, which delayed the detection of Aspergillus.CASE DESCRIPTIONA 55-year-old man underwent transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary

  2. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger without Bronchial Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Hoshino; Shigeru Tagaki; Hayato Kon; Takashi Shibusa; Hirotsugu Takabatake; Akihisa Fujita; Kyuichiroh Sekine; Shosaku Abe

    1999-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a dry cough and pulmonary infiltrates. Chest radiograph and CT revealed mucoid impaction and consolidations. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE were observed. Aspergillus niger was cultured repeatedly from her sputum, but A. fumigatus was not detected. Immediate skin test and specific IgE (RAST) to Aspergillus antigen were positive. Precipitating

  3. Transformation of xanthohumol by Aspergillus ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Tronina, Tomasz; Bartma?ska, Agnieszka; Pop?o?ski, Jaros?aw; Huszcza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Microbial transformation of xanthohumol isolated from agro-residue (spent hops), by Aspergillus ochraceus was investigated. A new aurone, (Z)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:6,7]-3',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxyaurone, was obtained as a main transformation product. Three minor metabolites were identified as 2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:3',4']-2',4-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone, (2S,2?S)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone and (2S,2?R)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences. The antioxidant properties of xanthohumol and its metabolites were investigated using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The major biotransformation product, was 8.6-fold stronger antioxidant than xanthohumol and 2.3-fold than ascorbic acid. PMID:23463662

  4. A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

    2014-10-01

    Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

  5. Histopathological Implications of Aspergillus Infection in Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tochigi, Naobumi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Gocho, Kyoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Ishiwatari, Takao; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper opens with a discussion on the significance of invasive fungal infections in advanced contemporary medicine, with an emphasis on the intractability of disease management and the difficulties of diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion concerning classification, histopathological features, and pathophysiology. While it has been largely accepted that Aspergillus species is recognized by cellular receptors and attacked by neutrophils, the radiological and macroscopic findings linking infection with neutropenia remain unconfirmed. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, we wish to emphasize the utility of radiological and histopathological examinations since these can provide detailed information on the extremely complex interaction between the causative microbes and tissue responses. A review of noninvasive or semi-invasive aspergillosis is also provided, with particular emphasis on chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, which is recognized as a transition form of simple pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, although few findings have been reported in this area. PMID:24347836

  6. Production and properties of xylanases from Aspergillus terricola Marchal and Aspergillus ochraceus and their use in cellulose pulp bleaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michelin; S. C. Peixoto-Nogueira; J. H. A. Betini; T. M. da Silva; J. A. Jorge; H. F. Terenzi; M. L. T. M. Polizeli

    2010-01-01

    Aspergillus terricola and Aspergillus ochraceus, isolated from Brazilian soil, were cultivated in Vogel and Adams media supplemented with 20 different carbon sources, at\\u000a 30 °C, under static conditions, for 120 and 144 h, respectively. High levels of cellulase-free xylanase were produced in birchwood\\u000a or oat spelt xylan-media. Wheat bran was the most favorable agricultural residue for xylanase production. Maximum activity\\u000a was obtained

  7. Detection of immunoglobulins G and A to Aspergillus fumigatus by immunoblot analysis for monitoring Aspergillus-induced lung diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Th. M. van Rens; R. Vernooy-Jeras; M. Merton-de Ridder; H. van Velzen-Blad

    1998-01-01

    aa Detection of immunoglobulins G and A to Aspergillus fumigatus by immunoblot analysis for monitoring Aspergillus-induced lung diseases. M.Th.M. van Rens, R. Vernooy-Jeras, M. Merton-de Ridder, H. van Velzen-Blad, J.M.M. van den Bosch. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1998. ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with Aspergil- lus-induced lung disease can be monitored by immunoblot analysis to

  8. Does fungicide application in vineyards induce resistance to medical azoles in Aspergillus species?

    PubMed

    Lago, Magali; Aguiar, Ana; Natário, André; Fernandes, Carla; Faria, Miguel; Pinto, Eugénia

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed if the use of sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides in vineyard production can induce resistance to azoles in Aspergillus strains and if it can induce selection of resistant species. We also tried to identify the Aspergillus species most prevalent in the vineyards. Two vineyards from northern Portugal were selected from "Vinhos Verdes" and "Douro" regions. The vineyards were divided into plots that were treated or not with penconazole (PEN). In each vineyard, air, soil, and plant samples were collected at three different times. The strains of Aspergillus spp. were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular techniques. We identified 46 Aspergillus section Nigri, eight Aspergillus fumigatus, seven Aspergillus lentulus, four Aspergillus wentii, two Aspergillus flavus, two Aspergillus terreus, one Aspergillus calidoustus, one Aspergillus westerdijkiae, one Aspergillus tamarii, and one Eurotium amstelodami. Aspergillus strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to medical azoles used in human therapy (itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and to agricultural azoles (PEN) used in the prevention and treatment of plant diseases. The isolates showed moderate susceptibility to voriconazole. We did not observe any decrease of susceptibility to the medical azoles tested throughout the testing period in any of the treated plots, although some of the resistant species were isolated from there. PMID:24833021

  9. THE ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS GROUP: TWO NEW SPECIES FROM WESTERN SOILS AND A SYNOPTIC KEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTHA CHRISTENSEN

    Two new species in the Aspergillus ochraceus group are described and compared to related taxa. Aspergillus bridgeri, from soils collected in a native community dominated by Atriplex gardneri in Wyoming, somewhat resembles A. elegans and A. lanosus, but differs in cultural and morphological details. Aspergillus campestris, from a native prairie in northern North Dakota, resembles A. dimorphicus in having metulae

  10. Precipitins and specific IgG antibody to Aspergillus fumigatus in a chest unit population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Faux; D J Shale

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus is more sensitive than the measurement of Aspergillus precipitins. The relation of the results from both techniques to the clinical pattern of disease in a large unselected group of patients from a large referral centre is unknown. METHODS: The clinical relation of precipitins to Aspergillus fumigatus

  11. Contributions of Foot Traffic and Outdoor Concentrations to Indoor Airborne Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian D. Goebes; Alexandria B. Boehm; Lynn M. Hildemann

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus is a mold genus that can cause allergies, asthma, and pulmonary infections in sensitive people; its particles are common in indoor air. Two potential contributors to indoor Aspergillus particles were examined in this field study: human activity (walking over carpet), and outdoor Aspergillus concentrations. Filtered air samples were collected outdoors and inside two carpeted hallways in public buildings, while

  12. [Gerog Fresenius and the species Aspergillus fumigatus].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1998-01-01

    The species Aspergillus fumigatus was first extensively described by G. Fresenius. J. B. Georg W. Fresenius was born in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 1808 and also died there in 1866. He studied medicine and finished his doctorate thesis (MD) in 1829. Afterwards he started his career as a physician and surgeon in Frankfurt/Main in the same year. In 1831 Fresenius became a university lecturer for botany at the "Senckenbergisches medicinisches Institut"; this institute specialized in botany. In this year Fresenius also became the director of the botanical gardens of Frankfurt/Main. Apart from his collaboration in the institute for agriculture he actively participated in the microscopical association of Frankfurt as well as the "Senckenbergische medicinische Gesellschaft". Almost over the whole period, Fresenius also worked as a physician taking care of miserable people. The outstanding publications of Fresenius are "Die Flora von Frankfurt" (Flora of Frankfurt) and "Beiträge zur Mykologie" (Contributions to Mycology). The monograph "Beiträge zur Mykologie" was published by Fresenius as a dedication for the centennial celebrations of the Senckenberg foundation ("Senckenbergische Stiftung"). It contains 132 pages and 13 excellent lithographic figures (Camera lucida). The third part of this monograph also contains the description of the species A. fumigatus. Fresenius was an engaged physician as well as an outstanding researcher and expert in natural sciences who described numerous new fungal species some of which are still accepted nowadays in accordance with the "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature". PMID:10085696

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus thermophilic and acidophilic endoglucanases.

    PubMed

    Grigorevski-Lima, A L; Da Vinha, F N M; Souza, D T; Bispo, A S R; Bon, E P S; Coelho, R R R; Nascimento, R P

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated the production of cellulolytic enzymes by an Aspergillus fumigatus strain, isolated from sugar cane bagasse, according to its ability to grow on microcrystalline cellulose as the sole carbon source. The effect of the carbon source (brewer's spent grain, sugarcane bagasse, and wheat bran) and of the nitrogen source (corn steep liquor and sodium nitrate) on cellulase production was studied using submerged and solid state cultivations at 30 degrees C. The highest levels of endoglucanase (CMCase) corresponded to 365 U L(-1) and was obtained using sugarcane bagasse (1%) and corn steep liquor (1.2%) in submerged fermentation within 6 days of cultivation. This supernatant was used to run a sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that showed six bands with endoglucanase activity. CMCase activity was higher at 65 degrees C and pH 2.0, indicating that this microorganism produces a thermophilic and acid endoglucanase. Solid state cultivation favored FPase production, that reached 47 U g(-1) of dry substrate (wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse) within 3 days. PMID:19127443

  14. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols. PMID:24957370

  15. The Tip Growth Apparatus of Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Horio, Tetsuya; Araujo-Bazán, Lidia; Dou, Xiaowei; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Peńalva, Miguel A.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyphal tip growth in fungi is important because of the economic and medical importance of fungi, and because it may be a useful model for polarized growth in other organisms. We have investigated the central questions of the roles of cytoskeletal elements and of the precise sites of exocytosis and endocytosis at the growing hyphal tip by using the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Time-lapse imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins reveals a remarkably dynamic, but highly structured, tip growth apparatus. Live imaging of SYNA, a synaptobrevin homologue, and SECC, an exocyst component, reveals that vesicles accumulate in the Spitzenkörper (apical body) and fuse with the plasma membrane at the extreme apex of the hypha. SYNA is recycled from the plasma membrane by endocytosis at a collar of endocytic patches, 1–2 ?m behind the apex of the hypha, that moves forward as the tip grows. Exocytosis and endocytosis are thus spatially coupled. Inhibitor studies, in combination with observations of fluorescent fusion proteins, reveal that actin functions in exocytosis and endocytosis at the tip and in holding the tip growth apparatus together. Microtubules are important for delivering vesicles to the tip area and for holding the tip growth apparatus in position. PMID:18216285

  16. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  17. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:6996615

  18. Galactosaminogalactan from cell walls of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Bardalaye, P C; Nordin, J H

    1976-01-01

    A new heteropolysaccharide has been isolated by alkaline extraction of hyphal walls of Aspergillus niger NRRL 326 grown in surface culture. Its composition by weight, as determined by paper and gas chromatography and colorimetric analyses, is 70% galactose, 20% galactosamine, 6% glucose, and 1% acetyl. Two independent experiments have been used to ascertain copolymer structure: permeation chromatography in 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride, with controlled-pore glass columns of two fractionation ranges, and nitrous acid deaminative cleavage of galactosaminogalactan followed by reduction of fragments with [3H]borohydride and gel filtration chromatography. One of the tritiated fragments is tentatively identified as the disaccharide derivative galactopyranosyl 2,5-anhydrotalitol, on the basis of chromatographic properties and by kinetics of its acid hydrolysis. Smith degradation, methylation, deamination, and optical rotation studies indicate that the galactosaminogalactan consists of a linear array of hexopyranosyl units joined almost exclusively by alpha-(1 leads to 4) linkages. Hexosaminyl moieties are distributed randomly along the chains, which have an average degree of polymerization of about 100. The possible significance of this macromolecule in hyphal structure is considered. PMID:173713

  19. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-01

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ?-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ?-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and ?- and/or ?-oxidation. PMID:26072923

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF ASPERGILLUS SP. IN TISSUES OF THE COMMON LOON, GAVIA IMMER: INCIDENCE, PROGRESSION AND SEVERITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    By studying a large group of loons affected by an oil spill, much can be learned about the toxic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in exposed birds, their ability to handle these environmental stressors, and their ability to combat natural pathogens. On January 19, 1996 the North...

  1. Acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in a presumed immunocompetent host

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Varun; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; C, Shivaprasad; Patil, Mahantesh; Varghese, Jaicob

    2012-01-01

    Infection from Aspergillus results in a wide range of diseases from simple Aspergillus pneumonia to fatal invasive Aspergillosis. Though the fungus is known to predominantly affect the immunocompromised host, it has also been known to cause acute pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts which is invariably fatal. It presents as an acute pneumonia with bilateral chest infiltrates on radiograph. Early clinical suspicion and microbiological identification by measures such as broncho alveolar lavage and initiation of therapy with voricanozole significantly increase the chances of survival. In this article the authors discuss a case of acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in an immunocompetent host who survived due to early identification and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal medication. PMID:22605848

  2. Cr(VI) reduction by an Aspergillus tubingensis strain: role of carboxylic acids and implications for natural attenuation and biotreatment of Cr(VI) contamination.

    PubMed

    Coreńo-Alonso, Alejandro; Acevedo-Aguilar, Francisco Javier; Reyna-López, Georgina E; Tomasini, Araceli; Fernández, Francisco J; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix

    2009-06-01

    Experiments conducted in shake flask cultures, in minimal medium of pH 5.3 containing 50 microg mL(-1)Cr(VI) with glucose as a carbon source, indicated that the biomass of Aspergillus sp. strain Ed8, a chromate-tolerant fungal strain previously isolated from a chromium-polluted soil, responds to the presence of citrate in the medium by increasing the rate of Cr(VI) reduction; this effect required the use of live biomass and was not observed in medium with lactate. Other natural carboxylic acids or non-natural metal chelating agents showed a stimulatory effect of Cr(VI) reduction by Ed8 biomass; salicylate, tartrate and citrate were the stronger stimulators of the specific rate of Cr(VI) reduction, with about 12, 8 and 7-fold stimulatory effects, respectively, as compared to control cultures without additions. A procedure for Cr(VI) removal from a diluted electroplating effluent was devised, based on the use of growth medium amended with citrate or a mixture of salycilate-tartrate and cycles of recharge of growth medium-diluted effluent. In addition, conditions were adjusted in a 2-L bioreactor to reach a 20-fold increase in the volume of the reduction system with no loss of efficiency. Strain Ed8 was identified as an Aspergillus tubingensis isolate (included in Aspergillus niger species complex) on the basis of the ITS1-5.8s rDNA-ITS2 sequence similarity. PMID:19286242

  3. CLATHRIN DYNAMICS AND ENDOCYTIC ORGANIZATION IN Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Tyler

    2013-09-26

    of the most significant of these pathogens include: Magnaporthe oryzae, Botrytis cinerea, and many species within the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium. M. grisea has proven to be a significant pathogen of rice and other cereal grains while B. cinerea is a... with FM4-64." Fungal Genetics and Biology 42.12 (2005): 963-75. Print. 9. Shaw, Brian D., and Srijana Upadhyay. "Aspergillus Nidulans SwoK Encodes an RNA Binding Protein That Is Important for Cell Polarity." Fungal Genetics and Biology 42.10 (2005): 862...

  4. Gaultheria sp. (Native) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    designers would make small, natural- looking designs. Since the "Primavera" containers were a plastic shell with floral foam inside, they did not look very natural so we had to use lemonleaf (Gaultheria, sp. ), other leaves, different kinds of mosses...

  5. Diagnostic significance of Aspergillus species isolated from respiratory samples in an adult pneumology ward.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Takayoshi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Tashiro, Masato; Takazono, Takahiro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Yamamoto, Kazuko; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Seki, Masafumi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yasuoka, Akira; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-08-01

    Although the diagnostic significance of isolating Aspergillus spp. from respiratory cultures has been studied in immunocompromised hosts with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), little is known of such infections in immunocompetent patients with other forms of aspergillosis. In this study of adult pneumology ward patients, we examined the association between Aspergillus spp. and disease prevalence. Laboratory records from April 1998 to March 2009 were reviewed to identify patients with Aspergillus spp. in respiratory samples. Correlations between the isolated species and clinical characteristics of patients were evaluated. During the study period, 165 Aspergillus spp. isolates were detected in the respiratory cultures of 139 patients. Of these patients, 62 (45%) were colonized with Aspergillus spp. and displayed no clinical symptoms of aspergillosis, while 77 (55%) had a form of pulmonary aspergillosis, characterized as either chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) (48%), aspergilloma (29%), IPA (13%), or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (10%). The dominant species were Aspergillus fumigatus (41%), A. niger (32%), and A. versicolor (12%). A. fumigatus was most commonly isolated in patients with IPA, aspergilloma, and CNPA, whereas A. niger was the dominant species in colonized patients and those with ABPA. Isolation of an Aspergillus spp. from respiratory samples does not confirm it as the etiologic pathogen because airway colonization by Aspergillus spp. is a common feature in several chronic lung diseases. Repeated isolation of the identical Aspergillus species and detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies and/or Aspergillus antigens in sera are needed to determine the isolate represents the etiologic agent of disease. PMID:21208028

  6. Functional Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans Kinome

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Colin P.; Hashmi, Shahr B.; Osmani, Aysha H.; Andrews, Peter; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. Protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have made systematic approaches to study large gene sets possible. To enhance A. nidulans functional genomics we have created gene deletion constructs for 9851 genes representing 93.3% of the encoding genome. To illustrate the utility of these constructs, and advance the understanding of fungal kinases, we have systematically generated deletion strains for 128 A. nidulans kinases including expanded groups of 15 histidine kinases, 7 SRPK (serine-arginine protein kinases) kinases and an interesting group of 11 filamentous fungal specific kinases. We defined the terminal phenotype of 23 of the 25 essential kinases by heterokaryon rescue and identified phenotypes for 43 of the 103 non-essential kinases. Uncovered phenotypes ranged from almost no growth for a small number of essential kinases implicated in processes such as ribosomal biosynthesis, to conditional defects in response to cellular stresses. The data provide experimental evidence that previously uncharacterized kinases function in the septation initiation network, the cell wall integrity and the morphogenesis Orb6 kinase signaling pathways, as well as in pathways regulating vesicular trafficking, sexual development and secondary metabolism. Finally, we identify ChkC as a third effector kinase functioning in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. The identification of many previously unknown functions for kinases through the functional analysis of the A. nidulans kinome illustrates the utility of the A. nidulans gene deletion constructs. PMID:23505451

  7. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

  8. Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

  9. Recombination and cryptic heterokaryosis in experimental populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infects both plants and animals, and is of toxicological importance due to its production of aflatoxins (AFs) and other mycotoxins. Mycotoxins can cause agricultural losses totaling upwards of $1.4 billion annually. Recent efforts to reduce AF concentrations have focused on the us...

  10. Serum Stimulates Growth of and Proteinase Secretion by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna H. T. Gifford; Jodine R. Klippenstein; Margo M. Moore

    2002-01-01

    Serum contains iron-binding proteins, which inhibit the growth of most pathogenic microorganisms, in- cluding fungi. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of serum on growth of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Supplementing minimal essential medium (MEM) with up to 80% human serum or up to 80% fetal bovine serum (FBS) stimulated growth and increased the

  11. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  12. Genetic Response to Seed Colonizatin by Aspergillus flavus in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies to evaluate peanut genotypes for in vitro resistance to seed colonization by Aspergillus flavus have not resulted in the development of cultivars with resistance to aflatoxin contamination in the field. New breeding lines showing pre-harvest field resistance to aflatoxin contaminat...

  13. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  14. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  15. Production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Kang; C. H. Park; S. I. Hong; S. W. Kim

    2007-01-01

    The production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF for the biocontrol of Phytophthora disease was investigated in submerged fermentation using media composed of different nutrients. Soluble starch was found to be the most effective substrate among the carbon sources used, and produced the highest penicillic acid concentration of 2.98mgml?1. When organic nitrogen sources were used, pharmamedia, yeast extract, and

  16. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens C. Frisvad; J. Mick Frank; Jos A. M. P. Houbraken; Angelina F. A. Kuijpers; Robert A. Samson

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce atleast one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic conidiophores and none of the extrolites listed above. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites and partial ?-tubulin

  17. Kitchens as a source of Aspergillus niger infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Loudon; A. P. Coke; J. P. Burnie; A. J. Shaw; B. A. Oppenheim; C. Q. Morris

    1996-01-01

    In this study we investigated the epidemiology of a cluster of cutaneous infections owing to Aspergillus niger, which occurred in neutropenic patients in a bone marrow transplant unit. Heavy environmental contamination with the mould was found in the ward kitchen adjacent to the unit. The clinical and environmental isolates were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), which showed

  18. A Highly Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene targeting via homologous recombination is often used to elucidate gene function. For filamentous fungi, the majority of transforming DNA integrates ectopically. Deletion of Aspergillus parasiticus ku70, a gene of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, drastically increased the gene targeting...

  19. Potential of Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Applications in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a common saprophyte and opportunistic pathogen that survives in the natural environment by extracting nutrition from plant debris, insect carcasses and a variety of other carbon sources. A. flavus produces numerous secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes. The primary obj...

  20. Comparison of different transformation methods for Aspergillus giganteus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Meyer; Dirk Mueller; Till Strowig; Ulf Stahl

    2003-01-01

    Four different transformation methods were tested and compared in an attempt to facilitate the genetic transformation of Aspergillus giganteus, the producer of an antifungal protein (AFP). The fungus was transformed to hygromycin B resistance, using the hph gene of Escherichia coli by protoplast transformation, electroporation, biolistic transformation, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Electroporation and biolistic transformation were found to be inappropriate

  1. Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

  2. Indoloditerpenes from an algicolous isolate of Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Feng Qiao; Nai-Yun Ji; Xiang-Hong Liu; Ke Li; Qing-Mei Zhu; Qin-Zhao Xue

    2010-01-01

    Two new indoloditerpene derivatives asporyzin A (1) and asporyzin B (2), one new indoloditerpene asporyzin C (3), and three known related indoloditerpenes JBIR-03 (4), emindole SB (5), and emeniveol (6) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, isolated from the marine red alga Heterosiphonia japonica. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all the isolates were

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus oryzae Strain 3.042

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua; Zeng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is the most important fungus for the traditional fermentation in China and is particularly important in soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36,547,279-bp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae RIB40. PMID:22933657

  4. Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

  5. Galacto-oligosaccharide synthesis by immobilized Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruchi Gaur; Hema Pant; Ruchi Jain; S. K. Khare

    2006-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase was immobilized by three different techniques, namely adsorption on celite, covalent coupling to chitosan and aggregation by cross-linking. These techniques were compared in terms of the yield of immobilized preparation, enzymatic characteristics, stability and efficiency in oligosaccharide synthesis. Immobilization led to increase in Km in each case. Immobilization on chitosan gave maximum enzyme yield and oligosaccharide synthesis.

  6. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We revised the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati along with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya. Our species concept is based phenotype (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed:...

  7. Aspergillus fumigatus Induces Immunoglobulin E–Independent Mast Cell Degranulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjam Urb; Philippe Pouliot; Martin Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pulmonary colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus in chronic lung disease is associated with pro- gressive decline in lung function even in the absence of specific allergic response. We hypothesized that A. fumigatus contributes to this decline by inducing pulmonary mast cell degranulation even in the absence of antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Therefore, we investigated whether A. fumigatus can induce mast

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus: Principles of Pathogenesis and Host Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias M. Hohl; Marta Feldmesser

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous saprophytic mold (67) that forms airborne spores (conidia). Humans inhale, on aver- age, hundreds of these infectious propagules daily. In immune competent hosts, these encounters are of no further signifi- cance—conidia are killed and cleared by cells of the pulmonary immune system. However, disease occurs when the host re- sponse is either too strong or

  9. The origins of aflatoxin chemotype diversity in Aspergillus populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins, which can be classified into B and G toxin chemotype classes. Experimental matings in the laboratory...

  10. Health Effects of Aspergillus in Food and Air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produces them, affected crops and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as...

  11. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  12. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W T; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K L; Lau, Candy C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Double and Triple Combinations of Antifungal Drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dannaoui; Olivier Lortholary; Francoise Dromer

    2004-01-01

    Microdilution broth checkerboard techniques based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methodology were used to study double and triple antifungal combinations against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. terreus. The influences of the end-point definition (partial or complete inhibition) and the mode of reading (visually or spectrophotometrically) were determined. Interactions between antifungal drugs were also evaluated by

  14. Characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus delta12-desaturase gene: a role for lipid metabolism in the Aspergillus-seed interaction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard A; Calvo, Ana M; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Keller, Nancy P

    2004-09-01

    In the mycotoxigenic oilseed pathogens Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, unsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives act as important developmental signals that affect asexual conidiospore, sexual ascospore and/or sclerotial development. To dissect the relationship between lipid metabolism and fungal development, an A. parasiticus Delta(12)-desaturase mutant that was unable to convert oleic acid to linoleic acid and was thus impaired in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis was generated. The Delta(12)-desaturase mutant demonstrates delayed spore germination, a twofold reduction in growth, a reduced level of conidiation and complete loss of sclerotial development, compared to the wild-type. Host colonization is impaired, as reflected by a decrease in conidial production on live peanut and corn seed by the mutant compared to the wild-type. Similarly, the previously isolated A. nidulans Delta(12)-desaturase mutant has reduced colonization capabilities compared to the wild-type. Therefore, desaturation mutants display a key requisite that affords a genetic solution to oilseed crop contamination by mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species: a reduction in the production of conidia, the infectious particle of the pathogenic aspergilli. PMID:15347747

  15. An Aspergillus chitosanase with potential for large-scale preparation of chitosan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C Y; Li, Y K

    2000-12-01

    A chitosan-degrading fungus, designated Aspergillus sp. Y2K, was isolated from soil. The micro-organism was used for producing chitosanase (EC 3.2.1.132) in a minimal medium containing chitosan as the sole carbon source. The induced chitosanase was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate by concentration and cationic SP-Sepharose chromatography. The purified enzyme is a monomer with an estimated molecular mass of 25 kDa by SDS/PAGE and of 22 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography. pI, optimum pH and optimum temperature values were 8.4, 6.5 and 65-70 degrees C, respectively. The chitosanase is stable in the pH range from 4 to 7.5 at 55 degrees C. Higher deacetylated chitosan is a better substrate. Chitin, xylan, 6-O-sulphated chitosan and O-carboxymethyl chitin were indigestible by the purified enzyme. By endo-splitting activity, the chitosanase hydrolysed chitosan to form chitosan oligomers with chitotriose, chitotetraose and chitopentaose as the major products. The enzyme hydrolyses chitohexaose to form chitotriose, while the chitopentaose and shorter oligomers remain intact. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined as YNLPNNLKQIYDDHK, which provides useful information for further gene cloning of this enzyme. A 275 g-scale hydrolysis of chitosan was performed. The product distribution was virtually identical to that of the small-scale reaction. Owing to the simple purification process and high stability of the enzyme, it is potentially valuable for industrial applications. PMID:11115392

  16. Loss of msnA a putative stress regulatory gene in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus increased production of conidia aflatoxins and kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the harmful carcinogenic aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus has been postulated to be a mechanism to relieve oxidative stress. The msnA gene, the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 associated with multi-stress response, of the two species was disrupted....

