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1

Aspochalasin I, a Melanogenesis Inhibitor from Aspergillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of screening for the melanogenesis inhibitors, aspochalasin I was isolated from solid-state culture of Aspergillus sp. Fb020460. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis including mass spectroscopy and NMR analysis. Aspochalasin I potently inhibited melanogenesis in Mel-Ab cells with an IC50 value of 22.4 µM without cytotoxicity.

Soo-Jin Choo; Bong-Sik Yun; In-Ja Ryoo; Young-Hee Kim; Ki-Hwan Bae; Ick-Dong Yoo

2009-01-01

2

Transesterification of triglycerides by dried biomass of Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

Fungus isolate, Aspergillus sp. (RBD01), which was isolated from biocontaminated clarified butter was evaluated for its potential to transesterify used edible and non-edible oils for generation of alkyl esters, when used as biocatalyst as dry biomass. The work aimed at determining the potential of dry biomass of Aspergillus sp. (RBD01) to transesterify used cottonseed oil and non-edible oils viz., jatropha and karanj under various culture conditions. A conversion of oil (cotton seed) to ethyl ester to the extent of 84% was obtained at reaction temperature of 35°C, with 20% biomass and step-wise addition of ethanol at 1:5 molar ratio (oil to ethanol), within total reaction time of 36 h. Under similar conditions, transesterification of Jatropha and Karanj oils resulted in only 75 and 78.2% ethyl ester. Further, with reference to the effect of frying on transesterification, increase in frying time decreased the extent of transesterification from 84% to 30%. PMID:23648404

Aulakh, Satnam Singh; Prakash, N Tejo; Prakash, Ranjana

2013-01-01

3

Isolation and process parameter optimization of Aspergillus sp. for removal of chromium from tannery effluent.  

PubMed

Five morphologically different fungi were isolated from leather tanning effluent in which Aspergillus sp. and Hirsutella sp. had higher potential to remove chromium. The potential of Aspergillus sp. for removal of chromium was evaluated in shake flask culture in different pH, temperature, inoculums size, carbon and nitrogen source. The maximum chromium was removed at pH 6, temperature 30 degrees C, sodium acetate (0.2%) and yeast extract (0.1%). Aspergillus sp. was applied in 2l bioreactor for removal of chromium, and it was observed that 70% chromium was removed after 3 days. PMID:16023341

Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

2006-07-01

4

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL. PMID:24079168

Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Peng, Jiang; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

5

Preparation, characterization and application of Aspergillus sp. xylanase immobilized on Eudragit S-100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus sp. 5 (strain 5) and Aspergillus sp. 44 (strain 44) produced xylanase (34.3 and 32.7 IU ml?1, respectively) with very low levels of cellulases when grown on 1% wheat bran medium. Xylanase was non-covalently immobilized on Eudragit S-100 for saccharification. The system retained 70 and 80% of strain 5 and strain 44 xylanase activity, respectively. On immobilization, optimum temperature

P. V Gawande; M. Y Kamat

1998-01-01

6

Purification of Aspergillus sp xylanase by precipitation with an anionic polymer Eudragit S100  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of xylanases from the crude culture filtrates of Aspergillus sp 5 and Aspergillus sp 44 was carried out using affinity precipitation with a commercially available enteric polymer Eudragit S100. With affinity precipitation the yield of enzyme was 85.3, 82.7% with 10.8, 4.08-folds (specific activity of ammonium sulphate precipitate was taken as 100%) increases in the specific activity of

P. V Gawande; M. Y Kamat

1999-01-01

7

Enhanced Endoglucanase Production by Soil Isolates of Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. through Submerged Fermentation Process (Topraktan Batik Kültür Fermentasyonu ile ?zole Edilen Fusarium sp. ve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to optimize the fermentation media components and condi- tions to improve the production yield of endoglucanase by filamentous fungi isolated from garden soil. Methods: Cellulolytic fungi were screened from garden soil and identified as Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. by using conidial morphology. The influences of various culture condi- tions including incubation time, temperature, pH, carbon,

Paulchamy Chellapandi; Abha Apurvabhai Jani

8

Degradation of polycaprolactone at 50 °C by a thermotolerant Aspergillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain ST-01 degrading poly(e-caprolactone) films was isolated. The polyester was degraded and assimilated giving 36 mg of cell from 100 mg sample and 10 mg yeast extract after 6 days at 50 °C. The degradation products were identified as succinic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and caproic acid. The isolate also degraded more than 90% film

James G. Sanchez; Akio Tsuchii; Yutaka Tokiwa

2000-01-01

9

Leiothecium cristatum sp. nov. and Aspergillus posadasensis sp. nov., two species of Eurotiales from rainforest soils in South America.  

PubMed

We describe two novel fungi isolated from soil samples collected in Northern Argentina and belonging to the family Aspergillaceae of the order Eurotiales: Leiothecium cristatum sp. nov. and Aspergillus posadasensis sp. nov. Leiothecium cristatum sp. nov., represented by the ex-type strain FMR 11998(T) (?=?CBS 134260(T)?=?NBRC 109843(T)), is distinguishable morphologically from the type species of the genus, Leiothecium ellipsoideum, by the presence of irregular reticulate ascospores with two prominent equatorial crests, and Aspergillus posadasensis sp. nov., represented by the ex-type strain FMR 12168(T) (?=?CBS 134259(T)?=?NBRC 109845(T)), is differentiated from Aspergillus acanthosporus, the nearest species phylogenetically, by its non-sclerotioid ascomata and a lack of an asexual stage on all culture media tested. The taxonomic proposals are supported by the analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1-D2 domains of the 28S rRNA gene, the fragments of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit, and the putative chaperonin complex related to TCP-1, ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes. PMID:24871778

Marin-Felix, Yasmina; Cano-Lira, José Francisco; Guarro, Josep; Stchigel, Alberto Miguel

2014-08-01

10

Enzymatic synthesis of ?-xylanase substrates: transglycosylation reactions of the ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ?-d-xylosidase with molecular mass of 250±5 kDa consisting of two identical subunits was purified to homogeneity from a cultural filtrate of Aspergillus sp. The enzyme manifested high transglycosylation activity in transxylosylation with p-nitrophenyl ?-d-xylopyranoside (PNP-X) as substrate, resulting in regio- and stereoselective synthesis of p-nitrophenyl (PNP) ?-(1?4)-d-xylooligosaccharides with dp 2–7. All transfer products were isolated from the reaction mixtures

Elena V Eneyskaya; Harry Brumer; Leon V Backinowsky; Dina R Ivanen; Anna A Kulminskaya; Konstantin A Shabalin; Kirill N Neustroev

2003-01-01

11

Betagamma-dehydrocurvularin and related compounds as nematicides of Pratylenchus penetrans from the fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

The new nematicidal compound, betagamma-dehydrocurvularin (1), together with three known compounds, alphabeta-dehydrocurvularin (2), 8-beta-hydroxy-7-oxocurvularin (3) and 7-oxocurvularin (4), were isolated from the culture filtrate and mycelial mats of Aspergillus sp. The structures of 1-4 were established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR. The biological activities of 1-4 were examined by bioassays with root-lesion nematodes, and lettuce and rice seedlings. PMID:12843675

Kusano, Miyako; Nakagami, Kazumi; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi; Kimura, Yasuo

2003-06-01

12

Marine Fungi Aspergillus sydowii and Trichoderma sp. Catalyze the Hydrolysis of Benzyl Glycidyl Ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole cells of the marine fungi Aspergillus sydowii Gc12, Penicillium raistrickii Ce16, P. miczynskii Gc5, and Trichoderma sp. Gc1, isolated from marine sponges of the South Atlantic Ocean (Brazil), have been screened for the enzymatic resolution\\u000a of (±)-2-(benzyloxymethyl)oxirane (benzyl glycidyl ether; 1). Whole cells of A. sydowii Gc12 catalyzed the enzymatic hydrolysis of (R,S)-1 to yield (R)-1 with an enantiomeric

Mariana Provedel Martins; Ana Maria Mouad; Letícia Boschini; Mirna Helena Regali Seleghim; Lara Durães Sette; André Luiz Meleiro Porto

2011-01-01

13

Methylthio-Aspochalasins from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed Central

Two novel aspochalasins, 20-?-methylthio-aspochalsin Q (named as aspochalasin V), (1) and aspochalasin W (2), were isolated from culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectral data analysis. This is the first report about methylthio-substituted aspochalasin derivatives. Cytotoxicity against the prostate cancer PC3 cell line and HCT116 cell line was assayed using the MTT method. Apochalasin V showed moderate activity at IC50 values of 30.4 and 39.2 ?M, respectively. PMID:25272329

Liu, Ying; Zhao, Shizhe; Ding, Wanjing; Wang, Pinmei; Yang, Xianwen; Xu, Jinzhong

2014-01-01

14

Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synozol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synozol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synozol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50°C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synozol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes. PMID:23369298

2013-01-01

15

New mycotoxins from marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093.  

PubMed

Nine mycotoxins including six aspergillic acid group toxins, aluminiumneoaspergillin (1), zirconiumneoaspergillin (2), aspergilliamide (3), ferrineoaspergillin (5), flavacol (6), neoaspergillic acid (7), and three ochratoxins, ochratoxin A n-butyl ester (4), ochratoxin A (8), ochratoxin A methyl ester (9), were isolated from the fermentation broth of marine gorgonian derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Four of them (1-4) were new mycotoxins, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. The bio-toxicity of compounds 1-9 were determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 2.59-205.67 ?M. This was the first report about zirconium complex obtained from nature and ochratoxins isolated from marine environment. PMID:23220611

Xu, Xinya; He, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Bao, Jie; Qi, Shuhua

2013-03-01

16

Antifungal and antibacterial metabolites from an endophytic Aspergillus sp. associated with Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

Seven known metabolites, dianhydro-aurasperone C (1), isoaurasperone A (2), fonsecinone A (3), asperpyrone A (4), asperazine (5), rubrofusarin B (6) and (R)-3-hydroxybutanonitrile (7), were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. KJ-9, a fungal endophyte isolated from Melia azedarach and identified by spectroscopic methods. All isolates were evaluated in vitro against several phytopathogenic fungi (Gibberella saubinetti, Magnaporthe grisea, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria solani) and pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus cereus). Compounds 3 and 7 were active against almost all phytopathogenic fungi tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6.25-50 ?M. Moreover, compound 3 was active against all pathogenic bacteria with MIC in the range of 25-100 ?M. Compound 7 is a rare new natural product isolated from a natural source for the first time, and the detailed NMR data of 1 were first assigned. PMID:24708541

Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yu-Qi; Shi, Xin-Wei; Gao, Jin-Ming

2014-01-01

17

Stress and release : chemical modulation of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus sp.  

E-print Network

Cyclosporin A induced biosynthesis of colored compounds in three species of Aspergillus. Diode array HPLC MS analysis of culture extracts revealed Aspergillus terreus demonstrated the most profound response, with upregulation ...

Hanlon, Amy

2006-01-01

18

Chemical constituents of Aspergillus sp EJC08 isolated as endophyte from Bauhinia guianensis and their antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

The present work reports the isolation of five compounds from Aspergillus sp EJC08 isolated as endophytic from Bauhinia guianensis, a tipical plant of the Amazon. The compounds ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalolactone (3), monomethylsulochrin (4) and trypacidin A (5) were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by spectral methods of 1D and 2D NMR and MS. Compounds 3, 4 and 5 were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and showed good activity. PMID:24141408

Pinheiro, Eduardo A A; Carvalho, Josiwander M; Santos, Diellem C P dos; Feitosa, André O; Marinho, Patrícia S B; Guilhon, Giselle Maria S P; Santos, Lourivaldo S; Souza, Afonso L D de; Marinho, Andrey M R

2013-01-01

19

Assessment of the efficacy of Aspergillus sp. EL-2 in textile waste water treatment.  

PubMed

Fungal biomass has the ability to decolorize a wide variety of dyes successfully through a number of mechanisms. A brown rot isolate, previously identified as Aspergillus sp. EL-2, was used in the aerobic treatment of textile waste water efficiently. In the current work, the treated waste water was tested chemically using more than one combined treatment. Microbial toxicity, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were also studied to assess the toxicity level for each treatment. The obtained data suggest that the contribution of more than one mode of treatment is essential to ensure complete destruction of the by-products. The use of gamma irradiation (25 kGy) after the bioremediation step led to the decrease of the by-products of biodegradation as observed by visible spectrum and Fourier transfer infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The toxicity assessment presented variable results indicating the need for more than one toxicity test to confirm the presence or absence of hazardous compounds. Brown rot fungus could be used efficiently in the treatment of textile waste water without the risk of obtaining high carcinogenic or genotoxic compounds, especially if combined treatment is employed. PMID:21822953

Gomaa, Ola M; Kareem, Hussein Abd El; Fatahy, Reham

2012-04-01

20

Decolorization and biotransformation of triphenylmethane dye, methyl violet, by Aspergillus sp. isolated from Ladakh, India.  

PubMed

Methyl violet, used extensively in the commercial textile industry and as a biological stain, is a hazardous recalcitrant. Aspergillus sp. strain CB-TKL-1 isolated from a water sample from Tsumoriri Lake, Karzok, Ladakh, India, was found to completely decolorize methyl violet within 24 h when cultured under aerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. The rate of decolorization was determined by monitoring the decrease in the absorbance maxima of the dye by UV-visible spectroscopy. The decolorization of methyl violet was optimal at pH 5.5 and 30 degrees C when agitated at 200 rpm. Addition of glucose or arabinose (2%) as a carbon source and sodium nitrate or soyapeptone (0.2%) as a nitrogen source enhanced the decolorization ability of the culture. Furthermore, the culture exhibited a maximum decolorization rate of methyl violet after 24 h when the C:N ratio was 10. Nine N-demethylated decolorized products of methyl violet were identified based on UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and LC-MS analyses. The decolorization of methyl violet at the end of 24 h generated mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-Ndemethylated intermediates of pararosaniline. The variation of the relative absorption peaks in the decolorized sample indicated a linear decrease of hexa-N-demethylated compounds to non-N-demethylated pararosaniline, indicating a stepwise N-demethylation in the decolorization process. PMID:21464597

Kumar, C Ganesh; Mongolla, Poornima; Basha, Anver; Joseph, Joveeta; Sarma, V U M; Kamal, Ahmed

2011-03-01

21

Diphenyl ethers from Aspergillus sp. and their anti-A?42 aggregation activities.  

PubMed

Two new compounds with the character of diphenyl ether structure, oxisterigmatocystin D (1) and 9-acetyldiorcinol B (6), were isolated from the endolichenic fungal strain Aspergillus sp. (No. 16-20-8-1), along with six known compounds, oxisterigmatocystin A (2), oxisterigmatocystin C (3), sterigmatocystin (4), diorcinol B (5), violaceol-I (7), and violaceol-II (8). The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, the A?42 aggregation inhibitory activities of 5-8 were evaluated by the standard thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as the positive control. Compounds 7 and 8 displayed significant anti-A?42 aggregation activity with IC50 values of 5.1 and 2.3?M, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship of these diphenyl ethers as anti-A?42 aggregation inhibitors was proposed. PMID:25038471

Zhao, Huan; Wang, Gao-Qian; Tong, Xu-Peng; Chen, Guo-Dong; Huang, Yuan-Fan; Cui, Jia-Yu; Kong, Ming-Zhu; Guo, Liang-Dong; Zheng, Yi-Zhi; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

2014-10-01

22

?-Butyrolactone, Cytochalasin, Cyclic Carbonate, Eutypinic Acid, and Phenalenone Derivatives from the Soil Fungus Aspergillus sp. PSU-RSPG185.  

PubMed

Purification of an extract from the broth of the soil fungus Aspergillus sp. PSU-RSPG185 resulted in the isolation of two new cyclic carbonate derivatives, aspergillusols A (1) and B (2), and one new eutypinic acid derivative, aspergillusic acid (3), along with six known secondary metabolites. Compounds 1 and 2 contain an unusual cyclic-carbonate functionality. In addition, the mycelial extract afforded two new phenalenones, aspergillussanones A (4) and B (5), one new cytochalasin, aspergilluchalasin (6), and one new ?-butyrolactone, aspergillulactone (7). Their structures were established by interpretation of spectroscopic evidence. Compound 4 exhibited weak activity toward KB and Vero cells with IC50 values of 48.4 and 34.2 ?M, respectively. PMID:25375978

Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Rungsaiwattana, Nachamon; Klaiklay, Saranyoo; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Borwornwiriyapan, Kawitsara; Sakayaroj, Jariya

2014-11-26

23

The antifungal metabolites obtained from the rhizospheric Aspergillus sp. YIM PH30001 against pathogenic fungi of Panax notoginseng.  

PubMed

Eight anthraquinones (1-8), three xanthones (11-13) and two phenols (9-10) were isolated from Aspergillus sp. associated with Panax notoginseng, and their structures were determined as ziganein-1-methyl ether (1), 8-O-methylchrysophanol (2), averythrin (3), averufin (4), 8-O-methyl averufin (5), versicolorin B (6), averantin (7), methyl-averantin (8), arugosin C (9), diorcinol (10), sterigmatocystin (11), demethylsterigmatocystin (12) and dihydrosterigmatocystin (13) by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 were the novel isolates from genus Aspergillus. Compounds 3, 6 and 7 exhibited antifungal activity against Fusariumsolani, pathogenic fungus of P. notoginseng, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16-32 ?g/mL, and compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 9 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillussubtilis with MICs of 64-128 ?g/mL, 16-32 ?g/mL, 8-16 ?g/mL, 16-32 ?g/mL and 64-128 ?g/mL, respectively. The metabolites showed the potential value in the research of antifungal agents, especially in searching for a biocontrol of diseases of P. notoginseng. The preliminary structure-activity relationships have been discussed for some of the compounds. PMID:25022791

Liu, Kai; Zheng, Youkun; Miao, Cuiping; Xiong, Zijun; Xu, Lihua; Guan, Huilin; Yang, Yabin; Zhao, Lixing

2014-12-01

24

Robusta coffee beans post-harvest microflora: Lactobacillus plantarum sp. as potential antagonist of Aspergillus carbonarius.  

PubMed

Coffee contamination by ochratoxigenic fungi affects both coffee quality as well as coffee price with harmful consequences on the economy of the coffee exporting countries for whom which is their main source of income. Fungal strains were isolated from coffee beans and identified as black Aspergilli. Ochratoxigenic moulds like Aspergillus carbonarius were screened and selected for detailed studies. Also lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from silage coffee pulp and their antifungal activity was tested on dual-culture agar plate. Ten of the isolated LAB demonstrated antifungal effect against A. carbonarius. API 50 CH and APIZYM were used to perform phenotypic identification. 16S rDNA sequencing was made to confirm the results. PMID:21497665

Djossou, Olga; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Mirleau, Fatma Lakhal; Rodriguez-Serrano, Gabriela; Karou, Germain; Niamke, Sebastien; Ouzari, Imene; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Roussos, Sevastianos

2011-12-01

25

Effect of forced aeration on citric acid production by Aspergillus sp. mutants in SSF.  

PubMed

Citric acid (CA) is one of the most important products of fermentation in the world. A great variety of agro-industrial residues can be used in solid state fermentation. Aspergillus niger parental strain (CCT 7716) and two strains obtained by mutagenesis (CCT 7717 and CCT 7718) were evaluated in Erlenmeyer flasks and glass columns using citric pulp (CP) as substrate/support, sugarcane molasses and methanol. Best results using glass columns (forced aeration) were found in the fourth day of fermentation: 278.4, 294.9 and 261.1 g CA/kg of dry CP with CCT 7716, CCT 7718 and CCT 7717, respectively. In Erlenmeyer flasks (aeration by diffusion) CA reached 410.7, 446.8 and 492.7 g CA/kg of dry CP with CCT 7716, CCT 7718 and CCT 7717, respectively. The aeration by diffusion improved CA production by the three strains. A data acquisition system specially developed for biotechnological processes analysis was used to perform the respirometric parameters measurement. PMID:23760557

Rodrigues, Cristine; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Sturm, Wilerson; Dergint, Dario E A; Spier, Michele Rigon; de Carvalho, Júlio Cesar; Soccol, Carlos R

2013-12-01

26

The potential hazards of Aspergillus sp. in foods and feeds, and the role of biological treatment: A review.  

PubMed

The contamination of food and feed by Aspergillus has become a global issue with a significant worldwide economic impact. The growth of Aspergillus is unfavourable to the development of food and feed industries, where the problems happen mostly due to the presence of mycotoxins, which is a toxic metabolite secreted by most Aspergillus groups. Moreover, fungi can produce spores that cause diseases, such as allergies and asthma, especially to human beings. High temperature, high moisture, retarded crops, and poor food storage conditions encourage the growth of mold, as well as the development of mycotoxins. A variety of chemical, biological, and physical strategies have been developed to control the production of mycotoxins. A biological approach, using a mixed culture comprised of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus resulted in the inhibition of the growth of fungi when inoculated into fermented food. The results reveal that the mixed culture has a higher potential (37.08%) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus (producer of Aflatoxin) compared to either single culture, L. rhamnosus NRRL B-442 and S. cerevisiae, which inhibit the growth by 63.07% and 64.24%, respectively. PMID:25269603

Sheikh-Ali, Sheikh Imranudin; Ahmad, Akil; Mohd-Setapar, Siti-Hamidah; Zakaria, Zainul Akmal; Abdul-Talib, Norfahana; Khamis, Aidee Kamal; Hoque, Md Enamul

2014-10-01

27

New Isocoumarin Derivatives and Meroterpenoids from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013.  

PubMed

Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6) were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a), reticulol (2c), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4), and pyripyropene E (5) from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2a-c and 3-6 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3) was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:25317534

Prompanya, Chadaporn; Dethoup, Tida; Bessa, Lucinda J; Pinto, Madalena M M; Gales, Luís; Costa, Paulo M; Silva, Artur M S; Kijjoa, Anake

2014-01-01

28

New Isocoumarin Derivatives and Meroterpenoids from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013  

PubMed Central

Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6) were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a), reticulol (2c), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4), and pyripyropene E (5) from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2a–c and 3–6 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3) was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:25317534

Prompanya, Chadaporn; Dethoup, Tida; Bessa, Lucinda J.; Pinto, Madalena M. M.; Gales, Luis; Costa, Paulo M.; Silva, Artur M. S.; Kijjoa, Anake

2014-01-01

29

A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed for transcriptome analysis of any of the three above-mentioned aspergilli. Transcriptome analysis of triplicate batch cultivations of all three aspergilli on glucose and xylose media was used to validate the performance of the microarray. Gene comparisons of all three species and cross-analysis with the expression data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XlnR-binding site to be 5?-GGNTAAA-3?. The composition of the conserved gene-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross-species evolutionary studies within a genus using comparative transcriptomics. PMID:18332432

Andersen, Mikael R.; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita P.; Lehmann, Linda; Nielsen, Jens

2008-01-01

30

Aspergillus Genomes and the Aspergillus Cloud  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus Genomes is a public resource for viewing annotated genes predicted by various Aspergillus sequencing projects. It has arisen from the union of two significant resources: the Aspergillus/Aspergillosis website and the Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE). The former has primarily served the medical community, providing information about Aspergillus and associated diseases to medics, patients and scientists; the latter has focused on the fungal genomic community, providing a central repository for sequences and annotation extracted from Aspergillus Genomes. By merging these databases, genomes benefit from extensive cross-linking with medical information to create a unique resource, spanning genomics and clinical aspects of the genus. Aspergillus Genomes is accessible from http://www.aspergillus-genomes.org.uk. PMID:19039001

Mabey Gilsenan, Jane E.; Atherton, Graham; Bartholomew, Jennifer; Giles, Peter F.; Attwood, Teresa K.; Denning, David W.; Bowyer, Paul

2009-01-01

31

New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati.  

PubMed

Three new species of Neosartorya and one new Aspergillus of section Fumigati are proposed using a polyphasic approach based on morphology, extrolite production and partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences. The phylogenetic analyses using the three genes clearly show that the taxa grouped separately from the known species and confirmed the phenotypic differences. Neosartorya denticulata is characterized by its unique denticulate ascospores with a prominent equatorial furrow; N. assulata by well developed flaps on the convex surface of the ascospores which in addition have two distinct equatorial crests and N. galapagensis by a funiculose colony morphology, short and narrow conidiophores and ascospores with two wide equatorial crests with a microtuberculate convex surface. Aspergillus turcosus can be distinguished by velvety, gray turquoise colonies and short, loosely columnar conidial heads. The four new taxa also have unique extrolite profiles, which contain the mycotoxins gliotoxin and viriditoxin in N. denticulate; apolar compounds provisionally named NEPS in N. assulata and gregatins in N. galapagensis. A. turcosus produced kotanins. N. denticulata sp. nov., N. assulata sp. nov., N. galapagensis sp. nov., and A. turcosus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. PMID:17610141

Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Hong, Joonbae; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Per V; Varga, János; Samson, Robert A

2008-01-01

32

Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans. PMID:25401068

2014-01-01

33

Development in Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

2013-01-01

34

Immunoevasive Aspergillus virulence factors.  

PubMed

Individuals with structural lung disease or defective immunity are predisposed to Aspergillus-associated disease. Manifestations range from allergic to cavitary or angio-invasive syndromes. Despite daily spore inhalation, immunocompetence facilitates clearance through initiation of innate and adaptive host responses. These include mechanical barriers, phagocyte activation, antimicrobial peptide release and pattern recognition receptor activation. Adaptive responses include Th1 and Th2 approaches. Understanding Aspergillus virulence mechanisms remains critical to the development of effective research and treatment strategies to counteract the fungi. Major virulence factors relate to fungal structure, protease release and allergens; however, mechanisms utilized to evade immune recognition continue to be important in establishing infection. These include the fungal rodlet layer, dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin, detoxifying systems for reactive oxygen species and toxin release. One major immunoevasive toxin, gliotoxin, plays a key role in mediating Aspergillus-associated colonization in the context of cystic fibrosis. Here, it down-regulates vitamin D receptor expression which following itraconazole therapy is rescued concurrent with decreased Th2 cytokine (IL-5 and IL-13) concentrations in the CF airway. This review focuses on the interaction between Aspergillus pathogenic mechanisms, host immune responses and the immunoevasive strategies employed by the organism during disease states such as that observed in cystic fibrosis. PMID:24972669

Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Mirkovic, Bojana; Lavelle, Gillian M; McElvaney, Noel G

2014-12-01

35

Aspergillus: sex and recombination.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

2014-12-01

36

Cryptic Aspergillus nidulans Antimicrobials?  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolite (SM) production by fungi is hypothesized to provide some fitness attribute for the producing organisms. However, most SM clusters are “silent” when fungi are grown in traditional laboratory settings, and it is difficult to ascertain any function or activity of these SM cluster products. Recently, the creation of a chromatin remodeling mutant in Aspergillus nidulans induced activation of several cryptic SM gene clusters. Systematic testing of nine purified metabolites from this mutant identified an emodin derivate with efficacy against both human fungal pathogens (inhibiting both spore germination and hyphal growth) and several bacteria. The ability of catalase to diminish this antimicrobial activity implicates reactive oxygen species generation, specifically, the generation of hydrogen peroxide, as the mechanism of emodin hydroxyl activity. PMID:21478304

Giles, Steve S.; Soukup, Alexandra A.; Lauer, Carrie; Shaaban, Mona; Lin, Alexander; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.; Keller, Nancy P.

2011-01-01

37

Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

Arne, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anais; Femenia, Francoise; Nieguitsila, Adelaide; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, Rene; Guillot, Jacques

2011-01-01

38

Antimicrobial potentials of endophytic fungi residing in Quercus variabilis and brefeldin A obtained from Cladosporium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 67 endophytic fungi isolated from Quercus variabilis, 53.7% of endophytic fungal fermentation broths displayed growth inhibition on at least one test microorganism, such as pathogenic\\u000a fungi (Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis) and bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens). Moreover, 19.4% of strains showed a broader antimicrobial spectrum, such as Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.,

F. W. Wang; R. H. Jiao; A. B. Cheng; S. H. Tan; Y. C. Song

2007-01-01

39

Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections  

PubMed Central

Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects. PMID:22194666

Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

2011-01-01

40

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii  

PubMed Central

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsube, Sandor; Szekeres, Andras; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vagvolgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, Laszlo; Varga, Janos; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-01-01

41

Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, ?-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including the transcriptional regulator aflR, norsolonic acid reductase and O-methyltransferase were also carried out. A detailed overview of the species accepted in Aspergillus section Flavi is presented. PMID:21892243

Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

2011-01-01

42

Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

2010-07-01

43

CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository  

PubMed Central

CADRE is a public resource for housing and analysing genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It arose to enable maintenance of the complete annotated genomic sequence of Aspergillus fumigatus and to provide tools for searching, analysing and visualizing features of fungal genomes. By implementing CADRE using Ensembl, a framework is in place for storing and comparing several genomes: the resource will thus expand by including other Aspergillus genomes (such as Aspergillus nidulans) as they become available. CADRE is accessible at http://www.cadre.man.ac.uk. PMID:14681443

Mabey, J. E.; Anderson, M. J.; Giles, P. F.; Miller, C. J.; Attwood, T. K.; Paton, N. W.; Bornberg-Bauer, E.; Robson, G. D.; Oliver, S. G.; Denning, D. W.

