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1

Pectin lyase from Aspergillus sp. CHY1043  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus sp. CH-Y-1043 synthesizes pectin lyase when grown on citrus pectin at 37° C. Production is favoured by increased esterification degree of the pectin used as carbon source. This enzyme displays higher activity at pH values of 8.5–8.8 and temperatures of 40–45° C. The optimal substrate for the enzyme was highly esterified pectin and no enzymatic activity was registered on

Luis Delgado; Blanca A. Trejo; Carlos Huitrón; Guillermo Aguilar

1993-01-01

2

Purification of soyasaponin -?-galactosidase from Aspergillus sp.39  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase physiological activity of soyasaponin, enzyme hydrolysis of soyasaponin was studied. The enzyme which hydrolyzes soyasaponin to lower sugar soyasaponin was obtained from Aspergillus sp.39s. And it was purified by the method of biologic chromatography system. The method of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to determine the molecular weight of the enzyme produced by Aspergillus sp.39s. The molecular weight was about 50 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of soyasaponin-?-galactosidase produced from sp.39s was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. Soyasaponin-?-galactosidase was comparatively stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 7.0 and in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C.

Tian, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Yi

3

Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts  

PubMed Central

During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (?=?ITAL 270/06?=?IBT 29228).

Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

2012-01-01

4

Oil and fat hydrolysis with lipase from Aspergillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis of olive oil, soybean oil, mink fat, lard, palm oil, coconut oil, and a hydrogenated, hardened oil with lipase\\u000a from anAspergillus sp. has been studied. The lipase had high specific activity (60,000 U\\/g) and did not show any positional specificity. The\\u000a lipase proved to be a more effective catalyst than Lipolase fromA. oryzae, with an optimal activity at 37°C

X. Fu; X. Zhu; K. Gao; J. Duan

1995-01-01

5

Transesterification of triglycerides by dried biomass of Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

Fungus isolate, Aspergillus sp. (RBD01), which was isolated from biocontaminated clarified butter was evaluated for its potential to transesterify used edible and non-edible oils for generation of alkyl esters, when used as biocatalyst as dry biomass. The work aimed at determining the potential of dry biomass of Aspergillus sp. (RBD01) to transesterify used cottonseed oil and non-edible oils viz., jatropha and karanj under various culture conditions. A conversion of oil (cotton seed) to ethyl ester to the extent of 84% was obtained at reaction temperature of 35°C, with 20% biomass and step-wise addition of ethanol at 1:5 molar ratio (oil to ethanol), within total reaction time of 36 h. Under similar conditions, transesterification of Jatropha and Karanj oils resulted in only 75 and 78.2% ethyl ester. Further, with reference to the effect of frying on transesterification, increase in frying time decreased the extent of transesterification from 84% to 30%. PMID:23648404

Aulakh, Satnam Singh; Prakash, N Tejo; Prakash, Ranjana

2013-01-01

6

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL. PMID:24079168

Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Peng, Jiang; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

7

The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen on the Growth of Mucor sp. Aspergillus fumigatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mucor sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from different human lung infections were observed in vitro for macroscopic and microscopic growth characteristics at varying hyperbaric oxygen levels and for various exposure times and intervals. Both organism...

W. J. Cairney

1980-01-01

8

Production of pectinases by Aspergillus sp using differently pretreated lemon peel as the carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aspergillus sp strains from decaying lemons were tested for extracellular pectinase production, testing differently pretreated lemon peel as the carbon source instead of pectin. It was found that the production of extracellular polygalacturonase was about the same and that of pectinesterase substantially higher when unwashed fresh lemon peel was used instead of pectin. The culture filtrate obtained showed a

María C. Maldonado; Antonio Navarro; Danley A. S. Callieri

1986-01-01

9

Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

10

Aspergillus sp. isolated in critically ill patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.  

PubMed

Abstract This study reports Aspergillus isolation in critically ill patients who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and highlights the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis of aspergillosis in this population. The diagnosis of Aspergillus infection or colonization was retrospectively performed using the proposed modified criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) adapted to critically ill patients. Between 2005 and 2011, 11 of 151 patients (7.2%) who underwent ECMO had Aspergillus sp. isolates, 10 in a pulmonary sample and 1 in a mediastinal wound sample. Five patients did not have any classical risk factors for aspergillosis. One patient had a proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), 2 had a putative IPA, and 1 patient had a possible Aspergillus mediastinitis, whilst in 7 patients this was considered colonization. However, the clinical relevance of Aspergillus isolation was based on an algorithm not validated in patients undergoing ECMO. Our data support the need to implement non-invasive diagnostic procedures for aspergillosis in this population. PMID:23746344

Aubron, Cecile; Pilcher, David; Leong, Tim; Cooper, D James; Scheinkestel, Carlos; Pellegrino, Vince; Cheng, Allen C

2013-06-09

11

Production of the raw-starch digesting amylase of Aspergillus sp. K-27  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus sp. K-27, isolated from soil, produced extracellular glucoamylase and a-amylase using wheat starch as a carbon source, and its productivity was doubled by the addition of a-methyl-d-glucoside to the medium. The crude enzyme preparation, which was found to be a mixture of 70% glucoamylase and 30% a-amylase, well degraded not only cereal starches but also tuber and root starches,

Jun-ichi Abe; Frederico W. Bergmann; Kazuaki Obata; Susumu Hizukuri

1988-01-01

12

Statistical optimization of chitosanase production by Aspergillus sp. QD-2 in submerged fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of chitosanase production by Aspergillus sp. QD-2 under submerged fermentation was optimized. Factors including (NH4)2SO4, inoculum size and initial pH were identified by two-level Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as significant for chitosanase production.\\u000a The path of steepest ascent was undertaken to determine the optimal region of three significant factors. To determine the\\u000a optimal values of the significant variables, Box-Behnken design

Hui Zhang; Qing Sang; Wenhui Zhang

13

Biodiesel production from isolated oleaginous fungi Aspergillus sp. using corncob waste liquor as a substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study documented the potential of isolated filamentous fungus Aspergillus sp. as whole cell biocatalyst for biodiesel production using Sabourauds dextrose broth medium (SDBM) and corncob waste liquor (CWL) as substrates. SDBM showed improvement in both biomass production (13.6g dry weight\\/1000ml) and lipid productivity (23.3%) with time. Lipid extraction was performed by direct (DTE) and indirect (IDTE) transesterification methods. DTE

G. Venkata Subhash; S. Venkata Mohan

2011-01-01

14

A new macrolide from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

A new 16-membered macrolide named aspergillide D (1), along with six known compounds, including two polyketones (2-3) and four alkaloids (4-7), were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF 0076. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of NMR and mass spectra. Compound 5 showed an obvious inhibitory effect on influenza virus strains H1N1 and H3N2. PMID:24079185

Bao, Jie; Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

15

Constitutive exo-pectinase produced by Aspergillus sp. CHY1043 on different carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The production of a constitutive exo-pectinase byAspergillus sp. CH-Y-1043 grown on glucose, sucrose, fructose, glycerol and galacturonic acid is reported. The specific activity was found to be in the range of 26% to 75% of that produced with pectin or poly-galacturonic acid. The production of this exo-pectinase is strictly correlated to the exponential growth phase and it is highly

Guillermo Aguilar; Carlos Huitrón

1990-01-01

16

WIN 64821, a novel neurokinin antagonist produced by an Aspergillus sp. I. Fermentation and isolation.  

PubMed

WIN 64821, a nonpeptide neurokinin antagonist, was isolated from a strain of Aspergillus sp., SC319. The compound was produced in different fermentation media with greatest yields observed when the culture was grown in a synthetic medium supplemented with L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine. After 6 days fermentation, yields greater than 600 mg/liter were obtained. Two analogs of WIN 64821 were also identified in the culture extracts and subsequently tested for biological activity. WIN 64821 was the most potent compound isolated from this culture and exhibited activity as a substance P-binding inhibitor with submicromolar potency against the human neurokinin 1 receptor. PMID:7515037

Sedlock, D M; Barrow, C J; Brownell, J E; Hong, A; Gillum, A M; Houck, D R

1994-04-01

17

Five Sesquiterpenoids from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. Isolated from a Gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea  

PubMed Central

Three new phenolic bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids: (+)-methyl sydowate (1), 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydrosydonic acid (2), and 7-deoxy-7,8-didehydrosydonic acid (3), together with two known fungal metabolites were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated in turn from a gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data.

Wei, Mei-Yan; Wang, Chang-Yun; Liu, Qing-Ai; Shao, Chang-Lun; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

2010-01-01

18

Newly Detected Specific Hydrogenation of the Conjugated Double Bond of Unsaturated Alkaloid Lactones by Aspergillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new isolate of Aspergillus sp. hydrogenated the ?,?-double bond of securinine (143 mg l?1) to give 14,15-dihydrosecurinine at over 98% (w\\/w) yield after 8 h. It also hydrogenated the C11(13) double bond of \\u00093-hydroxy-1(10),3,11(13)-guaiatriene-12,6-olide-2-one (HGT) (200 mg l?1) to give 3-hydroxy-1(10),3-guaiadiene-12,6-olide-2-one with over 98% (w\\/w) conversion after 24 h.

Hong Guan; Song You; Li Yang; Xu Wang; Rui Ni

2005-01-01

19

WIN 64821, a novel neurokinin antagonist produced by an Aspergillus sp. II. Biological activity.  

PubMed

WIN 64821, a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus sp. (ATCC 74177) was found to inhibit radiolabeled substance P (SP) binding in a variety of tissues, including those of human origin. This compound inhibited, in a competitive manner, the binding of SP with Ki values ranging from 0.24 microM in human astrocytoma U-373 MG cells to 7.89 microM in rat submaxillary membranes. Additionally, WIN 64821 was found to inhibit 125I-NKA binding to the NK2 receptor in human tissue at a concentration equivalent to its NK1 activity (0.26 microM). The inhibitory activity of WIN 64821 against an NK3 selective ligand, 3H-senktide, was found to be much weaker (Ki = 15.2 microM). WIN 64821 was also evaluated in NK1 functional assays and was found to be a competitive antagonist of SP-induced contractility in the guinea pig ileum (pA2 = 6.6) as well as an inhibitor of SP-induced 45Ca2+ efflux from human astrocytoma U-373 MG cells (IC50 = 0.6 microM). In a rat vas deferens model, WIN 64821 inhibited eledoisin-induced contractility with an IC50 of 3.4 microM indicating functional antagonism at the NK2 receptor. The data presented in this study provide biochemical, pharmacological and functional evidence supporting WIN 64821 as a competitive neurokinin antagonist. PMID:7515038

Oleynek, J J; Sedlock, D M; Barrow, C J; Appell, K C; Casiano, F; Haycock, D; Ward, S J; Kaplita, P; Gillum, A M

1994-04-01

20

Culture Conditions and Characterizations of a New Phytase-Producing Fungal Isolate, Aspergillus sp. L117  

PubMed Central

A novel fungal strain Aspergillus sp. L117 that produced acid-stable and thermostable phytase was isolated on basis of the clearing zone on PSM plate and the ability of Na-phytate hydrolysis. The phytase of isolate showed a 3-fold higher activity than that of A. ficuun NRRL3135. The Aspergillus sp. L117 produced maximal level of phytase at initial pH of 5.0 and 30?. The optimal pH and temperature for phytase activity were 5.5 and 50?, respectively. The phytase showed totally stable activity after 20 min of exposure between 30 and 90?, and even at 100?. The highest level of residual phytase activity was obtained at pH 5.5, and still retained the stability at the broadest pH ranges (2.0 to 7.0) of all the aforementioned phytases. Storage stability of phytase was preserved over 96% of initial activities for 60 days at 4, -20, and -70? and to retain even 70% of the initial activity at room temperature.

Lee, Dae-Hee; Choi, Sun-Uk

2005-01-01

21

Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synozol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synozol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synozol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50°C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synozol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes.

2013-01-01

22

Marine fungi Aspergillus sydowii and Trichoderma sp. catalyze the hydrolysis of benzyl glycidyl ether.  

PubMed

Whole cells of the marine fungi Aspergillus sydowii Gc12, Penicillium raistrickii Ce16, P. miczynskii Gc5, and Trichoderma sp. Gc1, isolated from marine sponges of the South Atlantic Ocean (Brazil), have been screened for the enzymatic resolution of (±)-2-(benzyloxymethyl)oxirane (benzyl glycidyl ether; 1). Whole cells of A. sydowii Gc12 catalyzed the enzymatic hydrolysis of (R,S)-1 to yield (R)-1 with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of 24-46% and 3-(benzyloxy)propane-1,2-diol (2) with ee values <10%. In contrast, whole cells of Trichoderma sp. Gc1 afforded (S)-1 with ee values up to 60% and yields up to 39%, together with (R)-2 in 25% yield and an ee of 32%. This is the first published example of the hydrolysis of 1 by whole cells of marine fungi isolated from the South Atlantic Ocean. The hydrolases from the two studied fungi exhibited complementary regioselectivity in opening the epoxide ring of racemic 1, with those of A. sydowii Gc12 showing an (S) preference and those of Trichoderma sp. Gc1 presenting an (R) preference for the substrate. PMID:20549284

Martins, Mariana Provedel; Mouad, Ana Maria; Boschini, Letícia; Regali Seleghim, Mirna Helena; Sette, Lara Durães; Meleiro Porto, André Luiz

2010-06-12

23

Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed Central

Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (?)-sydonol (2), (?)-sydonic acid (3), and (?)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2?,6?,6?-trimethyltetrahydro-2H- pyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1–4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 µM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined.

Li, Dan; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Yang, Rui-Yun; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Yi-Yan; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Qian, Pei-Yuan; She, Zhi-Gang; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Wang, Chang-Yun

2012-01-01

24

Alteration of the properties of Aspergillus sp. K-27 glucoamylase on limited proteolysis with subtilisin.  

PubMed

An active derivative (mol. wt. 48,000) of Aspergillus sp. K-27 glucoamylase (mol. wt. 76,000) was obtained by limited proteolysis with subtilisin. The amino acid sequences of native and modified enzymes at the N-termini were Ala-Gly-Gly-Thr-Leu-Asp and Ala-Val-Leu, respectively. The proteolysis greatly decreased the affinity of the enzyme for amylopectin and glycogen, but not for oligosaccharides. It also reduced the ability of the enzyme to degrade raw starch, abolished the ability of the enzyme to adsorb onto starch granules, and eliminated the synergistic action of the enzyme in the hydrolysis of starch granules with alpha-amylase. These findings imply that the enzyme has a specific affinity site for polysaccharide substrates besides the catalytic site, i.e., a starch-binding site, and that the former is removed by proteolysis. The extent of the reduction in the activity for raw starches caused by the modification varied with the starch source, as the modified enzyme digested raw potato starch better than either raw corn or sweet potato starches. A new method for evaluation of the raw starch-digesting activity of glucoamylase is described. PMID:2224899

Abe, J; Nakajima, K; Hizukuri, S

1990-08-01

25

Inhibition of glucoamylases from a Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus saitoi by aminoalcohol derivatives.  

PubMed

The mechanism of inhibition of the two glucoamylases from a Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus saitoi by aminoalcohol derivatives was investigated. Hydrolysis of maltose by the glucoamylases was inhibited competitively by aminoalcohols at pH 5.0, and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol and 2-aminocyclohexanol were relatively good inhibitors of the glucoamylases among the aminoalcohol derivatives tested. One hydroxyl group and an amino group in these inhibitors were indispensable for the inhibitory action, and the addition of other hydroxyl, amino or ethyl groups was enhancing. With an increase in pH from 4.0 to 6.0, the Ki values of the aminoalcohols decreased. This result suggested the participation of a carboxyl group, which was related to the glucoamylase activity and had a pKa of 5.7, in the binding of aminoalcohols. The UV difference spectra induced on binding of the aminoalcohol analogues with the glucoamylases may indicate a change of the environment of tryptophan residues to a slightly higher pH on inhibitor binding. The influence of aminoalcohols on the fluorescence intensity due to tryptophan residues and the CD-spectra of the glucoamylases was less than that of maltitol. Thus, the interaction of aminoalcohols with tryptophan residues in the glucoamylases might be less pronounced than that in the case of substrate analogues. The modes of binding of the aminoalcohols with the two glucoamylases were very similar. Therefore, the phenomenon might be a common feature of glucoamylases in general. PMID:3934147

Iwama, M; Takahashi, T; Inokuchi, N; Koyama, T; Irie, M

1985-08-01

26

Penicillium parvulum and Penicillium georgiense sp. nov. Isolated from the Conidial Heads of Aspergillus Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new Penicillium species were isolated from peanut-field soils in Georgia. The species were particularly noted because they sporulated on the conidial heads of Aspergillus species. Phenotypic descriptions were prepared using standard media. ITS and lsu-rDNA sequences were made from the new spe...

27

Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov., a New Pathogen That Causes Invasive Disease Refractory to Antifungal Therapy  

PubMed Central

The most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is Aspergillus fumigatus followed by A. nidulans; other aspergilli rarely cause the disease. Here we review two clinical cases of fatal IA in CGD patients and describe a new etiologic agent of IA refractory to antifungal therapy. Unlike typical IA caused by A. fumigatus, the disease caused by the new species was chronic and spread from the lung to multiple adjacent organs. Mycological characteristics and the phylogenetic relationship with other aspergilli based on the sequence analysis of Mcm7, RPB2, and Tsr1 indicated that the new species, which we named as A. tanneri, belongs to Aspergillus section Circumdati. The species has a higher amphotericin B, voriconazole, and itraconazole MIC and causes more chronic infection in CGD mice than A. fumigatus. This is the first report documenting IA in CGD patients caused by a species belonging to the Aspergillus section Circumdati that is inherently resistant to azoles and amphotericin B. Unlike the results seen with many members of Aspergillus section Circumdati, ochratoxin was not detected in filtrates of cultures grown in various media. Our phenotypic and genetic characterization of the new species and the case reports will assist future diagnosis of infection caused by A. tanneri and lead to more appropriate patient management.

Sugui, Janyce A.; Peterson, Stephen W.; Clark, Lily P.; Nardone, Glenn; Folio, Les; Riedlinger, Gregory; Zerbe, Christa S.; Shea, Yvonne; Henderson, Christina M.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Holland, Steven M.

2012-01-01

28

Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov., a new pathogen that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy.  

PubMed

The most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is Aspergillus fumigatus followed by A. nidulans; other aspergilli rarely cause the disease. Here we review two clinical cases of fatal IA in CGD patients and describe a new etiologic agent of IA refractory to antifungal therapy. Unlike typical IA caused by A. fumigatus, the disease caused by the new species was chronic and spread from the lung to multiple adjacent organs. Mycological characteristics and the phylogenetic relationship with other aspergilli based on the sequence analysis of Mcm7, RPB2, and Tsr1 indicated that the new species, which we named as A. tanneri, belongs to Aspergillus section Circumdati. The species has a higher amphotericin B, voriconazole, and itraconazole MIC and causes more chronic infection in CGD mice than A. fumigatus. This is the first report documenting IA in CGD patients caused by a species belonging to the Aspergillus section Circumdati that is inherently resistant to azoles and amphotericin B. Unlike the results seen with many members of Aspergillus section Circumdati, ochratoxin was not detected in filtrates of cultures grown in various media. Our phenotypic and genetic characterization of the new species and the case reports will assist future diagnosis of infection caused by A. tanneri and lead to more appropriate patient management. PMID:22855513

Sugui, Janyce A; Peterson, Stephen W; Clark, Lily P; Nardone, Glenn; Folio, Les; Riedlinger, Gregory; Zerbe, Christa S; Shea, Yvonne; Henderson, Christina M; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

2012-08-01

29

Optimization of medium and process parameters for the production of lipase from an oil-tolerant Aspergillus sp. (RBD-01).  

PubMed

Extracellular lipase production by Aspergillus sp. (RBD-01) was monitored by modulating pH of the growth medium, ambient temperature for growth, source of nitrogen and percentage of carbon (virgin cottonseed oil). This strain was observed to be viable and produces lipase even up to 50% oil as a main carbon source. Maximum lipase activity of 21.8 U/ml was obtained with 50% (v/v) oil acting as the main carbon source and peptone (0.5% w/v) as nitrogen source. The optimum pH and temperature for enzymatic activity were observed to be 7.5 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The observations are of significance due to limited reports on use of 50% of oil as the main carbon source while obtaining significant lipase activity of 21.8 U/ml. PMID:20175121

Aulakh, Satnam Singh; Prakash, Ranjana

2010-02-01

30

Asperterpenoid A, a new sesterterpenoid as an inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B from the culture of Aspergillus sp. 16-5c.  

PubMed

Asperterpenoid A (1), a novel sesterterpenoid with a new carbon skeleton, has been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5c. Its structure was characterized by extensive spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configuration was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Asperterpenoid A (1) exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (mPTPB) with an IC(50) value of 2.2 ?M. PMID:23360543

Huang, Xishan; Huang, Hongbo; Li, Hanxiang; Sun, Xuefeng; Huang, Huarong; Lu, Yongjun; Lin, Yongcheng; Long, Yuhua; She, Zhigang

2013-01-29

31

Aspergillus felis sp. nov., an Emerging Agent of Invasive Aspergillosis in Humans, Cats, and Dogs  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph) isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a dog with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Disease in all host species was often refractory to aggressive antifungal therapeutic regimens. Four other human isolates previously reported as A. viridinutans were identified as A. felis on comparative sequence analysis of the partial ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin genes. A. felis is a heterothallic mold with a fully functioning reproductive cycle, as confirmed by mating-type analysis, induction of teleomorphs within 7 to 10 days in vitro and ascospore germination. Phenotypic analyses show that A. felis can be distinguished from the related species A. viridinutans by its ability to grow at 45°C and from A. fumigatus by its inability to grow at 50°C. Itraconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance was common in vitro.

Barrs, Vanessa R.; van Doorn, Tineke M.; Houbraken, Jos; Kidd, Sarah E.; Martin, Patricia; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Richardson, Malcolm; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

32

Kojic acid, a secondary metabolite from Aspergillus sp., acts as an inducer of macrophage activation.  

PubMed

KA (kojic acid) is a secondary metabolite isolated from Aspergillus fungi that has demonstrated skin whitening, antioxidant and antitumour properties among others. However, limited information is available regarding its effects on macrophages, the major cell involved in cell defence. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether KA affects functional properties related to macrophage activation, such as phagocytosis and spreading ability over a substrate. Treatment of resident macrophages with 50 ?g/ml KA for 1 h induced both morphological and physiological alterations in cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed enhanced cell spreading and an increase in cell surface exposure, associated with a rearrangement of microtubules, actin filaments and intermediate filaments. KA also potentiated phagocytosis by macrophages, as demonstrated by the increase in phagocytic activity towards yeast, when compared to untreated cells. KA increased the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), but not NO (nitric oxide) production. Three tests were used to assess cell viability; MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide], NR (neutral red) uptake and PI (propidium iodide) exclusion test, which showed that macrophages maintain their viability following KA treatment. Results indicate that KA can modulate macrophage activation through cytoskeleton rearrangement, increase cell surface exposure, enhance the phagocytic process and ROS production. The study demonstrates a new role for KA as a macrophage activator. PMID:21044044

Rodrigues, Ana Paula D; Carvalho, Antônio Sergio C; Santos, Alberdan S; Alves, Claudio N; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Silva, Edilene O

2011-04-01

33

Aspergillus felis sp. nov., an emerging agent of invasive aspergillosis in humans, cats, and dogs.  

PubMed

We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph) isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a dog with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Disease in all host species was often refractory to aggressive antifungal therapeutic regimens. Four other human isolates previously reported as A. viridinutans were identified as A. felis on comparative sequence analysis of the partial ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin genes. A. felis is a heterothallic mold with a fully functioning reproductive cycle, as confirmed by mating-type analysis, induction of teleomorphs within 7 to 10 days in vitro and ascospore germination. Phenotypic analyses show that A. felis can be distinguished from the related species A. viridinutans by its ability to grow at 45°C and from A. fumigatus by its inability to grow at 50°C. Itraconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance was common in vitro. PMID:23798996

Barrs, Vanessa R; van Doorn, Tineke M; Houbraken, Jos; Kidd, Sarah E; Martin, Patricia; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Richardson, Malcolm; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A

2013-06-14

34

Molecular identification using ITS sequences and genome shuffling to improve 2-deoxyglucose tolerance and xylanase activity of marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. NRCF5.  

PubMed

During the screening of xylanolytic enzyme from marine-derived fungi isolated from the inner tissue of Egyptian soft coral Rhytisma sp., one strain, NRCF5, exhibited high enzyme activity with 0.1 % (w/v) antimetabolite 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) tolerance. This fungal strain was identified as Aspergillus sp. NRCF5 based on its morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. The ITS region of hyperactive xylanolytic strain (NRCF5) was amplified, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank (accession no. JQ277356). To apply the fundamental principles of genome shuffling in breeding of xylanase-producing fungi, marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. NRCF5 was used as starting strain in this work and applied for induction of genetic variability using different combinations and doses of mutagens. Five mutants with high xylanase activity and 0.25 % (w/v) antimetabolite 2DG tolerance were obtained from the populations generated by the mutation of combination between ultraviolet irradiation (UV, 5 min) and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG, 100 ?g/ml) for 30 (UNA) and 60 (UNB)min as well as NTG (100 ?g/ml) and ethidium bromide (250 ?g/ml) for 30 (NEA) and 60 (NEB)min. Then, they were subjected for recursive protoplast fusion. Seven hereditarily stable recombinants with high xylanase activity and 1.0 % (w/v) 2DG tolerance were obtained by four rounds of genome shuffling. Among them, a high xylanase-producing recombinant, R4/31, was obtained, which produced 427.5 U/ml xylanase. This value is 6.13-fold higher than that of the starting strain NRCF5 and 2.48-fold higher than that of the parent strain (mutant NEA51). The subculture experiments indicated that the high producer of marine Aspergillus sp. R4/31 fusant was stable. PMID:22684364

El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A

2012-06-10

35

A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract  

PubMed Central

Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora) is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90%) followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60%) and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD) and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P < 0.001). The inhibition of caseinolytic activity of the proteases increased with increasing ratio of seed extract. The residual activity of trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein extract for 60 min. The inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD) of protease inhibitor (PI) was detected in dialyzed and SEC elute. The conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus was moderately inhibited (30%) by the dialyzed seed extract. Conclusions Cassia tora seed extract has strong protease inhibitory activity against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The inhibitor in Cassia tora may attenuate microbial proteases and also might be used as phytoprotecting agent.

2011-01-01

36

Effects of Tropical Citrus Essential Oils on Growth, Aflatoxin Production, and Ultrastructure Alterations of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated essential oils from five cultivars of tropical citrus epicarps were evaluated\\u000a for their inhibitory activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium sp. using disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Essential oils prepared from kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) and acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) epicarps exhibited stronger antifungal activity to

Kadsarin Rammanee; Tipparat Hongpattarakere

2011-01-01

37

Protective Effects of Emodin and Chrysophanol Isolated from Marine Fungus Aspergillus sp. on Ethanol-Induced Toxicity in HepG2/CYP2E1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-induced liver injury progresses from fatty infiltration followed by a harmful cause of inflammation leading to an irreversible damage. In this study, two compounds (emodin and chrysophanol) isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp. were examined for their protective effects against ethanol-induced toxicity in vitro. Ethanol-induced HepG2/CYP2E1 cells were treated with the compounds at various concentrations, and the results showed that there was a dose-dependent decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity and increase of glutathione (GSH) in the culture media with an increase in cell viability. Furthermore, the protective effects of the compounds were evaluated by protein expression levels of GGT, GSH, and CYP2E1 using Western blot. Among the compounds, emodin addressed to the ethanol-induced cytotoxicity more effectively compared to the chrysophanol. It could be suggested that emodin isolated from this genus would be a potential candidate for attenuating ethanol induced liver damage for further industrial applications such as functional food and pharmaceutical developments.

Qian, Zhong-Ji; Zhang, Chen; Li, Yong-Xin; Je, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Kwon; Jung, Won-Kyo

2011-01-01

38

Aspergillosis (Aspergillus)  

MedlinePLUS

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Aspergillosis Aspergillus is a common fungus that can be found ... indoor and outdoor environments. Most people breathe in Aspergillus spores every day without being affected. Aspergillosis is ...

39

Aspergillus Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The cornea must be perfectly transparent to allow an individual to visualize his\\/her environment. Keratitis, an inflammation\\u000a of the cornea that frequently arises due to infection, is a threat to corneal transparency. Species of Aspergillus may cause keratitis, especially in outdoor workers in agricultural communities in the developing world and in tropical and\\u000a subtropical areas. Aspergillus keratitis frequently occurs following

Philip A. Thomas

40

Aspergillus Genomes and the Aspergillus Cloud  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus Genomes is a public resource for viewing annotated genes predicted by various Aspergillus sequencing projects. It has arisen from the union of two significant resources: the Aspergillus/Aspergillosis website and the Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE). The former has primarily served the medical community, providing information about Aspergillus and associated diseases to medics, patients and scientists; the latter has focused on the fungal genomic community, providing a central repository for sequences and annotation extracted from Aspergillus Genomes. By merging these databases, genomes benefit from extensive cross-linking with medical information to create a unique resource, spanning genomics and clinical aspects of the genus. Aspergillus Genomes is accessible from http://www.aspergillus-genomes.org.uk.

Mabey Gilsenan, Jane E.; Atherton, Graham; Bartholomew, Jennifer; Giles, Peter F.; Attwood, Teresa K.; Denning, David W.; Bowyer, Paul

2009-01-01

41

Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis in Aspergillus sp.: Characterization of a Reductase-like R* Domain in Cyclopiazonate Synthetase that Forms and Releases cyclo-Acetoacetyl-l-tryptophan†  

PubMed Central

The fungal neurotoxin ?-cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a nanomolar inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase, has a pentacyclic indole tetramic acid scaffold that arises from one molecule of tryptophan, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate by consecutive action of three enzymes CpaS, D, O. CpaS is a hybrid, two module polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) that makes and releases cyclo-acetoacetyl-L-tryptophan (cAATrp), the tetramic acid that serves as substrate for subsequent prenylation and oxidative cyclization to the five ring CPA scaffold. The NRPS module in CpaS has a predicted four domain organization of Condensation, Adenylation, Thiolation, Reductase* (C-A-T-R*) where R* lacks the critical Ser-Tyr-Lys catalytic triad of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) super family. By heterologous overproduction in E. coli of the 56 kDa Aspergillus flavus CpaS TR* didomain, and the single T and R* domains, we demonstrate that CpaS catalyzes a Dieckmann type cyclization on the N-acetoacetyl-Trp intermediate bound in thioester linkage to the phosphopantetheinyl arm of the T domain to form and release cAATrp. This occurs without any participation of NAD(P)H, so R* does not function as a canonical SDR family member. Use of the T and R* domains in in trans assays enabled multiple turnovers and evaluation of specific mutants. Mutation of the D3803 residue in the R* domain, conserved in other fungal tetramate synthetases, abolished activity both in in trans and in cis (TR*) activity assays. It is likely that cyclization of ?-ketoacyl-aminoacyl-S-pantetheinyl intermediates to released tetramates represents a default cyclization/release route for redox-incompetent R* domains embedded in NRPS assembly lines.

Liu, Xinyu; Walsh, Christopher T.

2009-01-01

42

Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis in Aspergillus sp.: characterization of a reductase-like R* domain in cyclopiazonate synthetase that forms and releases cyclo-acetoacetyl-L-tryptophan.  

PubMed

The fungal neurotoxin alpha-cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a nanomolar inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase, has a pentacyclic indole tetramic acid scaffold that arises from one molecule of tryptophan, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate by consecutive action of three enzymes, CpaS, CpaD, and CpaO. CpaS is a hybrid, two module polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) that makes and releases cyclo-acetoacetyl-L-tryptophan (cAATrp), the tetramic acid that serves as substrate for subsequent prenylation and oxidative cyclization to the five ring CPA scaffold. The NRPS module in CpaS has a predicted four-domain organization of condensation, adenylation, thiolation, and reductase* (C-A-T-R*), where R* lacks the critical Ser-Tyr-Lys catalytic triad of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. By heterologous overproduction in Escherichia coli of the 56 kDa Aspergillus flavus CpaS TR* didomain and the single T and R* domains, we demonstrate that CpaS catalyzes a Dieckmann-type cyclization on the N-acetoacetyl-Trp intermediate bound in thioester linkage to the phosphopantetheinyl arm of the T domain to form and release cAATrp. This occurs without any participation of NAD(P)H, so R* does not function as a canonical SDR family member. Use of the T and R* domains in in trans assays enabled multiple turnovers and evaluation of specific mutants. Mutation of the D3803 residue in the R* domain, conserved in other fungal tetramate synthetases, abolished activity both in in trans and in cis (TR*) activity assays. It is likely that cyclization of beta-ketoacylaminoacyl-S-pantetheinyl intermediates to released tetramates represents a default cyclization/release route for redox-incompetent R* domains embedded in NRPS assembly lines. PMID:19663400

Liu, Xinyu; Walsh, Christopher T

2009-09-15

43

Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is saprophytic soil fungus that infects and contaminates preharvest and postharvest seed crops with the carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin. The fungus is also an opportunistic animal and human pathogen causing aspergillosis diseases with incidence increasing in the immunocompromised population. Whole genome sequences of A. flavus have been released and reveal 55 secondary metabolite clusters that are regulated by different environmental regimes and the global secondary metabolite regulators LaeA and VeA. Characteristics of A. flavus associated with pathogenicity and niche specialization include secondary metabolite production, enzyme elaboration, and a sophisticated oxylipin host crosstalk associated with a quorum-like development program. One of the more promising strategies in field control involves the use of atoxic strains of A. flavus in competitive exclusion studies. In this review, we discuss A. flavus as an agricultural and medical threat and summarize recent research advances in genomics, elucidation of parameters of pathogenicity, and control measures. PMID:21513456

Amaike, Saori; Keller, Nancy P

2011-01-01

44

Glycosylinositolphosphoceramides in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Fungal glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPCs) are involved in cell growth and fungal-host interactions. In this study, six GIPCs from the mycelium of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus were purified and characterized using Q-TOF mass spectrometry and 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. All structures have the same inositolphosphoceramide moiety with the presence of a C(18:0)-phytosphingosine conjugated to a 2-hydroxylated saturated fatty acid (2-hydroxy-lignoceric acid). The carbohydrate moiety defines two types of GIPC. The first, a mannosylated zwitterionic glycosphingolipid contains a glucosamine residue linked in alpha1-2 to an inositol ring that has been described in only two other fungal pathogens. The second type of GIPC presents an alpha-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-Manp-(1-->2)-IPC common core. A galactofuranose residue is found in four GIPC structures, mainly at the terminal position via a beta1-2 linkage. Interestingly, this galactofuranose residue could be substituted by a choline-phosphate group, as observed only in the GIPC of Acremonium sp., a plant pathogen. PMID:17971386

Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; Delepierre, Muriel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry

2007-10-30

45

Extensive degradation of native starch granules by alpha-amylase from aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch granules of various botanical origins were subjected to enzymic degradation by purified alpha-amylases from pig pancreas, Bacillus sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus (Aspergillus sp. K-27). With the A. fumigatus enzyme, glucose in alpha-anomeric configuration was the sole end degradation product regardless of the starch tested. The efficiency of this enzyme was very high on all native starch granules. Starches from

V. Planchot; P. Colonna; D. J. Gallant; B. Bouchet

1995-01-01

46

Development in Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus.

Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Muller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wosten, H.A.B.

2013-01-01

47

Development in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

Krijgsheld, P; Bleichrodt, R; van Veluw, G J; Wang, F; Müller, W H; Dijksterhuis, J; Wösten, H A B

2012-09-14

48

Identification of fungi of the genus Aspergillus section nigri using polyphasic taxonomy  

PubMed Central

In spite of the taxonomy of the Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section being regarded as troublesome, a number of methods have been proposed to aid in the classification of this Section. This work aimed to distinguish Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section from foods, grains and caves on the basis in Polyphasic Taxonomy by utilizing morphologic and physiologic characters, and sequencing of ß-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The morphologic identification proved useful for some species, such as A. carbonarius and Aspergillus sp UFLA DCA 01, despite not having been totally effective in elucidating species related to A. niger. The isolation of the species of the Nigri Section on Creatine Sucrose Agar (CREA) enabled to distinguish the Aspergillus sp species, which was characterized by the lack of sporulation and by the production of sclerotia. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) allowed distinguishing the species into two distinct groups. The production of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was only found in the A. carbonarius and A. niger species. The sequencing of ?-tubulin gene was efficient in differing most of the Aspergillus species from the Nigri Section with the exception of Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01, which could not be distinguished from A. costaricaensis. This species is morphologically similar to A. costaricaencis for its low sporulation capacity and high sclerotia production, but it differs morphologically from A. costaricaensis for its conidial ornamentation and size of vesicles. Equally, based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01 differs from A. costaricaensis.

Silva, Daiani M.; Batista, Luis R.; Rezende, Elisangela F.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Sartori, Daniele; Alves, Eduardo

2011-01-01

49

X-ray structure analysis and characterization of AFUEI, an elastase inhibitor from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Elastase from Aspergillus sp. is an important factor for aspergillosis. AFUEI is an inhibitor of the elastase derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. AFUEI is a member of the I78 inhibitor family and has a high inhibitory activity against elastases of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, human neutrophil elastase and bovine chymotrypsin, but does not inhibit bovine trypsin. Here we report the crystal structure of AFUEI in two crystal forms. AFUEI is a wedge-shaped protein composed of an extended loop and a scaffold protein core. The structure of AFUEI shows remarkable similarity to serine protease inhibitors of the potato inhibitor I family, although they are classified into different inhibitor families. A structural comparison with the potato I family inhibitors suggests that the extended loop of AFUEI corresponds to the binding loop of the potato inhibitor I family, and AFUEI inhibits its cognate proteases through the same mechanism as the potato I family inhibitors. PMID:23640894

Sakuma, Mayuko; Imada, Katsumi; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Yamashita, Nobuo; Ogawa, Kenji; Hijikata, Atsushi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Michio; Nikai, Toshiaki

2013-05-02

50

Aspergillus brain abscess.  

PubMed

Aspergillus brain abscess is a rare clinical entity, which remains a challenge to diagnose and treat. Most fungi are low virulence organisms, often living as commensals. They however, pose a considerable challenge in an immune-compromised host. Systemic steroids are commonly used in treatment of various inflammatory conditions. Despite their relatively safe profile, one peril of such treatment is immune suppression. It is prudent that physicians remain aware of the risk of various opportunistic infections in such patients. We present a case of fatal intra-cranial aspergillosis in an immuno-compromised patient on systemic steroids. PMID:24015447

Bhaskar, Nutan; Mohammad, Khalid; Kaur, Varinder

2013-08-01

51

Regulation of Development in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Members of the genus Aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). The impact of various Aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. For example, several species including Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. In contrast, Aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various plant- and animal-based foods. Importantly, the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has become the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen in developed countries, causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients with a high mortality rate. A. fumigatus produces a massive number of small hydrophobic conidia as the primary means of dispersal, survival, genome-protection, and infecting hosts. Large-scale genome-wide expression studies can now be conducted due to completion of A. fumigatus genome sequencing. However, genomics becomes more powerful and informative when combined with genetics. We have been investigating the mechanisms underlying the regulation of asexual development (conidiation) and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus, primarily focusing on a characterization of key developmental regulators identified in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. In this review, I will summarize our current understanding of how conidiation in two aspergilli is regulated.