  17. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad T. Hedayati; Sabah Mayahi; David W. Denning

    2009-01-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic pa- tients' houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus .O pen plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n = 360) and outdoor (n = 180) air of 90 asthmatic pa-

  18. Peanut Pod Invasion by Aspergillus flavus in the Presence of Meloidogyne hapla

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N. A.; Bell, D. K.; Doupnik, B.

    1969-01-01

    'Argentine', 'Early Runner' and 'Florigiant' peanut cultivars were grown in methyl bromide treated soil in field microplots inoculated with: (i) Aspergillus flavus or (ii) A. flavus + Meloidogyne hapla. Nematode infection produced heavy root galling and light pod galling equally on all cultivars. A. flavus, A. niger, Cephalosporium spp., Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated from shells and kernels. A significantly greater incidence and density of A. flavus was obtained from kernels of plants inoculated with both organisms than from kernels of plants receiving only the fungus. Differences were not significant, however, for incidence and density of A. flavus in shells or for the total of all fungal propagules in shells and kernels. Shells of 'Early Runner' contained significantly greater incidence and density of A. flavus than the other two cultivars; also, kernels of this cultivar contained more fungal propagules than kernels of 'Argentine.' A significantly larger number of total fungi was isolated from kernels of 'Argentine' than from 'Florigiant.' Aflatoxins were found only in two shell samples and not in kernels. PMID:19325693

  19. Cytotoxic and other metabolites of Aspergillus inhabiting the rhizosphere of Sonoran desert plants.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Bashyal, Bharat P; Zhan, Jixun; Seliga, Christopher J; Liu, Manping X; Pierson, Elizabeth E; Pierson, Leland S; VanEtten, Hans D; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2004-12-01

    In a study to discover potential anticancer agents from rhizosphere fungi of Sonoran desert plants cytotoxic EtOAc extracts of four Aspergillus strains have been investigated. Two new metabolites, terrequinone A (1) and terrefuranone (2), along with Na-acetyl aszonalemin (LL-S490beta) (3) were isolated from As. terreus occurring in the rhizosphere of Ambrosia ambrosoides, whereas As. terreus inhabiting the rhizosphere of an unidentified Brickellia sp. afforded dehydrocurvularin (4), 11-methoxycurvularin (5), and 11-hydroxycurvularin (6). As. cervinus isolated from the rhizosphere of Anicasanthus thurberi contained two new compounds, 4R*,5S*-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylcyclohex-2-enone (7) and 6-methoxy-5(6)-dihydropenicillic acid (8), in addition to penicillic acid (9). Penicillic acid was also isolated from As. wentii occurring in the rhizosphere of Larrea tridentata. The structures of 1-9 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatizations. Acetylation of 2 afforded 14-acetylterrefuranone (13) and 14-deoxy-13(14)-dehydroterrefuranone (14). Metabolites 1-9, the dienone 14, and 5(6)-dihydropenicillic acid (16) were evaluated for cytotoxicity in a panel of four human cancer cell lines and in normal human primary fibroblast cells. Compounds 4 and 5 displayed considerable cytotoxicity, whereas 1, 6, 9, and 14 were found to be moderately active, with 6 and 9 exhibiting selective cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines compared with the normal fibroblast cells. PMID:15620238

  20. Bioactive Phenylalanine Derivatives and Cytochalasins from the Soft Coral-Derived Fungus, Aspergillus elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Cai-Juan; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wu, Lu-Yong; Chen, Min; Wang, Kai-Ling; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Sun, Xue-Ping; Chen, Guang-Ying; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2013-01-01

    One new phenylalanine derivative 4?-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5–12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by chemical synthesis and Marfey’s method. All isolated metabolites (1–12) were evaluated for their antifouling and antibacterial activities. Cytochalasins 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed strong antifouling activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, with the EC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 37 ?M. This is the first report of antifouling activity for this class of metabolites. Additionally, 8 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially against four pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. PMID:23752358

  1. SP2007 Teamrobotik Daniel Meyer,

    E-print Network

    SP2007 Teamrobotik Daniel Meyer, Nils M¨uller & Felix Penzlin SP2007 Teamrobotik Lego Mindstorms Java OpenSource erfordert keinen Mindstorms-Treiber keine eigene IDE Status: Alpha Daniel Meyer, Nils M

  2. Sp(2)-BRST

    SciTech Connect

    Twisk, S.; Zhang, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    A general method is given for the construction of gauge-fixed actions for theories with local gauge symmetries. The method is based on the single requirement that the space of fields carries an irreducible representation of the Sp(2)-BRST algebra, with respect to which the resultant actions are then automatically invariant.

  3. Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus pacC gene

    E-print Network

    Pinero, David

    1999-01-01

    . pacC' ) were grown at pH 8. Aspergillus parasiticus strains were grown on potato dextrose agar at 30' C. Snains were maintained as silica stocks at room temperature. Sexual crosses of A. nidulans strains were conducted according to Pontecorvo (26... and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by several Aspergi llus species. Ambient pH has been determined to affect mycotoxin (i. e. aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin) biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively...

  4. Evidence of RIP (repeat-induced point mutation) in transposase sequences of Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria D. Montiel; Heather A. Lee; David B. Archer

    2006-01-01

    A DNA methyl-binding column was used to isolate genomic fragments enriched for DNA-methylation from Aspergillus parasiticus. One of the isolated sequences presented 67% identity at the protein level with the transposase from the transposable element Tan1 of Aspergillus niger var. awamori, and was found to be present in at least 20 copies in the Aspergillus oryzae database. Analysis of four

  5. Discovery of a novel superfamily of type III polyketide synthases in Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyo Seshime; Praveen Rao Juvvadi; Isao Fujii; Katsuhiko Kitamoto

    2005-01-01

    Identification of genes encoding type III polyketide synthase (PKS) superfamily members in the industrially useful filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, revealed that their distribution is not specific to plants or bacteria. Among other Aspergilli (Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus), A. oryzae was unique in possessing four chalcone synthase (CHS)-like genes (csyA, csyB, csyC, and csyD). Expression of csyA, csyB, and csyD

  6. Enumeration and identification of Aspergillus group and Penicillium species in poultry feeds from Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Magnoli; R. Miazzo

    1998-01-01

    A total of 180 samples of poultry feeds were collected during 1996 and 1997 from different factories in the south of the province\\u000a of Crdoba-Argentina. They were examined for the occurrence of Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus group species. Likewise, the\\u000a capacity to produce aflatoxins by the Aspergillus section flavi group was determined. The predominant species of Aspergillus\\u000a were A. flavus

  7. Opportunistic Mycelial Fungal Infections in Organ Transplant Recipients: Emerging Importance of Non? Aspergillus Mycelial Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahid Husain; Barbara D. Alexander; Patricia Munoz; Robin K. Avery; Sally Houston; Timothy Pruett; Richard Jacobs; Edward A. Dominguez; Jan G. Tollemar; Katherine Baumgarten; Chen M. Yu; Marilyn M. Wagener; Peter Linden; Shimon Kusne; Nina Singh

    2003-01-01

    To determine the spectrum and impact of mycelial fungal infections, particularly those due to non-Aspergillus molds, 53 liver and heart transplant recipients with invasive mycelial infections were prospectively identified in a multicenter study. Invasive mycelial infections were due to Aspergillus species in 69.8% of patients, to non-Aspergillus hyalohyphomycetes in 9.4%, to phaeohyphomycetes in 9.4%, to zygomycetes in 5.7%, and to

  8. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees. PMID:24485932

  9. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  10. Aspergillus fumigatus Scleritis Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Oh, Joo Youn; Kim, Mee Kum; Heo, Jang Won; Lee, Jin Hak

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented with pain in her left eye. Necrosis with calcium plaques was observed on the medial part of the sclera. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the culture of the necrotic area. On systemic work-up including serum and urine electrophoresis studies, the serum monoclonal protein of immunoglobulin G was detected. The patient was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and fungal scleritis. Despite intensive treatment with topical and oral antifungal agents, scleral inflammation and ulceration progressed, and scleral perforation and endophthalmitis developed. Debridement, antifungal irrigation, and tectonic scleral grafting were performed. The patient underwent a combined pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreal injection of an antifungal agent. However, scleral and intraocular inflammation progressed, and the eye was enucleated. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the cultures of the eviscerated materials. Giemsa staining of the excised sclera showed numerous fungal hyphae. PMID:20532146

  11. Ecophysiology of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species Potential Ochratoxin A Producers

    PubMed Central

    Astoreca, Andrea L.; Magnoli, Carina E.; Dalcero, Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as aW and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption. PMID:22069566

  12. Salmonella and Aspergillus infections in common loons overwintering in Florida.

    PubMed

    White, F H; Forrester, D J; Nesbitt, S A

    1976-11-01

    During a 5-year period (1970-1975), 190 common loons (Gavia immer) from overwintering populations on the east and west coasts of Florida were examined for evidence of infectious diseases. Salmonella spp (representing 8 serotypes) were isolated from 27 (14%) of the loons, and lesions typical of those produced by Aspergillus fumigatus were found in 34 (18%) of the loons. Seven loons were infected with Salmonella spp and had lesions typical of aspergillus infection. The largest number of loons (124) was obtained during the winter of 1973-1974, in connection with an offshore oil spill. There was no significant difference between the isolation rates of Salmonella spp from oiled vs nonoiled loons, but the occurrence of aspergillosis was higher in nonoiled than in oiled loons. PMID:789314

  13. Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

    2010-01-01

    Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

  14. Restriction endonuclease cleavage map of mitochondrial DNA from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Stepie?, P P; Bernard, U; Cooke, H J; Küntzel, H

    1978-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a circular molecule of 31 500 base pairs, is cleaved by restriction endonucleases Eco R I, Hind II, Hind III and Bgl II into 3, 7, 9 and 5 fragments, respectively. The relative positions of the cleavage sites could be mapped by analysis of fragments obtained by double enzyme digestions of whole DNA and by complete and partial redigestion of isolated restriction fragments. Images PMID:345242

  15. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    de Bekker, Charissa; Bruning, Oskar; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  16. Structure elucidation of metabolites of swertiamarin produced by Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Chang; Xue-Ming, Zhao; Chang-Xiao, Liu; Tie-Jun, Zhang

    2008-04-01

    The in vitro metabolism of swertiamarin was carried out in preparative scale using the fungus Aspergillus niger and the metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC combined with liquid-liquid extraction. Two metabolites, erythrocentaurin and one new compound were obtained and identified by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and high resolution MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of the novel metabolite was tested and compared with that of swertiamarin in a mice model.

  17. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nurul-Laila; Azhany, Yaakub; Abdul Rahman, Zaidah; Yusof, Roziawati; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole.

  18. Induction of xylanase in Aspergillus tamarii by methyl ?- d -xyloside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Simăo; C. G. M. Souza; R. M. Peralta

    1997-01-01

    Aspergillus tamarii produced extracellular xylanase and intracellular ?-xylosidase inductively in washed glucose-grown mycelia incubated with\\u000a xylan and methyl ?-d-xyloside, a synthetic glycoside. Methyl ?-d-xyloside was a more effective inducer than xylan at the same concentration for both enzymes. Glucose and cycloheximide were\\u000a found to inhibit xylanase production by methyl ?-d-xyloside. Methyl ?-d-xyloside was hydrolyzed to xylose by mycelial extract in

  19. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-lian Wei; Zhi-nan Xu; Pei-lin Cen

    2007-01-01

    Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in solid-state fermentation (SSF) was studied. Various substrates were used to evaluate the ability of A. terreus to produce lovastatin. The results showed that either rice or wheat bran was suitable substrate for lovastatin production\\u000a in SSF. The maximum yield of lovastatin (2.9 mg\\/g dry substrate) using rice as substrate was achieved after

  20. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  1. Fractionation of ?-Glucosidases and Related Extracellular Enzymes from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.-h.; King, K. W.

    1963-01-01

    Industrial concentrates from Aspergillus niger culture filtrates were fractionated by ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography. Several other types of hydrolases were completely removed. Eight partially purified components were obtained. Using specific activity as an estimate of purification, one aryl-?-glucosidase was purified 35-fold. Another component showed 147-fold purification using a viscosimetric assay with carboxymethylcellulose as substrate. The aryl-?-glucosidase was distinctly more thermolabile than the carboxymethylcellulase. PMID:13930396

  2. Cotransformation of Aspergillus nidulans : a tool for replacing fungal genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Wernars; Theo Goosen; Bert M. J. Wennekes; Klaas Swart; Cees A. M. J. J. Hondel; Henk W. J. Broek

    1987-01-01

    When a non-selected DNA sequence was added during the transformation of amdS320 deletion strains of Aspergillus nidulans with a vector containing the wild-type amdS gene the AmdS+ transformants were cotransformed at a high frequency. Cotransformation of an amdS320, trpC801 double mutant strain showed that both the molar ratio of the two vectors and the concentration of the cotransforming vector affected

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of polyketide synthase genes from Aspergillus ochraceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O'Callaghan; A. D. W. Dobson

    2006-01-01

    A number of polyketide synthase gene sequences fromAspergillus ochraceus were isolated by both SSH-PCR and degenerate PCR. The deduced amino acid sequences of the corresponding clonedpks DNA fragments were then aligned with the amino acid sequences of other polyketide synthase enzymes. One of thesepks genes is essential for ochratoxin A biosynthesis (OTA-PKS). The OTA-PKS was most similar to methylsalicylic acid

  4. Genetic aspects of resistance to imazalil in Aspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. van Tuyl

    1977-01-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus nidulans have been isolated which display a low level of resistance to imazalil, a recently\\u000a developed systemic fungicide. Agar growth tests showed that A. nidulans is about three times as sensitive to imazalil when\\u000a growing on supplemented minimal medium (SM) as compared with complete medium. This effect was reduced by adding glutamic acid\\u000a to the SM.

  5. Fed-batch biotransformation of ?-ionone by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Larroche; C. Cruely; J.-B. Gros

    1995-01-01

    Aspergillus niger IFO 8541 was found to be an efficient biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ß-ionone into hydroxy and oxo derivatives. The reaction had to be carried out with an inoculum made of about 4 × 107 fresh spores\\/l and with a preliminary growth period giving at least 3 g\\/l biomass. The fungus developed in the form of pellets when

  6. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo E Fraga; Djalva Maria N Santana; Mario Jorge Gatti; Gloria Maria Direito; Lilia R Cavaglieri; Carlos Alberto R Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergil- lus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis

  7. Aspergillus and other moulds in the air of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. U. Khan; M. A. Y. Khan; Rachel Chandy; P. N. Sharma

    1999-01-01

    A one-year survey was carried out to study the aerial prevalence of Aspergillus species and other moulds in the outdoor and indoor environments of Kuwait. Petri plates containing rose-Bengal medium were\\u000a exposed for 20 minutes twice a month using a six-stage Andersen air sampler at the pre-determined sites. The exposed plates\\u000a were incubated at 28 °C ± 1 °C up

  8. Degradation of homophthalic acid byAspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Karigar, C S; Banji, S H; Pujar, B G

    1993-09-01

    The fungusAspergillus niger degraded homophthalic acid through the involvement ofo-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and homogentisic acid as the metabolic intermediates. Isolation of intermediates was carried out by extracting the spent medium and by using inhibitor in replacement culture techniques. Metabolites were characterized by various physicochemical methods. Oxygen uptake studies and enzyme investigations also confirmed that the degradation of homophthalic acid follows through these intermediates in the fungus. PMID:23835751

  9. Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; van Vliet, Sandra J.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Bozza, Silvia; Moretti, Silvia; Schwarz, Flavio; Trichot, Coline; Aebi, Markus; Delepierre, Muriel; Elbim, Carole; Romani, Luigina; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of ?1-4 linked galactose and ?1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates. PMID:22102815

  10. In vitro activity of disinfectants against Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Mattei, A S; Madrid, I M; Santin, R; Schuch, L F D; Meireles, M C A

    2013-01-01

    Fungi of the Aspergillus genus are widespread and contaminate the environment. Thousands of conidia are released from each phialide and dispersed in the air every day. These fungi are considered important mycose-causing agents in hospitals. Due to this, research to determine prevalent fungi from the Aspergillus genus in hospital environments, and an adequate disinfection program in these areas is are needed. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. isolated from a veterinary environment against four disinfectants. Successive dilutions of disinfectants (log2) were used according to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique adapted to chemical agents against 18 isolates of this genus. After 72 hours of incubation, the Minimum Inhibiting Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration capable of inhibiting 50% and 90% of the isolates were determined. Chlorexidine-cetrimine, benzalconium chloride and a chlorophenol derivative proved to be effective against all isolates with a lower MIC than that suggested by the manufacturer, except for the A. flavus strain. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective against three A. fumigatus, three A. flavus and one A. niger isolate. These results demonstrated that all studied disinfectants were effective against environmental isolates, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite, which showed lower effectiveness. PMID:24294243

  11. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

  12. Fibrosing mediastinitis due to Aspergillus with dominant cardiac involvement: report of two autopsy cases with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Bal, Amanjit; Singhal, Manphool; Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Das, Ashim

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a rare condition characterized by extensive proliferation of fibrous tissue in the mediastinum resulting in mass like lesion. Histoplasma and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the common infective causes of fibrosing mediastinitis, but Aspergillus infection is an extremely rare cause. Fibrosing mediastinitis due to Aspergillus usually occurs following Aspergillus bronchopneumonia. Cardiac involvement due to Aspergillus-related fibrosing mediastinitis is extremely rare in immune-competent individuals and occurs following some intervention or as a part of disseminated systemic fungal infection. Here, we report two cases of Aspergillus FM with dominant cardiac involvement in immune-competent patients. Both cases presented with large mediastinal mass and large vegetation in the left atrium. Autopsy findings showed the granulomatous Aspergillus mediastinitis and extension into the heart with associated fibrosis. One case was proven to be due to Aspergillus flavus by fungal genomic sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Aspergillus FM with pancarditis. PMID:24998315

  13. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  14. SP-100 surety evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-06-01

    This report describes surety evaluations conducted during GFY 1985 in support of the General Electric design for a Space Nuclear Power System - SP-100. Those surety evaluations address both safety and safeguards requirements, which are derived from OSNP-1 and supporting documents. The report includes results of neutronics (criticality) calculations performed by Los Alamos. The results have been benchmarked against independent calculations performed by General Electric with different codes. These comparisons show close agreement, and are summarized. Los Alamos has also provided specifications of explosion and fire environments, which have been used in evaluation of the GE SP-100 concept. Following the summary of key results, surety requirements are given and recommendations toward specification of requirements for later SP-100 project phases are presented. A conceptual design summary is presented. To establish a comprehensive background for surety evaluations, a reference mission profile and potential accidents for each phase of the mission are identified. The main body of the report addresses surety of the General Electric Thermoelectric Conversion design. GE has also developed a Stirling Engine concept, and performed comprehensive surety evaluations for it. These evaluations are reported.

  15. Molecular strategy to discriminate between two ochratoxin A producing Aspergillus niger aggregate species isolated from fresh and dried grapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabeh Melki Ben Fredj; Angélique Gautier; Yves Brygoo; Ahmed Mliki

    2009-01-01

    Abstact  \\u000a Aspergillus genus is an ubiquitous fungal group that colonizes a wide range of substrates. A total of 100 Tunisian fungal strains isolated\\u000a at harvest time from fresh and dried grapes were identified within the sectionNigri and tested for their ochratoxin A (OTA) producing abilities. Of the isolates, 45% were identified asAspergillus tubingensis, 34% asAspergillus niger, 12% asAspergillus japonicus and

  16. Effect of increasing inoculum sizes of Aspergillus hyphae on MICs and MFCs of antifungal agents by broth microdilution method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Lass-Flörl; C Speth; G Kofler; M. P Dierch; E Gunsilius; R Würzner

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of different hyphal inoculum sizes on minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole and itraconazole, five isolates each of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus were studied using a broth microdilution method. Three inoculum sizes were used: 1×103–5×103, 1×104–5×104 and 1×105–5×105 cfu\\/ml. MICs and

  17. An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

    2014-03-01

    An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

  18. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

  19. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on nutrient intake and weight gain of Red Sokoto goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Belewu; A. A. Yahaya

    2008-01-01

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% Aspergillus treated SBC), C (15% untreated SBC), D (7.5% Aspergillus treated SBC) and

  20. Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil s t r a c t Aspergillus flavus, the most important cause of aflatoxin contamination, has two major the strain L isolates. The S strain has been implicated as the primary causal agent of several contamination

  1. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin (ST) on two liquid ...

  2. Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee and wheat-based media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Muńoz; Mario Vega; Gisela Rios; Rolf Geisen; Gisela H. Degen

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most widespread mycotoxins, and is produced by several Aspergillus or Penicillium species. Human exposure to OTA is mainly by intake of contaminated food, with cereal products, followed by coffee and red\\u000a wine as the main sources of OTA. In this study, the OTA production of four ochratoxigenic fungi (two Aspergillus and two Penicillium

  3. Detection and discrimination of four Aspergillus section Nigri species by PCR.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, J D; O'Keeffe, T L

    2015-02-01

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are not easily distinguished by traditional morphological techniques, and typically are identified by DNA sequencing methods. We developed four PCR primers to distinguish between Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus welwitschiae, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus tubingensis, based on species-conserved differences in the calmodulin gene sequence. PCR amplification from total DNA using these primers was species specific; no amplification occurred from nontarget species DNA for each primer pair. Species-specific PCR could distinguish between species in mixed DNA templates, indicating a utility in determining culture uniformity of isolated Aspergillus strains. In addition, with these primer sets, each species could be detected in soil following mixed-species inoculation with Aspergillus spores. This indicates that PCR with these species-specific primers may be useful in determining the distribution of Aspergillus species in environmental samples without the need for species identification from isolated strains, as well as detecting species that may be infrequently isolated by culture-based methods. PMID:25384730

  4. Glucosinolate degradation by Aspergillus clavatus and Fusarium oxysporum in liquid and solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Smits; W. Knol; J. Bol

    1993-01-01

    Two fungal strains, Aspergillus clavatus II-9 and Fusarium oxysporum @ 149, proved to be capable of degrading sinigrin and sinalbin. During the degradation of sinigrin by whole cells of the Aspergillus strain, allylcyanide accumulated in the liquid incubation mixture. After a maximum concentration had been reached, the concentration of allylcyanide decreased as a result of its instability in the medium

  5. Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus Conidial Growth by Lactoferrin-Mediated Iron Depletion1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kol A. Zarember; Janyce A. Sugui; Yun C. Chang; Kyung J. Kwon-Chung; John I. Gallin

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a common mold, rarely infects humans, except during prolonged neutropenia or in cases of chronic gran- ulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the NADPH oxidase that normally produces fungicidal reactive oxygen species. Filamentous hyphae of Aspergillus are killed by normal, but not CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN); however, the few studies on PMN-mediated host defenses

  6. Aspergillus mastoiditis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mona; Bassim, Marc; Shabb, Nina; Kanj, Souha S

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus mastoiditis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. There are a few isolated reports in the literature involving immunocompetent patients. We hereby describe the case of an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis, which was treated successfully, and review the literature pertaining to this condition. The common clinical presentations, putative pathophysiology, and recommended therapy are discussed. PMID:24484416

  7. In silico characterization of alkaline proteases from different species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, Vivek Kumar; Yadav, Sangeeta; Kim, Eun-Ki; Yadav, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    A total of 49 protein sequences of alkaline proteases retrieved from GenBank representing different species of Aspergillus have been characterized for various physiochemical properties, homology search, multiple sequence alignment, motif, and super family search and phylogenetic tree construction. The sequence level homology was obtained among different groups of alkaline protease enzymes, viz alkaline serine protease, oryzin, calpain-like protease, serine protease, subtilisin-like alkaline proteases. Multiple sequence alignment of alkaline protease protein sequence of different Aspergillus species revealed a stretch of conserved region for amino acid residues from 69 to 110 and 130-204. The phylogenetic tree constructed indicated several Aspergillus species-specific clusters for alkaline proteases namely Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus clavatus. The distributions of ten commonly observed motifs were analyzed among these proteases. Motif 1 with a signature amino acid sequence of 50 amino acids, i.e., ASFSNYGKVVDIFAPGQDILSCWIGSTTATNTISGTSMATPHIVGLSCYL, was uniformly observed in proteases protein sequences indicating its involvement with the structure and enzymatic function. Motif analysis of acidic proteases of Aspergillus and bacterial alkaline proteases has revealed different signature amino acid sequences. The superfamily search for these proteases revealed the presence of subtilases, serine-carboxyl proteinase, calpain large subunit, and thermolysin-like superfamilies with 45 representing the subtilases superfamily. PMID:22072140

  8. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  9. Sensitization to Aspergillus Antigens and Occurrence of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Patients With Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikas Maurya; Harish Chander Gugnani; Puranam Usha Sarma; Taruna Madan; Ashok Shah

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which is predominantly a disease of asthmatic subjects, is caused by hypersensitivity to Aspergillus antigens. Screening for Aspergillus sensitization in asthmatic subjects could identify those who are at risk for ABPA. Few studies have shown that fungal sensitization could be an important risk factor for asthma severity. We sought to determine the frequency of sensitization

  10. Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for Aspergillus flavus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Cruz; Mark P. Buttner

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous mold and the most common mold contaminating foodstuffs. Many strains of A. flavus produce aflatoxins. In addition it is an allergen and an opportunistic pathogen of animals and plants. A. flavus often is underestimated in traditional culture analyses due to the expertise required and the cost associated with speciating members of the genus Aspergillus. The

  11. Population genetics as a tool for understanding toxigenesis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which is aflatoxin. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populations...