2004-01-01

44

Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for constitutive accumulation of an Aspergillus phytase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aspergillus niger phytase-encoding gene (phyA) has been constitutively expressed in wheat. Transgenic wheat lines were generated by microprojectile bombardment of immature embryos, using the bar-Bialaphos selection system. The bar and the phyA gene expression were controlled by the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter. To ensure secretion and glycosylation of the microbial phytase, an expression cassette was designed (Ubi-SP-Phy) where an a-amylase

Henrik Brinch-Pedersen; Annette Olesen; Søren K. Rasmussen; Preben B. Holm

2000-01-01

45

Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

2009-01-01

46

Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus important for the production of traditional fermented foods and beverages in Japan, has been sequenced. The ability to secrete large amounts of proteins and the development of a transformation system have facilitated the use of A. oryzae in modern biotechnology. Although both A. oryzae and Aspergillus flavus belong to the section Flavi of

Masayuki Machida; Kiyoshi Asai; Motoaki Sano; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Goro Terai; Ken-Ichi Kusumoto; Toshihide Arima; Osamu Akita; Yutaka Kashiwagi; Keietsu Abe; Katsuya Gomi; Hiroyuki Horiuchi; Katsuhiko Kitamoto; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Michio Takeuchi; David W. Denning; James E. Galagan; William C. Nierman; Jiujiang Yu; David B. Archer; Joan W. Bennett; Deepak Bhatnagar; Thomas E. Cleveland; Natalie D. Fedorova; Osamu Gotoh; Hiroshi Horikawa; Akira Hosoyama; Masayuki Ichinomiya; Rie Igarashi; Kazuhiro Iwashita; Praveen Rao Juvvadi; Masashi Kato; Yumiko Kato; Taishin Kin; Akira Kokubun; Hiroshi Maeda; Noriko Maeyama; Jun-Ichi Maruyama; Hideki Nagasaki; Tasuku Nakajima; Ken Oda; Kinya Okada; Ian Paulsen; Kazutoshi Sakamoto; Toshihiko Sawano; Mikio Takahashi; Kumiko Takase; Yasunobu Terabayashi; Jennifer R. Wortman; Osamu Yamada; Youhei Yamagata; Hideharu Anazawa; Yoji Hata; Yoshinao Koide; Takashi Komori; Yasuji Koyama; Toshitaka Minetoki; Sivasundaram Suharnan; Akimitsu Tanaka; Katsumi Isono; Satoru Kuhara; Naotake Ogasawara; Hisashi Kikuchi

2005-01-01

47

Degradation of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a serious health hazard throughout the world. Besides attempts to eliminate mycotoxins from contaminated substrates by physical and chemical methods, the ability of microbes to degrade mycotoxins is now being widely examined. In this study, several Aspergillus species were examined for their ability to degrade ochratoxin A. A. fumigatus and black Aspergillus strains were

János Varga; Krisztina Rigó; József Téren

2000-01-01

48

Induction of mutation in Aspergillus niger for conversion of cellulose into glucose  

SciTech Connect

Plant wastes are very important part of biomass used and investigated for energy, chemical, and fuel production. Cellulose is the major renewable form of carbohydrate in the world, about 10{sup 11} tons of which is synthesized annually. For general use, it must be hydrolyzed first, either chemically or by cellulases derived from a few specialized microorganisms. Enzymes are acceptable environmentally but expensive to produce. Certainly, induction of mutations and selection of high cellulose microbial strains with significant adaptability to degrade cellulose to glucose is promising solutions. Induction of mutations in other fungi and Aspergillus sp. rather than Aspergillus niger was reported. Aspergillus ustus and Trichoderma harzianum were induced by gamma irradiation indicating mutants that excrete higher cellulose yields, particularly exocellobiohydrolase (Avicelase) than their respective wild types. Mutants from the celluiolytic fungus Penicillium pinophilum were induced by chemical and UV-irradiation. Enhancing the production of endo-1,4-{Beta}-D-glucanase (CMCase) and particularly {Beta}-glucosidase was obtained by gamma irradiation of Altemaria alternate. To overcome the lower activity of {beta}-glucosidase in certain fungi species rather than A. niger, mixed cultures of different species were tried. Thus, Aspergillus phonicis with Trichoderma reesei Rut 30, produced a cellulose complex that improved activity twofold over cellulose from Trichoderma alone.

Helmi, S.; Khalil, A.E.; Tahoun, M.K.; Khairy, A.H. [Univ. of Alexandria Research Centre, Alexandria (Egypt)

1991-12-31

49

Onychomycosis due to Aspergillus candidus: case report.  

PubMed

A patient is described who suffered from chronic fungal involvement of right great toe nail. Serial cultures of the removed nail demonstrated a non-dermatophyte, Aspergillus candidus, as the causative agent. PMID:125865

Cornere, B M; Eastman, M

1975-07-01

50

Multi-azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azole resistance in Aspergillus spp. is unusual. We report a patient who received long-term treatment with itraconazole and voriconazole for bilateral chronic cavitary aspergillosis with aspergillomas whose isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus developed simultaneous resistance to itraconazole and voriconazole. A novel mutation (G138C) in the target gene (cyp51A) encoding 14?-demethylase was detected. The patient had some response to intravenous caspofungin, which

Susan J. Howard; Ian Webster; Caroline B. Moore; Rebecca E. Gardiner; Steven Park; David S. Perlin; David W. Denning

2006-01-01

51

Cloning of Aspergillus niger genes in yeast. Expression of the gene coding Aspergillus ? -glucosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of cloning filamentous fungal genes by expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. A genome bank of Aspergillus niger was made in E. coli using a yeast cosmid shuttle vector and over 10,000 different cosmid clones were individually isolated. Yeast transformants carrying Aspergillus DNA were screened for the expression of the genes for fungal secreted glycoproteins,

Meria E. Penttilä; K. M. Helena Nevalainen; Alain Raynal; Jonathan K. C. Knowles

1984-01-01

52

Aspergillus cell wall and biofilm.  

PubMed

The fungal cell is surrounded by a cell wall that acts as a sieve and a reservoir for effector molecules that play an active role during infection. This cell wall is essential for fungal growth as well as for resisting host defense mechanisms. The Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall is almost exclusively composed of polysaccharides. The fibrillar core is composed of a branched ?-(1,3)-glucan to which chitin, ?-(1,3)-/?-(1,4)-glucan, and galactomannan are covalently bound. The alkali-soluble amorphous fraction is mainly composed of ?-(1,3)-glucan that has adhesive property and stabilizes the cell wall. Although the same polysaccharides are found in the cell wall of different A. fumigatus morphotypes (conidia and hyphae), their concentration and localization are different. Conidial (the morphotype that mainly enters host respiratory system) cell wall is covered by an outer layer of rodlets and melanin, which confers hydrophobic properties and imparts immunological inertness. In contrast, outer layer of the hypha contains galactosaminogalactan, recently identified as an A. fumigatus virulence factor. The hypha grows either as a network of agglutinated and hydrophobic mass (called mycelium) embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in polysaccharides, hydrophobin, and melanin or segregated without ECM. PMID:24947169

Beauvais, Anne; Fontaine, Thierry; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2014-12-01

53

The volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

Heddergott, C; Calvo, A M; Latgé, J P

2014-08-01

54

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, bronchopleural fistula and empyema after lobectomy for aspergilloma  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and Aspergillus empyema are two rare manifestations of Aspergillus infection. This case report presents a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed a pseudomembranous Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, bronchopleural fistula and empyema 16 months after lobectomy for an aspergilloma. Bronchoscopy proved to be important for assessment of severity. Combined systemic anti-fungal treatment (voriconazole) and open window thoracostomy were used to successfully treat the patient. PMID:25379394

Rummens, Peter; Bruyneel, Marie; Lungarella, Michele; Ninane, Vincent

2014-01-01

55

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

56

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

57

In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens. PMID:23997920

Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

58

Original article The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on the digestion cerevisiae / Aspergillus oryzae / protozoa / digestion / fibre Résumé - Effet de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et was to determine the effect of two probiotics, Saccharo- myces cerevisiae (SC) and Aspergillus oryzae (AO), without

Boyer, Edmond

59

Lacrimal sac plugging caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a rare cause of canalicular obstruction. We present a case where an aspergillosis plug caused extreme tenderness, epiphoria and discharge from the lacrimal puntum. CT scan showed dilation of the lacrimal sac. Medical treatment did not relieve the symptoms. During a planned DCR the sac was opened before the osteotomy, and found to contain a plug which caused the obstruction. Aspergillus fumigatus was grown from culture. The DCR was abandoned and the patient is symptom free one year after the procedure. PMID:9591962

Kristinsson, J K; Sigurdsson, H

1998-04-01

60

Decolourisation and dephenolisation potential of selected Aspergillus section Nigri strains – Aspergillus tubingensis in olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Nigri strains Aspergillus aculeatus Ege-K 258, A.\\u000a foeditus var. pallidus Ege-K156, A. niger Ege-K 4 and A. tubingensis Ege-K 265 were used to treat olive mill wastewater (OMW) in an investigation aimed at exploring their dephenolisation and\\u000a decolourisation ability and, consequently, the economic feasibility of using any or all of these strains in a pre-treatment\\u000a step in the

Gaye Öngen; Gaye Güngör; Bahar Kanberoglu

2007-01-01

61

Cerebral Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus granulosus?  

PubMed Central

Disseminated disease by Aspergillus granulosus has been reported only once previously in a cardiac transplant recipient. We report a fatal central nervous system infection in a lung transplant recipient. Key features of this species in the section Usti include growth at 37°C and large, randomly spaced aggregates of variably shaped Hülle cells. PMID:19710280

Sutton, Deanna A.; Wickes, Brian L.; Romanelli, Anna M.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Dishop, Megan K.; Elidemir, Okan; Mallory, George B.; Moonnamakal, Siby P.; Adesina, Adekunle M.; Schecter, Marc G.

2009-01-01

62

An Aspergillus myocardial abscess diagnosed by echocardiography.  

PubMed

This is a rare case of Aspergillus myocardial abscess in 19-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by chemotherapy. During pancytopenia she developed invasive aspergillosis with myocardial abscess. The presence of specific antigen in the pericardial effusion was diagnostic. She died despite vigorous antifungal therapy. PMID:18222638

Kemdem, Arsène; Ahmad, Imran; Ysebrand, Laure; Nouar, Elias; Silance, Paul-Gael; Aoun, Mickael; Bron, Dominique; Vandenbossche, Jean-Luc

2008-10-01

63

Invasive Aspergillus infections in hematologic malignancy patients.  

PubMed

The incidence of invasive Aspergillus (IA) infections in patients with hematologic malignancies continues to increase. The most common species include Aspergillus fumigatus (approximately 90% of cases), A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans. Most infections involve the pulmonary parenchyma, though systemic dissemination of the fungus from a primary pulmonary focus or the paranasal sinuses after hyphal invasion into blood vessels is frequent. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients afflicted with this condition. The definitive diagnosis of IA is based on showing the hyphal invasion in tissue specimens together with a positive culture for Aspergillus species from the same specimen. The detection of circulating fungal antigens and DNA seems to be a promising, rapid, and sensitive diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of aspergillosis. The current antifungals available for the treatment of IA include amphotericin B deoxycholate and lipid formulations, itraconazole and caspofungin acetate. New investigational antifungal drugs include the triazoles voriconazole, posaconazole and ravuconazole, liposomal nystatin, and 2 echinocandin derivatives (anidulafungin [VER-002] and micafungin [FK463]). Preventive measures include reduction of environmental exposure of patients from sources of infection and anti-fungal prophylaxis. Specialized air-handling systems capable of excluding Aspergillus spores, such as high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration with or without laminar air flow ventilation has proven to be very efficacious. Targeted antifungal prophylaxis for hematologic patients who are at high risk for developing invasive fungal infections is not currently standardized. PMID:12070828

Perea, Sofia; Patterson, Thomas F

2002-06-01

64

Aspergillus infections: problems in diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis is a common infection in patients who are immunocompromised, particularly in oncology patients, patients receiving other immunosuppressive therapy, bone marrow transplant patients, and HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is difficult in the absence of tissue biopsy and histologic confirmation. Therefore, the need for and progress in recent advances in the development of highly sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis have been reviewed. Anti-Aspergillus antibody detection lacks the utility to lead to early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. However, sensitive methods that detect significant amounts of Aspergillus antigen in body fluids, primarily serum, of high risk patients are currently being evaluated and may provide a noninvasive early diagnostic test that is both sensitive and specific. Our recent results with an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which detects small but significant amounts of Aspergillus antigen in serum, in 35 patients with invasive aspergillosis are discussed. Also, current antifungal agents with anti-Aspergillus activity that have the potential for use as therapy or prophylaxis are briefly reviewed. PMID:8789599

Andriole, V T

1996-01-01

65

Properties of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellobiase enzyme was partially purified from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger AS-101 and the general and kinetic properties of the enzyme were examined. The enzyme was unstable on storage. However, it was protected by the addition of BSA, glycerol or sodium azide. Addition of glycerol also protected the enzyme from denaturation due to freezing and thawing. Effect of thiol

Ajay Singh; A. K. Agrawal; A. B. Abidi; N. S. Darmwal

1990-01-01

66

Biosynthesis of ochratoxins by Aspergillus ochraceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaken liquid fermentation of an isolate of Aspergillus ochraceus showed growth-associated production of ochratoxins A and B, followed by production of a related polyketide diaporthin. Later, between 150 and 250 h, mellein accumulated transitorily. In contrast, shaken solid substrate (shredded wheat) fermentation over 14 days produced mainly ochratoxins A and B (ratio ca. 5:1) in very high yield (up to

Jonathan P Harris; Peter G Mantle

2001-01-01

67

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM III. —  

E-print Network

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM III. — TOXICITÃ? AIGUÃ? DE L'OCHRATOXINE A CHEZ LE RAT aiguë de l'ochratoxine A est mesurée chez le Rat et la Souris adultes par les voies orale, intraveineuse importante transformation en ochratoxine ce. Par contre, on enregistre les pertes de poids les plus sensibles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

SP Fonts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for funky fonts to include in Web designs, papers, or posters, SP Fonts may be your answer. Scholars Press (SP) Fonts "are a set of simple, public domain fonts" designed for print and non-commercial Web use. This site currently offers eight public domain fonts that may be downloaded and used free of charge. Three of the fonts are Hebrew/Aramaic fonts: "SPTiberian (a standard Hebrew font), SPDamascus (a thinner font with Palestinian as well as Tiberian vowel points), and SPEzra (a simple, fixed-width Hebrew font)." Two are Greek fonts: "SPIonic (a more complete Greek font) and SPDoric (a simpler, uncial font)." Other fonts include "SPEdessa (a Syriac Estrangela font), SPAchmim (a Coptic font), and SPAtlantis (a transliteration font that includes diacriticals and other special characters that allow the representation of numerous Indo-European, Semitic, and other languages"-- available in both Roman and Italic type). All fonts are TrueType fonts and are compatible with PC (Windows) and Mac computers. In addition, each font has a .readme file that explains the standard keyboard mapping used by the font. Although the fonts are free to the public, the Web site requests permission from the copyright holder before including the typefaces in commercial electronic products.

2000-01-01

69

Aspergillus species identification in the clinical setting  

PubMed Central

Multiple recent studies have demonstrated the limited utility of morphological methods used singly for species identification of clinically relevant aspergilli. It is being increasingly recognised that comparative sequence based methods used in conjunction with traditional phenotype based methods can offer better resolution of species within this genus. Recognising the growing role of molecular methods in species recognition, the recently convened international working group meeting entitled “Aspergillus Systematics in the Genomic Era” has proposed several recommendations that will be useful in such endeavors. Specific recommendations of this working group include the use of the ITS regions for inter section level identification and the ?-tubulin locus for identification of individual species within the various Aspergillus sections. PMID:18490954

Balajee, S.A.; Houbraken, J.; Verweij, P.E.; Hong, S-B.; Yaghuchi, T.; Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

70

Sampling of Aspergillus spores in air.  

PubMed

Nosocomially acquired aspergillosis typically occurs in the setting of treatment for leukaemia or other haematological malignancy. As Aspergillus species can be readily found in the environment, it has been widely believed that aspergillosis occurs as a consequence of exogenous acquisition of the fungus. Stringent environmental controls in transplant units have included high-efficiency air filtration, positive-pressure ventilation and frequent room air changes. Although there have been several well-documented examples of aspergillosis outbreaks as a result of hospital demolition and reconstruction, it has not always been possible to demonstrate elevated spore counts in clinical areas during building work. The sampling of air for Aspergillus is very problematic. Careful attention must be given to the design of air sampler, sampling protocols and an understanding of air sampling data. This review outlines many of the physical and environmental parameters that influence meaningful air sampling and recommends a simple procedure that has been tried and tested in many aspergillosis outbreaks. PMID:10662557

Morris, G; Kokki, M H; Anderson, K; Richardson, M D

2000-02-01

71

Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus in Invasive Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Summary: Aspergillus species are globally ubiquitous saprophytes found in a variety of ecological niches. Almost 200 species of aspergilli have been identified, less than 20 of which are known to cause human disease. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent and is largely responsible for the increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in the immunocompromised patient population. IA is a devastating illness, with mortality rates in some patient groups reaching as high as 90%. Studies identifying and assessing the roles of specific factors of A. fumigatus that contribute to the pathogenesis of IA have traditionally focused on single-gene deletion and mutant characterization. In combination with recent large-scale approaches analyzing global fungal responses to distinct environmental or host conditions, these studies have identified many factors that contribute to the overall pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus. Here, we provide an overview of the significant findings regarding A. fumigatus pathogenesis as it pertains to invasive disease. PMID:19597008

Dagenais, Taylor R. T.; Keller, Nancy P.

2009-01-01

72

4-Ethylphenol metabolism by Aspergillus fumigatus  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial pollutants are phenolic, and the degradation these compounds is important in the carbon cycle. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 can grow on p-cresol. However 4-Ethylphenol, the higher homolog of p-cresol, presents different possibilities for putative metabolic pathways. This study shows that A. fumigatus is able to grow and 4-ethylphenol and the pathway is described. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J. [Univ. of Wales (United Kingdom)

1994-06-01

73

Azole Cross-Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We susceptibility tested 17 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, for most of which MICs of itraconazole were elevated (MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited, 16 g\\/ml), against itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole. Posaconazole was the most active against itraconazole-suscep- tible isolates. A complex pattern of cross-resistance and hypersusceptibility was seen with voriconazole and ravuconazole, suggesting marked

J. Mosquera; D. W. Denning

2002-01-01

74

Nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Aspergillus nidulans, mutations, designated areAr, can result in the inability to utilise a wide variety of nitrogen sources including amino acids, purines, amides, nitrate, and nitrite, whilst not affecting growth on ammonium. Other allelic areA mutations, designated areAd, lead to derepression of one or more activities which are ammonium repressible in wild type (areA+) strains, whilst not affecting their

Herbert N. Arst; David J. Cove

1973-01-01

75

Disseminated aspergillosis in a dog due to Aspergillus alabamensis  

PubMed Central

Disseminated aspergillosis is uncommon in dogs and often associated with Aspergillus terreus. A case of disseminated disease in an English springer spaniel is reported from which Aspergillus alabamensis was recovered by culture and identified by molecular means suggesting a potential role for this agent as a primary pathogen of dogs. PMID:24371723

Burrough, Eric; Deitz, Krysta; Kinyon, Joann; Andreasen, Claire; Frana, Timothy; Sutton, Deanna; Thompson, Elizabeth; Fu, Jianmin; Wickes, Brian; Hostetter, Jesse

2012-01-01

76

Isolation of Bacterial Antagonists of Aspergillus flavus from Almonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from California almond orchard samples to evaluate their potential antifungal activity against aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Fungal populations from the same samples were examined to determine the incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. Antagonistic activities of the isolated bacterial strains were screened against a nonaflatoxigenic nor mutant of A. flavus, which accumulates the pigmented aflatoxin precursor norsolorinic acid (NOR)

Jeffrey D. Palumbo; James L. Baker; Noreen E. Mahoney

2006-01-01

77

The controlled biosynthesis of cellobiase by Aspergillus fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some mechanisms of cellobiase formation were studied in Aspergillus japonicus 2092 and A. heteromorphus 3010. Formation of cellobiase in both strains was found to be a non-inducible constitutive character. The delay in formation of cellobiase in batch culture with glucose was shown to be determined by catabolic repression. Aspergillus heteromorphus 3010 was more sensitive to catabolic repression than A. japonicus

I. V. Solovyeva; V. M. Ananjin; A. V. Boev; O. N. Okunev

1997-01-01

78

Whole genome comparison of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fungi are now complete, providing us with the opportunity to examine any genomic differences

G. A. PAYNE; W. C. NIERMAN; Jennifer R. Wortman; B. L. PRITCHARD; D. BROWN; R. A. DEAN; D BHATNAGAR; T. E. CLEVELAND; MASAYUKI MACHIDA; J. YU

2006-01-01

79

Biocontrol Potential of Siderophore Producing Heavy Metal Resistant Alcaligenes sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 vis-à-vis Organophosphorus Fungicide.  

PubMed

In present study in vitro phytopathogen suppression activity of siderophoregenic preparations of Ni and Mn resistant Alcaligenes sp. STC1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 SH-94B isolated from soil were found superior over the chemical pesticide. Siderophore rich culture broth and siderophore rich supernatant exerted antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger NCIM 1025, Aspergillus flavus NCIM 650, Fusarium oxysporum NCIM 1281, Alternaria alternata ARI 715, Cercospora arachichola, Metarhizium anisopliae NCIM 1311 and Pseudomonas solanacerum NCIM 5103. Siderophore rich broth and supernatant exhibited potent antifungal activity vis-à-vis oraganophosphorus chemical fungicide; kitazine. The minimum fungicidal concentration required was 25 ?l for Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Cercospora arachichola, Metarhizium anisopliae, Pseudomonas solanacerum and 75 ?l for A. alternata. PMID:22754001

Sayyed, R Z; Patel, P R

2011-07-01

80

Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

2014-11-01

81

Antifungal susceptibility profile of cryptic species of Aspergillus.  

PubMed

The use of molecular tools has led to the description of new cryptic species among different Aspergillus species complexes. Their frequency in the clinical setting has been reported to be between 10 and 15 %. The susceptibility to azoles and amphotericin B of many of these species is low, and some of them, such as Aspergillus calidoustus or Aspergillus lentulus, are considered multi-resistant. The changing epidemiology, the frequency of cryptic species, and the different susceptibility profiles make antifungal susceptibility testing an important tool to identify the optimal antifungal agent to treat the infections caused by these species. PMID:24972670

Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

2014-12-01

82

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

83

Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE and IgG antibodies for diagnosis of Aspergillus-related lung diseases.  

PubMed

IgE and IgG antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus were detected by crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) on the sera of seven patients with aspergilloma, six patients with allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 25 patients with extrinsic asthma with Aspergillus allergy. IgE-CRIE analysis indicated the presence of A. fumigatus-specific IgE in sera of patients with ABPA and Aspergillus asthma but not of aspergilloma patients. IgG-CRIE showed that both aspergilloma and ABPA patient sera contained high levels of circulating specific IgG antibodies in contrast to sera of Aspergillus asthma patients, which did not show detectable amounts of Aspergillus-specific IgG antibodies. Specific IgE binding could be demonstrated for the major allergens Ag-10 and AG-40 in all ABPA patients, in 80% of Aspergillus asthma patients but not in sera from aspergilloma patients. Specific IgG antibodies directed towards the major allergens could be detected in most of the aspergilloma patients, between 30-70% of the ABPA patients but not in sera from patients with Aspergillus asthma. PMID:1928661

Wallenbeck, I; Dreborg, S; Zetterström, O; Einarsson, R

1991-07-01

84

Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. The commonly recognized producers of aflatoxins include A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. pseudotamarii, A. bombycis, and A. ochraceoroseus (Cary et al. 2005). Aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities can arise from field conditions conducive to fungal\\u000a growth before harvest as

Perng-Kuang Chang

85

The Aspergillus giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353 activates the cell wall integrity pathway and perturbs calcium homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background The antifungal protein AFPNN5353 is a defensin-like protein of Aspergillus giganteus. It belongs to a group of secretory proteins with low molecular mass, cationic character and a high content of cysteine residues. The protein inhibits the germination and growth of filamentous ascomycetes, including important human and plant pathogens and the model organsims Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger. Results We determined an AFPNN5353 hypersensitive phenotype of non-functional A. nidulans mutants in the protein kinase C (Pkc)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mpk) signalling pathway and the induction of the ?-glucan synthase A (agsA) promoter in a transgenic A. niger strain which point at the activation of the cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP) and the remodelling of the cell wall in response to AFPNN5353. The activation of the CWIP by AFPNN5353, however, operates independently from RhoA which is the central regulator of CWIP signal transduction in fungi. Furthermore, we provide evidence that calcium (Ca2+) signalling plays an important role in the mechanistic function of this antifungal protein. AFPNN5353 increased about 2-fold the cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) of a transgenic A. niger strain expressing codon optimized aequorin. Supplementation of the growth medium with CaCl2 counteracted AFPNN5353 toxicity, ameliorated the perturbation of the [Ca2+]c resting level and prevented protein uptake into Aspergillus sp. cells. Conclusions The present study contributes new insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of the A. giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353. We identified its antifungal activity, initiated the investigation of pathways that determine protein toxicity, namely the CWIP and the Ca2+ signalling cascade, and studied in detail the cellular uptake mechanism in sensitive target fungi. This knowledge contributes to define new potential targets for the development of novel antifungal strategies to prevent and combat infections of filamentous fungi which have severe negative impact in medicine and agriculture. PMID:21943024

2011-01-01

86

A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

2014-10-01

87

Histopathological Implications of Aspergillus Infection in Lung  

PubMed Central

This paper opens with a discussion on the significance of invasive fungal infections in advanced contemporary medicine, with an emphasis on the intractability of disease management and the difficulties of diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion concerning classification, histopathological features, and pathophysiology. While it has been largely accepted that Aspergillus species is recognized by cellular receptors and attacked by neutrophils, the radiological and macroscopic findings linking infection with neutropenia remain unconfirmed. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, we wish to emphasize the utility of radiological and histopathological examinations since these can provide detailed information on the extremely complex interaction between the causative microbes and tissue responses. A review of noninvasive or semi-invasive aspergillosis is also provided, with particular emphasis on chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, which is recognized as a transition form of simple pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, although few findings have been reported in this area. PMID:24347836

Tochigi, Naobumi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Gocho, Kyoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Ishiwatari, Takao; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2013-01-01

88

Research on the strong transglycosylation activity in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aspergillus niger M-1 strain shows strong transglycosylation activity. A gene of it was introduced into Escherichia coli, and isomalto-oligosaccharides were isolated by a chemical enzymatic method in order to measure the transglycosylation activity.

Lan Yu; Yun-Kai Zhang; Yong-Ling Qin; Yu-Yan Liu; Zhi-Qun Liang

2008-01-01

89

Induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented for the simultaneous induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase along with fructokinase and repression of glucokinase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger. Fructose is the first product of sorbitol catabolism.

B. M. Desai; V. V. Modi; V. K. Shah

1967-01-01

90

21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like) lessions...eyeball cavity, nasal sinuses, lungs, and occasionally the bones. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2011-04-01

91

Inhibition of xyloglucanase from an alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora sp. by a peptidic aspartic protease inhibitor from Penicillium sp. VM24.  

PubMed

A bifunctional inhibitor from Penicillium sp VM24 causing inactivation of xyloglucanase from Thermomonospora sp and an aspartic protease from Aspergillus saitoi was identified. Steady state kinetics studies of xyloglucanase and the inhibitor revealed an irreversible, non-competitive, two-step inhibition mechanism with IC(50) and K(i) values of 780 and 500nM respectively. The interaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPTA)-labeled xyloglucanase with the inhibitor revealed that the inhibitor binds to the active site of the enzyme. Far- and near-UV spectrophotometric analysis suggests that the conformational changes induced in xyloglucanase by the inhibitor may be due to irreversible denaturation of enzyme. The bifunctional inhibitor may have potential as a biocontrol agent for the protection of plants against phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:22940347

Menon, Vishnu; Rao, Mala

2012-11-01

92

Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old patient developed progressive loss of vision in one eye following induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from vitreal aspirates. The patient was treated with intravenous and intravitreal amphotericin B but suffered complete loss of vision in her right eye. We believe this is the first report of culture-proven Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis in a patient treated for a haematological malignancy. PMID:10342076

Follows, G A; Hutchinson, C; Martin, A; Carter, C

1999-04-01

93

Effect of building construction on Aspergillus concentrations in a hospital.  