2010-01-01

52

Regulation of Development in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). The impact of various Aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. For example, several species including Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. In contrast, Aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various plant- and animal-based foods. Importantly, the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has become the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen in developed countries, causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients with a high mortality rate. A. fumigatus produces a massive number of small hydrophobic conidia as the primary means of dispersal, survival, genome-protection, and infecting hosts. Large-scale genome-wide expression studies can now be conducted due to completion of A. fumigatus genome sequencing. However, genomics becomes more powerful and informative when combined with genetics. We have been investigating the mechanisms underlying the regulation of asexual development (conidiation) and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus, primarily focusing on a characterization of key developmental regulators identified in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. In this review, I will summarize our current understanding of how conidiation in two aspergilli is regulated. PMID:23956662

Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2010-12-31

53

Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048=NRRL 58570), ...

54

Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above.

Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Teren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

1996-01-01

55

Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

1996-12-01

56

76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0101 at http://www.regulations.gov.). 2. U.S. EPA. 2003. Environmental Hazard Assessment for the Microbial Pesticide, Aspergillus flavus AF36 for Conditional Registration in Arizona and...

2011-03-23

57

Cryptic Aspergillus nidulans Antimicrobials?  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolite (SM) production by fungi is hypothesized to provide some fitness attribute for the producing organisms. However, most SM clusters are “silent” when fungi are grown in traditional laboratory settings, and it is difficult to ascertain any function or activity of these SM cluster products. Recently, the creation of a chromatin remodeling mutant in Aspergillus nidulans induced activation of several cryptic SM gene clusters. Systematic testing of nine purified metabolites from this mutant identified an emodin derivate with efficacy against both human fungal pathogens (inhibiting both spore germination and hyphal growth) and several bacteria. The ability of catalase to diminish this antimicrobial activity implicates reactive oxygen species generation, specifically, the generation of hydrogen peroxide, as the mechanism of emodin hydroxyl activity.

Giles, Steve S.; Soukup, Alexandra A.; Lauer, Carrie; Shaaban, Mona; Lin, Alexander; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.; Keller, Nancy P.

2011-01-01

58

Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

Arne, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anais; Femenia, Francoise; Nieguitsila, Adelaide; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, Rene; Guillot, Jacques

2011-01-01

59

Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy.

Latge, Jean-Paul

1999-01-01

60

Aspergillus bronchitis without significant immunocompromise.  

PubMed

Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis. Symptomatic patients with a positive culture or real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp. were reviewed. Seventeen patients fulfilled the selected criteria. Fourteen were women, with a mean age of 57 years (range 39-76). Sixteen of the patients had productive cough, eight had voluminous tenacious sputum, and seven had recurrent chest infections. Eight patients had Medical Research Council dyspnea scores of 4-5; 12 had bronchiectasis; and 13 patients grew A. fumigatus, 3 A. niger, and 1 A. terreus. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) had elevated Aspergillus IgG (47-137 mg/L, mean 89.2) and 5 (29%) had elevated Aspergillus precipitins. Six of 12 (50%) had a major response to antifungal therapy and five of 12 (42%) patients relapsed, requiring long-term therapy. Aspergillus bronchitis is a discrete clinical entity in patients with structural lung disease but who are not significantly immunocompromised. It is distinct from asymptomatic fungal colonization and other forms of aspergillosis, and may respond to antifungal therapy. PMID:23231717

Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W

2012-12-01

61

Phagocyte responses towards Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold which is ubiquitously present in the environment. It produces large numbers of spores, called conidia that we constantly inhale with the breathing air. Healthy individuals normally do not suffer from true fungal infections with this pathogen. A normally robust resistance against Aspergillus is based on the presence of a very effective immunological defense system in the vertebrate body. Inhaled conidia are first encountered by lung-resident alveolar macrophages and then by neutrophil granulocytes. Both cell types are able to effectively ingest and destroy the fungus. Although some responses of the adaptive immune system develop, the key protection is mediated by innate immunity. The importance of phagocytes for defense against aspergillosis is also supported by large numbers of animal studies. Despite the production of aggressive chemicals that can extracellularly destroy fungal pathogens, the main effector mechanism of the innate immune system is phagocytosis. Very recently, the production of extracellular neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) consisting of nuclear DNA has been added to the armamentarium that innate immune cells use against infection with Aspergillus. Phagocyte responses to Aspergillus are very broad, and a number of new observations have added to this complexity in recent years. To summarize established and newer findings, we will give an overview on current knowledge of the phagocyte system for the protection against Aspergillus. PMID:21571589

Hasenberg, Mike; Behnsen, Judith; Krappmann, Sven; Brakhage, Axel; Gunzer, Matthias

2011-05-14

62

Genomics of Aspergillus flavus mycotoxin production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aspergilli show immense ecological and metabolic diversity. To date, the sequences of fifteen different Aspergillus genomes have been determined providing scientists with an exciting resource to improve the understanding of Aspergillus molecular genomics. Aspergillus flavus, one of the most wide...

63

Surfactant proteins A and D protect mice against pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by Aspergillus fumigatus antigens and allergens  

PubMed Central

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic disorder caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus (Afu). Lung surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D can interact with the glycosylated antigens and allergens of Afu, inhibit specific IgE binding to these allergens, and block histamine release from sensitized basophils. We have now examined the therapeutic effect of exogenous administration of human SP-A, SP-D, and a recombinant fragment of SP-D (rSP-D), in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by Afu antigens and allergens, which resembles human ABPA immunologically. The ABPA mice exhibited high levels of Afu-specific IgG and IgE, blood eosinophilia, extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the lung sections, and a Th2 cytokine response. Treatment with SP-A, SP-D, and rSP-D lowered blood eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltration, and specific Ab levels considerably, which persisted up to 4 days in the SP-A–treated ABPA mice, and up to 16 days in the SP-D– or rSP-D–treated ABPA mice. The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 were decreased, while the level of IFN-? was raised in the splenic supernatants of the treated mice, indicating a marked shift from Th2 to Th1 response. These results clearly implicate pulmonary SP-A and SP-D in the modulation of allergic reactions.

Madan, Taruna; Kishore, Uday; Singh, Mamta; Strong, Peter; Clark, Howard; Hussain, Ejaj M.; Reid, Kenneth B.M.; Sarma, P. Usha

2001-01-01

64

Optimization of process parameters for production of lipase in solid-state fermentation by newly isolated Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 34 fungal species, isolated from a number of oily substrates, 9 exhibited lipase activity. AU 15, identified as Aspergillus sp., was found to be excellent lipase producer in submerged fermentation and was selected for solid-state fer- mentation (SSF). Among substrates like oil cakes of coconut, groundnut and sesame, wheat rawa, bombay rawa and soya beans (crushed), wheat rawa

K Adinarayana; K V V S N Bapi; M Iqbal Zargar Raju; R Bhavani Devi; P Jhansi Lakshmi; P Ellaiah

65

Molecular genetics in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Manipulation of the genome of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is not well developed. Approaches and data from related model organisms are being used to develop molecular genetic systems in A. fumigatus; for example, the molecular typing of strains during infection. A genome-sequencing programme has begun and will form the basis for future development. PMID:11050444

Brookman, J L; Denning, D W

2000-10-01

66

An Antibiotic from Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY we had occasion to examine the possible production of antibacterial materials by about twenty strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzoe, A. tamarii and A. parasiticus. The culture fluids showed no significant antibacterial titres when a medium of the Czapek type was used; the test organism was Staphylococcus aureus and both the serial dilution method and the plate test1 were

A. H. Cook; M. S. Lacey

1944-01-01

67

Aspergillus nomius , a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus nomius is described and represents a new aflatoxigenic species phenotypically similar to A. flavus. Strains examined were isolated from insects and agricultural commodities. Separation from A. flavus is based on the presence of indeterminate sclerotia and a lower growth temperature. Comparisons of DNA relatedness show A. nomius to have only relatively recently evolved from A. flavus and A. tamarii.

C. P. Kurtzman; B. W. Horn; C. W. Hesseltine

1987-01-01

68

Coinfection by Aspergillus and Zygomycetes Species in a Case of Acute Rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

Invasive mycotic infections can be effectively treated if rapid identification of fungus is obtained. We reported a case of coinfection by Aspergillus and Rhizopus sp. involving nose, paranasal sinuses, orbit, and brain in a 68-year-old known hypertensive male. He was presented to ENT OPD with history of fever and intermittent headache since fifteen days along with history of right-sided nasal obstruction and proptosis since seven days. CT scan of brain and paranasal sinuses showed findings of pansinusitis with cellulitic changes in right orbit. MRI confirmed the same along with features of intracranial extension with focal meningitis in right frontotemporal region. Laboratory parameters did not conclude much except for leucocytosis and hyponatremia. Patient was taken for endoscopic debridement from nose and paranasal sinuses, and tissue was sent for microbiological and histopathological examination. Minced tissue was processed, and after 48?hrs of incubation two types of growth were identified, one was yellowish, granular, and powdery consistent with Aspergillus sp., and another was cottony and woolly consistent with Rhizopus sp. LCB mount confirmed presence of Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus arrhizus. Patient responded to therapy with IV amphotericin B and surgical debridement. On discharge patient's condition was good.

Vaidya, Dhara; Shah, Parul

2011-01-01

69

Ochratoxin Production by the Aspergillus ochraceus Group and Aspergillus alliaceus  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A is a toxic and carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolite; its presence in foods is increasingly regulated. Various fungi are known to produce ochratoxins, but it is not known which species produce ochratoxins consistently and which species cause ochratoxin contamination of various crops. We isolated fungi in the Aspergillus ochraceus group (section Circumdati) and Aspergillus alliaceus from tree nut orchards, nuts, and figs in California. A total of 72 isolates were grown in potato dextrose broth and yeast extract-sucrose broth for 10 days at 30°C and tested for production of ochratoxin A in vitro by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Among isolates from California figs, tree nuts, and orchards, A. ochraceus and Aspergillus melleus were the most common species. No field isolates of A. ochraceus or A. melleus produced ochratoxin A above the level of detection (0.01 ?g/ml). All A. alliaceus isolates produced ochratoxin A, up to 30 ?g/ml. We examined 50,000 figs for fungal infections and measured ochratoxin content in figs with visible fungal colonies. Pooled figs infected with A. alliaceus contained ochratoxin A, figs infected with the A. ochraceus group had little or none, and figs infected with Penicillium had none. These results suggest that the little-known species A. alliaceus is an important ochratoxin-producing fungus in California and that it may be responsible for the ochratoxin contamination occasionally observed in figs.

Bayman, Paul; Baker, James L.; Doster, Mark A.; Michailides, Themis J.; Mahoney, Noreen E.

2002-01-01

70

Cross-reactivity of non-Aspergillus fungal species in the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

The Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (EIA) has been demonstrated to facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of invasive aspergillosis. However, test specificity has not been fully evaluated in non-Aspergillus fungal species. Of 53 fungal isolates, cross-reactivity was observed with 5 non-Aspergillus spp.: Blastomyces dermatitidis, Nigrospora oryzae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Trichothecium roseum. PMID:17662550

Cummings, Jessica R; Jamison, Ginger R; Boudreaux, Jan W; Howles, Merry J; Walsh, Thomas J; Hayden, Randall T

2007-07-26

71

Effect of vanillin concentration, pH and incubation temperature on Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of incubation temperature (10–30°C), pH (3.0–4.0) and vanillin concentration (350–1200ppm) on the growth ofAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceusandAspergillus parasiticuswere evaluated using potato–dextrose agar adjusted to water activity (aw) 0.98. The radial growth rates after a lag period followed zero-order kinetics with constants that varied from 0 (no growth) to 0.63mmh?1. The lag period depended on vanillin concentration,

A López-Malo; S. M Alzamora; A Argaiz

1997-01-01

72

Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

2009-05-05

73

Xylanase production by Aspergillus tamarii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus tamarii has been found to grow well and to produce high cellulase-free xylanase activity when growing on corn cob powder as the principal\\u000a substrate. Maximum xylanase production (285-350 U\\/mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in media supplemented with high\\u000a corn cob concentration (5-8%, w\\/v) for 5 d. The presence of constitutive levels of xylanase was detected in

Marina K. Kadowaki; Cristina G. M. Souza; Rita C. G. Simão; Rosane M. Peralta

1997-01-01

74

Lysine aminopeptidase of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserved regions within the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases have been used to clone a zinc aminopeptidase from the industrially used fungus Aspergillus niger. The derived amino acid sequence of ApsA is highly similar to two yeast zinc aminopeptidases, LAPI and AAPI (53.3 and 50.9?verall similarity, respectively), two members of the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases. The encoding gene was successfully overexpressed

D. E. J. W. Basten; Jaap Visser; Peter J. Schaap

2001-01-01

75

In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

76

In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens.  

PubMed

Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens. PMID:23997920

Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

2013-07-01

77

Molecular Diversity of Agriculturally Important Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Aspergillus species are not usually considered as serious plant pathogens, Aspergilli are frequently encountered in plant products. The most important consequence of their presence is mycotoxin contamination. The main mycotoxins produced by Aspergilli are the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and patulin, which are produced by a variety of Aspergillus species in different plant commodities. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the

János Varga; Ákos Juhász; Ferenc Kevei; Zofia Kozakiewicz

2004-01-01

78

Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Fujii, Isao

2009-11-06

79

Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation, the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO(2) evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy to attenuate unwanted side effects resulting from oxygen limitation during industrial fermentations with A. niger. PMID:18694843

Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

2008-07-24

80

Leporizines a-C: epithiodiketopiperazines isolated from an Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Three new compounds named leporizines A-C (1-3) have been isolated from an Aspergillus sp. strain. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Leporizines A and B were isolated during dereplication of hits from a high-throughput screening campaign for correctors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and leporizine C was isolated while preparing additional material for characterization of leporizines A and B. CFTR activity observed for leporizines A and B was highly correlated with cell toxicity and was determined to be a nonspecific effect. Leporizine C was not cytotoxic to cells and did not elicit a response in the CFTR assays. To the best of our knowledge, leporizines A-C represent the first examples of this unusual epithiodiketopiperazine skeleton. PMID:24050204

Reategui, Ricardo; Rhea, Joshua; Adolphson, Janet; Waikins, Kathryn; Newell, Ryan; Rabenstein, John; Mocek, Ulla; Luche, Michele; Carr, Grant

2013-09-19

81

Itaconate biosynthesis in Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

Itaconate biosynthesis was studied in intact cells of high-yield (RC4') and low-yield (CM85J) strains of the fungus Aspergillus terreus by methods (tracers, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy) that did not interfere with metabolism. Itaconate formation in RC4' required de novo protein biosynthesis. Krebs cycle intermediates increased in both strains during the production of itaconic acid. The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and the Krebs cycle were shown to be involved in this biosynthesis by using 14C- and 13C-labelled substrates and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A metabolic pathway for itaconate formation from glucose in A. terreus is proposed. PMID:7768868

Bonnarme, P; Gillet, B; Sepulchre, A M; Role, C; Beloeil, J C; Ducrocq, C

1995-06-01

82

Colorimetric Assay for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colorimetric assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, Asper- gillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus ustus) is described based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-((sulphenylamino)carbonyl)-2H-tetrazolium-hydroxide (XTT) in the presence of menadione as an electron-coupling agent. The combination of 200 g of XTT\\/ml with 25 M menadione resulted in a high production of

JOSEPH MELETIADIS; JOHAN W. MOUTON; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS; BIANCA A. BOUMAN; J. PETER DONNELLY; PAUL E. VERWEIJ

2001-01-01

83

CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository 2012.  

PubMed

The Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE; http://www.cadre-genomes.org.uk) is a public resource for genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It provides an array of online tools for searching and visualising features of this significant fungal genus. CADRE arose from a need within the medical community to understand the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Due to the paucity of Aspergillus genomic resources 10 years ago, the long-term goal of this project was to collate and maintain Aspergillus genomes as they became available. Since our first release in 2004, the resource has expanded to encompass annotated sequence for eight other Aspergilli and provides much needed support to the international Aspergillus research community. Recent developments, however, in sequencing technology are creating a vast amount of genomic data and, as a result, we shortly expect a tidal wave of Aspergillus data. In preparation for this, we have upgraded the database and software suite. This not only enables better management of more complex data sets, but also improves annotation by providing access to genome comparison data and the integration of high-throughput data. PMID:22080563

Mabey Gilsenan, Jane; Cooley, John; Bowyer, Paul

2011-11-12

84

CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository 2012  

PubMed Central

The Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE; http://www.cadre-genomes.org.uk) is a public resource for genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It provides an array of online tools for searching and visualising features of this significant fungal genus. CADRE arose from a need within the medical community to understand the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Due to the paucity of Aspergillus genomic resources 10 years ago, the long-term goal of this project was to collate and maintain Aspergillus genomes as they became available. Since our first release in 2004, the resource has expanded to encompass annotated sequence for eight other Aspergilli and provides much needed support to the international Aspergillus research community. Recent developments, however, in sequencing technology are creating a vast amount of genomic data and, as a result, we shortly expect a tidal wave of Aspergillus data. In preparation for this, we have upgraded the database and software suite. This not only enables better management of more complex data sets, but also improves annotation by providing access to genome comparison data and the integration of high-throughput data.

Mabey Gilsenan, Jane; Cooley, John; Bowyer, Paul

2012-01-01

85

Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods 10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) median and 90th percentile were determined. Results BAK had the lowest MIC for both Fusarium and Aspergillus. Chloramphenicol had activity against both Fusarium and Aspergillus, while moxifloxacin and tobramycin had activity against Fusarium but not Aspergillus. Conclusions The susceptibility of Fusarium to tobramycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, and BAK and of Aspergillus to chloramphenicol and BAK may explain anecdotal reports of fungal ulcers that improved with antibiotic treatment alone. While some of the MICs of antibiotics and BAK are lower than the typically prescribed concentrations, they are not in the range of antifungal agents such as voriconazole, natamycin, and amphotericin B. Antibiotics may, however, have a modest effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus when used as initial treatment prior to identification of the pathologic organism.

Day, Shelley; Lalitha, Prajna; Haug, Sara; Fothergill, Annette W.; Cevallos, Vicky; Vijayakumar, Rajendran; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V.; Acharya, Nisha R.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

86

PCR detection assays for the ochratoxin-producing Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus species.  

PubMed

Two PCR assays have been developed to detect Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus, considered the main sources of ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminating commodities, particularly grapes, coffee and derivatives, in warm climates. The species specific primers have been designed on the basis of ITS (internal transcribed spacers of rDNA units) sequence comparisons obtained from Aspergillus strains and have been tested in a number of strains from different origins and hosts. These PCR assays, based on multi-copy sequences, are highly sensitive and specific and represent a good tool for an early detection of OTA-producing Aspergillus species and to prevent OTA entering the food chain. PMID:15967531

Patiño, Belén; González-Salgado, Amaia; González-Jaén, M Teresa; Vázquez, Covadonga

2005-10-15

87

Bilateral allergic fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune and Aspergillus niger. A case report.  

PubMed

Schizophillum commune (S. commune) is a rare type of basidiomycetous fungus that has being reported as a cause of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), invasive type of fungal sinusitis and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM). However, it is believed that S. commune was often misdiagnosed to Aspergillus sp. We report a case of bilateral nasal polyps and maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoidal involvement within the context of S. commune and Aspergillus niger associated AFRS. Our patient was suffering from a chronic disease with periods of remission and exacerbation and was treated successfully by a combination of surgical and antifungal treatment. In our experience, S. commune may be found frequently in patients with AFRS. AFRS, including the S. commune-associated type, usually runs a prolonged course and can affect any paranasal sinus. Surgical treatment alone is not sufficient and must be combined with medical treatment. PMID:19593982

Ahmed, Mohamed Khalifa; Ishino, Takashi; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

2009-06-01

88

Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary Metabolites from Marine and Fungicolous Isolates of Aspergillus Spp.†  

PubMed Central

Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A – G; 1 – 7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048 = NRRL 58570), while the others were obtained from a marine Aspergillus isolate (SF-5044) collected in Korea. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of NMR and MS data. Relative and absolute configurations were assigned on the basis of NOESY data and 1H NMR J-values, comparison of calculated and experimental ECD spectra, and analysis of a Mosher’s ester derivative of 2. Several known compounds, including alantrypinone, aspochalasins I and J, methyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-2((2-((3-pyridinylcarbonyl)amino) benzoyl)amino) benzoate, and trans-dehydrocurvularin were also encountered in the extract of the Hawaiian isolate.

Neff, Scott A.; Lee, Sang Un; Asami, Yukihiro; Ahn, Jong Seog; Oh, Hyuncheol; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gloer, James B.; Wicklow, Donald T.

2012-01-01

89

Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

90

Molecular diagnosis of Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old male with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed signs of severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Serial blood cultures were negative and a SeptiFast test detected the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA. Afterwards, detection of galactomannan and 1,3-?-D-glucan showed a positive result. Autopsy revealed the presence of branched fungal structures suggestive of Aspergillus. PMID:21767711

Palomares, José C; Bernal, Samuel; Marín, María; Holgado, Victoria Pérez; Castro, Carmen; Morales, Willy Pinto; Martin, Estrella

2011-08-01

91

Isolation of aminopeptidase from Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

A mixture of aminopeptidase and neutral protease from the Aspergillus flavus mold obtained by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex was fractionated by chromatography on the hydroxyalkyl methacrylate gel with chemically bonded 1,6 hexamethylene diamine and D-leucine. Aminopeptidase thus obtained was electrophoretically homogeneous. Conditions for chromatography were worked out allowing a one stage isolation of a highly active aminopeptidase sample directly from the alcoholic precipitate of the culture medium of the Aspergillus flavus mold. PMID:814927

Turková, J; Valentová, O; Coupek, J

1976-02-20

92

Environmental and developmental factors influencing aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins formed by a number of fungi in the genus Aspergillus. The major fungi responsible for aflatoxin formation in crop seeds in the field and in storage are Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. This review emphasizes developmental, environmental, biological, and chemical factors that influence aflatoxin formation\\u000a by A. flavus and A. parasiticus.

Maren A. Klich

2007-01-01

93

Possible implications of reciprocity between ethylene and aflatoxin biogenesis in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produced ethylene during early growth. However, the onset of toxin biosynthesis was marked by the absence of ethylene evolution. 2-Chloroethyl phosphonic acid, an ethylene-generating compound, inhibited aflatoxin biosynthesis in vivo. The reciprocal relationship between the production of aflatoxin and ethylene by the organism may indicate the involvement of the latter in the regulation of aflatoxin biogenesis.

Sharma, A; Padwal-Desai, S R; Nadkarni, G B

1985-01-01

94

Biocontrol Potential of Siderophore Producing Heavy Metal Resistant Alcaligenes sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 vis-à-vis Organophosphorus Fungicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study in vitro phytopathogen suppression activity of siderophoregenic preparations of Ni and Mn resistant Alcaligenes sp. STC1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 SH-94B isolated from soil were found superior over the chemical pesticide. Siderophore rich culture broth and siderophore\\u000a rich supernatant exerted antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger NCIM 1025, Aspergillus flavus NCIM 650, Fusarium oxysporum NCIM 1281, Alternaria alternata

R. Z. Sayyed; P. R. Patel

95

21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aspergillus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus...lessions in the skin, ear, eyeball cavity, nasal sinuses, lungs, and occasionally the bones. (b) Classification....

2013-04-01

96

Calmodulin inhibitors from Aspergillus stromatoides.  

PubMed

An organic extract was prepared from the culture medium and mycelia of the marine fungus Aspergillus stromatoides RAPER & FENNELL. The extract was fractionated via column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were tested for their abilities to quench the fluorescence of the calmodulin (CaM) biosensor hCaM M124C-mBBr. From the active fraction, emodin (1) and ?-hydroxyemodin (2) were isolated as CaM inhibitors. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 quenched the fluorescence of the hCaM M124C-mBBr biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner with K(d) values of 0.33 and 0.76 ?M, respectively. The results were compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a classical inhibitor of CaM, with a K(d) value of 1.25 ?M. Docking analysis revealed that 1 and 2 bind to the same pocket of CPZ. The CaM inhibitor properties of 1 and 2 were correlated with some of their reported biological properties. Citrinin (3), methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), and coniochaetone A (5) were also isolated in the present study. The X-ray structure of 5 is reported for the first time. PMID:23495150

González-Andrade, Martín; Del Valle, Paulina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Del Carmen González, María; Mata, Rachel

2013-03-01

97

Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains.  

PubMed

Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone of inhibition 1-2 mm) to significant (+3 = zone of inhibition 3-5 mm) activity against one or the other strain under experiment. However, extracts of 12 species were active against all the three strains. Organisms like Salicornia brachiata (obligate halophyte), Sinularia leptocladus (Soft coral), Elysia grandifolia (Mollusks), Gorgonian sp. 2 and Haliclona sp. exhibited significant (inhibition zone of 3-5 mm) antifungal activity against one or the other strains. However, extracts of A. ilicifolius, Amphiroa sp., Poryphyra sp., Unidentified sponge, Suberites vestigium, Sinularia compressa, Sinularia sp., Sinularia maxima, Subergorgia suberosa, Echinogorgia pseudorassopo and Sabellaria cementifera were mild (inhibition zone of 1-2 mm) to moderate (inhibition zone of 2-3 mm) active against the respective strains. The growth of A. japonicus was significantly inhibited by the extracts of S. leptocladus (r = 0.992, p < 0.0001) and E. grandifolia (r = 0.989, p < 0.0001). PMID:11040863

Bhosale, S H; Jagtap, T G; Naik, C G

1999-01-01

98

Novel effect of voriconazole on conidiation of Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies of Aspergillus fumigatus showed that colonies that grew in the presence of voriconazole (VCZ) were characteristically white without pigmentation. We therefore investigated the effect of various triazoles on conidiation and pigmentation in four commonly isolated Aspergillus species and the results were compared with those obtained for polyene and echinocandin classes of antifungal drugs. Aspergillus cultures were grown

Neeraja L Varanasi; Inthumathi Baskaran; George J Alangaden; Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar; Elias K Manavathu

2004-01-01

99

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

100

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-05-28

101

Phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species using DNA sequences from four loci.  

PubMed

DNA sequences were determined for beta tubulin (BT2), calmodulin (CF), ITS and lsu rDNA (ID) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) from ca. 460 Aspergillus isolates. RPB2 and rDNA sequences were combined and analyzed to determine relationships in the genus and in the family Trichocomaceae. Eupenicillium species form a statistically supported clade with origins among the Aspergillus clades. A. crystallinus, A. malodoratus and H. paradoxus are members of the Eupenicillium clade. A. zonatus, A. clavatoflvus and W. spinulosa occur in a clade along with Hamigera sp. Other than these exceptional species, Aspergillus species and sections occur on three strongly supported clades that descend from a polytomy. Section Versicolores as a monophyletic group includes only A. versicolor and A. sydowii and is superfluous. The other sections were retained but modified. All four loci were used in genealogical concordance analysis of species boundaries. Fennellia flavipes and F. nivea are not conspecific with their supposed anamorphs A. flavipes and A. nivea. Synonymies were found for some species and more than 20 undescribed taxa were identified in genealogical concordance analysis. Newly discovered taxa will be described elsewhere. Possibly paralogous gene fragments were amplified with the BT2 primers in sections Nidulantes, Usti and Nigri. Use of nonhomologous sequences in genealogical concordance analysis could lead to false conclusions and so BT2 sequences were not used in analysis of those sections. PMID:18595197

Peterson, Stephen W

102

Acute aortic occlusion with sudden paraplegia secondary to Aspergillus niger embolism from Aspergillus niger aortitis.  

PubMed

Acute aortic occlusion caused by a saddle embolus is a rare vascular emergency. Associated sudden paraplegia secondary to spinal cord ischemia is even more uncommon. Aspergillus surgical site infection is typically linked to cardiac surgery but is exceptional. Here we present a case that combines all of these factors. A 67-year-old man presented with sudden paraplegia from acute aortic occlusion with a saddle embolus from Aspergillus niger aortitis 4 months after aortic valve replacement and aortoplasty. We believe this to be the second reported case of Aspergillus niger aortitis and the first presenting as aortic occlusion with paraplegia. PMID:21715126

Jamieson, Russell W; Wallace, William A; Din, Jehangir N; Raza, Zahid

2011-06-29

103

What does genetic diversity of Aspergillus flavus tell us about Aspergillus oryzae?  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. This review summarizes the current understanding of the similarity of the A. flavus and A. oryzae genomes, the genetic diversity in A. flavus and A. oryzae populations, the causes of this diversity, and the relatedness of nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains to A. oryzae. PMID:20163884

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

2010-02-01

104

Itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis is an increasingly frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Only two agents, amphotericin B and itraconazole, are licensed for therapy. Itraconazole acts through inhibition of a P-450 enzyme undertaking sterol 14alpha demethylation. In vitro resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus to itraconazole correlated with in vivo outcome has not been previously described. For three isolates (AF72, AF90, and AF91) of A. fumigatus from two patients with invasive aspergillosis itraconazole MICs were elevated. A neutropenic murine model was used to establish the validity of the MICs. The isolates were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Analysis of sterols, inhibition of cell-free sterol biosynthesis from [14C] mevalonate, quantitation of P-450 content, and [3H]itraconazole concentration in mycelial pellets were used to determine the mechanisms of resistance. The MICs for the three resistant isolates were >16 microg/ml. In vitro resistance was confirmed in vivo for all three isolates. Molecular typing showed the isolates from the two patients to be genetically distinct. Compared to the susceptible isolate from patient 1, AF72 had a reduced ergosterol content, greater quantities of sterol intermediates, a similar susceptibility to itraconazole in cell-free ergosterol biosynthesis, and a reduced intracellular [3H]itraconazole concentration. In contrast, AF91 and AF92 had slightly higher ergosterol and lower intermediate sterol concentrations, fivefold increased resistance in cell-free systems to the effect of itraconazole on sterol 14alpha demethylation, and intracellular [3H] itraconazole concentrations found in susceptible isolates. Resistance to itraconazole in A. fumigatus is detectable in vitro and is present in wild-type isolates, and at least two mechanisms of resistance are responsible.

Denning, D W; Venkateswarlu, K; Oakley, K L; Anderson, M J; Manning, N J; Stevens, D A; Warnock, D W; Kelly, S L

1997-01-01

105

Ammonium Regulation in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

l-Glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, and methylammonium uptake and the intracellular ammonium concentration were measured in wild-type and mutant cells of Aspergillus nidulans held in various concentrations of ammonium and urea. The levels of l-glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, nitrate reductase, and hypoxanthine dehydrogenase activity are determined by the extracellular ammonium concentration. The level of methylammonium uptake is determined by the intracellular ammonium concentration. The uptake and enzyme characteristics of the ammonium-derepressed mutants, meaA8, meaB6, DER3, amrA1, xprD1, and gdhA1, are described. The gdhA mutants lack normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) activity and are derepressed with respect to both external and internal ammonium. The other mutant classes are derepressed only with respect to external ammonium. The mutants meaA8, DER3, amrA1, and xprD1 have low levels of one or more of the l-glutamate, thiourea, and methylammonium uptake systems. A model for ammonium regulation in A. nidulans is put forward which suggests: (i) NADP-GDH located in the cell membrane complexes with extracellular ammonium. This first regulatory complex determines the level of l-glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, nitrate reductase, and xanthine dehydrogenase by repression or inhibition, or both. (ii) NADP-GDH also complexes with intracellular ammonium. This second and different form of regulatory complex determines the level of methylammonium uptake by repression or inhibition, or both.

Pateman, J. A.; Kinghorn, J. R.; Dunn, Etta; Forbes, E.

1973-01-01

106

Activity of Contemporary Antifungal Agents, Including the Novel Echinocandin Anidulafungin, Tested against Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., and Aspergillus spp.: Report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2006 to 2007) ?  

PubMed Central

Results from the SENTRY international fungal surveillance program for 2006 to 2007 are presented. A total of 1,448 Candida sp., 49 Aspergillus fumigatus, and 33 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates were obtained from infected sterile-site sources in patients on five continents. Reference susceptibility was determined for anidulafungin, caspofungin, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B by CLSI methods.

Messer, Shawn A.; Moet, Gary J.; Kirby, Jeffrey T.; Jones, Ronald N.

2009-01-01

107

Survey of Vietnamese Peanuts, Corn and Soil for the Presence of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause perennial infection of agriculturally important crops in tropical and subtropical areas. Invasion of crops by these\\u000a fungi may result in contamination of food and feed by potent carcinogenic aflatoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin contaminated\\u000a foods is a recognised risk factor for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may contribute to the high incidence of HCC\\u000a in

N. Tran-Dinh; I. Kennedy; T. Bui; D. Carter

2009-01-01

108

Aspergillus PCR: one step closer to standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR has been used as an aid in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis for almost 2 decades. A lack of standardization has limited both its acceptance as a diagnostic tool and multicenter clinical evaluations, preventing its inclusion in disease-defining criteria. In 2006, the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative was formed. The aim of the initiative was to provide optimal standardized protocols

P. L. White; S. Bretagne; L. Klingspor; W. J. G. Melchers; E. McCulloch; B. Schulz; N. Finnstrom; C. Mengoli; R. A. Barnes; J. P. Donnelly; J. Loeffler

2010-01-01

109

Lack of Host Specialization in Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus spp. cause disease in a broad range of organisms, but it is unknown if strains are specialized for particular hosts. We evaluated isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans for their ability to infect bean leaves, corn kernels, and insects (Galleria mellonella). Strains of A. flavus did not affect nonwounded bean leaves, corn kernels, or insects at 22°C, but they killed insects following hemocoelic challenge and caused symptoms ranging from moderate to severe in corn kernels and bean leaves injured during inoculation. The pectinase P2c, implicated in aggressive colonization of cotton bolls, is produced by most A. flavus isolates, but its absence did not prevent colonization of bean leaves. Proteases have been implicated in colonization of animal hosts. All A. flavus strains produced very similar patterns of protease isozymes when cultured on horse lung polymers. Quantitative differences in protease levels did not correlate with the ability to colonize insects. In contrast to A. flavus, strains of A. nidulans and A. fumigatus could not invade living insect or plant tissues or resist digestion by insect hemocytes. Our results indicate that A. flavus has parasitic attributes that are lacking in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans but that individual strains of A. flavus are not specialized to particular hosts.

St. Leger, Raymond J.; Screen, Steven E.; Shams-Pirzadeh, Bijan

2000-01-01

110

ASCOCARPS OF ASPERGILLUS AND PENICILLIUM l  

Microsoft Academic Search

(WITH 21 FIGURES) The industrial and commercial importance of Aspergillus and Peni- cillium has stimulated extensive study of these form genera. According to Raper and Thorn (1949), more than 700 species have been described as penicillia alone. The emphasis in current literature is on the conidial stages, and the manuals by Raper and Thorn (1949) and Thorn and Raper (1945)

CHESTER R. BENJAMIN

111

Orbital aspergillus infection diagnosed by FNAC.  

PubMed

Fungal infections of the orbit represent a small minority of orbital infections. However, due to the virulent nature of some of the fungal species, they can have a devastating effect on ocular functions. Most of these fungi are saprophytes, which cause opportunistic infections. Aspergillus is one such fungus that can cause infection at various sites in an immunosuppressed individual. Sinonasal aspergillus infection with orbital extension and orbital aspergillus infection progress relentlessly. They can have a precipitous clinical course resulting in total loss of vision. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is rarely used as a preoperative diagnostic tool in the investigation of orbital mass lesions. Further, fungal infections of orbit are seldom diagnosed on FNAC. Two cases of fungal infection of the orbital and periorbital tissue diagnosed on FNAC are presented. A 50-year-old diabetic male presented with diminishing vision, pain, and forward protrusion of the left eye. On examination, he had upper eye lid fullness. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with a swelling on the right upper eye lid. The patients were evaluated radiologically and then subjected to FNAC. The smears showed giant cells, histiocytes, epithelioid granulomas, and fungal hyphae. A diagnosis of fungal infection was arrived at which was subsequently confirmed by culture and biopsy. Orbital aspergillus infection can have a precipitous course. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit provide crucial information. However, FNAC can help in making an early definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and thus obviate the need for a biopsy. PMID:21695805

Kuruba, Sree Lakshmi; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Nagarajappa, A H; Biligi, Dayanand S

2010-11-09

112

GENOME SEQUENCING AND ANALYSIS OF ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, an important industrial fungus used in the production of oriental fermented foods, such as soy sauce, miso, and sake, has been sequenced. The genome sequence reveals a wealth of genes encoding secreted enzymes. A comparison with the genome sequences of A. nidulans...

113

In vivo biofilm composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The in vivo composition of the mycelial extracellular matrix (ECM) of Aspergillus fumigatus during host invasion is reported here for the first time. A new galactosaminogalactan and the galactomannan were the major polysaccharides of the in vivo ECM. The composition of the ECM in vivo varied with the aspergillosis pathologies. PMID:19889082

Loussert, Céline; Schmitt, Christine; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Balloy, Viviane; Fadel, Elie; Philippe, Bruno; Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Latgé, Jean Paul; Beauvais, Anne

2009-11-04

114

In vivo biofilm composition of Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The in vivo composition of the mycelial extracellu- lar matrix (ECM) of Aspergillus fumigatus during host invasion is reported here for the first time. A new galactosaminogalactan and the galactoman- nan were the major polysaccharides of the in vivo ECM. The composition of the ECM in vivo varied with the aspergillosis pathologies.

Céline Loussert; Christine Schmitt; Marie-Christine Prevost; Viviane Balloy; Elie Fadel; Bruno Philippe; Catherine Kauffmann-Lacroix; Jean Paul Latgé; Anne Beauvais

2009-01-01

115

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

116

Antifungal Therapy of Murine Aspergillus terreus Infection  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus terreus is a species which is being seen increasingly frequently and which is highly resistant to amphotericin B in vitro and clinically. We evaluated amphotericin B, caspofungin, and posaconazole in a murine model of acute invasive aspergillosis. Caspofungin and posaconazole both appeared beneficial and may be reasonable treatment alternatives for infection with A. terreus.

Graybill, John R.; Hernandez, Steve; Bocanegra, Rosie; Najvar, Laura K.