  12. Secondary Metabolite Profiling, Growth Profiles and Other Tools for Species Recognition and Important Aspergillus Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifyin...

  13. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2. PMID:22168015

  14. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad T. Hedayati; Sabah Mayahi; David W. Denning

    2010-01-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic patients’ houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor\\u000a Aspergillus. Open plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n?=?360) and outdoor (n?=?180) air of 90 asthmatic patients’ houses living in Sari City, Iran.

  15. Cryptic species and azole resistance in the Aspergillus niger complex.

    PubMed

    Howard, Susan J; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bowyer, Paul; Varga, Janos; Denning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Aspergillus niger is a common clinical isolate. Multiple species comprise the Aspergillus section Nigri and are separable using sequence data. The antifungal susceptibility of these cryptic species is not known. We determined the azole MICs of 50 black aspergilli, 45 from clinical specimens, using modified EUCAST (mEUCAST) and Etest methods. Phylogenetic trees were prepared using the internal transcribed spacer, beta-tubulin, and calmodulin sequences to identify strains to species level and the results were compared with those obtained with cyp51A sequences. We attempted to correlate cyp51A mutations with azole resistance. Etest MICs were significantly different from mEUCAST MICs (P < 0.001), with geometric means of 0.77 and 2.79 mg/liter, respectively. Twenty-six of 50 (52%) isolates were itraconazole resistant by mEUCAST (MICs > 8 mg/liter), with limited cross-resistance to other azoles. Using combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences, the 45 clinical isolates grouped into 5 clades, A. awamori (55.6%), A. tubingensis (17.8%), A. niger (13.3%), A. acidus (6.7%), and an unknown group (6.7%), none of which were morphologically distinguishable. Itraconazole resistance was found in 36% of the isolates in the A. awamori group, 90% of the A. tubingensis group, 33% of the A. niger group, 100% of the A. acidus group, and 67% of the unknown group. These data suggest that cyp51A mutations in section Nigri may not play as important a role in azole resistance as in A. fumigatus, although some mutations (G427S, K97T) warrant further study. Numerous cryptic species are found in clinical isolates of the Aspergillus section Nigri and are best reported as "A. niger complex" by clinical laboratories. Itraconazole resistance was common in this data set, but azole cross-resistance was unusual. The mechanism of resistance remains obscure. PMID:21768508

  16. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-09-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  17. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  18. Weed growth inhibitors from Aspergillus fischeri TISTR 3272.

    PubMed

    Phattanawasin, P; Pojchanakom, K; Sotanaphun, U; Piyapolrungroj, N; Zungsontiporn, S

    2007-12-01

    Chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Aspergillus fischeri TISTR 3272 showed good growth inhibitory activity on Mimosa pigra and Echinochloa crus-galli. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active extracts led to the isolation of five known compounds, (+)-terrein (1), (-)-6-hydroxymellein (2), two diketopiperazines (cyclo-(S-Pro-S-Leu) (3) and cyclo-(S-Pro-S-Val) (4)) and butyrolactone I (5). Compounds 2-5 were reported for the first time in this fungus. Their structural determinations were based on analyses of spectroscopic data and their weed growth inhibitory effects were assessed. PMID:18075891

  19. ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

  20. Indoloditerpenes from an algicolous isolate of Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ming-Feng; Ji, Nai-Yun; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Li, Ke; Zhu, Qing-Mei; Xue, Qin-Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Two new indoloditerpene derivatives asporyzin A (1) and asporyzin B (2), one new indoloditerpene asporyzin C (3), and three known related indoloditerpenes JBIR-03 (4), emindole SB (5), and emeniveol (6) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, isolated from the marine red alga Heterosiphonia japonica. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all the isolates were evaluated preliminarily for insecticidal and antimicrobial activities in order to probe into their chemical defensive function. Compound 4 was more active against brine shrimp than the others, and 3 possessed potent activity against Escherichia coli. PMID:20797856

  1. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism and development.

    PubMed

    Amare, Meareg G; Keller, Nancy P

    2014-05-01

    The plant and human opportunistic fungus Aspergillus flavus is recognized for the production of the carcinogen aflatoxin. Although many reviews focus on the wealth of information known about aflatoxin biosynthesis, few articles describe other genes and molecules important for A. flavus development or secondary metabolism. Here we compile the most recent work on A. flavus secondary metabolite clusters, environmental response mechanisms (stress response pathways, quorum sensing and G protein signaling pathways) and the function of the transcriptional regulatory unit known as the Velvet Complex. A comparison to other Aspergilli reveals conservation in several pathways affecting fungal development and metabolism. PMID:24613992

  3. Experimental efficacy of anidulafungin against Aspergillus terreus species complex.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Marta; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Pastor, Francisco J; Guarro, Josep

    2015-08-01

    Whereas echinocandins are alternatives for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, the efficacy of anidulafungin (AFG) against Aspergillus terreus infection has not yet been explored. We have evaluated the in vitro activity, as well as the in vivo efficacy of AFG in neutropenic mice infected by A. terreus species complex. Time-kill studies showed in vitro fungistatic activity of AFG against two strains. AFG at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day significantly reduced the fungal load in kidney of mice, but only the higher dose was able to prolong survival. PMID:25980004

  4. Mellein and 4-Hydroxymellein Production by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jack H.; Davis, Norman D.; Diener, Urban L.

    1972-01-01

    Mellein and 4-hydroxymellein are isocoumarin compounds produced by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm. They are structurally similar to the dihydroisocoumarin moiety of ochratoxin A, a toxic metabolite of the same fungus, and they possibly have similar biological properties. Production of mellein and 4-hydroxymellein on synthetic media and natural solid substrates was determined. Several carbon and nitrogen sources supported production of these metabolites in stationary culture. Additional zinc and molybdenum increased production of both metabolites in stationary culture, but were not required for maximum production in shaken culture. Mellein and 4-hydroxymellein were produced on yellow corn, but neither was produced on wheat, peanuts, or soybeans. PMID:5064985

  5. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    You, Minjung; Liao, Lijuan; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Wanki; Kwon, Dah In; Lee, Jeeyeon; Noh, Minsoo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-01-01

    Terrelumamides A (1) and B (2), two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition. PMID:25775424

  6. Bioremediation of Dyes in Textile Effluents by Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Renato Corso; Ana Carolina Maganha de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized\\u000a mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B\\u000a (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption

  7. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children. PMID:25890398

  8. Environmental Isolates of Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bader, Oliver; Tünnermann, Jana; Dudakova, Anna; Tangwattanachuleeporn, Marut; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe

    2015-07-01

    Azole antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem in several parts of the world. Here we investigated the distribution of such strains in soils from Germany. At a general positivity rate of 12%, most prevalently, we found strains with the TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A alleles, dispersed along a corridor across northern Germany. Comparison of the distributions of resistance alleles and genotypes between environment and clinical samples suggests the presence of local clinical clusters. PMID:25941229

  9. Laser sculpting of atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunmei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-01-12

    Atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals were introduced by Linus Pauling to explain the nature of the chemical bond. Quantum dynamics simulations show that they can be sculpted by means of a selective series of coherent laser pulses, starting from the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atom. Laser hybridization generates atoms with state-selective electric dipoles, opening up new possibilities for the study of chemical reaction dynamics and heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:25257703

  10. NASA SP-4009 APOLLO SPACECRAFT

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NASA SP-4009 THE APOLLO SPACECRAFT VOLUME IV January 21, 1966-July 13, 1974 hy Ivan D. Ertel (revised) Main entry under title: The Apollo spacecraft. (The NASA historical series) (NASA SP-4009. 8, 1962-Sept. 30, 1964. [etc.] Includes bibliographical references. 1. Project Apollo. I. Ertel

  11. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain. PMID:13678040

  12. Testing an innovative device against airborne Aspergillus contamination.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Bernard, Marie-Charlotte; Gros, Valérie; Sarradin, Pierre; Perrodeau, Elodie; Vecellio, Laurent; Piscopo, Antoine; Chandenier, Jacques; Bernard, Louis

    2014-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a major airborne nosocomial pathogen that is responsible for severe mycosis in immunocompromised patients. We studied the efficacy of an innovative mobile air-treatment device in eliminating A. fumigatus from the air following experimental massive contamination in a high-security room. Viable mycological particles were isolated from sequential air samples in order to evaluate the device's effectiveness in removing the fungus. The concentration of airborne conidia was reduced by 95% in 18 min. Contamination was reduced below the detection threshold in 29 min, even when the machine was at the lowest airflow setting. In contrast, during spontaneous settling with no air treatment, conidia remained airborne for more than 1 h. This indoor air contamination model provided consistent and reproducible results. Because the air purifier proved to be effective at eliminating a major contaminant, it may prove useful in preventing air-transmitted disease agents. In an experimental space mimicking a hospital room, the AirLyse air purifier, which uses a combination of germicidal ultraviolet C irradiation and titanium photocatalysis, effectively eliminated Aspergillus conidia. Such a mobile device may be useful in routine practice for lowering microbiological air contamination in the rooms of patients at risk. PMID:24965945

  13. The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

  14. Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections

    PubMed Central

    Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P.; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections. PMID:25774155

  15. Characterization of a novel lipolytic enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takuya; Asai, Shungo; Saito, Natsumi; Mori, Masayo; Sakaguchi, Yasuko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we report the characterization of a protein from Aspergillus oryzae, exhibiting sequence identity with paraben esterase from the genus Aspergillus. The coding region of 1,586 bp, including a 77-bp intron, encoded a protein of 502 amino acids. The gene without the signal peptide of 19 amino acids was cloned into a vector, pPICZ?C, and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. The purified recombinant protein had pH and temperature optima of 7.0-8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, and was stable at the pH range of 7.0-10.0 and up to 40 °C. The optimal substrate for hydrolysis by the purified recombinant protein, among a panel of ?-naphthyl esters (C2-C16), was ?-naphthyl butyrate (C4), with activity of 0.16 units/mg protein. The considerable hydrolytic activity of the purified recombinant enzyme toward tributyrin was determined. However, no paraben esterase activity was detected toward the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, no activity was detected toward the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids that would indicate feruloyl esterase activity. PMID:23001008

  16. SAFETY PROCEDURE SP-24 NATIONAL HIGH MAGNETIC

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    SAFETY PROCEDURE SP-24 NATIONAL HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD LABORATORY NHMFL FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY SAFETY PROCEDURE SP-24 VISITOR AND CONTRACTOR SAFETY DIRECTOR, ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, SAFETY & SECURITY Angela Sutton

  17. Comparative studies on O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase: physiological role and characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans enzyme.

    PubMed

    Brzywczy, J; Yamagata, S; Paszewski, A

    1993-01-01

    O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAH SHLase) from Aspergillus nidulans is an oligomeric protein with a broad substrate specificity with regard to sulfhydryl compounds. As its Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart the enzyme also reacts with O-acetylserine and is inhibited by carbonyl reagents but not by antiserum raised against the yeast enzyme. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae the enzyme is not essential for Aspergillus nidulans as indicated by the completely prototrophic phenotype of OAH SHLase-negative mutants. Its major physiological role in Aspergillus nidulans seems to be recycling of the thiomethyl group of methylthio-adenosine but it is also a constituent of the alternative pathway of cysteine synthesis. PMID:8249501

  18. Interaction of the echinocandin caspofungin with amphotericin B or voriconazole against Aspergillus biofilms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weixia; Li, Lijuan; Sun, Yi; Chen, Wei; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Liu, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillus biofilms were prepared from 22 strains of Aspergillus spp. via a 96-well plate-based method. Using a broth microdilution checkerboard technique with the XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] colorimetric assay, we demonstrated a synergistic antifungal activity against 18 of 22 Aspergillus biofilm strains with a combination of caspofungin and amphotericin B and against 13 of 22 strains with a combination of caspofungin and voriconazole. We did not observe antagonism. PMID:23027186

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2014-10-20

    Abstract We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115?bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships. PMID:25329289

  20. A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Hato, Naohito; Okada, Yoko; Sato, Eriko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2015-12-01

    We report a rare case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) associated with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis. A 63-year-old man with diabetes mellitus underwent mastoidectomy because of chronic discharge from his left ear. The mastoidectomy was unsuccessful in resolving purulent otorrhea; moreover, 7 months later, the patient developed left abducens nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed HCP at the left middle cranial fossa. Although the pathogen could not be identified, an Aspergillus infection was considered based on elevated serum ?-d-glucan and a positive Aspergillus antigen test result. Voriconazole treatment resolved diplopia and left otorrhea and dramatically improved HCP. PMID:26003880

  1. Bioaccumulation potential of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for removal of heavy metals from paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, B; Shivakumar, C K; Krishnappa, M

    2012-11-01

    In the present study Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from paper mill effluent showed tolerance and accumulation of toxic metals Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu from synthetic medium and paper mill effluent. Physico-chemical and heavy metals characterization of industrially treated paper mill effluent showed insignificant reduction in BOD, hardness, TDS and heavy metals as compared to permissible limits of BIS and WHO. A. niger and A. flavus were treated with synthetic medium containing 100-1000 mg l(-1) of six heavy metals. A. niger was able to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, 500 mg l(-1) Cu, 250 mg l(-1) Zn and 100 mg l(-1) Cr, Ni respectively. No growth of A. niger was observed in 100 mg l-(-1) of Cd. A. flavus was capable to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, Zn and Ni, 100mg l(-1) Cu. A. flavus growth was completely inhibited in 100 mg l(-1) of Cd and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb reduction were found significant (p < 0.05) in the paper effluent inoculated with A. niger and A. flavus biomass compared to industrial treated effluent. A. niger and A. flavus accumulated maximum of Pb (75.82%) followed by Zn (49.40%) > Cu (45.34%) > Ni (25.20%), while only 41% Cr was accumulated by A. nigerfrom 100 mg l(-1) of Cr solution. PMID:23741802

  2. In vitro evaluation of double and triple combinations of antifungal drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Dannaoui, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Dromer, Françoise

    2004-03-01

    Microdilution broth checkerboard techniques based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methodology were used to study double and triple antifungal combinations against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. terreus. The influences of the end-point definition (partial or complete inhibition) and the mode of reading (visually or spectrophotometrically) were determined. Interactions between antifungal drugs were also evaluated by agar diffusion tests. Combinations of caspofungin with either amphotericin B or voriconazole were additive for all the isolates, and antagonism was not observed. The interaction between caspofungin and flucytosine was synergistic for 62% of the isolates. In contrast, the interaction between voriconazole and flucytosine was never synergistic and antagonism was noted for 93% of the isolates. The triple combination of caspofungin with flucytosine and amphotericin B was synergistic for all the isolates tested. The triple combination of caspofungin with flucytosine and voriconazole was also mostly synergistic; but complex interactions were obtained for some isolates, with synergy or antagonism depending on the concentrations of caspofungin and voriconazole. Analysis of the influence of the reading technique on the results showed that spectrophotometric reading was a good alternative to the recommended visual reading. The results of these in vitro tests suggest that the activity of flucytosine as part of a double combination with caspofungin and as part of a triple combination with caspofungin and amphotericin B against Aspergillus spp. warrants further investigations. Animal studies are needed to evaluate the in vivo efficacies of these combinations. PMID:14982791

  3. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    PubMed Central

    Cubaiu, Loredana; Abbas, Hamid; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Budroni, Marilena; Migheli, Quirico

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182), which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase) transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and ?-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli. PMID:23223175

  4. SP-100 space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

  5. MPI Programming Environment for IBM SP1\\/SP2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubertus Franke; Ching-farn Eric Wu; Michel Riviere; Pratap Pattnaik; Marc Snir

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an implementation of the MessagePassing Interface standard (MPI) for the IBMScalable Power PARALLEL 1 and 2 (SP1, SP2). Keyto a reliable and efficient implementation of a messagepassing library on these machines is the careful designof a UNIX-Socket like layer in the user space with controlledaccess to the communication adapters and withadequate recovery and flow control.

  6. Biodegradation of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) by Mixed Culture of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Aspergillus niger in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Atefeh; Pourbabaee, Ahmad Ali; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Shabani, Farzin; Esmaeili, Ensieh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two strains of Aspergillus sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. with remarkable abilities to degrade low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were isolated from landfill soils in Tehran using enrichment culture and screening procedures. The biodegradation process was performed for 126 days in soil using UV- and non-UV-irradiated pure LDPE films without pro-oxidant additives in the presence and absence of mixed cultures of selected microorganisms. The process was monitored by measuring the microbial population, the biomass carbon, pH and respiration in the soil, and the mechanical properties of the films. The carbon dioxide measurements in the soil showed that the biodegradation in the un-inoculated treatments were slow and were about 7.6% and 8.6% of the mineralisation measured for the non-UV-irradiated and UV-irradiated LDPE, respectively, after 126 days. In contrast, in the presence of the selected microorganisms, biodegradation was much more efficient and the percentages of biodegradation were 29.5% and 15.8% for the UV-irradiated and non-UV-irradiated films, respectively. The percentage decrease in the carbonyl index was higher for the UV-irradiated LDPE when the biodegradation was performed in soil inoculated with the selected microorganisms. The percentage elongation of the films decreased during the biodegradation process. The Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine structural, morphological and surface changes on polyethylene. These analyses showed that the selected microorganisms could modify and colonise both types of polyethylene. This study also confirmed the ability of these isolates to utilise virgin polyethylene without pro-oxidant additives and oxidation pretreatment, as the carbon source. PMID:24086254

  7. Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 ?g/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed. PMID:22409377

  8. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions ("cryptic" gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

  9. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

  10. Fermentative Production and Thermostability Characterization of ? Amylase from Aspergillus Species and Its Application Potential Evaluation in Desizing of Cotton Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Chimata, Murali Krishna; Chetty, Chellu S.; Suresh, Challa

    2011-01-01

    The production of extracellular amylase was investigated employing our laboratory isolate, Aspergillus niger sp. MK 07 and effect of process variables on enzyme production, was studied in a fermentor. It was found that amylase production was maximum when the fermentor volume was maintained at 70%, rate of agitation at 250?rpm, air supply at 2.5?vvm, inoculum concentration of 10%, and a pH of 5.0. Highest enzyme production obtained under all optimized conditions was 1734?U/mL with sucrose as carbon substrate and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source. Enzyme purification studies by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 chromatography was evaluated for obtaining purified enzyme. Thermostability of amylase were evaluated with varying concentrations from 0.2 to 0.5?M concentrations of calcium chloride and the highest activity obtained was 3115?U/mL with 0.3?M calcium chloride at 55°C. Effect of temperature and pH on the activity of purified enzyme was evaluated and the purified enzyme showed an activity till 75°C and a pH of 6.5. Application potential of partially purified alpha amylase on desizing of cotton cloth was evaluated with varying enzyme concentrations from 50 to 500?U/mL and the highest desizing activity was found to be at 300?U/mL. PMID:21977326

  11. Fermentative Production and Thermostability Characterization of ? Amylase from Aspergillus Species and Its Application Potential Evaluation in Desizing of Cotton Cloth.

    PubMed

    Chimata, Murali Krishna; Chetty, Chellu S; Suresh, Challa

    2011-01-01

    The production of extracellular amylase was investigated employing our laboratory isolate, Aspergillus niger sp. MK 07 and effect of process variables on enzyme production, was studied in a fermentor. It was found that amylase production was maximum when the fermentor volume was maintained at 70%, rate of agitation at 250?rpm, air supply at 2.5?vvm, inoculum concentration of 10%, and a pH of 5.0. Highest enzyme production obtained under all optimized conditions was 1734?U/mL with sucrose as carbon substrate and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source. Enzyme purification studies by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 chromatography was evaluated for obtaining purified enzyme. Thermostability of amylase were evaluated with varying concentrations from 0.2 to 0.5?M concentrations of calcium chloride and the highest activity obtained was 3115?U/mL with 0.3?M calcium chloride at 55°C. Effect of temperature and pH on the activity of purified enzyme was evaluated and the purified enzyme showed an activity till 75°C and a pH of 6.5. Application potential of partially purified alpha amylase on desizing of cotton cloth was evaluated with varying enzyme concentrations from 50 to 500?U/mL and the highest desizing activity was found to be at 300?U/mL. PMID:21977326

  12. Recombination, balancing selection and geographic subdivision among worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a global agent of aflatoxin contamination of economically important crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. Extensive studies have elucidated the biochemical and regulatory mechanisms of aflatoxin production, but basic knowledge of the evolutionary processes that maintain ...

  13. Twenty-four microsatellite markers for the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infects both plants and humans and contaminates diverse agricultural crops with aflatoxins, highly carcinogenic fungal metabolites. We describe 24 microsatellite markers developed to assess genetic diversity and recombination within and between three vegetative compatibility group...

  14. The roles of N-myristoylation in cell morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Soo Chan

    2009-05-15

    Nmyristoylation is one process important to hyphal growth for which the direct mechanism for this connection is not understood. N-myristoylation is mediated by Nmyristoyltransferase (NMT), which links 14-carbon myristate to target proteins. In Aspergillus nidulans...

  15. Unraveling Reciprocal Lipid-Mediated Communication between Maize Seed and Aspergillus flavus 

    E-print Network

    Borrego, Eli James

    2014-07-31

    from maize and Aspergillus flavus within the context of the oxylipin-mediated cross-kingdom crosstalk. Maize wild-type and near-isogenic mutants for several lipoxygenase (LOX) and 12-oxophytodienoate reductases (OPR) related to jasmonic acid...

  16. The roles of N-myristoylation in cell morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans

    E-print Network

    Lee, Soo Chan

    2009-05-15

    Nmyristoylation is one process important to hyphal growth for which the direct mechanism for this connection is not understood. N-myristoylation is mediated by Nmyristoyltransferase (NMT), which links 14-carbon myristate to target proteins. In Aspergillus nidulans...

  17. Assessing conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa

    E-print Network

    Chung, Da Woon

    2012-07-16

    in the ancestral species, and became specialized in the extant species to lead to morphological and functional diversity. To address this hypothesis we assessed the conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus...

  18. Genes Differentially Expressed by Aspergillus flavus Strains After Loss of Aflatoxin Production by Serial Transfers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species. To better understand the molecular events that are associated with aflatoxin production, three separate nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains were produced through serial transfer...

  19. Gene Profiling for Studying the Mechanism of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by certain fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Because many internal and external factors, such as nutrition and environment affect aflatoxin biosynthesis, we have analyzed the transcriptome of A. fla...

  20. ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS AND MICROARRAY AS TOOLS IN UNDERSTANDING AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic naturally occurring mycotoxins. They are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control aflatoxin production, identification of genes using A. flavus expressed sequence ...

  1. Dual genome microarray: Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus gene expression in co-culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, and fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, are prominent among the mycotoxins associated with economic losses to the maize grain industry worldwide. F. verticillioides is also recognized as a systemic endophyte of maize that prevents opportunisti...

  2. Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

  3. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and section Jani sect. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species that are distributed world-wide in soil and rhizosphere, indoor and cave environments, plant endophytes, food contaminants, and occasionally causing human infections. They are producers of many bioactive and extensively studied secondary metabolites an...

  4. Nonomuraea rosea sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Tindall, Brian J; Nimtz, Manfred; Grün-Wollny, Iris

    2010-05-01

    A Gram-positively staining, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete, strain GW 12687(T), that formed rose-pigmented colonies and branched substrate and aerial mycelia was studied in detail for its taxonomic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain GW 12687(T) was grouped into the genus Nonomuraea, being most closely related to Nonomuraea dietziae (97.6 %), Nonomuraea africana (97.1 %), and Nonomuraea kuesteri (97.1 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other species of the genus Nonomuraea was < or =97 %. The chemotaxonomic characterization supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) with minor amounts of MK-9(H(2)), MK-9(H(6)), MK-9(H(0)) and MK-8(H(4)). The polar lipid profile contained the major compound diphosphatidylglycerol, moderate amounts of phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, and an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid. Phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylinositol were also present. The major fatty acids were iso- and anteiso- and 10-methyl-branched fatty acids. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW 12687(T) from closely related species. Thus, GW 12687(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea rosea sp. nov. is proposed, with GW 12687(T) (=DSM 45177(T) =CCUG 56107(T)) as the type strain. PMID:19666797

  5. Nonomuraea kuesteri sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Grün-Wollny, Iris

    2005-03-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete, strain GW 14-1925(T), that formed branched substrate and aerial mycelium was studied using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain GW 14-1925(T) was shown to belong to the genus Nonomuraea, being most closely related to Nonomuraea longicatena (97.9 %), Nonomuraea turkmeniaca (98.9 %), Nonomuraea helvata (98.6 %), Nonomuraea polychroma (98.5 %), Nonomuraea salmonaea (98.3 %), Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. roseoviolacea (98.1 %) and Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminata (97.7 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other Nonomuraea species was <97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinones of the MK-9 series with minor amounts of MK-8(H(4)); major polar lipids of phospholipid type IV; fatty acids with major amounts of iso- and anteiso- and 10-methyl-branched fatty acids in combination with iso-branched 2-hydroxy fatty acids] supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW 14-1925(T) from closely related species; thus, GW 14-1925(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea kuesteri sp. nov. is proposed, with GW 14-1925(T) (=DSM 44753(T)=NRRL B-24325(T)) as the type strain. PMID:15774673

  6. Nonomuraea dietzii sp. nov..

    PubMed

    Stackebrandt, E; Wink, J; Steiner, U; Kroppenstedt, R M

    2001-07-01

    The taxon 'Sebekia benihana', an actinomycete of industrial significance, has been subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. 16S rDNA sequence analyses of strain DSM 44320 (= NRRL 11111) revealed 100% similarity to the 16S rDNA sequence of Nonomuraea roseola DSM 43767T and high values (>98.5%) to some other species of this genus. DNA-DNA similarity values of less than 31% observed between strain DSM 44320 and N. roseola DSM 43767T, Nonomuraea recticatena DSM 43937T and Nonomuraea africana DSM 43748T indicate that this strain represents an individual genospecies. Differences between strain DSM 44320T and the 16 validly described Nonomuraea species occur in the primary structure of the 16S rDNA, the physiological test profile, the morphology of mycelium and the spore surface and the colour of substrate mycelium. The only strain of 'S. benihana', DSM 44320T (= NRRL 11111T), is proposed as the type strain of a new species of the genus Nonomuraea, Nonomuraea dietzii sp. nov.. PMID:11491343

  7. SP-100 Advanced Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

  8. SP-100 advanced technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Sovie, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

  9. The chsDand chsEGenes of Aspergillus nidulansand Their Roles in Chitin Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Specht; Yilun Liu; Phillips W. Robbins; Christine E. Bulawa; Natalia Iartchouk; Kenneth R. Winter; Perry J. Riggle; Judith C. Rhodes; Carol L. Dodge; David W. Culp; Peter T. Borgia

    1996-01-01

    Specht, C. A., Liu, Y., Robbins, P. W., Bulawa, C. E., Iartchouk, N., Winter, K. R., Riggle, P. J., Rhodes, J. C., Dodge, C. L., Culp, D. W., and Borgia, P. T. 1996. ThechsDandchsEgenes ofAspergillus nidulansand their roles in chitin synthesis.Fungal Genetics and Biology20,153–167. Two chitin synthase genes,chsDandchsE,were identified from the filamentous ascomyceteAspergillus nidulans.In a region that is conserved among

  10. The chsBGene of Aspergillus nidulansIs Necessary for Normal Hyphal Growth and Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Borgia; Natalia Iartchouk; Perry J. Riggle; Kenneth R. Winter; Yigal Koltin; Christine E. Bulawa

    1996-01-01

    Borgia, P. T., Iartchouk, N., Riggle, P. J., Winter, K. R., Koltin, Y., and Bulawa, C. E. 1996. ThechsBgene ofAspergillus nidulansis necessary for normal hyphal growth and development.Fungal Genetics and Biology20,193–203. ThechsBgene fromAspergillus nidulansencodes a class III chitin synthase, an enzyme class found in filamentous fungi but not in yeast-like organisms. Using a novel method, we isolated haploid segregants carrying

  11. Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus pacC gene 

    E-print Network

    Pinero, David

    1999-01-01

    ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE Aspergillus parasiticus pacC GENE A Thesis by DAVID PINERO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1999 Major Subject: Plant Pathology ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE Aspergillus parasiticus pacC GENE A Thesis by DAVID PINERO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  12. Pathogenicity of a soil-derived Aspergillus fumigatus isolate for normal and immunosuppressed guinea pigs

    E-print Network

    Kenyon, Elaina Marie

    1983-01-01

    PATHOGENICITY OF A SOIL-DERIVED ASPERGILLUS FUIUIIGATUS ISOLATE FOR NORMAL ANU IMMUNOSUPPRESSED GUINEA PIGS A Thesis by ELAINA MARIE KENYON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM Uni ve rs i ty in partial fulfi liuent... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December Ig83 Major Subject: Epidemiology PATHOGENICITY OF A SOIL-DERIVED ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS ISOLATE FOR NORMAL AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSED GUINEA PIGS A Thesis by ELAINA MARIE KENYON Approved as to style...