PubMed

Air samples taken in a hospital undergoing construction and analyzed with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the Aspergillus genus did not show elevated concentrations of Aspergillus or particulate matter with a diameter of 5 microm or less in patient areas. Air samples from the construction zone indicated the containment system, which used polyethylene film barrier and negative pressure, was effective. PMID:18419373

Goebes, Marian D; Baron, Ellen Jo; Mathews, Kathleen L; Hildemann, Lynn M

2008-05-01

94

New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri  

PubMed Central

Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either ?-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-?-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods which could be used to distinguish the two closely related and economically important species A. niger and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or ?-tubulin genes, AFLP analysis, UP-PCR analysis or mtDNA RFLP analysis can be used reliably to distinguish these sibling species. Aspergillus section Nigri now includes 26 taxa. PMID:21892239

Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Kocsube, S.; Brankovics, B.; Toth, B.; Szigeti, G.; Samson, R.A.

2011-01-01

95

Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and cranium. Based upon this comprehensive review, management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis optimally includes antifungal therapy and selective surgery to avoid relapse and to achieve a complete response. PMID:24378282

Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

96

Aspergillus fumigatus Invasion Increases with Progressive Airway Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould’s angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections. PMID:24155924

Hsu, Joe L.; Khan, Mohammad A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Jiang, Xinguo; Clemons, Karl V.; Nguyen, Tom T.; Stevens, David A.; Martinez, Marife; Nicolls, Mark R.

2013-01-01

97

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2010-04-01

98

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

99

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2011-04-01

100

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2012-04-01

101

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2014-04-01

102

Comparative effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on rumen fermentations  

E-print Network

Comparative effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on rumen fermentations F Aubière Cedex, France Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) and Aspergillus oryzae (AO) have both been proposed

Boyer, Edmond

103

Spotlight on Aspergillus nidulans photosensory systems.  

PubMed

Aspergilli are ubiquitous soil-borne fungi growing within or on the surface of numerous organic substrates. Growth within a substrate or growth on the surface correlates to different growth conditions for the hyphae due to significant changes in oxygen or reactive oxygen species levels and variations in humidity or temperature. The production of air-borne spores is supported by the substrate-air interphase and also requires a sensing system to adapt appropriately. Here we focus on light as important parameter for the mycelium to discriminate between different habitats. The fungal 'eye' includes several light sensors which react to a broad plethora of wavelengths. Aspergillus nidulans light receptors comprise a phytochrome for red-light sensing, white collar-like blue-light signaling proteins, a putative green-light sensing opsin and a cryptochrome/photolyase as distinct sensory systems. Red- and blue-light receptors are assembled into a light-sensing protein complex. Light receptors transmit their signal to a number of other regulatory proteins including a bridging protein, VeA, as part of a trimeric complex. VeA plays a central role in the balance of asexual and sexual development and in the coordination of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. PMID:20573560

Bayram, Ozgür; Braus, Gerhard H; Fischer, Reinhard; Rodriguez-Romero, Julio

2010-11-01

104

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-01-01

105

Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols. PMID:24957370

Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

2012-01-01

106

The Tip Growth Apparatus of Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Hyphal tip growth in fungi is important because of the economic and medical importance of fungi, and because it may be a useful model for polarized growth in other organisms. We have investigated the central questions of the roles of cytoskeletal elements and of the precise sites of exocytosis and endocytosis at the growing hyphal tip by using the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Time-lapse imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins reveals a remarkably dynamic, but highly structured, tip growth apparatus. Live imaging of SYNA, a synaptobrevin homologue, and SECC, an exocyst component, reveals that vesicles accumulate in the Spitzenkörper (apical body) and fuse with the plasma membrane at the extreme apex of the hypha. SYNA is recycled from the plasma membrane by endocytosis at a collar of endocytic patches, 1–2 ?m behind the apex of the hypha, that moves forward as the tip grows. Exocytosis and endocytosis are thus spatially coupled. Inhibitor studies, in combination with observations of fluorescent fusion proteins, reveal that actin functions in exocytosis and endocytosis at the tip and in holding the tip growth apparatus together. Microtubules are important for delivering vesicles to the tip area and for holding the tip growth apparatus in position. PMID:18216285

Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Horio, Tetsuya; Araujo-Bazan, Lidia; Dou, Xiaowei; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Penalva, Miguel A.; Osmani, Stephen A.

2008-01-01

107

In Vitro Activities of Three Licensed Antifungal Agents against Spanish Clinical Isolates of Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to identify retrospectively trends in the species distributions and the susceptibility patterns of Aspergillus species causing fungal infections in Spanish medical centers from 2000 to 2002. The susceptibilities of 338 isolates to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole were tested. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common species (54.7%), followed by Aspergillus terreus (14.8%) and

Alicia Gomez-Lopez; Guillermo Garcia-Effron; Emilia Mellado; Araceli Monzon; Juan L. Rodriguez-Tudela; Manuel Cuenca-Estrella

2003-01-01

108

[Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus niger].  

PubMed

Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), also known as semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis , is a recently defined entity. CNPA is characterized by a pulmonary infiltration with cavitation of chronic evolution in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, slight immunodeficiency or healthy patients. Good evolution is obtained with antimicotic treatment. The isolation of Aspergillus niger as a cause of CNPA is infrequent and may bear worse prognosis. A patient who presented CNPA by Aspergillus niger is described. The patient had received radiotherapy for epidermal carcinoma of the esophagus. Three other cases have been reported in the literature. The diagnostic aspects, treatment and prognostic factors of CNPA are commented upon. PMID:1766284

Arévalo, M; Solera, J; Rodríguez, F; Vizcaya, M; Vercher, R; Martínez-Moratalla, J

1991-11-01

109

Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation.  

PubMed

Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare complication of invasive aspergillosis after organ transplantation. This is the report of a 46-year-old man who underwent a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation, complicated by an Aspergillus osteomyelitis and diskitis of the lumbar spine. Prompt diagnosis with needle biopsy, followed by antifungal therapy using caspofungin, a new antifungal agent recommended for the treatment of refractory aspergillosis, in combination with amphotericin B and an early surgical intervention led to clinical resolution of the infection. Reported cases of spinal aspergillosis after transplantation are reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, risk factors, therapeutic options, and outcome. PMID:14987203

Salvalaggio, P R O; Bassetti, M; Lorber, M I; Micheletto, G C; Friedman, A L; Andriole, V T; Basadonna, G P

2003-12-01

110

The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease.  

PubMed

Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal sensitized asthma. Humans inhale Aspergillus spores every day and when the host is immunocompromised, Aspergillus spp. may cause severe pulmonary disease. There is increasing evidence that the microbiome plays a significant role in immune regulation, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolism, and other physiological processes, including recovery from the effects of antibiotic treatment. Bacterial microbiome mediated resistance mechanisms probably play a major role in limiting fungal colonization of the lungs, and may therefore prevent humans from contracting Aspergillus-related diseases. In this perspective, we review this emerging area of research and discuss the role of the microbiome in aspergillosis, role of Aspergillus in the microbiome, and the influence of the microbiome on anti-Aspergillus host defense and its role in preventing aspergillosis. PMID:25256637

Kolwijck, Eva; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

2014-11-01

111

Aspergillus, Health Implication & Recommendations for Public Health Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of Aspergillosis in chickens on farms throughout Trinidad have left the chicken consuming population shocked and frightened. At present there exists very little published information available to the population on Aspergillosis and its effect on health and food safety. The present paper examines some of the fundamental questions associated with the pathogenesis of Aspergillus, health implications and recommendation

Deryck Damian Pattron

112

ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS HAVE BEEN APPLIED  

E-print Network

are a group of toxic, carcinogenic fungal metabolites produced by certain isolates of Aspergillus flavus during cottonseed infection. Regulations limit the quantity of aflatoxins permitted in foods and feeds to growers in food-grade 5 gallon polyethylene buckets and was stored on farm without special care until use

Cotty, Peter J.

113

QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

114

Soluble phosphate accumulation by Aspergillus niger from fluorapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine conditions that may provide greater solubilization of insouluble phosphate, the fungus Aspergillus niger was grown in a stationary culture containing modified citrate medium supplemented with 800 mg fluorapatite per litre. Solubilization of insouluble phosphate increased with fungal growth, reaching a maximum after 11 days of culture. Soluble phosphate levels were correlated with pH of the culture

Paulo Cesar Cerezine; Ely Nahas; David Ariovaldo Banzatto

1988-01-01

115

Modelling Aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host–pathogen interactions. In this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was examined. A. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac,

L. A. Beernaert; F. Pasmans; F. Haesebrouck; A. Martel

2008-01-01

116

Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1–12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and

Khin Moh Moh Aung; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

117

Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus in a springer spaniel.  

PubMed

Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus was diagnosed in a Springer Spaniel with lethargy, lameness, anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, and urinary incontinence. Necropsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and numerous fungal hyphae in many organs. The conidial heads of the fungus have a characteristic briar-pipe appearance in culture. PMID:2228770

Kahler, J S; Leach, M W; Jang, S; Wong, A

1990-10-01

118

Comparison of different transformation methods for Aspergillus giganteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different transformation methods were tested and compared in an attempt to facilitate the genetic transformation of Aspergillus giganteus, the producer of an antifungal protein (AFP). The fungus was transformed to hygromycin B resistance, using the hph gene of Escherichia coli by protoplast transformation, electroporation, biolistic transformation, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Electroporation and biolistic transformation were found to be inappropriate

Vera Meyer; Dirk Mueller; Till Strowig; Ulf Stahl

2003-01-01

119

Integrative analysis of the heat shock response in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a thermotolerant human-pathogenic mold and the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Its predominance is based on several factors most of which are still unknown. The thermotolerance of A. fumigatus is one of the traits which have been assigned to pathogenicity. It allows the fungus to grow at temperatures up to and

Daniela Albrecht; Reinhard Guthke; Axel A Brakhage; Olaf Kniemeyer

2010-01-01

120

Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer.  

PubMed

Aspergillus infections have grown in importance in the last years. However, most of the studies have focused on Aspergillus fumigatus, the most prevalent species in the genus. In certain locales and hospitals, Aspergillus flavus is more common in air than A. fumigatus, for unclear reasons. After A. fumigatus, A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis and it is the most common cause of superficial infection. Experimental invasive infections in mice show A. flavus to be 100-fold more virulent than A. fumigatus in terms of inoculum required. Particularly common clinical syndromes associated with A. flavus include chronic granulomatous sinusitis, keratitis, cutaneous aspergillosis, wound infections and osteomyelitis following trauma and inoculation. Outbreaks associated with A. flavus appear to be associated with single or closely related strains, in contrast to those associated with A. fumigatus. In addition, A. flavus produces aflatoxins, the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compounds ever characterized. Accurate species identification within Aspergillus flavus complex remains difficult due to overlapping morphological and biochemical characteristics, and much taxonomic and population genetics work is necessary to better understand the species and related species. The flavus complex currently includes 23 species or varieties, including two sexual species, Petromyces alliaceus and P. albertensis. The genome of the highly related Aspergillus oryzae is completed and available; that of A. flavus in the final stages of annotation. Our understanding of A. flavus lags far behind that of A. fumigatus. Studies of the genomics, taxonomy, population genetics, pathogenicity, allergenicity and antifungal susceptibility of A. flavus are all required. PMID:17526826

Hedayati, M T; Pasqualotto, A C; Warn, P A; Bowyer, P; Denning, D W

2007-06-01

121

Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.  

PubMed

This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

2010-03-01

122

Inhibition of growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by extracts of Agave species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effect of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of Agave asperrima and Agave striata on growth and production of aflatoxin (in A&M medium) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; in Czpaek-Dox medium) and on growth in corn under storage conditions was determined. Aspergillus strains were inoculated (106 conidia per ml of medium or per 6 g of corn), then

Eduardo Sánchez; Norma Heredia; Santos García

2005-01-01

123

Purification and characterization of endo-xylanases from Aspergillus Niger. III. An enzyme of PL 365  

SciTech Connect

An endo-xylanase (1,4-..beta..-D-xylan xylanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) from Aspergillus niger was purified to homogeneity by chromatography with Ultrogel AcA 54, SP-Sephadex C-25 at pH 4.5, DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.4, Sephadex G-50, and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.15. The enzyme was active on soluble xylan, on insoluble xylan only after arabinosyl-initiated branch points were removed, and on xylooligosaccharides longer than xylotetraose. There was slight activity on carboxymethyl-cellulose, arabinogalactan, glucomannan, and p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D- glucopyranoside. The main products of the hydrolysis of soluble and insoluble xylan were oligosaccharides of intermediate length, especially the tri- and pentasaccharides. The isolectric point of the enzyme was 3.65. It had a molecular weight of 2.8 x 10/sup 4/ by SDS-gel electrophoresis, and was high in acidic amino acids but low in those containing sulfur. Highest activity in a 20-min assay at pH 5 was between 40 and 45 degrees C, with an activation energy up to 40 degrees C of 11.1 kJ/mol. The optimum pH for activity was at 5.0. The enzyme was strongly activated by Ca/sup 2 +/. 15 references.

Fournier, R.A.; Frederick, M.M.; Frederick, J.R.; Reilly, P.J.

1985-04-01

124

Neosartorya udagawae (Aspergillus udagawae), an Emerging Agent of Aspergillosis: How Different Is It from Aspergillus fumigatus??  

PubMed Central

A recent report on several cases of invasive aspergillosis caused by Neosartorya udagawae suggested distinctive patterns of disease progression between N. udagawae and Aspergillus fumigatus. This prompted us to characterize N. udagawae in comparison to A. fumigatus. Our findings showed that both species exist in two mating types at similar ratios and produce gliotoxin. However, the thermotolerance of the two species differs: while A. fumigatus is able to grow at 55°C but not at 10°C, N. udagawae is able to grow at 10°C but fails to grow at >42°C. Furthermore, compared to A. fumigatus, the conidia of N. udagawae require longer incubation periods to germinate at 37°C and are more susceptible to neutrophil attack as well as hydrogen peroxide; N. udagawae is also less virulent in gp91phox?/? mice. These findings suggest that growth and susceptibility to the host response might account for the reduced virulence of N. udagawae and the subtle distinction in the progression of the disease caused by the two species. PMID:19889894

Sugui, J. A.; Vinh, D. C.; Nardone, G.; Shea, Y. R.; Chang, Y. C.; Zelazny, A. M.; Marr, K. A.; Holland, S. M.; Kwon-Chung, K. J.

2010-01-01

125

Sp(2)-BRST  

SciTech Connect

A general method is given for the construction of gauge-fixed actions for theories with local gauge symmetries. The method is based on the single requirement that the space of fields carries an irreducible representation of the Sp(2)-BRST algebra, with respect to which the resultant actions are then automatically invariant.

Twisk, S.; Zhang, R.B.

1988-09-01

126

Dihydroramulosin from Botrytis sp.  

PubMed

Botrytis sp., isolated from the inner bark of the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, was shown to produce ramulosin (1), 6-hydroxyramulosin (2), and the new compound 8-dihydroramulosin (3). The structure of dihydroramulosin was deduced from the NMR spectra and confirmed by chemical conversion from ramulosin. PMID:9784167

Stierle, D B; Stierle, A A; Kunz, A

1998-10-01

127

Understanding nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae : a windfall of aflatoxin biosynthesis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. Aspergillus sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical\\u000a relatedness to aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to decipher the underlying mechanisms for its inability to produce aflatoxins. This review addresses the\\u000a relationship between A. sojae and

Perng-Kuang Chang; Kenichiro Matsushima; Tadashi Takahashi; Jiujiang Yu; Keietsu Abe; Deepak Bhatnagar; Gwo-Fang Yuan; Yasuji Koyama; Thomas E. Cleveland

2007-01-01

128

Opportunistic Mycelial Fungal Infections in Organ Transplant Recipients: Emerging Importance of Non? Aspergillus Mycelial Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the spectrum and impact of mycelial fungal infections, particularly those due to non-Aspergillus molds, 53 liver and heart transplant recipients with invasive mycelial infections were prospectively identified in a multicenter study. Invasive mycelial infections were due to Aspergillus species in 69.8% of patients, to non-Aspergillus hyalohyphomycetes in 9.4%, to phaeohyphomycetes in 9.4%, to zygomycetes in 5.7%, and to

Shahid Husain; Barbara D. Alexander; Patricia Munoz; Robin K. Avery; Sally Houston; Timothy Pruett; Richard Jacobs; Edward A. Dominguez; Jan G. Tollemar; Katherine Baumgarten; Chen M. Yu; Marilyn M. Wagener; Peter Linden; Shimon Kusne; Nina Singh

2003-01-01

129

Cryptococcus neoformans Galactoxylomannan Contains an Epitope(s) That Is Cross-Reactive with Aspergillus Galactomannan  

PubMed Central

We report a case of cryptococcosis in which a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus galactomannan was positive, with no evidence of aspergillosis. Soluble antigens from 19 Cryptococcus neoformans strains and purified carbohydrates of C. neoformans capsule were thus assayed in the Aspergillus galactomannan ELISA. Antigens from all C. neoformans strains, and purified galactoxylomannan, gave a positive reaction, suggesting that C. neoformans galactoxylomannan contains an epitope(s) that is cross-reactive with Aspergillus galactomannan. PMID:15956422

Dalle, Frederic; Charles, Pierre Emmanuel; Blanc, Karine; Caillot, Denis; Chavanet, Pascal; Dromer, Francoise; Bonnin, Alain

2005-01-01

130

Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals\\u000a and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental\\u000a and applied Aspergillus research with a

Vera Meyer; Bo Wu; Arthur F. J. Ram

2011-01-01

131

The Mediterranean red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis has antifungal activity against Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

The red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. EUCAST methodology was applied and extracts showed antifungal activity against A. fumigatus, A. terreus and A. flavus. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations observed were <0.15 mg ml(-1) and the highest were >5 mg ml(-1) for Aspergillus spp. tested. Agar diffusion assays confirmed antifungal activity of A. taxiformis extracts in Aspergillus species. PMID:23437896

Genovese, Giuseppa; Leitner, Sandra; Minicante, Simona A; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

2013-09-01

132

Assessment of the ochratoxin A production ability of Aspergillus tubingensis.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus frequently isolated from different agricultural products, including grapes. Conflicting results have been published in recent years about its ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), a potent nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. This study re-examined six A. tubingensis strains deposited in international culture collections for OTA production. OTA could not be detected in any A. tubingensis extract using HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector (FLD), whereas it was easily detected in ochratoxigenic A. niger extracts used as positive control. The same outcome was obtained using LC-MS. The presence of other metabolites with retention times similar to the OTA signal in the A. tubingensis extracts or background noise of the growth media may be reasons for the misinterpretation of the chromatograms obtained by HPLC-FLD. PMID:22827810

Storari, M; Bigler, L; Gessler, C; Broggini, G A L

2012-01-01

133

Aspergillus antigen detection in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.  

PubMed

The utility of serum Aspergillus antigen in invasive aspergillosis was determined by identifying patients with >50 ng/mL Aspergillus carbohydrate antigen by ELISA. Patients were identified from a university hospital over a 65-month period. Nineteen patients with antigenemia had proven invasive aspergillosis, 16 had probable invasive aspergillosis, and 14 had an indeterminate diagnosis. There were 5 patients with false-positive results. Antigen levels were higher in disseminated infection than in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (median levels, 500 and 121 ng/mL, respectively). Survival also correlated with antigenemia. Serial samples were obtained from 31 of 35 patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis. Fifteen of 19 patients with rising or persistent antigenemia died, whereas only 1 of 12 patients who cleared antigenemia died. Higher antigen levels were useful in predicting disseminated disease, and the course of antigenemia correlated with clinical outcome. Antigen detection may be a useful addition in the management of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:7769291

Patterson, T F; Miniter, P; Patterson, J E; Rappeport, J M; Andriole, V T

1995-06-01

134

Salmonella and Aspergillus infections in common loons overwintering in Florida.  

PubMed

During a 5-year period (1970-1975), 190 common loons (Gavia immer) from overwintering populations on the east and west coasts of Florida were examined for evidence of infectious diseases. Salmonella spp (representing 8 serotypes) were isolated from 27 (14%) of the loons, and lesions typical of those produced by Aspergillus fumigatus were found in 34 (18%) of the loons. Seven loons were infected with Salmonella spp and had lesions typical of aspergillus infection. The largest number of loons (124) was obtained during the winter of 1973-1974, in connection with an offshore oil spill. There was no significant difference between the isolation rates of Salmonella spp from oiled vs nonoiled loons, but the occurrence of aspergillosis was higher in nonoiled than in oiled loons. PMID:789314

White, F H; Forrester, D J; Nesbitt, S A

1976-11-01

135

Metabolism of p-cresol by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

SciTech Connect

Cresols are phenolic compounds that are industrial pollutants. Degradation of p-cresol by several species of fungus has been reported. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 metabolizes both phenylacetic and homogentisic acids. This study shows that A. fumigatus ATCC 28282 also is capable of growth on p-cresol as its sole carbon source. Two metabolic routes for p-cresol degradation are described in the paper, but the relative contributions of each pathway is not evaluated. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J. (Univ. of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom))

1993-04-01

136

Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test. Methods—In total, 2026 serum samples from 104 bone marrow transplant recipients were tested. These comprised 67 sera from seven patients who had died with confirmed IA, 268 sera from nine patients who had died with suspected IA, and 1691 sera from 88 patients with no clinical, radiological, or microbiological signs of IA. Results—The ELISA was more sensitive than the LA test. All patients who were ELISA positive were also LA positive, and a positive LA result never preceded a positive ELISA. Twelve of 16 patients with confirmed or suspected IA were ELISA positive on two or more occasions, compared with 10 of 15 who were LA positive. ELISA was positive before LA in five patients (range, 2–14 days), and became positive on the same day in the remainder. Aspergillus antigen was detected by ELISA a median of 15 days before death (range, 4–233). Clinical and/or radiological evidence of IA was noted in all patients, and a positive ELISA was never the sole criterion for introduction of antifungal treatment. Two samples (one from each of two patients without IA) gave false positive results. Conclusions—The aspergillus ELISA is a specific indicator of invasive aspergillosis if the criterion of two positive samples is required to confirm the diagnosis. However, the test is insufficiently sensitive to diagnose aspergillosis before other symptoms or signs are apparent, and hence is unlikely to lead to earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. It is therefore unsuitable for screening of asymptomatic patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis, but does have a useful role in confirming the diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Key Words: invasive aspergillosis • aspergillus antigen • Platelia enzyme linked immunosorbent assay PMID:10889818

Williamson, E; Oliver, D; Johnson, E; Foot, A; Marks, D; Warnock, D

2000-01-01

137

Voriconazole for the treatment of refractory Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis in a 53-year-old, well-controlled diabetic female who did not respond to standard antifungal treatment. She was started on topical natamycin eye drops, but the infiltrate continued to progress. Topical amphotericin B and systemic ketoconazole was added, however, there was no response and the infiltrate increased further. She was then switched to topical and systemic voriconazole. Steady resolution of the infiltrate was noted within 2 weeks of therapy. PMID:18417831

Mehta, Hitendra B; Garg, Prashant; Kodial, Harish

2008-01-01

138

Novel  Glucosidase from Aspergillus nidulans with Strong Transglycosylation Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus nidulans possessed an -glucosidase with strong transglycosylation activity. The enzyme, desig- nated -glucosidase B (AgdB), was purified and characterized. AgdB was a heterodimeric protein comprising 74- and 55-kDa subunits and catalyzed hydrolysis of maltose along with formation of isomaltose and panose. Approximately 50% of maltose was converted to isomaltose, panose, and other minor transglycosylation products by AgdB, even at

Naoki Kato; Sachie Suyama; Masao Shirokane; Masashi Kato; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Norihiro Tsukagoshi

2002-01-01

139

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

140

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. Tolerance of the A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutant, sakA?, to these drugs indicates the osmotic\\/oxidative stress MAPK pathway is

Jong Kim; Bruce Campbell; Noreen Mahoney; Kathleen Chan; Russell Molyneux; Gregory May

2008-01-01

141

Effect of Butyrolactone I on the Producing Fungus, Aspergillus terreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrolactone I (a-oxo-b-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-g-(p-hydroxy-m-3,3-dimethylallyl-benzyl)-g-methoxycarbonyl- g-butyrolactone) is produced as a secondary metabolite by Aspergillus terreus. Because small butyrolactone- containing molecules act as self-regulating factors in some bacteria, the effects of butyrolactone I on the producing organism were studied; specifically, changes in morphology, sporulation, and secondary metabolism were studied. Threefold or greater increases in hyphal branching (with concomitant decreases in the average hyphal

TIMOTHY G. SCHIMMEL; ALLEN D. COFFMAN; SARAH J. PARSONS

1998-01-01

142

An 88-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

An 88-kDa component secreted in vitro by Aspergillus fumigatus has been purified by sequential chromatographic procedures. The molecule is a glycoprotein with an N-linked sugar moiety composed of mannose glucose, and galactose (16:10:1). It is recognized by antibodies from patients with aspergilloma and has potential for the immunodiagnosis of aspergilloma. The antigenicity is associated with the polypeptide part of the molecule (79 kDa). Images PMID:8406876

Kobayashi, H; Debeaupuis, J P; Bouchara, J P; Latge, J P

1993-01-01

143

Solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus niger for cellobiase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger NRRL3 was cultivated in a moist wheat bran and ground corncob solid medium supplemented with inorganic minerals for the production\\u000a of cellobiase (?-1,4-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.21). With this method, A. niger NRRL3 was able to produce a high concentration of cellobiase (215 IU\\/gofsolid substrate) after 96 h of incubation. Temperature\\u000a and moisture content affected final cellobiase titers. The best

George T. Tsao; Liming Xia; Ningjun Cao; Cheng S. Gong

2000-01-01

144

Production and immobilization of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger ZU07  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high yield strain Aspergillus niger ZU-07 was used to produce cellobiase. It was found that the spores of A. niger ZU-07 were rich in cellobiase. By entrapping the spores into calcium alginate gels, the cellobiase was immobilized efficiently. The immobilized spores were quite stable, with a half-life 38 days. In repeated batch hydrolysis processes on 10gl?1 cellobiose by the

Xueliang Shen; Liming Xia

2004-01-01

145

Immobilization of ? galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae via immunoaffinity support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyclonal antibody bound cellulose support has been exploited for the immobilization and stabilization of ? galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae. Immunoaffinity bound ? galactosidase retained 96.5% of the initial activity on the support. Immobilized ? galactosidase showed broad-spectrum pH optima, pH 4.6–5.5 and temperature at 50–60°C whereas the soluble enzyme exhibited activity peak at pH 4.6 and 50°C. Immunoaffinity bound enzyme

Toshiba Haider; Qayyum Husain

2009-01-01

146

Immunochemical detection of ochratoxin A in black Aspergillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty-seven strains belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri were tested for ochratoxin A production using three different methods: a relatively new immunochemical method based on an\\u000a enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).\\u000a The monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique was successfully used to screen for low levels of ochratoxin A in the black\\u000a Aspergilli

József Téren; János Varga; Zsuzsanna Hamari; Ferenc Kevei

1996-01-01

147

Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

2011-01-01

148

Sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger with intermittent broth replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent broth replacement was carried out to enhance the productivity and purity of sodium gluconate usingAspergillus niger by reducing the concentration of unmetabolized glucose. As inoculum size increased, length of lag phase was shortened and\\u000a high initial production rate of sodium gluconate was achieved. However, too high inoculum concentration lowered productivity\\u000a during the later stage of fermentation and increased residual

Sang-Yoon Lee; Bu-Su Park; Jin-Hyup Kim; Byung-Gee Kim; Dong-Il Kim

1999-01-01

149

Leaching of copper converter slag with Aspergillus niger culture filtrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of copper converter slag of M\\/s Hindustan Copper Ltd, Ghatshila (Bihar, India) was carried out usingAspergillus niger culture filtrate. The effects of the duration of leaching, temperature, pulp density and the addition of hydrochloric acid were studied.A. niger culture filtrate solubilized metals from the converter slag at levels of 18.70% copper, 7.40% nickel and 4.00% cobalt. Addition of hydrochloric

Lal Bihari Sukla; Rabi Narayan Kar; Vinita Panchanadikar

1992-01-01

150

Aspergillus Colonization of the Lung Allograft is a Risk Factor for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Multiple infections have been linked with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that Aspergillus colonization may promote the development of BOS and may decrease survival post-lung transplantation. We reviewed all lung transplant recipients transplanted in our center between 1/2000 and 6/2006. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a surveillance protocol and when clinically indicated. Aspergillus colonization was defined as a positive culture from bronchoalveolar lavage or two sputum cultures positive for the same Aspergillus species, in the absence of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. We found that Aspergillus colonization was strongly associated with BOS and BOS related mortality in Cox regression analyses. Aspergillus colonization typically preceded the development of BOS by a median of 261 days (95% CI 87 to 520). Furthermore, in a multivariate Cox regression model, Aspergillus colonization was a distinct risk factor for BOS, independent of acute rejection. These data suggest a potential causative role for Aspergillus colonization in the development of BOS post-lung transplantation and raise the possibility that strategies aimed to prevent Aspergillus colonization may help delay or reduce the incidence of BOS. PMID:19459819

Weigt, S. Samuel; Elashoff, Robert M.; Huang, Cathy; Ardehali, Abbas; Gregson, Aric L.; Kubak, Bernard; Fishbein, Michael C.; Saggar, Rajeev; Keane, Michael P.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Zisman, David A.; Ross, David J.; Belperio, John A.