2004-01-01

117

Cold-sensitive mutants in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cold-sensitive mutants of Aspergillus nidulans which produce abnormal ribosome sedimentation profiles have been identified. After growth at 37° C followed by incubation at 20° C, all four mutant strains (designated ARP) produce profiles containing a reduced ratio of large to small ribosomal subunits. In at least three of the ARP strains the altered profile results from decreased production of

C. Waldron; C. F. Roberts

1974-01-01

118

In vitro interaction of terbinafine with itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine against Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the in vitro interaction of terbinafine with itraconazole, fluconazole, ampho- tericin B and 5-flucytosine, against Aspergillus spp. We tested three isolates of Aspergillus fumi- gatus (one resistant to itraconazole), and two each of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. We employed a broth microdilution-based method derived from an in vivo validated method capable of detecting itraconazole resistance

J. Mosquera; A. Sharp; C. B. Moore; P. A. Warn; D. W. Denning

2002-01-01

119

Specific amplification of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

We have developed a specific and sensitive method to detect the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with an objective of detecting the organism in peripheral blood and urine which can be obtained by non-invasive procedures. A pair of oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed based on the published partial protein sequences of an 18 KD IgE-binding protein of A. fumigatus Asp f1 and the ribotoxins mitogillin and restrictocin of A. restrictus, and alpha-sarcin of A. giganteus. The primers were specific in amplifying an expected 315 bp region of the homologous genes in A. fumigatus and A. restrictus but not in A. giganteus. Also, there was no amplification of human DNA or DNA of A. flavus, A. niger, A. fischeri, Penicillium sp., Candida albicans and Pneumocystis carinii. The sensitivity of the PCR detection of A. fumigatus DNA is about 20 pg on an ethidium bromide gel and 0.6 pg by Southern analysis using a 32P-labelled internal oligonucleotide. In preliminary analysis of 13 urine specimens of patients suspected of invasive aspergillosis (IA), two were PCR positive, one of whom died of IA with brain lesion. Further analyses of both urine and blood specimens of IA are in progress to determine the comparative utility of PCR over the conventional antigen tests. PMID:8321251

Reddy, L V; Kumar, A; Kurup, V P

1993-04-01

120

Aspergillus flavus: the major producer of aflatoxin.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops. It is important because it produces aflatoxin as a secondary metabolite in the seeds of a number of crops both before and after harvest. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is highly regulated in most countries. In the field, aflatoxin is associated with drought-stressed oilseed crops including maize, peanut, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under the right conditions, the fungus will grow and produce aflatoxin in almost any stored crop seed. In storage, aflatoxin can be controlled by maintaining available moisture at levels below that which will support growth of A. flavus. A number of field control measures are being utilized or explored, including: modification of cultural practices; development of resistant crops through molecular and proteomic techniques; competitive exclusion using strains that do not produce aflatoxin; and development of field treatments that would block aflatoxin production. Taxonomy: Aspergillus flavus Link (teleomorph unknown) kingdom Fungi, phyllum Ascomycota, order Eurotiales, class Eurotiomycetes, family Trichocomaceae, genus Aspergillus, species flavus. Host range: Aspergillus flavus has a broad host range as an opportunistic pathogen/saprobe. It is an extremely common soil fungus. The major concern with this fungus in agriculture is that it produces highly carcinogenic toxins called aflatoxins which are a health hazard to animals. In the field, A. flavus is predominantly a problem in the oilseed crops maize, peanuts, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under improper storage conditions, A. flavus is capable of growing and forming aflatoxin in almost any crop seed. It also is a pathogen of animals and insects. In humans it is predominantly an opportunistic pathogen of immunosuppressed patients. Useful websites: http://www.aspergillusflavus.org, http://www.aflatoxin.info/health.asp, plantpathology.tamu.edu/aflatoxin, http://www.aspergillus.org.uk. PMID:20507532

Klich, Maren A

2007-11-01

121

Noncompetitive, Reversible Inhibition of Aminoacylase-1 by a Series of l -?-Hydroxyl and l -?-Fluoro Fatty Acids: Ligand Specificity of Aspergillus oryzae and Porcine Kidney Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-Lactate and l-?-phenyllactate have been identified in the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KY-11 as reversible noncompetitive inhibitors of Aspergillus oryzae aminoacylase-1 and porcine kidney aminoacylase I. A series of ?-hydroxyl acids (dl-R-CH(OH)-COOH, R = Et, n-pro, n-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl) also inhibited the two enzymes in reversible noncompetitive kinetics, and the inhibition potency (?log Ki) increased with the increased hydrophobicity

Takashi Tamura; Yoshiko Oki; Atsuhito Yoshida; Takatoshi Kuriyama; Hiroshi Kawakami; Hiroyuki Inoue; Kenji Inagaki; Hidehiko Tanaka

2000-01-01

122

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. 173.120 Section 173.120 ...and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in...

2010-01-01

123

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. 173.120 Section 173.120 ...and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in...

2009-04-01

124

New species in Aspergillus section Terrei  

PubMed Central

Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus.

Samson, R.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

2011-01-01

125

New species in Aspergillus section Terrei.  

PubMed

Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus. PMID:21892242

Samson, R A; Peterson, S W; Frisvad, J C; Varga, J

2011-06-30

126

Identification of dioxygenases required for Aspergillus development. Studies of products, stereochemistry, and the reaction mechanism.  

PubMed

Aspergillus sp. contain ppoA, ppoB, and ppoC genes, which code for fatty acid oxygenases with homology to fungal linoleate 7,8-diol synthases (7,8-LDS) and cyclooxygenases. Our objective was to identify these enzymes, as ppo gene replacements show critical developmental aberrancies in sporulation and pathogenicity in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and the genetic model Aspergillus nidulans. The PpoAs of A. fumigatus and A. nidulans were identified as (8R)-dioxygenases with hydroperoxide isomerase activity, designated 5,8-LDS. 5,8-LDS transformed 18:2n-6 to (8R)-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid ((8R)-HPODE) and (5S,8R)-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid ((5S,8R)-DiHODE). We also detected 8,11-LDS in A. fumigatus and (10R)-dioxygenases in both Aspergilli. The diol synthases oxidized [(8R)-(2)H]18:2n-6 to (8R)-HPODE with retention of the deuterium label, suggesting antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and insertion of molecular oxygen. Experiments with stereospecifically deuterated 18:2n-6 showed that (8R)-HPODE was isomerized by 5,8- and 8,11-LDS to (5S,8R)-DiHODE and to (8R,11S)-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, respectively, by suprafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygen insertion at C-5 and C-11. PpoCs were identified as (10R)-dioxygenases, which catalyzed abstraction of the pro-S hydrogen at C-8 of 18:2n-6, double bond migration, and antafacial insertion of molecular oxygen with formation of (10R)-hydroxy-8E,12Z-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid ((10R)-HPODE). Deletion of ppoA led to prominent reduction of (8R)-H(P)ODE and complete loss of (5S,8R)-DiHODE biosynthesis, whereas biosynthesis of (10R)-HPODE was unaffected. Deletion of ppoC caused biosynthesis of traces of racemic 10-HODE but did not affect the biosynthesis of other oxylipins. We conclude that ppoA of Aspergillus sp. may code for 5,8-LDS with catalytic similarities to 7,8-LDS and ppoC for linoleate (10R)-dioxygenases. Identification of these oxygenases and their products will provide tools for analyzing the biological impact of oxylipin biosynthesis in Aspergilli. PMID:17906293

Garscha, Ulrike; Jernerén, Fredrik; Chung, DaWoon; Keller, Nancy P; Hamberg, Mats; Oliw, Ernst H

2007-09-28

127

Behaviour of recombinant plasmids in Aspergillus nidulans : structure and stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pyrG-Aspergillus strain was transformed with plasmid pDJB-1, derived from pBR325 by insertion of the Neurospora crassa pyr4 gene (orotidine 5'-phosphate carboxylase), giving mitotically unstable transformants. Aspergillus DNA which acted as an “autonomously replicating sequence” (ARS) in yeast was inserted into pDJB-1 and the resulting construct, pDJB12.1, gave mitotically stable transformants when introduced into Aspergillus. Transformants obtained with pDJB-1 and

D. E. Barnes; D. W. MacDonald

1986-01-01

128

Trehalase in Conidia of Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Horikoshi, Koki (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan), and Yonosuke Ikeda. Trehalase in conidia of Aspergillus oryzae. J. Bacteriol. 91:1883–1887. 1966.—Trehalases (soluble trehalase and coat-bound trehalase) were found in the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae, and the total activity of the trehalases increased during the germination process. The soluble trehalase was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography; its optimal pH, Michaelis constant, and heat stability were studied. In vitro, the trehalases were competitively inhibited by d-mannitol, which was also contained in the conidia. Since the trehalose content in the conidia decreased at an early stage of germination, it was assumed that trehalase might begin to hydrolyze trehalose after the inhibitory effect of d-mannitol decreased.

Horikoshi, Koki; Ikeda, Yonosuke

1966-01-01

129

Imaging living cells of Aspergillus in vitro.  

PubMed

Live-cell imaging techniques are now routinely used to study filamentous fungi. This has been very much facilitated by the development of a wide range of novel microscope technologies, new fluorescent probes (vital dyes and fluorescent proteins), and major advances in computing hardware and software. Here we show what can be achieved with imaging living cells of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. nidulans in vitro using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Basic techniques for successful live-cell imaging are described, and results are shown from imaging the dynamics of the growing colony margin, nuclear division, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and asexual structures. Other live-cell imaging studies that have been performed on Aspergillus are also summarized. PMID:19255923

Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick D

2009-03-02

130

Biocontrol Potential of Siderophore Producing Heavy Metal Resistant Alcaligenes sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 vis-à-vis Organophosphorus Fungicide.  

PubMed

In present study in vitro phytopathogen suppression activity of siderophoregenic preparations of Ni and Mn resistant Alcaligenes sp. STC1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 SH-94B isolated from soil were found superior over the chemical pesticide. Siderophore rich culture broth and siderophore rich supernatant exerted antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger NCIM 1025, Aspergillus flavus NCIM 650, Fusarium oxysporum NCIM 1281, Alternaria alternata ARI 715, Cercospora arachichola, Metarhizium anisopliae NCIM 1311 and Pseudomonas solanacerum NCIM 5103. Siderophore rich broth and supernatant exhibited potent antifungal activity vis-à-vis oraganophosphorus chemical fungicide; kitazine. The minimum fungicidal concentration required was 25 ?l for Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Cercospora arachichola, Metarhizium anisopliae, Pseudomonas solanacerum and 75 ?l for A. alternata. PMID:22754001

Sayyed, R Z; Patel, P R

2011-03-10

131

Keratinolytic Activity of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Aspergillus fumigatus can utilize chicken feather keratin as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Because enzymatic conversion of native keratin\\u000a into readily usable products is of economic interest, this fungus was studied for its capacity to produce and secrete keratin-hydrolyzing\\u000a proteinases. Substantial keratin-azure hydrolyzing activity was present in the culture fluid of keratin-containing media.\\u000a Considerably lower activity was present

Regina M. D. B. Santos; Alexandre A. P. Firmino; Cezar M. de Sá; Carlos R. Felix

1996-01-01

132

Production of ?-fructofuranosidase by Aspergillus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated strain, TIT-90076, which produces ?-fructofuranosidase (FFase, EC 3.2.1.26) with a high transfructosylating activity was identified as Aspergillus japonicus. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic transfructosylating reaction occur at pH 5.0 and 55°C. Sucrose is the best carbon source and yeast extract the best nitrogen source for enzyme production. Addition of MgSO · 7H2O and K2HPO4 shifted the

Wen-chang Chen; Chi-hsien Liu

1996-01-01

133

Nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Aspergillus nidulans, mutations, designated areAr, can result in the inability to utilise a wide variety of nitrogen sources including amino acids, purines, amides, nitrate, and nitrite, whilst not affecting growth on ammonium. Other allelic areA mutations, designated areAd, lead to derepression of one or more activities which are ammonium repressible in wild type (areA+) strains, whilst not affecting their

Herbert N. Arst; David J. Cove

1973-01-01

134

Resistance to ethidium bromide in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A mutant ofAspergillus nidulans resistant to ethidium bromide was isolated and the semi-dominant gene responsible for this resistance was allocated on linkage group II at 17.42±3.05 units of recombination from thewA3 gene. The gene also confers cross-resistance to acriflavin, malachite green and crystal violet. It was also shown that riboflavin is antagonistic to the toxic effect of ethidium bromide,

M. E. Scarazzatti; R. Bonatelli; J. L. Azevedo

1979-01-01

135

Aspergillus on tree nuts: incidence and associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

California exports tree nuts to countries where they face stringent standards for aflatoxin contamination. Trade concerns\\u000a have stimulated efforts to eliminate aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus from almonds, pistachios and walnuts. Incidence of fungi on tree nuts and associations among fungi on tree nuts were studied.\\u000a Eleven hundred pistachios, almonds, walnuts and brazil nuts without visible insect damage were plated on

Paul Bayman; James L. Baker; Noreen E. Mahoney

2002-01-01

136

Cold-sensitive mutants in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant strains of Aspergillus nidulans have been isolated which grow normally on minimal medium at 37°C but not at 20°C. Growth tests indicate that these seventy-five mutant strains (designated CS, cold-sensitive) have a range of defects. Five are auxotrophic at 20°C, one (CS13) requiring isoleucine and another (CS48) choline. Many mutants are osmotic remedials. Some CS strains have altered properties

C. Waldron; C. F. Roberts

1974-01-01

137

Plasmids in Frankia sp.  

PubMed Central

A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plasmids ranging in size from 7.1 to 32.2 kilobase pairs as estimated from agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. A total of 11 plasmids were detected. Images

Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

1983-01-01

138

Aspergillus on tree nuts: incidence and associations.  

PubMed

California exports tree nuts to countries where they face stringent standards for aflatoxin contamination. Trade concerns have stimulated efforts to eliminate aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus from almonds, pistachios and walnuts. Incidence of fungi on tree nuts and associations among fungi on tree nuts were studied. Eleven hundred pistachios, almonds, walnuts and brazil nuts without visible insect damage were plated on salt agar and observed for growth of fungi. Samples came both from California nut orchards and from supermarkets. To distinguish internal fungal colonization of nuts from superficial colonization, half the nuts were surface-sterilized before plating. The most common genera found were Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Penicillium. Each species of nut had a distinct mycoflora. Populations of most fungi were reduced by surface sterilization in all except brazil nuts, suggesting that they were present as superficial inoculum on (rather than in) the nuts. In general, strongly positive associations were observed among species of Aspergillus; nuts infected by one species were likely to be colonized by other species as well. Presence of Penicillium was negatively associated with A. niger and Rhizopus in some cases. Results suggest that harvest or postharvest handling has a major influence on nut mycoflora, and that nuts with fungi are usually colonized by several fungi rather than by single species. PMID:12617503

Bayman, Paul; Baker, James L; Mahoney, Noreen E

2002-01-01

139

Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl ? pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

Hemdan, R.; et al.

140

Potential of lung surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, and mannan binding lectin for therapy and genetic predisposition to allergic and invasive aspergillosis.  

PubMed

A significant proportion of bronchial asthma patients have underlying pulmonary fungal infections that contribute to persistent inflammation and allergic reactions. Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen causing a spectrum of allergic and infectious diseases. Currently, oral corticosteroids form the first line of treatment for allergic aspergillosis and use of antifungals such as itraconazole has been indicated in non-responders. In view of the protective role of innate immunity in host defense against Aspergillus fumigatus, we aimed to identify the relevant innate immune proteins In a series of studies, we identified and established the therapeutic potential of pulmonary collectins SP-A and SP-D and serum collectin MBL in murine models of allergic and invasive aspergillosis. Use of SP-D for diagnosis and therapy of lung disorders and MBL for therapy of various infections including invasive aspergillosis has been patented. Genetic polymorphisms in these genes may result in partial or total loss of function and may increase the host's susceptibility to aspergillosis. Candidate gene association studies showed SNPs in SP-A2 and MBL significantly associate with patients of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and bronchial asthma with rhinitis. The patients carrying either one or both of GCT and AGG alleles of SP-A2 and patients with A allele at position 1011 of MBL had markedly higher eosinophilia, total IgE antibodies and lower FEV1 (the clinical markers of ABPA). These SNPs may be useful for predicting susceptibility to allergic aspergillosis and bronchial asthma with allergic rhinitis and have been patented. Elucidation of the immunoregulatory role of SP-A, SP-D and MBL in mechanisms of allergy and inflammation suggests that they may also be potentially useful for predisposition diagnosis and therapy of non-fungal bronchial asthma. PMID:19075981

Madan, Taruna

2007-11-01

141

Ecology, development and gene regulation in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is one of the most widely known species of Aspergillus. It was described as a species in 1809 and first reported as a plant pathogen in 1920. More recently, A. flavus has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen and is now rec¬ognized as the second leading cause of aspergill...

142

Health effects of Aspergillus in food and air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produce them, affected crops, and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as are the major mycoses caused by aspergilli. The current status of the relationship between Aspergillus in

Maren A Klich

143

Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus

T. M. Hammond; M. D. Andrewski; M. J. Roossinck; N. P. Keller

2008-01-01

144

Production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus carbonarius on coffee cherries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On ?-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 ?g

H. M. L. J Joosten; J Goetz; A Pittet; M Schellenberg; P Bucheli

2001-01-01

145

Whole genome comparison of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fungi are now complete, providing us with the opportunity to examine any genomic differences

G. A. PAYNE; W. C. NIERMAN; Jennifer R. Wortman; B. L. PRITCHARD; D. BROWN; R. A. DEAN; D BHATNAGAR; T. E. CLEVELAND; MASAYUKI MACHIDA; J. YU

2006-01-01

146

Inhibitory effect of seven Allium plants upon three Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifungal activity and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of extracts of garlic, bakeri garlic, Chinese leek, Chinese chive, scallion, onion bulb and shallot bulb against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were examined. These Allium plants possessed antifungal activity, with garlic showing the lowest MFC. With the exception of scallion, the inhibitory effect of Allium plants against three Aspergillus species

Mei-chin Yin; Shih-ming Tsao

1999-01-01

147

Production of Gliotoxin by Aspergillus fumigatus mut. helvola Yuill  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the Research Items in NATURE of April 29, an account is given of the production of antibiotics by Aspergillus fumigatus. To supplement this annotation we submit this short account of our own work with the mould Aspergillus fumigatus mut. helvola Yuill. An earlier publication1 has described the isolation of helvolic acid from 2-3-week cultures of this mould grown at

G. A. Glister; T. I. Williams

1944-01-01

148

Gliotoxin production by clinical and environmental Aspergillus fumigatus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mycotoxin gliotoxin is produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, including the important human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Gliotoxin exerts a broad spectrum of immunosuppressive effects in vitro and is detectable in the sera of patients suffering from invasive aspergillosis. In order to correlate the pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus with the ability to produce gliotoxin and to investigate the

Claudio Kupfahl; Anna Michalka; Cornelia Lass-Flörl; Guido Fischer; Gerhard Haase; Thomas Ruppert; Gernot Geginat; Herbert Hof

2008-01-01

149

Ethylene inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus grown on peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A.

A. Gunterus; L. V. Roze; R. Beaudry; J. E. Linz

2007-01-01

150

What can the Aspergillus flavus genome offer to mycotoxin research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic study of filamentous fungi has made significant advances in recent years, and the genomes of several species in the genus Aspergillus have been sequenced, including Aspergillus flavus. This ubiquitous mold is present as a saprobe in a wide range of agricultural and natural habits, and can function as an opportunistic animal and plant pathogen. A. flavus produces many

Jiujiang Yu; William C. Nierman; Natalie D. Fedorova; Deepak Bhatnagar; Thomas E. Cleveland; Joan W. Bennett

2011-01-01

151

Purification and characterization of mycoferritin from Aspergillus parasiticus (255)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As intracellular iron storage molecules, only hydroxymate type siderophores have been reported in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. This is the first report documenting the presence of mycoferritin in ascomycetes. The fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus (255), is capable of producing mycoferritin only upon induction with iron in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium. The same has been purified from Aspergillus sps by application of

J. Shashidhar; R. B. Sashidhar; Vijay Deshpande

2005-01-01

152

WHOLE GENOME COMPARISON OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND A. ORYZAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fu...

153

A first glance into the genome sequence of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites. They contaminate agricultural crops before harvest and post harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed, Aspergillus flavus genomics p...

154

Substrate-induced Lipase Gene Expression and Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alfatoxins are toxic metabolites with demonstrated carcinogenic activity in vertebrate systems produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus when these fungi infect corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nuts. Lipid metabolism has been demonstrated to be utilized by fungi to as nutrition for growth and...

155

Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...

156

Bioremoval of textile dyes with different chemical structures by Aspergillus versicolor in molasses medium.  

PubMed

Bioremoval of 17 dyes with different chemical structures by Aspergillus versicolor was detected in this study. Maxilon Red GRL (MR-GRL), Everdirect Fast Black VSF (EFB-VSF) and Brillant Blue R (BB-R) were removed better by fungal mycelia. Optimum pH values were found as 6 for all three dyes. In further experiments in the highest dye concentrations tested in this study, 58.3, 100 and 49% removal yields and 14.8, 12.6, 9.0 q(m) values were found for MR-GRL, EFB-VSF and BB-R, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction after seven days of incubation period and role of laccase activity of Aspergillus sp. were also investigated. COD reduction and laccase activities were 55.6% and 2.93 U/mL for MR-GRL, 90.7% and 3.0 U/mL for EFB-VSF and 69.0% and 1.79 U/mL for BB-R, respectively. According to these results A. versicolor deserves notable attention for removal of these dyes in wastewater effluents. PMID:22949249

Ta?tan, Burcu Ertit; Karatay, Sevgi Ertu?rul; Dönmez, Gönül

2012-01-01

157

Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air.  

PubMed

Aspergillus floridensis and A. trinidadensis spp. nov. are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA), creatine agar culture (CREA) and malt extract agar culture (MEA), with support by molecular analysis of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and translation elongation factor-alpha (TEF) gene amplified and sequenced from 56 air isolates and one isolate from almonds belonging to Aspergillus sectionNigri.Aspergillus floridensis is closely related to A. aculeatus, and A. trinidadensis is closely related to A. aculeatinus. Aspergillus brunneoviolaceus (syn. A. fijiensis) and A. uvarum are reported for the first time from the USA and from the indoor air environment. The newly described species do not produce ochratoxin A. PMID:23355969

Jurjevi?, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Stea, Gaetano; Solfrizzo, Michele; Varga, János; Hubka, Vit; Perrone, Giancarlo

2012-11-30

158

Structural elucidation of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

A homogenous extracellular polysaccharide, designated AWP, was isolated from the fermented liquid of the marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the coral Cladiella sp. and purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR) spectroscopy showed that AWP consisted of glucose and mannose in a molar ratio of 8.6:1.0, and its average molecular weight was estimated to be 500kDa. AWP is a slightly branched extracellular polysaccharide. The backbone of AWP is mainly composed of (1?6)-linked ?-D-glucopyranose residues, slightly branched by single ?-d-mannopyranose units attached to the main chain at C-3 positions of the glucan backbone. The investigation demonstrated that AWP is a novel extracellular polysaccharide different from those of other marine microorganisms. PMID:23499086

Chen, Yin; Mao, Wenjun; Gao, Yan; Teng, Xiancun; Zhu, Weiming; Chen, Yanli; Zhao, Chunqi; Li, Na; Wang, Chunyan; Yan, Mengxia; Shan, Jimiao; Lin, Cong; Guo, Tao

2013-01-02

159

Studies of In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole and Itraconazole against Aspergillus Hyphae Using Viability Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of voriconazole and itraconazole for five clinical isolates each of Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were determined by a broth macrodilution method. Conidial suspensions as inocula were compared to hyphae as inocula since the invasive form of aspergillosis is manifested by the appearance of hyphal structures. In addition, cell viability staining

CORNELIA LASS-FLORL; MARKUS NAGL; CORNELIA SPETH; HANNO ULMER; MANFRED P. DIERICH; REINHARD WURZNER

2001-01-01

160

Aspergillus otomycosis in an immunocompromised patient.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger, an opportunistic filamentous fungus, was identified as the cause of chronic unilateral otomycosis in a 55-year old, immunocompromised man who had been unresponsive to a variety of treatment regimens. The patient presented with intermittent otalgia and otorrhea and with a perforation of his left tympanic membrane. A niger was identified in a culture specimen obtained from the patient's left ear canal. In immunocompromised patients, it is important that the treatment of otomycosis be prompt and vigorous, to minimize the likelihood of hearing loss and invasive temporal bone infection. PMID:19006061

Rutt, Amy L; Sataloff, Robert T

2008-11-01

161

The Aspergillus giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353 activates the cell wall integrity pathway and perturbs calcium homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background The antifungal protein AFPNN5353 is a defensin-like protein of Aspergillus giganteus. It belongs to a group of secretory proteins with low molecular mass, cationic character and a high content of cysteine residues. The protein inhibits the germination and growth of filamentous ascomycetes, including important human and plant pathogens and the model organsims Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger. Results We determined an AFPNN5353 hypersensitive phenotype of non-functional A. nidulans mutants in the protein kinase C (Pkc)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mpk) signalling pathway and the induction of the ?-glucan synthase A (agsA) promoter in a transgenic A. niger strain which point at the activation of the cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP) and the remodelling of the cell wall in response to AFPNN5353. The activation of the CWIP by AFPNN5353, however, operates independently from RhoA which is the central regulator of CWIP signal transduction in fungi. Furthermore, we provide evidence that calcium (Ca2+) signalling plays an important role in the mechanistic function of this antifungal protein. AFPNN5353 increased about 2-fold the cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) of a transgenic A. niger strain expressing codon optimized aequorin. Supplementation of the growth medium with CaCl2 counteracted AFPNN5353 toxicity, ameliorated the perturbation of the [Ca2+]c resting level and prevented protein uptake into Aspergillus sp. cells. Conclusions The present study contributes new insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of the A. giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353. We identified its antifungal activity, initiated the investigation of pathways that determine protein toxicity, namely the CWIP and the Ca2+ signalling cascade, and studied in detail the cellular uptake mechanism in sensitive target fungi. This knowledge contributes to define new potential targets for the development of novel antifungal strategies to prevent and combat infections of filamentous fungi which have severe negative impact in medicine and agriculture.

2011-01-01

162

Sp2 ZPP NP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the class Sp2 is contained in ZPP NP . The proof uses universal hashing, approximate counting and witness sampling. As a consequence, a collapse rst noticed by Samik Sengupta that the assumption NP has small circuits collapses PH to Sp2 becomes the strongest version to date of the Karp-Lipton Theorem. We also discuss the problem of nding

Jin-Yi Cai

163

Aspergillus fumigatus biofilms in the clinical setting.  

PubMed

We discuss in this work the role of Aspergillus biofilms in the clinical setting by reviewing the most recent findings on this topic. Aspergillus fumigatus can produce in vitro an extracellular hydrophobic matrix with typical biofilm characteristics under all static conditions tested, i.e., agar media, polystyrene and bronchial epithelial cells. Under static conditions the mycelial growth is greater than in shaken, submerged conditions. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of galactomannan, ?-1,3-glucans, monosaccharides and polyols, melanin and proteins including major antigens and hydrophobins. Typical biofilm structures were observed in the aspergillomas from two patients and in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The results indicate that ?-1,3-glucans plays a predominant role in the agglutination of the hyphae together in aerial conditions, and that nutrient starvation was responsible for mycelial death in aspergilloma. Melanin was produced during the infection, suggesting that this pigment is necessary for lung tissue invasion. All antifungal drugs are significantly less effective when A. fumigatus is grown under biofilm vs. planktonic conditions. Chronic persistence of a unique genotype of A. fumigatus in the respiratory tract of CF-patients and the presence of an ECM in vivo may have some therapeutical application for aspergillosis. The most appropriate antifungal drug should not be selected only on the basis of its efficiency to kill in vitro grown fungal cells, but also on its ability to penetrate the ECM. PMID:21254964

Müller, Frank-Michael C; Seidler, Marc; Beauvais, Anne

2011-01-24

164

Enhancing itaconic acid production by Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus terreus is successfully used for industrial production of itaconic acid. The acid is formed from cis-aconitate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle, by catalytic action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase. It could be assumed that strong anaplerotic reactions that replenish the pool of the TCA cycle intermediates would enhance the synthesis and excretion rate of itaconic acid. In the phylogenetic close relative Aspergillus niger, upregulated metabolic flux through glycolysis has been described that acted as a strong anaplerotic reaction. Deregulated glycolytic flux was caused by posttranslational modification of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1) that resulted in formation of a highly active, citrate inhibition-resistant shorter form of the enzyme. In order to avoid complex posttranslational modification, the native A. niger pfkA gene has been modified to encode for an active shorter PFK1 fragment. By the insertion of the modified A. niger pfkA genes into the A. terreus strain, increased specific productivities of itaconic acid and final yields were documented by transformants in respect to the parental strain. On the other hand, growth rate of all transformants remained suppressed which is due to the low initial pH value of the medium, one of the prerequisites for the accumulation of itaconic acid by A. terreus mycelium. PMID:20461508

Tevz, Gregor; Bencina, Mojca; Legisa, Matic

2010-05-12

165

Ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species on grapes from Chilean vineyards and Aspergillus threshold levels on grapes.  

PubMed

This study reports the incidence of ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus on Chilean grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wineries, and production of OTA levels in wines with grapes having different levels of contamination with OTA-producing Aspergillus carbonarius was studied. A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. niveus, A. paradoxus, A. versicolor, A. wentii, and A. westerdijkiae were identified on apparently healthy clusters of red and white grape cultivars. However, A. carbonarius and A. niger were the most frequently identified species, more abundant on red than white grape cultivars. Aspergillus spp. populations increased between veraison and harvest, but the isolation frequencies were relatively low over the entire growing season. At the winery, A. carbonarius, A. niger and A. westerdijkiae were occasionally found in the air, exclusively during winemaking. OTA-producing strains were only found among isolates of A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. wenti, and A. westerdijkiae, producing 2 to 17 microg/L of OTA in liquid medium; however, A. westerdijkiae produced the highest OTA concentration in vitro. Red wines elaborated with 0.5% of grapes infected with an OTA-producing strain of A. carbonarius (Aspuc-SB36) exceeded the 2 microg/L of OTA tolerance established for wines by the European Community. Therefore, a threshold below 0.5% infected berries is proposed for red wines. ELISA tests proved to be useful for detecting OTA in broth culture as in wine samples. PMID:19464066

Díaz, Gonzalo A; Torres, René; Vega, Mario; Latorre, Bernardo A

2009-04-24

166

Induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented for the simultaneous induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase along with fructokinase and repression of glucokinase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger. Fructose is the first product of sorbitol catabolism.

B. M. Desai; V. V. Modi; V. K. Shah

1967-01-01

167

Production of cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita.  

PubMed Central

Production of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita is reported for the first time. Examination of 23 isolates of the fungus showed that 22 produced the toxin under the culture conditions utilized.

Dorner, J W

1983-01-01

168

Quantitative preservation of viability of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Quantitative preservation of the viability of two isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus was studied over a 15-month period of storage. Significant loss of viability occurred in isolates preserved at -70 degrees C in both phosphate-buffered saline with Tween (PBST) and 0.1% gelatin, immediately, and between 6 and 15 months. Storage in 10% and 25% dimethyl sulphoxide at -70 degrees C was successful up to 8 weeks with gradual loss of viability later. PBST at 4 degrees C or room temperature, or 10% glycerol at -70 degrees C maintained 100% viability of the cultures up to 6 months and 15 months, respectively. To preserve 100% viability, long-term storage of A. fumigatus is best done in 10% glycerol in PBST at -70 degrees C compared with the other methods tested. PMID:1287169

Denning, D W; Clemons, K V; Stevens, D A

1992-01-01

169

Aspergillus flavus endaortitis following aortic valvotomy  

PubMed Central

Aspergillar endaortitis does not seem to have been described before in the English literature. Our patient had undergone aortic valvotomy and subsequently developed leg pains, migratory arthralgias, periarticular swelling, and general malaise. Mild intermittent pyrexia, evanescent petechiae, splinter haemorrhages, and peripheral small artery occlusion characterized the early course in hospital. Dramatic popliteal artery occlusion led to surgical recovery of embolic material packed with mycelia of Aspergillus flavus, but the patient died despite intravenous amphotericin B therapy. Necropsy revealed endaortitis and aspergilli were demonstrated in the wall of a saccular dilatation of the ascending aorta close to non-absorbable sutures. The relevant literature is reviewed and attention is drawn to the current implications of knowledge relating to risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. We suggest that cardiovascular aspergillosis will now be encountered more frequently and that a different therapeutic approach is justified. Images

Malcolm, A. D.; Bakerspigel, A.; Enriquez, A. A.

1971-01-01

170

Functional expression of a foreign gene in Aspergillus oryzae producing new pyrone compounds.  

PubMed

Fungi from the genus Xylaria produce a wide range of polyketides with diverse structures, which provide important sources for pharmaceutical agents. At least seven polyketide synthase (PKS) genes, including pksmt, were found in Xylaria sp. BCC 1067. The multifunctional enzyme pksmt contains the following catalytic motifs: ?-ketosynthase (KS), acyltransferase (AT), dehydratase (DH), methyltransferase (MT), enoylreductase (ER), ketoreductase (KR), and acyl carrier region (ACP). The presence of multiple domains indicated that pksmt was an iterative type I highly-reduced-type PKS gene. To identify the gene function, pksmt was fused with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and introduced into a surrogate host, Aspergillus oryzae, and expressed under the control of a constitutive gpdA promoter. In the transformant, the pksmt gene was functionally expressed and translated as detected by a green fluorescence signal. This transformant produced two new 2-pyrone compounds, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one and 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one, as well as a previously identified 4-methyl-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one. Our results suggested that pksmt from Xylaria sp. BCC 1067 represents a family of fungal PKSs that can synthesize 2-pyrone-containing compounds. PMID:23174282

Punya, Juntira; Tachaleat, Anuwat; Wattanachaisaereekul, Songsak; Haritakun, Rachada; Boonlarppradab, Chollaratt; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon

2012-11-19

171

Modelling the effect of temperature and water activity in the growth boundaries of Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to model the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus, both mycotoxin producers, near to the growth\\/no growth boundaries and validate those models in sterile maize grain, peanuts and coffee beans. Malt extract agar was adjusted to six different water activities: 0.93, 0.91, 0.89, 0.87, 0.85 and 0.80. Plates were incubated at 10, 15,

Daiana Garcia; Antonio J. Ramos; Vicente Sanchis; Sonia Marín

2011-01-01

172

Aspergillus fumigatus Invasion Increases with Progressive Airway Ischemia.  

PubMed

Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould's angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections. PMID:24155924

Hsu, Joe L; Khan, Mohammad A; Sobel, Raymond A; Jiang, Xinguo; Clemons, Karl V; Nguyen, Tom T; Stevens, David A; Martinez, Marife; Nicolls, Mark R

2013-10-14

173

Aspergillus fumigatus Invasion Increases with Progressive Airway Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould’s angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections.

Hsu, Joe L.; Khan, Mohammad A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Jiang, Xinguo; Clemons, Karl V.; Nguyen, Tom T.; Stevens, David A.; Martinez, Marife; Nicolls, Mark R.

2013-01-01

174

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

175

Aflatoxins in sunflower seeds: Effect of zinc in aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and Aspergillus parasiticus RC 12 were studied both in sunflower seed and a synthetic culture medium (with and without zinc enrichment).

S. Chulze; S. Fusero; A. Dalcero; M. Etcheverry; E. Varsavsky

1987-01-01

176

Lipoperoxidation affects ochratoxin A biosynthesis in Aspergillus ochraceus and its interaction with wheat seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus, lipoperoxidative signalling is crucial for the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis, conidiogenesis, and sclerotia formation.\\u000a Resveratrol, which is a lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase inhibitor, downmodulates the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA)\\u000a in Aspergillus ochraceus. In the genome of A. ochraceus, a lox-like sequence (AoloxA; National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) accession number: DQ087531)

Massimo Reverberi; Federico Punelli; Marzia Scarpari; Emanuela Camera; Slaven Zjalic; Alessandra Ricelli; Corrado Fanelli; Anna Adele Fabbri

2010-01-01

177

Inhibition of Species of the Aspergillus Section Nigri and Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes by Fusapyrone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusapyrone (FP), an antifungal natural compound, was tested against the three main ochratoxigenic species of the Aspergillus section Nigri. The MICs at 24 h were 6.0, 11.6, and 9.9 g\\/ml for Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. Strong inhibition of growth and morphological changes were still observed at half the MIC after 7 days. The application of a

Mara Favilla; Michelangelo Pascale; Alessandra Ricelli; Antonio Evidente; Carmine Amalfitano; Claudio Altomare

2008-01-01

178

Rhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase is processed and secreted from transformed Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNA encoding the precursor of theRhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase was inserted in anAspergillus oryzae expression vector. In this vector the expression of the lipase cDNA is under control of theAspergillus oryzae ?-amylase gene promoter and theAspergillus niger glucoamylase gene terminator. The recombinant plasmid was introduced intoAspergillus oryzae, and transformed colonies were selected and screened for lipase expression. Lipase-positive transformants

Birgitte Huge-Jensen; Frank Andreasen; Tove Christensen; Mogens Christensen; Lars Thim; Esper Boel

1989-01-01

179

Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification of Aspergillus RNA in Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), an isothermal amplification technique, was established and evaluated for the detection of Aspergillus RNA and compared with a previously published, well-defined real-time PCR assay amplifying a region of the Aspergillus 18S rRNA gene. NASBA showed a lower detection limit of 1 CFU and detected RNA from five different clinically relevant Aspergillus species, including Aspergillus fumigatus.

JUERGEN LOEFFLER; HOLGER HEBART; PHILIPP COX; NICOLE FLUES; ULRIKE SCHUMACHER; HERMANN EINSELE; Medizinische Klinik

2001-01-01

180

Rat monoclonal antibodies against Aspergillus galactomannan.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Aspergillus fumigatus galactomannan were produced in rats. Seven of them, EB-A1 through EB-A7, were characterized in more detail. They were all immunoglobulin M antibodies, reacting in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified A. fumigatus galactomannan, with avidity constants of between 2 x 10(9) and 5 x 10(9)/M. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition experiments with modified galactomannan and synthetic oligomers of beta (1----5)galactofuranose demonstrated that the MAbs bound to an epitope located on the beta(1----5)galactofuranose-containing side chains of the galactomannan molecule. An identical or similar epitope also seemed to be present in other fungi. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy experiments with EB-A2 revealed the presence of the antigen in the fungal wall and inside the cell. Immunoblotting experiments demonstrated that the epitope recognized by the MAbs was a common oligosaccharide moiety of a wide range of intracellular and extracellular glycoproteins in A. fumigatus. The characteristics of the MAbs justify their use in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by antigen detection. Images

Stynen, D; Sarfati, J; Goris, A; Prevost, M C; Lesourd, M; Kamphuis, H; Darras, V; Latge, J P

1992-01-01

181

Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images

Luther, J P; Lipke, H

1980-01-01

182

4-Ethylphenol metabolism by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 was found to be capable of growth on 4-ethylphenol as its sole carbon and energy source. A pathway for the metabolism of this compound has been proposed. The initial step involves hydroxylation of the methylene group of 4-ethylphenol to form 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, followed by oxidation to 4-hydroxyacetophenone. The hydroxylase was NADPH and oxygen dependent, which is a characteristic of a monooxygenase type of enzyme. The 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol isolated from growth medium was a racemic mixture of R-(+) and S-(-) enantiomers. 4-Hydroxyacetophenone undergoes an NADPH-dependent Baeyer-Villiger type of oxygenation to give 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, which is hydrolyzed to form hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene). Hydroxylation of hydroquinone by an NADPH-dependent enzyme produces 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, the ring fission substrate, which is cleaved by ortho fission to form maleylacetate. The pathway was elucidated by various kinds of investigations. Analysis of culture medium sampled during growth on 4-ethylphenol revealed the transient appearance of 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, and hydroquinone. Cells grown on 4-ethylphenol were able to oxidize all of these compounds immediately, whereas oxidation by succinate-grown cells showed a lag period. Extracts prepared from cells grown on 4-ethylphenol contained enzyme activities for all of the proposed steps. Apart from a low level of esterase activity towards 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, extracts prepared from cells grown on succinate did not contain any of these enzyme activities.

Jones, K H; Trudgill, P W; Hopper, D J

1994-01-01

183

Azole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus: an emerging problem.  