  13. Characterization of genes in the sterigmatocystin gene cluster and their role in fitness of Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Sim, Sung Chur

    2001-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF GENES IN THE STERIGMATOCYSTIN GENE CLUSTER AND THEIR ROLE IN FITNESS OF Aspergillus nidulans A Thesis by SUNG CHUR SIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2001 Major Subject: Plant Pathology CHARACTERIZATION OF GENES IN THE STERIGMATOCYSTIN GENE CLUSTER AND THEIR ROLE IN FITNESS OF Aspergillus nidulans A Thesis by SUNG CHUR SIM Submitted to Texas A...

  14. [Contribution of molecular biology and Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Pineau, S; Talarmin, J-P; Morio, F; Grossi, O; Boutoille, D; Léauté, F; Le Pape, P; Gay-Andrieu, F; Miegeville, M; Raffi, F

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of a pulmonary histoplasmosis in an HIV-positive patient usually living in Cambodia, with a positive Aspergillus galactomannan antigenemia resulting from a cross-reaction, that decreased after antifungal therapy. We discuss the potential interest of the detection of fungal DNA by PCR and Aspergillus galactomannan antigenemia for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, especially in countries where Histoplasma capsulatum antigen testing is not available. PMID:19945807

  15. Aspergillus mastoiditis, presenting with unexplained progressive otalgia, in an immunocompetent (older) patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aukje van Tol; Jeroen van Rijswijk

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus mastoidits and skull-base osteomyelitis are extremely rare, even in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of an 81-year-old\\u000a immunocompetent man, who underwent a mastoidectomy because of unexplained, progressive otalgia in spite of a noninflamed and\\u000a air-containing middle-ear space. Histopathology yielded Aspergillus fumigatus. When confronted with otitis with an unexpected clinical course a high index of suspicion is required to

  16. Structural assessment of peanut cultivars for pod resistance to Aspergillus flavus 

    E-print Network

    Henson, Russelyn Dee

    1991-01-01

    STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF PEANUT CULTIVARS FOR POD RESISTANCE TO ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS A Thesis by RUSSELYN DEE HENSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Committee) Olin . Smith (Member) Ruth A. Taber (Member) . c )i~i ~) (, g. le j'(ZP'( I John S. Calahan (Member) eal Van Alfen (Department Head) May 1991 ABSTRACT Structural Assessment of Peanut Cultivars for Pod Resistance to Aspergillus flavus...

  17. Aspergillus niger absorbs copper and zinc from swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Price, M S; Classen, J J; Payne, G A

    2001-03-01

    Wastewater from swine confined-housing operations contains elevated levels of copper and zinc due to their abundance in feed. These metals may accumulate to phytotoxic levels in some agricultural soils of North Carolina due to land application of treated swine effluent. We evaluated fungi for their ability to remove these metals from wastewater and found Aspergillus niger best suited for this purpose. A. niger was able to grow on plates amended with copper at a level five times that inhibitory to the growth of Saccharomyes cerevisiae. We also found evidence for internal absorption as the mechanism used by A. niger to detoxify its environment of copper, a property of the fungus that has not been previously exploited for metal bioremediation. In this report, we show that A. niger is capable of removing 91% of the copper and 70% of the zinc from treated swine effluent. PMID:11211074

  18. Sequence determination of a satellite RNA isolated from Aspergillus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Shah, Unnati A; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV) has at least two distinct particle types, designated as AfV-fast (F) and AfV-slow (S). AfV-S includes AfV-S1, a victorivirus; AfV-S2, an unclassified satellite RNA; and AfV-S3, a previously uncharacterized dsRNA element. Here, we describe the complete sequence of AfV-S3, which is a short non-coding RNA with no known homologs. AfV-S3 is predicted to form an extended secondary structure, shares a 5' terminus with AfV-S2, and is a satellite RNA possibly dependent on both AfV-S1 and AfV-S2. This work concludes the sequencing of the A. foetidus virome. PMID:25613164

  19. Primary Aspergillus sellar abscess simulating pituitary tumor in immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Taohui; Zhang, Na; Wang, Long; Jiao, Jiantong; Zhao, Yiqing; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with headache, dizziness, and decreased visual acuity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass with sphenoid sinus extension. The result of hormone showed an obviously high prolactin (815 ng/mL). The mass was resected and diagnosed with aspergillosis pathologically. Postoperatively, the level of prolactin dramatically decreased, and the patient received medical treatment with voriconazole and caspofungin. During a 6-month follow-up, the patient's headache and dizziness disappeared, and visual acuity improved. Therefore, aspergillus sellar abscess could result in hyperprolactinemia and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a sellar mass, even in immunocompetent patients. A combination of surgery and antifungal therapy could reduce the hyperprolactinemia and improve symptoms. PMID:25675014

  20. Secondary metabolites from an algicolous Aspergillus versicolor strain.

    PubMed

    Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC?? value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

  1. Development of DNA probes for fingerprinting Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Girardin, H; Latgé, J P; Srikantha, T; Morrow, B; Soll, D R

    1993-01-01

    Several different DNA fragments containing nonribosomal repetitive sequences have been isolated from the genome of Aspergillus fumigatus and tested as potential DNA fingerprinting probes. Eight of these clones generate 19 or more bands when hybridized to EcoRI-digested DNA of a reference strain in Southern blots, and they fall into four families. Individual clones from two families were tested and were found to generate complex Southern blot hybridization patterns which are stable within a single strain over many generations, which vary among unrelated strains, and which are amenable to computer-assisted analyses involving large numbers of strains in epidemiological studies. Clones from three of the families clustered a majority of test strains in a similar fashion in individual dendrograms based on similarity coefficients computed from band positions in Southern blot hybridization patterns. These clones therefore fulfill the major requisites for effective DNA fingerprinting probes. Images PMID:8100242

  2. A short-term toxicity study of Aspergillus carbonarius carotenoid.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anbarasu; Srikanta, Akshatha Hosahalli; Peddha, Muthukumar Serva; Sukumaran, Umesh-Kumar; Govindaswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-03-01

    In a pharmacokinetic study, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of blood samples of Wistar female rats fed with partially saturated canthaxanthin (PSC) of Aspergillus carbonarius showed the presence of the carotenoid in the plasma within 6 hours of feeding. In another study for safety assessment of PSC fed to rats over a period of 28 days at 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.25%, the rats showed no changes in food intake. There were no significant differences observed in body weight, hematological parameters, or serum clinical enzymes compared to the control group not fed with PSC. Deposition of PSC in the eyes of the rats was also not observed. The results showed that PSC-fed rats were not adversely affected as far as toxicological studies were concerned. PMID:22366116

  3. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  4. Drimane sesquiterpenoids from the Aspergillus oryzae QXPC-4.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Chen, Chao-Jun; Hu, Sha-Sha; Ge, Hui-Ming; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Three new drimane sesquiterpenoids, astellolides C-E (1-3, resp.), four new drimane sesquiterpenoid p-hydroxybenzoates, astellolides F-I (4-7, resp.), together with two known compounds astellolides A and B (8 and 9, resp.), have been isolated from the liquid culture of Aspergillus oryzae (strain No.?QXPC-4). Their structures were established by comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The relative and absolute configurations were determined on the basis of NOESY and CD data, together with single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses of compounds 1-3. The metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities, however, no compounds showed a significant cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines at a concentration of 20??M. PMID:25766910

  5. Characterization of four new antifungal yanuthones from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lene M; Holm, Dorte K; Knudsen, Peter B; Nielsen, Kristian F; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Mortensen, Uffe H; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-03-01

    Four new yanuthone analogs (1-4) were isolated from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of UHPLC-DAD-HRMS data and one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Labeling studies with (13)C8-6-methylsalicylic acid identified three class I yanuthones originating from the polyketide 6-methylsalicylic acid (yanuthone K, L and M (1-3)) and a class II yanuthone, which was named yanuthone X2 (4). The four new compounds were tested toward the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans and all displayed antifungal activity. Yanuthone X2 represents the first example of a bioactive class II yanuthone, demonstrating the pharmaceutical potential of this class. PMID:25293978

  6. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Haliclona sp. from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, M; Alidoust Salimi, M; Alidoust Salimi, P; Motallebi, A; Tamadoni Jahromi, S; Ahmadzadeh, O

    2014-09-01

    In this study, antifungal and antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Haliclona sp. were assessed (in vitro). The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spizizenii. The antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by using a broth microdilution test against clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our results showed diethyl ether extract of Haliclona sp. was active on Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, methanol extract in comparison with diethyl ether extract had better activity against C. albicans (MIC: 0.75 mg/mL, MFC: 1.5mg/mL) and A. fumigatus (MIC: 2mg/mL, MFC: 3mg/mL). Aqueous extract had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities. Based our results, Haliclona sp. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic and antifungal. PMID:24934592

  7. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  8. Aspergillus nidulans galactofuranose biosynthesis affects antifungal drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Kausar; El-Ganiny, Amira M; Afroz, Sharmin; Sanders, David A R; Liu, Juxin; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2012-12-01

    The cell wall is essential for fungal survival in natural environments. Many fungal wall carbohydrates are absent from humans, so they are a promising source of antifungal drug targets. Galactofuranose (Galf) is a sugar that decorates certain carbohydrates and lipids. It comprises about 5% of the Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall, and may play a role in systemic aspergillosis. We are studying Aspergillus wall formation in the tractable model system, A. nidulans. Previously we showed single-gene deletions of three sequential A. nidulans Galf biosynthesis proteins each caused similar hyphal morphogenesis defects and 500-fold reduced colony growth and sporulation. Here, we generated ugeA, ugmA and ugtA strains controlled by the alcA(p) or niiA(p) regulatable promoters. For repression and expression, alcA(p)-regulated strains were grown on complete medium with glucose or threonine, whereas niiA(p)-regulated strains were grown on minimal medium with ammonium or nitrate. Expression was assessed by qPCR and colony phenotype. The alcA(p) and niiA(p) strains produced similar effects: colonies resembling wild type for gene expression, and resembling deletion strains for gene repression. Galf immunolocalization using the L10 monoclonal antibody showed that ugmA deletion and repression phenotypes correlated with loss of hyphal wall Galf. None of the gene manipulations affected itraconazole sensitivity, as expected. Deletion of any of ugmA, ugeA, ugtA, their repression by alcA(p) or niiA(p), OR, ugmA overexpression by alcA(p), increased sensitivity to Caspofungin. Strains with alcA(p)-mediated overexpression of ugeA and ugtA had lower caspofungin sensitivity. Galf appears to play an important role in A. nidulans growth and vigor. PMID:23078837

  9. Genomic islands in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Natalie D; Khaldi, Nora; Joardar, Vinita S; Maiti, Rama; Amedeo, Paolo; Anderson, Michael J; Crabtree, Jonathan; Silva, Joana C; Badger, Jonathan H; Albarraq, Ahmed; Angiuoli, Sam; Bussey, Howard; Bowyer, Paul; Cotty, Peter J; Dyer, Paul S; Egan, Amy; Galens, Kevin; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Haas, Brian J; Inman, Jason M; Kent, Richard; Lemieux, Sebastien; Malavazi, Iran; Orvis, Joshua; Roemer, Terry; Ronning, Catherine M; Sundaram, Jaideep P; Sutton, Granger; Turner, Geoff; Venter, J Craig; White, Owen R; Whitty, Brett R; Youngman, Phil; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Goldman, Gustavo H; Wortman, Jennifer R; Jiang, Bo; Denning, David W; Nierman, William C

    2008-04-01

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het) genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL). The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated "gene dumps" and, perhaps, simultaneously, as "gene factories". PMID:18404212

  10. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

  11. Antimycotic activity of 5'-prenylisoflavanones of the plant Geoffroea decorticans, against Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Emma N; Sampietro, Diego A; Sgariglia, Melina A; Soberón, José R; Vattuone, Marta A

    2009-06-01

    The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), (3R)-5,7,2',3'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-prenylisoflavanone (1) and (3R)-7-2'-3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-prenylisoflavanone (2) isolated from Geoffroea decorticans was evaluated against four different species of Aspergillus. Their effect was compared with that displayed by synthetic products. The antifungal activity was assayed by bioautography, hyphal radial growth, hyphal extent and microdilution in liquid medium. The percentage of hyphal radial growth inhibition produced by EE varied between 18.4+/-0.1 and 39.6+/-0.2 for Aspergillus nomius VSC23 and Aspergillus nomius 13137, respectively; and the same value for 1 and 2 were between 31.2+/-0.1-60.8+/-1.5 and 28.9+/-0.7-57.2+/-0.6 for Aspergillus flavus (IEV 018) and Aspergillus nomius 13137, respectively. The values of MIC/MFC determined for EE, 1 and 2 were compared with the actions of ascorbic and sorbic acids, and clotrimazole. The sequence of antifungal potency was clotrimazole>1>2>ascorbic acid>sorbic acid>EE. Consequently, EE as well as the purified substances from Geoffroea decorticans would be used as biopesticides against Aspergillus species. The cytotoxicity was evaluated. PMID:19375811

  12. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri populations in Argentinian vineyards and ochratoxin A contamination.

    PubMed

    Chiotta, María L; Ponsone, María L; Sosa, Débora M; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía N

    2013-12-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri are described as the main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes and wine worldwide. The knowledge of the factors affecting grape contamination by species included in this section and OTA production is essential to be able to reduce their presence, not only to improve wine quality, but also to maintain their safety. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Aspergillus section Nigri species harvested in different grape-growing regions from Argentina, their ability to produce OTA, to correlate with meteorological conditions and geographical coordinates with their prevalence and to evaluate the OTA natural occurrence in grapes and wines. The morphological identification showed that Aspergillus niger aggregate species were the most prevalent ones, followed by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus uniseriate. These populations were confirmed through using AFLP markers and sequencing and, Aspergillus tubingensis was separated from A. niger aggregate. Climatic factors, altitude, longitude and latitude have influenced on the distribution of species included in the section. A. carbonarius and A. niger were OTA producers but differed in their OTA producing ability. Temperature was the factor which influenced the most over the highest incidence of A. carbonarius in La Rioja and San Juan regions. The trellis system in vineyards and drip irrigation also influenced the species isolation. The OTA levels detected in grapes and wines were low, but grape variety was more important in susceptibility to fungal infection and OTA levels. PMID:24010597

  13. Polygalacturonases Produced Under Solid State and Submerged Fermentation Conditions by Two Strains of Aspergillus foetidus (Aspergillus foetidus 'a Ait ?ki Su? Tarafindan Kati Kültür ve Batik Kültür Fermentasyon Ko?ullarinda Üretilen Poligalakturonazlar) Research Article (Ara?tirma Makalesi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Stratilová

    Objectives: Polygalacturonases produced by two strains of Aspergillus foetidus (EGEK145, EGEK635) under solid state and submerged conditions were investigated for some of their biochemical characteristics.

  14. Coinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis and Aspergillus found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a patient with stubborn pulmonary symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Sun, Yi; Man, Yanru; Huang, Xiaochun; Qin, Qin; Zhou, Daoyin

    2015-01-01

    We report a case involving coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) and Aspergillus found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of an elderly male patient who had a medical history of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and who was treated with prednisone therapy 6 months previously. The patient presented with stubborn pulmonary symptoms and signs because of Aspergillus invasion and mechanical destruction caused by larval migration. We found S. stercoralis and Aspergillus in his BALF that provided diagnostic proof. PMID:25922748

  15. Alkaline Serine Proteinase: A Major Allergen of Aspergillus oryzae and Its Cross-Reactivity with Penicillium citrinum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horng-Der Shen; Win-Ling Lin; Ming F. Tam; Soo-Ray Wang; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Hong Chou; Shou-Hwa Han

    1998-01-01

    Background:Aspergillus species are common indoor airborne fungi and have been considered as causative agents of human allergic disorders. However, allergens of different Aspergillus species have not been effectively characterized. The object of this study was to identify and characterize IgE-binding components of Aspergillus oryzae. Methods. Allergens of A. oryzae were identified by immunoblot analysis using sera from asthmatic patients. The

  16. Physicochemical and clinico-immunologic studies on the allergenic significance of Aspergillus tamarii, a common airborne fungus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maansi Vermani; Vannan K. Vijayan; Balakrishnan Menon; Mohd A. Kausar; Mahendra K. Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus-derived inhalant allergens play an important role in the etiology of allergic respiratory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the allergenic potential of Aspergillus tamarii, quantified its airborne content, identified its major\\/minor allergens, evaluated heterogeneity of patients’ IgE response to its allergens and cross-reactivity of its allergens with other Aspergillus allergens. Skin prick tests with A tamarii extract were

  17. Amplification and diversity analysis of ketosynthase domains of putative polyketide synthase genes in Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius producers of ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Atoui, Ali; Dao, Huy Phong; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2006-05-01

    The diversity of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 and Aspergillus carbonarius 2Mu134 has been investigated using different primer pairs previously developed for the ketosynthase (KS) domain of fungal PKSs. Nine different KS domain sequences in A. ochraceus NRRL 3174 as well as five different KS domain sequences in A. carbonarius 2Mu134 have been identified. The identified KS fragments were distributed in five different clusters on the phylogenetic tree, indicating that they most probably represent PKSs responsible for different functions. PMID:16715542

  18. Streptomyces-Aspergillus flavus interactions: impact on aflatoxin B accumulation.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Zhu, Y; Mathieu, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Streptomyces sp. as biocontrol agents against aflatoxins in maize. As such, we assumed that Streptomyces sp. could provide a complementary approach to current biocontrol systems such as Afla-guard(®) and we focused on biocontrol that was able to have an antagonistic contact with A. flavus. A previous study showed that 27 (out of 38) Streptomyces sp. had mutual antagonism in contact with A. flavus. Among these, 16 Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin content to below 17% of the residual concentration. We selected six strains to understand the mechanisms involved in the prevention of aflatoxin accumulation. Thus, in interaction with A. flavus, we monitored by RT-qPCR the gene expression of aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS. All the Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin concentration (24.0-0.2% residual aflatoxin B1). They all impacted on gene expression, but only S35 and S38 were able to repress expression significantly. Indeed, S35 significantly repressed aflM expression and S38 significantly repressed aflR, aflM and aflP. S6 reduced aflatoxin concentrations (2.3% residual aflatoxin B1) and repressed aflS, aflM and enhanced aflR expression. In addition, the S6 strain (previously identified as the most reducing pure aflatoxin B1) was further tested to determine a potential adsorption mechanism. We did not observe any adsorption phenomenon. In conclusion, this study showed that Streptomyces sp. prevent the production of (aflatoxin gene expression) and decontamination of (aflatoxin B1 reduction) aflatoxins in vitro. PMID:25632796

  19. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Deepa; Pal, Anirban; Chanotiya, C S; Mishra, Dhirendra; Pandey, K N

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oils extracted from three commercially important aromatic plants were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal activity. Fifteen compounds, which accounted for 97.8% of Acorus calamus root oil composition have been identified. Besides the major constituent (Z)-asarone (81.1-92.4%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.8-2.1%), (Z)-isoelemicin (1.2-1.3%), (E)-asarone (1.0-2.6%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (0.2-0.4%), (Z)-?-ocimene (0.2-0.4%), elemicin (0.2-0.3%), linalool (0.1-0.9%) and kessane (t-0.2%) were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the main fraction of Origanum vulgare essential oil attaining 90.5% of the total oil composition. p-Cymene (10.3%) was the major component of the monoterpene hydrocarbon fraction while thymol (53.2%) and carvacrol (3.9%) were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes among the 33 identified constituents. Cinnamomum tamala leaf oil contained (E)-cinnamaldehyde as the principal component. Quantitative variations in (Z)-cinnamaldehyde (5.8-7.1%), linalool (6.4-8.5%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (4.7-5.2%) were significant. The antifungal activity of the hydro-distilled essential oils of A. calamus, O. vulgare and C. tamala were evaluated against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Disc diffusion method was used for the determination of the inhibitory effect. O. vulgare essential oil exhibited the highest activity. Moreover, all three essential oils inhibit the growth of A. flavus and A. niger. PMID:21707253

  20. Natural control of corn postharvest fungi Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. using essential oils from plants grown in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camiletti, Boris X; Asensio, Claudia M; Pecci, María de la Paz Giménez; Lucini, Enrique I

    2014-12-01

    The objective in this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from native and commercial aromatic plants grown in Argentina against corn postharvest fungi and to link the essential oil bioactivity with lipid oxidation and morphological changes in fungus cell membrane. Essential oil (EO) of oregano variety Mendocino (OMen), Cordobes (OCor), and Compacto (OCom), mint variety Inglesa (Mi), and Pehaujo (Mp), Suico (Sui); rosemary (Ro), and Aguaribay (Ag) were tested in vitro against 4 corn fungi: A. flavus (CCC116-83 and BXC01), P. oxalicum (083296), and P. minioluteum (BXC03). The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. The chemical profiles of the EOs were analyzed by GC-MS. Lipid oxidation in cell membrane of fungi was determined by hydroperoxides and related with essential oil antifungal activity. The major compounds were Thymol in OCor (18.66%), Omen (12.18%), and OCom (9.44%); menthol in Mi and Mp; verbenone in Sui; dehydroxy-isocalamendiol in Ag; and eucaliptol in Ro. OCor, Omen, and OCom showed the best antifungal activity. No antifungal activity was observed in Ag and Ro EO. The hydroperoxide value depended on the fungi (P < 0.001) and the antimicrobial agent (P < 0.001).Membrane lipids were oxidized by Sui EO in A. flavus BXC01 and A. flavus CCC116-83 (0.021 and 0.027 meqO2 /kg, respectively). The results suggest that the EOs of OCor, OMen, OCom, Mi, Mp, and Sui grown in Argentina can be used as natural alternatives to control fungi that produce mycotoxin in maize. PMID:25376651

  1. Pseudomonas grimontii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Baďda, Nader; Yazourh, Asmae; Singer, Elisabeth; Izard, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    The vernacular name 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514' was coined for a group of 43 strains isolated from two French natural mineral waters. All these strains were gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. They produced fluorescent pigment (pyoverdin) on King B medium, catalase and cytochrome oxidase. They were capable of respiratory but not fermentative metabolism. They were not able to accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and possessed an arginine dihydrolase system. DNA-DNA relatedness studies (S1 nuclease method) showed that the 43 strains of 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514' formed a genetically homogeneous group (DNA-DNA relatedness ranged from 70 to 100%). A total of 76 strains representing well-known or partially characterized species of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto had 7-56% DNA hybridization with strain CFML 97-514T. The highest DNA binding values were found with Pseudomonas veronii CIP 104663T (52%), Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP 104664T (56%), Pseudomonas marginalis ATCC 10844T (56%), Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T (53%) and Pseudomonas cedrella CIP 105541T (52%). Their unrelatedness was confirmed by deltaTm values greater than 7 degrees C. On the basis of the results of phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, a novel Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas grimontii sp. nov., is proposed for the 43 strains of 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514'. The type strain is strain CFML 97-514T (= CIP 106645T = ATCC BAA-140T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was 58 mol%. A comparison of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain CFML 97-514T and the sequence of other strains of the genus Pseudomonas revealed that the novel species fell within the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. Members of P. grimontii grew at 4 degrees C but not at 41 degrees C. They were able to use D-xylose, alpha-L-rhamnose, alpha-aminobutyrate, meso-erythritol and itaconate as sole sources of carbon and energy and formed levan from sucrose. Strains do not possess lecithinase or Tween esterase activities. The clinical significance of P. grimontii is unknown. PMID:12361251