2014-01-01

151

Identificação de um gene que afeta a produção de ocratoxina A em Aspergillus carbonarius.  

E-print Network

??A ocratoxina A é uma micotoxina produzida principalmente por espécies pertencentes aos gêneros Aspergillus e Penicillium, conhecida por apresentar efeitos nefrotóxicos e potencial carcinogênico. Com… (more)

Lígia Uno Lunardi

2009-01-01

152

Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of ?1-4 linked galactose and ?1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates. PMID:22102815

Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; van Vliet, Sandra J.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Bozza, Silvia; Moretti, Silvia; Schwarz, Flavio; Trichot, Coline; Aebi, Markus; Delepierre, Muriel; Elbim, Carole; Romani, Luigina; Latge, Jean-Paul

2011-01-01

153

Recombinant Aspergillus ?-galactosidases as a robust glycomic and biotechnological tool.  

PubMed

Galactosidases are widespread enzymes that are used for manifold applications, including production of prebiotics, biosynthesis of different transgalactosylated products, improving lactose tolerance and in various analytical approaches. The nature of these applications often require galactosidases to be present in a purified form with clearly defined properties, including precisely determined substrate specificities, low sensitivity to inhibitors, and high efficiency and stability under distinct conditions. In this study, we present the recombinant expression and purification of two previously uncharacterized ?-galactosidases from Aspergillus nidulans as well as one ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger. All enzymes were active toward p-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as substrate and displayed similar temperature and pH optima. The purified recombinant galactosidases digested various complex substrates containing terminal galactose ?-1,4 linked to either N-acetylglucosamine or fucose, such as N-glycans derived from bovine fibrin and Caenorhabditis elegans. In our comparative study of the recombinant galactosidases with the commercially available galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae, all enzymes also displayed various degrees of activity toward complex oligosaccharides containing ?-1,3-linked terminal galactose residues. All recombinant enzymes were found to be robust in the presence of various organic solvents, temperature variations, and freeze/thaw cycles and were also tested for their ability to synthesize galactooligosaccharides. Furthermore, the use of fermentors considerably increased the yield of recombinant galactosidases. Taken together, we demonstrate that purified recombinant galactosidases from A. niger and from A. nidulans are suitable for various glycobiological and biotechnological applications. PMID:24037406

Dragosits, Martin; Pflügl, Stefan; Kurz, Simone; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Wilson, Iain B H; Rendic, Dubravko

2014-04-01

154

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

155

Purification and characterization of mycoferritin from Aspergillus parasiticus (255).  

PubMed

As intracellular iron storage molecules, only hydroxymate type siderophores have been reported in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. This is the first report documenting the presence of mycoferritin in ascomycetes. The fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus (255), is capable of producing mycoferritin only upon induction with iron in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium. The same has been purified from Aspergillus sps by application of conventional biochemical techniques. The molecular mass, yield, iron and carbohydrate contents of the HPLC purified protein were 460kDa, 0.012mg/g of wet mycelia, 1.6% and 6.0%, respectively. The iron content was much lower than Mortierella alpina mycoferritin (17%). Native PAGE revealed the presence of trimeric and monomeric forms of ferritin. Subunit analysis by SDS-PAGE showed a single protein subunit of approximately 20kDa suggesting structural simplicity of the apoferritin shell. Variation in amino acid composition was noted upon comparison with ferritins of other species. Interestingly, no phenylalanine could be detected in the mycoferritin of Aspergillus sps. The acidic amino acid content was 1.5-1.6 fold higher than mammalian and fish ferritins. The spectral characteristics (UV/VIS and fluorescence) of mycoferritin were akin to equine spleen ferritin. However, circular dichroic spectra revealed a lower degree of helicity. PMID:15837384

Shashidhar, J; Sashidhar, R B; Deshpande, Vijay

2005-04-15

156

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:23899775

Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

2013-09-01

157

Phytase production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through submerged and solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

158

An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

2014-03-01

159

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

160

Distribution and mycotoxigenic potential of Aspergillus section Nigri species in naturally contaminated almonds.  

PubMed

In a previous study, inedible almond pick-out samples were assayed for aflatoxin and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. These samples contained high populations of black-spored Aspergillus section Nigri species. To investigate whether these species may contribute to the total potential mycotoxin content of almonds, Aspergillus section Nigri strains were isolated from these samples and assayed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2). The majority of isolates (117 strains, 68%) were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, which do not produce either mycotoxin. Of the 47 Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori isolates, 34 strains (72%) produced FB2 on CY20S agar, and representative strains produced lower but measurable amounts of FB2 on almond meal agar. No OTA-producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were detected. Almond pick-out samples contained no measurable FB2, suggesting that properly dried and stored almonds are not conducive for FB2 production by resident A. niger and A. awamori populations. However, 3 of 21 samples contained low levels (<1.5 ng/g) of OTA, indicating that sporadic OTA contamination may occur but may be caused by OTA-producing strains of other Aspergillus species. PMID:23575138

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L

2013-04-01

161

Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae Increases Secreted Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes. PMID:23835170

Hunter, A. J.; Morris, T. A.; Jin, B.; Saint, C. P.

2013-01-01

162

Central nervous system Aspergillus infection after epidural analgesia: diagnosis, therapeutic challenges, and literature review  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus terreus was identified in an intra-dural spinal biopsy specimen from an African female with recurrent headache and hydrocephalus. Prior laboratory testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was non-diagnostic, despite extensive central nervous system (CNS) involvement. CNS Aspergillus infection presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is reviewed in the context of this particularly instructive and difficult case. PMID:19717262

Genzen, Jonathan R.; Kenney, Barton

2009-01-01

163

Rapid detection and quantification of Aspergillus fumigatus in environmental air samples using solid-phase cytometry.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is an ubiquitous fungus capable of causing severe infections such as aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive aspergillosis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Monitoring the number of Aspergillus fumigatus spores in the air is crucial for infection control. In the present study, a novel approach for the quantification of Aspergillus fumigatus, based on solid-phase cytometry (SPC) and immunofluorescent labeling, was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were confirmed by testing pure cultures. Paecilomyces variotii and Rhizopus stolonifer were codetected but could be excluded on the basis of morphology of the microcolonies. The SPC method has considerable advantages compared to the culture-based method, including its low detection limit (4 cells/m3), its speed (results are obtained within 24 h), and the straightforward microscopic identification of Aspergillus fumigatus. Additionally, comparison of results obtained with both methods demonstrated that they are equally accurate for the quantification of Aspergillus fumigatus in environmental air samples. PMID:19534140

Vanhee, Lies M E; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

2009-05-01

164

Polyphasic approach to the identification of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use a polyphasic approach to identify Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts collected in the Amazon forest: investigation of macro- and microscopic morphology, production of extrolites, heat-resistance fungi, and sequencing of DNA regions. The following Aspergillus section Flavi species were identified: Aspergillus flavus (75.5%), Aspergillus nomius (22.3%), and Aspergillus parasiticus (2.2%). All A. nomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced aflatoxins B and G, but not cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A. flavus isolates were more diversified and a high frequency of mycotoxigenic strains was observed. The polyphasic approach permitted the reliable identification of section Flavi species. The rate of mycotoxigenic strains was high (92.7%) and mainly included A. flavus strains producing elevated levels of aflatoxins and CPA. These results highlight the possibility of co-occurrence of both toxins, increasing their potential toxic effect in this commodity. PMID:23561218

Baquião, Arianne Costa; de Oliveira, Maitê Martins Melo; Reis, Tatiana Alves; Zorzete, Patricia; Diniz Atayde, Danielle; Correa, Benedito

2013-08-15

165

Cryptic Species and Azole Resistance in the Aspergillus niger Complex?†  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is a common clinical isolate. Multiple species comprise the Aspergillus section Nigri and are separable using sequence data. The antifungal susceptibility of these cryptic species is not known. We determined the azole MICs of 50 black aspergilli, 45 from clinical specimens, using modified EUCAST (mEUCAST) and Etest methods. Phylogenetic trees were prepared using the internal transcribed spacer, beta-tubulin, and calmodulin sequences to identify strains to species level and the results were compared with those obtained with cyp51A sequences. We attempted to correlate cyp51A mutations with azole resistance. Etest MICs were significantly different from mEUCAST MICs (P < 0.001), with geometric means of 0.77 and 2.79 mg/liter, respectively. Twenty-six of 50 (52%) isolates were itraconazole resistant by mEUCAST (MICs > 8 mg/liter), with limited cross-resistance to other azoles. Using combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences, the 45 clinical isolates grouped into 5 clades, A. awamori (55.6%), A. tubingensis (17.8%), A. niger (13.3%), A. acidus (6.7%), and an unknown group (6.7%), none of which were morphologically distinguishable. Itraconazole resistance was found in 36% of the isolates in the A. awamori group, 90% of the A. tubingensis group, 33% of the A. niger group, 100% of the A. acidus group, and 67% of the unknown group. These data suggest that cyp51A mutations in section Nigri may not play as important a role in azole resistance as in A. fumigatus, although some mutations (G427S, K97T) warrant further study. Numerous cryptic species are found in clinical isolates of the Aspergillus section Nigri and are best reported as “A. niger complex” by clinical laboratories. Itraconazole resistance was common in this data set, but azole cross-resistance was unusual. The mechanism of resistance remains obscure. PMID:21768508

Howard, Susan J.; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bowyer, Paul; Varga, Janos; Denning, David W.

2011-01-01

166

Healthy Human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (TH1–TH17) and destructive allergic (TH2) immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins) participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with TH2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-?, IL-4 or IL-17) to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-? more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 TH1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein), Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase), Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase) and Asp f22 (enolase). Strong IFN-? responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals. Conclusions Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases. PMID:20174463

Chaudhary, Neelkamal; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

2010-01-01

167

Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 ?M. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

2014-01-01

168

Production of d-amino acid oxidase from Aspergillus sojae  

Microsoft Academic Search

d-Amino acid oxidase activities for d-glutamate (d-Glu), d-aspartate (d-Asp) and d-alanine (d-Ala) were found in cell-free extract of Aspergillus sojae (A. sojae). The enzyme activities for these three substrates increased over 30-fold by the addition of 0.25% d-Ala to the culture medium. Glycerol was an effective carbon source for increasing the enzyme activities. d-Ala, d-serine (d-Ser), and d-tryptophan (d-Trp) were

Mamoru Wakayama; Yuka Takeuchi; Katsuyuki Tasaka; Kenji Sakai; Mitsuaki Moriguchi

1996-01-01

169

Characterization of two forms of glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger glucoamylases GI and GII (E.C. 3.2.1.3) were isolated from a commercial enzyme preparation by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Both enzymes consist of a single glycosylated polypeptide\\u000a chain. The molecular weights of GI and GII were determined by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation to 52,000 and\\u000a 46,000, respectively, and by molecular sieving to 65,000 and 55,000.

Birte Svensson; Torben Graves Svendsen; IB Svendsen; Takuo Sakai; Martin Ottesen

1982-01-01

170

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latge, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

171

Riboflavin production by Aspergillus terreus from beet-molasses.  

PubMed

Aspergillus terreus was used for riboflavin (vitamin B2) production in a medium containing beet molasses as the sole carbon source. Growth and the vitamin production of the fungus were markedly affected by the composition of the culture medium. A maximum riboflavin yield was achieved at the late exponential growth phase (16 day-old cultures) in the presence of (g/l): centrifuged beet-molasses, 90; L-asparagine, 1; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5; K2HPO4/kH2PO4 (1:1), 5; and the medium initially adjusted to pH 8. PMID:8172689

Sabry, S A; Ghanem, K M; Ghozlan, H A

1993-12-01

172

Steady-state shear characteristics of Aspergillus niger broths  

SciTech Connect

It can be difficult to obtain reliable rheological data for filamentous fermentation broths using conventional instruments. One common approach is to measure the torque drawn by an impeller rotating in the suspension. Many previous workers have assumed that the applicable shear rate in such a device is related to the impeller speed by a fluid-independent constant determined by calibration with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The rheology of Aspergillus niger broths have been characterized using the impeller viscometer approach. The changes in the broth rheology were measured, and used to interpret the growth of biomass and the evolution of the microorganism morphology.

Svihla, C.K.; Dronawat, S.N.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

173

Production and immobilization of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger A20  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of cellobiase was investigated using a submerged culture of Aspergillus niger A20. The maximum production occurred when the pH was controlled and maintained at 4.0 during the fermentation process. Lactose (0.2%, w\\/v) and cellulose (1.5%, w\\/v) were the most favourable carbon sources. Yeast extract (0.05%, w\\/v) peptone (0.025%, w\\/v), urea (0.025%, w\\/v) and (NH4)2SO4 (0.07%, w\\/ v) were

Ahmed F. Abdel-Fattah; Mona Y. Osman; Mohamed A. Abdel-Naby

1997-01-01

174

Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.  

SciTech Connect

Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Gladden, John Michael

2013-09-01

175

SP mountain data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

1981-01-01

176

Monoclonal antibodies against a 97-kilodalton antigen from Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed Central

We prepared a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Aspergillus flavus that all reacted against one 97-kDa antigen by western blot (immunoblot). Flow cytometry demonstrated that these antibodies bound (in increasing degrees) to all morphologic stages of A. flavus growth: conidia, swollen conidia, and hyphae. Cross-reactivity among species was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of fungal culture filtrates. Four MAbs reacted with 10 of 11 A. flavus isolates, and the fifth one reacted with 9 of them. One MAb also reacted with A. fumigatus, two reacted with A. niger, A. wentii, and A. nidulans, and all five reacted with A. ochraceus. None reacted with A. terreus, A. glaucus, A. versicolor, or a Penicillium species. Each MAb bound to A. flavus hyphae in formalin-fixed paraffin sections of a muscle biopsy from a confirmed human case of invasive aspergillosis. In summary, these MAbs identified a 97-kDa antigen found on A. flavus that is both surface bound and an exoantigen. Either the same or a cross-reacting antigen is present in A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus species. Images PMID:7496924

Hetherington, S V; Henwick, S; Parham, D M; Patrick, C C

1994-01-01

177

The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

2003-01-01

178

Isolation of bacterial antagonists of Aspergillus flavus from almonds.  

PubMed

Bacteria were isolated from California almond orchard samples to evaluate their potential antifungal activity against aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Fungal populations from the same samples were examined to determine the incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. Antagonistic activities of the isolated bacterial strains were screened against a nonaflatoxigenic nor mutant of A. flavus, which accumulates the pigmented aflatoxin precursor norsolorinic acid (NOR) under conditions conducive to aflatoxin production. Using solid and liquid media in coculture assays, 171 bacteria isolated from almond flowers, immature nut fruits, and mature nut fruits showed inhibition of A. flavus growth and/or inhibition of NOR accumulation. Bacterial isolates were further characterized for production of extracellular enzymes capable of hydrolyzing chitin or yeast cell walls. Molecular and physiological identification of the bacterial strains indicated that the predominant genera isolated were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, and Burkholderia, as well as several plant-associated enteric and nonenteric bacteria. A set of 20 isolates was selected for further study based on their species identification, antifungal phenotypes, and extracellular enzyme production. Quantitative assays using these isolates in liquid coculture with a wild-type, aflatoxin-producing A. flavus strain showed that a number of strains completely inhibited fungal growth in three different media. These results indicate the potential for development of bacterial antagonists as biological control agents against aflatoxigenic aspergilli on almonds. PMID:16767519

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; Baker, James L; Mahoney, Noreen E

2006-07-01

179

Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25 degrees C at the following different concentrations of the essential oil (from 0.0 to 30mug/mL). The essential oil inhibited fungal growth to different extents depending on the concentration, and completely inhibited aflatoxin production at concentrations above 0.10microg/mL. The analysis of the oil by GC/MS showed that its main components are precocene II (46.35%), precocene I (42.78%), cumarine (5.01%) and Trans-caryophyllene (3.02%). Comparison by transmission electron microscopy of the fungal cells, control and those incubated with different concentrations of essential oil, showed ultra-structural changes which were concentration dependent of the essential oil of A. conyzoides. Such ultra-structural changes were more evident in the endomembrane system, affecting mainly the mitochondria. Degradation was also observed in both surrounding fibrils. The ability to inhibit aflatoxin production as a new biological activity of A.conyzoides L. indicates that it may be considered as a useful tool for a better understanding of the complex pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis. PMID:19906457

Nogueira, Juliana H C; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Galleti, Silvia R; Facanali, Roseane; Marques, Márcia O M; Felício, Joana D

2010-01-31

180

Terrein biosynthesis in Aspergillus terreus and its impact on phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Terrein is a fungal metabolite with ecological, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antioxidative activities. Although it is produced by Aspergillus terreus as one of its major secondary metabolites, not much is known about its biosynthetic pathway. Here, we describe an unexpected discovery of the terrein biosynthesis gene locus made while we were looking for a PKS gene involved in production of conidia coloration pigments common for Aspergilli. The gene, ATEG_00145, here named terA, is essential for terrein biosynthesis and heterologous production of TerA in Aspergillus niger revealed an unusual plasticity in the products formed, yielding a mixture of 4-hydroxy-6-methylpyranone, orsellinic acid, and 6,7-dihydroxymellein. Biochemical and molecular genetic analyses indicate a low extension cycle specificity of TerA. Furthermore, 6-hydroxymellein was identified as a key intermediate in terrein biosynthesis. We find that terrein production is highly induced on plant-derived media, that terrein has phytotoxic activity on plant growth, and induces lesions on fruit surfaces. PMID:24816227

Zaehle, Christoph; Gressler, Markus; Shelest, Ekaterina; Geib, Elena; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

2014-06-19

181

Testing an innovative device against airborne Aspergillus contamination.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a major airborne nosocomial pathogen that is responsible for severe mycosis in immunocompromised patients. We studied the efficacy of an innovative mobile air-treatment device in eliminating A. fumigatus from the air following experimental massive contamination in a high-security room. Viable mycological particles were isolated from sequential air samples in order to evaluate the device's effectiveness in removing the fungus. The concentration of airborne conidia was reduced by 95% in 18 min. Contamination was reduced below the detection threshold in 29 min, even when the machine was at the lowest airflow setting. In contrast, during spontaneous settling with no air treatment, conidia remained airborne for more than 1 h. This indoor air contamination model provided consistent and reproducible results. Because the air purifier proved to be effective at eliminating a major contaminant, it may prove useful in preventing air-transmitted disease agents. In an experimental space mimicking a hospital room, the AirLyse air purifier, which uses a combination of germicidal ultraviolet C irradiation and titanium photocatalysis, effectively eliminated Aspergillus conidia. Such a mobile device may be useful in routine practice for lowering microbiological air contamination in the rooms of patients at risk. PMID:24965945

Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Bernard, Marie-Charlotte; Gros, Valérie; Sarradin, Pierre; Perrodeau, Elodie; Vecellio, Laurent; Piscopo, Antoine; Chandenier, Jacques; Bernard, Louis

2014-08-01

182

Environmental investigations and molecular typing of Aspergillus in a Chinese hospital.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections due to Aspergillus species have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In order to determine the possible relationship between environmental contamination by Aspergillus and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis, a 1-year prospective study was carried out in a tertiary hospital in China. Air, surface, and tap water sampling was performed twice monthly at the bone marrow transplant (BMT) department, intensive care unit (ICU), neurosurgery intensive care unit (NICU), and outdoors. Nose, pharynx, and sputum samples were collected from high-risk patients. Isolates of Aspergillus from the environment and patients were genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to investigate the origin of infection. Mean total Aspergillus count was 7.73, 8.94, 13.19, and 17.32 cfu/m(3) in the BMT department, ICU, NICU, and outdoors, respectively. RAPD analysis by R108 primer demonstrated that strains isolated from patients in NICU were identical to the environmental strain. Strains isolated from patients in ICU differed from the environmental strain. Aspergillus contamination was found in the BTM department, NICU, and ICU. Clinical and environmental strains from NICU had identical genotypes. These findings suggest that Aspergillus is found in the hospital environment including the air, surface, and tap water. The genotypes of Aspergillus were identical from patients and the environment, suggesting that clinical infection may originate from the hospital environment. PMID:24442359

Ao, Jun-hong; Hao, Zhen-feng; Zhu, He; Wen, Liang; Yang, Rong-ya

2014-02-01

183

NASA SP-4009 APOLLO SPACECRAFT  

E-print Network

NASA SP-4009 THE APOLLO SPACECRAFT VOLUME IV January 21, 1966-July 13, 1974 hy Ivan D. Ertel (revised) Main entry under title: The Apollo spacecraft. (The NASA historical series) (NASA SP-4009. 8, 1962-Sept. 30, 1964. [etc.] Includes bibliographical references. 1. Project Apollo. I. Ertel

Rathbun, Julie A.

184

Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.  

PubMed

Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain. PMID:13678040

Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

1998-03-01

185

DADiSP processing guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A guide for DADiSP software, intended for use by the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) Team during and after the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-1 mission, is presented. DADiSP is a Data Analysis and Display Software developed and marketed by DSP Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This guide is intended to be used in addition to the DADiSP Worksheet User Manual and Reference Manual which are supplied by the company with the software. Technical support for DADiSP is available from DSP at (617) 577-1133. Access to DADiSP on Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) EGSE is being provided to the LPE team during USMP-1 for off-line processing of SAMS data.

Rogers, Melissa J. B.

1993-01-01

186

Bioaccumulation potential of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for removal of heavy metals from paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from paper mill effluent showed tolerance and accumulation of toxic metals Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu from synthetic medium and paper mill effluent. Physico-chemical and heavy metals characterization of industrially treated paper mill effluent showed insignificant reduction in BOD, hardness, TDS and heavy metals as compared to permissible limits of BIS and WHO. A. niger and A. flavus were treated with synthetic medium containing 100-1000 mg l(-1) of six heavy metals. A. niger was able to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, 500 mg l(-1) Cu, 250 mg l(-1) Zn and 100 mg l(-1) Cr, Ni respectively. No growth of A. niger was observed in 100 mg l-(-1) of Cd. A. flavus was capable to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, Zn and Ni, 100mg l(-1) Cu. A. flavus growth was completely inhibited in 100 mg l(-1) of Cd and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb reduction were found significant (p < 0.05) in the paper effluent inoculated with A. niger and A. flavus biomass compared to industrial treated effluent. A. niger and A. flavus accumulated maximum of Pb (75.82%) followed by Zn (49.40%) > Cu (45.34%) > Ni (25.20%), while only 41% Cr was accumulated by A. nigerfrom 100 mg l(-1) of Cr solution. PMID:23741802

Thippeswamy, B; Shivakumar, C K; Krishnappa, M

2012-11-01

187

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182), which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase) transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and ?-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli. PMID:23223175

Cubaiu, Loredana; Abbas, Hamid; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Budroni, Marilena; Migheli, Quirico

2012-01-01

188

Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis: Report of a case and review of literature  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient with subretinal abscess and also review the reported cases. A 50-year-old healthy male presented with sudden painful loss of vision in right eye. He was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis and underwent urgent vitrectomy. Aspergillus terreus growth was obtained in culture. At final follow-up, there was complete resolution of the infection but visual acuity was poor due to macular scar. Aspergillus terreus is a rare cause of endophthalmitis with usually poor outcomes. Newer antifungals like Voriconazole can be sometimes associated with better prognosis. PMID:25230968

Panigrahi, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, Rupak; Pal, Swakshyar Saumya; Mukherjee, Anjan; Lobo, Aneesha

2014-01-01

189

Halophilic Aspergillus penicillioides from athalassohaline, thalassohaline, and polyhaline environments  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus penicillioides is a true halophile, present in diverse econiches – from the hypersaline athalassohaline, and thalassohaline environments, to polyhaline systems, and in different geographical locations. Twenty seven isolates from these environments, were seen to be moderate halophiles, euryhaline in nature. They had an obligate need of a low aw and were unable to grow on a regular defined medium such as Czapek Dox Agar, as well as on varied nutrient rich agar media such as Malt Extract, Potato Dextrose and Sabouraud Agar; however, growth was obtained on all these media when amended with 10% solar salt. In absence of added salt, the conidia either did not germinate, or when germinated, distortions and lysis were seen in the short mycelial forms; on media with salt, the mycelia and vesicles appeared normal. PMID:25140168

Nazareth, Sarita W.; Gonsalves, Valerie

2014-01-01

190

In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen ?-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these ?-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

2014-09-01

191

Characterization of the hexahydropolyprenols of Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius  

PubMed Central

The isolation and properties of a group of alcohols from the mycelium of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius are described. Mass-, nuclear-magnetic-resonance- and infrared-spectrometric studies coupled with evidence from ozonolytic degradation and chromatography show the mixture to contain hexahydroprenols-18, -19, -20, -21, -22, -23 and -24. Each contains a saturated `hydroxy-terminal' isoprene residue, a saturated ?-terminal isoprene residue and a saturated ?-isoprene residue (adjacent to the ?-residue). The presence of only two trans-isoprene residues is also a feature of the series of alcohols, but the precise position of these in each molecule is not known. ImagesFig. 4. (a)Fig. 4. (b) PMID:6029603

Stone, K. J.; Butterworth, P. H. W.; Hemming, F. W.

1967-01-01

192

Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.  

PubMed

Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

2004-10-01

193

The reliability of the Aspergillus nidulans physical map.  

PubMed

Here we report an evaluation of the Aspergillus nidulans physical map (a cosmid contig map) emphasizing quantification and description of obvious mapping errors. Classification and appraisal of mapping errors should be helpful to researchers working on particular regions of the map. We estimate between 47 (4.1%) and 63 (5.4%) probe/clone-linking errors. The majority of identified false links (38) permit reciprocal exchanges among linking clones located on disconnected mapping regions. The order of adjacent clones or probes on the affected contigs remains unchanged. In addition we describe an Internet-accessible resource in which genetic and physical maps were integrated through a graphic interface. A simple search engine allows retrieval of cosmids from redundant clone lists and provides links to the minimal clone order. Integration of genetic and physical maps provides an additional level of accountability in which mapping discrepancies are visually located. PMID:10882534

Prade, R A

2000-04-01

194

Medium optimization for the production of antioxidants from Aspergillus candidus.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to optimize the factors for the production of antioxidant from Aspergillus candidus CCRC 31543. Extracts of broth filtrate had higher antioxidant activity (inhibition of peroxidation [IP] >98%) when sucrose or lactose was used as a carbon source. Sucrose in the medium also resulted in a higher yield of extracts. Ethyl acetate extracts had the highest yield and antioxidant activity compared with the other two solvents. For the production of antioxidant, inorganic nitrogen sources were found to be more suitable than organic nitrogen sources, and ammonium sulfate was better than sodium nitrate. Yeast extract had a strong influence on the yield of antioxidant extracts. Both mycelium and broth filtrate of A. candidus CCRC 31543 showed similar antioxidant activity (IP = 95%), and they also had similar extraction yields. PMID:10382656

Yen, G C; Chang, Y C

1999-06-01

195

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs.  

PubMed

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. Tolerance of the A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutant, sakADelta, to these drugs indicates the osmotic/oxidative stress MAPK pathway is involved in maintaining cell wall integrity. Using deletion mutants of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we first identified thymol and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-D) as potent chemosensitizing agents that target the cell wall. We then used these chemosensitizing agents to act as synergists to commercial antifungal drugs against tolerant strains of A. fumigatus. Thymol was an especially potent chemosensitizing agent for amphotericin B, fluconazole or ketoconazole. The potential use of natural, safe chemosensitizing agents in antifungal chemotherapy of human mycoses as an alternative to combination therapy is discussed. PMID:18486603

Kim, Jong; Campbell, Bruce; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen; Molyneux, Russell; May, Gregory

2008-07-18

196

Effect of Butyrolactone I on the Producing Fungus, Aspergillus terreus†  

PubMed Central

Butyrolactone I [?-oxo-?-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-?-(p-hydroxy-m-3,3-dimethylallyl-benzyl)-?-methoxycarbonyl-?-butyrolactone] is produced as a secondary metabolite by Aspergillus terreus. Because small butyrolactone-containing molecules act as self-regulating factors in some bacteria, the effects of butyrolactone I on the producing organism were studied; specifically, changes in morphology, sporulation, and secondary metabolism were studied. Threefold or greater increases in hyphal branching (with concomitant decreases in the average hyphal growth unit), submerged sporulation, and secondary metabolism were observed when butyrolactone I was added to cultures of A. terreus. Among the secondary metabolites whose production was increased by this treatment was the therapeutically important compound lovastatin. These findings indicate that butyrolactone I induces morphological and sporulation changes in A. terreus and enhances secondary metabolite production in a manner similar to that previously reported for filamentous bacteria. PMID:9758788

Schimmel, Timothy G.; Coffman, Allen D.; Parsons, Sarah J.