PubMed

Azole resistance has appeared recently in Aspergillus fumigatus and increased dangerously in the last decade. The main resistance mechanism is a point mutation of CYP51A, the gene encoding 14?-sterol demethylase, the target enzyme of azole antifungal drugs. This mutation can induce resistance to itraconazole alone or multi-azole resistance. CYP51A mutation can occur in two cases. The first usually concerns patients receiving long-term azole therapy, most of the time for chronic aspergillosis, and involves a wide range of mutations. The second is due to the use of azole fungicides in agriculture. The latter favors a single mutagenesis event: a substitution of leucine for histidine at codon 98 and the tandem repeat of a 34-base pair tandem sequence in the CYP51A gene promoter region. This confers cross-resistance to all azole antifungal drugs. This emerging and environmentally linked issue is of growing concern for the management of antifungal therapy. This mechanism of resistance was first described in the Netherlands and is now reported worldwide. It may have become the leading mechanism of azole resistance in A. fumigatus. Azoles are major agents for the treatment of aspergillosis, and the only oral antifungals. Infection with antifungal-resistant strains is correlated with treatment failure. This emerging phenomenon stresses the urgent need for new preventive strategies (controlled use of antifungals and azole prophylaxis), new diagnostic strategies (early detection of resistance), and new therapeutic strategies in the management of A. fumigatus infections. PMID:23562488

Lelièvre, L; Groh, M; Angebault, C; Maherault, A-C; Didier, E; Bougnoux, M-E

2013-04-04

184

Polyclonal Aspergillus fumigatus infection in captive penguins.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a known opportunistic pathogen of penguins. Most reports of penguin aspergillosis have focused on clinical, histopathological and microbiological findings. The molecular characterization of A. fumigatus isolates involved in invasive infections in penguins has yet to be addressed. The aim of this work was to study the possible coexistence of different A. fumigatus genotypes in five clinical cases of invasive aspergillosis in captive penguins. Differences in other relevant characteristics of the isolates, including mating type and invasiveness, were also considered. Alkaline protease and elastase production by the A. fumigatus isolates was evaluated by plate assays. Random amplified polymorphic DNA, and microsatellite analysis techniques were used for molecular typing, and mating type (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2) was determined by multiplex PCR. Although all isolates showed protease activity, differences in elastase activity were observed. The typing techniques indicated different genotypes in all the penguins, although one genotype was predominant in some cases. Fungal strains of different mating type were found in two different penguins, confirming infection polyclonality. In conclusion, captive penguins are susceptible to infection by multiple strains of A. fumigatus that differ not only in their genotype, but also in mating type and invasiveness. This finding has important consequences for the diagnosis and treatment of avian aspergillosis. PMID:20219295

Alvarez-Perez, Sergio; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

2010-02-20

185

Receptor-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted.

Grice, C. M.; Bertuzzi, M.; Bignell, E. M.

2013-01-01

186

Biodegradation of anthracene by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An anthracene-degrading strain, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, showed a favorable ability in degradation of anthracene. The degradation efficiency could be maintained at about 60% after 5d with initial pH of the medium kept between 5 and 7.5, and the optimal temperature of 30 °C. The activity of this strain was not affected significantly by high salinity. Exploration on co-metabolism showed that the highest degradation efficiency was reached at equal concentration of lactose and anthracene. Excessive carbon source would actually hamper the degradation efficiency. Meanwhile, the strain could utilize some aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, phenol etc. as sole source of carbon and energy, indicating its degradation diversity. Experiments on enzymatic degradation indicated that extracellular enzymes secreted by A. fumigatus could metabolize anthracene effectively, in which the lignin peroxidase may be the most important constituent. Analysis of ion chromatography showed that the release of anions of A. fumigatus was not affected by addition of anthracene. GC-MS analysis revealed that the molecular structure of anthracene changed with the action of the microbe, generating a series of intermediate compounds such as phthalic anhydride, anthrone and anthraquinone by ring-cleavage reactions. PMID:20932640

Ye, Jin-Shao; Yin, Hua; Qiang, Jing; Peng, Hui; Qin, Hua-Ming; Zhang, Na; He, Bao-Yan

2010-09-17

187

Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being reclassified as Aspergillus tubingensis by sequencing. We present a report of a patient with an osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone with a probable invasive Aspergillus tubingensis infection. Case presentation We describe an immune compromised patient suffering from osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone after tooth extraction. The osteomyelitis probably resulted in dentogenic pansinusitis presenting as an acute ethmoiditis. Histologic examination of biopsy samples showed osteomyelitis, and inflammation of the surrounding connective tissue. Cultures of the alveolar wound grew Aspergillus tubingensis. The patient was treated with liposomal amphoterocin B, which was changed to oral treatment with voriconazole based on susceptibility testing (MIC for voriconazole was 1 ?g/ml). Conclusion This case shows that Aspergillus tubingensis may have the potential to cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts. A larger proportion of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates are less susceptible to azoles compared to Aspergillus niger. Therefore, correct species identification and susceptibility testing is crucial for the choice of anti-fungal treatment, screening of azole resistance, and characterization of the pathogenic potential of the various species within Aspergillus section Nigri.

2013-01-01

188

THE ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS GROUP: TWO NEW SPECIES FROM WESTERN SOILS AND A SYNOPTIC KEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species in the Aspergillus ochraceus group are described and compared to related taxa. Aspergillus bridgeri, from soils collected in a native community dominated by Atriplex gardneri in Wyoming, somewhat resembles A. elegans and A. lanosus, but differs in cultural and morphological details. Aspergillus campestris, from a native prairie in northern North Dakota, resembles A. dimorphicus in having metulae

MARTHA CHRISTENSEN

189

Sequencing of Aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with A. fumigatus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. Here we report the genome sequence of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, and a comparative study with Aspergillus fumigatus, a serious human pathogen, and Aspergillus oryzae, used in the production of sake, miso and soy sauce. Our analysis of genome structure provided a quantitative

James E. Galagan; Sarah E. Calvo; Christina Cuomo; Li-Jun Ma; Jennifer R. Wortman; Serafim Batzoglou; Su-In Lee; Meray Bastürkmen; Christina C. Spevak; John Clutterbuck; Vladimir Kapitonov; Jerzy Jurka; Claudio Scazzocchio; Mark Farman; Jonathan Butler; Seth Purcell; Steve Harris; Gerhard H. Braus; Oliver Draht; Silke Busch; Christophe D'Enfert; Christiane Bouchier; Gustavo H. Goldman; Deborah Bell-Pedersen; Sam Griffiths-Jones; John H. Doonan; Jaehyuk Yu; Kay Vienken; Arnab Pain; Michael Freitag; Eric U. Selker; David B. Archer; Miguel Á. Peñalva; Berl R. Oakley; Michelle Momany; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Kiyoshi Asai; Masayuki Machida; William C. Nierman; David W. Denning; Mark Caddick; Michael Hynes; Mathieu Paoletti; Reinhard Fischer; Bruce Miller; Paul Dyer; Matthew S. Sachs; Stephen A. Osmani; Bruce W. Birren

2005-01-01

190

CHARACTERIZATION OF AFLATOXIN-PRODUCING FUNGI OUTSIDE OF ASPERGILLUS SECTION FLAVI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the agriculturally important species Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and several closely related species in Aspergillus section Flavi. Recently, several rare Aspergillus species not closely related to A. flavus have been found to pr...

191

PHYA GENE PRODUCT OF ASPERGILLUS FICUUM AND PENIOPHORA LYCII PRODUCES TWO DISSIMILAR PHYTASES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

PhyA gene product of Aspergillus ficuum (AF) and Peniophora lycii (PL) as expressed in industrial strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively, were purified to homogeneity and then characterized for both physical and biochemical properties. The PL phytase is 26 amino acid resi...

192

Production of Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi cutinase in Fusarium venenatum A3/5.  

PubMed

Fusarium venenatum A3/5 was transformed using the Aspergillus niger expression plasmid, pIGF, in which the coding sequence for the F. solani f. sp. pisi cutinase gene had been inserted in frame, with a KEX2 cleavage site, with the truncated A. niger glucoamylase gene under control of the A. niger glucoamylase promoter. The transformant produced up to 21 U cutinase l(-1) in minimal medium containing glucose or starch as the primary carbon source. Glucoamylase (165 U l(-1) or 8 mg l(-1)) was also produced. Both the transformant and the parent strain produced cutinase in medium containing cutin. PMID:17505784

Sørensen, Jacob Dam; Petersen, Evamaria I; Wiebe, Marilyn G

2007-05-16

193

[Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Aspergillus niger--a case report].  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman was hospitalized because of severe cough in August 1994. She had engaged in culturing roses in greenhouses since 1968, and had developed a cough during the summer of 1990. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields, and she suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 45.6 torr) while breathing room air. The lymphocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased, and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis in the alveolar spaces. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. However, on her return to work, the cough and hypoxemia reappeared. In her rose culture, she had used Rockwool, and Aspergillus niger was detected predominantly in the Rockwool. Precipitins against the extracts of Aspergillus niger were detected with the double immunodiffusion test and the inhalation provocation test yielded clinical symptoms. Our diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Aspergillus niger. PMID:15357273

Miyazaki, Hiroo; Gemma, Hitoshi; Uemura, Keiichi; Ono, Takahisa; Masuda, Masafumi; Sano, Takehisa; Sato, Masaki; Koshimizu, Naoki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

2004-07-01

194

Aspergillus terreus-related ureteral obstruction in a diabetic patient.  

PubMed

An Aspergillus fungal ball is a rare cause of ureteral obstruction attributed to indwelling catheters, stents, antibiotics, anastomotic leaks, obstruction, and immunosuppressive therapy and other immunocompromised states. We describe a case of unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by Aspergillus terreus following ureteroscopic lithotripsy and ureteral stenting in a 45-year-old diabetic man. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic removal of the fungal mass and oral voriconazole. We also review briefly the clinical features, treatment, and outcome in 9 previously reported diabetic patients with ureteral obstruction due to aspergillosis. Obstructive uropathy related to Aspergillus mass may be suspected in diabetic patients with a history of manipulation, impaired kidney function, and persistent passage of a soft mass in urine. Direct microscopy and culture of multiple urine and ureteral washing are necessary for early diagnosis. Antifungal therapy and endoscopic removal of the mass are needed to reduce morbidity. PMID:23485541

Najafi, Narges; Shokohi, Tahereh; Basiri, Abbas; Parvin, Mahmoud; Yadegarinia, Davood; Taghavi, Faramarz; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Abdi, Roholah

2013-03-01

195

Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

196

Gliotoxin production by clinical and environmental Aspergillus fumigatus strains.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin gliotoxin is produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, including the important human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Gliotoxin exerts a broad spectrum of immunosuppressive effects in vitro and is detectable in the sera of patients suffering from invasive aspergillosis. In order to correlate the pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus with the ability to produce gliotoxin and to investigate the taxonomic distribution of gliotoxin-producing Aspergillus strains among clinical isolates, a total of 158 Aspergillus isolates comprising four different species (A. fumigatus, n=100; A. terreus, n=27; A. niger, n=16; A. flavus, n=15) were collected from different medical centers (some originating from probable cases of aspergillosis) and from environmental samples in Germany and Austria. Remarkably, gliotoxin was detected in most culture filtrates of A. fumigatus of both clinical (98%) and environmental (96%) origin. The toxin was also detected, with decreasing frequency, in culture filtrates of A. niger (56%), A. terreus (37%), and A. flavus (13%). The highest gliotoxin concentrations were detected in A. fumigatus strains of clinical (max. 21.35 microg/ml, mean 5.75 microg/ml) and environmental (max. 26.25 microg/ml, mean 5.27 microg/ml) origin. Gliotoxin productivity of other Aspergillus species was significantly lower. Culture supernatants of A. fumigatus strains lacking gliotoxin production showed a significantly lower cytotoxicity on macrophage-like cells and T-cells in vitro. In contrast, lack of gliotoxin production in the other Aspergillus species tested had no significant influence on the cytotoxic effect of culture supernatant on these immune cells. PMID:17574915

Kupfahl, Claudio; Michalka, Anna; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Fischer, Guido; Haase, Gerhard; Ruppert, Thomas; Geginat, Gernot; Hof, Herbert

2007-06-15

197

Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non-toxigenic A. oryzae. Studies are needed in order to characterise the aflatoxin biosynthetic genes in the new related taxa A. minisclerotigenes and A. arachidicola. PMID:18490950

Perrone, G; Susca, A; Cozzi, G; Ehrlich, K; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Meijer, M; Noonim, P; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Samson, R A

2007-01-01

198

Diversity and specificity of microsatellites within Aspergillus section Fumigati  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites (or short tandem repeats, STRs) are the genetic markers of choice for studying Aspergillus fumigatus molecular epidemiology due to its reproducibility and high discrimination power. However, the specificity of these markers must be investigated in a group of isolates from closely related species. The aim of this work was to test a microsatellite-based PCR multiplex previously designed for A. fumigatus in a set of species belonging to section Fumigati, namely Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus novofumigatus, Aspergillus unilateralis, Aspergillus viridinutans, Neosartorya fischeri, Neosartorya hiratsukae, Neosartorya pseudofischeri and Neosartorya udagawae. Results The reference A. fumigatus strain ATCC 46645 was easily genotyped in standard conditions showing a final electrophoretic profile of 8 expected peaks corresponding to each microsatellite locus. Inversely, no peaks were observed for all other species from section Fumigati, with an exception for marker MC6b in A. unilateralis. By screening the genome sequence of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181, the results showed that MC3, MC6a and MC7 might be employed for N. fischeri genotyping since these markers present several repeats of each motif. The accumulation of insertions and deletions was frequently observed in the genomic regions surrounding the microsatellites, including those where the A. fumigatus primers are located. The amplification of microsatellite markers in less stringent amplification conditions resulted in a distinct electrophoretic profile for species within section Fumigati. Conclusions Therefore, the microsatellite-based PCR multiplex allow simple identification of A. fumigatus and, with a slight modification of temperature conditions, it also allows discriminating other pathogenic species within section Fumigati, particularly A. fumigatiaffinis, N. fischeri and N. udagawae.

2012-01-01

199

Production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus carbonarius on coffee cherries.  

PubMed

Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On gamma-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 microg kg(-1) of toxin were detected under optimal conditions (25 degrees C, a(w) 0.99). OA production was strongly reduced (230 microg kg(-1)) at an a(w) of 0.94. PMID:11322699

Joosten, H M; Goetz, J; Pittet, A; Schellenberg, M; Bucheli, P

2001-04-11

200

Unraveling polyketide synthesis in members of the genus Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus species have the ability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites including polyketides that are generated by multi-domain polyketide synthases (PKSs). Recent biochemical studies using dissected single or multiple domains from PKSs have provided deep insight into how these PKSs control the structural outcome. Moreover, the recent genome sequencing of several species has greatly facilitated the understanding of the biosynthetic pathways for these secondary metabolites. In this review, we will highlight the current knowledge regarding polyketide biosynthesis in Aspergillus based on the domain architecture of non-reducing, highly reducing, and partially reducing PKSs, and PKS-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases.

Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.

2011-01-01

201

Calmodulin-Dependent Multifunctional Protein Kinase in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Ca2+\\/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent multifunctional protein kinase has been isolated from Aspergillus nidulans and purified to homogeneity. Unlike any CaM-dependent multifunctional protein kinase described previously, the native enzyme from Aspergillus behaves as a monomer. The calculated molecular weight is 41,200. NaDodSO4\\/PAGE reveals a single protein band with an apparent Mr of 51,000. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing\\/NaDodSO4\\/PAGE of the purified enzyme showed one

Diana C. Bartelt; Seth Fidel; Len H. Farber; Donald J. Wolff; Robin L. Hammell

1988-01-01

202

[The aspergillus laryngotracheobronchitis. A case report and literature review].  

PubMed

The patient presented with dry cough, lending, fever and progressive dyspnea for two weeks. The patient had a prior respiratory infection history and the symptoms were not obvious, Early X-ray showed lung infection. Under the fibrolaryngoscope, the lingual surfaces of the epiglottis, epiglottic vallecula, and bilateral vocal cords were covered by yellow pseudomembrane. The motion of vocal cords was normal with poor glottic closure, and no ulcer was noted. Endotracheal mucosa was swelling and congested with an uneven surface, and purulent discharge and pseudomembrane was formed. Pathological examination revealed Aspergillus. The disease was diagnosed as Aspergillus laryngotracheobronchitis. PMID:23272504

Hu, Bin; He, Guangxiang; Hu, Xiujuan

2012-10-01

203

Case report: bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to Aspergillus bezoar.  

PubMed

Ureteral obstruction as a result of a primary aspergillus infection is rare. Early clinical suspicion in immunosuppressed patients is essential to diagnosis. We report a case of a 50-year-old diabetic woman presenting with acute renal failure, sepsis, and bilateral ureteral obstruction. Initial management included bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy tubes. Urine culture from both the left and right renal pelvis grew Aspergillus flavus. The left-sided obstruction resolved with antifungal therapy. However, her right ureteral obstruction persisted and was managed with ureteroscopy and removal of the fungal bezoar. PMID:16724902

Smaldone, Marc C; Cannon, Glenn M; Benoit, Ronald M

2006-05-01

204

Analysis of Promoter Function in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic pathogen that can cause high mortality levels in susceptible patient populations. The increasing dependence on antifungal drugs to control A. fumigatus has led to the inevitable acquisition of drug-resistant forms of this pathogen. In other fungal pathogens, drug resistance is often associated with an increase in transcription of genes such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that directly lead to tolerance to commonly employed antifungal drugs. In A. fumigatus, tolerance to azole drugs (the major class of antifungal) is often associated with changes in the sequence of the azole target enzyme as well as changes in the transcription level of this gene. The target gene for azole drugs in A. fumigatus is referred to as cyp51A. In order to dissect transcription of cyp51A transcription and other genes of interest, we constructed a set of firefly luciferase reporter genes designed for use in A. fumigatus. These reporter genes can either replicate autonomously or be targeted to the pyrG locus, generating an easily assayable uracil auxotrophy. We fused eight different A. fumigatus promoters to luciferase. Faithful behaviors of these reporter gene fusions compared to their chromosomal equivalents were evaluated by 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. We used this reporter gene system to study stress-regulated transcription of a Hsp70-encoding gene, map an important promoter element in the cyp51A gene, and correct an annotation error in the actin gene. We anticipate that this luciferase reporter gene system will be broadly applicable in analyses of gene expression in A. fumigatus.

Paul, Sanjoy; Klutts, J. Stacey

2012-01-01

205

Enhanced gene targeting frequency in ku70 and ku80 disruption mutants of Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

In the koji molds Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus oryzae, exogenous DNA is integrated in the genome, in most cases irrespective of the sequence homology, suggesting that DNA integration occurs predominantly through a nonhomologous end joining pathway where two ku genes, namely, ku70 and ku80, play a key role. To determine the effect of ku gene disruption on the gene targeting frequency, we constructed ku70-, ku80-, and ku70-ku80-disrupted strains of A. sojae and A. oryzae. The gene targeting frequency of the tannase gene in ku70 and ku80 strains of both Aspergillus species was markedly enhanced as compared with that of the parental strains. The gene targeting frequency of the aflR and ku80 genes was also enhanced in an A. sojae ku70 background. Therefore, the koji mold strains with ku-disrupted genes will be excellent tools as hosts for efficient gene targeting. PMID:16470383

Takahashi, Tadashi; Masuda, Tsutomu; Koyama, Yasuji

2006-02-10

206

An endophytic/pathogenic Phoma sp. from creosote bush producing biologically active volatile compounds having fuel potential.  

PubMed

A Phoma sp. was isolated and characterized as endophytic and as a pathogen of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) growing in the desert region of southern Utah, USA. This fungus produces a unique mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including a series of sesquiterpenoids, some alcohols and several reduced naphthalene derivatives. Trans-caryophyllene, a product in the fungal VOCs, was also noted in the VOCs of this pungent plant. The gases of Phoma sp. possess antifungal properties and is markedly similar to that of a methanolic extract of the host plant. Some of the test organisms with the greatest sensitivity to the Phoma sp. VOCs were Verticillium, Ceratocystis, Cercospora and Sclerotinia while those being the least sensitive were Trichoderma, Colletotrichum and Aspergillus. We discuss the possible involvement of VOC production by the fungus and its role in the biology/ecology of the fungus/plant/environmental relationship with implications for utilization as an energy source. PMID:21535100

Strobel, Gary; Singh, Sanjay K; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Mitchell, Angela M; Geary, Brad; Sears, Joe

2011-05-20

207

An Aspergillus chitosanase with potential for large-scale preparation of chitosan oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

A chitosan-degrading fungus, designated Aspergillus sp. Y2K, was isolated from soil. The micro-organism was used for producing chitosanase (EC 3.2.1.132) in a minimal medium containing chitosan as the sole carbon source. The induced chitosanase was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate by concentration and cationic SP-Sepharose chromatography. The purified enzyme is a monomer with an estimated molecular mass of 25 kDa by SDS/PAGE and of 22 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography. pI, optimum pH and optimum temperature values were 8.4, 6.5 and 65-70 degrees C, respectively. The chitosanase is stable in the pH range from 4 to 7.5 at 55 degrees C. Higher deacetylated chitosan is a better substrate. Chitin, xylan, 6-O-sulphated chitosan and O-carboxymethyl chitin were indigestible by the purified enzyme. By endo-splitting activity, the chitosanase hydrolysed chitosan to form chitosan oligomers with chitotriose, chitotetraose and chitopentaose as the major products. The enzyme hydrolyses chitohexaose to form chitotriose, while the chitopentaose and shorter oligomers remain intact. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined as YNLPNNLKQIYDDHK, which provides useful information for further gene cloning of this enzyme. A 275 g-scale hydrolysis of chitosan was performed. The product distribution was virtually identical to that of the small-scale reaction. Owing to the simple purification process and high stability of the enzyme, it is potentially valuable for industrial applications. PMID:11115392

Cheng, C Y; Li, Y K

2000-12-01

208

Calcineurin Controls Growth, Morphology, and Pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcineurin is implicated in a myriad of human diseases as well as homeostasis and virulence in several major human pathogenic microorganisms. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infectious death in the rapidly expanding immunocompromised patient population. Current antifungal treatments for invasive aspergillosis are often ineffective, and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We demon- strate that a

William J. Steinbach; Robert A. Cramer; B. Z. Perfect; Y. G. Asfaw; T. C. Sauer; L. K. Najvar; W. R. Kirkpatrick; T. F. Patterson; D. K. Benjamin; J. Heitman; J. R. Perfect

2006-01-01

209

Invasive Aspergillus terreus sinusitis with orbitocranial extension: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses is infrequent and usually involves the species Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus. The maxillary sinus is the most common sinus to be affected. Invasive cranio-orbital aspergillosis originating in the sphenoid sinus is rare and mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients with poor outcomes. We present a case of invasive A. terreus sphenoidal sinusitis with intraorbital and

Ali Akhaddar; Miloudi Gazzaz; Abderrahmane Albouzidi; Badr Lmimouni; Brahim Elmostarchid; Mohammed Boucetta

2008-01-01

210

Genetic analysis of the TOR pathway in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

We identified five genes encoding components of the TOR signaling pathway within Aspergillus nidulans. Unlike the situation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is only a single Tor kinase, as in plant and animal systems, and mutant phenotypes suggest that the TOR pathway plays only a minor role in regulating nitrogen metabolism. PMID:16151253

Fitzgibbon, Gregory J; Morozov, Igor Y; Jones, Meriel G; Caddick, Mark X

2005-09-01

211

Genetic Analysis of the TOR Pathway in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

We identified five genes encoding components of the TOR signaling pathway within Aspergillus nidulans. Unlike the situation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is only a single Tor kinase, as in plant and animal systems, and mutant phenotypes suggest that the TOR pathway plays only a minor role in regulating nitrogen metabolism.

Fitzgibbon, Gregory J.; Morozov, Igor Y.; Jones, Meriel G.; Caddick, Mark X.

2005-01-01

212

Biogeography of Aspergillus species in soil and litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on counts of Aspergillus species re- ported in over 250 studies of microfungi from soils and litter, chi-square analyses were conducted on spe- cies occurrence in five biomes and five latitude rang- es to determine variations from expected distribu- tions. There was no overall trend in distribution of the members of the entire genus by biome, however, individual sections

Maren A. Klich

213

Screening of Urease Production by Aspergillus niger Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, urease production was investigated among thirteen strains of Aspergillus niger; seven strains isolated from soils of Semnan province in Iran and six strains obtained from Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC). The enzyme production was screened in two submerged media quantitatively. The registered PTCC 5011 and the native S31 strains showed more urease production than the other eleven

Mohammad Faezi Ghasemi; Mohammad Reza Bakhtiari; Masoud Fallahpour; Ashrafossadat Noohi; Nasrin Moazami; Zohreh Amidi

214

Antifungal Activity of Intraocularly Used Liquids against Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal effectiveness of liquids used as intraocular tamponading agents in vitrectomy was tested against a strain of Aspergillus niger. This microorganism is a frequent causative factor of endophthalmitis. The strain belonged to the ATCC collection (A. niger ATCC 16404). The samples tested were: (a) perfluorocarbons: perfluorodecalin and perfluoroctane, (b) silicone oils: Siloil 1,000 and Siloil 5,000, and (c) balanced

Calliope Economou-Stamatelopoulou; George P. Roussopoulos; John C. Prouskas; Michael Apostolopoulos

2004-01-01

215

Transcriptional regulation of the xylanolytic enzyme system of Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger , produce high levels of polysaccharide degrading enzymes and are frequently used as production organisms for industrial enzyme preparations. The application of these polysaccharidases as xylanases and cellulases comprises e.g. the use in food and feed and in biopulping and bleaching in pulp- and paper-industry. In recent years many structural genes encoding cellulases and

Peij van N. N. M. E

1999-01-01

216

Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Production in Fig Fruits  

PubMed Central

Immature fig fruits did not support colonization and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Lk. but became susceptible when ripe. While sun-drying on the tree, fruits were particularly vulnerable to fungal infection and colonization. Aflatoxin accumulation equaled levels frequently reported for such seeds as peanuts and cereal grains.

Buchanan, J. R.; Sommer, N. F.; Fortlage, R. J.

1975-01-01

217

Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

218

Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.  

PubMed Central

In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species.

Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castella, G; Cabanes, F J

1994-01-01

219

Pathogenicity of an isolate of aspergillus fla vus in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cockerels aged 8 days were each given intraperitoneally a 1 ml suspension of Aspergillus flavus grown on Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing 10 colony forming units per ml. No clinical signs were observed but mortality was 37.5%. Liver and kidney were enlarged at necropsy. Granulomatous nodules were found in the serosa and lung parenchyma up to day 16 post?infection but by

J. O. A. Okoye; C. N. Okeke

1986-01-01

220

Genomic profile of maize response to Aspergillus flavus infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this experiment was to identify differentially expressed genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in the Va35 (susceptible) and Mp313E (resistant) maize (Zea mays L.) lines using cDNA microarray analysis. Out of the 5065 ESTs analyzed, 2.4% of the total ESTs analyzed were significant...

221

Expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae endochitinase in Aspergillus awamori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding endochitinase activity was isolated by PCR from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC686 and placed under the control of fungal transcriptional elements regulating glucoamylase expression. Following transformation of Aspergillus awamori with this expression construct, heterologous endochitinase was induced in positive transformants by the addition of starch to the growth medium. A series of optimisation and process development studies were then

Richard A. Murphy; Ronan F. G. Power

2001-01-01

222

New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce atleast one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic conidiophores and none of the extrolites listed above. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites and partial ?-tubulin

Jens C. Frisvad; J. Mick Frank; Jos A. M. P. Houbraken; Angelina F. A. Kuijpers; Robert A. Samson

2004-01-01

223

Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger immobilized on polyurethane foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid was produced using Aspergillus niger immobilized on polyurethane foam in a bubble column reactor. Most of the adsorbed cells remained on the support and, as a result, high oxygen tension was maintained during the reactor operation. However, uncontrolled growth of the pellets made continuous reactor operation difficult. The citric acid productivity obtained from 15 vol.% foam particles containing

Yong Hee Lee; Chang Woo Lee; Ho Nam Chang

1989-01-01

224

Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus oryzae Strain 3.042  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus oryzae is the most important fungus for the traditional fermentation in China and is particularly important in soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36,547,279-bp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae RIB40.

Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua; Zeng, Bin

2012-01-01

225

Characterization of Humanized Antibodies Secreted by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different humanized immunoglobulin G1() antibodies and an Fab fragment were produced by Aspergillus niger. The antibodies were secreted into the culture supernatant. Both light and heavy chains were initially synthesized as fusion proteins with native glucoamylase. After antibody assembly, cleavage by A. niger KexB protease allowed the release of free antibody. Purification by hydrophobic charge induction chromatog- raphy proved

Michael Ward; Cherry Lin; Doreen C. Victoria; Bryan P. Fox; Judith A. Fox; David L. Wong; Hendrik J. Meerman; Jeff P. Pucci; Robin B. Fong; Meng H. Heng; Naoya Tsurushita; Christine Gieswein; Minha Park; Huaming Wang

2004-01-01

226

Aspergillus genomes: secret sex and the secrets of sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic sequences of three species of Aspergillus, including the model organism A. nidulans (which is homothallic: having no differentiated mating types, a strain being able to cross with itself), suggest that A. fumigatus and A. oryzae, considered to be asexual, might in fact be heterothallic (having two differentiated mating types, a strain being able to cross only with strains

Claudio Scazzocchio

2006-01-01

227

Aspergillus oryzae as Probiotic in Poultry - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. So far, the frequently used microorganisms in probiotics are strains of lactic acid producing bacteria having specificity of adhering to the intestinal epithelium. Recently, a probiotic containing novel strain such as Aspergillus oryzae is also in practice, but its effect on performance of poultry is limited. The

2006-01-01

228

Polarized response of endothelial cells to invasion by Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Hyphal invasion of blood vessels is a prominent feature of invasive aspergillosis. During invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae invade the abluminal endothelial cell surface, whereas they invade the luminal endothelial cell surface during haematogenous dissemination. We investigated the endothelial cell response to ablumi- nal and luminal infection with A. fumigatus hyphae in vitro. We found that these hyphae

Yasuki Kamai; Albert S. Lossinsky; Hong Liu; Donald C. Sheppard; Scott G. Filler

2008-01-01

229

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Aspergillus nidulans Cyclophilin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophilins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins which serve as the intracellular receptors for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. Here we report the characterization of the first cyclophilin cloned from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans (CYPB). Sequence analysis of the cypB gene predicts an encoded protein with highest homology to the murine cyclophilin B protein. The sequence similarity includes

James D Joseph; Joseph Heitman; Anthony R Means

1999-01-01

230

COMPLETED SEQUENCE OF AFLATOXIN PATHWAY GENE CLUSTER IN ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 82 kb Aspergillus parasiticus genomic DNA region representing the completed sequence of the well-organized aflatoxin pathway gene cluster has been sequenced and annotated. In addition to the 19 reported and characterized aflatoxin pathway genes and the 4 sugar utilization genes in this cluster, w...

231

Lovastatin Biosynthesis by Aspergillus terreus in a Chemically Defined Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lovastatin is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus. A chemically defined medium was developed in order to investigate the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin biosynthesis. Among several organic and inorganic defined nitrogen sources metabolized by A. terreus, glutamate and histidine gave the highest lovastatin biosynthesis level. For cultures on glucose and glutamate, lovastatin synthesis initiated when

HASSAN HAJJAJ; PETER NIEDERBERGER; PHILIPPE DUBOC

2001-01-01

232

Color elimination from molasses wastewater by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color elimination by Aspergillus niger from wastewater from molasses alcoholic fermentation was studied. The influences of the nutrient concentrations, initial pH and carbon source on this color elimination were analyzed. It worked in a discontinuous process in shaken cultures and in a continuous process in a bubble reactor. During the batch process, through all experiments the maximal color elimination was

M. Peña Miranda; G. González Benito; N. San Cristobal; C. Heras Nieto

1996-01-01

233

Biotransformation of quinazoline and phthalazine by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL-599 in fluid Sabouraud medium were grown with quinazoline and phthalazine for 7 days. Metabolites were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Quinazoline was oxidized to 4-quinazolinone and 2,4-quinazolinedione, and phthalazine was oxidized to 1-phthalazinone. PMID:21169055

Sutherland, John B; Heinze, Thomas M; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Freeman, James P; Williams, Anna J

2010-12-18

234

Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

235

Integrative analysis of the heat shock response in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a thermotolerant human-pathogenic mold and the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Its predominance is based on several factors most of which are still unknown. The thermotolerance of A. fumigatus is one of the traits which have been assigned to pathogenicity. It allows the fungus to grow at temperatures up to and

Daniela Albrecht; Reinhard Guthke; Axel A Brakhage; Olaf Kniemeyer

2010-01-01

236

Utilization of Brewery Spent Grain Liquor by Aspergillus niger1  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger was found capable of rapidly converting about 97% of the sugar from brewery spent grain liquor to fungal mass. The yield of dry mycelium, based on the sugar consumed, was approximately 57%. This fungus produced 1.10% titratable acid calculated as citric acid and reduced the biochemical oxygen demand by 96%.

Hang, Y. D.; Splittstoesser, D. F.; Woodams, E. E.

1975-01-01

237

The Genetic Analysis of Carbohydrate Utilization in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The isolation and genetic analysis of a new class of mutants of the mould Aspergillus nidulans is described. The mutants were detected by their inability to utilize specific carbohydrates as sole carbon source for growth. All of the mutants are recessive and analysis of 27 mutants has resulted in the description of 10 new loci concerned with the utilization

C. F. Roberts

1963-01-01

238

Invasive Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus ustus: Case Report and Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient caused by Aspergillus ustus is presented. A. ustus was also recovered from the hospital environment, which may indicate that the infection was nosocomially acquired. A literature review revealed seven cases of invasive infections caused by A. ustus, and three of these were primarily cutaneous infections. In vitro

PAUL E. VERWEIJ; MARJOLEIN F. Q. VAN DEN BERGH; PETER M. RATH; ANDREAS VOSS; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS

1999-01-01

239

Volatile Flavor Compounds Produced by Molds of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fungi imperfecti.  

PubMed

Strains of molds Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. oryzae, A. parasiticus, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. funiculosum, P. raistrickii, P. viridicatum, Alternaria, Cephalosporium, and Fusarium sp. were grown on sterile coarse wheat meal at 26 to 28 C for 120 h. The volatiles from mature cultures were distilled at low temperature under reduced pressure. The distillates from traps -40 and -78 C were extracted with methylene chloride and subsequently concentrated. All the concentrates thus obtained were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, chemical reactions of functional groups, and olfactory evaluation. Six components detected in the culture distillates were identified positively: 3-methylbutanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and 2-octen-1-ol. They represented 67 to 97% of all the volatiles occurring in the concentrated distillate. The following 14 components were identified tentatively: octane, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, butyl acetate, amyl acetate, octyl acetate, pyridine, hexanol, nonanone, dimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, benzaldehyde, propylbenzene, and phenethyl alcohol. Among the volatiles produced by molds, 1-octen-3-ol yielding a characteristic fungal odor was found predominant. PMID:16349989

Kaminski, E; Stawicki, S; Wasowicz, E

1974-06-01

240

Volatile Flavor Compounds Produced by Molds of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fungi imperfecti  

PubMed Central

Strains of molds Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. oryzae, A. parasiticus, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. funiculosum, P. raistrickii, P. viridicatum, Alternaria, Cephalosporium, and Fusarium sp. were grown on sterile coarse wheat meal at 26 to 28 C for 120 h. The volatiles from mature cultures were distilled at low temperature under reduced pressure. The distillates from traps -40 and -78 C were extracted with methylene chloride and subsequently concentrated. All the concentrates thus obtained were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, chemical reactions of functional groups, and olfactory evaluation. Six components detected in the culture distillates were identified positively: 3-methylbutanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and 2-octen-1-ol. They represented 67 to 97% of all the volatiles occurring in the concentrated distillate. The following 14 components were identified tentatively: octane, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, butyl acetate, amyl acetate, octyl acetate, pyridine, hexanol, nonanone, dimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, benzaldehyde, propylbenzene, and phenethyl alcohol. Among the volatiles produced by molds, 1-octen-3-ol yielding a characteristic fungal odor was found predominant.

Kaminski, E.; Stawicki, S.; Wasowicz, E.

1974-01-01

241

[Investigation of Aspergillus galactomannan levels in antimicrobial agents].  

PubMed

The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis which is a serious infection of immunocompromized patients, depends on the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the serum by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in routine laboratories. However, it has been previously reported that false positive results in Aspergillus galactomannan test may be obtained in the sera of patients sera receiving piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP-TAZ). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and levels of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the content of PIP-TAZ and some other antimicrobial agents that are often used for the treatment of infections in immunocompromised patients. The level of galactomannan antigen was determined for PIP-TAZ, ampicillin-sulbactam, ampicillin, penicillin G, ceftriaxone, cefepime, imipenem, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ornidazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B, by a commercial EIA (Platelia Aspergillus EIA, Bio-Rad, France) kit. Galactomannan index (GI) was estimated with the ratio of absorbance values of antimicrobials to cut-off value and evaluated as positive when GI was found >0.5. Amongst the 15 antibiotics studied, the only positive result was detected for ampicillin with the highest index value (GI = 0.540), followed by PIP-TAZ with a relatively high value (GI = 0.235) even though it was not in the range of positivity. GI values have ranged from 0.011 to 0.188 for the other antibiotics. In conclusion, the use of especially ampicillin (and probably PIP-TAZ) therapy should be questioned in patients whose sera are being tested for Aspergillus galactomannan antigen by EIA in order to evaluate the positive results in terms of false positivities due to cross reactivity. PMID:18173075

Yücesoy, Mine; Ergon, M Cem

2007-10-01

242

Aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.  

PubMed

Infections due to Aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most are attributed to Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. A 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolidation with cavitation in the right upper lobe of the lung. Induced bacterial sputum cultures, and acid-fast smears and cultures were negative. Fungal sputum cultures grew A. niger. The patient clinically improved on a combination therapy of empiric antibacterials and voriconazole, followed by voriconazole monotherapy. After 4 weeks of voriconazole therapy, however, repeat chest computed tomography scanning showed a significant progression of the infection and near-complete necrosis of the right upper lobe of the lung. Serum voriconazole levels were low-normal (1.0 microg ml(-1), normal range for the assay 0.5-6.0 microg ml(-1)). A. niger was again recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. A right upper lobectomy was performed, and lung tissue cultures grew A. niger. Furthermore, the lung histopathology showed acute and organizing pneumonia, fungal hyphae and oxalate crystallosis, confirming the diagnosis of invasive A. niger infection. A. niger, unlike A. fumigatus and A. flavus, is less commonly considered a cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA). The finding of calcium oxalate crystals in histopathology specimens is classic for A. niger infection and can be helpful in making a diagnosis even in the absence of conidia. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful in optimizing the treatment of IA given the wide variations in the oral bioavailability of voriconazole. PMID:20299503

Person, A K; Chudgar, S M; Norton, B L; Tong, B C; Stout, J E

2010-03-18

243

AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION REVEALS DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS NRRL 3357 AND ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS SRRC 143  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate aflatoxin production, the biosynthesis of the toxin in A. flavus and A. parasiticus grown in yeast extract su...

244

Expression of Aspergillus hemoglobin domain activities in Aspergillus oryzae grown on solid substrates improves growth rate and enzyme production.  

PubMed

DNA fragments coding for hemoglobin domains (HBD) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The HBD activities were expressed in A. oryzae by introduction of HBD gene fragments under the control of the promoter of the constitutively expressed gpdA gene. In the transformants, oxygen uptake was significantly higher, and during growth on solid substrates the developed biomass was at least 1.3 times higher than that of the untransformed wild-type strain. Growth rate of the HBD-activity-producing strains was also significantly higher compared to the wild type. During growth on solid cereal substrates, the amylase and protease activities in the extracts of the HBD-activity-producing strains were 30-150% higher and glucoamylase activities were at least 9 times higher compared to the wild-type strain. These results suggest that the Aspergillus HBD-encoding gene can be used in a self-cloning strategy to improve biomass yield and protein production of Aspergillus species. PMID:16927259

te Biesebeke, Rob; Boussier, Amandine; van Biezen, Nick; Braaksma, Machtelt; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; de Vos, Willem M; Punt, Peter J

245

Performance Characteristics of the Platelia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for detection of galactomannan in bron- choalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in solid organ transplant patients with aspergillosis. The precision and reproducibility in serum or BAL to which galactomannan was added were similar. Sensitivity was 81.8% in patients with aspergillosis, and specificity was 95.8% in lung transplant patients who underwent BAL for surveillance

S. Husain; C. J. Clancy; M. H. Nguyen; S. Swartzentruber; H. Leather; A. M. LeMonte; M. M. Durkin; K. S. Knox; C. A. Hage; C. Bentsen; N. Singh; J. R. Wingard; L. J. Wheat

2008-01-01

246

The relationship of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with reference to production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus were analyzed for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and cyclopiazonic acid. None produced cyclopiazonic acid, whereas 46 of 47 produced aflatoxins B1 and G1. These data are related to previous studies pertaining to A. flavus and illustrate species validity from a biochemical standpoint.