  2. Four psychrotolerant species with high chemical diversity consistently producing cycloaspeptide A, Penicillium jamesonlandense sp. nov., Penicillium ribium sp. nov., Penicillium soppii and Penicillium lanosum.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O; Dalsgaard, Petur W; Seifert, Keith A; Louis-Seize, Gerry; Lyhne, E K; Jarvis, Bruce B; Fettinger, James C; Overy, David P

    2006-06-01

    Penicillium jamesonlandense is a novel species from Greenland that grows exceptionally slowly at 25 degrees C and has an optimum temperature for growth of 17-18 degrees C. The novel species is more psychrotolerant than any other Penicillium species described to date. Isolates of this novel species produce a range of secondary metabolites with a high chemical diversity, represented by kojic acid, penicillic acid, griseofulvin, pseurotin, chrysogine, tryptoquivalins and cycloaspeptide. Penicillium ribium, another novel psychrotolerant species from the Rocky Mountains, Wyoming, USA, produces asperfuran, kojic acid and cycloaspeptide. Originally reported from an unidentified Aspergillus species isolated from Nepal, cycloaspeptide A is reported here for the first time from the two novel Penicillium species and two known psychrotolerant species with high chemical diversity, Penicillium soppii and Penicillium lanosum. All species, except P. ribium, produce a combination of cycloaspeptide and griseofulvin. However, P. ribium (3/5 strains) produced the precursor to griseofulvin, norlichexanthone. The type strain of Penicillium jamesonlandense sp. nov. is DAOM 234087(T) (=IBT 21984(T) = IBT 24411(T) = CBS 102888(T)) and the type strain of Penicillium ribium sp. nov. is DAOM 234091(T) (=IBT 16537(T) = IBT 24431(T)). PMID:16738124

  3. Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

    2014-10-17

    The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500?g/kg B and 341,000?g/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (p<0.001) positive (r=0.99) influence on AFB1 concentrations in the feed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention. PMID:25108761

  4. Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

    2015-01-01

    Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. PMID:25392351

  5. Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

  6. Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

    2012-03-01

    Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

  7. [Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarăes, Antônio Marcos; Alves, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel; de Rezende, Glycia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Marcelo Costa

    2005-04-01

    Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23) and 69.6 (16/23) respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18). Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool samples showed 58% and 23% of Ancylostoma sp and Toxocara sp eggs infection respectively. PMID:15895151

  8. Molecular and enzymic properties of recombinant 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase from Aspergillus saitoi overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ichishima, E; Taya, N; Ikeguchi, M; Chiba, Y; Nakamura, M; Kawabata, C; Inoue, T; Takahashi, K; Minetoki, T; Ozeki, K; Kumagai, C; Gomi, K; Yoshida, T; Nakajima, T

    1999-01-01

    For the construction of an overexpression system of the intracellular 1,2-alpha-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) gene (msdS) from Aspergillus saitoi (now designated Aspergillus phoenicis), the N-terminal signal sequence of the gene was replaced with that of the aspergillopepsin I (EC 3.4.23.18) gene (apnS) signal, one of the same strains as described previously. Then the fused 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase gene (f-msdS) was inserted into the NotI site between P-No8142 and T-agdA in the plasmid pNAN 8142 (9.5 kbp) and thus the Aspergillus oryzae expression plasmid pNAN-AM1 (11.2 kbp) was constructed. The fused f-msdS gene has been overexpressed in a transformant A. oryzae niaD AM1 cell. The recombinant enzyme expressed in A. oryzae cells was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The system is capable of making as much as about 320 mg of the enzyme/litre of culture. The recombinant enzyme has activity with methyl-2-O-alpha-d-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside at pH 5.0, while no activity was determined with methyl-3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside or methyl-6-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was analysed by using pyridylaminated (PA)-oligomannose-type sugar chains, Man9-6(GlcNAc)2-PA (Man is mannose; GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine). The enzyme hydrolysed Man8GlcNAc2-PA (type 'M8A') fastest, and 'M6C' żManalpha1-3[Manalpha1-2Manalpha1-3(Manalpha1-6) Manalpha1-6]Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc-PAż slowest, among the PA-sugar chains. Molecular-mass values of the enzyme were determined to be 63 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 65 kDa by gel filtration on Superose 12 respectively. The pI value of the enzyme was 4.6. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was GSTQSRADAIKAAFSHAWDGYLQY, and sequence analysis indicated that the signal peptide from apnS gene was removed. The molar absorption coefficient, epsilon, at 280 nm was determined as 91539 M-1.cm-1. Contents of the secondary structure (alpha-helix, beta-structure and the remainder of the enzyme) by far-UV CD determination were about 55, 38 and 7% respectively. The melting temperature, Tm, of the enzyme was 71 degrees C by differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric enthalpy, DeltaHcal, of the enzyme was calculated as 13.3 kJ.kg of protein-1. Determination of 1 g-atom of Ca2+/mol of enzyme was performed by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:10215597

  9. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: from rainforest to consumer.

    PubMed

    Calderari, Thaiane O; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pitt, John I; Sartori, Daniele; Pereira, Jose Luiz; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and Săo Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and presence of aflatoxins. Aspergillus nomius was the most common species found (1235 isolates) which amounted to 30% of the total species with potential to produce aflatoxins. This species is of concern since 100% of all isolates produced aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Aspergillus flavus was almost equally common (1212 isolates) although only 46% produced aflatoxins under laboratory conditions, and only aflatoxins B(1) and B(2). Low number of other species with the potential to produce aflatoxins was isolated: Aspergillus arachidicola and Aspergillus bombycis produced B and G aflatoxins whilst Aspergillus pseudotamarii produced only aflatoxin B(1). The total aflatoxin levels found in samples taken from the rainforests was 0.7 ?g/kg, from processing plants before and after sorting 8.0 and 0.1 ?g/kg respectively, from street markets in the Amazon region 6.3 ?g/kg and from supermarkets in Săo Paulo State 0.2 ?g/kg. Processing, which included manual or mechanical sorting and drying at 60°C for 30 to 36 h, eliminated on average more than 98% of total aflatoxins. These results showed that sorting is a very effective way to decrease aflatoxin content in brazil nuts. PMID:23290234

  10. Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Masaki; Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. Case Report An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. Conclusions The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection. PMID:25848441

  11. A Genomics Based Discovery of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aspergillus ustus

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Borui; Yu, Dongliang; Dai, Fangwei; Song, Xiaoming; Zhu, Congyi; Li, Hongye; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites (SMs) produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic. PMID:25706180

  12. Performance of lateral flow device and galactomannan for the detection of Aspergillus species in bronchoalveolar fluid of patients at risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Goggins, Michael I; Chander, Pranay; Sekaran, Archana K; Kizy, Anne E; Samuel, Linoj; Jiang, Hui; Thornton, Christopher R; Ramesh, Mayur; Alangaden, George

    2015-06-01

    Early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains difficult due to the variable performance of the tests used. We compared the performance characteristics of Aspergillus lateral flow device (LFD) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) vs. BAL-galactomannan (GM), for the diagnosis of IPA. 311 BAL specimens were prospectively collected from patients who underwent bronchoscopy from January to May 2013. Patients at risk for IPA were divided into haematological malignancy (HEM) and non-HEM groups: solid organ transplants (SOT) (lung transplant (LT) and non-LT SOT); chronic steroid use (CSU); solid tumour (STU) and others. We identified 96 patients at risk for IPA; 89 patients (93%) were in the non-HEM groups: SOT 57 (LT, 46, non-LT SOT, 11); CSU 21; STU 6, other 5. Only three patients met criteria for IA (two probable; one possible). Overall sensitivity (SS) was 66% for both and specificity (SP) was 94% vs. 52% for LFD and GM respectively. LFD and GM performance was similar in the HEM group (SS 100% for both and SP 83% vs. 100% respectively). LFD performance was better than GM among non-HEM SOT patients (P = 0.02). Most false-positive GM results occurred in the SOT group (50.8%), especially among LT patients (56.5%). LFD performance was superior with an overall SP of 95.6% in SOT (P < 0.002) and 97% in LT patients (P = 0.0008). LFD is a rapid and simple test that can be performed on BAL to rule out IPA. PMID:25996144

  13. Expression profiling of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus mutants obtained by 5-azacytosine treatment or serial mycelial transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced mutants with a fluffy phenotype and loss of aflatoxin production. To understand how the...

  14. Relationships among resistances to Fusarium and Aspergillus ear rots and contamination by fumonisin and aflatoxin in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus cause ear rots of maize and contaminate the grain with mycotoxins (fumonisin or aflatoxin). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between resistance to Fusarium and Aspergillus ear rots and fumonisin and a...

  15. Sensitization to Aspergillus species in the congenital neutrophil disorders chronic granulomatous disease and hyper-IgE syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Eppinger; Paul A. Greenberger; Dorothy A. White; Arthur E. Brown; Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles

    1999-01-01

    Background: Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIE) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are congenital immunodeficiency diseases with increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Both carry significant morbidity and mortality rates because of invasive infections by Aspergillus species. We encountered 2 patients, one with HIE and one with CGD, in whom detection of sensitization to Aspergillus species preceded the diagnosis of immunodeficiency. With

  16. Vaccination of mice against invasive aspergillosis with recombinant Aspergillus proteins and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Bozza; Roberta Gaziano; Grayson B. Lipford; Claudia Montagnoli; Angela Bacci; Paolo Di Francesco; Viswanath P. Kurup; Hermann Wagner; Luigina Romani

    2002-01-01

    In a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with Aspergillus antigens induced the activation of CD4+ Th1 cells capable of conferring resistance to the infection. Here we show that the combined, local delivery of unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and the Asp f 16 Aspergillus allergen resulted in the functional maturation and activation of airway DCs capable

  17. Clustered Genes Involved in Cyclopiazonic Acid Production are Next to the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an indole-tetramic acid toxin, is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. In addition to CPA Aspergillus flavus produces polyketide-derived carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). AF biosynthesis genes form a gene cluster in a subtelomeric region. Isolates of A. fla...

  18. Mutagenesis and genetic characterisation of amylolytic Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Sobiya; Bajwa, Rukhsana; Shafique, Shazia

    2010-07-01

    Aspergillus niger FCBP-198 was genetically modified for its ability to reveal extra cellular alpha-amylase enzyme activity. From 76 efficient mutants isolated after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, An-UV-5.6 was selected as the most efficient UV mutant, with 76.41 units mL(-1) of alpha-amylase activity compared to wild (34.45 units mL(-1)). In case of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), among 242 survivors, 74 were assayed quantitatively and An-Ch-4.7 was found to be the most competent, as it exhibited a three-fold increase in alpha-amylase activity (89.38 units mL(-1)) than the parental strain. Genetic relationships of the mutants of A. niger FCBP-198 were analysed with a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results obtained from the comparison between genotypes of A. niger FCBP-198 showed differences in the sizes and numbers of amplified fragments per primer for each isolate. The dendrogram showed that genotypes An-Ch-4.7 and An-Ch-4.2 were distinctly classified into one category, while the isolates An-UV-5.6, An-UV-5.1 and A. niger FCBP-198 have the nearest genetic relationship. The five isolates from A. niger FCBP-198 genotypes shared an average of 65% bands. PMID:19764004

  19. Investigation of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation by various “omics” approaches

    PubMed Central

    Muszkieta, Laetitia; Beauvais, Anne; Pähtz, Vera; Gibbons, John G.; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Beau, Rémi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Rokas, Antonis; Francois, Jean M.; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A.; Latgé, Jean P.

    2013-01-01

    In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF). This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment. This extracellular matrix is absent in fungal colonies grown under classical liquid shake conditions (PL), which were historically used to understand A. fumigatus pathobiology. Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence. These differences in pathological and physiological characteristics between BF and liquid shake conditions suggest that the PL condition is a poor in vitro disease model. In the laboratory, A. fumigatus mycelium embedded by the extracellular matrix can be produced in vitro in aerial condition using an agar-based medium. To provide a global and accurate understanding of A. fumigatus in vitro BF growth, we utilized microarray, RNA-sequencing, and proteomic analysis to compare the global gene and protein expression profiles of A. fumigatus grown under BF and PL conditions. In this review, we will present the different signatures obtained with these three “omics” methods. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and their complementarity. PMID:23407341

  20. Genotypic and Phenotypic Versatility of Aspergillus flavus during Maize Exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Reverberi, Massimo; Punelli, Marta; Scala, Valeria; Scarpari, Marzia; Uva, Paolo; Mentzen, Wieslawa I.; Dolezal, Andrea L.; Woloshuk, Charles; Pinzari, Flavia; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado; Payne, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a cosmopolitan fungus able to respond to external stimuli and to shift both its trophic behaviour and the production of secondary metabolites, including that of the carcinogen aflatoxin (AF). To better understand the adaptability of this fungus, we examined genetic and phenotypic responses within the fungus when grown under four conditions that mimic different ecological niches ranging from saprophytic growth to parasitism. Global transcription changes were observed in both primary and secondary metabolism in response to these conditions, particularly in secondary metabolism where transcription of nearly half of the predicted secondary metabolite clusters changed in response to the trophic states of the fungus. The greatest transcriptional change was found between saprophytic and parasitic growth, which resulted in expression changes in over 800 genes in A. flavus. The fungus also responded to growth conditions, putatively by adaptive changes in conidia, resulting in differences in their ability to utilize carbon sources. We also examined tolerance of A. flavus to oxidative stress and found that growth and secondary metabolism were altered in a superoxide dismutase (sod) mutant and an alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase (ahp) mutant of A. flavus. Data presented in this study show a multifaceted response of A. flavus to its environment and suggest that oxidative stress and secondary metabolism are important in the ecology of this fungus, notably in its interaction with host plant and in relation to changes in its lifestyle (i.e. saprobic to pathogenic). PMID:23894339

  1. Kinetic modeling of fructooligosaccharide production using Aspergillus oryzae N74.

    PubMed

    Guio, Felipe; Rugeles, Luz D; Rojas, Sonia E; Palomino, María P; Camargo, María C; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the kinetic for the bioconversion of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by free cells of Aspergillus oryzae N74 was modeled. In addition, the effect of immobilized glucose isomerase (IGI) on FOS production yield was evaluated and considered in the kinetic model. The selected kinetic models were based on a proposed reaction mechanism described by elementary rate equations and modified Michaelis-Menten kinetic equations. The use of IGI allowed to increase the FOS production yield (FOS(Yield)) and to decrease the glucose/fructose (G/F) ratio. At shake flask scale, the FOS(Yield) was increased in 4.7 % (final yield 58.3 %), while the G/F ratio was reduced 6.2-fold. At bench scale, the FOS(Yield) was increased in 2.2 % (final yield 57.3 %), while the G/F ratio was reduced 4.5-fold. The elementary rate equation model was the one that best adjusted experimental data for FOS production using either the fungus biomass or the mixture fungus biomass-IGI, with an overall average percentage error of 7.2. Despite that FOS production yield was not highly improved by the presence of IGI in the reaction mixture, it favored the reduction of residual glucose in the mixture, avoiding the loss of material owe to glucose transformation to fructose that can be used in situ for FOS production by the fructosyltransferase. PMID:22528647

  2. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn.

    PubMed

    Horn, Bruce W; Sorensen, Ronald B; Lamb, Marshall C; Sobolev, Victor S; Olarte, Rodrigo A; Worthington, Carolyn J; Carbone, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ascocarps embedded within sclerotia. However, the capacity for sexual reproduction in sclerotia naturally formed in crops has not been examined. Corn was grown for 3 years under different levels of drought stress at Shellman, GA, and sclerotia were recovered from 146 ears (0.6% of ears). Sclerotia of A. flavus L strain were dominant in 2010 and 2011 and sclerotia of A. flavus S strain were dominant in 2012. The incidence of S strain sclerotia in corn ears increased with decreasing water availability. Ascocarps were not detected in sclerotia at harvest but incubation of sclerotia on the surface of nonsterile soil in the laboratory resulted in the formation of viable ascospores in A. flavus L and S strains and in homothallic A. alliaceus. Ascospores were produced by section Flavi species in 6.1% of the 6,022 sclerotia (18 of 84 ears) in 2010, 0.1% of the 2,846 sclerotia (3 of 36 ears) in 2011, and 0.5% of the 3,106 sclerotia (5 of 26 ears) in 2012. For sexual reproduction to occur under field conditions, sclerotia may require an additional incubation period on soil following dispersal at crop harvest. PMID:23883157

  3. Biochemical and molecular characterization of secreted ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Scott-Craig, John S; Borrusch, Melissa S; Banerjee, Goutami; Harvey, Christopher M; Walton, Jonathan D

    2011-12-16

    ?-Linked xylose is a major component of xyloglucans in the cell walls of higher plants. An ?-xylosidase (AxlA) was purified from a commercial enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger, and the encoding gene was identified. The protein is a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 31. It was active on p-nitrophenyl-?-d-xyloside, isoprimeverose, xyloglucan heptasaccharide (XXXG), and tamarind xyloglucan. When expressed in Pichia pastoris, AxlA had activity comparable to the native enzyme on pNP?X and IP despite apparent hyperglycosylation. The pH optimum of AxlA was between 3.0 and 4.0. AxlA together with ?-glucosidase depolymerized xyloglucan heptasaccharide. A combination of AxlA, ?-glucosidase, xyloglucanase, and ?-galactosidase in the optimal proportions of 51:5:19:25 or 59:5:11:25 could completely depolymerize tamarind XG to free Glc or Xyl, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of a secreted microbial ?-xylosidase. Secreted ?-xylosidases appear to be rare in nature, being absent from other tested commercial enzyme mixtures and from the genomes of most filamentous fungi. PMID:22033931

  4. Purification and properties of the elastase from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Frosco, M; Chase, T; Macmillan, J D

    1992-01-01

    Elastase, a potential virulence factor from the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, was purified 220-fold from culture broth by fast-performance liquid chromatography employing anion exchange (Q Sepharose fast flow), cation exchange (S Sepharose fast flow), and gel filtration (Superose 12). Purified to near homogeneity, the elastase had an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (silver stain) but a mass of about 19.1 kDa as determined by gel filtration on Superdex 75. The elastase is not glycosylated and is positively charged at neutral pH, having a pI of 8.75. Inhibition by 0.2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (100%) and 0.21 mM leupeptin (60%) implies that the elastase is a serine protease. However, the enzyme is also inhibited by 5 mM EDTA (100%) and 10 mM 1,10-orthophenanthroline (30%), suggesting a requirement for divalent cations. The enzyme acts optimally at pH 7.4 and 45 degrees C in 50 mM sodium borate buffer, but in Tris HCl, the pH optimum shifts to 8.8. Images PMID:1541545

  5. Azole Drug Import into the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Brooke D; Smith, Adam R; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C

    2015-06-01

    The fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious illness and often death when it invades tissues, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The azole class of drugs is the most commonly prescribed treatment for many fungal infections and acts on the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. One common mechanism of acquired azole drug resistance in fungi is the prevention of drug accumulation to toxic levels in the cell. While drug efflux is a well-known resistance strategy, reduced azole import would be another strategy to maintain low intracellular azole levels. Recently, azole uptake in Candida albicans and other yeasts was analyzed using [(3)H]fluconazole. Defective drug import was suggested to be a potential mechanism of drug resistance in several pathogenic fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida krusei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have adapted and developed an assay to measure azole accumulation in A. fumigatus using radioactively labeled azole drugs, based on previous work done with C. albicans. We used this assay to study the differences in azole uptake in A. fumigatus isolates under a variety of drug treatment conditions, with different morphologies and with a select mutant strain with deficiencies in the sterol uptake and biosynthesis pathway. We conclude that azole drugs are specifically selected and imported into the fungal cell by a pH- and ATP-independent facilitated diffusion mechanism, not by passive diffusion. This method of drug transport is likely to be conserved across most fungal species. PMID:25824209

  6. Production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF.

    PubMed

    Kang, S W; Park, C H; Hong, S I; Kim, S W

    2007-01-01

    The production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF for the biocontrol of Phytophthora disease was investigated in submerged fermentation using media composed of different nutrients. Soluble starch was found to be the most effective substrate among the carbon sources used, and produced the highest penicillic acid concentration of 2.98 mg ml(-1). When organic nitrogen sources were used, pharmamedia, yeast extract, and polypeptone-S were found to be suitable organic nitrogen sources (2.46-2.71 mg ml(-1)). The production of penicillic acid was not detected in when inorganic nitrogen sources were used. Only Na2HPO4, among the metal ions and phosphate salts tested, increased the production of penicillic acid (approximately 20%). When A. sclerotiorum CGF was cultured in optimal medium [8.0% (w/v) soluble starch, 0.6% (w/v) yeast extract, and 0.3% (w/v) Na2HPO4], maximum penicillic acid concentration (approximately 9.40 mg ml(-1)) and cell mass (approximately 17.4 g l(-1)) were obtained after 12 days. PMID:16458001

  7. Extracellular phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Gunashree, B S; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-07-01

    Phytase, that is extensively used as a feed additive is capable of hydrolyzing phytic acid, an antinutrient found in about 60-80 % of all the plant commodities. This enzyme improves the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), P, Zn(2+), Fe(3+), that are bound to phytic acid. An extracellular phytase from a local fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger CFR 335 was purified to homogeneity through a three-step column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex anion exchanger. An active fraction of the enzyme was obtained with NaCl gradient of 2.5 M in DEAE Sephadex column. The enzyme was purified up to 16 fold with a yield of 28.5 %. Substrate specificity studies revealed a highest specific activity of 32.6?±?3.1 U/mg for sodium phytate with the Km value of 0.08?±?0.1 mM. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 66 kDa with an optimum temperature of 30 °C and pH 4.5. Up to 80 % of the activity was retained even after storing the enzyme for 6 months at 4 °C. PMID:26139925

  8. Functional Characterization and Localization of the Aspergillus nidulans Formin SEPAV?

    PubMed Central

    Sharpless, Kathryn E.; Harris, Steven D.

    2002-01-01

    Formins are a family of multidomain scaffold proteins involved in actin-dependent morphogenetic events. In Aspergillus nidulans, the formin SEPA participates in two actin-mediated processes, septum formation and polarized growth. In this study, we use a new null mutant to demonstrate that SEPA is required for the formation of actin rings at septation sites. In addition, we find that a functional SEPA::GFP fusion protein localizes simultaneously to septation sites and hyphal tips, and that SEPA colocalizes with actin at each site. Using live imaging, we show that SEPA localization at septation sites and hyphal tips is dynamic. Notably, at septation sites, SEPA forms a ring that constricts as the septum is deposited. Moreover, we demonstrate that actin filaments are required to maintain the proper localization pattern of SEPA, and that the amino-terminal half of SEPA is sufficient for localization at septation sites and hyphal tips. In contrast, only localization at septation sites is affected by loss of the sepH gene product. We propose that specific morphological cues activate common molecular pathways to direct SEPA localization to the appropriate morphogenetic site. PMID:11854405

  9. Testing the efficacy of RNA interference constructs in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christine; Mouyna, Isabelle; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2007-04-01

    We recently developed a silencing vector in Aspergillus fumigatus which carries a hygromycin resistance marker and a transcriptional unit for hairpin RNA expression under the control of the inducible glucoamylase promoter (pGla) (Mouyna et al. in FEMS Microbiol Lett 237:317-324, 2004). We showed previously that this vector can be used for the RNA interference application of two genes ALB1 and FKS1 of which reduced mRNA levels occurred for both, with phenotypic consequences resembling disruptions of genes involved in melanin (ALB1) and beta(1-3)glucan biosynthesis (FKS1). We reported here the silencing of KRE6 and CRH1, two other genes putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis using a similar construction under the control of the constitutive promoter glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (pgpdA). Silencing of the expression of these two genes was obtained. Further analysis of the transformants showed however that (1) a 100% loss of expression was never achieved for all genes tested (2) the vector used for RNAi is lost or modified over successive transfers resulting in an inhibition of the silencing. These disadvantages of RNAi indicate that classical gene disruption by gene replacement remains the most efficient method for a molecular analysis of gene function in A. fumigatus. PMID:17273823

  10. Heterogeneity of Aspergillus niger microcolonies in liquid shaken cultures.

    PubMed

    de Bekker, Charissa; van Veluw, G Jerre; Vinck, Arman; Wiebenga, L Ad; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-02-01

    The fungus Aspergillus niger forms (sub)millimeter microcolonies within a liquid shaken culture. Here, we show that such microcolonies are heterogeneous with respect to size and gene expression. Microcolonies of strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the promoter of the glucoamlyase gene glaA or the ferulic acid esterase gene faeA were sorted on the basis of diameter and fluorescence using the Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS) technology. Statistical analysis revealed that the liquid shaken culture consisted of two populations of microcolonies that differ by 90 ?m in diameter. The population of small microcolonies of strains expressing GFP from the glaA or faeA promoter comprised 39% and 25% of the culture, respectively. Two populations of microcolonies could also be distinguished when the expression of GFP in these strains was analyzed. The population expressing a low level of GFP consisted of 68% and 44% of the culture, respectively. We also show that mRNA accumulation is heterogeneous within microcolonies of A. niger. Central and peripheral parts of the mycelium were isolated with laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC), and RNA from these samples was used for quantitative PCR analysis. This analysis showed that the RNA content per hypha was about 45 times higher at the periphery than in the center of the microcolony. Our data imply that the protein production of A. niger can be improved in industrial fermentations by reducing the heterogeneity within the culture. PMID:21169437

  11. Isolation of Two Apsa Suppressor Strains in Aspergillus Nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, M.; Fischer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually with single nucleated conidia. In apsA (anucleate primary sterigmata) strains, nuclear positioning is affected and conidiation is greatly reduced. To get further insights into the cellular functions of apsA, aconidial apsA strains were mutagenized and conidiating suppressor strains were isolated. The suppressors fell into two complementation groups, samA and samB (suppressor of anucleate metulae). samA mapped on linkage group I close to pyrG. The mutant allele was dominant in diploids homozygous for apsA. Viability of conidia of samA suppressor strains (samA(-); apsA(-)) was reduced to 50% in comparison to wild-type conidia. Eighty percent of viable spores produced small size colonies that were temperature- and benomyl-sensitive. samB mapped to chromosome VIII and was recessive. Viability of conidia from samB suppressor strains (apsA(-); samB(-)) was also affected but no small size colonies were observed. Both suppressors produced partial defects in sexual reproduction and both suppressed an apsA deletion mutation. In wild-type background the mutant loci affected hyphal growth rate (samA) or changed the colony morphology (samB) and inhibited sexual spore formation (samA and samB). Only subtle effects on conidiation were found. We conclude that both suppressor genes bypass the apsA function and are involved in microtubule-dependent processes. PMID:8889518

  12. Regulation of Conidiation by Light in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Fernández-Barranco, Raul; Olmedo, María; Fischer, Reinhard; Corrochano, Luis M.; Canovas, David

    2011-01-01

    Light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. To understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used Aspergillus nidulans as a model. We have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify >400 genes upregulated and >100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. Among the upregulated genes were genes required for the regulation of asexual development, one of the major biological responses to light in A. nidulans, which is a pathway controlled by the master regulatory gene brlA. The expression of brlA, like conidiation, is induced by light. A detailed analysis of brlA light regulation revealed increased expression after short exposures with a maximum after 60 min of light followed by photoadaptation with longer light exposures. In addition to brlA, genes flbA–C and fluG are also light regulated, and flbA–C are required for the correct light-dependent regulation of the upstream regulator fluG. We have found that light induction of brlA required the photoreceptor complex composed of a phytochrome FphA, and the white-collar homologs LreA and LreB, and the fluffy genes flbA–C. We propose that the activation of regulatory genes by light is the key event in the activation of asexual development by light in A. nidulans. PMID:21624998

  13. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  14. VelC Positively Controls Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Soo; Nam, Tae-Young; Han, Kap-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia). In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ?velC ?vosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ?vosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting. PMID:24587098

  15. Developmental regulation of laccase levels in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Law, D J; Timberlake, W E

    1980-01-01

    Asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus nidulans contain a dark green pigment which is not present in other cell types. Synthesis of this pigment is catalyzed, in part, by a developmentally controlled p-diphenol oxidase, or laccase, encoded at the gamma A genetic locus (A. J. Clutterbuck, J. Gen. Microbiol. 70:423-435, 1972). We have investigated the mechanisms regulating expression of the gamma A gene of A. nidulans. Vegetative hyphae grown in submerged culture lacked detectable laccase enzyme activity and neither contained nor synthesized immunoprecipitable laccase protein. When such cultures were induced to conidiate by harvesting the cells onto filter papers and aerating them, laccase levels began to increase after 10 to 16 h, reached a peak at 20 to 36 h, and then declined slowly. Immunological assays showed that increases in laccase enzyme activity were (i) proceded by a transient rise in the relative rate of laccase protein synthesis and (ii) closely paralleled by increases in the amount of laccase protein. Addition of cycloheximide to cultures at any time after inducing conidiation inhibited further accumulation of laccase enzyme activity. These data are most consistent with increases in laccase levels being due to regulated, de novo synthesis of laccase protein. Addition of inhibitors of ribonucleic acid synthesis to conidiating cultures also inhibited further accumulation of laccase, suggesting that laccase expression is regulated by alterations in the transcriptional activity of the gamma A locus. Images PMID:7000747

  16. Rapid genome resequencing of an atoxigenic strain of Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Cabańes, F Javier; Sanseverino, Walter; Castellá, Gemma; Bragulat, M Rosa; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Sánchez, Armand

    2015-01-01

    In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5?Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36?Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involved in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. PMID:25765923

  17. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

  18. NASA SP-4214 HASGONE BEFORE

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    . Series: NASA SP ; 4214. TL789.8.U6A528 1989 919.9'104 88-600242 For sale by the Superintendent is only partly to record the engineering and scientific accomplishments of the men and women who made sent men and women to the moon, no American robot, how- ever sophisticated or important, would produce

  19. SP-100 control system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. A.; Halfen, F. J.; Alley, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    SP-100 Control Systems modeling was done using a thermal hydraulic transient analysis model called ARIES-S. The ARIES-S Computer Simulation provides a basis for design, integration and analysis of the reactor including the control and protection systems. It is a modular digital computer simulation written in FORTRAN that operates interactively in real time on a VAX minicomputer.