1998-01-01

197

Bioconversion of tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Theabrownins (TB) are water-soluble phenolic compounds associated with the various health benefits of Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented Chinese dark tea. This work reports on the production of theabrownins from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a pure culture of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from a solid-state Pu-erh tea fermentation. A theabrownins yield of 158 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves was obtained in 6 days at 45 °C in an aerobic fermentation. In a 2 l fermenter, the yield of theabrownins was 151 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves in 48 h of aerobic culture (45 °C, 1 vvm aeration rate, 250 rpm agitation speed). Extracellular polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of A. fumigatus contributed to this bioconversion. Repeated batch fermentation process was used for producing theabrownins but was less productive than the batch process. PMID:25214210

Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

2014-12-01

198

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; Devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

2010-10-01

199

Categorisation of sugar acid dehydratases in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

In the genome of Aspergillus niger five genes were identified coding for proteins with homologies to sugar acid dehydratases. The open reading frames were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activities tested with a library of sugar acids. Four genes were identified to code for proteins with activities with sugar acids: an l-galactonate dehydratase (gaaB), two d-galactonate dehydratases (dgdA, dgdB) and an l-rhamnonate dehydratase (lraC). The specificities of the proteins were characterised. The l-galactonate dehydratase had highest activity with l-fuconate, however it is unclear whether the enzyme is involved in l-fuconate catabolism. None of the proteins showed activity with galactaric acid or galactarolactone. PMID:24382357

Motter, Francine A; Kuivanen, Joosu; Keränen, Hanna; Hilditch, Satu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

2014-03-01

200

Fumiquinones A and B, nematicidal quinones produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

New nematicides named fumiquinones A (1) and B (2), together with spinulosin (3), LL-S490beta (4), and pseurotin A (5), were isolated from Aspergillus fumigatus and their structures were established by spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR. Compound 1 showed effective nematicidal activities against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Pratylenchus penetrans without inhibiting plant growth except for lettuce seedlings. Compound 2 showed effective nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus, but had no inhibitory activity against P. penetrans. Compounds 3-5 showed effective nematicidal activities against B. xylophilus without any plant growth inhibition. Compounds 1-5 had no nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans. This is the first report of the nematicidal activities of compounds 3-5. PMID:17617730

Hayashi, Asami; Fujioka, Shozo; Nukina, Manabu; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi; Kimura, Yasuo

2007-07-01

201

Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases  

PubMed Central

For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed. PMID:22410255

2011-01-01

202

Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Covering: up to 2014 Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections. PMID:25140791

2014-01-01

203

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system. PMID:2310183

Kamath, A V; Vaidyanathan, C S

1990-01-01

204

A fungal sexual revolution: Aspergillus and Penicillium show the way.  

PubMed

Fungi have some of the most diverse sex lives in nature, ranging from self-fertility to obligate outcrossing systems with several thousand different sexes, although at least 20% of fungal species have no known sexual stage. However, recent evidence suggests that many supposed 'asexual' species do indeed have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction. Using experimental and genomic findings from Aspergillus and Penicillium species as examples, it is argued that evidence such as the presence and expression of apparently functional sex-related genes, the distribution of mating-type genes, detection of recombination from population genetic analyses, and the discovery of extant sexual cycles reveal an on-going revolution in the understanding of fungal asexuality. PMID:22032932

Dyer, Paul S; O'Gorman, Céline M

2011-12-01

205

Secondary metabolites from an algicolous Aspergillus versicolor strain.  

PubMed

Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC?? value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H; Ji, Nai-Yun

2012-01-01

206

SP-100 space reactor safety  

SciTech Connect

The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

Not Available

1987-05-01

207

Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A; Nielsen, Kristian F

2011-01-01

208

Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

2011-01-01

209

Reducing the cost of resistance; experimental evolution in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans  

E-print Network

., 2000; Lipsitch, 2001). Clearly, the phenomenon of compensatory evolution in antibiotic-resistant experimental studies have investigated com- pensatory evolution in antibiotic-resistant prokaryotes (see alsoReducing the cost of resistance; experimental evolution in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus

Kassen, Rees

210

OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

211

Pulmonary endarterectomy for saddling pulmonary embolism by Aspergillus fungus in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

We present a case of Tricuspid valve Aspergillus endocarditis with saddle shaped massive pulmonary embolism occurring in an immunocompetent host. The patient was managed uniquely by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and combination antifungal chemotherapy with Liposomal amphotericin-B + caspofungin.

Minhas, Harpreet Singh; Jain, Gagan; Mangukia, Chirantan; Goyal, Mayank

2014-01-01

212

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or...

2010-07-01

213

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or...

2011-07-01

214

Structural analysis of cerebrosides from Aspergillus fungi: the existence of galactosylceramide in A. oryzae.  

PubMed

Glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide were detected in three Aspergillus species: Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus. awamori, using borate-coated TLC. The cerebrosides from A. oryzae were further purified by ion exchange and iatrobeads column chromatographies with or without borate, and determined the composition of sugar, fatty acid and sphingoid base by GC/MS, MALDI-TOF/MS and (1)H-NMR. We identified them as ?-glucosylceramide and ?-galactosylceramide. The ceramide moiety of both cerebrosides consisted mainly of 2-hydroxystearic acid and either 9-methyl-octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine or octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for the presence of ?-galactosylceramide in A. oryzae. PMID:25129050

Tani, Yasushi; Amaishi, Yasunori; Funatsu, Tori; Ito, Masahiro; Itonori, Saki; Hata, Yoji; Ashida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kenji

2014-12-01

215

A patient with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis (ABPM) is an exagregated immunologic response to fungal colonization in the lower airways. It may cause by many kinds of fungal, but Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common cause of ABPM, although other Aspergillus and other fungal organisms, like Candida albicans, have been implicated. Aspergllus fumigatus and Candida albicans may be found as outdoor and indoor fungi, and cause the sensitization, elicitation of the disease pathology, and its clinical manifestations. Several diagnostic procedurs may be impicated to support the diagnosis of ABPM caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans in a 48 year old man was discussed. The patient was treated with antifungal, corticosteroids, and antibiotic for the secondary bacterial infection. The patient's condition is improved without any significant side effects. PMID:23314973

Wardhana; Datau, E A

2012-10-01

216

Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus species: a review of 310 reported cases.  

PubMed

Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare infection. We reviewed 310 individual cases reported in the literature from 1936 to 2013. The median age of patients was 43 years (range, 0-86 years), and 59% were males. Comorbidities associated with this infection included chronic granulomatous disease (19%), haematological malignancies (11%), transplantation (11%), diabetes (6%), pulmonary disease (4%), steroid therapy (4%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (4%). Sites of infection included the spine (49%), base of the skull, paranasal sinuses and jaw (18%), ribs (9%), long bones (9%), sternum (5%), and chest wall (4%). The most common infecting species were Aspergillus fumigatus (55%), Aspergillus flavus (12%), and Aspergillus nidulans (7%). Sixty-two per cent of the individual cases were treated with a combination of an antifungal regimen and surgery. Amphotericin B was the antifungal drug most commonly used, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. Several combination or sequential therapies were also used experimentally. The overall crude mortality rate was 25%. PMID:24303995

Gabrielli, E; Fothergill, A W; Brescini, L; Sutton, D A; Marchionni, E; Orsetti, E; Staffolani, S; Castelli, P; Gesuita, R; Barchiesi, F

2014-06-01

217

Iron starvation leads to increased expression of Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase in Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for iron-regulated proteins of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus a 16-kDa protein was identified which is about 5-fold upregulated during iron starvation in both species and which can be approximately 500-fold enriched by simple one-step chromatography on Amberlite XAD-16 resin. N-terminal protein sequence analysis and cloning of the respective A. nidulans cDNA identified this protein as a

Harald Oberegger; Ivo Zadra; Michelle Schoeser; Hubertus Haas

2000-01-01

218

Rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus in rice using biofunctionalized carbon nanotube field effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we have used carbon nanotube field effect transistors (FET) that have been functionalized with protein\\u000a G and IgG to detect Aspergillus flavus in contaminated milled rice. The adsorbed protein G on the carbon nanotubes walls enables the IgG anti-Aspergillus antibodies to be well oriented and therefore to display full antigen binding capacity for fungal antigens. A

Raquel A. Villamizar; Alicia Maroto; F. Xavier Rius

2011-01-01

219

Fatal Aspergillus pancarditis after incompatible blood transfusion intended to be an autologous blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus pancarditis is a rare infection, and it has rarely been reported after blood transfusion. In this report, we describe a fatal case of Aspergillus pancarditis in a patient who received antibiotics and corticoids after an incompatible blood transfusion intended to be an autologous blood transfusion. A 64-year-old man suffering from herniation of intervertebral disk between C4 and C5 received

Isao Ohya; Yasuo Bunai; Masatake Tsujinaka; Kayoko Akaza; Isao Nakamura

2001-01-01

220

Microcolony Imaging of Aspergillus fumigatus Treated with Echinocandins Reveals Both Fungistatic and Fungicidal Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe echinocandins are lipopeptides that can be employed as antifungal drugs that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-?-glucans within the fungal cell wall. Anidulafungin and caspofungin are echinocandins used in the treatment of Candida infections and have activity against other fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus. The echinocandins are generally considered fungistatic against Aspergillus species.MethodsCulture of A. fumigatus from conidia to microcolonies on

Colin J. Ingham; Peter M. Schneeberger

2012-01-01

221

Efficient expression and secretion of Aspergillus niger RH5344 polygalacturonase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) cDNA was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Secretion of the protein into the growth medium was efficiently directed by the fungal leader sequence, and processing occurred at the same site as in Aspergillus. The expression level was significantly enhanced by using a “short” version of the yeast ADHI promoter. An additional increase in

C. Lang; A. C. Looman

1995-01-01

222

Immunoperoxidase staining for identification of Aspergillus species in routinely processed tissue sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To evaluate the performance of an immunoperoxidase stain using the monoclonal antibody EB-A1 to detect Aspergillus species in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue. METHODS: The monoclonal antibody EB-A1 directed against galactomannan was used to detect Aspergillus species in 23 patients with suspected or confirmed invasive aspergillosis. Immunostaining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue using the

P. E. Verweij; F. Smedts; T. Poot; P. Bult; J. A. A. Hoogkamp-Korstanje; J. F. G. M. Meis

1996-01-01

223

Effects of extracts of fiberglass insulations on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extracts of thermal and acoustic fiberglass insulations used in the duct work of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems supported germination of conidia and growth ofAspergillus versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi 1908–9 andAspergillus fumigatus Fresenius 1863. Urea, formaldehyde and unidentified organics were detected in the extracts. Formaldehyde in concentrations similar to those found in the extracts restricted the growth of

Ifeoma M. Ezeonu; Daniel L. Price; Sidney A. Crow; Donald G. Ahearn

1995-01-01

224

Analyses of black Aspergillus species of peanut and maize for ochratoxins and fumonisins.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus section Nigri, or the black aspergilli, represents genetically closely related species that produce the mycotoxins, ochratoxins and the fumonisins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of an added concern because it is also a virulence factor for maize. Our preliminary data indicated that black aspergilli could develop asymptomatic infections with maize and peanuts plants. Symptomless infections are potential problems, because under favorable conditions, there is a potential for accumulation of ochratoxins and the fumonisins in contaminated postharvest crops. In the present report, the ability of black aspergilli from peanuts and maize to produce ochratoxin A and FB1 on maize kernels was assessed. One hundred fifty strains from peanuts and maize were isolated from several southeastern and midwestern states. Aspergillus nigri (A. nigri var. nigri) was the dominant species (87%), while Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus japonicus, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus carbonarius were infrequently isolated. None of the wild isolates produced detectable amounts of ochratoxins. However, we do report the occurrence of the fumonisins B1, B2, and B3. Of 54 field isolates, 30% (n = 16) produced FB1, 61% (n = 33) produced FB2, and 44% (n = 24) produced FB3. The amounts of fumonisins produced during the test period of 30 days suggest that these strains might be weak to moderate producers of fumonisin on maize. To our knowledge, this is a first report of FB1 and FB3 production by isolates of black aspergilli from an American cereal and legume. PMID:24780336

Palencia, Edwin R; Mitchell, Trevor R; Snook, Maurice E; Glenn, Anthony E; Gold, Scott; Hinton, Dorothy M; Riley, Ronald T; Bacon, Charles W

2014-05-01

225

An ammonium sulfate sensitive chitinase from Streptomyces sp. CS501.  

PubMed

A chitinase from Streptomyces sp. CS501 was isolated from the Korean soil sample, purified by single-step chromatography, and biochemically characterized. The extracellular chitinase (Ch501) was purified to 4.60 fold with yield of 28.74 % using Sepharose Cl-6B column. The molecular mass of Ch501 was approximately 43 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE and zymography. The enzyme (Ch501) was found to be stable over a broad pH range (5.0-10.0) and temperature (up to 50 °C), and have an optimum temperature of 60 °C. N-terminal sequence of Ch501 was AAYDDAAAAA. Intriguingly, Ch501 was highly sensitive to ammonium sulfate but it's completely suppressed activity was recovered after desalting out. TLC analysis of Ch501 showed the production of N-acetyl D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and Diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)2, as a principal hydrolyzed product. Ch501 shows antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Aspergillus brasiliensis, which can be used for the biological control of fungus. As has been simple in purification, stable in a broad range of pH, ability to produce oligosaccharides, and antifungal activity showed that Ch501 has potential applications in industries as for chitooligosaccharides production used as prebiotics and/or for the biological control of plant pathogens in agriculture. PMID:25359199

Rahman, Md Arifur; Choi, Yun Hee; Pradeep, G C; Yoo, Jin Cheol

2014-12-01

226

Combined Expression of Aspergillus nidulans Endoxylanase X24 and Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-Amylase in Industrial Baker's Yeasts and Their Use in Bread Making  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus nidulans endoxylanase X24 and the Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-amylase cDNAs were placed under the control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin promoter (pACT1) and introduced into baker's yeast. Bread made with transformants expressing both enzymes (YEpACT-AMY-ACT-X24) showed a 30% increase in volume and reduced firmness in comparison with that produced with a commercial strain. Endoxylanase X24 and (alpha)-amylase seem to act synergistically to improve the quality of bread in terms of volume and density. PMID:16535419

Monfort, A.; Blasco, A.; Prieto, J. A.; Sanz, P.

1996-01-01

227

Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)). PMID:17392194

Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

2007-04-01

228

Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Haliclona sp. from the Persian Gulf, Iran.  

PubMed

In this study, antifungal and antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Haliclona sp. were assessed (in vitro). The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spizizenii. The antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by using a broth microdilution test against clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our results showed diethyl ether extract of Haliclona sp. was active on Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, methanol extract in comparison with diethyl ether extract had better activity against C. albicans (MIC: 0.75 mg/mL, MFC: 1.5mg/mL) and A. fumigatus (MIC: 2mg/mL, MFC: 3mg/mL). Aqueous extract had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities. Based our results, Haliclona sp. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic and antifungal. PMID:24934592

Nazemi, M; Alidoust Salimi, M; Alidoust Salimi, P; Motallebi, A; Tamadoni Jahromi, S; Ahmadzadeh, O

2014-09-01

229

The Aspergillus Genome Database: multispecies curation and incorporation of RNA-Seq data to improve structural gene annotations  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD; http://www.aspgd.org) is a freely available web-based resource that was designed for Aspergillus researchers and is also a valuable source of information for the entire fungal research community. In addition to being a repository and central point of access to genome, transcriptome and polymorphism data, AspGD hosts a comprehensive comparative genomics toolbox that facilitates the exploration of precomputed orthologs among the 20 currently available Aspergillus genomes. AspGD curators perform gene product annotation based on review of the literature for four key Aspergillus species: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. We have iteratively improved the structural annotation of Aspergillus genomes through the analysis of publicly available transcription data, mostly expressed sequenced tags, as described in a previous NAR Database article (Arnaud et al. 2012). In this update, we report substantive structural annotation improvements for A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus genomes based on recently available RNA-Seq data. Over 26 000 loci were updated across these species; although those primarily comprise the addition and extension of untranslated regions (UTRs), the new analysis also enabled over 1000 modifications affecting the coding sequence of genes in each target genome. PMID:24194595

Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Arnaud, Martha B.; Inglis, Diane O.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Simison, Matt; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Binkley, Jonathan; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Wymore, Farrell; Sherlock, Gavin; Wortman, Jennifer R.

2014-01-01

230

Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

2012-03-01

231

Zinc Acquisition: A Key Aspect in Aspergillus fumigatus Virulence.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of all microorganisms. To grow in the lungs of a susceptible patient Aspergillus fumigatus must obtain zinc from the surrounding tissues. The concentration of Zn(2+) ions in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of them are tightly bound to proteins at the physiological pH. However, A. fumigatus has several zinc transporters (ZrfA, ZrfB and ZrfC) that enable it to uptake zinc efficiently under the extreme zinc-limiting conditions provided by a susceptible host. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of these transporters and is essential for virulence. ZrfC is required for fungal growth within the host tissues, whereas ZrfA and ZrfB play an accessory role. The zinc-scavenging capacity of ZrfC relies on its unusually long N-terminus. In addition, ZrfC also enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized in high amounts by neutrophils, even in immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. In summary, the regulation of zinc homeostasis and zinc acquisition could be promising targets for the discovery and development of a new generation of antifungals for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:24947168

Amich, Jorge; Calera, José Antonio

2014-12-01

232

Occurrence of Aspergillus fumigatus during composting of sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus, a medically important fungal opportunist and respiratory allergen, was isolated from woodchips and sewage sludge used in the production of compost at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's composting research facility in Beltsville, Md. It was also regularly isolated as a dominant fungus during forced aeration composting and after 30 days in an unaerated stationary curing pile; in both cases, the fungus was found in pile zones with temperatures less than 60 degrees C. Compost stored outdoors in stationary unaerated piles from 1 to 4 months after screening out of woodchips contained easily detectable amounts of A. fumigatus in the exterior pile zones (0- to 25-cm depths). Semiquantitative studies of the airspora at the composting site revealed that A. fumigatus constituted 75% of the total viable mycoflora captured. At locations 320 m to 8 km from the compost site, the fungus constituted only 2% of the total viable mycoflora in the air. Of 21 samples of commercially available potting soil, one had levels of A. fumigatus nearly equivalent to those of 1-month-old storage compost; 15 others had lower but detectable levels. PMID:339835

Millner, P D; Marsh, P B; Snowden, R B; Parr, J F

1977-01-01

233

Investigation of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation by various “omics” approaches  

PubMed Central

In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF). This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment. This extracellular matrix is absent in fungal colonies grown under classical liquid shake conditions (PL), which were historically used to understand A. fumigatus pathobiology. Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence. These differences in pathological and physiological characteristics between BF and liquid shake conditions suggest that the PL condition is a poor in vitro disease model. In the laboratory, A. fumigatus mycelium embedded by the extracellular matrix can be produced in vitro in aerial condition using an agar-based medium. To provide a global and accurate understanding of A. fumigatus in vitro BF growth, we utilized microarray, RNA-sequencing, and proteomic analysis to compare the global gene and protein expression profiles of A. fumigatus grown under BF and PL conditions. In this review, we will present the different signatures obtained with these three “omics” methods. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and their complementarity. PMID:23407341

Muszkieta, Laetitia; Beauvais, Anne; Pähtz, Vera; Gibbons, John G.; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Beau, Rémi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Rokas, Antonis; Francois, Jean M.; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A.; Latgé, Jean P.

2013-01-01

234

Calnexin Overexpression Increases Manganese Peroxidase Production in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Heme-containing peroxidases from white rot basidiomycetes, in contrast to most proteins of fungal origin, are poorly produced in industrial filamentous fungal strains. Factors limiting peroxidase production are believed to operate at the posttranslational level. In particular, insufficient availability of the prosthetic group which is required for peroxidase biosynthesis has been proposed to be an important bottleneck. In this work, we analyzed the role of two components of the secretion pathway, the chaperones calnexin and binding protein (BiP), in the production of a fungal peroxidase. Expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase (MnP) in Aspergillus niger resulted in an increase in the expression level of the clxA and bipA genes. In a heme-supplemented medium, where MnP was shown to be overproduced to higher levels, induction of clxA and bipA was also higher. Overexpression of these two chaperones in an MnP-producing strain was analyzed for its effect on MnP production. Whereas bipA overexpression seriously reduced MnP production, overexpression of calnexin resulted in a four- to fivefold increase in the extracellular MnP levels. However, when additional heme was provided in the culture medium, calnexin overexpression had no synergistic effect on MnP production. The possible function of these two chaperones in MnP maturation and production is discussed. PMID:11823227

Conesa, Ana; Jeenes, David; Archer, David B.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Punt, Peter J.

2002-01-01

235

Studies on the Production of Fungal Peroxidases in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpose, a protease-deficient A. niger strain and different expression cassettes have been used. Northern blotting experiments indicated high steady-state mRNA levels for the recombinant genes. Manganese peroxidase was secreted into the culture medium as an active protein. The recombinant protein showed specific activity and a spectrum profile similar to those of the native enzyme, was correctly processed at its N terminus, and had a slightly lower mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Recombinant MnP production could be increased up to 100 mg/liter upon hemoglobin supplementation of the culture medium. Lignin peroxidase was also secreted into the extracellular medium, although the protein was not active, presumably due to incorrect processing of the secreted enzyme. Expression of the lipA and mnp1 genes fused to the A. niger glucoamylase gene did not result in improved production yields. PMID:10877800

Conesa, Ana; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Punt, Peter J.

2000-01-01

236

Aspergillus Enzymes Involved in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides is of major importance in the food and feed, beverage, textile, and paper and pulp industries, as well as in several other industrial production processes. Enzymatic degradation of these polymers has received attention for many years and is becoming a more and more attractive alternative to chemical and mechanical processes. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the structural characteristics of these polysaccharides and in characterizing the enzymes involved in their degradation and the genes of biotechnologically relevant microorganisms encoding these enzymes. The members of the fungal genus Aspergillus are commonly used for the production of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. This genus produces a wide spectrum of cell wall-degrading enzymes, allowing not only complete degradation of the polysaccharides but also tailored modifications by using specific enzymes purified from these fungi. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from aspergilli and the genes by which they are encoded. PMID:11729262

de Vries, Ronald P.; Visser, Jaap

2001-01-01

237

Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage. PMID:17418318

Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

2007-01-01

238

Identification of the Predominant Volatile Compounds Produced by Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH2Cl2, and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth. PMID:4629700

Kaminski, E.; Libbey, L. M.; Stawicki, S.; Wasowicz, E.

1972-01-01

239

Evidence of multiple extracellular phospholipase activities of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Extracellular phospholipase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several bacterial infections. Recently, extracellular phospholipase activity has been proposed as a virulence factor in the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic member of its genus, responsible for > 90% of infections. Previously, no specific virulence factors have been determined. We investigated the ability of A. fumigatus to produce extracellular phospholipases at 37 degrees C. Fast atom bombardment was used to compare lipid-containing media before and at 5-h intervals during shaking culture of A. fumigatus. Lipids were extracted and analyzed. Many anions corresponding to phospholipid breakdown products were identified. Specific anion species identified indicated phospholipase A, B, C (PLC), and D activities. PLC activity was further investigated by using the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine. PLC activity was initially observed after 30 h of growth and accumulated in broth cultures up to 50 h. At 55 h, there was a sharp increase in PLC activity which coincided with cultures reaching the stationary phase. Activity of the PLC was measured at different temperatures, with greater activity occurring at 37 degrees C than at lower temperatures. Phospholipases could represent a virulence determinant in A. fumigatus. PMID:8641777

Birch, M; Robson, G; Law, D; Denning, D W

1996-01-01

240

Xylanolytic complex from Aspergillus giganteus: production and characterization.  

PubMed

An Aspergillus giganteus strain was isolated as an excellent producer of xylanase associated with low levels of cellulase. Optimal xylanase production was obtained in liquid Vogel medium containing xylan as carbon source, pH 6.5 to 7.0, at 25 degrees C and under shaking at 120 rpm during 84 h. Among the several carbon sources tested, higher xylanase production was verified in xylan, xylose, sugar-cane bagasse, wheat bran and corn cob cultures, respectively. Optimal conditions for activity determination were 50 degrees C and pH 6.0. The xylanolytic complex of A. giganteus showed low thermal stability with T(50) of 2 h, 13 min and 1 min when it was incubated at 40, 50 and 60 degrees C, respectively, and high stability from pH 4.5 to 10.5, with the best interval between 7.0 to 7.5. This broad range of stability in alkali pH indicates a potential applicability in some industrial processes, which require such condition. Xylanolytic activity of A. giganteus was totally inhibited by Hg(+2), Cu(+2) and SDS at 10 mM. The analysis of the products from the oat spelts xylan hydrolysis through thin-layer chromatography indicated endoxylanase activity, lack of debranching enzymes and beta-xylosidase activity in assay conditions. PMID:12872308

Coelho, Glauciane Danusa; Carmona, Eleonora Cano

2003-01-01

241

Control of Ras-Mediated Signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Pathogenic fungi employ numerous mechanisms to flourish in the stressful environment encountered within their mammalian hosts. Central to this arsenal for filamentous fungi is invasive growth within the host microenvironment, mediated by establishment and maintenance of polarized hyphal morphogenesis. In Aspergillus fumigatus, the RasA signal transduction pathway has emerged as a significant regulator of hyphal morphogenesis and virulence, among other processes. The factors contributing to the regulation of RasA itself are not as thoroughly understood, although proper temporal activation of RasA and spatial localization of RasA to the plasma membrane are known to play major roles. Interference with RasA palmitoylation or prenylation results in mislocalization of RasA and is associated with severe growth deficits. In addition, dysregulation of RasA activation results in severe morphologic aberrancies and growth deficits. This review highlights the relationship between RasA signaling, hyphal morphogenesis, and virulence in A. fumigatus and focuses on potential determinants of spatial and temporal RasA regulation. PMID:24952717

Norton, Tiffany S; Fortwendel, Jarrod R

2014-12-01

242

Production, purification, and characterization of exoglucanase by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Fungi are considered good producers of industrially valuable enzymes with higher enzymatic activities. Among these cellulases are group of extracellular enzymes commonly employed in many industries for the hydrolysis of cellulolytic material. Aspergillus fumigatus produced exoglucanase having high enzymatic activity (83 U/gds) during the solid-state fermentation of wheat straw under optimum physical and nutritional conditions. Maximum production was obtained after 72 h of fermentation, at 55 °C temperature, pH 5.5, 80 % moisture level, and 2 mL fungal inoculum. Production was further increased by the addition of fructose (0.3 %) as additional carbon source, peptone (0.4 %) as nitrogen source, Tween-80 (0.3 %) as surfactant, and ammonium sulfate (0.2 %) in media. Exoglucanase was 2.30-folds purified by adding 40 % ammonium sulfate with volumetric activity 95.4 U/gds and specific activity 14.74 U/mg. Further, it was 5.18-folds purified by gel filtration chromatography with volumetric activity 115.2 U/gds and specific activity 33.10 U/mg. Purified exoglucanase has maximum activity at 55 °C and pH 4.8 using 1 % Avicel aqueous solution as substrate. The K(m) and V(max) were 4.34 mM and 7.29 ?M/min, respectively. Calcium, magnesium, and zinc ions have positive effect on exoglucanase activity. PMID:23615734

Mahmood, Raja Tahir; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Mehboob, Nazia; Mushtaq, Maria; Gulfraz, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Minhas, Nasir M; Hadri, Saqib Hussain

2013-06-01

243

Identification of many crystal forms of Aspergillus nidulans dehydroquinate synthase.  