Joe W. Dorner; Richard J. Cole; Urban L. Diener

1984-01-01

247

Amino acid supplementation reveals differential regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357 and Aspergillus parasiticus SRRC 143  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasticus grown in yeast extract sucrose medium were compared to yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with several common amino acids. Yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with 50 mM tryptophan was found to significantly reduce...

248

Loss of msnA a putative stress regulatory gene in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus increased production of conidia aflatoxins and kojic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Production of the harmful carcinogenic aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus has been postulated to be a mechanism to relieve oxidative stress. The msnA gene, the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 associated with multi-stress response, of the two species was disrupted....

249

False-positive Aspergillus galactomannan assay in solid organ transplant recipients with histoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Post-transplantation histoplasmosis may be acquired via inhalation, may result from endogenous reactivation, or may be derived from the allograft. The Histoplasma and Aspergillus enzyme-linked immunoassays are increasingly being relied upon for rapid diagnosis of fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. We describe 4 cases of solid organ transplant recipients who had histoplasmosis and a falsely positive Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) obtained from the serum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We also report our experience, testing for Histoplasma antigen (Ag) in specimens positive for Aspergillus GM. From January 2007 through December 2010, of 2432 unique patients who had positive Aspergillus GM tests, 514 (21%) were tested for Histoplasma Ag, and 27 were found to be positive. Most specimens that tested positive for both Aspergillus and Histoplasma were obtained by BAL. False-positive tests for Aspergillus GM can occur in immunosuppressed patients who have histoplasmosis, and may obscure the correct diagnosis. PMID:22093368

Vergidis, P; Walker, R C; Kaul, D R; Kauffman, C A; Freifeld, A G; Slagle, D C; Kressel, A K; Wheat, L J

2011-09-26

250

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis based on the calmodulin gene.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger and A. tubingensis, species belonging to section Nigri, are commonly found in plant products and processed food, such as grapes, cereals, coffee, and derived products. These two species are very difficult to differentiate by classical morphological criteria and some isolates are known to produce ochratoxin A. The exact identification of these two species is very important to avoid the overestimation of toxicological contamination and related risks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification and detection assay was developed as a tool to identify A. niger and A. tubingensis, using molecular differences obtained by sequencing the calmodulin gene. Two pairs of species-specific primers were designed and empirically evaluated for PCR identification of A. niger and A. tubingensis. Species-specific PCR products generated by each primer set were 505 bp (A. tubingensis) and 245 bp (A. niger) in length, which could be potentially useful for a multiplex PCR assay. The sensitivity of this assay was about 10 pg DNA in a 25-microl PCR reaction volume, using pure total DNA of the two species. The method described in this study represents a rapid and reliable procedure to assess the presence in food products of two ochratoxigenic species of section Nigri. PMID:17886188

Susca, A; Stea, G; Mulè, G; Perrone, G

2007-10-01

251

Neosartorya udagawae (Aspergillus udagawae), an emerging agent of aspergillosis: how different is it from Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed

A recent report on several cases of invasive aspergillosis caused by Neosartorya udagawae suggested distinctive patterns of disease progression between N. udagawae and Aspergillus fumigatus. This prompted us to characterize N. udagawae in comparison to A. fumigatus. Our findings showed that both species exist in two mating types at similar ratios and produce gliotoxin. However, the thermotolerance of the two species differs: while A. fumigatus is able to grow at 55 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, N. udagawae is able to grow at 10 degrees C but fails to grow at >42 degrees C. Furthermore, compared to A. fumigatus, the conidia of N. udagawae require longer incubation periods to germinate at 37 degrees C and are more susceptible to neutrophil attack as well as hydrogen peroxide; N. udagawae is also less virulent in gp91(phox-/-) mice. These findings suggest that growth and susceptibility to the host response might account for the reduced virulence of N. udagawae and the subtle distinction in the progression of the disease caused by the two species. PMID:19889894

Sugui, J A; Vinh, D C; Nardone, G; Shea, Y R; Chang, Y C; Zelazny, A M; Marr, K A; Holland, S M; Kwon-Chung, K J

2009-11-04

252

Understanding nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae : a windfall of aflatoxin biosynthesis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. Aspergillus sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical\\u000a relatedness to aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to decipher the underlying mechanisms for its inability to produce aflatoxins. This review addresses the\\u000a relationship between A. sojae and

Perng-Kuang Chang; Kenichiro Matsushima; Tadashi Takahashi; Jiujiang Yu; Keietsu Abe; Deepak Bhatnagar; Gwo-Fang Yuan; Yasuji Koyama; Thomas E. Cleveland

2007-01-01

253

Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Cross-Reactivity Caused by Invasive Geotrichum capitatum  

PubMed Central

We report three cases of invasive Geotrichum capitatum infection in patients with acute leukemia for which an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus galactomannan was positive, with no evidence of aspergillosis. Supernatants obtained from suspensions of 17 G. capitatum strains gave positive reactions with the Aspergillus galactomannan ELISA. These clinical and laboratory data seem to suggest that G. capitatum produces a soluble antigen that is cross-reactive with Aspergillus galactomannan.

Giacchino, Mareva; Chiapello, Nadia; Bezzio, Stefania; Fagioli, Franca; Saracco, Paola; Alfarano, Alda; Martini, Vincenza; Cimino, Giuseppe; Martino, Pietro; Girmenia, Corrado

2006-01-01

254

Antifungal interactions within the triple combination of amphotericin B, caspofungin and voriconazole against Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The in vitro effects of caspofungin combined with voriconazole and amphotericin B were tested in triplicate experiments against nine clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Methods: The isolates were tested against a range of concentrations of voriconazole (0.015-1.0 mg\\/L), caspofungin (0.125-256 mg\\/L) and five concentrations of amphotericin B (0.1-0.5 mg\\/L) with a microdilution chequerboard method

Elizabeth M. O'Shaughnessy; Joseph Meletiadis; Theodouli Stergiopoulou; Joanne P. Demchok; Thomas J. Walsh

2006-01-01

255

Stable accumulation of Aspergillus niger phytase in transgenic tobacco leaves.  

PubMed Central

Phytase from Aspergillus niger increases the availability of phosphorus from feed for monogastric animals by releasing phosphate from the substrate phytic acid. A phytase cDNA was constitutively expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Secretion of the protein to the extracellular fluid was established by use of the signal sequence from the tobacco pathogen-related protein S. The specific phytase activity in isolated extracellular fluid was found to be approximately 90-fold higher than in total leaf extract, showing that the enzyme was secreted. This was confirmed by use of immunolocalization. Despite differences in glycosylation, specific activities of tobacco and Aspergillus phytase were identical. Phytase was found to be biologically active and to accumulate in leaves up to 14.4% of total soluble protein during plant maturation. Comparison of phytase accumulation and relative mRNA levels showed that phytase stably accumulated in transgenic leaves during plant growth.

Verwoerd, T C; van Paridon, P A; van Ooyen, A J; van Lent, J W; Hoekema, A; Pen, J

1995-01-01

256

Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis following intracorneal ring segment implantation  

PubMed Central

Background Fungal keratitis has been rarely reported following intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) inmplantation. This paper aims to report a case of fungal keratitis with aspergillus fumigatus following ICRS implantation for correction of keratoconus. Methods A retrospective chart review was done. Data including demographics, clinical history and presentation, microbiological analysis as well as clinical management were recorded. Results A 34?year old male presented with pain, photophobia, redness and decreased vision in his right eye ten days after ICRS implantation for correction of keratoconus. Slit-lamp examination showed chemosis, ciliary injection, corneal abcess with ill defined edges and hypopyon. Microbiological analysis and culture of the corneal scrapes were positive for aspergillus fumigatus. The patient did not respond to medical treatment and ended up with corneal transplantation. Conclusion Although rare, fungal keratitis is a serious vision threatening complication that can complicate intrastromal ring implantation. Prompt and aggressive treatment is essential to prevent irreversible reduction of vision.

2012-01-01

257

Aspergillus fumigatus Scleritis Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman presented with pain in her left eye. Necrosis with calcium plaques was observed on the medial part of the sclera. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the culture of the necrotic area. On systemic work-up including serum and urine electrophoresis studies, the serum monoclonal protein of immunoglobulin G was detected. The patient was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and fungal scleritis. Despite intensive treatment with topical and oral antifungal agents, scleral inflammation and ulceration progressed, and scleral perforation and endophthalmitis developed. Debridement, antifungal irrigation, and tectonic scleral grafting were performed. The patient underwent a combined pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreal injection of an antifungal agent. However, scleral and intraocular inflammation progressed, and the eye was enucleated. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the cultures of the eviscerated materials. Giemsa staining of the excised sclera showed numerous fungal hyphae.

Jo, Dong Hyun; Oh, Joo Youn; Kim, Mee Kum; Heo, Jang Won; Lee, Jin Hak

2010-01-01

258

Ecophysiology of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species Potential Ochratoxin A Producers  

PubMed Central

After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as aW and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption.

Astoreca, Andrea L.; Magnoli, Carina E.; Dalcero, Ana M.

2010-01-01

259

Pterocarpenes elicited by Aspergillus caelatus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds.  

PubMed

The substituted pterocarpenes named aracarpene-1 (1) and aracarpene-2 (2) were isolated from wounded peanut seeds challenged by a strain of Aspergillus caelatus. The structures of these putative phytoalexins were determined by interpretation of NMR and MS data. The aracarpenes were investigated for their antifungal and antibacterial activities as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities in mammalian cells. Aracarpene-2 demonstrated high antibacterial properties against tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, whereas aracarpene-1 displayed low antibacterial properties against the same bacteria. Both compounds had no antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. Together with peanut stilbenoids that are also produced in the challenged seeds, these compounds may represent a class of low-molecular weight peanut metabolites with a defensive role(s) against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:21030054

Sobolev, Victor S; Neff, Scott A; Gloer, James B; Khan, Shabana I; Tabanca, Nurhayat; De Lucca, Anthony J; Wedge, David E

2010-10-26

260

Isolation and characterization of an elastinolytic proteinase from Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed Central

An elastinolytic proteinase of Aspergillus flavus has been isolated to homogeneity, and its physical and biochemical properties have been characterized. Two purification protocols were compared; an initial step of ion-exchange chromatography was found to be equivalent to ammonium sulfate precipitation at neutral pH. A combination of gel filtration and adsorption chromatographies on the resultant crude enzyme produced highly purified elastase with yields of 5 to 10%. The enzyme is a 23-kilodalton protein with a pI of 7.6. The enzyme activity is markedly inhibited by numerous metal ions. Aspergillus elastase appears to be a metalloproteinase EC 3.4.24.X), as determined by its sensitivity to 1,10-phenanthroline. Images

Rhodes, J C; Amlung, T W; Miller, M S

1990-01-01

261

An improved medium for the detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus.  

PubMed

An effective selective medium for the enumeration of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus has been developed by modification of Bothast and Fennell's Aspergillus Differential Medium. Results can be obtained with the new medium, Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus Agar (AFPA), after 42 h incubation at 30 degrees C. The medium is thus suitable for use in quality control as a guide to the presence of A. flavus and, potentially, of aflatoxins. AFPA has been extensively tested on peanuts and soils. Results were reproducible and comparable with those on standard fungal enumeration media incubated for much longer periods. A very low percentage of false positive or negatives was found. PMID:6406419

Pitt, J I; Hocking, A D; Glenn, D R

1983-02-01

262

IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: a laboratory correlate of disease activity.  

PubMed Central

Serum was collected from 50 patients with cystic fibrosis, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, total IgE and Aspergillus specific IgE antibodies were measured in 41 of the 50. A close association was found between pulmonary function and clinical state, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus. There was no association between pulmonary function or clinical state and IgE antibodies. It is postulated that in patients with cystic fibrosis, Aspergillus fumigatus may contribute to deterioration in pulmonary function by local pathogenicity, or by hypersensitivity mechanisms mediated by IgG.

Forsyth, K D; Hohmann, A W; Martin, A J; Bradley, J

1988-01-01

263

The Sp-family of transcription factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

GC-boxes and related motifs are frequently occurring DNA-elements present in many promoters and enhancers. In contrast to other elements it was generally thought that the transcription factor Sp1 is the only factor acting through these motifs. The cloning of paralogous genes of the Sp1 factor uncovered the existence of a small protein family consisting of Sp1, Sp2, Sp3 and Sp4.

G. Suske

1999-01-01

264

Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings by Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioleaching experiment was conducted for the removal of heavy metals from mine tailings. A fungal strain was isolated from the gold mine tailings and it has been identified as Aspergillus fumigatus based on its 18S rDNA analysis. Bioleaching using A. fumigatus was carried out in bioleaching step processes (one-step and two-step) at various tailings concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, and

Bahi Jalili Seh-Bardan; Radziah Othman; Samsuri Ab Wahid; Aminudin Husin; Fardin Sadegh-Zadeh

2012-01-01

265

Mutagenesis and genetic characterisation of amylolytic Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger FCBP-198 was genetically modified for its ability to reveal extra cellular ?-amylase enzyme activity. From 76 efficient mutants isolated after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, An-UV-5.6 was selected as the most efficient UV mutant, with 76.41 units mL of ?-amylase activity compared to wild (34.45 units mL). In case of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), among 242 survivors, 74 were assayed

Sobiya Shafique; Rukhsana Bajwa; Shazia Shafique

2010-01-01

266

Studies on the Production of Fungal Peroxidases in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamen- tous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpose, a protease-deficient A. niger strain and different expression cassettes have been used. Northern blotting experiments

ANA CONESA; CEES A. M. J. J. VAN DEN HONDEL; PETER J. PUNT

2000-01-01

267

Purification, characterization and immobilization of a keratinase from Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A keratinase enzyme was isolated and purified from a feather-degrading culture of Aspergillus oryzae. Fractional precipitation of the crude enzyme with ethanol, acetone and ammonium sulfate yielded 21 fractions. The fraction obtained at 75–85% ammonium sulfate saturation showed the highest activity and about 3.3-fold purification. This fraction was further purified by gel filtration in Sephadex G-75 followed by ion exchange

Aida M Farag; Maha A Hassan

2004-01-01

268

Visual failure in allergic aspergillus sinusitis: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of rapid progressive unilateral visual loss in a 69-year-old woman who presented with facial pain, ipsilateral proptosis and restriction of eye movements, and nasal symptoms suggestive of sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic aspergillus sinusitis was made on the basis of local histopathology and systemic features. Over a three-week period vision deteriorated to bare perception of light

I. S. Dunlop; F. A. Billson

1988-01-01

269

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. Tolerance of the A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutant, sakA?, to these drugs indicates the osmotic\\/oxidative stress MAPK pathway is

Jong Kim; Bruce Campbell; Noreen Mahoney; Kathleen Chan; Russell Molyneux; Gregory May

2008-01-01

270

?1,3 Glucans Are Dispensable in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

A triple ?1,3 glucan synthase mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained by successive deletions of the three ?1,3 glucan synthase genes (AGS1, AGS2, and AGS3) has a cell wall devoid of ?1,3 glucans. The lack of ?1,3 glucans affects neither conidial germination nor mycelial vegetative growth and is compensated by an increase in ?1,3 glucan and/or chitin content.

Henry, Christine; Latge, Jean-Paul

2012-01-01

271

Nuclear-extranuclear interactions affecting oligomycin resistance in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extranuclear mitochondrial oligomycin-resistant mutation ofAspergillus nidulans, (oliA1), was transferred asexually into four nuclear oligomycin-resistant strains of different phenotypes. In all four cases, the possession of the nuclear plus extranuclear mutation led to an increase in the in vivo level of oligomycin resistance. In two cases, the altered cytochrome spectrum and impaired growth ability determined by (oliA1) were suppressed by

R. T. Rowlands; G. Turner

1977-01-01

272

Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

2010-01-01

273

Aspergillus antigenuria compared to antigenemia in bone marrow transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of galactomannan antigen in urine was investigated in 26 bone marrow transplant recipients using anAspergillus latex agglutination test (Pastorex). After modification of the method, which was originally devised for serum testing, the detection limit in native urine was approximately 20 ng\\/ml. Antigen was found in 79 (36.4 %) of 217 serial urine samples, compared to 40 (11.8 %)

R. Ansorg; E. Heintschel von Heinegg; P. M. Rath

1994-01-01

274

Saccharification of Job's Tears Flour during Fermentation of Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pH, initial substrate concentration and addition of sodium chloride on saccharification of Job's tears flour during fermen tation of Aspergillus oryzae were examined. The result of proximate analysis of Job's Tears flo ur showed that it contained 64.3% carbohydrate, 12.4% protein, 4.8% fat, 6.6% insolub le fiber, 1.7% ash and 10.2% moisture. The saccharification rate based on

Sasivimol Chuen-Im Ahmed; Wanida Chiansanoi; Sivatat Cosa

275

Aspergillus versicolor, a New Causative Agent of Canine Disseminated Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused by A. versicolor.

Corapi, Wayne; Quist, Erin; Griffin, Sarah; Zhang, Michael

2012-01-01

276

Genetic requirements for initiating asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conidiation in the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans requires activation of brlA, a well-characterized transcriptional regulator of genes that are induced specifically during asexual development. We have isolated and characterized developmental mutations in six loci, designated fluG, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, and flbE, that result in defective development and reduced brlA expression. These mutants grow indeterminately to produce masses of aerial

Jenny Wieser; Bee Na Lee; John W. Fondon; Thomas H. Adams

1994-01-01

277

Genetic analysis of resistance to fenpropimorph in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to the morpholine-fungicide fenpropimorph was studied in Aspergillus niger and A. nidulans. Mass selection of conidia of A. nidulans on agar amended with the fungicide at different concentrations did not yield of resistant mutants, even after UV-treatment\\u000a of the conidia. In contrast, similar experiments with A. niger generated many fenpropimorph-resistant mutants. The mutants displayed cross-resistance to fenpropidin and generally

A. J. G. Engels; E. F. Holub; K. Swart; M. A. De Waard

1998-01-01

278

Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories.

2011-01-01

279

Degradation of pyrimidine ribonucleosides by extracts of Aspergillus terreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-free extracts of nitrate-grown mycelia of Aspergillus terreus could catalyze the hydrolytic deami- nation of cytidine to uridine and ammonia followed by the hydrolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of the produced uridine to the corresponding base (uracil) and ribose. The same extracts could not catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine. Addition of inorganic arsenate to the reaction mixture containing

Osama M. Abdel-Fatah; Maysa A. Elsayed; Ali M. Elshafei

2009-01-01

280

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

281

Antifungal activity of lauric acid derivatives against Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal effects of lauric acid and four lauric acid derivatives (monolauroylglycerol, D-laurate A, T-laurate A, 6-O-lauroysucrose) were tested on the spore germination and the growth rate of Aspergillus niger DMF 0801. The results showed that the tested substances varied in their antifungal activity and they also confirmed the relation of the structure of tested substances and their antifungal effects.

Zde?ka ?iháková; Milada Plocková; Vladimír Filip; Jan Šmidrkal

2001-01-01

282

Intervertebral disc space infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the case of a 53-year-old woman who suffered from an Aspergillus fumigatus infection of the L2\\/3 intervertebral disc space unrelated to previous operations on her lumbar spine. After surgical debridement combined with amphotericin therapy she died on the 23rd postoperative day from a fulminant bacterial sepsis of pulmonary origin. Although she had intermittently used steroids for bronchial

E. W. Lang; L. H. Pitts

1996-01-01

283

Mannitol is required for stress tolerance in Aspergillus niger conidiospores  

Microsoft Academic Search

D-Mannitol is the predominant carbon compound in conidiospores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and makes up 10 to 15?f the dry weight. A number of physiological functions have been ascribed to mannitol, including serving as a reserve carbon source, as an antioxidant, and to store reducing power. In this study, we cloned and characterized the A. niger mpdA gene,

George J. G. Ruijter; Maarten Bax; Hema Patel; Simon J. Flitter; Vondervoort van de P. J. I; Vries de R. P; Kuyk van P. A; Jaap Visser

2003-01-01

284

Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in Brazil nuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of relative humidity (r.h.; 75%, 80%, 85%, 97%) and temperature (10, 13, 15, 25, 30°C) on aflatoxin production in previously dried (3.5% moisture content; m.c.) Brazil nuts. Initially Aspergillus spp. were isolated from the surfaces of whole in-shell (WIS) Brazil nuts imported from Peru using A. flavus and A. parasiticus agar (AFPA). Isolates

K. Arrus; G. Blank; D. Abramson; R. Clear; R. A. Holley

2005-01-01

285

Adaptation of Aspergillus niger to short-term salt strees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation of filamentous fungi to short-term salt stress has been analysed by a continuous measurement system. Spores of Aspergillus niger were immobilized on the polylysine-coated glass bottom of a culture vessel, which enabled the exchange of a medium containing salt (NaCl) without disturbing continuous observation. Repeated contacts with 0.75% NaCl produced hypha insensitive to this concentration of NaCl. When the

Jong-Chul Park; Yasuyuki Nemoto; Tomoo Homma; Weimin Jing; Yuansong Chen; Hideaki Matsuoka; Hirokazu Ohno; Kosuke Takatori; Hiroshi Kurata

1993-01-01

286

Controlled Production of Fructose by an Exoinulinase from Aspergillus Ficuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exoinulinase has been isolated, purified and characterised from a commercially available broth of Aspergillus ficuum. The enzyme was purified 4.2-fold in a 21% yield with a specific activity of 12,300 U mg?1(protein) after dialysis, ammonium sulphate fractionation and Sephacryl S-200 size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography.\\u000a The molecular weight of this enzyme was estimated to be 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE. It

T. Mutanda; B. Wilhelmi; C. G. Whiteley

2009-01-01

287

Molecular Weight of Acid Proteinase of Aspergillus saitoi  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE recent development in this laboratory of methods for producing acid proteinase of Aspergillus saitoi (EC, 3.4.4.17, aspergillopeptidase A) from culture filtrate has made available sufficient material for a correlative study of its enzymatic properties1,2. The optimal pH for milk casein digestion is in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and the proteinase is fairly stable over the pH range of

Eiji Ichishima; Fumihiko Yoshida

1965-01-01

288

Effect of low-dose microwave radiation on Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of low-dose microwave radiation (LDMR; 2.45 GHz, 1.5 W\\/g) on biochemical characteristics and mortality of Aspergillus parasiticus was investigated and compared to the effects of conventional heating treatment (water bath), in order to provide a theoretical basis for microwave control of mildew in rice and other food products. The effects of LT50 (52 ± 2 °C) and LT100 (72 ± 2 °C) with microwave treatment on

Yanpeng Fang; Jian Hu; Shanbai Xiong; Siming Zhao

2011-01-01

289

An 88-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

An 88-kDa component secreted in vitro by Aspergillus fumigatus has been purified by sequential chromatographic procedures. The molecule is a glycoprotein with an N-linked sugar moiety composed of mannose glucose, and galactose (16:10:1). It is recognized by antibodies from patients with aspergilloma and has potential for the immunodiagnosis of aspergilloma. The antigenicity is associated with the polypeptide part of the molecule (79 kDa). Images

Kobayashi, H; Debeaupuis, J P; Bouchara, J P; Latge, J P

1993-01-01

290

Optimized bioprocess for production of fructofuranosidase by recombinant Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive approach of bioprocess design at various levels was used to optimize microbial production of extracellular\\u000a fructofuranosidase, important as biocatalyst to derive fructooligosaccharides with broad application in food or pharmaceutical\\u000a industry. For production, the recombinant strain Aspergillus niger SKAn1015 was used, which expresses the fructofuranosidase encoding gene suc1 under control of a strong constitutive promoter. In a first screening

Habib Driouch; Andreas Roth; Petra Dersch; Christoph Wittmann

2010-01-01

291

Purification and immobilization of Aspergillus niger. beta. -xylosidase  

SciTech Connect

..beta..-Xylosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation was purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and either gel permeation or cation exchange chromatography, giving 16-fold purification in 32% yield for the first technique or 27-fold purification in 19% yield for the second. Enzyme prepared by this method was immobilized to 10 different carriers, but only when it was bound to alumina with TiCl/sub 4/ and to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde were substantial efficiencies and stabilities achieved.

Oguntimein, G.B.; Reilly, P.J.

1980-01-01

292

High ethanol yields using Aspergillus oryzae koji and corn media  

Microsoft Academic Search

High ethanol and stillage solids have been achieved using whole corn mashes. Ethanol yields of 14% (v\\/v) (89.5% of theory) and stillage levels of approximately 23% (w\\/v) were obtained in 74–90 hours using mild acid pretreatment with Aspergillus oryzae wheat bran koji saccharification. High ethanol yields were also obtained with bacterial amylase, instead of the acid treatment, when the sterilization

Jack Ziffer; Mario C. Iosif

1982-01-01

293

The distinctiveness of ATP:citrate lyase from Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP:citrate lyase (ACL), an important enzyme in lipid synthesis, has been purified from Aspergillus nidulans to a specific activity of 19.6 ?mol min?1 mg?1, almost twice that of any other purified ACL and shown to be distinct from any previously purified ACL. The enzyme is a 371±31 kDa hexamer of 3?, 3? proteins, unlike the 4? tetramer found in rats

Ian P. Adams; Stephen Dack; F. Mark Dickinson; Colin Ratledge

2002-01-01

294

Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of ?1-4 linked galactose and ?1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates.

Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; van Vliet, Sandra J.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Bozza, Silvia; Moretti, Silvia; Schwarz, Flavio; Trichot, Coline; Aebi, Markus; Delepierre, Muriel; Elbim, Carole; Romani, Luigina; Latge, Jean-Paul

2011-01-01

295

Aspergillus Flavus Keratitis after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the clinical, microbiologic, confocal scan and histopathologic features of Aspergillus flavus keratitis which developed immediately after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Case Report A 28-year-old woman underwent DALK using the big-bubble technique for keratoconus. The operation was uneventful, yielding a bare Descemet’s membrane (DM) followed by transplantation of a corneal graft devoid of DM and endothelium. Four days after keratoplasty, mild infiltrates were noticed in the inferonasal margin of the graft, which rapidly progressed to involve the adjacent recipient cornea. Confocal scan findings suggested filamentous fungal keratitis, leading to initiation of topical and systemic antifungal medications followed by immediate replacement of the graft. Histopathologic examination disclosed keratitis caused by a filamentous fungus, which was determined by microbiologic cultures to be Aspergillus flavus. Early diagnosis and appropriate management resulted in complete recovery from this potentially devastating infection. Conclusion Aspergillus Flavus can cause graft ulcers immediately after DALK. Confocal scan proved to be a valuable tool for early diagnosis and prompt intervention to control this otherwise devastating infection.

Jafarinasab, Mohammad-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

2012-01-01

296

Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic fungi that are widely distributed in nature and the human environment and are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The taxa were revised based on sequence data from four loci, PCR fingerprinting, micro- and macromorphology, and physiology. The number of taxa was reduced to 17 species, all of which can be distinguished with sequence data from either the caM or RPB2 locus. The original description of A. proliferans was supplemented by a description of its teleomorph. This species seems to be relatively common and often has been confused with A. glaucus. In addition, green sporulating isolates of A. niveoglaucus isolated from food and several other substrates are indistinguishable in phenotype from A. glaucus. A dichotomous key based on ascospore size and ornamentation and the ability to grow at specific combinations of temperature and water activity is provided for identification of species. In response to recent changes in the botanical code, we transferred the Eurotium species to Aspergillus and selected one name for each species. PMID:23396159

Hubka, Vit; Kolarík, Miroslav; Kubátová, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W

2013-02-08

297

Marker and promoter effects on heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

To study the effects of selection marker, promoter type, and copy number on heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans, strains were constructed with single- and multicopy plasmid integrations bearing a reporter gene (lacZ) under the control of either an inducible (alcA) or constitutive (gpdA) promoter and one of three Aspergillus nutritional marker genes (argB, trpC, or niaD). beta-Galactosidase activity in the transformants varied over three orders of magnitude, with the majority of levels in the range of 5x10(3)-1x10(4) U/mg. Significant differences in mean expression levels were found when comparing single-copy transformants with the same promoter but a different marker. Transformants with the argB marker had the highest average expression, approximately threefold over the trpC or niaD clones. For each promoter, maximal expression for the set was seen in the range of the single-copy clones, implying that increasing the copy number does not reliably increase expression in Aspergillus. PMID:16699756

Lubertozzi, David; Keasling, Jay D

2006-05-13

298

Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis and its association with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is a three decade old clinicopathologic entity in which mucoid impaction akin to that of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in the paranasal sinuses. Features such as radiographic evidence of pansinusitis, passage of nasal plugs and recurrent nasal polyposis in patients with an atopic background is suggestive of AAS. Histopathlogic confirmation from the inspissated mucus is a sine qua non for the diagnosis. Heterogeneous densities on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses are caused by the 'allergic mucin' in the sinuses. Many patients give a history of having undergone multiple surgical procedures for symptomatic relief. The current approach to treatment appears to include an initial surgical debridement followed by postoperative oral corticosteroids for long durations. Although both ABPA and AAS are classified as Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity respiratory disorders, their co-occurrence appears to be an infrequently recognised phenomenon. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that these two diseases are often treated by two different specialties. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnoses of ABPA and AAS. All patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis along with sensitisation to Aspergillus antigens are at an increased risk of developing ABPA and/or AAS. ABPA must be excluded in all patients with AAS and vice versa. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could plausibly alter the course of the disease processes and prevent the possible development of long term sequelae.

Panjabi, Chandramani

2011-01-01

299

Gliotoxinogenic Aspergillus fumigatus in the dairy herd environment.  

PubMed

The potential association between hygienic conditions in the environment of lactating cows and the presence of gliotoxinogenic Aspergillus fumigatus strains was studied. Milk samples (individual cow's milk [ICM], bulk tank milk [BTM]) from 44 dairy farms were sampled. In ICM samples, eight different species of Aspergillus were identified. A. flavus and A. fumigatus were predominant, with 37.8% and 26.1% relative densities, respectively. A. fumigatus strains were isolated from 61.4% of the BTM samples, and 34% of these strains were able to produce gliotoxin. Principal component analysis was used to associate the presence of A. fumigatus with some hygienic and sanitary practices. A significant and positive correlation was observed between dry cow therapy and forestripping. The presence of A. fumigatus gliotoxin producers in milk was associated with high somatic cells count (SCC) samples. Good hygienic and sanitary practices were associated with absence of A. fumigatus and relatively low SCCs of <250,000 cells/ml. In general, a high percentage of dairy farms were positive for A. fumigatus in BTM samples. This is the first work that indicates the positive effects of adequate hygienic and sanitary practices in dairy herds on the control of A. fumigatus and related species. By reducing the frequency of Aspergillus spp. in the dairy environment, the risk of farm handlers' exposure and the risk of intramammary fungal infections would also be reduced. PMID:23467846

Pellegrino, M; Alonso, V; Vissio, C; Larriestra, A; Chiacchiera, S M; Bogni, C; Cavaglieri, L

2013-03-07

300

Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion.

Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Gunter

2012-01-01

301

Aspergillus novoparasiticus: a new clinical species of the section Flavi.  

PubMed

During a survey on the incidence of Aspergillus in clinical environments, we found some interesting isolates that were morphologically similar to Aspergillus parasiticus, but differed in the color of the colonies and in the pattern of their conidial ornamentation. In the present study, those isolates were characterized using a polyphasic approach. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out, based on partial fragments of the acetamidase (amdS) and O-methyltransferase (omtS) genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. This information was combined with a detailed morphological and physiological study that included aflatoxin production and assimilation profiles of different carbon and nitrogen sources. The phenotypic and genotypic results support the proposal of a new species, Aspergillus novoparasiticus, phylogenetically placed in a distinct sister clade to that of A. parasiticus. The former has lobate-reticulate conidia and does not produce aspergillic acid on AFPA or organic acids on CREA, while A. parasiticus has echinulate conidia and produces aspergillic and organic acids. In addition, this new species, as well as A. parasiticus, produces aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. PMID:21745163

Gonçalves, Sarah S; Stchigel, Alberto M; Cano, Josep F; Godoy-Martinez, Patricio C; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Guarro, Josep

2011-07-12

302

Proteome-based profiling of hypercellulase-producing strains developed through interspecific protoplast fusion between Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus tubingensis.  

PubMed

Thirty heterokaryons, formed by protoplast fusion of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus tubingensis, were selected on the basis of their ability to grow on 2-deoxyglucose (0.2 %, w/v) and intermediate spore color. These heterokaryons were studied for cellulase production using shake flask and solid substrate cultures at 40 °C. Fusants 51 and 28 exhibited appreciably higher levels of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, and FPase activities when compared with parental strains. Employing proteomic-based approaches, the differential expression of proteins in secretome of fusants and parental strains were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The expression of some of the proteins in the fusants was found to be up/downregulated. The upregulated proteins in the fusant 51 were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy as endoxylanase, endochitinase, ?-glucosidase, as well as hypothetical proteins. The cellulases produced by fusants 28 and 51 showed improved saccharification of alkali treated rice straw when compared with the parental strains. PMID:23197346

Kaur, Baljit; Sharma, Manju; Soni, Rohit; Oberoi, H S; Chadha, B S

2012-11-30

303

Micromonospora mirobrigensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

An actinomycete strain was recovered from a pond where radon is known to be dissolved. A polyphasic study was undertaken to identify the new isolate. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain WA201(T) showed closest similarity to the type strains of Micromonospora carbonacea (98.5 %) and Micromonospora matsumotoense (98.1 %). The chemotaxonomic results confirmed the taxonomic position of the isolate in the genus Micromonospora. DNA-DNA relatedness values supported the classification of this isolate as a novel species. A number of physiological and biochemical tests were able to distinguish strain WA201(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, it is proposed that isolate WA201(T) (=DSM 44830(T)=LMG 22229(T)) be considered the type strain representing a novel species, Micromonospora mirobrigensis sp. nov. PMID:15774678

Trujillo, Martha E; Fernández-Molinero, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Schumann, Peter; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

2005-03-01

304

?-Glucosylated 6-gingerol: chemoenzymatic synthesis using ?-glucosidase from Halomonas sp. H11, and its physical properties.  

PubMed

6-Gingerol [(S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one] is a biologically active compound and is abundant in the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale). It has some beneficial functions in healthcare, but its use is limited because of its insolubility in water and its heat-instability. To improve these physical properties, the glucosylation of 6-gingerol was investigated using ?-glucosidases (EC. 3.2.1.20) from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans ABPU1, Acremonium strictum, Halomonas sp. H11, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTase, EC. 2.4.1.19) from Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus sp. No. 38-2, Bacillus clarkii 7364, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Among these, only ?-glucosidase from Halomonas sp. H11 (HaG) transferred a glucosyl moiety to 6-gingerol, and produced glucosylated compounds. The chemical structure of the reaction product, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, was (S)-5-(O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one (5-?-Glc-gingerol). Notably, the regioisomer formed by glucosylation of the phenolic OH was not observed at all, indicating that HaG specifically transferred the glucose moiety to the 5-OH of the ?-hydroxy keto group in 6-gingerol. Almost 60% of the original 6-gingerol was converted into 5-?-Glc-gingerol by the reaction. In contrast to 6-gingerol, 5-?-Glc-gingerol, in the form of an orange powder prepared by freeze-drying, was water-soluble and stable at room temperature. It was also more stable than 6-gingerol under acidic conditions and to heat. PMID:22537860

Ojima, Teruyo; Aizawa, Kenta; Saburi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Takeshi

2012-03-23

305

Persistence versus escape: Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus fumigatus employ different strategies during interactions with macrophages.  

PubMed

Invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Although Aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, A. fumigatus is by far the main cause of IBPA. However, once A. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as A. fumigatus infections. Thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. Since alveolar macrophages represent one of the first phagocytes facing inhaled conidia, we compared the interaction of A. terreus and A. fumigatus conidia with alveolar macrophages. A. terreus conidia were phagocytosed more rapidly than A. fumigatus conidia, possibly due to higher exposure of ?-1,3-glucan and galactomannan on the surface. In agreement, blocking of dectin-1 and mannose receptors significantly reduced phagocytosis of A. terreus, but had only a moderate effect on phagocytosis of A. fumigatus. Once phagocytosed, and in contrast to A. fumigatus, A. terreus did not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, but remained viable without signs of germination both in vitro and in immunocompetent mice. The inability of A. terreus to germinate and pierce macrophages resulted in significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to A. fumigatus. Blocking phagolysosome acidification by the v-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin increased A. terreus germination rates and cytotoxicity. Recombinant expression of the A. nidulans wA naphthopyrone synthase, a homologue of A. fumigatus PksP, inhibited phagolysosome acidification and resulted in increased germination, macrophage damage and virulence in corticosteroid-treated mice. In summary, we show that A. terreus and A. fumigatus have evolved significantly different strategies to survive the attack of host immune cells. While A. fumigatus prevents phagocytosis and phagolysosome acidification and escapes from macrophages by germination, A. terreus is rapidly phagocytosed, but conidia show long-term persistence in macrophages even in immunocompetent hosts. PMID:22319619

Slesiona, Silvia; Gressler, Markus; Mihlan, Michael; Zaehle, Christoph; Schaller, Martin; Barz, Dagmar; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Brock, Matthias

2012-02-03

306

Streptomyces tateyamensis sp. nov., Streptomyces marinus sp. nov. and Streptomyces haliclonae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  

PubMed

Three Gram-positive, NaCl-requiring actinobacteria were isolated from a marine sponge, Haliclona sp., collected from the coast of Tateyama City, Japan. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains represent novel members of the genus Streptomyces, exhibiting low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-97.4?% with recognized members of the genus. The cell hydrolysates contained the LL-isomer of diaminopimelic acid and the predominant quinones were MK-9 (H(6) and/or H(8)). The DNA G+C contents were in the range 72-75mol%. A polyphasic study of the strains and comparison of the characters with related species of the genus show that these strains represent three novel species of the genus Streptomyces. Therefore, the names Streptomyces tateyamensis sp. nov., Streptomyces haliclonae sp. nov. and Streptomyces marinus sp. nov. are proposed for strains Sp080513SC-30(T) (=NBRC 105048(T) =DSM 41969(T)), Sp080513SC-31(T) (=NBRC 105049(T) =DSM 41970(T)) and Sp080513GE-26(T) (=NBRC 105047(T) =DSM 41968(T)), respectively. PMID:20061489

Khan, Shams Tabrez; Tamura, Tomohiko; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-Ya, Kazuo

2010-01-08

307

Effect of increasing inoculum sizes of Aspergillus hyphae on MICs and MFCs of antifungal agents by broth microdilution method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the influence of different hyphal inoculum sizes on minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole and itraconazole, five isolates each of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus were studied using a broth microdilution method. Three inoculum sizes were used: 1×103–5×103, 1×104–5×104 and 1×105–5×105 cfu\\/ml. MICs and

Cornelia Lass-Flörl; C Speth; G Kofler; M. P Dierch; E Gunsilius; R Würzner

2003-01-01

308

SP-100 space reactor safety  

SciTech Connect

The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

Not Available

1987-05-01

309

A low-molecular-mass aspartic protease inhibitor from a novel Penicillium sp.: implications in combating fungal infections.  