  20. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  1. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  2. Sporulation of Cyclospora sp. oocysts.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H V; Paton, C A; Mitambo, M M; Girdwood, R W

    1997-01-01

    Cyclospora sp. oocysts sporulated maximally at 22 and 30 degrees C for 14 days retarded sporulation. Up to 12% of human- and baboon-derived oocysts previously stored at 4 degrees C for 1 to 2 months sporulated when stored for 6 to 7 days at 30 degrees C. PMID:9097458

  3. Scaling study for SP100 reactor technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Marshall; B. McKissock; OH Cleveland

    1989-01-01

    Several ways were explored of extending SP-100 reactor technology to higher power levels. One approach was to use the reference SP-100 pin design and increase the fuel pin length and the number of fuel pins as needed to provide higher capability. The impact on scaling of a modified and advanced SP-100 reactor technology was also explored. Finally, the effect of

  4. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

  5. Identification and cloning of a second phytase gene (phyB) from Aspergillus niger (ficuum).

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, K C; Montalbano, B G; Mullaney, E J; Dischinger, H C; Ullah, A H

    1993-08-31

    An Aspergillus niger (ficuum) genomic DNA lambda EMBL3 library was probed with a 354-bp DNA fragment obtained by polymerase chain reaction of A. niger DNA with oligonucleotides based on partial amino acid sequence of a pH 2.5 optimum acid phosphatase. A clone containing a 1605 bp segment (phyB) encoding the 479 amino acid enzyme was isolated and found to contain four exons. Global alignment revealed 23.5% homology to Aspergillus niger phytase (PhyA); four regions of extensive homology were identified. Some of these regions may contain catalytic sites for phosphatase function. PMID:7916610

  6. Culture-proven Aspergillus fumigatus infection in a primary hydroxyapatite orbital implant.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neil S; Ooi, Ju-Lee; Maloof, Tiba C; Wilcsek, Geoffrey; Francis, Ian C; Coroneo, Minas T

    2007-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite orbital implants are widely used in enucleation surgery. Infection in this setting is an uncommon but severe complication. Herein a patient with a 3-year history of chronic socket discharge, orbital discomfort, conjunctival breakdown and implant exposure after enucleation and implantation of a hydroxyapatite sphere 7 years previously is reported. Repeated attempts at covering the exposed implant failed. Eventually the implant was removed, and Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from the explanted material. This is the second reported case of Aspergillus infection of a hydroxyapatite orbital implant, and the first case where fungal cultures were positive. PMID:17430526

  7. Vacuolar Membrane Dynamics in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae†

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Jun-ya; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Vacuoles in filamentous fungi are highly pleomorphic and some of them, e.g., tubular vacuoles, are implicated in intra- and intercellular transport. In this report, we isolated Aovam3, the homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VAM3 gene that encodes the vacuolar syntaxin, from Aspergillus oryzae. In yeast complementation analyses, the expression of Aovam3 restored the phenotypes of both ?vam3 and ?pep12 mutants, suggesting that AoVam3p is likely the vacuolar and/or endosomal syntaxin in A. oryzae. FM4-64 [N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide] and CMAC (7-amino-4-chloromethylcoumarin) staining confirmed that the fusion protein of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with AoVam3p (EGFP-AoVam3p) localized on the membrane of the pleomorphic vacuolar networks, including large spherical vacuoles, tubular vacuoles, and putative late endosomes/prevacuolar compartments. EGFP-AoVam3p-expressing strains allowed us to observe the dynamics of vacuoles with high resolutions, and moreover, led to the discovery of several new aspects of fungal vacuoles, which have not been discovered so far with conventional staining methods, during different developmental stages. In old hyphae, EGFP fluorescence was present in the entire lumen of large vacuoles, which occupied most of the cell, indicating that degradation of cytosolic materials had occurred in such hyphae via an autophagic process. In hyphae that were not in contact with nutrients, such as aerial hyphae and hyphae that grew on a glass surface, vacuoles were composed of small punctate structures and tubular elements that often formed reticulum-like networks. These observations imply the presence of so-far-unrecognized roles of vacuoles in the development of filamentous fungi. PMID:16467481

  8. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Wessolossky, Mireya; Welch, Verna L; Sen, Ajanta; Babu, Tara M; Luke, David R

    2013-01-01

    Background Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients. Methods The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis. Results Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61%) and asthma (18%), and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27%) and bone marrow transplants (14%). A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03). The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14); 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75). Conclusion Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the more traditional immunocompromised population. PMID:23761976

  9. Identification and Characterization of Aspergillus Nidulans Mutants Defective in Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, S. D.; Morrell, J. L.; Hamer, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo cytokinesis by forming crosswalls termed septa. Here, we describe the genetic and physiological controls governing septation in Aspergillus nidulans. Germinating conidia do not form septa until the completion of their third nuclear division. The first septum is invariantly positioned at the basal end of the germ tube. Block-and-release experiments of nuclear division with benomyl or hydroxyurea, and analysis of various nuclear division mutants demonstrated that septum formation is dependent upon the third mitotic division. Block-and-release experiments with cytochalasin A and the localization of actin in germlings by indirect immunofluorescence showed that actin participated in septum formation. In addition to being concentrated at the growing hyphal tips, a band of actin was also apparent at the site of septum formation. Previous genetic analysis in A. nidulans identified four genes involved in septation (sepA-D). We have screened a new collection of temperature sensitive (ts) mutants of A. nidulans for strains that failed to form septa at the restrictive temperature but were able to complete early nuclear divisions. We identified five new genes designated sepE, G, H, I and J, along with one additional allele of a previously identified septation gene. On the basis of temperature shift experiments, nuclear counts and cell morphology, we sorted these cytokinesis mutants into three phenotypic classes. Interestingly, one class of mutants fails to form septa and fails to progress past the third nuclear division. This class of mutants suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism in A. nidulans that ensures the continuation of nuclear division following the initiation of cytokinesis. PMID:8150280

  10. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism. PMID:23173087

  11. Homologue expression of a ?-xylosidase from native Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Amaro-Reyes, A; García-Almendárez, B E; Vázquez-Mandujano, D G; Amaya-Llano, S; Castańo-Tostado, E; Guevara-González, R G; Loera, O; Regalado, C

    2011-09-01

    Xylan constitutes the second most abundant source of renewable organic carbon on earth and is located in the cell walls of hardwood and softwood plants in the form of hemicellulose. Based on its availability, there is a growing interest in production of xylanolytic enzymes for industrial applications. ?-1,4-xylan xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) hydrolyses from the nonreducing end of xylooligosaccharides arising from endo-1,4-?-xylanase activity. This work reports the partial characterization of a purified ?-xylosidase from the native strain Aspergillus niger GS1 expressed by means of a fungal system. A gene encoding ?-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from a native A. niger GS1 strain. The recombinant enzyme was expressed in A. niger AB4.1 under control of A. nidulans gpdA promoter and trpC terminator. ?-xylosidase was purified by affinity chromatography, with an apparent molecular weight of 90 kDa, and showed a maximum activity of 4,280 U mg protein(-1) at 70°C, pH 3.6. Half-life was 74 min at 70°C, activation energy was 58.9 kJ mol(-1), and at 50°C optimum stability was shown at pH 4.0-5.0. ?-xylosidase kept residual activity >83% in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), ?-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and Zn(2+). Production of a hemicellulolytic free xylosidase showed some advantages in applications, such as animal feed, enzymatic synthesis, and the fruit-juice industry where the presence of certain compounds, high temperatures, and acid media is unavoidable in the juice-making process. PMID:21116681

  12. Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Sharma, Gainda L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus has been a major cause of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which has five main stages--the acute, remission, exacerbation, glucocorticoid dependent and fibrotic stage. The diagnosis of ABPA remains difficult due to its overlapping clinical and radiological features with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. From past few decades, the crude fractions of A. fumigatus have been used for immunodiagnosis of ABPA. Most of the detection kits based on crude fractions of A. fumigatus are quite sensitive but have low specificity. Till date 21 known and 25 predicted allergens of A. fumigatus have been identified. Of these allergens, only five recombinants (rAsp f1-f4 and f6) are commercially used for diagnosis of allergic aspergillosis. Remaining allergens of A. fumigatus have been restricted for use in specific diagnosis of ABPA, due to sharing of common antigenic epitopes with other allergens. Complete sequencing of A. fumigatus genome identified 9926 genes and the reports on the proteome of A. fumigatus have shown the presence of large number of their corresponding proteins in the pathogen. The analysis of immunoproteomes developed from crude fractions of A. fumigatus by IgG/IgE reactivity with ABPA patients and animal sera have identified the panel of new antigens. A brief description on the current status of A. fumigatus antigens is provided in this review. The implementation of advance recombinant expression and peptidomic approaches on the A. fumigatus antigens may help in the selection of appropriate molecules for the development of tools for more specific early diagnosis of ABPA, and desensitization therapies for patients of allergic disorders. PMID:24818760

  13. Enrichment of Auxotrophic Mutants of Aspergillus flavus by Tritium Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Donkersloot, J. A.; Mateles, R. I.

    1968-01-01

    A method based on tritium suicide was developed to enrich auxotrophic mutants of Aspergillus flavus. N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NG) was chosen as a mutagen, since a wide variety of mutations were induced by the action of 0.1% NG on A. flavus conidia suspended in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The decimal reduction time under these conditions was about 30 min, and the surviving population contained 4 to 6% auxotrophs after 1 hr of mutagenesis. This proportion was then increased by tritium suicide of wild-type cells. At a concentration of 1.3 ?m, 3H-leucine was incorporated better than 3H-proline or 3H-thymidine into the germinating conidia. With about 20 hr of incubation and a short treatment in a high-speed mixer to disentangle mycelia and conidia, a 5- to 20-fold decrease in the number of survivors resulted from the incorporated 3H-leucine (5 c/mmole) after 1 week of storage at 5 C. At a 10-fold lower concentration, the uptake of radioactivity and the subsequent suicide rate were much lower. With 3H-leucine, the proportion of auxotrophs in the surviving population rose from 5 to about 20% during 2 weeks of storage at 5 C. Mutants requiring various intermediates for protein or nucleic acid synthesis or requiring vitamins were isolated. Finally, it was noted that A. flavus shows a much higher resistance to tritium suicide than does Escherichia coli. PMID:5726297

  14. Comparison of the EUCAST-AFST broth dilution method with the CLSI reference broth dilution method (M38-A) for susceptibility testing of posaconazole and voriconazole against Aspergillus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Chryssanthou; M. Cuenca-Estrella

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 40 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus) were determined for posaconazole and voriconazole by the CLSI M38-A and EUCAST-AFST broth dilution methods. Where a discrepancy was observed between the methods, the EUCAST method tended to give higher MIC values. Overall, the level of agreement was 92.5% and the intra-class correlation

  15. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Frisvad, Jens C; Boekhout, Teun; Theelen, Bart; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178(T)?=?IBT 23262(T)), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171(T)?=?IBT 23253(T)), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149(T)?=?IBT 23247(T)), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135(T)?=?IBT 23229(T)) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216(T)?=?IBT 23203(T)) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using a polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular (ITS and partial ?-tubulin sequences) and extrolite data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each novel species formed a unique clade for both loci analysed and that they were most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium daleae and Penicillium brasilianum. An overview of the phylogeny of this taxonomically difficult group is presented, and 33 species are accepted. Each of the five novel species had a unique extrolite profile of known and uncharacterized metabolites and various compounds, such as penicillic acid, andrastin A, pulvilloric acid, paxillin, paspaline and janthitrem, were commonly produced by these phylogenetically related species. The novel species had a high growth rate on agar media, but could be distinguished from each other by several macro- and microscopical characteristics. PMID:20639229

  16. Increased SP4 and SP1 transcription factor expression in the postmortem hippocampus of chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pinacho, Raquel; Valdizán, Elsa M; Pilar-Cuellar, Fuencisla; Prades, Roger; Tarragó, Teresa; Haro, Josep Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Ramos, Belén

    2014-11-01

    Altered levels of transcription factor specificity protein 4 (SP4) and 1 (SP1) in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex and/or lymphocytes have been reported in severe psychiatric disorders, including early psychosis, bipolar disorder, and chronic schizophrenia subjects who have undergone long-term antipsychotic treatments. SP4 transgenic mice show altered hippocampal-dependent psychotic-like behaviours and altered development of hippocampal dentate gyrus. Moreover, NMDAR activity regulates SP4 function. The aim of this study was to investigate SP4 and SP1 expression levels in the hippocampus in schizophrenia, and the possible effect of antipsychotics and NMDAR blockade on SP protein levels in rodent hippocampus. We analysed SP4 and SP1 expression levels in the postmortem hippocampus of chronic schizophrenia (n = 14) and control (n = 11) subjects by immunoblot and quantitative RT-PCR. We tested the effect of NMDAR blockade on SP factors in the hippocampus of mouse treated with an acute dose of MK801. We also investigated the effect of subacute treatments with haloperidol and clozapine on SP protein levels in the rat hippocampus. We report that SP4 protein and both SP4 and SP1 mRNA expression levels are significantly increased in the hippocampus in chronic schizophrenia. Likewise, acute treatment with MK801 increased both SP4 and SP1 protein levels in mouse hippocampus. In contrast, subacute treatment with haloperidol and clozapine did not significantly alter SP protein levels in rat hippocampus. These results suggest that SP4 and SP1 upregulation may be part of the mechanisms deregulated downstream of glutamate signalling pathways in schizophrenia and might be contributing to the hippocampal-dependent cognitive deficits of the disorder. PMID:25175639

  17. Pseudonocardia cypriaca sp. nov., Pseudonocardia salamisensis sp. nov., Pseudonocardia hierapolitana sp. nov. and Pseudonocardia kujensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nevzat; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Spröer, Cathrin; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-05-01

    The taxonomic positions of four novel actinomycetes isolated from soil samples, designated KT2142T, PM2084T, K236T and A4038T, were established by using a polyphasic approach. The organisms had chemical and morphological features that were consistent with their classification in the genus Pseudonocardia. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the four strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars (cell-wall type IV). Their predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-8(H4). The major fatty acid was iso-C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the classification of the isolates in the genus Pseudonocardia and showed that they formed four distinct branches within the genus. DNA-DNA relatedness studies between the isolates and their phylogenetic neighbours showed that they belonged to distinct genomic species. The four isolates were readily distinguished from one another and from the type strains of species classified in the genus Pseudonocardia based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. In conclusion, it is proposed that the four isolates be classified in four novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the names Pseudonocardia cypriaca sp. nov. (type strain KT2142T=KCTC 29067T=DSM 45511T=NRRL B-24882T), Pseudonocardia hierapolitana sp. nov. (type strain PM2084T=KCTC 29068T=DSM 45671T=NRRL B-24879T), Pseudonocardia salamisensis sp. nov. (type strain K236T=KCTC 29100T=DSM 45717T) and Pseudonocardia kujensis sp. nov. (type strain A4038T=KCTC 29062T=DSM 45670T=NRRL B-24890T) are proposed. PMID:24523445

  18. Aspergillus parasiticus communities associated with sugarcane in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas: implications of global transport and host association within Aspergillus section Flavi.

    PubMed

    Garber, N P; Cotty, P J

    2014-05-01

    In the Rio Grande Valley of Texas (RGV), values of maize and cottonseed crops are significantly reduced by aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops is the product of communities of aflatoxin producers and the average aflatoxin-producing potentials of these communities influence aflatoxin contamination risk. Cropping pattern influences community composition and, thereby, the epidemiology of aflatoxin contamination. In 2004, Aspergillus parasiticus was isolated from two fields previously cropped to sugarcane but not from 23 fields without recent history of sugarcane cultivation. In 2004 and 2005, A. parasiticus composed 18 to 36% of Aspergillus section Flavi resident in agricultural soils within sugarcane-producing counties. A. parasiticus was not detected in counties that do not produce sugarcane. Aspergillus section Flavi soil communities within sugarcane-producing counties differed significantly dependent on sugarcane cropping history. Fields cropped to sugarcane within the previous 5 years had greater quantities of A. parasiticus (mean = 16 CFU/g) than fields not cropped to sugarcane (mean = 0.1 CFU/g). The percentage of Aspergillus section Flavi composed of A. parasiticus increased to 65% under continuous sugarcane cultivation and remained high the first season of rotation out of sugarcane. Section Flavi communities in fields rotated to non-sugarcane crops for 3 to 5 years were composed of <5% A. parasiticus, and fields with no sugarcane history averaged only 0.2% A. parasiticus. The section Flavi community infecting RGV sugarcane stems ranged from 95% A. parasiticus in billets prepared for commercial planting to 52% A. parasiticus in hand-collected sugarcane stems. Vegetative compatibility assays and multilocus phylogenies verified that aflatoxin contamination of raw sugar was previously attributed to similar A. parasiticus in Japan. Association of closely related A. parasiticus genotypes with sugarcane produced in Japan and RGV, frequent infection of billets by these genotypes, and the ephemeral nature of A. parasiticus in RGV soils suggests global transport with sugarcane planting material. PMID:24224872

  19. The Aspergillus nidulans amdS gene as a marker for the identification of multicopy T-DNA integration events in Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Michielse; A. F. J. Ram; C. A. M. J. J. van den Hondel

    2004-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans amdS selection marker was used for the identification of multicopy T-DNA insertions in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Asp. awamori. The selection of transformants on agar plates containing acetamide as sole nitrogen source and hygromycin resulted in a six-fold decrease in the transformation frequency, compared with the transformation frequency obtained after hygromycin selection alone. However, it was found that

  20. Different Reactivity to Recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus Allergen l\\/a in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis or Allergic Asthma Sensitised to Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Disch; Günter Menz; Kurt Biaser; Reto Crameri

    1995-01-01

    We report a clinical study comparing the skin test reactivity to recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergen I (rAspfl\\/a) in patients with atopic dermatitis and A.fumigatus sensitisation (n = 15), A.fumigatus-allergic patients with asthma (n = 10) and healthy control subjects (n = 10). All patients sensitised to A.fumigatus reacted at intradermal skin tests with commercial A.fumigatus extracts in contrast to the

  1. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

  2. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

  3. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baozhu; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Chen, Xiaoping; Wan, Chun-Hua; Wang, Wei; Nierman, William C.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering. PMID:22069737

  4. Transcription factor Sp3 antagonizes activation of the ornithine decarboxylase promoter by Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A P; Butler, A P

    1997-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) expression is important for proliferation and is elevated in many tumor cells. We previously showed that Sp1 is a major positive regulator of ODC transcription. In this paper we have investigated transcriptional regulation of rat ODC by the closely related factor Sp3. While over-expression of Sp1 caused a dramatic activation of the ODC promoter, over-expression of Sp3 caused little or no activation in either Drosophila SL2 cells (lacking endogenous Sp1 or Sp3) or in H35 rat hepatoma cells. Furthermore, co-transfection studies demonstrated that Sp3 abolished trans -activation of the ODC promoter by Sp1. DNase I footprint studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that both recombinant Sp1 and Sp3 bind specifically to several sites within the ODC promoter also protected by nuclear extracts, including overlapping GC and CT motifs located between -116 and -104. This CT element is a site of negative ODC regulation. Mutation of either element reduced binding, but mutation of both sites was required to eliminate binding of either Sp1 or Sp3. These results demonstrate that ODC is positively regulated by Sp1 and negatively regulated by Sp3, suggesting that the ratio of these transcription factors may be an important determinant of ODC expression during development or transformation. PMID:9115370

  5. Patterns of susceptibility of Aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Baddley, John W; Marr, Kieren A; Andes, David R; Walsh, Thomas J; Kauffman, Carol A; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ito, James I; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Pappas, Peter G; Moser, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    We analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical Aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) and examined the relationship between MIC and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 broth dilution method for amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), posaconazole (POS), and ravuconazole (RAV). The isolate collection included 181 Aspergillus fumigatus, 28 Aspergillus niger, 27 Aspergillus flavus, 22 Aspergillus terreus, seven Aspergillus versicolor, five Aspergillus calidoustus, and two Aspergillus nidulans isolates and two isolates identified as Aspergillus spp. Triazole susceptibilities were < or = 4 microg/ml for most isolates (POS, 97.6%; ITR, 96.3%; VOR, 95.9%; RAV, 93.5%). The triazoles were not active against the five A. calidoustus isolates, for which MICs were > or = 4 microg/ml. AMB inhibited 93.3% of isolates at an MIC of < or = 1 microg/ml. The exception was A. terreus, for which 15 (68%) of 22 isolates had MICs of >1 microg/ml. One of 181 isolates of A. fumigatus showed resistance (MIC > or = 4 microg/ml) to two of three azoles tested. Although there appeared to be a correlation of higher VOR MICs with increased mortality at 6 weeks, the relationship was not statistically significant (R2 = 0.61; P = 0.065). Significant relationships of in vitro MIC to all-cause mortality at 6 and 12 weeks for VOR or AMB were not found. PMID:19692558

  6. RECOMBINATION, BALANCING SELECTION AND ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION IN THE AFLATOXIN GENE CLUSTER OF ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that are known to contaminate agricultural commodities, posing a serious threat to animal and human health. Aflatoxin (AF) biosynthesis has been studied extensively and involves over 20 genes clustered in a 70...

  7. Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Occurrence and Expression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carcinogen, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus, is a major food safety concern in crops. However, information on AFB1 occurrence in soil and crop residue is scarce. A series of experiments investigated the occurrence of AFB1 in soil and corn residues, and ascertained the ecology ...

  8. Functional and phylogenetic analysis of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflQ (ordA) gene ortholog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus aflatoxin (AF) biosynthetic gene cluster the aflQ (ordA) and aflP (omtA) genes encode an oxidoreductase and methyltransferase, respectively. These genes are required for the final steps in the conversion of sterigmatocystin (ST) to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1...

  9. Antifungal mechanism of the Aspergillus giganteus AFP against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Beatriz Moreno; Blanca San Segundo

    The mold Aspergillus giganteus produces a basic, low molecular weight protein showing antifungal properties against economically important plant pathogens, the AFP (Antifungal Protein). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which AFP exerts its antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea. M. grisea is the causal agent of rice blast, one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated rice worldwide. AFP

  10. A maize lectin-like protein with antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus flavus, causes an ear rot on maize and produces a mycotoxin, aflatoxin, in colonized maize kernels. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic to humans and animals upon ingestion. The presence of aflatoxins in food and feed is strictly regulated by several governmental agenci...

  11. EST Profiling for Elucidation of Molecular Regulation of Aflatoxin bBiosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Many internal and external factors, such as nutrition and environment, affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. A. flavus EST has been carried out and a microarray has be...