PubMed

Extensive crystallization trials of Aspergillus nidulans dehydroquinate synthase, a potential novel target for antimicrobial drugs, in complexes with different ligands have resulted in the identification of nine crystal forms. Crystals of unliganded DHQS, binary complexes with either the substrate analogue, carbaphosphonate or the cofactor NADH, as well as the ternary DHQS-carbaphosphonate-cofactor complex, were obtained. The ternary complex crystallizes from ammonium sulfate and CoCl(2) in space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 133.8, b = 86.6, c = 74.9 A. The binary carbaphosphonate complex crystallizes from PEG 6000 in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 70.0, b = 64.0, c = 197.6 A, and the binary cofactor complex crystallizes from PEG 3350 and sodium potassium tartrate in space group P2(1), with a = 83.7, b = 70.4, c = 144.3 A, beta = 89.2 degrees. DHQS in the absence of ligands crystallizes in space group P2(1), with a = 41.0, b = 68.9, c = 137.7 A, beta = 94.8 degrees. Each of these crystal forms are suitable for high-resolution structure determination. Structures of a range of DHQS-ligand complexes will be of value in the structure-based design of novel antimicrobial drugs. PMID:11173489

Nichols, C E; Ren, J; Lamb, H; Haldane, F; Hawkins, A R; Stammers, D K

2001-02-01

244

Some studies of alpha-amylase production using Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

The extracellular alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was studied in submerged fermentation using an Adlof-Kuhner orbital shaker. The effect of initial pH values in the range of 4 to 7.5 on enzyme production was investigated and initial pH medium of 6.2 +/- 0.1 resulted in enhanced alpha-amylase production. The effect of carbon and nitrogen source and composition was examined and it has been observed that corn starch concentration of 15 g L(-1) has sound effect on enzyme production. The medium containing corn starch, sodium nitrate resulted in considerable higher enzyme production. Further, the yeast extract of 2.5 g L(-1) in the medium produced higher enzyme in view to other organic nitrogen sources. The effect of temperature on alpha-amylase production from 20 to 40 degrees C has been studied and at 35 +/- 1 degrees C higher alpha-amylase has been obtained. The effect of shaker's speed on alpha-amylase production from 50 to 200 rpm was investigated. And at about 180 rpm higher enzyme production has been observed. In the present study, it has been found that glucose has repressing effect on a-amylase production using A. oryzae PTCC5164. PMID:19260332

Esfahanibolandbalaie, Z; Rostami, K; Mirdamadi, S S

2008-11-15

245

Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose - Chitin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens. PMID:22003399

Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Parker, Craig T.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

2011-01-01

246

Modelling Aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica).  

PubMed

In vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host-pathogen interactions. In this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was examined. A. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac, lung or trachea in immunocompetent or immunosuppressed pigeon squabs. Immunosuppression was induced by three dexamethasone injections before inoculation. Mortality in the A. fumigatus-inoculated groups varied between 1/4 and 4/4. The highest and more acute mortality was seen in immunocompetent pigeons inoculated in the thoracic air sac and in pigeons inoculated in the thoracic air sac or lung after immunosuppression. Pigeons inoculated in the lung or inoculated intratracheally after immunosuppression developed an aspergillosis infection with a slower course of disease and more prominent clinical symptoms. Using microsatellite length polymorphism, it was confirmed that all mycoses were caused by the inoculated strain except for one isolate in a dexamethasone-treated pigeon. In conclusion, inoculation in the lung is selected as the preferred model for chronic aspergillosis in pigeons, and inoculation in the thoracic air sac as the preferred model for acute aspergillosis. The use of immunosuppressed birds seems to be contra-indicated due to the risk of opportunistic infections. PMID:18798031

Beernaert, L A; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

2008-10-01

247

Biological detoxification of zearalenone by Aspergillus niger strain FS10.  

PubMed

Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination of corn and cereal products is a serious health hazard throughout the world and its elimination by microbial methods is now being widely examined. In this study, an Aspergillus niger strain, FS10, isolated from Chinese fermented soybean, was shown to reduce levels of ZEN in corn steep liquor (CSL). Spores, mycelium and culture filtrate of the strain FS10 were tested for their ability to remove ZEN. The results indicated that strain FS10 could remove 89.56% of ZEN from potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. Mycelium and culture filtrate decreased the ZEN content by 43.10% and 68.16%, respectively. The contaminated corn steep liquor initially contained ZEN 29?g/ml, 60.01% of which could be removed by strain FS10. To demonstrate the loss of toxicity in vivo, the culture filtrate incubated with the contaminated corn steep liquor for 48h was administered to rats. The results indicated that the contaminated corn steep liquor severely damaged liver and kidney tissue. Rats administered with contaminated corn steep liquor treated with the strain FS10 culture filtrate showed significantly less severe liver and kidney damage, and organ index values were comparable to the non-ZEN-exposed control (p<0.05). Our study suggests an effective approach to reduce the hazards of ZEN in corn steep liquor. PMID:25007785

Sun, Xiulan; He, Xingxing; Xue, Kathy Siyu; Li, Yun; Xu, Dan; Qian, He

2014-10-01

248

Genome shuffling of Aspergillus niger for improving transglycosylation activity.  

PubMed

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO), the glucosylsaccharides used as food additives, are made from saccharified starch by enzymes or microbial cells with transglycosylation activity. This study aimed to generate shuffled futants of Aspergillus niger with enhanced transglycosylation activity for industrial IMO production. The starting mutant population was generated by (60)Co-? radiation; mutants with higher transglycosylation activity were selected and subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. The resulting fusants were screened by a novel high-throughput method based on detecting non-fermentable reducing sugar. After three rounds of genome shuffling, the best performing strain GS3-3 was obtained, its transglycosylation activity (14.91 U/mL) was increased by 194.1 % compared to that of original strain C-6181. In fermentor test, transglycosylation activity of GS3-3 was obtained at 16.61 U/mL. The mycelia of GS3-3 were reused ten times to produce IMO syrup from liquefied cassava starch containing about 280 g/L total sugar within 4 days. The conversion of liquefied cassava starch to IMO was at 71.3-72.1 %, which was higher than the best conversion (68 %) ever reported. GS3-3 shows a great potential for industrial IMO production. PMID:24043449

Li, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Gu, Lingli; Zeng, Wei; Liang, Zhiqun

2014-01-01

249

Expression and Secretion of Defined Cutinase Variants by Aspergillus awamori  

PubMed Central

Several cutinase variants derived by molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis of a cutinase gene from Fusarium solani pisi are poorly secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The majority of these variants are successfully produced by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori. However, the L51S and T179Y mutations caused reductions in the levels of extracellular production of two cutinase variants by A. awamori. Metabolic labelling studies were performed to analyze the bottleneck in enzyme production by the fungus in detail. These studies showed that because of the single L51S substitution, rapid extracellular degradation of cutinase occurred. The T179Y substitution did not result in enhanced sensitivity towards extracellular proteases. Presumably, the delay in the extracellular accumulation of this cutinase variant is caused by the enhanced hydrophobicity of the molecule. Overexpression of the A. awamori gene encoding the chaperone BiP in the cutinase-producing A. awamori strains had no significant effect on the secretion efficiency of the cutinases. A cutinase variant with the amino acid changes G28A, A85F, V184I, A185L, and L189F that was known to aggregate in the endoplasmic reticulum of S. cerevisiae, resulting in low extracellular protein levels, was successfully produced by A. awamori. An initial bottleneck in secretion occurred before or during translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum but was rapidly overcome by the fungus. PMID:9687432

van Gemeren, I. A.; Beijersbergen, A.; van den Hondel, C. A. M. J. J.; Verrips, C. T.

1998-01-01

250

Using Aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.  

PubMed

Systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. Most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). Antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. Identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. We used Aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tractable sexual cycle and calcofluor white as a model antifungal agent to cross-reference our results with other studies. Within 2 weeks from inoculation on sublethal doses of calcofluor white, we isolated 24 A. nidulans adaptive strains from sectoring colonies. Meiotic analysis showed that these strains had single-gene mutations. In each case, the resistance was specific to calcofluor white, since there was no cross-resistance to caspofungin (echinocandin). Mutation sites were identified in two mutants by next-generation sequencing. These were confirmed by reengineering the mutation in a wild-type strain using a gene replacement strategy. One of these mutated genes was related to cell wall synthesis, and the other one was related to drug metabolism. Our strategy has wide application for many fungal species, for antifungal compounds used in agriculture as well as health care, and potentially during protracted drug therapy once drug resistance arises. We suggest that our strategy will be useful for keeping ahead in the drug resistance arms race. PMID:24363365

He, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shengnan; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

2014-02-01

251

Novel Sexual-Cycle-Specific Gene Silencing in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

We report a novel sexual-cycle-specific gene-silencing system in the genetic model Aspergillus nidulans. Duplication of the mating type matAHMG gene in this haploid organism triggers Mat-induced silencing (MatIS) of both endogenous and transgenic matA genes, eliminates function of the encoded SRY structural ortholog, and results in formation of barren fruiting bodies. MatIS is spatiotemporally restricted to the prezygotic stage of the sexual cycle and does not interfere with vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, differentiation of early sexual tissues, or fruiting body development. MatIS is reversible upon deletion of the matA transgene. In contrast to other sex-specific silencing phenomena, MatIS silencing has nearly 100% efficiency and appears to be independent of homologous duplicated DNA segments. Remarkably, transgene-derived matA RNA might be sufficient to induce MatIS. A unique feature of MatIS is that RNA-mediated silencing is RNA interference/Argonaute-independent and is restricted to the nucleus having the duplicated gene. The silencing phenomenon is recessive and does not spread between nuclei within the common cytoplasm of a multinucleate heterokaryon. Gene silencing induced by matA gene duplication emerges as a specific feature associated with matAHMG regulation during sexual development. PMID:23341415

Czaja, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

2013-01-01

252

Interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus Spores with Human Leukocytes and Serum  

PubMed Central

Serum was necessary for optimal phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus spores by human leukocytes, and its opsonic capacity was greatly diminished by heat inactivation (56 C, 30 min). A germination assay, described in this report, was developed to study the fate of phagocytized spores. After incubation for 3 hr with normal leukocytes and serum, spores ingested by peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes remained viable. Since we had previously found that myeloperoxidase (MPO), a lysosomal enzyme of human neutrophils and monocytes, exerted fungicidal activity against Candida albicans when combined with H2O2 and chloride or iodide, the effects of these substances on A. fumigatus spores were examined. Spore viability was not impaired by MPO alone, H2O2 alone, or KI alone, but high concentrations of KI and H2O2 in combination caused marked inhibition of subsequent germination. MPO imparted fungicidal activity to concentrations of KI and H2O2 that lacked any effect in its absence. NaCl, in combination with MPO and H2O2, was far less effective than the iodide salt against A. fumigatus. The relative ineffectiveness of chloride in this system could underly the apparent inability of human neutrophils to kill ingested A. fumigatus spores, despite their competence to kill C. albicans. Images PMID:16557740

Lehrer, Robert I.; Jan, Ronald G.

1970-01-01

253

Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

2014-01-01

254

Adsorption profile of lead on Aspergillus versicolor: a mechanistic probing.  

PubMed

The adsorption of lead on Aspergillus versicolor biomass (AVB) has been investigated in aqueous solution with special reference to binding mechanism in order to explore the possibilities of the biomass to address environmental pollution. AVB, being the most potent of all the fungal biomasses tested, has been successfully employed for reducing the lead content of the effluents of battery industries to permissible limit (1.0 mg L(-1)) before discharging into waterbodies. The results establish that 1.0 g of the biomass adsorbs 45.0 mg of lead and the adsorption process is found to depend on the pH of the solution with an optimum at pH 5.0. The rate of adsorption of lead by AVB is very fast initially attaining equilibrium within 3h following pseudo second order rate model. The adsorption process can better be described by Redlich-Peterson isotherm model compared to other ones tested. Scanning electron micrograph demonstrates conspicuous changes in the surface morphology of the biomass as a result of lead adsorption. Zeta potential values, chemical modification of the functional groups and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal that binding of lead on AVB occurs through complexation as well as electrostatic interaction. PMID:21159429

Bairagi, Himadri; Khan, Md Motiar R; Ray, Lalitagauri; Guha, Arun K

2011-02-15

255

Purification and properties of the elastase from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Elastase, a potential virulence factor from the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, was purified 220-fold from culture broth by fast-performance liquid chromatography employing anion exchange (Q Sepharose fast flow), cation exchange (S Sepharose fast flow), and gel filtration (Superose 12). Purified to near homogeneity, the elastase had an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (silver stain) but a mass of about 19.1 kDa as determined by gel filtration on Superdex 75. The elastase is not glycosylated and is positively charged at neutral pH, having a pI of 8.75. Inhibition by 0.2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (100%) and 0.21 mM leupeptin (60%) implies that the elastase is a serine protease. However, the enzyme is also inhibited by 5 mM EDTA (100%) and 10 mM 1,10-orthophenanthroline (30%), suggesting a requirement for divalent cations. The enzyme acts optimally at pH 7.4 and 45 degrees C in 50 mM sodium borate buffer, but in Tris HCl, the pH optimum shifts to 8.8. Images PMID:1541545

Frosco, M; Chase, T; Macmillan, J D

1992-01-01

256

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

257

Analysis of a novel calcium auxotrophy in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus nidulans a combination of null mutations in halA, encoding a protein kinase, and sltA, encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor having no yeast homologues, results in an elevated calcium requirement (‘calcium auxotrophy’) without impairing net calcium uptake. sltA? (±halA?) mutations result in hypertrophy of the vacuolar system. In halA?sltA? (and sltA?) strains, transcript levels for pmcA and pmcB, encoding vacuolar Ca2+-ATPase homologues, are highly elevated, suggesting a regulatory relationship between vacuolar membrane area and certain vacuolar membrane ATPase levels. Deletion of both pmcA and pmcB strongly suppresses the ‘calcium auxotrophy’. Therefore the ‘calcium auxotrophy’ possibly results from excessive vacuolar calcium sequestration, causing cytosolic calcium deprivation. Null mutations in nhaA, homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiaeNHA1, encoding a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter effluxing Na+ and K+, and a non-null mutation in trkB, homologous to S. cerevisiaeTRK1, encoding a plasma membrane high affinity K+ transporter, also suppress the calcium auxotrophy. PMID:20438880

Findon, Helen; Calcagno-Pizarelli, Ana-Maria; Martinez, Jose L.; Spielvogel, Anja; Markina-Inarrairaegui, Ane; Indrakumar, Tanya; Ramos, Jose; Penalva, Miguel A.; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Arst, Herbert N.

2010-01-01

258

Immunological aspects of Candida and Aspergillus systemic fungal infections.  

PubMed

Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment. PMID:23401680

Mueller-Loebnitz, Christoph; Ostermann, Helmut; Franzke, Anke; Loeffler, Juergen; Uharek, Lutz; Topp, Max; Einsele, Hermann

2013-01-01

259

Anti-inflammatory drimane sesquiterpene lactones from an Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

IFN-? inducible protein 10 (IP-10, CXCL10) is a 10 kDa chemokine, which is secreted from various cell types after exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli. This chemokine is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor and regulates immune responses by activating and recruiting leukocytes such as T cells, eosinophils, monocytes, and NK cells to sites of inflammation. Altered expression of CXCL10 has been associated with chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases and therefore CXCL10 represents a promising target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. In a search for inhibitors of CXCL10 promoter activity, three structurally related drimane sesquiterpene lactones (compounds 1-3) were isolated from fermentations of an Aspergillus species. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-1? induced CXCL10 promoter activity in transiently transfected human DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 12.4 ?M for 1 and 55 ?M for 2, whereas 3 was devoid of any biological activity. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 reduced CXCL10 mRNA levels and synthesis in IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-1? stimulated DLD-1 cells. PMID:24792812

Felix, Silke; Sandjo, Louis P; Opatz, Till; Erkel, Gerhard

2014-06-01

260

New Insight into Amphotericin B Resistance in Aspergillus terreus  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AMB) is the predominant antifungal drug, but the mechanism of resistance is not well understood. We compared the in vivo virulence of an AMB-resistant Aspergillus terreus (ATR) isolate with that of an AMB-susceptible A. terreus isolate (ATS) using a murine model for disseminated aspergillosis. Furthermore, we analyzed the molecular basis of intrinsic AMB resistance in vitro by comparing the ergosterol content, cell-associated AMB levels, AMB-induced intracellular efflux, and prooxidant effects between ATR and ATS. Infection of immunosuppressed mice with ATS or ATR showed that the ATS strain was more lethal than the ATR strain. However, AMB treatment improved the outcome in ATS-infected mice while having no positive effect on the animals infected with ATR. The in vitro data demonstrated that ergosterol content is not the molecular basis for AMB resistance. ATR absorbed less AMB, discharged more intracellular compounds, and had better protection against oxidative damage than the susceptible strain. Our experiments showed that ergosterol content plays a minor role in intrinsic AMB resistance and is not directly associated with intracellular cell-associated AMB content. AMB might exert its antifungal activity by oxidative injury rather than by an increase in membrane permeation. PMID:23318794

Hortnagl, Caroline; Jukic, Emina; Erbeznik, Thomas; Pumpel, Thomas; Dietrich, Hermann; Nagl, Markus; Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Gunter; Lass-Florl, Cornelia

2013-01-01

261

Ribotoxin genes in isolates of Aspergillus section Clavati  

PubMed Central

Ribotoxins are ribosome inactivator proteins with high specificity against the sarcin/ricin domain of the 28S ribosomal RNA. We examined the presence of ribotoxin genes in isolates of species recently assigned to Aspergillus section Clavati using specific primer pairs. All species assigned to this section have been found to carry ribotoxin genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the amplified gene fragments allowed us to classify the genes to different groups including the ?-sarcin, gigantin, c-sarcin and mitogillin/restrictocin families. Two species, A. longivesica and N. acanthosporus produced ribotoxins which were only distantly related to gigantins and c-sarcins, respectively. Comparison of the protein sequences of the genes to known ribotoxin sequences revealed that all of them carry the presumed catalytic residues of ribotoxins, the cystein residues, and also the two Trp residues of ?-sarcin conserved in all ribotoxins known so far. These data indicate that these genes probably encode active ribotoxins. Further studies are in progress to examine the secretion and activities of these new ribotoxins. PMID:18600469

Samson, Robert A.

2008-01-01

262

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT (?=?DSM 26257T?=?CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT (?=?DSM 26254T?=?CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT (?=?DSM 26255T?=?CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT (?=?DSM 26256T?=?CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT (?=?DSM 26263T?=?CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT (?=?DSM 26265T?=?CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT (?=?DSM 26262T?=?CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vasquez, Alejandra

2014-01-01

263

Generation of Large Chromosomal Deletions in Koji Molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae via a Loop-Out Recombination?  

PubMed Central

We established a technique for efficiently generating large chromosomal deletions in the koji molds Aspergillus oryzae and A. sojae by using a ku70-deficient strain and a bidirectional marker. The approach allowed deletion of 200-kb and 100-kb sections of A. oryzae and A. sojae, respectively. The deleted regions contained putative aflatoxin biosynthetic gene clusters. The large genomic deletions generated by a loop-out deletion method (resolution-type recombination) enabled us to construct multiple deletions in the koji molds by marker recycling. No additional sequence remained in the resultant deletion strains, a feature of considerable value for breeding of food-grade microorganisms. Frequencies of chromosomal deletions tended to decrease in proportion to the length of the deletion range. Deletion efficiency was also affected by the location of the deleted region. Further, comparative genome hybridization analysis showed that no unintended deletion or chromosomal rearrangement occurred in the deletion strain. Strains with large deletions that were previously extremely laborious to construct in the wild-type ku70+ strain due to the low frequency of homologous recombination were efficiently obtained from ?ku70 strains in this study. The technique described here may be broadly applicable for the genomic engineering and molecular breeding of filamentous fungi. PMID:18952883

Takahashi, Tadashi; Jin, Feng Jie; Sunagawa, Misao; Machida, Masayuki; Koyama, Yasuji

2008-01-01

264

Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr vegetative compatibility groups in preventing aflatoxin contamination  

E-print Network

Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr vegetative compatibility of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA h i g h l i g h t s A mixture of 4 atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. Application of strain mixture in maize fields did not increase moldiness of grain. Preharvest application

Cotty, Peter J.

265

Argonne's SpEC Module  

ScienceCinema

Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

Harper, Jason

2014-06-05

266

The Sp(1)-Kepler Problems  

E-print Network

Let $n\\ge 2$ be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation $\\sigma$ of $\\mathrm{Sp}(1)$, an $\\mathrm{Sp}(1)$-Kepler problem in dimension $(4n-3)$ is constructed and analyzed. This system is super integrable and when $n=2$ it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension five. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is $\\widetilde {\\mathrm O}^*(4n)$ with the Hilbert space of bound states ${\\mathscr H}(\\sigma)$ being the unitary highest weight representation of $\\widetilde {\\mathrm {O}^*}(4n)$ with highest weight $$(\\underbrace{-1, ..., -1}_{2n-1}, -(1+\\bar\\sigma)),$$ which occurs at the right-most nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here $\\bar\\sigma$ is the highest weight of $\\sigma$. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence $\\sigma\\leftrightarrow \\mathscr H(\\sigma)$ is the theta-correspondence for dual pair $(\\mathrm{Sp}(1), \\mathrm{O}^*(4n))\\subseteq\\mathrm{Sp}_{8n}(\\mathbb R)$.

Guowu Meng

2008-05-07

267

Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-01-01

268

Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus from the lung. Acute A. fumigatus challenge in normal mice induced the recruitment of CD11b+ Siglec F+ Ly-6Glo Ly-6Cneg CCR3+ eosinophils to the lungs, which was accompanied by an increase in lung Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) mRNA levels. Mice deficient in the transcription factor dblGATA1, which exhibit a selective deficiency in eosinophils, demonstrated impaired A. fumigatus clearance and evidence of germinating organisms in the lung. Higher burden correlated with lower mRNA expression of Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) and Prg2 (major basic protein) as well as lower interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-17A, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and CXCL1 levels. However, examination of lung inflammatory cell populations failed to demonstrate defects in monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell, or neutrophil recruitment in dblGATA1-deficient mice, suggesting that the absence of eosinophils in dlbGATA1-deficient mice was the sole cause of impaired lung clearance. We show that eosinophils generated from bone marrow have potent killing activity against A. fumigtaus in vitro, which does not require cell contact and can be recapitulated by eosinophil whole-cell lysates. Collectively, our data support a role for eosinophils in the lung response after A. fumigatus exposure. PMID:24379296

Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W.

2014-01-01

269

Upstream and downstream processing of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

The present study describes the enhanced production and purification of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus in submerged batch fermentation. The enhancement of lovastatin production from A. terreus was attempted by random mutagenesis using ultraviolet radiations and nitrous acid. UV mutants exhibited increased efficiency for lovastatin production as compared with nitrous acid mutants. Among all the mutants developed, A. terreus UV-4 was found to be the hyper producer of lovastatin. This mutant gave 3.5-fold higher lovastatin production than the wild culture of A. terreus NRRL 265. Various cultural conditions were also optimized for hyper-producing mutant strain. 5 % glucose as carbon source, 1.5 % corn steep liquor as nitrogen source, initial pH value of 6, 120 h of incubation period, and 28 °C of incubation temperature were found as best parameters for higher lovastatin production in shake flasks. Production of lovastatin by wild and mutant strains of A. terreus was also scaled up to laboratory scale fermentor. The fermentation process was conducted at 28 °C, 200 rpm agitation, and 1vvm air flow rate without pH control. After the optimization of cultural conditions in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks and scaling up to laboratory scale fermentor, the mutant A. terreus UV-4 gave eightfold higher lovastatin production (3249.95 ?g/ml) than its production by wild strain in shake flasks. Purification of lovastatin was carried out by solvent extraction method which yielded 977.1 mg/l of lovastatin with 98.99 % chromatographic purity and 26.76 % recovery. The crystal structure of lovastatin was determined using X-ray diffraction analysis which is first ever reported. PMID:24671671

Mukhtar, Hamid; Ijaz, Syeda Sidra; Ikram-ul-Haq

2014-09-01

270

Spatial Differentiation in the Vegetative Mycelium of Aspergillus niger? †  

PubMed Central

Fungal mycelia are exposed to heterogenic substrates. The substrate in the central part of the colony has been (partly) degraded, whereas it is still unexplored at the periphery of the mycelium. We here assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a main determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus niger. This question was addressed by analyzing whole-genome gene expression in five concentric zones of 7-day-old maltose- and xylose-grown colonies. Expression profiles at the periphery and the center were clearly different. More than 25% of the active genes showed twofold differences in expression between the inner and outermost zones of the colony. Moreover, 9% of the genes were expressed in only one of the five concentric zones, showing that a considerable part of the genome is active in a restricted part of the colony only. Statistical analysis of expression profiles of colonies that had either been or not been transferred to fresh xylose-containing medium showed that differential expression in a colony is due to the heterogeneity of the medium (e.g., genes involved in secretion, genes encoding proteases, and genes involved in xylose metabolism) as well as to medium-independent mechanisms (e.g., genes involved in nitrate metabolism and genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification). Thus, we conclude that the mycelia of 7-day-old colonies of A. niger are highly differentiated. This conclusion is also indicated by the fact that distinct zones of the colony grow and secrete proteins, even after transfer to fresh medium. PMID:17951513

Levin, Ana M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Conesa, Ana; de Bekker, Charissa; Talon, Manuel; Menke, Hildegard H.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Wösten, Han A. B.

2007-01-01

271

Microbial strain improvement for enhanced polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus sojae.  

PubMed

Strain improvement is a powerful tool in commercial development of microbial fermentation processes. Strains of Aspergillus sojae which were previously identified as polygalacturonase producers were subjected to the cost-effective mutagenesis and selection method, the so-called random screening. Physical (ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm) and chemical mutagens (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) were used in the development and implementation of a classical mutation and selection strategy for the improved production of pectic acid-degrading enzymes. Three mutation cycles of both mutagenic treatments and also the combination of them were performed to generate mutants descending from A. sojae ATCC 20235 and mutants of A. sojae CBS 100928. Pectinolytic enzyme production of the mutants was compared to their wild types in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Comparing both strains, higher pectinase activity was obtained by A. sojae ATCC 20235 and mutants thereof. The highest polygalacturonase activity (1,087.2?±?151.9 U/g) in solid-state culture was obtained by mutant M3, which was 1.7 times increased in comparison to the wild strain, A. sojae ATCC 20235. Additional, further mutation of mutant M3 for two more cycles of treatment by UV irradiation generated mutant DH56 with the highest polygalacturonase activity (98.8?±?8.7 U/mL) in submerged culture. This corresponded to 2.4-fold enhanced polygalacturonase production in comparison to the wild strain. The results of this study indicated the development of a classical mutation and selection strategy as a promising tool to improve pectinolytic enzyme production by both fungal strains. PMID:24695827

Heerd, Doreen; Tari, Canan; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

2014-09-01

272

Eisosome Organization in the Filamentous AscomyceteAspergillus nidulans?†  

PubMed Central

Eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They comprise two homologue proteins, Pil1 and Lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein Sur7. These proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. We identify in Aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina) two homologues of Pil1/Lsp1, PilA and PilB, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. In the aspergilli there are several Sur7-like proteins in each species, including one strict Sur7 orthologue (SurG in A. nidulans). In A. nidulans conidiospores, but not in hyphae, the three proteins colocalize at the cell cortex and form tightly packed punctate structures that appear different from the clearly distinct eisosome patches observed in S. cerevisiae. These structures are assembled late during the maturation of conidia. In mycelia, punctate structures are present, but they are composed only of PilA, while PilB is diffused in the cytoplasm and SurG is located in vacuoles and endosomes. Deletion of each of the genes does not lead to any obvious growth phenotype, except for moderate resistance to itraconazole. We could not find any obvious association between mycelial (PilA) eisosome-like structures and endocytosis. PilA and SurG are necessary for conidial eisosome organization in ways that differ from those for their S. cerevisiae homologues. These data illustrate that conservation of eisosomal proteins within the ascomycetes is accompanied by a striking functional divergence. PMID:20693301

Vangelatos, Ioannis; Roumelioti, Katerina; Gournas, Christos; Suarez, Teresa; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

2010-01-01

273

Production of gibberellic acid by Aspergillus niger using some food industry wastes.  