PubMed

A low-molecular-mass aspartic protease inhibitor was isolated from a novel Penicillium sp. The inhibitor was purified to homogeneity, as shown by reversed-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE. The M(r) of the inhibitor was 1585 and the amino acid composition showed the presence of D, D, D, E, A, K, L, Y, H, I and W residues. The steady-state kinetic interactions of Aspergillus saitoi aspartic protease with the inhibitor revealed the reversible, competitive, time-dependent tight-binding nature of the inhibitor, with IC(50) and K(i) values of 1.8 and 0.85 µM, respectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism analysis showed that inactivation of the enzyme was due to binding of the inhibitor to the active site. The inhibitor was found to inhibit mycelial growth and spore germination of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in vitro with MIC values of 1.65 and 0.30 µg ml(-1), respectively. This study will potentially open the way towards the development of a tight-binding peptidic inhibitor against fungal aspartic proteases to combat human fungal infections. PMID:22493301

Menon, Vishnu; Rao, Mala

2012-04-05

310

Frequency and Species Distribution of Gliotoxin-Producing Aspergillus Isolates Recovered from Patients at a Tertiary-Care Cancer Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus isolates (n 103) collected from cancer patients were screened to determine the taxonomic distribution and quantity of gliotoxin production. Gliotoxin was detected in 93% of Aspergillus fumigatus, 75% of A. niger, 25% of A. terreus, and 4% of A. flavus cultures. Gliotoxin concentrations were highest in cultures of A. fumigatus. Aspergillus fumigatus produces several secondary metabo- lites during invasive

Russell E. Lewis; Nathan P. Wiederhold; Michail S. Lionakis; Randall A. Prince; Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis

2005-01-01

311

NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

312

Aspergillus hyphae in infected tissue: evidence of physiologic adaptation and effect on culture recovery.  

PubMed

Microbiologic cultures of fungi are routinely incubated at ambient temperatures in room air, and the rate of recovery of Aspergillus species from clinical specimens is poor. Failure of current culture methods to mimic the physiologic temperature and low-oxygen environment found in hypha-laden infected tissue may underlie this poor recovery. Experiments were performed to compare the recovery of Aspergillus spp. incubated at 35 degrees C in 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) with that at 25 degrees C in room air. The samples tested included Aspergillus-infected tissue specimens from a dog model and human autopsies, experimental anaerobically stressed Aspergillus inocula, and 10,062 consecutive clinical specimens. Culture at 35 degrees C in 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) significantly enhanced the recovery of Aspergillus spp. from the infected autopsy tissue samples. Incubation at 35 degrees C alone resulted in approximately 10-fold-improved culture recovery from the experimentally stressed hyphae, and the 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) atmosphere independently favored growth under temperature-matched conditions. Finally, incubation at 35 degrees C (in room air) improved the overall recovery of Aspergillus spp. from clinical specimens by 31%. Culture at 35 degrees C in a microaerobic atmosphere significantly enhances the recovery of Aspergillus spp. from various sources. Aspergillus hyphae growing in infected tissue appear to be adapted to the physiologic temperature and hypoxic milieu. PMID:15634998

Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Han, Xiang Y; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; May, Gregory S

2005-01-01

313

A Phe389Leu Substitution in ErgA Confers Terbinafine Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement of phenylalanine with leucine at position 391 in squalene epoxidase was identified as being responsible for terbinafine resistance in mutants of Aspergillus nidulans. The equivalent mutation was engi- neered into the ergA gene of Aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in an F389L substitution that also conferred resistance to this pathogenic mold.

E. M. F. Rocha; R. E. Gardiner; N. M. Martinez-Rossi; D. S. Perlin

2006-01-01

314

Isolation and Identification of Indigenous Aspergillus oryzae for Saccharification of Rice Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to isolate an indigenous Aspergillus oryzae strain for use in saccharification of high amylose rice starch. Bread, black gram, soya grains, 'kevum', and cooked rice samples assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Ten pure cultures obtained by culturing and sub- culturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) were maintained on PDA

S. S. Sooriyamoorthy; K. F. S. T. Silva; M. H. W. Gunawardhane; C. K. Illeperuma

315

Comparative studies on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger and Candida lipolytica using molasses and glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 548 and Candida lipolytica NCIM 3472 has been studied in shake culture using glucose and molasses as carbon sources. Methanol addition (3% v\\/v) at 40 h of fermentation enhanced the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger whereas a reduction in citric acid production by Candida lipolytica was observed with addition of methanol.

M. Pazouki; P. A. Felse; J. Sinha; T. Panda

2000-01-01

316

Identification of Aspergillus Species Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus species are the most frequent cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. Although over 180 species are found within the genus, 3 species, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and A. terreus, account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. ustus being rare causes of IA. The ability to distinguish between the various

TRAVIS HENRY; PETER C. IWEN; STEVEN H. HINRICHS

2000-01-01

317

Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus Conidial Growth by Lactoferrin-Mediated Iron Depletion1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus, a common mold, rarely infects humans, except during prolonged neutropenia or in cases of chronic gran- ulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the NADPH oxidase that normally produces fungicidal reactive oxygen species. Filamentous hyphae of Aspergillus are killed by normal, but not CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN); however, the few studies on PMN-mediated host defenses

Kol A. Zarember; Janyce A. Sugui; Yun C. Chang; Kyung J. Kwon-Chung; John I. Gallin

318

Correlation between Gliotoxin Production and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus in Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is a pathogenic fungus capable of causing both allergic lung disease and invasive aspergillosis, a serious, life-threatening condition in neutropenic patients. Aspergilli express an array of mycotoxins and enzymes which may facilitate fungal colonisation of host tissue. In this study we investigated the possibility of using the insect, Galleria mellonella, for in vivo pathogenicity testing of Aspergillus species.

Emer P. Reeves; C. G. M. Messina; S. Doyle; K. Kavanagh

2004-01-01

319

Detection of Aflr Gene and Toxigenicity of Aspergillus flavus Group Isolated from Patients with Fungal Sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aspergillus flavus is the second most important Aspergillus species causing human infections particularly fungal sinusitis. Since little is known about aflatoxin producing ability of clinical isolates, this study was undertaken to de- tect the aflatoxigenic isolates amongst these isolates. Methods: A total of 23 isolates of A. spp. which were recovered from patients proved to have fungal sinusitis by

P Dehghan; F Zaini; S Rezaei; A Jebali; P Kordbacheh; M Mahmoudi

320

Comparison of four media for the isolation of Aspergillus flavus group fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four agar media used to isolate aflatoxin producing fungi were compared for utility in isolating fungi in theAspergillus flavus group from agricultural soils collected in 15 fields and four states in the southern United States. The four media wereAspergillus flavus andparasiticus Agar (AFPA, 14), the rose bengal agar described by Bell and Crawford (BCRB; 3), a modified rose bengal agar

Peter J. Cotty

1994-01-01

321

Some interesting species of Emericella and Aspergillus from Egyptian desert soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emericella desertorum Samson et Mouchacca spec. nov. is described and illustrated. It differs from the other Emericella species by the large ascospores with low crests. An Aspergillus conidial state was not observed. Additional information on the morphology and physiology of Emericella fruticulosa (Raper et Fennell) Malloch et Cain and Aspergillus egyptiacus Moubasher et Moustafa is given. The osmophilic and halophilic

R. A. Samson; J. Mouchacca

1974-01-01

322

Additional notes on species of Aspergillus, Eurotium and Emericella from Egyptian desert soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus floriformis, A. pseudodeflectus, Eurotium xerophilum (st. con.A. xerophilus) andEmericella purpurea (st. con.A. purpureus) are described and illustrated as new species. In addition the morphology of strains identified asAspergillus melleus, A. caespitosus andA. versicolor is discussed.

R. A. Samson; J. Mouchacca

1975-01-01

323

Secondary Metabolite Profiling, Growth Profiles and Other Tools for Species Recognition and Important Aspergillus Mycotoxins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifyin...

324

Distribution and mycotoxigenic potential of Aspergillus section Nigri species in naturally contaminated almonds.  

PubMed

In a previous study, inedible almond pick-out samples were assayed for aflatoxin and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. These samples contained high populations of black-spored Aspergillus section Nigri species. To investigate whether these species may contribute to the total potential mycotoxin content of almonds, Aspergillus section Nigri strains were isolated from these samples and assayed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2). The majority of isolates (117 strains, 68%) were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, which do not produce either mycotoxin. Of the 47 Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori isolates, 34 strains (72%) produced FB2 on CY20S agar, and representative strains produced lower but measurable amounts of FB2 on almond meal agar. No OTA-producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were detected. Almond pick-out samples contained no measurable FB2, suggesting that properly dried and stored almonds are not conducive for FB2 production by resident A. niger and A. awamori populations. However, 3 of 21 samples contained low levels (<1.5 ng/g) of OTA, indicating that sporadic OTA contamination may occur but may be caused by OTA-producing strains of other Aspergillus species. PMID:23575138

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L

2013-04-01

325

Isolation and Partial Characterization of 5-Azacytidine-Induced Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus Parasiticus Mutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins (AF) are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The main focus of our lab is to understand the genetic factors that control AF production using A. parasiticus as a model system. Many eukaryotes, including Aspergillus spp., mod...

326

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

327

Successful program to prevent aspergillus infections in children undergoing marrow transplantation: use of nasal amphotericin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus infections in pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients are usually fatal. We began the use of a prophylactic nasal spray of amphotericin in 1990. This nasal spray was provided in addition to low-dose intravenous amphotericin. During the time of this study, the number of fatal cases of aspergillus in the pediatric BMT population was reduced significantly from 13.8% to

ME Trigg; D Morgan; TL Burns; H Kook; SL Rumelhart; RH Giller

1997-01-01

328

Interaction of local anaesthetics with other antifungal agents against pathogenic Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus spp. are responsible for an increasing number of fungal infections in immunocompromised and transplant patients. Local anaesthetics (LAs) are growth inhibitors of bacteria and yeasts. Subinhibitory concentrations of the LAs lidocaine and bupivacaine blocked the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillusflavus and Aspergillusniger whilst also showing a positive interaction in vitro with the antifungal activity of amphotericin B, itraconazole and

Acacio Gonçalves Rodrigues; Ricardo Araujo; Cidalia Pina-Vaz

2006-01-01

329

Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both

Antônio Marcos Guimarães; Endrigo Gabellini; Leonel Alves; Glycia Ferreira de Rezende; Marcelo Costa Rodrigues

330

The Sp(1)-Kepler problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let n>=2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation ? of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O~*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states (?) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*~(4n) with highest weight, (-1,...,-1,-(1+?)), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here ? is the highest weight of ?. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence ?<-->(?) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))?Sp(8n,R).

Meng, Guowu

2009-07-01

331

Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification of Aspergillus RNA in Blood Samples  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), an isothermal amplification technique, was established and evaluated for the detection of Aspergillus RNA and compared with a previously published, well-defined real-time PCR assay amplifying a region of the Aspergillus 18S rRNA gene. NASBA showed a lower detection limit of 1 CFU and detected RNA from five different clinically relevant Aspergillus species, including Aspergillus fumigatus. All 77 blood samples tested by PCR and NASBA showed identical results in both assays. Results with the NASBA technique were obtained within 6 h. Thus, the NASBA technique provided a valuable tool for sensitive, specific, fast, and reliable detection of Aspergillus RNA with potential for routine diagnosis, including the possibility to test the viability of cells.

Loeffler, Juergen; Hebart, Holger; Cox, Philipp; Flues, Nicole; Schumacher, Ulrike; Einsele, Hermann

2001-01-01

332

Phylogenetic analysis and substrate specificity of GH2 ?-mannosidases from Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of glycoside hydrolase family 2 including Aspergillus sequences and characterised ?-mannosidases from other organisms, clusters putative Aspergillus ?-mannosidases in two distinct clades (A and B). Aspergillus species have at least one paralog in each of the two clades. It appears that clade A members are extracellular and clade B members intracellular. Substrate specificity analysis of MndA of Aspergillus niger (clade A) and MndB of Aspergillus nidulans (clade B) show that MndB, in contrast to MndA, does not hydrolyse polymeric mannan and has probably evolved to hydrolyse small unbranched ?-mannosides like mannobiose. A 3D-model of MndB provides further insight. PMID:24021641

Reddy, Sumitha K; Rosengren, Anna; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Kulkarni, Tejas; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; de Vries, Ronald P; Stålbrand, Henrik

2013-09-07

333

Selective partitioning of conidia of some Penicillium and Aspergillus species in aqueous two-phase systems.  

PubMed Central

Conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Penicillium frequentans, Penicillium spinulosum, and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium were subjected to partition at varying pH values in an aqueous two-phase system containing charged polyethylene glycol. In the system, the partition behavior of the conidia of the Penicillium species varied when the pH was raised, while the conidia of the Aspergillus species seemed unaffected. P. brevi-compactum was separated from P. verrucosum var. cyclopium after only 10 transfers when subjected to stepwise partitioning. In the same way, 10 transfers were needed to separate P. verrucosum var. cyclopium from a mixture of conidia of three Aspergillus species. The partition behavior was influenced by the culture media used.

Strom, G B; Blomquist, G K

1986-01-01

334

Variations in the cultural characteristics of Rhizoctonia solani, and its antagonists: Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus flavus occurring in the rhizosphere of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cultural studies onRhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of damping-off of cotton, as well as on two fungi of its antagonistic rhizospheric microflora, namelyAspergillus terreus andAspergillus flavus have shown coincidence of some of their cultural characteristics. However,R. solani produced mycelial growth far ahead both antagonists except at 37° C and at pH 4, at its optimum temperature. It is expected

M. S. Naim; A. A. El-Esawy

1965-01-01

335

Mineral nutrition of Aspergillus niger for citric acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral requirements of a strain ofAspergillus niger for the production of citric acid in a synthetic medium were studied. It was observed that K2HPO4 and MgSO4.7 H2O were required at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.02% respectively. The optimum level of each of the trace elements Fe, Mn and\\u000a Zn was 1.0 ?g\\/ml. NaCl and CaCl2 at lower concentrations had

A. K. Banik

1976-01-01

336

Necrotising external otitis caused by Aspergillus wentii: a case report.  

PubMed

Necrotising external otitis (NEO) is a destructive, potentially fatal, infection usually seen in elderly diabetics or the immunocompromised. The commonest causative organism is Pseudomonas but immunocompromised patients are additionally susceptible to opportunistic infections. Here we describe the first reported case of NEO caused by a previously unknown human pathogen--Aspergillus wentii. A review of the literature reveals that fungal NEO is associated with a high rate of cranial nerve palsies suggesting that infections are not being treated rapidly enough to prevent morbidity. Fungal infection should be considered early in immunocompromised patients and microbiological diagnosis should be obtained wherever possible. PMID:20059696

Halsey, C; Lumley, H; Luckit, J

2010-01-03

337

Histopathologic correlation of Aspergillus endophthalmitis following uncomplicated cataract surgery  

PubMed Central

A clinicopathologic correlation between two patients with acute-onset Aspergillus endophthalmitis undergoing enucleation is reported. These two patients presented with pain, redness, and decreased vision following uncomplicated cataract surgery. In both patients, vitreous aspiration and intravitreal injections were the initial treatment followed later by pars plana vitrectomy for clinical worsening. Despite repeated surgical and medical interventions, the clinical course of both patients was prolonged, unsuccessful, and resulted in enucleation for a blind painful eye. Histologic examination of the enucleated specimens showed that, in spite of prolonged local and systemic therapy, there was persistent diffuse infiltration of the anterior chamber and ciliary body by a filamentous mold.

Haddock, Luis J; Flynn, Harry W; Dubovy, Sander R; Khurana, Rahul N; Egbert, Peter R

2012-01-01

338

Butyrolactone and cycloheptanetrione from mangrove-associated fungus Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

A new butyrolactone, 7?-hydroxybutyrolactone III (1) and three new cycloheptanetriones, terretrione A-C (2-4), together with five known compounds, butyrolactone I, cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Val-Pro), cyclo(Ile-Pro), cyclo(Phe-Pro), were isolated from mangrove-associated marine fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of physical data analysis (NMR, high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI)-MS), especially by 2D-NMR techniques. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity in vitro against HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A2780 cell lines. PMID:23124567

Shen, Yi; Zou, Jianhua; Xie, Dan; Ge, Hanlin; Cao, Xiuping; Dai, Jungui

2012-01-01

339

5-Demethoxyfumagillol, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor isolated from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

A novel angiogenesis inhibitor, 5-demethoxyfumagillol (1), was obtained by isolation, purification and saponification of cultured broth of Aspergillus fumigatus. The structure was assigned as (3R,4R,6R)-4-[(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-oxiranyl]-1-oxa-spiro[2,5]octan-6-ol (1) by spectroscopic analysis and confirmed by independent synthesis from fumagillol (3). In addition, 6-O-(chloroacetylcarbamoyl)-5-demethoxyfumagillol (7) showed a potential anti-angiogenic activity in CAPE cells in vitro. PMID:15056962

Kim, Deukjoon; Min, Jaeki; Ahn, Soon Kil; Lee, Hong Woo; Choi, Nam Song; Moon, Seung Kee

2004-04-01

340

Pyopneumothorax secondary to Aspergillus infection: a case report.  

PubMed

A 32 -year- old male presented with complaints of fever, dry cough, breathlessness and right sided chest pain of two months duration. Chest radiograph showed right sided hydropneumothorax which revealed frank pus on diagnostic thoracocentesis, for which tube thoracostomy was done. Despite vigorous broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, postural drainage and chest physiotherapy, there was no clinical improvement. Further work up included serology, pleural fluid culture, closed as well as thoracoscopic guided pleural biopsy revealed growth of Aspergillus fumigatus. Patient was prescribed antifungal medication (Voriconazole) and subsequent thoracotomy with right sided pneumonectomy showed good clinical recovery. PMID:23226822

Kant, Surya; Saheer, S; Singh, Abhijjeet; Hassan, Ghulam

2012-11-01

341

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis.

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latge, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

342

Isolation and Properties of Pectinases from the Fungus Aspergillus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using anion-exchange chromatography on different carriers and phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic chromatography, five pectolytic enzymes were isolated from the culture liquid of a mutant strain of Aspergillus japonicus: two endo-polygalacturonases (I and II, 38 and 65 kD, pI5.6 and 3.3), pectin lyase (50 kD, pI3.8), and two pectinesterases (I and II) with similar molecular weights (46 and 47 kD) and the same

M. V. Semenova; S. G. Grishutin; A. V. Gusakov; O. N. Okunev; A. P. Sinitsyn

2003-01-01

343

Pyopneumothorax Secondary to Aspergillus Infection: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 32 -year- old male presented with complaints of fever, dry cough, breathlessness and right sided chest pain of two months duration. Chest radiograph showed right sided hydropneumothorax which revealed frank pus on diagnostic thoracocentesis, for which tube thoracostomy was done. Despite vigorous broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, postural drainage and chest physiotherapy, there was no clinical improvement. Further work up included serology, pleural fluid culture, closed as well as thoracoscopic guided pleural biopsy revealed growth of Aspergillus fumigatus. Patient was prescribed antifungal medication (Voriconazole) and subsequent thoracotomy with right sided pneumonectomy showed good clinical recovery.

Kant, Surya; Saheer, S; Singh, Abhijjeet; Hassan, Ghulam

2012-01-01

344

Biosynthesis and function of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Gliotoxin (GT) is the prototype of the epidithiodioxopiperazine (ETP)-type fungal toxins. GT plays a critical role in the pathobiology of Aspergillus fumigatus. It modulates the immune response and induces apoptosis in different cell types. The toxicity has been attributed to the unusual intramolecular disulfide bridge, which is the functional motif of all ETPs. Because of the extraordinary structure and activity of GT, this fungal metabolite has been the subject of many investigations. The biosynthesis of GT involves unprecedented reactions catalysed by recently discovered enzymes. Here, we summarize the recent progress in elucidating the GT biosynthetic pathway and its role in virulence. PMID:22094977

Scharf, Daniel H; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Remme, Nicole; Hortschansky, Peter; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

2011-11-18

345

Characterization of the hexahydropolyprenols of Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius  

PubMed Central

The isolation and properties of a group of alcohols from the mycelium of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius are described. Mass-, nuclear-magnetic-resonance- and infrared-spectrometric studies coupled with evidence from ozonolytic degradation and chromatography show the mixture to contain hexahydroprenols-18, -19, -20, -21, -22, -23 and -24. Each contains a saturated `hydroxy-terminal' isoprene residue, a saturated ?-terminal isoprene residue and a saturated ?-isoprene residue (adjacent to the ?-residue). The presence of only two trans-isoprene residues is also a feature of the series of alcohols, but the precise position of these in each molecule is not known. ImagesFig. 4. (a)Fig. 4. (b)

Stone, K. J.; Butterworth, P. H. W.; Hemming, F. W.

1967-01-01

346

Properties of soluble and immobilized Aspergillus niger. beta. -xylosidase  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger ..beta..-xylosidase was characterized when in soluble form and when immobilized to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde and to alumina with titanium tetrachloride. Energies of activation averaged 13.4 kcal/mol for the soluble enzyme, 9.0 kcal/mol when immobilized to alumina, and 8.0 kcal/mol when bound to silica. The highest activity of all forms of ..beta..-xylosidase was found near pH 3. The soluble enzyme was highly stable at pH 4, where lowest rates of decay occurred, and temperatures of 65/sup 0/C and below.

Oguntimein, G.B.; Reilly, P.J.

1980-01-01

347

Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)). PMID:17392194

Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

2007-04-01

348

Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4?g/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649

Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

2013-02-15

349

[Isolation of Aspergillus section Nigri strains in yerba mate in Posadas (Misiones, Argentina) and evaluation of their ochratoxigenic potential].  

PubMed

The objectives of the present work were to investigate the isolation frequency of genus Aspergillus in canchada yerba mate (YMCH) and elaborated yerba mate (YME) (Ilex paraguariensis) and the proportion of section Nigri isolates, as well as to determine ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species section Nigri. Three hundred twenty eight Aspergillus strains from 20 samples of YMCH and 1306 Aspergillus strains from 36 samples of YME were isolated; of the total, 279 from the first group of strains and 1215 from the latter group, belonged to section Nigri. For the detection of ochratoxin A production, the strains were cultivated on Czapeck yeast extract agar and the toxin was detected by thin layer chromatography under UV light. Uniserate species predominance was observed in the 1494 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri obtained (Aspergillus japonicus var. japonicus and Aspergillus japonicus var. aculeatus), whereas none of the strains analysed showed ochratoxin A production in vitro at the detection level of the methodology employed. PMID:23876265

Castrillo, María L; Horianski, Marta A; Jerke, Gladis

350

Wild-type minimum effective concentration distributions and epidemiologic cutoff values for caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. as determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. against caspofungin has been standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Recent studies have documented breakthrough infections with Aspergillus spp. for which the minimum effective concentration (MEC) for caspofungin ranged from 0.25 to 8 ?g\\/mL. We tested a collection of 1590 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (188 Aspergillus flavus, 1187 Aspergillus fumigatus,

Michael A. Pfaller; Linda Boyken; Richard J. Hollis; Jennifer Kroeger; Shawn A. Messer; Shailesh Tendolkar; Daniel J. Diekema

2010-01-01

351

Sensitisation to Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium notatum in laboratory workers.  

PubMed

Four workers in medical research laboratories, located in a basement level of a University facility equipped with a humidified air conditioning system, complained of cough and/or asthma and/or rhinitis during their normal working activities. Since exposure to toxic compounds was very low (similar to that of the outdoor environment) only microbiological monitoring was performed. Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium notatum were found in some laboratories. Eight laboratory workers (including the 4 symptomatic subjects) out of 26 investigated were found to be atopic. Specific IgE sensitisation to Aspergillus fumigatus was found in the 8 atopic and in the 6 non-atopic workers, while Penicililum notatum was found in 7 atopic and 4 non-atopic subjects. History, physical examination and laboratory data excluded the presence of aspergillosis or allergic bronchial aspergillosis in the sensitised subjects. Our results suggest that evaluation of immune parameters, along with monitoring of the working environment, may reduce the risk of sensitisation and/or allergic symptoms in atopic laboratory workers. PMID:12793962

Boscolo, P; Piccolomini, R; Benvenuti, F; Catamo, G; Di Gioacchino, M

352

Characterization of the velvet regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins. Here we characterize the four velvet regulators in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The deletion of AfuvosA, AfuveA and AfuvelB causes hyperactive asexual development (conidiation) and precocious and elevated accumulation of AfubrlA during developmental progression. Moreover, the absence of AfuvosA, AfuveA or AfuvelB results in the abundant formation of conidiophores and highly increased AfubrlA mRNA accumulation in liquid submerged culture, suggesting that they act as repressors of conidiation. The deletion of AfuvosA or AfuvelB causes a reduction in conidial trehalose amount, long-term spore viability, conidial tolerance to oxidative and UV stresses, and accelerated and elevated conidial germination regardless of the presence or absence of an external carbon source, suggesting an interdependent role of them in many aspects of fungal biology. Genetic studies suggest that AfuAbaA activates AfuvosA and AfuvelB expression during the mid to late phase of conidiation. Finally, the AfuveA null mutation can be fully complemented by Aspergillus nidulans VeA, which can physically interact with AfuVelB and AfuLaeA in vivo. A model depicting the similar yet different roles of the velvet regulators governing conidiation and sporogenesis in A.?fumigatus is presented. PMID:22970834

Park, Hee-Soo; Bayram, Ozgür; Braus, Gerhard H; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2012-09-25

353

Mitochondria and nuclei move by different mechanisms in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

We have examined the effects of the antimicrotubule agent benomyl and several mutations on nuclear and mitochondrial movement in germlings of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. While, as previously reported, benomyl inhibited nuclear division and movement, it did not inhibit mitochondrial movement. To test the effects of benomyl more rigorously, we germinated two benomyl super-sensitive, beta-tubulin mutants at a benomyl concentration 50-100 times greater than that required to inhibit colony formation completely. Again nuclear division and movement were inhibited, but mitochondrial movement was not. We also examined conditionally lethal beta-tubulin mutations that disrupt microtubule function under restrictive conditions. Nuclear division and movement were inhibited but, again, mitochondrial movement was not. Finally we examined the effects of five heat-sensitive mutations that inhibit nuclear movement but not nuclear division at restrictive temperatures. These mutations strongly inhibited nuclear movement at a restrictive temperature but did not inhibit mitochondrial movement. These data demonstrate that the mechanisms of nuclear and mitochondrial movement in Aspergillus nidulans are not identical and suggest that mitochondrial movement does not require functional microtubules.

1985-01-01

354

Characterization of a novel lipolytic enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the characterization of a protein from Aspergillus oryzae, exhibiting sequence identity with paraben esterase from the genus Aspergillus. The coding region of 1,586 bp, including a 77-bp intron, encoded a protein of 502 amino acids. The gene without the signal peptide of 19 amino acids was cloned into a vector, pPICZ?C, and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. The purified recombinant protein had pH and temperature optima of 7.0-8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, and was stable at the pH range of 7.0-10.0 and up to 40 °C. The optimal substrate for hydrolysis by the purified recombinant protein, among a panel of ?-naphthyl esters (C2-C16), was ?-naphthyl butyrate (C4), with activity of 0.16 units/mg protein. The considerable hydrolytic activity of the purified recombinant enzyme toward tributyrin was determined. However, no paraben esterase activity was detected toward the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, no activity was detected toward the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids that would indicate feruloyl esterase activity. PMID:23001008

Koseki, Takuya; Asai, Shungo; Saito, Natsumi; Mori, Masayo; Sakaguchi, Yasuko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shiono, Yoshihito

2012-09-22

355

Aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae. Comparison with the pig kidney enzyme.  

PubMed

Aminoacylase (EC 3.5.1.14) from Aspergillus oryzae was purified from a commercially available crude material by heat treatment, precipitation by polyethyleneimine and ammoniumsulfate, gel chromatography and preparative disc-gel-electrophoresis. The purified product was homogenous as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SDS-gel electrophoresis, polyacrylamide-gel-gradient electrohoresis, gel chromatography and amino acid analysis demonstrated the enzyme to be composed of two subunits with Mr of 36 600. The kinetic properties of the enzyme were studied with chloracetyl derivatives of alanine, phenylalanine, methionine, leucine, norleucine and tryptophan. The pH optimum of the acylase activity with chloroacetyl-alanine as substrate is at pH 8.5. Acyl derivatives of hydrophobic amino acids are preferred substrates. The enzyme has no dipeptidase activity. Aminoacylase is not inhibited by SH-blocking agents and no SH-groups could be detected with Ellman's reagent in the native and denatured enzyme. The enzyme activity is insensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone. The microbial acylase is zince metallo enzyme. Mental chelating agents are strong inhibitors; it is further inhibited by Cd2+, Mn2+ and activated by Co2+. The properties of pig kidney and Aspergillus acylase are compared. PMID:6774495

Gentzen, I; Löffler, H G; Schneider, F

356

Aspergillus fumigatus activates thrombocytes by secretion of soluble compounds.  

PubMed

During invasive aspergillosis, platelets might be involved in immune defense, but they also might contribute to the pathology of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that Aspergillus secretes factors that influence the activity and functionality of thrombocytes. Platelets were incubated with medium wherein Aspergillus fumigatus was grown. This fungal culture supernatant potently stimulated thrombocytes in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, inducing release of alpha and dense granules, membrane alterations, aggregation, and formation of microparticles. Fungus-induced platelet activation could be confirmed in vivo: thrombocytes from mice infected with A. fumigatus showed a higher activation level than platelets from noninfected animals. Two stimulating components in the fungal culture supernatant were identified: a fungal serine protease and the mycotoxin gliotoxin. Activation of platelets by fungal factors stimulates antifungal functions: platelets gain the capacity to interact with foreign particles, and they become able to inhibit fungal growth, thus supporting the host immune network. However, some consequences of platelet activation might also be harmful, including excessive inflammation and induction of thrombosis. These findings imply that measuring platelet activation in patients might be an interesting diagnostic parameter. PMID:23225903

Speth, Cornelia; Hagleitner, Magdalena; Ott, Helmut W; Würzner, Reinhard; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

2012-12-07

357

Six novel constitutive promoters for metabolic engineering of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Genetic tools for the fine-tuning of gene expression levels are a prerequisite for rational strain optimization through metabolic engineering. While Aspergillus niger is an industrially important fungus, widely used for production of organic acids and heterologous proteins, the available genetic tool box for this organism is still rather limited. Here, we characterize six novel constitutive promoters of A. niger providing different expression levels. The selection of the promoters was based on published transcription data of A. niger. The promoter strength was determined with the ?-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene of Escherichia coli. The six promoters covered a GUS activity range of two to three orders of magnitude depending on the strain background. In order to demonstrate the power of the newly characterized promoters for metabolic engineering, they were used for heterologous expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cad1) gene of Aspergillus terreus, allowing the production of the building block chemical itaconic acid with A. niger. The CAD activity, dependent on the choice of promoter, showed a positive correlation with the specific productivity of itaconic acid. Product titers from the detection limit to up to 570 mg/L proved that the set of constitutive promoters is a powerful tool for the fine-tuning of metabolic pathways for the improvement of industrial production processes. PMID:22707054

Blumhoff, Marzena; Steiger, Matthias G; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

2012-06-16

358

Biodegradation of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) by Mixed Culture of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Aspergillus niger in Soil  

PubMed Central

In this study, two strains of Aspergillus sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. with remarkable abilities to degrade low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were isolated from landfill soils in Tehran using enrichment culture and screening procedures. The biodegradation process was performed for 126 days in soil using UV- and non-UV-irradiated pure LDPE films without pro-oxidant additives in the presence and absence of mixed cultures of selected microorganisms. The process was monitored by measuring the microbial population, the biomass carbon, pH and respiration in the soil, and the mechanical properties of the films. The carbon dioxide measurements in the soil showed that the biodegradation in the un-inoculated treatments were slow and were about 7.6% and 8.6% of the mineralisation measured for the non-UV-irradiated and UV-irradiated LDPE, respectively, after 126 days. In contrast, in the presence of the selected microorganisms, biodegradation was much more efficient and the percentages of biodegradation were 29.5% and 15.8% for the UV-irradiated and non-UV-irradiated films, respectively. The percentage decrease in the carbonyl index was higher for the UV-irradiated LDPE when the biodegradation was performed in soil inoculated with the selected microorganisms. The percentage elongation of the films decreased during the biodegradation process. The Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine structural, morphological and surface changes on polyethylene. These analyses showed that the selected microorganisms could modify and colonise both types of polyethylene. This study also confirmed the ability of these isolates to utilise virgin polyethylene without pro-oxidant additives and oxidation pretreatment, as the carbon source.

Esmaeili, Atefeh; Pourbabaee, Ahmad Ali; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Shabani, Farzin; Esmaeili, Ensieh

2013-01-01

359

Biodegradation of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) by Mixed Culture of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Aspergillus niger in Soil.  

PubMed

In this study, two strains of Aspergillus sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. with remarkable abilities to degrade low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were isolated from landfill soils in Tehran using enrichment culture and screening procedures. The biodegradation process was performed for 126 days in soil using UV- and non-UV-irradiated pure LDPE films without pro-oxidant additives in the presence and absence of mixed cultures of selected microorganisms. The process was monitored by measuring the microbial population, the biomass carbon, pH and respiration in the soil, and the mechanical properties of the films. The carbon dioxide measurements in the soil showed that the biodegradation in the un-inoculated treatments were slow and were about 7.6% and 8.6% of the mineralisation measured for the non-UV-irradiated and UV-irradiated LDPE, respectively, after 126 days. In contrast, in the presence of the selected microorganisms, biodegradation was much more efficient and the percentages of biodegradation were 29.5% and 15.8% for the UV-irradiated and non-UV-irradiated films, respectively. The percentage decrease in the carbonyl index was higher for the UV-irradiated LDPE when the biodegradation was performed in soil inoculated with the selected microorganisms. The percentage elongation of the films decreased during the biodegradation process. The Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine structural, morphological and surface changes on polyethylene. These analyses showed that the selected microorganisms could modify and colonise both types of polyethylene. This study also confirmed the ability of these isolates to utilise virgin polyethylene without pro-oxidant additives and oxidation pretreatment, as the carbon source. PMID:24086254

Esmaeili, Atefeh; Pourbabaee, Ahmad Ali; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Shabani, Farzin; Esmaeili, Ensieh

2013-09-23

360

Comparative proteomic profiles of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus lentulus strains by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS)  

PubMed Central

Background Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was applied to analyze the protein profiles in both somatic and metabolic extracts of Aspergillus species. The study was carried out on some Aspergillus species within the Fumigati section (Aspergillus fumigatus wild-types and natural abnormally pigmented mutants, and Aspergillus lentulus). The aim was to validate whether mass spectrometry protein profiles can be used as specific signatures to discriminate different Aspergillus species or even mutants within the same species. Results The growth conditions and the SELDI-TOF parameters were determined to generate characteristic protein profiles of somatic and metabolic extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus strains using five different ProteinChips®, eight growth conditions combining two temperatures, two media and two oxygenation conditions. Nine strains were investigated: three wild-types and four natural abnormally pigmented mutant strains of A. fumigatus and two strains of A. lentulus. A total of 242 fungal extracts were prepared. The spectra obtained are protein signatures linked to the physiological states of fungal strains depending on culture conditions. The best resolutions were obtained using the chromatographic surfaces CM10, NP20 and H50 with fractions of fungi grown on modified Sabouraud medium at 37°C in static condition. Under these conditions, the SELDI-TOF analysis allowed A. fumigatus and A. lentulus strains to be grouped into distinct clusters. Conclusions SELDI-TOF analysis distinguishes A. fumigatus from A. lentulus strains and moreover, permits separate clusters of natural abnormally pigmented A. fumigatus strains to be obtained. In addition, this methodology allowed us to point out fungal components specifically produced by a wild-type strain or natural mutants. It offers attractive potential for further studies of the Aspergillus biology or pathogenesis.

2011-01-01

361

Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA.

Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

2012-01-01

362

Interaction of the Echinocandin Caspofungin with Amphotericin B or Voriconazole against Aspergillus Biofilms In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus biofilms were prepared from 22 strains of Aspergillus spp. via a 96-well plate-based method. Using a broth microdilution checkerboard technique with the XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] colorimetric assay, we demonstrated a synergistic antifungal activity against 18 of 22 Aspergillus biofilm strains with a combination of caspofungin and amphotericin B and against 13 of 22 strains with a combination of caspofungin and voriconazole. We did not observe antagonism.

Liu, Weixia; Li, Lijuan; Sun, Yi; Chen, Wei; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu

2012-01-01

363

Fermentative Production and Thermostability Characterization of ? Amylase from Aspergillus Species and Its Application Potential Evaluation in Desizing of Cotton Cloth.  