  12. Phenotypic changes in the chemistry of Aspergillus nidulans: Influence of culture conditions on mycelial composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann M. T. McGetrick; Alan T. Bull

    1979-01-01

    A quantitative study was made of macromolecular (nucleic acids, protein), carbohydrate and mineral (magnesium, potassium and phosphorus) components of Aspergillus nidulans in glucose limited chemostat cultures, under varying conditions of dilution rate, temperature, pH and NaCl concentration.

  13. Rapid Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus Involves Alveolar Macrophages with a Predominance of Alternatively Activated Phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shikha Bhatia; Mingjian Fei; Manohar Yarlagadda; Zengbiao Qi; Shizuo Akira; Shinobu Saijo; Yoichiro Iwakura; Nico van Rooijen; Gregory A. Gibson; Claudette M. St. Croix; Anuradha Ray; Prabir Ray; Jane Deng

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with chronic diseases such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis or severe asthma. Because of constant exposure to this fungus, it is critical for the host to exercise an immediate and decisive immune response to clear fungal spores to ward off disease.

  14. Sequence Breakpoints in the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 66-kb gene cluster in toxigenic Aspergillus flavus is responsible for the synthesis of aflatoxin (AF). Isolates of A. flavus can produce either, neither or both AF and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). We used PCR to determine whether defects are present in the AF biosynthesis gene cluster of nonaflatox...

  15. NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

  16. Spiro Fused Diterpene-Indole Alkaloids from a Creek-Bottom-Derived Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shengxin; Du, Lin; Gerea, Alexandra L.; King, Jarrod B.; You, Jianlan

    2013-01-01

    Four metabolites, teraspiridoles A–D (2–5), formed from the merger of diterpene and modified indole scaffold were obtained from an Aspergillus terreus isolate. The structures and absolute configurations of these natural products were established using NMR, mass spectrometry, Marfey’s method, VCD, and ECD data. Teraspiridole B (3) exhibited weak inhibition of planaria regeneration/survival. PMID:23924243

  17. Cloning and characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans spdA gene 

    E-print Network

    Jin, Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Using a PCR product amplified from Aspergillus nidulans DNA as a probe, the A. nidulans spdA gene, coding for a putative spermidine synthase, was isolated. Alignment of its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other spermidine synthases showed...

  18. Aspergillus, its sexual states and the new International Code of Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, John I; Taylor, John W

    2014-01-01

    The newly adopted International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) demands that dimorphic fungi, in particular those with both sexual and asexual names, now bear a single name. Although priority is no longer associated with the mode of reproduction, the ICN requires justification for choosing an asexual name over an existing sexual one. The phylogenetic approach that made dual nomenclature for fungi obsolete can be used to help choose names for large groups of fungi that are best known by asexual names. Here we apply this approach to one of the largest and most diverse asexual genera, the genus Aspergillus. We find that existing sexual names may be given to well supported clades of fungi with distinct phenotypes, which include sexual morphology as well as physiological attributes associated with xerophily, thermophily and mycotoxin production. One group of species important to food production and food safety, Aspergillus subgen. Circumdati, lacks a well supported clade; here we propose that the name Aspergillus be retained for this group. Recognizing that nomenclature has economic and social implications, particularly for old, important genera, we discuss the consequences of various scenarios to implement the new "one name for one fungus" article in the ICN, showing that our approach requires the fewest appeals to the ICN while retaining the name Aspergillus for many of the most economically and socially important species. PMID:24871603

  19. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as...

  20. Genome wide association mapping of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of maize with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with sign...

  1. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Aderemi; E. Abu; B. K. Highina

    In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 µm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 respectively.

  2. Cloning and characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans spdA gene

    E-print Network

    Jin, Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Using a PCR product amplified from Aspergillus nidulans DNA as a probe, the A. nidulans spdA gene, coding for a putative spermidine synthase, was isolated. Alignment of its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other spermidine synthases showed...

  3. Deadly strains of Kenyan aspergillus are distinct from other aflatoxin producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of crops is a world-wide problem. Lethal aflatoxicosis of humans has been associated with maize produced in Kenya for over three decades. The S strain morphotype of Aspergillus flavus was identified as the primary cause of aflatoxin contamination events occurring between 2004...

  4. Immunochemical studies of Aspergillus fumigatus mycelial antigens by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VERONICA M. HEARN; ELAINE V. WILSON; J.-P. Latge; D. W. R. Mackenzie

    1990-01-01

    Differences were detectable among strains of the opportunist fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumgatus when water- soluble (WS) preparations were analysed by combined SDS-PAGE and Western blotting procedures. A wide range of molecules of apparent molecular masses from approximately 20 to > lo0 kDa showed specific binding to antibodies raised in rabbits to A. fumgatus wall and cytoplasmic components. The ability to

  5. The launch of the Aspergillus flavus genome browser and limited release of whole genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These toxic and carcinogenic compounds contaminate pre-harvest agricultural crops in the field and post-harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed, Aspergilllus flavus wh...

  6. Sequoiatones C-f, constituents of the redwood endophyte Aspergillus parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Stierle, A A; Stierle, D B; Bugni, T

    2001-10-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus, a fungal isolate from a coast redwood tree (Sequoia sempervirens), has been shown to produce four new compounds, sequoiatones C-F (1-4). The structures of these compounds, all of which are cytotoxic to brine shrimp, were deduced by spectral analysis. PMID:11678666

  7. Phytochemical Inhibition of Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus by Constituents of Walnut ( Juglans regia )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noreen Mahoney; Russell J. Molyneux

    2004-01-01

    Tulare walnut, a cultivar highly resistant to aflatoxin formation, was investigated for endogenous phytochemical constituents capable of inhibiting aflatoxigenesis in Aspergillus flavus. The activity, located entirely in the pellicle (seed coat), was extractable to various degrees with polar solvents, although some activity remained unextractable, indicating that the bioactivity resided in a complex of hydrolyzable tannins. These tannins can be hydrolyzed

  8. Plant Disease / August 1997 911 Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Aspergillus flavus Strain Composition

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Composition and Propagule Density in Yuma County, Arizona, Soils Thomas V. Orum, Donna M. Bigelow, and Merritt Research Center, USDA, ARS, New Orleans, LA 70179 Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr. is a soil- inhabiting fungus are occupied by communities of A. flavus VCGs rather than a single A. flavus population (2). Strain composition

  9. Effect of stalk inoculation site on kernel infection of corn by Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus may infect corn kernels on developing ears by several routes. Kernel infection is postulated to occur inside ears primarily by the colonization of silk tissues. Airborne conidia land on exposed silks, germinate, and then colonize the silks inside the ear. Onc...

  10. Insights into sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus from variation in experimental crosses and natural populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus contaminates many important crops worldwide and is the major producer of aflatoxins, which are cancer-causing secondary metabolites. Biological control is the most effective means of reducing inoculum levels of detrimental aflatoxin-producing fungal pathogens in agricultural syst...

  11. Unfolding and Refolding of Aspergillus Niger PhyB Phytase: Role of Disulfide Bridges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Role of disulfide bridges in folding of Aspergillus niger phytase pH 2.5-optimum (PhyB) was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Guanidinium chloride (GuCl) at 1.0 M unfolded phytase; however, its removal by dialysis refolded the protein. Thiol reagent, tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphin...

  12. Toxicity of penicillic acid for rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. [Aspergillus; Penicillium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Sorenson; J. Simpson

    1985-01-01

    Penicillic acid (PA) is a polyketide mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. This mycotoxin is toxic in experimental animals and has also been reported to be carcinogenic. The cytotoxicity of penicillic acid was studied in rat albeolar macrophages (AM) in vitro. The effects of penicillic acid on membrane integrity were studied by measuring cell volume changes and

  13. Role of LAMMER Kinase in Cell Wall Biogenesis during Vegetative Growth of Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yu Kyung; Kang, Eun-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the acquisition of developmental competence, the expression of genes for ?-1,3-glucan synthase and chitin synthase was affected in different ways by Aspergillus nidulans LAMMER kinase. LAMMER kinase deletion, ?lkhA, led to decrease in ?-1,3-glucan, but increase in chitin content. The ?lkhA strain was also resistant to nikkomycin Z. PMID:25606019

  14. Molecular characterization of a blue-copper laccase, TILA, of Aspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Scherer; Reinhard Fischer

    2001-01-01

    Laccases are blue-copper enzymes, which oxidize phenolic substrates and thereby reduce molecular oxygen. They are widespread within fungi and are involved in lignin degradation or secondary metabolism such as pigment biosynthesis. Many fungi contain several laccases, not all of whose functions are known. In Aspergillus nidulans one, yA, is expressed during asexual development and converts a yellow precursor to the

  15. Role of LAMMER Kinase in Cell Wall Biogenesis during Vegetative Growth of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu Kyung; Kang, Eun-Hye; Park, Hee-Moon

    2014-12-01

    Depending on the acquisition of developmental competence, the expression of genes for ?-1,3-glucan synthase and chitin synthase was affected in different ways by Aspergillus nidulans LAMMER kinase. LAMMER kinase deletion, ?lkhA, led to decrease in ?-1,3-glucan, but increase in chitin content. The ?lkhA strain was also resistant to nikkomycin Z. PMID:25606019

  16. Control, immunoregulation, and expression of innate pulmonary host defenses against Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Walsh; E. Roilides; K. Cortez; S. Kottilil; J. Bailey; C. A. Lyman

    2005-01-01

    The innate host defense system (IHDS) against Aspergillus fumigatus includes dedicated phagocytic cells (peripheral blood monocytes, monocyte derived macrophages, pulmonary alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells), cytokines, chemokines, toll-like receptors, and antimicrobial peptides. During the past decade, the advances in the field of the IHDS have been enormous, allowing a better understanding of the immunophar- macological

  17. Pectinase Production from Mango Peel Using Aspergillus foetidus and its Application in Processing of Mango Juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannam Sudheer Kumar; Poondla Vijaya Kumar; Obulam Vijaya Sarathi Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate mango peel as a substrate for the production of pectinase enzyme by using Aspergillus foetidus in solid state and submerged fermentation systems. The pectin content of 18.2% (w\\/w) was found in Totapuri mango peel. The highest productivity of polygalacturonase and pectin lyase was obtained with solid state fermentation. Both enzymes had optimum

  18. Hyperspectral image classification and development of fluorescence index for single corn kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

  19. Continuous production of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus immobilized in a porous disk bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naihu Ju; Shaw S. Wang

    1986-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus NRRL 1960 was grown on porous disks rotating intermittently in and out of the liquid phase. This immobilized fungal cell bioreactor was used to produce itaconic acid from glucose in a continuous operation. The effect of temperature, pH, disk rotation speed, and feed rate on the itaconic acid concentration and volumetric productivity were studied. The highest itaconic acid

  20. Ross procedure in a child with Aspergillus endocarditis and bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Fotios A; Kanakis, Meletios A; Contrafouris, Constantinos; Laskari, Cleo; Rammos, Spyridon; Apostolidis, Christos; Azariadis, Prodromos; Chatzis, Andrew C

    2014-01-01

    The case is presented of a previously healthy infant with a known asymptomatic bicuspid aortic valve who developed fungal endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic root replacement with a pulmonary autograft (Ross procedure). Cultured operative material revealed Aspergillus infection. The patient had an excellent recovery and remained well one year later. PMID:25192408

  1. Aspergillus flavus Genomic Data Mining Provides Clues for Its Use in Producing Biobased Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is notorious for its ability to produce aflatoxins. It is also an opportunistic pathogen that infects plants, animals and human beings. The ability to survive in the natural environment, living on plant tissues (leaves or stalks), live or dead insects make A. flavus a ubiquitous...

  2. Cryptococcus neoformans Galactoxylomannan Contains an Epitope(s) That Is Cross-Reactive with Aspergillus Galactomannan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic Dalle; Pierre Emmanuel Charles; Karine Blanc; Denis Caillot; Pascal Chavanet; Francoise Dromer; Alain Bonnin; Hopital d'enfants CHU

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of cryptococcosis in which a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for As- pergillus galactomannan was positive, with no evidence of aspergillosis. Soluble antigens from 19 Cryptococcus neoformans strains and purified carbohydrates of C. neoformans capsule were thus assayed in the Aspergillus ga- lactomannan ELISA. Antigens from all C. neoformans strains, and purified galactoxylomannan, gave a positive

  3. Analyses of black Aspergillus species of peanut and maize for ochratoxins and fumonisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus section Nigri, or the black aspergilli, represents genetically closely related species that produce the mycotoxins ochratoxins, and the fumonisins. Fumonisin B1 is of particular concern, since it also is a virulence factor for maize. Our preliminary data indicated that black ...

  4. Biosorption and solubilization of copper oxychloride fungicide by Aspergillus niger and the influence of calcium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed M. Gharieb

    2002-01-01

    The biosorption of copper oxychloride fungicide particulates(~1 µm diameter), at concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ppm active ingredient (ai), by pelleted mycelium of Aspergillus niger grown on Czapek Dox medium was evaluated. The concentration of the fungicide adsorbed to the mycelium, remaining suspended or solubilized in the medium, was determined by analysis of its copper content (CuF)using atomic absorption

  5. Farnesol-induced apoptosis in Aspergillus nidulans reveals a possible mechanism for antagonistic interactions between fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camile P. Semighini; Jacob M. Hornby; Raluca Dumitru; Kenneth W. Nickerson; Steven D. Harris

    2006-01-01

    Summary The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans secretes far- nesol, which acts as a quorum-sensing molecule and prevents the yeast to mycelium conversion. In this study we examined the effect of farnesol in the fila- mentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans . We show that externally added farnesol has no effect on hyphal morphogenesis; instead, it triggers morphological features characteristic of apoptosis. Additional

  6. Potential aflatoxin and ochratoxin a production by Aspergillus species in poultry feed processing.

    PubMed

    Fraga, M E; Curvello, F; Gatti, M J; Cavaglieri, L R; Dalcero, A M; da Rocha Rosa, C A

    2007-04-01

    Poultry feeds are prone to fungal growth and mycotoxin production during processing. The identification of biota with the ability to produce mycotoxins is essential. The aims of this study were (1) to monitor the mycobiota counts at different stages of poultry feed processing; (2) to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus species; (3) to evaluate the natural incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The ability of Aspergillus spp. and its teleomorphs isolated here to produce these toxins was also investigated. Samples (144) were collected at random from a factory in Brazil. The occurrence of Aspergillus and Eurotium species was demonstrated on DRBC and DG18 media and the production of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A and their natural incidence were determined by TLC and HPLC methods. A. flavus and E. chevalieri were the most prevalent species isolated. Fungal contamination was not found after the pelleting process, though Aspergillus and Eurotium species were recovered from trough samples. High levels of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A producers were found at all stages of poultry feed processing. Also, high natural contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was found in the samples. Contact of feed with remainder poultry feed could lead to fungal contamination, so the risk of aflatoxin and/or ochratoxin A contamination of feed must be taken into account. PMID:17216313

  7. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Horn

    2007-01-01

    Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to their ability to produce toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is dependent upon a basic understanding of their diversity in agricultural ecosystems. This review summarizes our current knowledge

  8. Integrated database for identifying candate genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr, an opportunistic fungus that produces aflatoxin, is pathogenic to maize and other oilseed crops. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen, and its presence markedly reduces the value of grain. Understanding and enhancing host resistance to A. flavus infection and/or subsequent af...

  9. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003–2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus flavus L -morphotype as the predominant species in maize field, no evidence of the highly toxigenic S-morphotype and of other aflatoxigenic species are reported. The risk of a shift in traditional occurrence areas for aflatoxins is expected in the world and in particular in South East of Europe due to the increasing average temperatures. Biological control of aflatoxin risk in the field by atoxigenic strains of A. flavus starts to be widely used in Africa and USA. Studies are necessary on the variation of aflatoxin production in populations of A. flavus to characterize stable atoxigenic A. flavus strains. The aim of present article is to give an overview on biodiversity and genetic variation of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxins risk in the field. PMID:25101075

  10. Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P?0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

  11. Mycoflora of poultry feeds and ochratoxin-producing ability of isolated Aspergillus and Penicillium species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. R. Rosa; J. M. M. Ribeiro; M. J. Fraga; M. Gatti; L. R. Cavaglieri; C. E. Magnoli; A. M. Dalcero; C. W. G. Lopes

    2006-01-01

    In Brazil, commercial feedstuffs are an important component in modern animal husbandry, but there is no information available about fungal contamination and ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The aims of this study were to determine the mycoflora incidence in poultry feeds and evaluate OTA production. In addition, the ability to produce OTA by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species was investigated. A

  12. Bioremediation of CCA-C treated wood by Aspergillus niger fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Kartal; T. Kakitani; Y. Imamura

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove copper, chromium, and arsenic from waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative. The removal of heavy metals by A. niger was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, A. niger was cultivated in carbohydrates media in order to produce large quantities of oxalic

  13. THE SEC- MUTANT OF ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS IS ALTERED IN ITS PROFILE OF SECONDARY METABOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sec- (secondary metabolite minus) mutant of Aspergillus parasiticus SUI produces fewer conidia on complete and minimum media and fails to produce aflatoxin or to convert labeled aflatoxin pathway precursors into aflatoxin. Transcripts of the aflatoxin pathway genes are barely detectable and tra...

  14. Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of Peanut Responding to Drought Stress and Aspergillus Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest A. parasiticus infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions; however, drought tolerant peanut lines have less afl...

  15. Use of PCR for Detecting Aspergillus flavus in Maize Treated by Gamma Radiation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Aquino; Ralf Greiner; Ursula Konietzny; Regina H. Hassegawa; Tatiana Alves dos Reis; Benedito Corręa; Anna Lucia C. H. Villavicencio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of gamma radiation process on the fungal DNA and the application of PCR in the detection of Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize grains. The samples were inoculated with a toxigenic strain and incubated under controlled conditions of relative humidity, water activity, and temperature for 15 days. After incubation, the samples

  16. Studies on Aspergillus oryzae Mutants for the Production of Single Cell Proteins from Deoiled Rice Bran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudravaram Ravinder; Linga Venkateshwar Rao; Pogaku Ravindra

    2003-01-01

    Summary Ethyl methyl sulphonate was used to induce point mutation in Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC 1846). Incubation with ethyl methyl sulphonate for 1 h resulted in 98 % killing of spores. By screening the survived colonies three hypermorphs were found (Shan1, Shan2 and Shan3). These three mutants along with the A. oryzae (MTCC 1846) were used for the production of single

  17. Aspergillus-Associated Airway Disease, Inflammation, and the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H.; Al-Alawi, Mazen; Logan, P. Mark; Greene, Catherine M.; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus moulds exist ubiquitously as spores that are inhaled in large numbers daily. Whilst most are removed by anatomical barriers, disease may occur in certain circumstances. Depending on the underlying state of the human immune system, clinical consequences can ensue ranging from an excessive immune response during allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis to the formation of an aspergilloma in the immunocompetent state. The severest infections occur in those who are immunocompromised where invasive pulmonary aspergillosis results in high mortality rates. The diagnosis of Aspergillus-associated pulmonary disease is based on clinical, radiological, and immunological testing. An understanding of the innate and inflammatory consequences of exposure to Aspergillus species is critical in accounting for disease manifestations and preventing sequelae. The major components of the innate immune system involved in recognition and removal of the fungus include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptide production, and recognition by pattern recognition receptors. The cytokine response is also critical facilitating cell-to-cell communication and promoting the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of the host response. In the following review, we discuss the above areas with a focus on the innate and inflammatory response to airway Aspergillus exposure and how these responses may be modulated for therapeutic benefit. PMID:23971044

  18. Aflatoxigenesis induced in Aspergillus flavus by oxidative stress and reduction by phenolic antioxidants from tree nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds, pistachios, and walnuts grown in California have an aggregate value of over $3.3 billion, with a large proportion of the crop being exported. However, these tree nuts can be subject to contamination by aflatoxins, metabolites produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus, and im...

  19. Aspergillus flavus Blast2GO gene ontology database: elevated growth temperature alters amino acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of a representative gene ontology (GO) database is a prerequisite for a successful functional genomics study. Using online Blast2GO resources we constructed a GO database of Aspergillus flavus. Of the predicted total 13,485 A. flavus genes 8,987 were annotated with GO terms. The mea...

  20. Extracellular ?-Mannanase Production by the Immobilization of the Locally Isolated Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOUSTAFA Y. EL-NAGGAR; SAMY A. EL-ASSAR; AMANY S. YOUSSEF; NERMEEN A. EL-SERSY

    The production of ?-mannanase by the immobilization of the local Aspergillus niger strain isolated from the coconut fibres was studied. The fungal spores were entrapped in different gel materials. Alginate (1%) was the best gel matrix for ?- mannanase production, although alginate entrapment showed a relatively low ?-mannanase activity compared to free culture system. The entrapped cells in alginate were

  1. Inhibitory effects of gossypol-related compounds on growth of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypolone demonstrated growth inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus isolate AF13. Growth inhibition was concentration dependent, with a 50% effective dose of 90 µg gossypolone per mL of medium (165 µM). Growth inhibition levels of up to 95% were achieved with gossypolone concentrations ...

  2. Invasive Aspergillosis of the Hand Caused by Aspergillus ustus: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Olorunnipa, Olushola; Zhang, Andrew Y.

    2009-01-01

    This is a case report of a 61-year-old cardiac transplant patient who developed a disseminated infection involving the upper extremity with a rare fungus known as Aspergillus ustus. The patient was successfully treated with aggressive serial debridements, antifungal medications, and reduction of immunosuppression. With these interventions, the patient avoided amputation despite the aggressive nature of this infection. PMID:19568818

  3. Volatile trans-2-hexenal a soybean aldehyde inhibits Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trans-2-hexenal, a volatile aldehyde, is produced by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and other plants via the lipoxygenase pathway. In vitro tests showed it significantly (p< 0.001) reduced Aspergillus flavus germinating conidial viability at 10 µM, with approximately 95% viability reduction observ...

  4. Induction of Apoptosis by Sphingoid Long-Chain Bases in Aspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jijun Cheng; Tae-Sik Park; Li-Chun Chio; Anthony S. Fischl; Xiang S. Ye

    2003-01-01

    Sphingolipid metabolism is implicated to play an important role in apoptosis. Here we show that dihy- drosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS), two major sphingoid bases of fungi, have potent fungi- cidal activity with remarkably high structural and stereochemical specificity against Aspergillus nidulans .I n fact, only naturally occurring DHS and PHS are active. Further analysis revealed that DHS and PHS

  5. Use of a rep-PCR system to predict species in the Aspergillus section Nigri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger aggregate within the A. section Nigri, is a group of black-spored aspergilli which taxonomy has been elusive. REP-PCR has become a rapid and cost-effective method for genotyping fungi and bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a semi-automate...

  6. Three new dioxopiperazine metabolites from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Fres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Ying Zhao; Tian Jiao Zhu; Guo Tao Fan; Hong Bing Liu; Yu Chun Fang; Qian Qun Gu; Wei Ming Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Three new dioxopiperazine metabolites (1–3), together with two known compounds, N-acetyltyramine (4) and cyclo-(Ala-Val) (5), were isolated from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Their cytotoxic activities against the K562 cell line were preliminarily evaluated by the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) method.

  7. Inhibition of respiration of Aspergillus oryzae by adsorption of the mycelium on cellulose acetate fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Meyrath; A. F. McIntosh

    1964-01-01

    Résumé L'intensité de respiration d'Aspergillus oryzae est fortement diminuée par adsorption du mycélium ŕ un filtre d'acétate de cellulose soigneusement nettoyé. Cet effet suggčre que certaines substances d'une importance capitale dans le métabolisme sont éliminées de la surface des hyphes.

  8. The stereochemical course of sulphuryl transfer catalysed by arylsulphatase II from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed Central

    Chai, C L; Loughlin, W A; Lowe, G

    1992-01-01

    Phenyl [(R)-16O,17O,18O]sulphate was synthesized and used to study the stereochemical course of sulphuryl transfer to p-cresol catalysed by arylsulphatase II from Aspergillus oryzae. The reaction was shown to proceed with retention of configuration at the sulphur atom, providing evidence for the involvement of a sulpho-enzyme intermediate on the reaction pathway. PMID:1445242

  9. Isolation and characterisation of a novel stress-inducible PDI-family gene from Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J Jeenes; R Pfaller; D. B Archer

    1997-01-01

    Current strategies to improve the secretion of heterologous proteins in Aspergillus niger include the manipulation of chaperones and foldases specific to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A family of ER-specific protein s which share active-site homology wit protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been identified from other systems, many of which are inducible by agents which cause malfolding of proteins in the

  10. Genes Differentially Expressed in Conidia and Hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus upon Exposure to Human Neutrophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janyce A. Sugui; H. Stanley Kim; Kol A. Zarember; Yun C. Chang; John I. Gallin; Willian C. Nierman; Kyung J. Kwon-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Several studies have addressed the mechanism involved in host defense but only few have investigated the pathogen's response to attack by the host cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the genes differentially expressed in conidia vs hyphae of A. fumigatus

  11. The release of the Aspergillus flavus whole genome sequence for public access

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These toxic and carcinogenic compounds contaminate pre-harvest agricultural crops in the field and post-harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed, Aspergilllus flavus wh...

  12. Incidence of fumonisin B2 production within Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from California raisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri occur frequently and in high populations on grapes. Species within this section include A. niger, A. tubingensis, and A. carbonarius, and are potential sources for mycotoxins including ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in grapes and grape products. As...

  13. Aspergillus Flavus/Aflatoxin Occurrence and Expression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and zearalenone, produced by Aspergillus and Fusarium species when present in grain can cause serious health problems in livestock and humans. Little is known about the occurrence of these toxins in corn plant debris post-harve...

  14. Influence of Gene Expression on Variable Aflatoxin Production by Different Strains of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a globally distributed fungus. It causes disease in human and crop plants due to the production of numerous conidia dispersed by air movement and possibly by insects. The fungus is an economically important food contaminant because it produces the most potent natural carcinogen...