PubMed

The production of gibberellic acid by Aspergillus niger and the possibility of utilizing food industry waste and residues as the sources of carbon in media were investigated. Media prepared from molasses, vinasse, whey, sugar-beet waste and fruit pomace were used and GA3 yields were found in concentrations 310, 273.14, 120, 73, 118.13 mg/l in such media, respectively. It was observed that food industry wastes can be used as cheap sources of carbon for gibberellic acid production by Aspergillus niger. PMID:9127484

Cihangir, N; Aksöz, N

1996-01-01

274

Scaffold hopping of sampangine: discovery of potent antifungal lead compound against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed

Discovery of novel antifungal agents against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans remains a significant challenge in current antifungal therapy. Herein the antifungal natural product sampangine was used as the lead compound for novel antifungal drug discovery. A series of D-ring scaffold hopping derivatives were designed and synthesized to improve antifungal activity and water solubility. Among them, the thiophene derivative S2 showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity, particularly for Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Moreover, compound S2 also revealed better water solubility than sampangine, which represents a promising antifungal lead compound for further structural optimization. PMID:25115626

Jiang, Zhigan; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Yang; He, Xiaomeng; Huang, Yahui; He, Shipeng; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhengang; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

2014-09-01

275

Leaving the fullerene road: presence and stability of sp chains in sp2  

E-print Network

Leaving the fullerene road: presence and stability of sp chains in sp2 carbon clusters and cluster carbon sp chains are essential ingredients for the formation of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes [6, 7 identified as a fundamental ingredient to transform sp structures into fullerenes and nanotubes

Powles, Rebecca

276

Pseudonocardia cypriaca sp. nov., Pseudonocardia salamisensis sp. nov., Pseudonocardia hierapolitana sp. nov. and Pseudonocardia kujensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

The taxonomic positions of four novel actinomycetes isolated from soil samples, designated KT2142T, PM2084T, K236T and A4038T, were established by using a polyphasic approach. The organisms had chemical and morphological features that were consistent with their classification in the genus Pseudonocardia. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the four strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars (cell-wall type IV). Their predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-8(H4). The major fatty acid was iso-C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the classification of the isolates in the genus Pseudonocardia and showed that they formed four distinct branches within the genus. DNA-DNA relatedness studies between the isolates and their phylogenetic neighbours showed that they belonged to distinct genomic species. The four isolates were readily distinguished from one another and from the type strains of species classified in the genus Pseudonocardia based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. In conclusion, it is proposed that the four isolates be classified in four novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the names Pseudonocardia cypriaca sp. nov. (type strain KT2142T=KCTC 29067T=DSM 45511T=NRRL B-24882T), Pseudonocardia hierapolitana sp. nov. (type strain PM2084T=KCTC 29068T=DSM 45671T=NRRL B-24879T), Pseudonocardia salamisensis sp. nov. (type strain K236T=KCTC 29100T=DSM 45717T) and Pseudonocardia kujensis sp. nov. (type strain A4038T=KCTC 29062T=DSM 45670T=NRRL B-24890T) are proposed. PMID:24523445

Sahin, Nevzat; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Spröer, Cathrin; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2014-05-01

277

Antifungal macrodiolide from Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed Central

Aerobic fermentation cultures of Streptomyces sp. produced an antifungal macrodiolide. This new antibiotic consists of two units of homononactic acid linked to form a cyclic diester. An unknown polypeptide was also isolated in trace quantities. The antibiotic with polypeptide complex showed high levels of antifungal activity compared with that of the macrodiolide alone. The macrodiolide also showed a stimulatory effect on some species of fungi. The production, purification, and characterization of these compounds are reported. PMID:3777909

Jois, H R; Sarkar, A; Gurusiddaiah, S

1986-01-01

278

Antifungal effects of citronella oil against Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404.  

PubMed

Essential oils are aromatic oily liquids obtained from some aromatic plant materials. Certain essential oils such as citronella oil contain antifungal activity, but the antifungal effect is still unknown. In this study, we explored the antifungal effect of citronella oil with Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. The antifungal activity of citronella oil on conidia of A. niger was determined by poisoned food technique, broth dilution method, and disc volatility method. Experimental results indicated that the citronella oil has strong antifungal activity: 0.125 (v/v) and 0.25 % (v/v) citronella oil inhibited the growth of 5?×?10? spore/ml conidia separately for 7 and 28 days while 0.5 % (v/v) citronella oil could completely kill the conidia of 5?×?10? spore/ml. Moreover, the fungicidal kinetic curves revealed that more than 90 % conidia (initial concentration is 5?×?10? spore/ml) were killed in all the treatments with 0.125 to 2 % citronella oil after 24 h. Furthermore, with increase of citronella oil concentration and treatment time, the antifungal activity was increased correspondingly. The 0.5 % (v/v) concentration of citronella oil was a threshold to kill the conidia thoroughly. The surviving conidia treated with 0.5 to 2 % citronella oil decreased by an order of magnitude every day, and no fungus survived after 10 days. With light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, we found that citronella oil could lead to irreversible alteration of the hyphae and conidia. Based on our observation, we hypothesized that the citronella oil destroyed the cell wall of the A. niger hyphae, passed through the cell membrane, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and acted on the main organelles. Subsequently, the hyphae was collapsed and squashed due to large cytoplasm loss, and the organelles were severely destroyed. Similarly, citronella oil could lead to the rupture of hard cell wall and then act on the sporoplasm to kill the conidia. Nevertheless, the citronella oil provides a potential of being a safe and environmentally friendly fungicide in the future. PMID:23081773

Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Ouyang, You-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Ben; Duan, Shun-Shan

2013-08-01

279

The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very important property that has led to applications such as antioxidant and preservative. Moreover, it is a "natural" substance and fully biodegradable. PMID:11791342

Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

2001-01-01

280

Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases  

PubMed Central

Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 ?-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 and the semi-industrial strain, S. cerevisiae Mnu?1. The recombinant AmyA and GlaA displayed protein sizes of 110–150 kDa and 90 kDa, respectively, suggesting significant glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. The Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] and Y294[AmyA-GlaA] strains were able to utilise 20 g l-1 raw corn starch as sole carbohydrate source, with ethanol titers of 9.03 and 6.67 g l-1 (0.038 and 0.028 g l-1 h-1), respectively, after 10 days. With a substrate load of 200 g l-1 raw corn starch, Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] yielded 70.07 g l-1 ethanol (0.58 g l-1 h-1) after 120 h of fermentation, whereas Y294[AmyA-GlaA] was less efficient at 43.33 g l-1 ethanol (0.36 g l-1 h-1). Conclusions In a semi-industrial amylolytic S. cerevisiae strain expressing the A. tubingensis ?-amylase and glucoamylase genes, 200 g l-1 raw starch was completely hydrolysed (saccharified) in 120 hours with 74% converted to released sugars plus fermentation products and the remainder presumably to biomass. The single-step conversion of raw starch represents significant progress towards the realisation of CBP without the need for any heat pretreatment. Furthermore, the amylases were produced and secreted by the host strain, thus circumventing the need for exogenous amylases. PMID:24286270

2013-01-01

281

Monoclonal Antibodies to Hyphal Exoantigens Derived from the Opportunistic Pathogen Aspergillus terreus  

EPA Science Inventory

Aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. As a result, there is a clinical need to...

282

Optimal Susceptibility Testing Conditions for Detection of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus spp.: NCCLS Collaborative Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important role of susceptibility testing is to identify potentially resistant isolates for the agent being evaluated. Standard testing guidelines recently have been proposed for antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi (molds). This collaborative (eight centers) study evaluated further newly proposed guidelines (NCCLS, proposed standard M38-P, 1998) and other testing conditions for antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. to

A. Espinel-Ingroff; M. Bartlett; V. Chaturvedi; M. Ghannoum; K. C. Hazen; M. A. Pfaller; M. Rinaldi; T. J. Walsh

2001-01-01

283

Emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and spread of a single resistance mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Resistance to triazoles was recently reported in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates cultured from patients with invasive aspergillosis. The prevalence of azole resistance in A. fumigatus is unknown. We investigated the prevalence and spread of azole resistance using our culture collection that contained A. fumigatus isolates collected between 1994 and 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the prevalence of itraconazole (ITZ)

Eveline Snelders; Judith Kuijpers; Anthonius J. M. M. Rijs; János Varga; Robert A. Samson; Emilia Mellado; A. Rogier T. Donders; Willem J. G. Melchers; Paul E. Verweij

2008-01-01

284

An Antibacterial Substance from Aspergillus clavatus and Penicillium claviforme and its Probable Identity with Patulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

B. P. WIESNER, in a communication in NATURE1 in which he acknowledges the help and advice of Prof. H. Raistrick, Mr. George Smith and Dr. Harry Coke, reported the preparation from Aspergillus clavatus metabolism solutions of a concentrate possessing relatively high antibacterial activity. Similar active non-crystalline concentrates were obtained from the same fungus by S. A. Waksman et al.2 and

F. Bergel; A. L. Morrison; A. R. Moss; R. Klein; H. Rinderknecht; J. L. Ward

1943-01-01

285

Aspergillus flavus genomics as a tool for studying the mechanism of aflatoxin formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a weak pathogen that infects plants, animals and humans. When it infects agricultural crops, however, it produces one of the most potent carcinogens known (aflatoxins). To devise strategies to control aflatoxin contamination of pre-harvest agricultural crops and post-harvest grains during storage, we launched the A. flavus genomics program. The major objective of this program is the identification

Jiujiang Yu; Gary A. Payne; William C. Nierman; Masayuki Machida; Joan W. Bennett; Bruce C. Campbell; Jane F. Robens; Deepak Bhatnagar; Ralph A. Dean; Thomas E. Cleveland

2008-01-01

286

150 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Variation in Competitive Ability Among Isolates of Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

competitive ability, sporulation, and aflatoxin reduction on target hosts. Aflatoxins, potent and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by fungi in Aspergillus section Flavi, are frequent contaminants of food and feed crops, including maize, cotton, peanut, and tree nuts (21). Levels of aflatoxins in food and feed crops

Cotty, Peter J.

287

Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger  

E-print Network

Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger Jinglin Li in plant, bacteria, and fungi. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a putative type III PKS-pyrone synthase, and benzalacetone synthase have been cloned and characterized.4­6 They deviate from

Zhao, Huimin

288

Expression of the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in Penicillium nalgiovense.  

PubMed

The glucose oxidase gene (god) from Aspergillus niger was expressed in Penicillium nalgiovense under control of the latter's homologous transcription signals. The GOD protein was synthesized in an active form, leading to increased glucose oxidase activity. The expression vector was introduced into P. nalgiovense along with a selectable plasmid carrying the dominant amdS marker gene of A. nidulans. PMID:24414658

Geisen, R

1995-05-01

289

Production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 during growth in the presence of curing salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 was inoculated into meat mixtures with curing salts and into yeast extractsucrose (YES) and sucrose-ammonium salts (SAS) broth with and without curing salts to determine if the presence of curing salts significantly affected growth and aflatoxin production by the mold. The effect of individual curing salts or curing salt mixtures on growth and toxin elaboration by the

K. R. Meier; E. H. Marth

1977-01-01

290

Gram-scale production of a basidiomycetous laccase in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

We report on the expression in Aspergillus niger of a laccase gene we used to produce variants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grams of recombinant enzyme can be easily obtained. This highlights the potential of combining this generic laccase sequence to the yeast and fungal expression systems for large-scale productions of variants. PMID:23867099

Mekmouche, Yasmina; Zhou, Simeng; Cusano, Angela M; Record, Eric; Lomascolo, Anne; Robert, Viviane; Simaan, A Jalila; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Ullah, Sana; Chaspoul, Florence; Tron, Thierry

2014-01-01

291

Inhibition of heat resistant molds: Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii by some plant essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the inhibitory properties of some essential oils including citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), and savory (Satureja thymbra L.) were investigated against the heat resistant molds Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii isolated from margarine in a previous study in order to assess the potential for using

Tuncay Gumus; Ahmet Sukru Demirci; Osman Sagdic; Muhammet Arici

2010-01-01

292

Virulence and Cultural Characteristics of Two Aspergillus flavus Strains Pathogenic on Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotty, P. J. 1989. Virulence and cultural characteristics of two Aspergillusjlavus strains pathogenic on cotton. Phytopathology 79:808-814. Seventy Aspergillus flavus isolates from Arizona desert valleys were sorted into two distinct strains on the basis of sclerotial size, cultural characteristics, and virulence to cotton. Strain L isolates produced large sclerotia (over 400 \\/lm in diameter), and strain S isolates produced small

P. J. Cotty

1989-01-01

293

Isolation and transcriptional characterization of a morphological modifier: the Aspergillus nidulans stunted ( stuA ) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of at least four potential regulatory genes are known to overlap temporally during elaboration of the multicellular asexual reproductive apparatus (conidiophore) of Aspergillus nidulans. One of these, the stuA (stunted) gene, has been previously classified as a morphological modifier essential for correct spatial organization of the conidiophore. The gene was cloned by complementation of a strain carrying the

Karen Y. Miller; Tina M. Toennis; Thomas H. Adams; Bruce L. Miller

1991-01-01

294

Posttranscriptional Control Mediates Cell Type-Specific Localization of Catalase A during Aspergillus nidulans Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two differentially regulated catalase genes have been identified in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The catA gene belongs to a class whose transcripts are specifically induced during asexual sporulation (conidiation) and encodes a catalase accumulated in conidia. Using a developmental mutant affected in the brlA gene, which is unable to form conidia but capable of producing sexual spores (ascospores), we demonstrated

ROSA E. NAVARRO; JESUS AGUIRRE

1998-01-01

295

Aspergillus infections after lung transplantation: clinical differences in type of transplant and implications for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Invasive aspergillosis is a serious opportunistic infection in lung transplant recipients. It has not been fully discerned whether there are differences in the characteristics, risk factors and outcome of Aspergillus infection in single as compared with bilateral lung transplant recipients.

Nina Singh; Shahid Husain

2003-01-01

296

Multicomponent Cellulolytic Enzymes of Thermotolerant and Mesophylic Fungi Related to Aspergillus Fumigatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article is a study of the composition of the celluloytic enzymes of the thermotolerant and mesophylic strain of fungi, related to the Aspergillus fumigatus. As a result of fractionation of the preparations in a Sefadex g-100, four components in the c...

L. G. Loginova, G. Tashpulatov

1969-01-01

297

Caffeine degradation in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus tamarii: effects of additional nitrogen sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Aspergillus tamarii V12A25 to use caffeine as sole nitrogen source was investigated in solid state fermentation (SSF) using two different supports, polyurethane foam (PUF) and sugarcane bagasse. Caffeine can be used in SSF as the sole nitrogen source, the carbon source being saccharose. If a simpler nitrogen source (ammonium sulphate, urea) is added to the medium containing

M. Hakil; F. Voisinet; G. Viniegra-González; C. Augur

1999-01-01

298

Aspergillus tubingensis Improves the Growth and Native Mycorrhizal Colonization of Bermudagrass in Bauxite Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of Aspergillus tubingensis to vegetation establishment on bauxite residue and its effects on the native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization were studied. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions was grown in bauxite residue with different amendments with and without A. tubingensis. Amendments of bauxite residue positively affected the growth of bermudagrass, especially when amended

A. Giridhar Babu; M. Sudhakara Reddy

2011-01-01

299

Methods to sample air borne propagules of Aspergillus flavus C.H. Bock1,2,  

E-print Network

viable conidia of A. flavus under controlled environment conditions, but not in the field, although-dispersed propagules of Aspergillus flavus can infect and colonize many agricultural products, including cottonseed. To help reduce the risk of toxin entering the food chain, aflatoxin content is strictly regulated by law

Cotty, Peter J.

300

Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species  

PubMed Central

Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P?0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

2012-01-01

301

Serum antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus catalase in patients with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven to ten percent of patients with cystic fibrosis had serum antibodies to the catalase antigen ofAspergillus fumigatus in three cross-sectional surveys between 1977 and 1984. A total of 208 patients participated at least once, and the cumulated frequency of catalase antibodies in 94 patients included in all three surveys was 16 %. The titer range was 1 to 16.

H. Schønheyder; T. Jensen; I. H. LaessCe; N. Høiby; C. Koch

1988-01-01

302

Citric acid production from beet molasses by cell recycle of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Production of citric acid from beet molasses at a varying pH profile using cell recycle ofAspergillus niger was investigated. Best results in terms of citric acid concentration, yield, productivity and specific citric acid productivity were obtained with a substrate pH of 3.0.

T. Roukas; E. Alichanidis

1991-01-01

303

Improvement of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger with addition of phytate to beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytate is an important plant constituent and can be found in the seeds of cereals and legumes. Phytic acid has 12 replaceable protons in the phytic molecule, giving it the ability to complex with multivalent cations. In this study, the phytate was used as an additive to enhance citric acid production by Aspergillus niger from an untreated beet molasses. The

Jianlong Wang

1998-01-01

304

Formation of myo-inositol phosphates by Aspergillus niger 3-phytase.  

PubMed

Kinetics of phytate hydrolysis by Aspergillus niger phytase and correlation between the amount of released phosphate and creation of lower myo-inositol phosphates were investigated. Phytase was able to hydrolyze myo-inositol hexakis-, pentakis-, tetrakis-, and trisphosphates. Finally, about 56% of total phosphate were released and myo-inositol bisphosphate was detected as the end-product. PMID:11271819

Dvoráková, J; Kopecký, J; Havlícek, V; Kren, V

2000-01-01

305

Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus oryzae 100-8, an Increased Acid Protease Production Strain  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus oryzae is a common fungus for traditional fermentation in Asia, such as spirit, soybean paste, and soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36.7-Mbp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 100-8 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042. PMID:24903875

Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Hou, Lihua

2014-01-01

306

In Vitro Synergy of Caspofungin and Amphotericin B against Aspergillus and Fusarium spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinocandins, amphophilic cyclic hexapeptides with an N- linked acyl side chain, exhibit selective antifungal activity via inhibition of -glucan synthesis. Although caspofungin has proven to be active in vivo against Aspergillus spp. (1, 2; J. Maertens, I. Raad, C. A. Sable, A. Ngai, and R. Berman, Abstr. 40th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. 1103, 2000), it has limited in

Sevtap Arikan; Mario Lozano-Chiu; Victor Paetznick; John H. Rex

2002-01-01

307

Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90 Rhamnoside Hydrolase, a New Type of Flavonoid Glycoside Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

A novel rutin-?-l-rhamnosidase hydrolyzing ?-l-rhamnoside of rutin, naringin, and hesperidin was purified and characterized from Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90, and the gene encoding this enzyme, which is highly homologous to the ?-amylase gene, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The novel enzyme was classified in glycoside-hydrolase (GH) family 13. PMID:22544243

Liu, Tingqiang; Zhang, Chunzhi; Lu, Mingchun; Piao, Yongzhe; Ohba, Masashi; Tang, Minqian; Yuan, Xiaodong; Wei, Shenghua; Wang, Kan; Ma, Anzhou; Feng, Xue; Qin, Siqing; Mukai, Chisato; Tsuji, Akira

2012-01-01

308

A Potent Nonpeptide Cholecystokinin Antagonist Selective for Peripheral Tissues Isolated from Aspergillus alliaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, competitive, nonpeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist, asperlicin, was isolated from the fungus Aspergillus alliaceus. The compound has 300 to 400 times the affinity for pancreatic, ileal, and gallbladder CCK receptors than proglumide, a standard agent of this class. Moreover, asperlicin is highly selective for peripheral CCK receptors relative to brain CCK and gastrin receptors. Since asperlicin also exhibits long-lasting

Raymond S. L. Chang; Victor J. Lotti; Richard L. Monaghan; Jerome Birnbaum; Edward O. Stapley; Michael A. Goetz; Georg Albers-Schonberg; Arthur A. Patchett; Jerrold M. Liesch; Otto D. Hensens; James P. Springer

1985-01-01

309

Aspergillus fumigatus metabolism: Clues to mechanisms of in vivo fungal growth and virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus commonly found in soil and compost piles. In immunocompromised patients it takes on a sinister form as a potentially lethal opportunistic human pathogen. We currently have a limited understanding of the in vivo growth mechanisms used by A. fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of A. fumigatus to adapt to various microenviron-

Sven D. Willger; Nora Grahl; Robert A. Cramer

2009-01-01

310

Farnesol-induced apoptosis in Aspergillus nidulans reveals a possible mechanism for antagonistic interactions between fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans secretes far- nesol, which acts as a quorum-sensing molecule and prevents the yeast to mycelium conversion. In this study we examined the effect of farnesol in the fila- mentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans . We show that externally added farnesol has no effect on hyphal morphogenesis; instead, it triggers morphological features characteristic of apoptosis. Additional

Camile P. Semighini; Jacob M. Hornby; Raluca Dumitru; Kenneth W. Nickerson; Steven D. Harris

2006-01-01

311

Divergence of West African and North American Communities of Aspergillus Section Flavi  

PubMed Central

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management. PMID:10224034

Cotty, Peter J.; Cardwell, Kitty F.

1999-01-01

312

Number 53, 2006 23 Non-circadian light inducible rhythm in Aspergillus nidulans  

E-print Network

Number 53, 2006 23 Non-circadian light inducible rhythm in Aspergillus nidulans Sijmen E. Schoustra. This is reminiscent of a circadian rhythm. We found however that our observed rhythm is induced by light (leaking; therefore, we conclude that the rhythm is not a true intrinsic circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms

Kassen, Rees

313

Production of starch-gel digesting amyloglucosidase by Aspergillus oryzae HS3 in solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus oryzae HS-3, isolated from local soil, produced very high levels of solid starch-gel digesting amyloglucosidase by solid state fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks and enamel coated metallic trays. Productivity was affected by the nature of the solid substrate, nature of the moistening agent, level of moisture content, incubation temperature, presence or absence of carbon, nitrogen and mineral supplements. Maximum enzyme

Harpreet Singh; Sanjeev K Soni

2001-01-01

314

Morphological patterns of Aspergillus niger biofilms and pellets related to lignocellulolytic enzyme productivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To study the morphological patterns of Aspergillus niger during biofilm formation on polyester cloth by using cryo-scanning electron microscopy rela- ted to lignocellulolytic enzyme productivity. Methods and Results: Biofilm and pellet samples obtained from flask cultures were examined at )80? C in a LEO PV scanning electron microscope. Spore adhesion depends on both its rough surface and adhesive substances

G. K. Villena; M. Gutiérrez-Correa

2007-01-01

315

Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is exceptional among microorganisms in being both a primary and opportunistic pathogen as well as a major allergen. Its conidia production is prolific, and so human respiratory tract exposure is almost constant. A. fumigatus is isolated from human habitats and vegetable compost heaps. In immunocompromised individuals, the incidence of invasive infection can be as high as 50% and

William C. Nierman; Arnab Pain; Michael J. Anderson; Jennifer R. Wortman; H. Stanley Kim; Javier Arroyo; Matthew Berriman; Keietsu Abe; David B. Archer; Clara Bermejo; Joan Bennett; Paul Bowyer; Dan Chen; Matthew Collins; Richard Coulsen; Robert Davies; Paul S. Dyer; Mark Farman; Natalie Fedorova; Natalie Fedorova; Tamara V. Feldblyum; Reinhard Fischer; Nigel Fosker; Audrey Fraser; Jose L. García; Maria J. García; Arlette Goble; Gustavo H. Goldman; Katsuya Gomi; Sam Griffith-Jones; Ryan Gwilliam; Brian Haas; Hubertus Haas; David Harris; H. Horiuchi; Jiaqi Huang; Sean Humphray; Javier Jiménez; Nancy Keller; Hoda Khouri; Katsuhiko Kitamoto; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Sven Konzack; Resham Kulkarni; Toshitaka Kumagai; Anne Lafton; Jean-Paul Latgé; Weixi Li; Angela Lord; Charles Lu; William H. Majoros; Gregory S. May; Bruce L. Miller; Yasmin Mohamoud; Maria Molina; Michel Monod; Isabelle Mouyna; Stephanie Mulligan; Lee Murphy; Susan O'Neil; Miguel A. Peñalva; Mihaela Pertea; Claire Price; Bethan L. Pritchard; Michael A. Quail; Ester Rabbinowitsch; Neil Rawlins; Marie-Adele Rajandream; Utz Reichard; Hubert Renauld; Geoffrey D. Robson; Santiago Rodriguez de Córdoba; Catherine M. Ronning; Simon Rutter; Miguel Sanchez; Juan C. Sánchez-Ferrero; David Saunders; Kathy Seeger; Rob Squares; Steven Squares; Michio Takeuchi; Fredj Tekaia; Geoffrey Turner; Carlos R. Vazquez de Aldana; Janice Weidman; Owen White; John Woodward; Jae-Hyuk Yu; Claire Fraser; James E. Galagan; Kiyoshi Asai; Neil Hall; Bart Barrell

2005-01-01

316

Kinetics of cellobiose hydrolysis using cellobiase composites from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose involves the formation of cellobiose as an intermediate. It has been found necessary to add cellobiase from Aspergillus niger (NOVO) to the cellobiase component of Trichoderma reesei mutant Rut C-30 (Natick) cellulase enzymes in order to obtain after 48 h complete conversion of the cellobiose formed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. This

W. Grous; A. Converse; H. Grethlein; L. Lynd

1985-01-01

317

Spiro fused diterpene-indole alkaloids from a creek-bottom-derived Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

Four metabolites, teraspiridoles A-D (2-5), formed from the merger of a diterpene and modified indole scaffold were obtained from an Aspergillus terreus isolate. The structures and absolute configurations of these natural products were established using NMR, mass spectrometry, Marfey's method, VCD, and ECD data. Teraspiridole B (3) exhibited weak inhibition of planaria regeneration/survival. PMID:23924243

Cai, Shengxin; Du, Lin; Gerea, Alexandra L; King, Jarrod B; You, Jianlan; Cichewicz, Robert H

2013-08-16

318

Structure of an Aspergillus flavus population from maize kernels in northern Italy Antonio Mauro a  

E-print Network

Structure of an Aspergillus flavus population from maize kernels in northern Italy Antonio Mauro, 29122, Piacenza, Italy b U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, School of Plant, Universit� Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122, Piacenza, Italy a b s t r a c ta r t i

Cotty, Peter J.

319

Bioenergetic consequences of glucoamylase production in carbon-limited chemostat cultures of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger has been grown in glucose- and maltose-limited continuous cultures to determine the bioenergetic consequences of the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase. Growth yields (g biomass per mol substrate) were high, indicating that growth was very efficient and protein production for biomass was not exceedingly energy consuming. It has been found that the energy costs for the production

M. Metwally; M. Sayed; M. Osman; P. P. F. Hanegraaf; A. H. Stouthamer; H. W. Verseveld

1991-01-01

320

Twenty-five coregulated transcripts define a sterigmatocystin gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed Central

Sterigmatocystin (ST) and the aflatoxins (AFs), related fungal secondary metabolites, are among the most toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic natural products known. The ST biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus nidulans is estimated to involve at least 15 enzymatic activities, while certain Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus nomius strains contain additional activities that convert ST to AF. We have characterized a 60-kb region in the A. nidulans genome and find it contains many, if not all, of the genes needed for ST biosynthesis. This region includes verA, a structural gene previously shown to be required for ST biosynthesis, and 24 additional closely spaced transcripts ranging in size from 0.6 to 7.2 kb that are coordinately induced only under ST-producing conditions. Each end of this gene cluster is demarcated by transcripts that are expressed under both ST-inducing and non-ST-inducing conditions. Deduced polypeptide sequences of regions within this cluster had a high percentage of identity with enzymes that have activities predicted for ST/AF biosynthesis, including a polyketide synthase, a fatty acid synthase (alpha and beta subunits), five monooxygenases, four dehydrogenases, an esterase, an 0-methyltransferase, a reductase, an oxidase, and a zinc cluster DNA binding protein. A revised system for naming the genes of the ST pathway is presented. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643646

Brown, D W; Yu, J H; Kelkar, H S; Fernandes, M; Nesbitt, T C; Keller, N P; Adams, T H; Leonard, T J

1996-01-01

321

Ross procedure in a child with Aspergillus endocarditis and bicuspid aortic valve.  

PubMed

The case is presented of a previously healthy infant with a known asymptomatic bicuspid aortic valve who developed fungal endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic root replacement with a pulmonary autograft (Ross procedure). Cultured operative material revealed Aspergillus infection. The patient had an excellent recovery and remained well one year later. PMID:25192408

Mitropoulos, Fotios A; Kanakis, Meletios A; Contrafouris, Constantinos; Laskari, Cleo; Rammos, Spyridon; Apostolidis, Christos; Azariadis, Prodromos; Chatzis, Andrew C

2014-01-01

322

New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Nigri includes some of the most important species for biotechnology and its species are of widespread occurrence. During our surveys of various food products and tropical soil we isolated several aspergilli belonging to section Nigri. In this paper, four new sclerotium and\\/or ochratoxin A producing species belonging to this section are proposed. In addition, based on a polyphasic

Robert A. Samson; Jos A. M. P. Houbraken; Angelina F. A. Kuijpers; J. Mick Frank

323

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM TOXICIT DE L'OCHRATOXINE A  

E-print Network

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM IV. - TOXICITÃ? DE L'OCHRATOXINE A PAR ADMINISTRATION ORALEILHEI,M TOXINS. IV. - TOXICITY IN RAT BY PROLONGED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF OCHRATOXIN A Adult male and female rats are given oral doses of 0.25 to 8 mg/kg of ochratoxin A daily for 10 days. This study confirms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to their ability to produce toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is dependent upon a basic understanding of their diversity in agricultural ecosystems. This review summarizes our current knowledge

Bruce W. Horn

2007-01-01

325

Exploring temporal transcription regulation structure of Aspergillus fumigatus in heat shock by state space model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The thermotolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus plays a critical role in mammalian and avian infections. Thus, the identification of its adaptation mechanism to higher temperature is very important for an efficient anti-fungal drug development as well as fundamental understanding of its pathogenesis. We explored the temporal transcription regulation structure of this pathogenic fungus under heat shock conditions using the time

Jin Hwan Do; Rui Yamaguchi; Satoru Miyano

2009-01-01

326

Improved annotation through genome-scale metabolic modeling of Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since ancient times the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the fermentation industry for the production of fermented sauces and the production of industrial enzymes. Recently, the genome sequence of A. oryzae with 12,074 annotated genes was released but the number of hypothetical proteins accounted for more than 50% of the annotated genes. Considering the industrial importance

Wanwipa Vongsangnak; Peter Olsen; Kim Hansen; Steen Krogsgaard; Jens Nielsen

2008-01-01

327

Surgical treatment of native valve Aspergillus endocarditis and fungemic vascular complications.  