PubMed

The production of extracellular amylase was investigated employing our laboratory isolate, Aspergillus niger sp. MK 07 and effect of process variables on enzyme production, was studied in a fermentor. It was found that amylase production was maximum when the fermentor volume was maintained at 70%, rate of agitation at 250?rpm, air supply at 2.5?vvm, inoculum concentration of 10%, and a pH of 5.0. Highest enzyme production obtained under all optimized conditions was 1734?U/mL with sucrose as carbon substrate and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source. Enzyme purification studies by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 chromatography was evaluated for obtaining purified enzyme. Thermostability of amylase were evaluated with varying concentrations from 0.2 to 0.5?M concentrations of calcium chloride and the highest activity obtained was 3115?U/mL with 0.3?M calcium chloride at 55°C. Effect of temperature and pH on the activity of purified enzyme was evaluated and the purified enzyme showed an activity till 75°C and a pH of 6.5. Application potential of partially purified alpha amylase on desizing of cotton cloth was evaluated with varying enzyme concentrations from 50 to 500?U/mL and the highest desizing activity was found to be at 300?U/mL. PMID:21977326

Chimata, Murali Krishna; Chetty, Chellu S; Suresh, Challa

2011-10-03

364

Interplay of posttranslational modifications in Sp1 mediates Sp1 stability during cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

Although Sp1 is known to undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, little is known about the possible interplay between the different forms of Sp1 that may affect its overall levels. It is also unknown whether changes in the levels of Sp1 influence any biological cell processes. Here, we identified RNF4 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1. From in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that sumoylated Sp1 can recruit RNF4 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that subjects sumoylated Sp1 to proteasomal degradation. Sp1 mapping revealed two ubiquitination-related domains: a small ubiquitin-like modifier in the N-terminus of Sp1(Lys16) and the C-terminus of Sp1 that directly interacts with RNF4. Interestingly, when Sp1 was phosphorylated at Thr739 by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 during mitosis, this phosphorylated form of Sp1 abolished the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Our results show that, while sumoylated Sp1 subjects to proteasomal degradation, the phosphorylation that occurs during the cell cycle can protect Sp1 from degradation by repressing the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Thus, we propose that the interplay between posttranslational modifications of Sp1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and keeps Sp1 at a critical level for mitosis. PMID:21983342

Wang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

2011-09-28

365

Regulation of pentose utilisation by AraR, but not XlnR, differs in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are important producers of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes that are used in many industrial applications. These enzymes are produced by the fungus to liberate monomeric sugars that are used as carbon source. Two of the main components of plant polysaccharides are L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are metabolized through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP) in these fungi. In Aspergillus niger, the regulation of pentose release from polysaccharides and the PCP involves the transcriptional activators AraR and XlnR, which are also present in other Aspergilli such as Aspergillus nidulans. The comparative analysis revealed that the regulation of the PCP by AraR differs in A. nidulans and A. niger, whereas the regulation of the PCP by XlnR was similar in both species. This was demonstrated by the growth differences on L-arabinose between disruptant strains for araR and xlnR in A. nidulans and A. niger. In addition, the expression profiles of genes encoding L-arabinose reductase (larA), L-arabitol dehydrogenase (ladA) and xylitol dehydrogenase (xdhA) differed in these strains. This data suggests evolutionary changes in these two species that affect pentose utilisation. This study also implies that manipulating regulatory systems to improve the production of polysaccharide degrading enzymes, may give different results in different industrial fungi. PMID:21484208

Battaglia, Evy; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Leendertse, Anne; Madrid, Susan; Mulder, Harm; Nikolaev, Igor; de Vries, Ronald P

2011-04-12

366

Bioaccumulation potential of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for removal of heavy metals from paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from paper mill effluent showed tolerance and accumulation of toxic metals Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu from synthetic medium and paper mill effluent. Physico-chemical and heavy metals characterization of industrially treated paper mill effluent showed insignificant reduction in BOD, hardness, TDS and heavy metals as compared to permissible limits of BIS and WHO. A. niger and A. flavus were treated with synthetic medium containing 100-1000 mg l(-1) of six heavy metals. A. niger was able to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, 500 mg l(-1) Cu, 250 mg l(-1) Zn and 100 mg l(-1) Cr, Ni respectively. No growth of A. niger was observed in 100 mg l-(-1) of Cd. A. flavus was capable to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, Zn and Ni, 100mg l(-1) Cu. A. flavus growth was completely inhibited in 100 mg l(-1) of Cd and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb reduction were found significant (p < 0.05) in the paper effluent inoculated with A. niger and A. flavus biomass compared to industrial treated effluent. A. niger and A. flavus accumulated maximum of Pb (75.82%) followed by Zn (49.40%) > Cu (45.34%) > Ni (25.20%), while only 41% Cr was accumulated by A. nigerfrom 100 mg l(-1) of Cr solution. PMID:23741802

Thippeswamy, B; Shivakumar, C K; Krishnappa, M

2012-11-01

367

Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of novel pyranose 2-oxidases from the ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

A gene encoding a pyranose 2-oxidase (POx; pyranose/oxygen 2-oxidoreductase; glucose 2-oxidase; EC 1.1.3.10) was identified in the genome of the ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. Attempts to isolate POx directly from A. nidulans cultures or to homologously overexpress the native POx (under control of the constitutive gpdA promoter) in A. nidulans were unsuccessful. cDNA encoding POx was synthesized from mRNA and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzyme was subsequently purified and characterized. A putative pyranose 2-oxidase-encoding gene was also identified in the genome of Aspergillus oryzae. The coding sequence was synthetically produced and was also expressed in E. coli. Both purified enzymes were shown to be flavoproteins consisting of subunits of 65 kDa. The A. nidulans enzyme was biochemically similar to POx reported in literature. From all substrates, the highest catalytic efficiency was found with D-glucose. In addition, the enzyme catalyzes the two-electron reduction of 1,4-benzoquinone, several substituted benzoquinones and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. As judged by the catalytic efficiencies (k (cat)/k(m)), some of these quinone electron acceptors are better substrates for pyranose oxidase than oxygen. The enzyme from A. oryzae was physically similar but showed lower kinetic constants compared to the enzyme from A. nidulans. Distinct differences in the stability of the two enzymes may be attributed to a deletion and an insertion in the sequence, respectively. PMID:21968652

Pisanelli, Ines; Wührer, Petra; Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Spadiut, Oliver; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens

2011-10-04

368

Modelling the effect of temperature and water activity in the growth boundaries of Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to model the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus, both mycotoxin producers, near to the growth/no growth boundaries and validate those models in sterile maize grain, peanuts and coffee beans. Malt extract agar was adjusted to six different water activities: 0.93, 0.91, 0.89, 0.87, 0.85 and 0.80. Plates were incubated at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. For each of the 42 conditions, 10 Petri dishes were inoculated. Both kinetic and probability models were applied to colony growth data. The results of the present study indicate that the developed probability modelling approach could be satisfactorily employed to quantify the combined effect of temperature and water activity on the growth responses of A. ochraceus and A. parasiticus. However, validation of kinetic results led to poor goodness of prediction. In this study, the validation samples were placed near to the expected boundaries of the models in order to test them under the worst situation. Probability of growth prediction under extreme growth conditions was somewhat compromised, but it can be considered acceptable. PMID:21356445

Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

2010-10-19

369

Aspergillus fumigatus catalases: cloning of an Aspergillus nidulans catalase B homologue and evidence for at least three catalases.  

PubMed

The presence of catalases in the water soluble fractions of three Aspergillus fumigatus strains was investigated using non-denaturing and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western analysis. Using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and staining for catalase activity, three separate catalases were identified. An A. fumigatus catalase gene (catB) was cloned from genomic DNA using the Aspergillus niger catR gene as a probe. Polyclonal antibodies were raised to a glutathione S-transferase-CatB fusion product expressed in Escherichia coli. Western analysis indicated that, under denaturing conditions, the polyclonal antibody recognised a 90-kDa band and under non-denaturing conditions, two separate bands were identified. These results indicate that A. fumigatus in addition to CatB, produces at least two other catalases, one of which is similar in size to CatB. The polyclonal antibody was also used to observe catalase expression in mice, experimentally infected with A. fumigatus. Staining was observed heterogeneously throughout the fungal hyphae. This result indicates that catalase is produced by A. fumigatus during invasive aspergillosis. PMID:10076909

Takasuka, T; Sayers, N M; Anderson, M J; Benbow, E W; Denning, D W

1999-02-01

370

SP-100 reactor cell activation  

SciTech Connect

There are plans to test the SP-100 space reactor for 2 yr in the test facility shown in Figure 1. The vacuum vessel will be in the reactor experiment (RX) cell surrounded by an inert gas atmosphere. It is proposed that the reactor test cell could contain removable-water- shielding tanks to reduce the residual activation dose rates in the test cell after the tests are completed. This reduction will allow the facility to be considered for other uses after the SP-100 tests are completed. The radiation dose rates in the test cell were calculated for several configurations of water-shielding tanks to help evaluate this concept.

Wilcox, A.D.

1991-09-01

371

Restriction analysis of an amplified rodA gene fragment to distinguish Aspergillus fumigatus var. ellipticus from Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus.  

PubMed

A previous multidisciplinary study indicated that gliotoxin-producing Aspergillus fumigatus Fresen. isolates from silage commodities mostly belonged to its variant A. fumigatus var. ellipticus Raper & Fennell. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism at five positions in a fragment of the rodA gene (coding for a hydrophobin rodletA protein) between Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus and Aspergillus fumigatus var. ellipticus. A method was developed to distinguish these two types of isolates based on restriction analysis of this rodA gene fragment using the HinfI restriction enzyme. In addition, in silico analysis of 113 rodA gene fragments retrieved from GenBank was performed and confirmed the suitability of this method. In conclusion, the method developed in this study allows easy distinction between A. fumigatus var. fumigatus and its variant ellipticus. In combination with the earlier developed PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method of Staab et al. (2009, J Clin Microbiol 47: 2079), this method is part of a sequencing-independent identification scheme that allows for rapid distinction between similar species/variants within Aspergillus section Fumigati, specifically A. fumigatus, A. fumigatus var. ellipticus, Aspergillus lentulus Balajee & K.A. Marr, Neosartorya pseudofischeri S.W. Peterson and Neosartorya udagawae Y. Horie, Miyaji & Nishim. PMID:22670589

Van Pamel, Els; Daeseleire, Els; De Clercq, Nikki; Herman, Lieve; Verbeken, Annemieke; Heyndrickx, Marc; Vlaemynck, Geertrui

2012-06-18

372

Clearance of SP-C and recombinant SP-C in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Surfactant protein (SP) C metabolism was evaluated in vivo by measurements of the clearance of bovine native SP-C (nSP-C) and a recombinant SP-C (rSP-C) in rabbits and mice and in vitro by the uptake into MLE-12 cells. rSP-C is the 34-amino acid human sequence with phenylalanine instead of cysteine in positions 4 and 5 and isoleucine instead of methionine in position 32. Alveolar clearances of iodinated SP-C and rSP-C after tracheal instillation were similar and slower than those for dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPC) in the rabbit. nSP-C and rSP-C were cleared from rabbit lungs similarly to DPC, each with a half-life (t1/2) of approximately 11 h. In mice, the clearance of rSP-C from the lungs was slower (t1/2 28 h) than the clearance of DPC (t1/2 12 h). Liposome-associated dinitrophenyl-labeled rSP-C was taken up by MLE-12 cells, and the uptake was inhibited by excess nSP-C. The pattern of inhibition of dinitrophenyl-rSP-C uptake by SP-B, but not by SP-A, was similar to that previously reported for nSP-C. Clearance kinetics of nSP-C were similar to previous measurements of pulmonary clearance of SP-B in rabbits and mice. rSP-C has clearance kinetics and uptake by cells similar to those of nSP-C. PMID:9609732

Ikegami, M; Horowitz, A D; Whitsett, J A; Jobe, A H

1998-06-01

373

Selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage: the nitrogenation of alkynes to amides.  

PubMed

Breakthrough: A novel catalyzed direct highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond functionalization of alkynes to amides has been developed. Nitrogenation is achieved by the highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage of aryl-substituted alkynes. The oxidant-free and mild conditions and wide substrate scope make this method very practical. PMID:23804537

Qin, Chong; Feng, Peng; Ou, Yang; Shen, Tao; Wang, Teng; Jiao, Ning

2013-06-26

374

The Sp(1)-Kepler problems  

SciTech Connect

Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

Meng Guowu [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2009-07-15

375

SP-100 control system modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SP-100 Control Systems modeling was done using a thermal hydraulic transient analysis model called ARIES-S. The ARIES-S Computer Simulation provides a basis for design, integration and analysis of the reactor including the control and protection systems. It is a modular digital computer simulation written in FORTRAN that operates interactively in real time on a VAX minicomputer.

Meyer, R. A.; Halfen, F. J.; Alley, A. D.

376

Gibberellins producing endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus sp. LH02 influenced endogenous phytohormonal levels, isoflavonoids production and plant growth in salinity stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous gibberellins (GAs) production and plant growth promotion under salt stress conditions. We isolated 13 endophytic fungi from soybean roots, which were screened on Waito-C rice for plant growth promoting capacity. Endophytic strain, GMH-1a exhibited maximum growth during screening and thus was investigated for GAs production and host plant interaction. GMH-1a was identified as

Abdul Latif Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Yoon-Ha Kim; Sang-Mo Kang; Joon-Hee Lee; In-Jung Lee

2011-01-01

377

EFFECTS OF DEUTERATION ON THE GROWTH OF PENICILLIUM NOTATUM AND ASPERGILLUS FONSECAEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences are reported in the growth rate and morphology of ; Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus fonsecaeus grow in glucose-containing media ; containing various concentrations of deuterium. (C.H.);

Robert L. Shaffer; Henry L. Crespi; Joseph J. Katz

1957-01-01

378

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...peanut, hay; peanut, meal; and peanut, refined oil. (b) An exemption from the requirement...residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated...

2013-07-01

379

Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Aspergillus flavus on Resistant and Susceptible Maize Genotypes during Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus, a mycotoxicogenic fungal genus, produces carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops like peanuts and maize. Development of fungal resistant maize cultivars is one strategy used to decrease contamination. Successful development and identification of resistant maize genotypes requires evaluation o...

380

OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

381

Evaluation of Atoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus as Potential Biocontrol Agents for Aflatoxin in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination resulting from maize infection by Aspergillus flavus is both an economic concern and public health concern. Therefore, strategies for controlling maize contamination are being investigated. Abilities of 11 naturally occurring atoxigenic strains in Nigeria to reduce aflatox...

382

Process Development Studies for the Production of beta -Glucosidase from Aspergillus Phoenicis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work is concerned with the production of beta -glucosidase from Aspergillus phoenicis for use in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Kinetic growth data indicate that two distinct periods of growth exist. The observed growth kinetics result from a...

M. J. Howell C. R. Wilke

1978-01-01

383

TWO DELTA 9-STEARIC ACID DESATURASES ARE REQUIRED FOR ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unsaturated fatty acids are important constituents of all cell membranes and are required for normal growth. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, unsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives also influence asexual (conidial) and sexual (ascospore) sporulation processes. To investigate ...

384

Secondary metabolite profiling, growth profiles and other tools for species recognition and important Aspergillus mycotoxins  

PubMed Central

Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifying and identifying aspergilli appear to be applicable: Morphology combined with physiology and nutritional features, secondary metabolite profiling and DNA sequencing. These three ways of identifying Aspergillus species often point to the same species. This consensus approach can be used initially, but if consensus is achieved it is recommended to combine at least two of these independent ways of characterising aspergilli in a polyphasic taxonomy. The chemical combination of secondary metabolites and DNA sequence features has not been explored in taxonomy yet, however. Examples of these different taxonomic approaches will be given for Aspergillus section Nigri.

Frisvad, J.C.; Larsen, T.O.; de Vries, R.; Meijer, M.; Houbraken, J.; Cabanes, F.J.; Ehrlich, K.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

385

Human Natural Killer Cells Exhibit Direct Activity Against Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphae, But Not Against Resting Conidia  

PubMed Central

Because natural killer (NK) cells kill tumor cells and combat infections, there is growing interest in adoptively transferring NK cells to hematopoietic stem cell recipients. Unfortunately, in humans, the activity of NK cells against Aspergillus species, the major cause of invasive fungal infection in stem cell recipients, are poorly characterized. Our results show that unstimulated and interleukin-2 prestimulated human NK cells kill Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae but do not affect resting conidia. Killing is also induced by the supernatant of prestimulated NK cells and human perforin. The high levels of interferon-? and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by prestimulated NK cells are significantly reduced by Aspergillus, indicating an immunosuppressive effect of the fungus. Whereas Aspergillus hyphae activate NK cells, resting, and germinating, conidia and conidia of ?rodA mutants lacking the hydrophobic surface layer do not. Our results suggest that adoptively transferred human NK cells may be a potential antifungal tool in the transplantation context.

Schmidt, Stanislaw; Tramsen, Lars; Hanisch, Mitra; Latge, Jean-Paul; Huenecke, Sabine; Koehl, Ulrike

2011-01-01

386

Inhibition of species of the Aspergillus section Nigri and ochratoxin a production in grapes by fusapyrone.  

PubMed

Fusapyrone (FP), an antifungal natural compound, was tested against the three main ochratoxigenic species of the Aspergillus section Nigri. The MICs at 24 h were 6.0, 11.6, and 9.9 mug/ml for Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. Strong inhibition of growth and morphological changes were still observed at half the MIC after 7 days. The application of a 100 mug/ml FP solution in a laboratory assay on artificially inoculated grapes resulted in a significant reduction (up to 6 orders of magnitude) of A. carbonarius CFU counts. Dramatic reductions of the ochratoxin A (OTA) content, compared to the content of the positive control (average amount of OTA, 112.5 ng/g of grape; three experiments), were obtained with the application of either 100 or 50 mug/ml of FP (0.6 or 5.1 ng/g of grape, respectively). PMID:18263739

Favilla, Mara; Pascale, Michelangelo; Ricelli, Alessandra; Evidente, Antonio; Amalfitano, Carmine; Altomare, Claudio

2008-02-08

387

The Purification and Characterization of an Endo-Xylanase from Aspergillus Niger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of a method for the purification and partial characterization of endoxylanase obtained from the fungus Aspergillus niger is reported. This xylanase hydrolyzes xylan, a component of the hemicellulose complex found in large amounts in cereal. He...

R. F. Angel

1979-01-01

388

Opportunistic Fungal Infection of the Burn Wound with Phycomycetes and Aspergillus. A Clinical-Pathologic Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty cases of invasive infection of the burn wound with opportunistic fungi of the Phycomycetes and Aspergillus species occurred. Mycotic invasion of the burn wound has a wide clinical spectrum including focal and multifocal infection, deep invasion wit...

B. A. Pruitt G. Nash H. M. Bruck

1970-01-01

389

Non-Aflatoxigenic 'Aspergillus parasiticus' Species and Their Use in Controlling Aflatoxin Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for biologically controlling the preharvest accumulation of aflatoxin in soil-borne crops is taught. Non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus parasiticus having the relevant identifying characteristics of NRRL 18786 and NRRL 13539 are shown to i...

R. J. Cole J. W. Dorner P. D. Blankenship

1991-01-01

390

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (b) An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on pistachio when applied as an antifungal agent and used in accordance with good agricultural practices. (c) An exemption from...

2012-07-01

391

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cotton, undelinted seed. (b) Aspergillus flavus AF36 is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a tolerance on pistachio when used in accordance with the Experimental Use Permit, EPA File Symbol 71693-EUP-1. This temporary exemption...

2011-07-01

392

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS AND MICROARRAY AS TOOLS IN UNDERSTANDING AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic naturally occurring mycotoxins. They are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control aflatoxin production, identification of genes using A. flavus expressed sequence ...

393

Gene Profiling for Studying the Mechanism of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by certain fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Because many internal and external factors, such as nutrition and environment affect aflatoxin biosynthesis, we have analyzed the transcriptome of A. fla...

394

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2011-07-01

395

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2012-07-01

396

Illuminating the diversity of aromatic polyketide synthases in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing has revealed that fungi have the ability to synthesize many more natural products (NPs) than are currently known, but methods for obtaining suitable expression of NPs have been inadequate. We have developed a successful strategy that bypasses normal regulatory mechanisms. By efficient gene targeting, we have replaced, en masse, the promoters of nonreducing polyketide synthase (NR-PKS) genes, key genes in NP biosynthetic pathways, and other genes necessary for NR-PKS product formation or release. This has allowed us to determine the products of eight NR-PKSs of Aspergillus nidulans, including seven novel compounds, as well as the NR-PKS genes required for the synthesis of the toxins alternariol (8) and cichorine (19). PMID:22510154

Ahuja, Manmeet; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Chang, Shu-Lin; Praseuth, Mike B; Entwistle, Ruth; Sanchez, James F; Lo, Hsien-Chun; Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Oakley, Berl R; Wang, Clay C C

2012-05-01

397

Purification and characterization of mannitol dehydrogenase from Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed Central

Mannitol dehydrogenase, NADP specific (EC 1.1.1.138), was purified from mycelium of Aspergillus parasiticus (1-11-105 Whl). The enzyme had a molecular weight of 1.4 X 10(5) and was composed of four subunits of apparently equal size. The substrate specificity was limited to D-mannitol, D-glucitol, D-arabinitol, 1-deoxy-D-mannitol, and 1-deoxy-D-glucitol. Zinc ion was a powerful inhibitor of the enzyme, inhibition being competitive with respect to mannitol, with Ki and 1 microM. It is proposed that the stimulation of polyketide synthesis by zinc ion may be mediated in part by inhibition of mannitol dehydrogenase. Images

Niehaus, W G; Dilts, R P

1982-01-01

398

[Antibiotic and phytotoxic properties of some Aspergillus parvulus Smith strains].  

PubMed

Antibiotic activity screening of 15 species of Aspergillus parvulus were made relative to different test-organisms (gram positive, gram negative, phytopathogenic bacteria and yeasts) and phytotoxic activity screening relative to different algae. The researched strains 3387, 340, 3142, 1813 of A. parvulus had a wide spectrum of antibiotic activity and high phytotoxic activity. The rest of species had different degrees of antibiotic and phytotoxic activity. For further investigation the evaporated cultural filtrate of A. parvulus 3142 was separated by the method of column chromatography into fractions with different properties. Minimum suppressing concentration (which equals 2 mg/ml for most active fraction) was determined for the most active one, and a system of solvents was chosen as a results of Schevchic assembly chromatography for the extraction of active substance (n-buthanol saturated water). PMID:15554299

Tsyganenko, K S; Za?chenko, O M

399

Stability of ribonuclease T2 from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed Central

The stability of ribonuclease T2 (RNase T2) from Aspergillus oryzae against guanidine hydrochloride and heat was studied by using CD and fluorescence. RNase T2 unfolded and refolded reversibly concomitant with activity, but the unfolding and refolding rates were very slow (order of hours). The free energy change for unfolding of RNase T2 in water was estimated to be 5.3 kcal.mol-1 at 25 degrees C by linear extrapolation method. From the thermal unfolding experiment in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, the Tm and the enthalpy change of RNase T2 were found to be 55.3 degrees C and 119.1 kcal.mol-1, respectively. From these equilibrium and kinetic studies, it was found that the stability of RNAse T2 in the native state is predominantly due to the slow rate of unfolding.

Kawata, Y.; Hamaguchi, K.

1995-01-01

400

Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

Baker, Scott E.

2006-09-01

401

Sexual reproduction in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus terreus has a worldwide distribution in soil, constitutes the third most important cause of invasive aspergillosis in humans and is classically regarded as a strictly asexual species. Strains of A. terreus were characterized by ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences. Mating type was identified by amplifying and sequencing MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes. One MAT1-2 strain produced hyphal masses when crossed with four MAT1-1 strains on mixed cereal agar after 3 wk at 37 C. Cleistothecia formed inside the hyphal masses and produced asci containing smooth-walled ascospores with an equatorial protuberance. This is the first report of sexual reproduction in A. terreus. PMID:23074177

Arabatzis, Michael; Velegraki, Aristea

2012-10-16

402

Posttraumatic Aspergillus terreus endophthalmitis masquerading as dispersed lens fragments.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old man developed increasing inflammation with a hypopyon 3 weeks after primary repair of a corneal laceration. An occult anterior capsule puncture was suspected as the stimulus for the inflammation. When aspiration of the suspected hydrated lens material was not curative, a vitrectomy with injection of intravitreal antibiotic agents including amphotericin (0.0125 mg) was done the following day; the culture failed to grow fungal organisms. A repeat vitrectomy was performed 1 week later, and the culture grew Aspergillus terreus. This was determined to be resistant to amphotericin so voriconazole was injected intravitreally. The inflammation recurred, and the eye required enucleation because of blindness and intractable pain. Fungal endophthalmitis should be considered in cases of delayed-onset inflammation after trauma and may be due to organisms resistant to amphotericin. PMID:17397754

Moinfar, Nader; Smiddy, William E; Miller, Daniel; Miller, Darlene; Herschel, Kelly

2007-04-01

403

Characterization of Aspergillus nidulans peroxisomes by immunoelectron microscopy.  

PubMed

In previous work, we have demonstrated that oleate induces a massive proliferation of microbodies (peroxisomes) in Aspergillus nidulans. Although at a lower level, proliferation of peroxisomes also occurs in cells growing under conditions that induce penicillin biosynthesis. Here, microbodies in oleate-grown A. nidulans cells were characterized by using several antibodies that recognize peroxisomal enzymes and peroxins in a broad spectrum of eukaryotic organisms such as yeast, and plant, and mammalian cells. Peroxisomes were immunolabeled by anti-SKL and anti-thiolase antibodies, which suggests that A. nidulans conserves both PTS1 and PTS2 import mechanisms. Isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, the two key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, were also localized in these organelles. In contrast to reports of Neurospora crassa, our results demonstrate that A. nidulans contains only one type of microbody (peroxisomes) that carry out the glyoxylate cycle and contain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and proteins with the C-terminal SKL tripeptide. PMID:9818356

Valenciano, S; De Lucas, J R; Van der Klei, I; Veenhuis, M; Laborda, F

1998-10-01

404

The crystal structure of acidic ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of the industrially important Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase has been determined at 2.60 Å resolution. The Ao-?-gal is a large (985 residues) monomeric multi-domain enzyme that has a catalytic (?/?)8-barrel domain. An electron density map revealed extensive N-glycosylation between the domain interfaces suggesting that the oligosaccharide-chains would have a stabilizing role for the structure of Ao-?-gal. Comparison of structure with other ?-galactosidase structures of glycoside hydrolase family 35 revealed a number of hydrophobic residues, which may contribute favorably to the stabilization of the structure. The role of a high number of acidic residues in Ao-?-gal is also discussed. PMID:23688418

Maksimainen, Mirko M; Lampio, Anja; Mertanen, Mirka; Turunen, Ossi; Rouvinen, Juha

2013-05-17

405

Molecular Mechanism of Aspergillus fumigatus Adherence to Host Constituents  

PubMed Central

Summary Inhaled conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus rapidly adhere to pulmonary epithelial cells and other host constituents. Identifying molecular mechanisms underlying A. fumigatus adherence has therefore been the focus of a number of studies aimed at identifying novel therapeutic targets. Early studies of A. fumigatus adherence to host constituents focused on fungal proteins, including RodA and AspF2. None of these proteins however has been found to play a role in virulence in experimental animal models. Recent advances have suggested an important role for fungal carbohydrate components of the cell wall and extracellular matrix in adherence, including sialic acid and mannose residues, and the newly described polysaccharide galactosaminogalactan. Despite these advances, the host cell receptors that are bound by these ligands remain unknown.

Sheppard, Donald C.

2011-01-01

406

Biotransformation of germacranolide from Onopordon leptolepies by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Terpenes are present in the essential oils obtained from herbs and spices. They are produced by these plant species as a chemical defense mechanism against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, terpenes have attracted great attention in the food industry, e.g., they have been used in foods such as cheese as natural preservatives to prevent fungal growth. Herein, we describe the microbial transformation of onopordopicrin (1) by Aspergillus niger. Four product 11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (2), 11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (3), 3?-hydroxy-11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (4), and 14-hydroxy-11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (5) were obtained. Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All the four compounds were novel. PMID:22186324

Esmaeili, Akbar; Moazami, Nasrin; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

2012-01-01

407

A fungal sexual revolution: Aspergillus and Penicillium show the way.  

PubMed

Fungi have some of the most diverse sex lives in nature, ranging from self-fertility to obligate outcrossing systems with several thousand different sexes, although at least 20% of fungal species have no known sexual stage. However, recent evidence suggests that many supposed 'asexual' species do indeed have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction. Using experimental and genomic findings from Aspergillus and Penicillium species as examples, it is argued that evidence such as the presence and expression of apparently functional sex-related genes, the distribution of mating-type genes, detection of recombination from population genetic analyses, and the discovery of extant sexual cycles reveal an on-going revolution in the understanding of fungal asexuality. PMID:22032932

Dyer, Paul S; O'Gorman, Céline M

2011-10-25

408

Catalytical Properties of Free and Immobilized Aspergillus niger Tannase.  

PubMed

A fungal tannase was produced, recovered, and immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. Catalytical properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared with those of the free one. Tannase was produced intracellularly by the xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 in a submerged fermentation system. Enzyme was recovered by cell disruption and the crude extract was partially purified. The catalytical properties of free and immobilized tannase were evaluated using tannic acid and methyl gallate as substrates. K(M) and V(max) values for free enzyme were very similar for both substrates. But, after immobilization, K(M) and V(max) values increased drastically using tannic acid as substrate. These results indicated that immobilized tannase is a better biocatalyst than free enzyme for applications on liquid systems with high tannin content, such as bioremediation of tannery or olive-mill wastewater. PMID:21918717

Flores-Maltos, Abril; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Renovato, Jacqueline; Contreras, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

2011-09-12

409

Catalytical Properties of Free and Immobilized Aspergillus niger Tannase  

PubMed Central

A fungal tannase was produced, recovered, and immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. Catalytical properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared with those of the free one. Tannase was produced intracellularly by the xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 in a submerged fermentation system. Enzyme was recovered by cell disruption and the crude extract was partially purified. The catalytical properties of free and immobilized tannase were evaluated using tannic acid and methyl gallate as substrates. KM and Vmax values for free enzyme were very similar for both substrates. But, after immobilization, KM and Vmax values increased drastically using tannic acid as substrate. These results indicated that immobilized tannase is a better biocatalyst than free enzyme for applications on liquid systems with high tannin content, such as bioremediation of tannery or olive-mill wastewater.

Flores-Maltos, Abril; Rodriguez-Duran, Luis V.; Renovato, Jacqueline; Contreras, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Raul; Aguilar, Cristobal N.

2011-01-01

410

Efficient genetic transformation system for the ochratoxigenic fungus Aspergillus carbonarius.  

PubMed

Aspergillus carbonarius is a potent ochratoxin A producer that has been found in products such as grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Ochratoxin A has nephrotoxic effect, and it has been classified as a possible carcinogenic substance for humans. Here we describe for the first time a transformation system for A. carbonarius, providing an important step towards its genetic manipulation. Conidia were transformed to acquire hygromycin B resistance using the AGL-1 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Genetic transformation was evaluated growing A. tumefaciens cells in induction medium containing or not acetosyringone prior to co-cultivation. The mean transforming efficiencies in IM+AS and IM-AS conditions were 62.2 and 44.5 transformants per 10(5) conidia, respectively. The hph gene was random integrated into the genome of A. carbonarius. Fungal sequences flanking the insertion site could be amplified by TAIL-PCR. PMID:16619113

Morioka, Luiz Rodrigo I; Furlaneto, Márcia C; Bogas, Andréa C; Pompermayer, Patrícia; Duarte, Rubens T D; Vieira, Maria Lúcia C; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; Fungaro, Maria Helena P

2006-04-17

411

Analytical and computational approaches to define the Aspergillus niger secretome  

SciTech Connect

We used computational and mass spectrometric approaches to characterize the Aspergillus niger secretome. The 11,200 gene models predicted in the genome of A. niger strain ATCC 1015 were the data source for the analysis. Depending on the computational methods used, 691 to 881 proteins were predicted to be secreted proteins. We cultured A. niger in six different media and analyzed the extracellular proteins produced using mass spectrometry. A total of 222 proteins were identified, with 39 proteins expressed under all six conditions and 74 proteins expressed under only one condition. The secreted proteins identified by mass spectrometry were used to guide the correction of about 20 gene models. Additional analysis focused on extracellular enzymes of interest for biomass processing. Of the 63 glycoside hydrolases predicted to be capable of hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose or pectin, 94% of the exo-acting enzymes and only 18% of the endo-acting enzymes were experimentally detected.

Tsang, Adrian; Butler, Gregory D.; Powlowski, Justin; Panisko, Ellen A.; Baker, Scott E.

2009-03-01

412

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system.

Kamath, A V; Vaidyanathan, C S

1990-01-01

413

Multilocus Sequence Typing of the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed Central

A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was devised for Aspergillus fumigatus. The system involved sequencing seven gene fragments and was applied to a panel of 100 isolates of A. fumigatus from diverse sources. Thirty different sequence types were found among the 100 isolates, and 93% of the isolates differed from the other isolates by only one allele sequence, forming a single clonal cluster as indicated by the eBURST algorithm. The discriminatory power of the MLST method was only 0.93. These results strongly indicate that A. fumigatus is a species of a relatively recent origin, with low levels of sequence dissimilarity. Typing methods based on variable numbers of tandem repeats offer higher levels of strain discrimination. Mating type data for the 100 isolates showed that 71 isolates were type MAT1-2 and 29 isolates were MAT1-1.

Bain, J. M.; Tavanti, A.; Davidson, A. D.; Jacobsen, M. D.; Shaw, D.; Gow, N. A. R.; Odds, F. C.

2007-01-01

414

Potential of Aspergillus flavus genomics for applications in biotechnology.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is a common saprophyte and opportunistic pathogen that produces numerous secondary metabolites. The primary objectives of the A. flavus genomics program are to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination in food and feed and to discover genetic factors that contribute to plant and animal pathogenicity. A. flavus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and whole-genome sequencing have been completed. Annotation of the A. flavus genome has revealed numerous genes and gene clusters that are potentially involved in the formation of aflatoxin and other secondary metabolites, as well as in the degradation of complex carbohydrate polymers. Analysis of putative secondary metabolism pathways might facilitate the discovery of new compounds with pharmaceutical properties, as well as new enzymes for biomass degradation. PMID:19195728

Cleveland, Thomas E; Yu, Jiujiang; Fedorova, Natalie; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Payne, Gary A; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

2009-02-03

415

Genetic diversity among clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

To determine if cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA) were caused by strains of Aspergillus fumigatus with unique characteristics, strains from immunosuppressed patients with IA were compared to strains obtained from sputa of patients with cystic fibrosis and to strains from the environment. An extremely high genomic diversity was observed among the 879 strains typed by Southern blotting with a retrotransposon-like element from A. fumigatus (C. Neuvéglise, J. Sarfati, J. P. Latgé, and S. Paris, Nucleic Acids Res. 24:1428-1434, 1996). Analysis of Southern blot hybridization patterns showed the absence of clustering between environmental isolates and clinical isolates from patients with IA or cystic fibrosis. In addition, strains could not be clustered depending on their geographical location. This study implies that practically any strain of A. fumigatus is potentially pathogenic and can provoke a case of IA when it encounters a favorable environment in an immunosuppressed host.

Debeaupuis, J P; Sarfati, J; Chazalet, V; Latge, J P

1997-01-01

416

Effect of Maltose on Glucoamylase Formation by Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Low levels of glucoamylase are produced when Aspergillus niger is grown on sorbitol, but substitution of the latter by glucose, maltose, or starch results in greater formation of glucoamylase as measured by enzymatic activity. Both glucoamylase I and glucoamylase II are formed in a yeast extract medium; however, glucoamylase I appears to be the only form produced when ammonium chloride is the nitrogen source. Maltose or isomaltose (1.4 × 10?4m), but no other disaccharides or monosaccharides, dextrins, dextrans, or starches, stimulated glucoamylase formation when added to mycelia pregrown on sorbitol-ammonium salts. The induction of glucoamylase by maltose was independent of sulfate concentration but showed a dependency on low pH and the absence of utilizable carbon sources.

Barton, Larry L.; Georgi, Carl E.; Lineback, David R.

1972-01-01

417

Genomic Islands in the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het) genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL). The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated “gene dumps” and, perhaps, simultaneously, as “gene factories”.

Fedorova, Natalie D.; Khaldi, Nora; Joardar, Vinita S.; Maiti, Rama; Amedeo, Paolo; Anderson, Michael J.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Silva, Joana C.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Albarraq, Ahmed; Angiuoli, Sam; Bussey, Howard; Bowyer, Paul; Cotty, Peter J.; Dyer, Paul S.; Egan, Amy; Galens, Kevin; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Haas, Brian J.; Inman, Jason M.; Kent, Richard; Lemieux, Sebastien; Malavazi, Iran; Orvis, Joshua; Roemer, Terry; Ronning, Catherine M.; Sundaram, Jaideep P.; Sutton, Granger; Turner, Geoff; Venter, J. Craig; White, Owen R.; Whitty, Brett R.; Youngman, Phil; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Jiang, Bo; Denning, David W.; Nierman, William C.

2008-01-01

418

Upstream and downstream regulation of asexual development in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces a large quantity of asexual spores (conidia), which are the primary agent causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. We investigated the mechanisms controlling asexual sporulation (conidiation) in A. fumigatus via examining functions of four key regulators, GpaA (Galpha), AfFlbA (RGS), AfFluG, and AfBrlA, previously studied in Aspergillus nidulans. Expression analyses of gpaA, AfflbA, AffluG, AfbrlA, and AfwetA throughout the life cycle of A. fumigatus revealed that, while transcripts of AfflbA and AffluG accumulate constantly, the latter two downstream developmental regulators are specifically expressed during conidiation. Both loss-of-function AfflbA and dominant activating GpaA(Q204L) mutations resulted in reduced conidiation with increased hyphal proliferation, indicating that GpaA signaling activates vegetative growth while inhibiting conidiation. As GpaA is the primary target of AfFlbA, the dominant interfering GpaA(G203R) mutation suppressed reduced conidiation caused by loss of AfflbA function. These results corroborate the hypothesis that functions of G proteins and RGSs are conserved in aspergilli. We then examined functions of the two major developmental activators AfFluG and AfBrlA. While deletion of AfbrlA eliminated conidiation completely, null mutation of AffluG did not cause severe alterations in A. fumigatus sporulation in air-exposed culture, implying that, whereas the two aspergilli may have a common key downstream developmental activator, upstream mechanisms activating brlA may be distinct. Finally, both AffluG and AfflbA mutants showed reduced conidiation and delayed expression of AfbrlA in synchronized developmental induction, indicating that these upstream regulators contribute to the proper progression of conidiation. PMID:17030990

Mah, Jae-Hyung; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2006-10-01

419

Acidophilic tannase from marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032.  

PubMed

Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032, isolated from sea water, produced tannase as extracellular enzyme under submerged culture conditions. Enzyme with a specific activity of 2761.89 IU/mg protein, a final yield of 0.51 %, and a purification fold of 6.32 was obtained after purification to homogeneity by ultrafiltration and gel filtration. SDS-PAGE analyses under non- reducing and reducing conditions yielded a single band of 230 kDa and 37.8 kDa, respectively, indicating presence of six identical monomers. pI of 4.4 and 8.02 % carbohydrate content in the enzyme were observed. Optimal temperature was 30ºC, although the enzyme was active at 5-80 ºC. Two pH optima, pH 2 and pH 8, were recorded and the enzyme was stable only at pH 2.0 for 24 h. Methylgallate recorded maximal affinity and K(m) and V(max) were recorded, respectively, as 1.9 X 10?³ M and 830 micronmol/min. Impact of several metal salts, solvents, surfactants, and typical enzyme inhibitors on tannase activity were determined to establish the novelty of the enzyme. Gene encoding tannase isolated from A. awamori is 1.232 kb and nucleic acid sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame consisting of 1122 bp (374 amino acids) of one stretch in -1 strand. In-silico analyses of gene sequences and comparison with reported sequences of other species of Aspergillus indicated that the acidophilic tannase from marine A. awamori is differs from that of other reported species. PMID:21030825

Beena, P S; Soorej, M B; Elyas, K K; Sarita, G Bhat; Chandrasekaran, M

2010-10-01

420

Gbetagamma-mediated growth and developmental control in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The roles of the Gbetagamma subunits of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus were investigated. The predicted AfuSfaD (Gbeta) protein consists of 353 amino acids and shows 94-98% similarity with other Aspergillus Gbeta subunits. AfuGpgA consists of 90 amino acids showing 95-98% identity with other fungal G-protein gamma subunits. The deletion (Delta) of AfusfaD or AfugpgA resulted in severe impairment in vegetative growth, conidial germination and conidial trehalose breakdown. While the total number of conidia produced by DeltaAfusfaD and DeltaAfugpgA strains on solid medium was only about 1% of wild type, the growth-adjusted conidiation levels were twofold higher than those of wild type. Enhanced formation of conidiophores and elevated AfubrlA mRNA levels were observable in DeltaAfusfaD or DeltaAfugpgA strains in liquid submerged culture. Moreover, overexpression of AfusfaD or AfugpgA caused reduced levels of submerged culture conidiation, indicating that Gbetagamma is involved in negative regulation of conidiation. Gliotoxin and other metabolites were not detected in the chloroform extracts of DeltaAfusfaD and DeltaAfugpgA culture filtrates. Northern blot analyses revealed that, while AfulaeA mRNA levels unchanged, accumulation of gliZ mRNA was delayed by DeltaAfusfaD or DeltaAfugpgA. A model summarizing the roles of AfusfaD and AfugpgA in A. fumigatus is presented. PMID:19915845

Shin, Kwang-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2009-11-14

421

Notoamide E: Biosynthetic incorporation into notoamides C and D in cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600  

PubMed Central

Notoamide E, a short-lived secondary metabolite, has been proposed as a biosynthetic intermediate to several advanced metabolites isolated from Aspergillus versicolor. In order to verify the role of this indole alkaloid along the biosynthetic pathway, synthetic doubly 13C-labeled notoamide E was fed to Aspergillus versicolor. Analysis of the metabolites showed significant incorporation of notoamide E into the natural products notoamides C and D.