  15. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Using Date-Based Medium Fortified with Whey and Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Mehyar; K. S. Delaimy; S. A. Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    The ability of Aspergillus niger to produce citric acid from dates was evaluated. Two strains of A. niger (ATCC 6275 and 9642) were grown in media containing different concentrations of date extract or molasses fortified with whey, methanol and tricalcium phosphate. The fermentation experiments were conducted at 25° C for 12 days and samples were withdrawn at different time intervals

  16. Gram-scale production of a basidiomycetous laccase in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mekmouche, Yasmina; Zhou, Simeng; Cusano, Angela M; Record, Eric; Lomascolo, Anne; Robert, Viviane; Simaan, A Jalila; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Ullah, Sana; Chaspoul, Florence; Tron, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We report on the expression in Aspergillus niger of a laccase gene we used to produce variants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grams of recombinant enzyme can be easily obtained. This highlights the potential of combining this generic laccase sequence to the yeast and fungal expression systems for large-scale productions of variants. PMID:23867099

  17. Understanding Nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae: A Windfall of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. A. sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing A. parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to...

  18. False-positive Aspergillus antigenemia due to blood product conditioning fluids.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Gijón, Paloma; Alonso Fernández, Roberto; Ballesteros, Mónica; Anguita, Javier; Bouza, Emilio

    2012-08-01

    The presence of Aspergillus antigens in blood transfusion components from different manufacturers was analyzed. Galacomannans were found in transfused patients, pooled platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma, and packed red cells collected using Fresenius Kabi bags. Galacomannans were also found in blood collection anticoagulant and platelet additive solution from this manufacturer. PMID:22610929

  19. N-acetylcysteine inhibits germination of conidia and growth of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp.

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, A J; Walsh, T J; Daigle, D J

    1996-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine inhibited hyphal growth and germination of conidia of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. N-Acetylcysteine inhibited conidial germination as well as or better than L-cysteine. Cysteine-related compounds may provide a potential therapeutic strategy against agriculturally and medically important fungal pathogens. PMID:8723482

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF EXPRESSION CASSETTES TO CONFER RESISTANCE TO ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been working to develop cotton that is resistant to the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus using a genetic engineering approach. Success of this project depends upon the identification of appropriate regulatory elements, as well as structural genes that can be linked to confer a new pathoge...

  1. Specific antibodies to recombinant allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis patients with ABPA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viswanath P Kurup; Alan P Knutsen; Richard B Moss; Naveen K Bansal

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus, a widely distributed fungus, has been implicated in causing life threatening infections as well as severe asthma and allergic diseases in man. Allergic affliction like allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a disabling lung disease frequently seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. Immunodiagnosis of the former is comparatively easier due to the availability of purified antigens

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus Forms Biofilms with Reduced Antifungal Drug Susceptibility on Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. Seidler; Stefanie Salvenmoser; Frank-Michael C. Muller

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients and a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tracts of asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Biofilms enable bacteria and yeasts to persist in infections and can contribute to antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the ability of A. fumigatus to form biofilms on polystyrene (PS) and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) and

  3. Seasonal Distribution of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium Species Isolated in Homes of Fungal Allergic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gómez de An; JM Torres-Rodríguez; E Alvarado Ramírez

    Background: Allergy to airborne fungi can cause rhinitis and severe asthma, hence the exposure to spores inside home is an important factor of sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and prevalence of species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium inside and outside of homes of patients allergic to fungi and to evaluate seasonal variations. Methods:

  4. Black olives as substrate for Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin B 1 production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Leontopoulos; A Siafaka; P Markaki

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by certain Aspergillus species on agricultural commodities. Molds isolated from black olives are potentially toxigenic and present a potential health hazard. Olive oil originating from contaminated olives with AFB1 might also be contaminated. The aim of this study was to investigate A. parasiticus growth and AFB1 production in black

  5. Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize and peanut: Molecular biology, breeding, environmental stress and future perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of maize (Zea mays L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus results in the contamination with carcinogenic mycotoxins known as aflatoxins leading to economic losses as well as a potential health threat to human. The interactio...

  6. Improved annotation through genome-scale metabolic modeling of Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanwipa Vongsangnak; Peter Olsen; Kim Hansen; Steen Krogsgaard; Jens Nielsen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since ancient times the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the fermentation industry for the production of fermented sauces and the production of industrial enzymes. Recently, the genome sequence of A. oryzae with 12,074 annotated genes was released but the number of hypothetical proteins accounted for more than 50% of the annotated genes. Considering the industrial importance

  7. Multicentric Epidemiological Study ofAspergillus fumigatus Isolates by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. RODRIGUEZ; T. DE MEEUS; M. MALLIE; F. RENAUD; F. SYMOENS; P. MONDON; M.-A. PIENS; B. LEBEAU; M. A. VIVIANI; R. GRILLOT; N. NOLARD; F. CHAPUIS; A.-M. TORTORANO; M. BASTIDE; d'Informatique Medicale

    1996-01-01

    The genotypes of 63 isolates ofAspergillus fumigatusobtained from three hospitals in different geographical areas and of eight culture collection strains were determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Twelve of the 17 enzymatic loci studied were polymorphic, giving rise to 48 different electrophoretic types. The existence of fixed multilocus genotypes, significant heterozygote deficits and excesses at the different loci, and linkage disequilibria

  8. Hydrophobins from Aspergillus species cannot be clearly divided into two classes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hydrophobins are a family of small secreted proteins with a characteristic pattern of eight cysteine residues found exclusively in filamentous fungi. They have originally been divided into two classes based on their physical properties and hydropathy patterns, and are involved in the attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic structures, the formation of aerial structures and appear to be involved in pathogenicity. Findings Analysis of nine genome sequences from seven Aspergilli revealed fifty hydrophobins, where each species displayed between two to eight hydrophobins. Twenty of the identified hydrophobins have not previously been described from these species. Apart from the cysteines, very little amino acid sequence homology was observed. Twenty-three of the identified hydrophobins could be classified as class I hydrophobins based on their conserved cysteine spacing pattern and hydropathy pattern. However twenty-six of the identified hydrophobins were intermediate forms. Notably, a single hydrophobin, ATEG_04730, from Aspergillus terreus displayed class II cysteine spacing and had a class II hydropathy pattern. Conclusion Fifty hydrophobins were identified in Aspergillus, all containing the characteristic eight cysteine pattern. Aspergillus terreus exhibited both class I and class II hydrophobins. This is the first report of an Aspergillus species with the potential to express both class I and class II hydrophobins. Many of the identified hydrophobins could not directly be allocated to either class I or class II. PMID:21182770

  9. Effective lead selection for improved protein production in Aspergillus niger based on integrated genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise I. Jacobs; Maurien M. A. Olsthoorn; Isabelle Maillet; Michiel Akeroyd; Stefaan Breestraat; Serge Donkers; Cees A. M. J. J. van den Hondel; Rolf Kooistra; Thomas Lapointe; Hildegard Menke; Rogier Meulenberg; Marijke Misset; Wally H. Müller; Arthur Ram; Sabrina Rodriguez; Marc S. Roelofs; Johannes A. Roubos; Arie J. Verkleij; Herman J. Pel; Hein Stam; Cees M. J. Sagt

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited for industrial production of enzymes and organic acids. An integrated genomics approach was developed to determine cellular responses of A. niger to protein production in well-controlled fermentations. Different protein extraction methods in combination with automated sample processing and protein identification allowed quantitative analysis of 898 proteins. Three different enzyme overproducing strains were

  10. Production of Pyomelanin, a Second Type of Melanin, via the Tyrosine Degradation Pathway in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannette Schmaler-Ripcke; Venelina Sugareva; Peter Gebhardt; Robert Winkler; Olaf Kniemeyer; Thorsten Heinekamp; Axel A. Brakhage

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important airborne fungal pathogen of immunosuppressed humans. A. fumigatus is able to produce dihydroxynaphthalene melanin, which is predominantly present in the conidia. Its biosynthesis is an important virulence determinant. Here, we show that A. fumigatus is able to produce an alternative melanin, i.e., pyomelanin, by a different pathway, starting from L-tyrosine. Proteome analysis indicated that

  11. The inhibitory effect of Bacillus megaterium on aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway gene expression in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the major fungal mold that colonize peanut in the field and during storage. The impacts to human and animal health and to economy in agriculture and commerce are significant since this mould produces the most potent natural toxins, aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic, mut...

  12. Regulation of Apical Dominance in Aspergillus nidulans Hyphae by Reactive Oxygen Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camile P. Semighini; Steven D. Harris

    2008-01-01

    In fungal hyphae, apical dominance refers to the suppression of secondary polarity axes in the general vicinity of a growing hyphal tip. The mechanisms underlying apical dominance remain largely undefined, although calcium signaling may play a role. Here, we describe the localized accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the apical region of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae. Our analysis of atmA

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE MAINTENANCE OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS TOXIGENICITY IN AGRICULTURAL FIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi often produce aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid, mycotoxins that contaminate preharvest peanuts, corn and cottonseed. Soil populations of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii and A. caelatus were examined over a large geographic area within...

  14. Description of a Distinctive Aflatoxin-Producing Strain of Aspergillus nomius that Produces Submerged Sclerotia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus nomius var. elaeosporus var. nov. is described from pistachio, pecan, and fig orchards in California. Similar to the typical variety of A. nomius, var. elaeosporus produced both B and G aflatoxins but not cyclopiazonic acid and grew poorly at 42 C. Furthermore, previous research using re...

  15. Assessment of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid production by Aspergillus flavus isolates from Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Richard; Deepak Bhatnagar; S. Peterson; G. Sandor

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-two isolates of Aspergillus flavus were obtained from various sources in Hungary. All isolates were morphologically identified as A. flavus and three atypical variants were confirmed as A. flavus by comparing their DNA with an ex type culture of A. flavus. None of these isolates produced aflatoxins when tested on coconut agar or grown on rice medium and culture extracts

  16. Survival of Aspergillus fumigatus in Serum Involves Removal of Iron from Transferrin: the Role of Siderophores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. T. Hissen; J. M. T. Chow; L. J. Pinto; M. M. Moore

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungus which can cause invasive disease in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus can grow in medium containing up to 80% human serum, despite very low concen- trations of free iron. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which A. fumigatus obtains iron from the serum iron-binding protein transferrin. In iron-depleted minimal essential

  17. Inhibitory effects of Thyme oils on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iraj Rasooli; Mehdi Razzaghi Abyaneh

    2004-01-01

    Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and its aflatoxin production exposed to the essential oils extracted from two varieties of Thyme i.e. Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus x-porlock were studied. The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the zone of fungal growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the oils

  18. Production of aflatoxin B 1 by Aspergillus ruber THOM and CHURCH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Leitao; J. Le Bars; J.-R. Bailly

    1989-01-01

    Production of aflatoxins by Aspergillus ruber THOM and CHURCH was first reported by KULIK and HOLADAY (1967), although these results have lacked confirmation. In this paper we provide evidence that this fungal strain produces aflatoxins. This finding has implications for food hygiene, especially in countries where such moulds are used in the preparation of foodstuffs.

  19. Endophytic associations and production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section Nigri species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are considered plant pathogens of maize (Zea mays) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) where they can cause similar disease symptoms as Fusarium verticillioides, such as seedling blight. However, the main concern with black aspergi...

  20. Aspergillus flavus whole genome and EST sequence releases and construction of homologous gene search blast server

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites. These compounds, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, contaminate pre-harvest agricultural crops in the field and post-harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed...

  1. Application of biotechnology towards the enhancement of maize resistance to aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of maize with aflatoxins by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus poses serious health hazards to humans and animals worldwide. This important fact and the regulations instituted in many countries to control the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and feed have stimulated rese...

  2. Managing and Monitoring of Aspergillus flavus in Corn Using Bioplastic-based Formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of bioplastic-based formulations for delivering a non-aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus and for monitoring Aspergilli with the final objective of controlling aflatoxin contamination in corn. Field application of inoculated bioplastic granules show...

  3. Genetic Isolation among Sympatric Vegetative Compatibility Groups of the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus, fungal pathogen of animals and both wild and economically important plants, is most recognized for producing aflatoxin, a cancer-causing secondary metabolite, that contaminates food and animal feed globally. A. flavus is asexual and has a vegetative incompatibility system that li...

  4. MICROARRAY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF MAIZE IN RESPONSE TO DROUGHT STRESS AND ASPERGILLUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of corn in the field is known to be influenced by numerous factors. Drought stress is conducive to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. Drought tolerant germplasm could reduce preharvest aflatoxin contamination. The objective of this study is to understand...

  5. THE ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS PROTEIN AFLJ INTERACTS WITH THE AFLATOXIN PATHWAY-SPECIFIC REGULATOR AFLR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus parasiticus aflJ gene, located in the aflatoxin biosynthetic gene cluster and divergently transcribed from the aflatoxin pathway regulatory gene aflR, encodes a 438-amino acid protein. Transformation of aflJ plus aflR, but not aflJ alone, increased the accumulation of aflatoxin prec...

  6. Host Genes Involved in the Interaction between Aspergillus flavus and Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus is a major concern in maize production. Understanding the complex interrelationships of genes during the A. flavus-maize interaction may be the key to developing strategies to interrupt the aflatoxin contamination process. The A. flavus Genome Seq...

  7. Genes differentially expressed by Aspergillus flavus strains after loss of aflatoxin production by serial transfers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species. Levels of aflatoxins in agricultural commodities are stringently regulated by many countries and thus aflatoxins are a major concern to both producers and consumers. A cluster...

  8. Aspergillus section Nigri as contributor of fumonisin B(2) contamination in maize.

    PubMed

    Logrieco, A F; Haidukowski, M; Susca, A; Mulč, G; Munkvold, G P; Moretti, A

    2014-01-01

    Fumonisins (FBs), which are carcinogenic mycotoxins, are known to be typically produced by several phytopathogenic fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, two important pathogens of maize worldwide, are the most common species that produce FBs. The main FBs produced by these species are FB1, FB2 and FB3. Moreover, recently, fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus niger have been also reported to produce FBs (in particular, FB2 and FB4). In a survey on maize carried out in Central Italy, 17 maize kernel samples were collected at harvest and analysed for FB1, FB2 and FB3, as well as fungal contamination, with a particular attention to the species-producing FBs. All 17 samples were contaminated by F. verticillioides and/or F. proliferatum at a level ranging from 13% to 100% of kernels. However, 10 out of 17 samples were also contaminated by Aspergillus section Nigri with a range from 6% to 68% of kernels. There was a significant inverse logarithmic relationship between levels of Fusarium and Aspergillus contamination. All samples were contaminated by FBs; FB1 ranged from 0.09 to 30.2 ?g g(-1), whereas FB2 ranged from 0.04 to 13.2 ?g g(-1). The ratio of FB2/FB1 contamination in the maize samples was evaluated and the highest values occurred in samples contaminated with Aspergillus section Nigri. Thirty strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from these samples were molecularly identified (based on sequences of two housekeeping genes) and analysed for their capability to produce FB2. Among the 30 strains isolated, 12 were identified as Aspergillus welwitschiae (syn. A. awamori) and 18 as A. tubingensis. FB2 was produced by five out of 12 strains of A. welwitschiae within a range of 0.20-5 ?g g(-1). This is the first report showing the capability of Aspergillus section Nigri from maize to produce FB2 and its possibility to contribute to FB accumulation in kernels. PMID:24313896

  9. Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 ?-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 and the semi-industrial strain, S. cerevisiae Mnu?1. The recombinant AmyA and GlaA displayed protein sizes of 110–150 kDa and 90 kDa, respectively, suggesting significant glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. The Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] and Y294[AmyA-GlaA] strains were able to utilise 20 g l-1 raw corn starch as sole carbohydrate source, with ethanol titers of 9.03 and 6.67 g l-1 (0.038 and 0.028 g l-1 h-1), respectively, after 10 days. With a substrate load of 200 g l-1 raw corn starch, Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] yielded 70.07 g l-1 ethanol (0.58 g l-1 h-1) after 120 h of fermentation, whereas Y294[AmyA-GlaA] was less efficient at 43.33 g l-1 ethanol (0.36 g l-1 h-1). Conclusions In a semi-industrial amylolytic S. cerevisiae strain expressing the A. tubingensis ?-amylase and glucoamylase genes, 200 g l-1 raw starch was completely hydrolysed (saccharified) in 120 hours with 74% converted to released sugars plus fermentation products and the remainder presumably to biomass. The single-step conversion of raw starch represents significant progress towards the realisation of CBP without the need for any heat pretreatment. Furthermore, the amylases were produced and secreted by the host strain, thus circumventing the need for exogenous amylases. PMID:24286270

  10. [Investigation of acid proteinase and phospholipase activity as virulence factors in clinical Aspergillus spp. isolates].

    PubMed

    B?r?nci, Asuman; B?lg?n, Kemal; Tanriverd? Çayci, Yeliz

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. are widespread in nature and cause severe infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus complex is the most common species that causes infections in humans; however Aspergillus niger complex and Aspergillus flavus complex are the emerging agents that are isolated frequently from clinical specimens more recently. Besides the host factors such as immunosuppression, hematologic malignancy and corticosteroid use, fungal virulence factors such as elastase, acid protease and phospholipase enzymes are considered among the factors that affect the development of invasive aspergillosis. The aim of this study was to detect the acid proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities in 30 A.fumigatus complex, nine A.flavus complex and four A.niger complex strains isolated from clinical specimens. Acid proteinase and phospholipase activities of the isolates were investigated by using bovine serum albumin agar (BSA), and egg yolk agar plates, respectively. Acid proteinase and phospholipase activity was detected in 76.7% (23/30) and 93.3% (28/30) of A.fumigatus complex isolates, respectively. None of the nine A.flavus complex isolates exhibited acid proteinase or phospholipase activity. Acid proteinase activity was not detected in any of the A.niger complex isolates (n= 4), however phospholipase activity was detected in one (25%) isolate. All of the acid proteinase positive A.fumigatus complex strains (n= 23) were also positive for phospholipase activity. In conclusion, further larger scale multicenter studies supported by clinical data, are needed to enlighten the roles of acid proteinase and phospholipase in the pathogenesis of infections due to Aspergillus spp. PMID:25052116

  11. Invasive infections due to filamentous fungi other than Aspergillus: epidemiology and determinants of mortality.

    PubMed

    Slavin, M; van Hal, S; Sorrell, T C; Lee, A; Marriott, D J; Daveson, K; Kennedy, K; Hajkowicz, K; Halliday, C; Athan, E; Bak, N; Cheong, E; Heath, C H; Orla Morrissey, C; Kidd, S; Beresford, R; Blyth, C; Korman, T M; Owen Robinson, J; Meyer, W; Chen, S C-A

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of invasive fungal disease (IFD) due to filamentous fungi other than Aspergillus may be changing. We analysed clinical, microbiological and outcome data in Australian patients to determine the predisposing factors and identify determinants of mortality. Proven and probable non-Aspergillus mould infections (defined according to modified European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria) from 2004 to 2012 were evaluated in a multicentre study. Variables associated with infection and mortality were determined. Of 162 episodes of non-Aspergillus IFD, 145 (89.5%) were proven infections and 17 (10.5%) were probable infections. The pathogens included 29 fungal species/species complexes; mucormycetes (45.7%) and Scedosporium species (33.3%) were most common. The commonest comorbidities were haematological malignancies (HMs) (46.3%) diabetes mellitus (23.5%), and chronic pulmonary disease (16%); antecedent trauma was present in 21% of cases. Twenty-five (15.4%) patients had no immunocompromised status or comorbidity, and were more likely to have acquired infection following major trauma (p <0.01); 61 (37.7%) of cases affected patients without HMs or transplantation. Antifungal therapy was administered to 93.2% of patients (median 68 days, interquartile range 19-275), and adjunctive surgery was performed in 58.6%. The all-cause 90-day mortality was 44.4%; HMs and intensive-care admission were the strongest predictors of death (both p <0.001). Survival varied by fungal group, with the risk of death being significantly lower in patients with dematiaceous mould infections than in patients with other non-Aspergillus mould infections. Non-Aspergillus IFD affected diverse patient groups, including non-immunocompromised hosts and those outside traditional risk groups; therefore, definitions of IFD in these patients are required. Given the high mortality, increased recognition of infections and accurate identification of the causative agent are required. PMID:25677259

  12. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus conidial growth by lactoferrin-mediated iron depletion.

    PubMed

    Zarember, Kol A; Sugui, Janyce A; Chang, Yun C; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Gallin, John I

    2007-05-15

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a common mold, rarely infects humans, except during prolonged neutropenia or in cases of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the NADPH oxidase that normally produces fungicidal reactive oxygen species. Filamentous hyphae of Aspergillus are killed by normal, but not CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN); however, the few studies on PMN-mediated host defenses against infectious conidia (spores) of this organism have yielded conflicting results, some showing that PMN do not inhibit conidial growth, with others showing that they do, most likely using reactive oxygen species. Given that CGD patients are exposed daily to hundreds of viable A. fumigatus conidia, yet considerable numbers of them survive years without infection, we reasoned that PMN use ROS-independent mechanisms to combat Aspergillus. We show that human PMN from both normal controls and CGD patients are equipotent at arresting the growth of Aspergillus conidia in vitro, indicating the presence of a reactive oxygen species-independent factor(s). Cell-free supernatants of degranulated normal and CGD neutrophils both suppressed fungal growth and were found to be rich in lactoferrin, an abundant PMN secondary granule protein. Purified iron-poor lactoferrin at concentrations occurring in PMN supernatants (and reported in human mucosal secretions in vivo) decreased fungal growth, whereas saturation of lactoferrin or PMN supernatants with iron, or testing in the presence of excess iron in the form of ferritin, completely abolished activity against conidia. These results demonstrate that PMN lactoferrin sequestration of iron is important for host defense against Aspergillus. PMID:17475866

  13. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T)?=?DSM 26686(T)?=?LMG 28120(T)?=?BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T)?=?DSM 26687(T)?=?LMG 28121(T)?=?BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T)?=?FSL F6-0969(T)?=?DSM 26689(T)?=?LMG 28123(T)?=?BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T)?=?FSL F6-0971(T)?=?DSM 26688(T)?=?LMG 28122(T)?=?BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T)?=?DSM 26685(T)?=?LMG 28119(T)?=?BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic. PMID:24599893

  14. Rhodium(I)-Catalyzed Sequential C(sp)?C(sp(3) ) and C(sp(3) )?C(sp(3) ) Bond Formation through Migratory Carbene Insertion.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ying; Feng, Sheng; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-06-26

    A Rh(I) -catalyzed three-component reaction of tert-propargyl alcohol, diazoester, and alkyl halide has been developed. This reaction can be considered as a carbene-involving sequential alkyl and alkynyl coupling, in which C(sp)?C(sp(3) ) and C(sp(3) )?C(sp(3) ) bonds are built successively on the carbenic carbon atom. The Rh(I) -carbene migratory insertion of an alkynyl moiety and subsequent alkylation are proposed to account for the two separate C?C bond formations. This reaction provides an efficient and tunable method for the construction of all-carbon quaternary center. PMID:25982105

  15. A novel ginsenosidase from an Aspergillus strain hydrolyzing 6-O-multi-glycosides of protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides, named ginsenosidase type IV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Ming; Yu, Hong-Shan; Song, Jian-Guo; Xu, Yu-Feng; Liu, Chun-Ying; Jin, Feng-Xie

    2011-10-01

    Herein, a novel ginsenosidase, named ginsenosidase type IV, hydrolyzing 6-O-multi-glycosides of protopanaxatrioltype ginsenosides (PPT), such as Re, R1, Rf, and Rg2, was isolated from the Aspergillus sp. 39g strain, purified, and characterized. Ginsenosidase type IV was able to hydrolyze the 6-O-alpha-L-(1-->2)-rhamnoside of Re and the 6-O-beta-D- (1-->2)-xyloside of R1 into ginsenoside Rg1. Subsequently, it could hydrolyze the 6-O-beta-D-glucoside of Rg1 into F1. Similarly, it was able to hydrolyze the 6-O-alpha-L-(1-->2)- rhamnoside of Rg2 and the 6-O-beta-D-(1-->2)-glucoside of Rf into Rh1, and then further hydrolyze Rh1 into its aglycone. However, ginsenosidase type IV could not hydrolyze the 3-O- or 20-O-glycosides of protopanaxadioltype ginsenosides (PPD), such as Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, and Rd. These exhibited properties are significantly different from those of glycosidases described in Enzyme Nomenclature by the NC-IUBMB. The optimal temperature and pH for ginsenosidase type IV were 40°C and 6.0, respectively. The activity of ginsenosidase type IV was slightly improved by the Mg(2+) ion, and inhibited by Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) ions. The molecular mass of the enzyme, based on SDS-PAGE, was noted as being approximately 56 kDa. PMID:22031031

  16. MPI on IBM SP1\\/SP2: current status and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubertus Franke; Peter Hochschild; P. Pattnik J. Prost; Jean-Pierre Prost; Marc Snir

    1994-01-01

    A complete prototype implementation of MPI on the IBM Scalable Power PARALLEL 1 and 2 (SP1, SP2) is discussed. This implementation achieves essentially the same performance as the native EUI library, although MPI is much larger. The paper describes the implementation of EUI on SP1\\/SP2, and the modifications required to to implement MPI, initial performance measurements, and directions for future

  17. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, Joăo Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  18. Sequence of host contact influences the outcome of competition among Aspergillus flavus isolates during host tissue invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus is achieved by competitive exclusion of aflatoxin producers by atoxigenic strains. However, factors dictating the extent to which competitive displacement occurs during host infection are unknown. The role of preemptive exclusion in...

  19. Optimization of ?-amylase production from Aspergillus Niger using spoiled starch rich vegetables by response surface methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satish Babu Rajulapati; Panduranga Vundavilli

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of process variables for the improvement of ?-amylase production in the specially made starch medium from spoiled starch rich vegetables by the cultivation of Aspergillus Niger was performed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm. Cultivation of Aspergillus Niger was conducted in submerged fermentation in the starch medium. Initially, the effect of incubation time (12–72 hours), pH (4–8),

  20. Lipase production by recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger expressing a lipase-encoding gene from Thermomyces lanuginosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai Prathumpai; Simon J. Flitter; Mhairi McIntyre; Jens Nielsen

    2004-01-01

    Two recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger (NW 297-14 and NW297-24) producing a heterologous lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus were constructed. The heterologous lipase was expressed using the TAKA amylase promoter from Aspergillus oryzae. The production kinetics of the two strains on different carbon sources in batch and carbon-limited chemostat cultivations were evaluated. In batch cultivations, the highest total product yield coefficient