Finefield, Jennifer M.; Greshock, Thomas J.; Sherman, David H.; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

2011-01-01

422

Mycotoxin production and evolutionary relationships among species of Aspergillus section Clavati  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus\\u000a clavatus is a commonly encountered fungus in the environment, producing a number of mycotoxins including patulin, kojic acid, cytochalasins\\u000a and tremorgenic mycotoxins. A. clavatus belongs to Aspergillus section Clavati together with six other species, all of which possess clavate-shaped vesicles. Patulin production was analysed by thin layer\\u000a chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, while a primer pair developed for

János Varga; Krisztina Rigó; János Molnár; Beáta Tóth; Szilvia Szencz; József Téren; Zofia Kozakiewicz

2003-01-01

423

Utilization of omeprazole to augment subtherapeutic voriconazole concentrations for treatment of Aspergillus infections.  

PubMed

Voriconazole is the preferred antifungal agent for Aspergillus infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to achieve target concentrations and prevent toxicity. However, variable pharmacokinetics, cytochrome P450 polymorphisms, and extensive drug-drug interactions can contribute to subtherapeutic concentrations. We report a voriconazole "boosting" effect of omeprazole to achieve target concentrations for the treatment of Aspergillus in a patient who had persistently subtherapeutic trough concentrations. PMID:22890768

Boyd, Natalie K; Zoellner, Cindy L; Swancutt, Mark A; Bhavan, Kavita P

2012-08-13

424

Efficacy of certain agrochemicals on Aspergillus spp. and subsequent aflatoxin production in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy of certain fungicides and non-conventional chemicals against Aspergillus spp. contamination and subsequent aflatoxin production in rice was investigated. Among the 10 fungicides tested, carbendazim, contaf plus, folicur, propiconazole and saaf completely inhibited the growth of all Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production at 1g or ml\\/kg concentration. Of the five non-conventional chemicals tested, benzoic acid effectively inhibited the

K. R. N. Reddy; C. S. Reddy; K. Muralidharan

2009-01-01

425

A novel Aspergillus oryzae esterase that hydrolyzes 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters.  

PubMed

In this study we report the biochemical characterization of a hypothetical protein from Aspergillus oryzae exhibiting sequence identity with feruloyl esterase and tannase from the genus Aspergillus. The purified recombinant protein showed a hydrolytic activity toward the ethyl, propyl, or butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, but did not show feruloyl esterase or tannase activity. Finally, the enzyme decreased the antimicrobial activity of parabens against A. oryzae via hydrolysis of the ester bond present in butyl 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. PMID:20728445

Koseki, Takuya; Mihara, Koji; Murayama, Tetsuya; Shiono, Yoshihito

2010-08-20

426

Environmental Dimensionality Controls the Interaction of Phagocytes with the Pathogenic Fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are major health threats for immune-compromised patients. Normally, macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes phagocytose inhaled Aspergillus conidia in the two-dimensional (2-D) environment of the alveolar lumen or Candida growing in tissue microabscesses, which are composed of a three-dimensional (3-D) extracellular matrix. However, neither the cellular dynamics, the per-cell efficiency, the outcome of this

Judith Behnsen; Priyanka Narang; Mike Hasenberg; Frank Gunzer; Ursula Bilitewski; Nina Klippel; Manfred Rohde; Matthias Brock; Axel A Brakhage; Matthias Gunzer

2007-01-01

427

pH regulation of enzyme production in Aspergillus nidulans growing in aerobic batch fermenter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological response to ambient pH on the regulation of the production of the xylanolytic enzyme complex was investigated using two modified strains of Aspergillus nidulans. Transcriptional gene fusions were constructed between the promoters xlnA and xlnB (alkaline and acid expressed, respectively) and the Aspergillus nigergoxC (encoding glucose oxidase), and A. nidulans transformants possessing single integrations at the argB locus were

J. M. Bruno-Bárcena; M. E. Lucca; F. Siñeriz; D. Ramón

2002-01-01

428

Comparison of phytase from genetically engineered Aspergillus and canola in weanling pig diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six crossbred pigs with an aver- age weight of 9.0 kg were used in a 5-wk trial to compare the efficacy of genetically engineered Aspergillus fi- cuum phytase, expressed in Aspergillus niger (Na- tuphos) or in canola seed (Phytaseed), for enhancing the utilization of phytate P in corn-soybean meal-based diets fed to young pigs and to evaluate the safety of

Z. B. Zhang; E. T. Kornegay; J. S. Radcliffe; J. H. Wilson; H. P. Veit

2009-01-01

429

Secretion, purification, and characterisation of barley ? -amylase produced by heterologous gene expression in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient production of recombinant barley ?-amylase has been achieved in Aspergillus niger. The cDNA encoding ?-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) and its signal peptide was placed under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter and the A. nidulans trpC gene terminator. Secretion yields up to 60?mg\\/l were obtained in media optimised for ?-amylase activity and low protease\\u000a activity.

N. Juge; B. Svensson; G. Williamson

1998-01-01

430

Selection of biochemical mutants of Aspergillus niger with enhanced extracellular ribonuclease production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined with u.v. irradiation and the nitrosoguanidine method, selection of biochemical mutants resistant to metabolic inhibitors (2-deoxy-D-glucose, antimycin A, sodium orthovanadate and sodium azide) was a very efficient method for improvement of ribonuclease production by Aspergillus niger. Resistance to sodium azide produced highest RNase production, greatest frequency of positive mutation and shortest sporulation time. The most active strain, Aspergillus niger

Ya-Hong Xiong; Jian-Zhong Liu; Hai-Yan Song; Li-Ping Weng; Liang-Nian Ji

2004-01-01

431

Comparative In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Caspofungin, Micafungin, and Anidulafungin against Germinated and Nongerminated Aspergillus Conidia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration-dependent effects of echinocandins on the metabolic activity of Aspergillus spp. were compar- atively studied by using nongerminated and germinated conidia. The susceptibilities of 11 Aspergillus fumigatus ,8 A. terreus and 8 A. flavus isolates to caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin were studied by a CLSI (formerly NCCLS) M38-A broth microdilution-based method. After 48 h of incubation the minimum effective

Charalampos Antachopoulos; Joseph Meletiadis; Tin Sein; Emmanuel Roilides; Thomas J. Walsh

2008-01-01

432

Co?production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid in isolates of Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of total aflatoxin (AFT) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) between conidia and mycelial matrix was studied in five isolates of Aspergillus flavus Link cultured on maize grain for 20 days at 30°C. Total aflatoxin and CPA production differed between the isolates with Aspergillus flavus F2R4FP 1–5 producing the most AFT (conidia—0.245 ?g\\/g; mycelial matrix—83 ?g\\/g) and CPA (conidia—0.091 ?g\\/g;

N. Gqaleni; J. E. Smith; J. Lacey

1996-01-01

433

Apparent mRNA instability in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus of a heterologous cDNA encoding the major capsid antigen of Rotavirus.  

PubMed

Two expression plasmids designed to produce the rotaviral VP6 protein in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus have been constructed. In one of these plasmids the inducible A. terreus Gla1 glucoamylase gene promoter and Gla1 signal sequence are fused to the VP6 cDNA to enable induction and extracellular secretion of the final protein product; in the other, the strong, constitutive A. nidulans gpdA gene promoter has been employed. A. nidulans and A. terreus transformants containing intact copies of these plasmids have been obtained but neither intra- nor extra-cellular VP6 protein was detectable. Northern analysis indicated specific degradation of the VP6 mRNA. This lack of VP6 mRNA stability may be related to fundamental differences between the general structure of Aspergillus mRNA and that of rotavirus, including codon usage and AU/GC ratio. PMID:18473559

Villanueva, A; Maccabe, A P; Buesa, J; Ramón, D

1999-09-01

434

Disruption of the glucosylceramide biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus by inhibitors of UDP-Glc:ceramide glucosyltransferase strongly affects spore germination, cell cycle, and hyphal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic mycopathogen Aspergillus fumigatus expresses both glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide (GlcCer and GalCer), but their functional significance in Aspergillus species is unknown. We here identified and characterized a GlcCer from Aspergillus nidulans, a non-pathogenic model fungus. Involvement of GlcCer in fungal development was tested on both species using a family of compounds known to inhibit GlcCer synthase in mammals. Two

Steven B Levery; Michelle Momany; Rebecca Lindsey; Marcos S Toledo; James A Shayman; Matthew Fuller; Kelly Brooks; Ron Lou Doong; Anita H Straus; Helio K Takahashi

2002-01-01

435

Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri populations in Argentinian vineyards and ochratoxin A contamination.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Nigri are described as the main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes and wine worldwide. The knowledge of the factors affecting grape contamination by species included in this section and OTA production is essential to be able to reduce their presence, not only to improve wine quality, but also to maintain their safety. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Aspergillus section Nigri species harvested in different grape-growing regions from Argentina, their ability to produce OTA, to correlate with meteorological conditions and geographical coordinates with their prevalence and to evaluate the OTA natural occurrence in grapes and wines. The morphological identification showed that Aspergillus niger aggregate species were the most prevalent ones, followed by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus uniseriate. These populations were confirmed through using AFLP markers and sequencing and, Aspergillus tubingensis was separated from A. niger aggregate. Climatic factors, altitude, longitude and latitude have influenced on the distribution of species included in the section. A. carbonarius and A. niger were OTA producers but differed in their OTA producing ability. Temperature was the factor which influenced the most over the highest incidence of A. carbonarius in La Rioja and San Juan regions. The trellis system in vineyards and drip irrigation also influenced the species isolation. The OTA levels detected in grapes and wines were low, but grape variety was more important in susceptibility to fungal infection and OTA levels. PMID:24010597

Chiotta, María L; Ponsone, María L; Sosa, Débora M; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía N

2013-05-02

436

[Medium optimization for antagonistic Streptomyces S24 and its inhibition on Aspergillus flavus].  

PubMed

Streptomyces S24 has broad spectrum against Aspergillus spp. in food and feed, such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Asperegillus alutacells. The objective of this study was to improve the production of antifungal substances produced by S24 and to test their inhibitory effects on Aspergillus flavus. By using one-factor-at-a-time experiment and orthogonal design method, we optimized the fermentation medium. The composition of an optimized medium for the production of antifungal substances contained (g/L): starch soluble, 10; Glucose, 40; yeast extract, 8; soybean powder, 24; KH2PO4 4; and CaCO3 0.8. As a result, the productivity of antifungal substances could reach to 10 235.45 microg/mL, and this value was 2.81 times higher than that of initial medium before optimization. Additionally, inhibitory effects of the products on Aspergillus flavus were analyzed. Antagonistic tests indicated that the antifungal substances greatly inhibited mycelium growth and spores germination of Aspergillus flavus. We observed through microscope that the mycelia grew abnormally, such as contorting, bulging, vacuole increasing and the cytoplasmic contents inside effusing and the spores appeared unusual, such as gathering, deforming, cytoplasmic contents inside effusing and fracturing. PMID:21650044

Zhou, Qisheng; Liu, Xunli; Zhang, Nan; Song, Zhen; Qiu, Nianquan; Zhang, Benfeng; Guo, Hui; Lü, Changxu; Yu, Jian

2011-02-01

437

Mating Type Protein Mat1-2 from Asexual Aspergillus fumigatus Drives Sexual Reproduction in Fertile Aspergillus nidulans?  

PubMed Central

The lack of an experimentally amenable sexual genetic system in Aspergillus fumigatus is a major limitation in the study of the organism's pathogenesis. A recent comparative genome analysis revealed evidence for potential sexuality in A. fumigatus. Homologs of mating type genes as well as other genes of the “sexual machinery” have been identified in anamorphic A. fumigatus. The mat1-2 gene encodes a homolog of MatA, an HMG box mating transcriptional factor (MatHMG) that regulates sexual development in fertile Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, the functionalities of A. fumigatus mat1-2 and the Mat1-2 protein were determined by interspecies gene exchange between sterile A. fumigatus and fertile A. nidulans. Ectopically integrated A. fumigatus mat1-2 (driven by its own promoter) was not functional in a sterile A. nidulans ?matA strain, and no sexual development was observed. In contrast, the A. fumigatus mat1-2 open reading frame driven by the A. nidulans matA promoter and integrated by homologous gene replacement at the matA locus was functional and conferred full fertility. This is the first report showing that cross species mating type gene exchange between closely related Ascomycetes did not function in sexual development. This is also the first report demonstrating that a MatHMG protein from an asexual species is fully functional, with viable ascospore differentiation, in a fertile homothallic species. The expression of mat1-2 was assessed in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Our data suggest that mat1-2 may not be properly regulated to allow sexuality in A. fumigatus. This study provides new insights about A. fumigatus asexuality and also suggests the possibility for the development of an experimentally amenable sexual cycle.

Pyrzak, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

2008-01-01

438

G?-like CpcB plays a crucial role for growth and development of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Growth, development, virulence and secondary metabolism in fungi are governed by heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins). A G?-like protein called Gib2 has been shown to function as an atypical G? in Gpa1-cAMP signaling in Cryptococcus neoformans. We found that the previously reported CpcB (cross pathway control B) protein is the ortholog of Gib2 in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this report, we further characterize the roles of CpcB in governing growth, development and toxigenesis in the two aspergilli. The deletion of cpcB results in severely impaired cellular growth, delayed spore germination, and defective asexual sporulation (conidiation) in both aspergilli. Moreover, CpcB is necessary for proper expression of the key developmental activator brlA during initiation and progression of conidiation in A. nidulans and A. fumigatus. Somewhat in accordance with the previous study, the absence of cpcB results in the formation of fewer, but not micro-, cleistothecia in A. nidulans in the presence of wild type veA, an essential activator of sexual development. However, the cpcB deletion mutant cleistothecia contain no ascospores, validating that CpcB is required for progression and completion of sexual fruiting including ascosporogenesis. Furthermore, unlike the canonical G?SfaD, CpcB is not needed for the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST) as the cpcB null mutant produced reduced amount of ST with unaltered STC gene expression. However, in A. fumigatus, the deletion of cpcB results in the blockage of gliotoxin (GT) production. Further genetic analyses in A. nidulans indicate that CpcB may play a central role in vegetative growth, which might be independent of FadA- and GanB-mediated signaling. A speculative model summarizing the roles of CpcB in conjunction with SfaD in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:23936193

Kong, Qing; Wang, Long; Liu, Zengran; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2013-07-30

439

[Influence of the interaction of temperature and water activity on the production of ochratoxin A and the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus on coffee-based culture medium].  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of temperature and water activity on fungal growth and ochratoxin production on coffee-based medium was assessed. Optimal growth of three Aspergillus strains was observed in the same ecological conditions, namely 30 degrees C and 0.99 water activity. Maximal daily growth is 11.2, 6.92, and 7.22 mm/day for Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Aspergillus ochraceus, respectively. However, ecological conditions for optimal ochratoxin production vary according to the toxinogenic strain, with water activity as a limiting factor. Such an ochratoxin A production is inhibited at 42 degrees C and 0.75 water activity. Correspondence between laboratory tested water activity and that measured on a sun-dried ripe cherry batch shows that the first 5 days of drying are critical for fungal growth and ochratoxin A production. Accordingly, artificial drying of cherries at temperatures above 42 degrees C will impede not only fungal growth but also contamination with ochratoxin A. PMID:17898840

Kouadio, Ahou Irène; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Agbo, Georges N' Zi; Mathieu, Florence; Pfohl-Leszkowiz, Annie; Dosso, Mireille Bretin

2007-07-01

440

Transcription factor Sp3 antagonizes activation of the ornithine decarboxylase promoter by Sp1.  

PubMed Central

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) expression is important for proliferation and is elevated in many tumor cells. We previously showed that Sp1 is a major positive regulator of ODC transcription. In this paper we have investigated transcriptional regulation of rat ODC by the closely related factor Sp3. While over-expression of Sp1 caused a dramatic activation of the ODC promoter, over-expression of Sp3 caused little or no activation in either Drosophila SL2 cells (lacking endogenous Sp1 or Sp3) or in H35 rat hepatoma cells. Furthermore, co-transfection studies demonstrated that Sp3 abolished trans -activation of the ODC promoter by Sp1. DNase I footprint studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that both recombinant Sp1 and Sp3 bind specifically to several sites within the ODC promoter also protected by nuclear extracts, including overlapping GC and CT motifs located between -116 and -104. This CT element is a site of negative ODC regulation. Mutation of either element reduced binding, but mutation of both sites was required to eliminate binding of either Sp1 or Sp3. These results demonstrate that ODC is positively regulated by Sp1 and negatively regulated by Sp3, suggesting that the ratio of these transcription factors may be an important determinant of ODC expression during development or transformation.

Kumar, A P; Butler, A P

1997-01-01

441

Description of Actinomycetospora chibensis sp. nov., Actinomycetospora chlora sp. nov., Actinomycetospora cinnamomea sp. nov., Actinomycetospora corticicola sp. nov., Actinomycetospora lutea sp. nov., Actinomycetospora straminea sp. nov. and Actinomycetospora succinea sp. nov. and emended description of the genus Actinomycetospora.  

PubMed

Eight actinomycete strains that form bud-like spore chains were isolated from various samples collected in Japan. Phylogenetically, the isolates formed a single clade with the type strain of Actinomycetospora chiangmaiensis according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, d-glutamic acid and d- and l- alanine in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, arabinose and galactose as characteristic sugars, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as diagnostic phospholipids, MK-8(H(4)) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone, iso-C(16 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acid and DNA G+C contents of 72-74 mol%. Actinomycetospora chiangmaiensis, the type species of the genus Actinomycetospora, was also found to contain MK-8(H(4)) predominantly in our study, although it was earlier reported to contain MK-9(H(4)) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone. On the basis of the morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization data, we concluded that the isolates can be accommodated in the genus Actinomycetospora with emendation of the description of the genus and are assigned to the following seven novel species: Actinomycetospora chibensis sp. nov. (type strain TT04-21(T) ?= NBRC 103694(T) ?= KACC 14256(T)), Actinomycetospora chlora sp. nov. (type strain TT07I-57(T) ?= NBRC 105900(T) ?= KACC 14252(T)), Actinomycetospora cinnamomea sp. nov. (type strain IY07-53(T) ?= NBRC 105527(T) ?= KACC 14250(T)), Actinomycetospora corticicola sp. nov. (type strain 014-5(T) ?=?NBRC 103689(T) ?= KACC 14253(T)), Actinomycetospora lutea sp. nov. (type strain TT00-04(T) ?= NBRC 103690(T) ?=?KACC 14254(T)), Actinomycetospora straminea sp. nov. (type strain IY07-55(T) ?= NBRC 105528(T) ?= KACC 14251(T)) and Actinomycetospora succinea sp. nov. (type strain TT00-49(T) ?= NBRC 103691(T) ?=?KACC 14255(T)). PMID:20622052

Tamura, Tomohiko; Ishida, Yuumi; Hamada, Moriyuki; Otoguro, Misa; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

2010-07-09

442

Determination of Isavuconazole Susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida Species by the EUCAST Method.  

PubMed

Isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the FDA as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase III clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. In this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 Aspergillus and 2,010 Candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by EUCAST methodology at four European mycology laboratories, producing the largest multicenter data set thus far for this compound. In addition, a blinded collection of 30 cyp51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates and 10 wild-type isolates was tested. From these two data sets, the following preliminary epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values were suggested: 2 mg/liter for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus; 4 mg/liter for Aspergillus niger; 0.25 mg/liter for Aspergillus nidulans; and 0.03 mg/liter for Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Unfortunately, ECOFFs could not be determined for Candida glabrata or Candida krusei due to an unexplained interlaboratory MIC variation. For the blinded collection of A. fumigatus isolates, all MICs were ?2 mg/liter for wild-type isolates. Differential isavuconazole MICs were observed for triazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates with different cyp51A alterations: TR34/L98H mutants had elevated isavuconazole MICs, whereas isolates with G54 and M220 alterations had MICs in the wild-type range, suggesting that the efficacy of isavuconazole may not be affected by these alterations. This study will be an aid in interpreting isavuconazole MICs for clinical care and an important step in the future process of setting official clinical breakpoints. PMID:23959309

Howard, Susan J; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Arendrup, Maiken C

2013-08-19

443

[Aspergillus spp. isolations from respiratory tract samples in Trakya University Hospital].  

PubMed

The characteristics of cases diagnosed as aspergillosis and Aspergillus spp. strains isolated from the respiratory tract samples in Mycology Laboratory of Trakya University Hospital between January 2002 and May 2006 were investigated. In this period, 137 bronchoalveolar lavages, 95 sputum, nine tracheal aspirates, three lung biopsies and one bronchial biopsy of 85 patients were processed. The samples were incubated in 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C media by culturing on brain heart infusion agar with blood and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Presence of leucocytes and fungal structures were searched in the smear stained by Gram and Giemsa. The patient was defined as probable aspergillosis case, if he/she patient had clinical findings, lung infiltration or fungus ball radiologically, at least one risk factor predisposing to aspergillosis and isolation of Aspergillus spp. in lower respiratory tract samples without finding of other nonmycotic infection. Of 22 patients isolated Aspergillus spp., 13, six, two, one were internalized in chest diseases, haemotology, neurosurgery and oncology clinics, respectively. Seven positive cultures were considered as findings of aspergillosis. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were isolated in three, two, and two patients, respectively. Fungal structures were detected in only one sample in the direct microscopical examination. Ages of seven patients, five were males and two were females, were between 15 and 60. Predisposing risk factors were acute leukemia in six patients and lung cancer in one patient. Five patients were neutropenic and one was neutrophylic. Fungus ball was detected in radiological imaging of one patient, had a pulmonary cavitary lesion. Conventional amphotericine B was used in their therapies. Antifungal agents were switched to caspofungin and itraconazole in two and one patients, respectively. Three patients died in four weeks after isolation of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillosis cases were not high in our hospital because of absence of transplantation center for bone marrow or solid organ. PMID:17602344

Gürcan, Saban; Demir, Muzaffer; Altiay, Gündeniz; Tikve?li, Melek; Kiliç, Haluk; Otkun, Metin

2007-01-01

444

An ultrastructural study of the spermatozoa of Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoa of four polychaetes is described: Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae). All the sperm show features typical of externally fertilizing sperm in having a rounded nucleus, a short unmodified midpiece, and a simple flagellum with a 9+2 axoneme. Owenia fusiformis and Lepidonotus sp. have a nuclear cone extending into the subacrosomal space that may act to present the inner acrosomal membrane to the egg during fertilization. The acrosome of Lumbrineris sp. is flattened and crenulated. The sperm of Eulalia sp. is unusual in having the four mitochondria of the midpiece ensheathed by a membrane. Comparisons are made with other polychaete sperm, and the use of sperm ultrastructure as a taxonomic tool within the Polychaeta is discussed.

Rouse, G. W.

1988-03-01

445

Peptoniphilus gorbachii sp. nov., Peptoniphilus olsenii sp. nov., and Anaerococcus murdochii sp. nov. Isolated from Clinical Specimens of Human Origin?  

PubMed Central

Three groups of previously unknown gram-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacteria were characterized using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Phenotypic and genotypic data demonstrate that these organisms are distinct, and each group represents a previously unknown subline within Clostridium cluster XIII. Two groups are most closely related to Peptoniphilus harei in the genus Peptoniphilus, and the other group is most closely related to Anaerococcus lactolyticus in the genus Anaerococcus. Based on the findings, three novel species, Peptoniphilus gorbachii sp. nov., Peptoniphilus olsenii sp. nov., and Anaerococcus murdochii sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains of Peptoniphilus gorbachii sp. nov., Peptoniphilus olsenii sp. nov., and Anaerococcus murdochii sp. nov. are WAL 10418T (= CCUG 53341T = ATCC BAA-1383T), WAL 12922T (= CCUG 53342T = ATCC BAA-1384T), and WAL 17230T (= CCUG 53340T = ATCC BAA-1385T), respectively.

Song, Yuli; Liu, Chengxu; Finegold, Sydney M.

2007-01-01

446

Obtenção de mutantes de Aspergillus carbonarius via transformação genética mediada por Agrobacterium tumefaciens Generation of Aspergillus carbonarius mutants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus carbonarius is a potent ochratoxin A producer , a mycotoxin that has nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The knowledge of genes involved in biosynthesis of this toxin may be useful for the development of detection and control methods. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method has been demonstrated as a powerful tool to obtain insertional mutants for the characterization of new genes.

Lígia Uno Lunardi; Carla Beatriz Fier; Fernando Yuldi Ashikaga; Luiz Rodrigo Morioka; Maria Helena Pelegrinelli Fungaro

447

Characterization of species of the Aspergillus section Nigri from corn field isolates co-infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus species and the potential for ochratoxin A production.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Aspergillus section Nigri, known as black-spored aspergilli, can contaminate several substrates including maize. Although some species within the group can produce plant disease symptoms such as black mold in onions and maize ear rot, the main concern with A. niger aggregate contamina...

448

Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

449

The Aspergillus nidulans alcA promoter drives tightly regulated conditional gene expression in Aspergillus fumigatus permitting validation of essential genes in this human pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a mycosis that is usually fatal in immunocompromised patients. Functional genomics in this fungus will aid the discovery of novel antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis. However, there is still a need for appropriate molecular genetic tools to facilitate such functional studies. Here, we describe the use of a conditional gene expression system allowing the

Beatriz Romero; Geoffrey Turner; Israel Olivas; Fernando Laborda; J Ramón De Lucas

2003-01-01

450

PCR-restriction fragment length analysis of aflR gene for differentiation and detection of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in maize.  

PubMed

Contamination of food and feedstuffs by Aspergillus species and their toxic metabolites is a serious problem as they have adverse effects on human and animal health. Hence, food contamination monitoring is an important activity, which gives information on the level and type of contamination. A PCR-based method of detection of Aspergillus species was developed in spiked samples of sterile maize flour. Gene-specific primers were designed to target aflR gene, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PCR product was done to differentiate Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Sterile maize flour was inoculated separately with A. flavus and A. parasiticus, each at several spore concentrations. Positive results were obtained only after 12-h incubation in enriched media, with extracts of maize inoculated with A. flavus (101 spores/g) and A. parasiticus (104 spores/g). PCR products were subjected to restriction endonuclease (HincII and PvuII) analysis to look for RFLPs. PCR-RFLP patterns obtained with these two enzymes showed enough differences to distinguish A. flavus and A. parasiticus. This approach of differentiating these two species would be simpler, less costly and quicker than conventional sequencing of PCR products. PMID:15135586

Somashekar, D; Rati, E R; Chandrashekar, A

2004-05-15

451

Identification of Two Different 14-? Sterol Demethylase-Related Genes (cyp51A and cyp51B) in Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

Two cyp51-related genes (cyp51A and cyp51B) encoding 14-? sterol demethylase-like enzymes were identified in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. PCR amplification using degenerate oligonucleotides based on conserved areas of cytochrome P450 demethylases of other filamentous fungi and yeasts allowed the cloning and sequencing of two different homologue genes in A. fumigatus. Southern analysis confirmed that both genes hybridized to distinct genomic loci and that both are represented as single copies in the genome. Comparison of the deduced Cyp51A and Cyp51B proteins with the CYP51 proteins from Penicillium italicum, Aspergillus nidulans, Erysiphe graminis, Uncinula necator, Botrytis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata showed that the percentages of identity of the amino acid sequences (range, 40 to 70%) were high enough to consider Cyp51A and Cyp51B to be members of the fungal CYP51 family. Fragments from both genes were also cloned from other Aspergillus spp. (A. flavus, A. nidulans, and A. terreus). Phylogenetic analysis showed that, at least in the most pathogenic species of Aspergillus, there are two fungal CYP51 proteins. This is the first report of the existence of two homologue genes coding for 14-? sterol demethylase in the fungal kingdom. This finding could provide insights into the azole resistance mechanisms operating in fungi. The primers used here may be useful molecular tools for facilitating the cloning of novel 14-? sterol demethylase genes in other filamentous fungi.

Mellado, E.; Diaz-Guerra, T. M.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.

2001-01-01

452

Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

2012-03-01

453

Pantoea rodasii sp. nov., Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov., isolated from Eucalyptus.  

PubMed

Several Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from Eucalyptus seedlings showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Colombia, Rwanda and South Africa. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, together with partial gyrB sequencing, placed the isolates in the genus Pantoea and indicated that they constituted three novel species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD revealed Pantoea dispersa, Pantoea eucrina and Pantoea cypripedii as their closest phylogenetic relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of the new isolates as three novel species and phenotypic tests allowed them to be differentiated from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The names Pantoea rodasii sp. nov. [type strain LMG 26273(T)=BD 943(T) (deposited with the Plant Pathogenic and Plant Protecting Bacteria Collection, South Africa)=BCC 581(T) (deposited with the Bacterial Culture Collection, Forestry and Agricultural Institute, South Africa)], Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26275(T)=BD 944(T)=BCC 571(T)) and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26277(T)=BD 946(T)=BCC 682(T)) are proposed. PMID:21841003

Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van der Westhuizen, Lorinda; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

2011-08-12

454

Transcription factors Sp1 and Sp4 regulate TRPV1 gene expression in rat sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

Background The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type -1 (TRPV1) directs complex roles in signal transduction including the detection of noxious stimuli arising from cellular injury and inflammation. Under pathophysiologic conditions, TRPV1 mRNA and receptor protein expression are elevated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons for weeks to months and is associated with hyperalgesia. Building on our previous isolation of a promoter system for the rat TRPV1 gene, we investigated the proximal TRPV1 P2-promoter by first identifying candidate Sp1-like transcription factors bound in vivo to the P2-promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. We then performed deletion analysis of GC-box binding sites, and quantified promoter activity under conditions of Sp1 / Sp4 over-expression versus inhibition/knockdown. mRNA encoding Sp1, Sp4 and TRPV1 were quantified by qRT-PCR under conditions of Sp1/Sp4 over-expression or siRNA mediated knockdown in cultured DRG neurons. Results Using ChIP analysis of DRG tissue, we demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp4 are bound to the candidate GC-box site region within the endogenous TRPV1 P2-promoter. Deletion of GC-box "a" or "a + b" within the P2- promoter resulted in a complete loss of transcriptional activity indicating that GC-box "a" was the critical site for promoter activation. Co-transfection of Sp1 increased P2-promoter activity in cultured DRG neurons whereas mithramycin-a, an inhibitor of Sp1-like function, dose dependently blocked NGF and Sp1-dependent promoter activity in PC12 cells. Co-transfection of siRNA directed against Sp1 or Sp4 decreased promoter activity in DRG neurons and NGF treated PC12 cells. Finally, electroporation of Sp1 or Sp4 cDNA into cultures of DRG neurons directed an increase in Sp1/Sp4 mRNA and importantly an increase in TRPV1 mRNA. Conversely, combined si-RNA directed knockdown of Sp1/Sp4 resulted in a decrease in TRPV1 mRNA. Conclusion Based on these studies, we now propose a model of TRPV1 expression that is dependent on Sp1-like transcription factors with Sp4 playing a predominant role in activating TRPV1 RNA transcription in DRG neurons. Given that increases of TRPV1 expression have been implicated in a wide range of pathophysiologic states including persistent painful conditions, blockade of Sp1-like transcription factors represents a novel direction in therapeutic strategies.

2011-01-01

455

Recovery and phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi associated with marine sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea.  

PubMed

Sponge-associated fungi represent an important source of marine natural products, but little is known about the fungal diversity and the relationship of sponge-fungal association, especially no research on the fungal diversity in the South China Sea sponge has been reported. In this study, a total of 111 cultivable fungi strains were isolated from two South China Sea sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. using eight different media. Thirty-two independent representatives were selected for analysis of phylogenetic diversity according to ARDRA and morphological characteristics. The culturable fungal communities consisted of at least 17 genera within ten taxonomic orders of two phyla (nine orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) including some potential novel marine fungi. Particularly, eight genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Davidiella, Didymocrea, Lentomitella, Marasmius, Pestalotiopsis, and Rhizomucor were isolated from sponge for the first time. Sponge C. luteoculcitella has greater culturable fungal diversity than sponge Holoxea sp. Five genera of Aspergillus, Davidiella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were isolated from both sponges, while 12 genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Candida, Marasmius, Cladosporium, Didymocrea, Hypocrea, Lentomitella, Nigrospora, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor, and Scopulariopsis were isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella only. Order Eurotiales especially genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and order Hypocreales represented the dominant culturable fungi in these two South China Sea sponges. Nigrospora oryzae strain PF18 isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella showed a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activities suggesting the potential for antimicrobial compounds production. PMID:21088979

Ding, Bo; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

2010-11-19

456

Molecular and enzymic properties of recombinant 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase from Aspergillus saitoi overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae cells.  

PubMed Central

For the construction of an overexpression system of the intracellular 1,2-alpha-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) gene (msdS) from Aspergillus saitoi (now designated Aspergillus phoenicis), the N-terminal signal sequence of the gene was replaced with that of the aspergillopepsin I (EC 3.4.23.18) gene (apnS) signal, one of the same strains as described previously. Then the fused 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase gene (f-msdS) was inserted into the NotI site between P-No8142 and T-agdA in the plasmid pNAN 8142 (9.5 kbp) and thus the Aspergillus oryzae expression plasmid pNAN-AM1 (11.2 kbp) was constructed. The fused f-msdS gene has been overexpressed in a transformant A. oryzae niaD AM1 cell. The recombinant enzyme expressed in A. oryzae cells was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The system is capable of making as much as about 320 mg of the enzyme/litre of culture. The recombinant enzyme has activity with methyl-2-O-alpha-d-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside at pH 5.0, while no activity was determined with methyl-3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside or methyl-6-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was analysed by using pyridylaminated (PA)-oligomannose-type sugar chains, Man9-6(GlcNAc)2-PA (Man is mannose; GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine). The enzyme hydrolysed Man8GlcNAc2-PA (type 'M8A') fastest, and 'M6C' ¿Manalpha1-3[Manalpha1-2Manalpha1-3(Manalpha1-6) Manalpha1-6]Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc-PA¿ slowest, among the PA-sugar chains. Molecular-mass values of the enzyme were determined to be 63 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 65 kDa by gel filtration on Superose 12 respectively. The pI value of the enzyme was 4.6. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was GSTQSRADAIKAAFSHAWDGYLQY, and sequence analysis indicated that the signal peptide from apnS gene was removed. The molar absorption coefficient, epsilon, at 280 nm was determined as 91539 M-1.cm-1. Contents of the secondary structure (alpha-helix, beta-structure and the remainder of the enzyme) by far-UV CD determination were about 55, 38 and 7% respectively. The melting temperature, Tm, of the enzyme was 71 degrees C by differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric enthalpy, DeltaHcal, of the enzyme was calculated as 13.3 kJ.kg of protein-1. Determination of 1 g-atom of Ca2+/mol of enzyme was performed by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry.

Ichishima, E; Taya, N; Ikeguchi, M; Chiba, Y; Nakamura, M; Kawabata, C; Inoue, T; Takahashi, K; Minetoki, T; Ozeki, K; Kumagai, C; Gomi, K; Yoshida, T; Nakajima, T

1999-01-01

457

Molecular and enzymic properties of recombinant 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase from Aspergillus saitoi overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae cells.  

PubMed

For the construction of an overexpression system of the intracellular 1,2-alpha-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) gene (msdS) from Aspergillus saitoi (now designated Aspergillus phoenicis), the N-terminal signal sequence of the gene was replaced with that of the aspergillopepsin I (EC 3.4.23.18) gene (apnS) signal, one of the same strains as described previously. Then the fused 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase gene (f-msdS) was inserted into the NotI site between P-No8142 and T-agdA in the plasmid pNAN 8142 (9.5 kbp) and thus the Aspergillus oryzae expression plasmid pNAN-AM1 (11.2 kbp) was constructed. The fused f-msdS gene has been overexpressed in a transformant A. oryzae niaD AM1 cell. The recombinant enzyme expressed in A. oryzae cells was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The system is capable of making as much as about 320 mg of the enzyme/litre of culture. The recombinant enzyme has activity with methyl-2-O-alpha-d-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside at pH 5.0, while no activity was determined with methyl-3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside or methyl-6-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was analysed by using pyridylaminated (PA)-oligomannose-type sugar chains, Man9-6(GlcNAc)2-PA (Man is mannose; GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine). The enzyme hydrolysed Man8GlcNAc2-PA (type 'M8A') fastest, and 'M6C' {Manalpha1-3[Manalpha1-2Manalpha1-3(Manalpha1-6) Manalpha1-6]Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc-PA} slowest, among the PA-sugar chains. Molecular-mass values of the enzyme were determined to be 63 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 65 kDa by gel filtration on Superose 12 respectively. The pI value of the enzyme was 4.6. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was GSTQSRADAIKAAFSHAWDGYLQY, and sequence analysis indicated that the signal peptide from apnS gene was removed. The molar absorption coefficient, epsilon, at 280 nm was determined as 91539 M-1.cm-1. Contents of the secondary structure (alpha-helix, beta-structure and the remainder of the enzyme) by far-UV CD determination were about 55, 38 and 7% respectively. The melting temperature, Tm, of the enzyme was 71 degrees C by differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric enthalpy, DeltaHcal, of the enzyme was calculated as 13.3 kJ.kg of protein-1. Determination of 1 g-atom of Ca2+/mol of enzyme was performed by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:10215597

Ichishima, E; Taya, N; Ikeguchi, M; Chiba, Y; Nakamura, M; Kawabata, C; Inoue, T; Takahashi, K; Minetoki, T; Ozeki, K; Kumagai, C; Gomi, K; Yoshida, T; Nakajima, T

1999-05-01

458

Isolation and toxigenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus from moldy silage.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine silage samples were collected from various silos on Terceira Island in the Azores. Samples were examined for the presence of total fungi, and isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus were analyzed for their ability to produce fumitremorgens B and C, fumigaclavines B and C, and gliotoxin. Thirty-four silage samples (87%) were contaminated with fungi, and A. fumigatus was isolated from 27 samples (69%). Samples that were taken from the surface of silos had significantly higher populations of both total fungi and A. fumigatus than did samples taken from the middle of silos. Analysis of 27 A. fumigatus isolates (one representing each positive sample) showed that 59.3% produced fumitremorgen B; 33.3% produced fumitremorgen C; 29.6% produced fumigaclavine B; 7.4% produced fumigaclavine C; and 11.1% produced gliotoxin. Fifty-two percent of the isolates produced multiple toxins, and 25.9% did not produce any of these toxins. Gliotoxin and fumigaclavine C were always produced in combination with other toxins. Because of the demonstrated potential of these A. fumigatus isolates to produce mycotoxins, it is important to properly construct and manage silos to prevent their contamination with A. fumigatus. PMID:12733634

dos Santos, Valentina Melo; Dorner, Joe W; Carreira, Fátima

2003-01-01

459

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

2011-01-01

460

Characterization of allergens of Penicillium and Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Penicillium and Aspergillus species are common indoor airborne fungi and have been identified to be important causative agents of extrinsic bronchial asthma. However, little was known about allergens of these ubiquitous fungal species. Results from a survey conducted by us showed that P. citrinum was the most prevalent Penicillium species in the Taipei area. Characterization of allergens by SDS-PAGE-immunoblotting using sera from asthmatic patients showed that there was an IgE cross-reactivity among the 33 KDa group major allergens of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum. Results obtained from N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis suggest that the 33 KDa major allergens of P. citrinum and P. brevicompactum may be the alkaline serine proteinase of individual Penicillium species. In addition, our results suggest that the 34 KDa major allergen of A. oryzae is also an alkaline serine proteinase. IgE cross-reactivity between the major serine proteinase allergens of A. oryzae and P. citrinum has also been detected. Furthermore, results from cDNA cloning suggest that the 68 KDa allergen of P. notatum is a beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase. Lastly, a heat shock protein in the hsp70 family has also been identified as an allergen of P. citrinum. Results obtained in these studies will provide important basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment of mould allergy. PMID:10496150

Shen, H D; Han, S H

1998-09-01