PubMed

Systemic infection with Aspergillus is an opportunistic disease that affects mainly immunocompromised hosts, and is associated with a high mortality rate. It typically occurs in patients with several predisposing factors, but Aspergillus endocarditis of native valves is rare and experience in diagnosis and treatment is limited. We report a case of native valve endocarditis caused by Aspergillus. A 35-yr-old male patient who underwent pericardiocentesis four months previously for pericardial effusion of unknown etiology presented with right leg pain and absence of the right femoral artery pulse. Cardiac echocardiography revealed severe mitral insufficiency with large mobile vegetations, and computed tomographic angiography showed embolic occlusion of both common iliac arteries. We performed mitral valve replacement and thromboembolectomy, and Aspergillus was identified as the vegetation. We started intravenous amphotericin B and oral itraconazole, but systemic complications developed including superior mesenteric artery aneurysm and gastrointestinal bleeding. After aggressive management, the patient was discharged 78 days post surgery on oral itraconazole. He was well at 12 months post discharge but died in a traffic accident 13 months after discharge. PMID:19270834

Ryu, Kyoung Min; Seo, Pil Won; Kim, Sam-Hyun; Park, Seongsik; Ryu, Jae-Wook

2009-02-01

328

Systemic analysis of the response of Aspergillus niger to ambient pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an exceptionally efficient producer of organic acids, which is one of the reasons for its relevance to industrial processes and commercial importance. While it is known that the mechanisms regulating this production are tied to the levels of ambient pH, the reasons and mechanisms for this are poorly understood. METHODS: To cast

Mikael R Andersen; Linda Lehmann; Jens Nielsen

2009-01-01

329

Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors. PMID:23649940

König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

2013-05-27

330

The growing promise of Toll-deficient Drosophila melanogaster as a model for studying Aspergillus pathogenesis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable progress over recent years, the prognosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unfavorable, reflecting an incomplete understanding of Aspergillus pathogenesis and suboptimal antifungal efficacy in vivo. Mammalian host systems including rodents and rabbits are important tools in elucidating antifungal drug activity and the immunopathogenesis of IA. Nonetheless, they are hampered by limitations that impose a “bottleneck” in mass screening of novel antifungal compounds and putative Aspergillus virulence factors including their cost, labor intensity and ethical constraints. Drosophila melanogaster is an invertebrate host with a long track record of genetic studies and a simple yet highly conserved innate immune system. Herein, we describe our experience using this fly model as a facile, non-laborious, inexpensive pathosystem for high-throughput screening of novel antifungal compounds and putative Aspergillus mutants, and studying antifungal innate immunity. We present three infection protocols (i.e., injection, rolling, ingestion) that introduce Aspergillus either directly into the hemolymph or at different epithelial surfaces of Toll-deficient Drosophila flies. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate attenuated virulence of known hypovirulent Aspergillus strains and protection of Aspergillus-infected flies given oral Aspergillus-active agents such as voriconazole. These protocols can be adapted for similar studies of other fungal pathogens. Crossing and generation of Toll-deficient Drosophila flies takes three weeks; Aspergillus conidial preparation takes three days; fly inoculation depending on the infection assay takes one to 6–8 hours; and assessment of fly survival, Aspergillus strain virulence, Drosophila innate host parameters and/or drug activity takes 4–8 days. PMID:21178494

Lionakis, Michail S

2010-01-01

331

Aspergillus section Nigri as contributor of fumonisin B(2) contamination in maize.  

PubMed

Fumonisins (FBs), which are carcinogenic mycotoxins, are known to be typically produced by several phytopathogenic fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, two important pathogens of maize worldwide, are the most common species that produce FBs. The main FBs produced by these species are FB1, FB2 and FB3. Moreover, recently, fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus niger have been also reported to produce FBs (in particular, FB2 and FB4). In a survey on maize carried out in Central Italy, 17 maize kernel samples were collected at harvest and analysed for FB1, FB2 and FB3, as well as fungal contamination, with a particular attention to the species-producing FBs. All 17 samples were contaminated by F. verticillioides and/or F. proliferatum at a level ranging from 13% to 100% of kernels. However, 10 out of 17 samples were also contaminated by Aspergillus section Nigri with a range from 6% to 68% of kernels. There was a significant inverse logarithmic relationship between levels of Fusarium and Aspergillus contamination. All samples were contaminated by FBs; FB1 ranged from 0.09 to 30.2 ?g g(-1), whereas FB2 ranged from 0.04 to 13.2 ?g g(-1). The ratio of FB2/FB1 contamination in the maize samples was evaluated and the highest values occurred in samples contaminated with Aspergillus section Nigri. Thirty strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from these samples were molecularly identified (based on sequences of two housekeeping genes) and analysed for their capability to produce FB2. Among the 30 strains isolated, 12 were identified as Aspergillus welwitschiae (syn. A. awamori) and 18 as A. tubingensis. FB2 was produced by five out of 12 strains of A. welwitschiae within a range of 0.20-5 ?g g(-1). This is the first report showing the capability of Aspergillus section Nigri from maize to produce FB2 and its possibility to contribute to FB accumulation in kernels. PMID:24313896

Logrieco, A F; Haidukowski, M; Susca, A; Mulè, G; Munkvold, G P; Moretti, A

2014-01-01

332

Genetic Relatedness versus Biological Compatibility between Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Fumigati contains 12 clinically relevant species. Among these Aspergillus species, A. fumigatus is the most frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis, followed by A. lentulus and A. viridinutans. Genealogical concordance and mating experiments were performed to examine the relationship between phylogenetic distance and mating success in these three heterothallic species. Analyses of 19 isolates from section Fumigati revealed the presence of three previously unrecognized species within the broadly circumscribed species A. viridinutans. A single mating type was found in the new species Aspergillus pseudofelis and Aspergillus pseudoviridinutans, but in Aspergillus parafelis, both mating types were present. Reciprocal interspecific pairings of all species in the study showed that the only successful crosses occurred with the MAT1-2 isolates of both A. parafelis and A. pseudofelis. The MAT1-2 isolate of A. parafelis was fertile when paired with the MAT1-1 isolates of A. fumigatus, A. viridinutans, A. felis, A. pseudoviridinutans, and A. wyomingensis but was not fertile with the MAT1-1 isolate of A. lentulus. The MAT1-2 isolates of A. pseudofelis were fertile when paired with the MAT1-1 isolate of A. felis but not with any of the other species. The general infertility in the interspecies crossings suggests that genetically unrelated species are also biologically incompatible, with the MAT1-2 isolates of A. parafelis and A. pseudofelis being the exception. Our findings underscore the importance of genealogical concordance analysis for species circumscription, as well as for accurate species identification, since misidentification of morphologically similar pathogens with differences in innate drug resistance may be of grave consequences for disease management. PMID:25100816

Sugui, Janyce A; Peterson, Stephen W; Figat, Abigail; Hansen, Bryan; Samson, Robert A; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

2014-10-01

333

Immunoperoxidase staining for identification of Aspergillus species in routinely processed tissue sections.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To evaluate the performance of an immunoperoxidase stain using the monoclonal antibody EB-A1 to detect Aspergillus species in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue. METHODS: The monoclonal antibody EB-A1 directed against galactomannan was used to detect Aspergillus species in 23 patients with suspected or confirmed invasive aspergillosis. Immunostaining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue using the streptavidin-biotin method and compared with conventional haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Gomori-Grocott stains. Results of immunostaining were semiquantitatively analysed with regard to both intensity of staining and number of positively staining micro-organisms. Tissue sections from 16 patients with confirmed invasive mycoses due to Candida species, Apophysomyces elegans, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudallescheria boydii and Histoplasma capsulatum were used as controls. RESULTS: In 19 (83%) of 23 cases invasive aspergillosis was confirmed by both histological examination and culture (18 Aspergillus fumigatus and one A flavus). Immunoperoxidase stains were positive in 17 (89%) of 19 cases including one case of disseminated infection due to A flavus. Furthermore, the immunoperoxidase stain was positive in a culture negative tissue section with histological evidence of mycelial development, indicating the presence of Aspergillus species. Some cross-reactivity was observed with the highly related fungus P boydii, although the number of mycelial elements that stained was low. CONCLUSIONS: Immunoperoxidase staining using the monoclonal antibody EB-A1 performs well on routinely processed tissue sections and permits detection and generic identification of Aspergillus species, although it was no better than conventional histopathology in identifying the presence of an infection. An additional advantage is that the immunostain may help to provide an aetiological diagnosis when cultures remain negative. Images PMID:8943743

Verweij, P E; Smedts, F; Poot, T; Bult, P; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A; Meis, J F

1996-01-01

334

Actinoplanes liguriensis sp. nov. and Actinoplanes teichomyceticus sp. nov.  

PubMed

The taxonomic status of 'Actinoplanes liguriae' A/6353 and 'Actinoplanes teichomyceticus' AB8327 was established by using a polyphasic approach. Strains A/6353 and AB8327 form distinct phylogenetic lineages in the 16S rRNA gene tree of members of the genus Actinoplanes and are related moderately and closely to Actinoplanes rectilineatus and Actinoplanes cyaneus, respectively. Morphological, cultural and physiological properties indicated that strains A/6353 and AB8327 represent separate, novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, Actinoplanes liguriensis sp. nov. (type strain A/6353(T)=FH 2244(T)=DSM 43865(T)=ATCC 31048(T)=BCRC 12121(T)=CBS 355.75(T)=IMSNU 22127(T)=JCM 3250(T)=KCTC 9536(T)=KCC A-0250(T)=NBRC 13997(T)=NCIMB 12636(T)=NRRL B-16723(T)=SANK 62178(T)) and Actinoplanes teichomyceticus sp. nov. (type strain AB8327(T)=FH 2149(T)=DSM 43866(T)=ATCC 31121(T)=BCRC 12106(T)=FERM P-3462(T)=IMSNU 20043(T)=IMET 9254(T)=JCM 3252(T)=KCC A-0252(T)=KCTC 9543(T)=NBRC 13999(T)=NCIMB 12640(T)=NRRL B-16726(T)=SANK 60479(T)). PMID:16957109

Wink, Joachim M; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Schumann, Peter; Seibert, Gerhard; Stackebrandt, Erko

2006-09-01

335

Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov. and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Strains 1517(T) and 61D(T) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. These Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria were homo-fermentative, facultatively anaerobic short rods. They were phylogenetically related to the genus Lactobacillus according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with 99 % similarity between strain 1517(T) and the type strain of Lactobacillus gigeriorum, and 98.6, 98.5 and 98.4 % between strain 61D(T) and Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus taiwanensis and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis and metabolic analysis of both strains showed variation between the two strains and their close relatives, with variation in the position of the pheS and rpoA genes. The DNA-DNA relatedness of 43.5 % between strain 1517(T) and L. gigeriorum, and 38.6, 29.9 and 39.7 % between strain 61D(T) and L. johnsonii, L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively, confirmed their status as novel species. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, two novel species of Lactobacillus are proposed: Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov., with 1517(T) ( = CRBIP 24.76(T) = DSM 23907(T)) as the type strain, and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov., with 61D(T) (=CRBIP 24.179(T) = DSM 23910(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22328611

Cousin, Sylvie; Motreff, Laurence; Gulat-Okalla, Marie-Laure; Gouyette, Catherine; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Begaud, Evelyne; Bouchier, Christiane; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

2013-01-01

336

Methylobacterium persicinum sp. nov., Methylobacterium komagatae sp. nov., Methylobacterium brachiatum sp. nov., Methylobacterium tardum sp. nov. and Methylobacterium gregans sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.  

PubMed

Eight strains, 002-165T, 002-079T, B0021T, Hojyo2, RB603B, RB677T, 002-074T and RB678, isolated from the environment of food-processing factories in Japan, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolates were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic, non-spore-forming rods. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates included the presence of C18 : 1omega7c as the major cellular fatty acid and ubiquinone Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The DNA G+C content was 67.1-71.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) nucleotide sequence confirmed that the eight strains belonged to the Methylobacterium clade. Moreover, a DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed that the eight isolates represented five novel species. On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the isolates represent five novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium persicinum sp. nov. (type strain 002-165T =DSM 19562T =NBRC 103628T =NCIMB 14378T), Methylobacterium komagatae sp. nov. (type strain 002-079T =DSM 19563T =NBRC 103627T =NCIMB 14377T), Methylobacterium brachiatum sp. nov. (type strain B0021T =DSM 19569T =NBRC 103629T =NCIMB 14379T), Methylobacterium tardum sp. nov. (type strain RB677T =DSM 19566T =NBRC 103632T =NCIMB 14380T) and Methylobacterium gregans sp. nov. (type strain 002-074T =DSM 19564T =NBRC 103626T =NCIMB 14376T) are proposed. PMID:18450702

Kato, Yuko; Asahara, Mika; Goto, Keiichi; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

2008-05-01

337

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca Dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Erica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

338

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of SCH 56592 (Posaconazole), a New Triazole Antifungal Agent, against Aspergillus and Candida  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCH 56592 (posaconazole), a new triazole antifungal agent, was tested in vitro, and its activity was compared to that of itraconazole against 39 Aspergillus strains and to that of fluconazole against 275 Candida and 9 Cryptococcus strains. The SCH 56592 MICs for Aspergillus ranged from <0.002 to 0.5 mg\\/ml, and those of itraconazole ranged from <0.008 to 1 mg\\/ml. The

ANTHONY CACCIAPUOTI; DAVID LOEBENBERG; ERIK CORCORAN; FRED MENZEL; E. L. Moss; C. Norris; M. Michalski; K. Raynor; J. Halpern; C. Mendrick; B. Arnold; B. Antonacci; R. Parmegiani; T. Yarosh-Tomaine; G. H. Miller; R. S. Hare

2000-01-01

339

In Vitro Activity of the New Triazole BMS-207147 against Aspergillus Species in Comparison with Itraconazole and Amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of BMS-207147 against 80 clinical isolates of Aspergillus was compared with that of itraconazole and amphotericin B, using a validated microtiter method. Geometric mean MICs (in mg\\/ml) were as follows: 1.71 for BMS-207147, 0.67 for itraconazole, and 0.63 for amphotericin B. The range of concentra- tions of each drug was 0.125 to >16 mg\\/ml. Aspergillus fumigatus

CAROLINE B. MOORE; CAROLINE M. WALLS; DAVID W. DENNING

2000-01-01

340

Targeting antioxidative signal transduction and stress response system: control of pathogenic Aspergillus with phenolics that inhibit mitochondrial function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The aim of this study was to show whether antioxidative response sys- tems are potentially useful molecular targets for control of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Selected phenolic agents are used in target-gene-based bioassays to determine their impact on mitochondrial respiration. Methods and Results: Vanillyl acetone, vanillic acid, vanillin, cinnamic acid, veratraldehyde, m-coumaric acid (phenolic agents to which Saccharomyces

J. H. Kim; B. C. Campbell; N. Mahoney; K. L. Chan; G. S. May

2006-01-01

341

Microscopic Evaluation, Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Clinical Outcomes in Fusarium, Aspergillus and, Dematiaceous Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous are the most common fungal species causing keratitis in tropical countries. Herein we report a prospective study on fungal keratitis caused by these three fungal species. Methodology. A prospective investigation was undertaken to evaluate eyes with presumed fungal keratitis. All the fungal isolates (n = 73) obtained from keratitis infections were identified using morphological and microscopic characters. Molecular identification using sequencing of the ITS region and antifungal susceptibility tests using microdilution method were done. The final clinical outcome was evaluated in terms of the time taken for resolution of keratitis and the final visual outcome. The results were analyzed after segregating the cases into three groups, namely, Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous keratitis. Results. Diagnosis of fungal keratitis was established in 73 (35.9%) cases out of 208 cases. The spectra of fungi isolated were Fusarium spp. (26.6%), Aspergillus spp. (21.6%), and Dematiaceous fungi (11.6%). The sequence of the ITS region could identify the Fusarium and Aspergillus species at the species complex level, and the Dematiaceous isolates were accurately identified. Using antifungal agents such as fluconazole, natamycin, amphotericin B, and itraconazole, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Fusarium spp. were >32??g/mL, 4–8??g/mL, 0.5–1??g/mL, and >32??g/mL, respectively. Antifungal susceptibility data showed that Curvularia spp. was highly resistant to all the antifungal agents. Overall, natamycin and amphotericin B were found to be the most effective antifungal agents. The comparative clinical outcomes in all cases showed that the healing response in terms of visual acuity of the Dematiaceous group was significantly good when compared with the Fusarium and Aspergillus groups (P < 0.05). The time required for healing in the Fusarium group was statistically significantly less when compared with the Aspergillus and Dematiaceous groups. Conclusion. This study demonstrates important differences in microscopic features of scraping material and antifungal susceptibility between the three groups. Early and accurate identification coupled with the MIC data, and thereby appropriate treatment is crucial for complete recovery. PMID:24260740

Gajjar, Devarshi U.; Pal, Anuradha K.; Ghodadra, Bharat K.; Vasavada, Abhay R.

2013-01-01

342

Modulation of biocidal activity of Calothrix sp. and Anabaena sp. by environmental factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was undertaken to evaluate a set of cyanobacterial strains in terms of production of biocidal compounds exhibiting\\u000a allelochemical and fungicidal properties. Two cyanobacterial strains — Anabaena sp. and Calothrix sp. were selected for further investigation, on the basis of their larger inhibition zones on the lawn of Synechocystis and Synechococcus sp. and two phytopathogenic fungi — Rhizoctonia bataticola

Balasubramanian Radhakrishnan; Radha Prasanna; Pranita Jaiswal; Saswati Nayak; Prem Dureja

2009-01-01

343

Cryptic and rare Aspergillus species in Brazil: prevalence in clinical samples and in vitro susceptibility to triazoles.  

PubMed

Aspergillus spp. are among the most common causes of opportunistic invasive fungal infections in tertiary care hospitals. Little is known about the prevalence and in vitro susceptibility of Aspergillus species in Latin America, because there are few medical centers able to perform accurate identification at the species level. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of cryptic and rare Aspergillus species among clinical samples from 133 patients with suspected aspergillosis admitted in 12 medical centers in Brazil and to analyze the in vitro activity of different antifungal drugs. The identification of Aspergillus species was performed based on a polyphasic approach, as well as sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, calmodulin, and ?-tubulin genes and phylogenetic analysis when necessary. The in vitro susceptibility tests with voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole were performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 document (2008). We demonstrated a high prevalence of cryptic species causing human infection. Only three isolates, representing the species Aspergillus thermomutatus, A. ochraceus, and A. calidoustus, showed less in vitro susceptibility to at least one of the triazoles tested. Accurate identifications of Aspergillus at the species level and with in vitro susceptibility tests are important because some species may present unique resistance patterns against specific antifungal drugs. PMID:25078909

Negri, C E; Gonçalves, S S; Xafranski, H; Bergamasco, M D; Aquino, V R; Castro, P T O; Colombo, A L

2014-10-01

344

Colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species is associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome: a two-center validation study.  

PubMed

Aspergillus colonization after lung transplantation may increase the risk for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a disease of small airways. We hypothesized that colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species would be associated with a greater risk of BOS, based upon an increased likelihood of deposition in small airways. We studied adult primary lung recipients from two large centers; 298 recipients at University of California, Los Angeles and 482 recipients at Duke University Medical Center. We grouped Aspergillus species by conidia diameter?3.5 ?m. We assessed the relationship of colonization with outcomes in Cox models. Pre-BOS colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species, but not large, was a risk factor for BOS (p=0.002, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.14-1.82), along with acute rejection, single lung and Pseudomonas. Colonization with small conidia species also associated with risk of death (p=0.03, HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64). Although other virulence traits besides conidia size may be important, we have demonstrated in two large independent cohorts that colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species increases the risk of BOS and death. Prospective evaluation of strategies to prevent Aspergillus colonization of small airways is warranted, with the goal of preserving lung allograft function as long as possible. PMID:23398785

Weigt, S S; Copeland, C A Finlen; Derhovanessian, A; Shino, M Y; Davis, W A; Snyder, L D; Gregson, A L; Saggar, R; Lynch, J P; Ross, D J; Ardehali, A; Elashoff, R M; Palmer, S M; Belperio, J A

2013-04-01

345

Anoxybacillus ayderensis sp. nov. and Anoxybacillus kestanbolensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two thermophilic bacilli were isolated from mud and water samples of the Ayder and Kestanbol hot springs in the provinces of Rize and Canakkale, respectively, in Turkey. Strains AB04T and K4T were sporulating, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. These isolates were moderately thermophilic (with an optimum temperature for growth of 50-55 degrees C), facultative anaerobes able to grow on a wide range of carbon sources including d-glucose, d-raffinose, d-sucrose, D-xylose, D-fructose, L-arabinose, maltose, D-mannose and D-mannitol. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these isolates resembled Anoxybacillus flavithermus DSM 2641T and Anoxybacillus gonensis NCIMB 13933T. DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that thermophilic isolate AB04T has only 51.2 % relatedness to A. flavithermus, 45.1 % relatedness to Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis and 68.6 % relatedness to A. gonensis. Thermophilic isolate K4T showed only 60.4 % relatedness to A. flavithermus, 42.9 % relatedness to A. pushchinoensis and 38.5 % relatedness to A. gonensis. On the basis of the DNA-DNA hybridization data, isolates AB04T and K4T are not related to A. flavithermus DSM 2641T, A. pushchinoensis DSM 12423T or A. gonensis NCIMB 13933T at the species level, but show relatedness to one another of 40.5 %. On the basis of the data presented, it is proposed that strains AB04T (= NCIMB 13972T = NCCB 100050T) and K4T (= NCIMB 13971T = NCCB 100051T) be designated as the type strains of Anoxybacillus ayderensis sp. nov. and Anoxybacillus kestanbolensis sp. nov., respectively. PMID:15388701

Dulger, Sabriye; Demirbag, Zihni; Belduz, Ali Osman

2004-09-01

346

Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T), were isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized to determine their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates shared 99.5 % sequence similarity. Strains T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) were shown to belong to the Proteobacteria and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity to Pseudoxanthomonas broegbernensis DSM 12573(T) (98.1 %), Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana AMX 26B(T) (97.4-97.5 %), Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis 12-3(T) (96.5-96.6 %), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis ATCC BAA-404(T) (95.7 %) and Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 33913(T) (96.3-96.5 %). The sequence similarity values with respect to any species with validly published names in related genera were less than 96.5 %. The detection of a quinone system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and a fatty acid profile with C(15 : 0) iso as the predominant acid supported the assignment of the novel isolates to the order 'Xanthomonadales'. The two isolates could be distinguished from the established species of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas by the presence of quantitative unsaturated fatty acid C(17 : 1) iso omega9c and by their unique biochemical profiles. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization clearly demonstrated that T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) represent separate species. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that T7-09(T) (=KCTC 12208(T)=IAM 15116(T)) and TR6-08(T) (=KCTC 12207(T)=IAM 15115(T)) be classified as the type strains of two novel Pseudoxanthomonas species, for which the names Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. PMID:15774663

Yang, Deok-Chun; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Sung-Taik

2005-03-01

347

Mixed fungal infection (Aspergillus, mucor, and Candida) of severe hand injury.  

PubMed

Severe hand injuries are almost always heavily contaminated and hence wound infections in those patients are frequent. Fungal wound infections are rare in immunocompetent patients. A case of mixed fungal infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida) was documented in a young male patient, with a severe hand injury caused by a corn picker. The diagnosis of fungal infection was confirmed microbiologically and histopathologically. The treatment was conducted with repeated surgical necrectomy and administration of antifungal drugs according to the antimycogram. After ten weeks the patient was successfully cured. The aggressive nature of Mucor and Aspergillus skin infection was described. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are necessary for an early diagnosis and the initiation of the adequate treatment. Early detection, surgical intervention, and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential in the treatment of this rare infection that could potentially lead to loss of limbs or even death. PMID:24782933

Obradovic-Tomasev, Milana; Popovic, Aleksandra; Vuckovic, Nada; Jovanovic, Mladen

2014-01-01

348

Cloning and Expression of Aspergillus tamarii FS132 Lipase Gene in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

A lipase gene (atl) was cloned from Aspergillus tamarii FS132 for the first time. The gene was found to have an open reading frame of 1024 base pairs (bp), and the coding region of the gene contained two introns (51 bp and 52 bp). Multi-alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated high homology between the enzyme and mono-and diacylglycerol lipases from fungi Aspergillus. The recombinant lipase was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 cells. The recombinant lipase was found to have a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, and it exhibited lipase activity of 20 U/mL in culture supernatant when tributyrin was used as the substrate. PMID:20640158

Shi, Bihong; Zeng, Liqing; Song, Haolei; Shi, Qiaoqin; Wu, Songgang

2010-01-01

349

Particle size distribution of airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores emitted from compost using membrane filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the particle size distribution of bioaerosols emitted from open air composting operations is valuable in evaluating potential health impacts and is a requirement for improved dispersion simulation modelling. The membrane filter method was used to study the particle size distribution of Aspergillus fumigatus spores in air 50 m downwind of a green waste compost screening operation at a commercial facility. The highest concentrations (approximately 8 × 10 4 CFU m -3) of culturable spores were found on filters with pore diameters in the range 1-2 ?m which suggests that the majority of spores are emitted as single cells. The findings were compared to published data collected using an Andersen sampler. Results were significantly correlated ( p < 0.01) indicating that the two methods are directly comparable across all particles sizes for Aspergillus spores.

Deacon, L. J.; Pankhurst, L. J.; Drew, G. H.; Hayes, E. T.; Jackson, S.; Longhurst, P. J.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Liu, J.; Pollard, S. J. T.; Tyrrel, S. F.

350

Mixed Fungal Infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida) of Severe Hand Injury  

PubMed Central

Severe hand injuries are almost always heavily contaminated and hence wound infections in those patients are frequent. Fungal wound infections are rare in immunocompetent patients. A case of mixed fungal infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida) was documented in a young male patient, with a severe hand injury caused by a corn picker. The diagnosis of fungal infection was confirmed microbiologically and histopathologically. The treatment was conducted with repeated surgical necrectomy and administration of antifungal drugs according to the antimycogram. After ten weeks the patient was successfully cured. The aggressive nature of Mucor and Aspergillus skin infection was described. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are necessary for an early diagnosis and the initiation of the adequate treatment. Early detection, surgical intervention, and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential in the treatment of this rare infection that could potentially lead to loss of limbs or even death. PMID:24782933

Obradovic-Tomasev, Milana; Popovic, Aleksandra; Vuckovic, Nada; Jovanovic, Mladen

2014-01-01

351

Aspergillus section Versicolores: nine new species and multilocus DNA sequence based phylogeny.  

PubMed

?-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and partial lsu-rDNA, RNA polymerase 2, DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7, and pre-rRNA processing protein Tsr1 were amplified and sequenced from numerous isolates belonging to Aspergillus sect. versicolor. The isolates were analyzed phylogenetically using the concordance model to establish species boundaries. Aspergillus austroafricanus, A. creber, A. cvjetkovicii, A. fructus, A. jensenii, A. puulaauensis, A. subversicolor, A. tennesseensis and A. venenatus are described as new species and A. amoenus, A. protuberus,A. sydowii, A. tabacinus and A. versicolor are accepted as distinct species on the basis of molecular and phenotypic differences. PCR primer pairs used to detect A. versicolor in sick building syndrome studies have a positive reaction for all of the newly described species except A. subversicolor. PMID:23155501

Jurjevic, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Horn, Bruce W

2012-06-01

352

Molecular Cloning and Transcriptional Regulation of the Aspergillus nidulans xlnD Gene Encoding a ?-Xylosidase  

PubMed Central

The xlnD gene encoding the 85-kDa ?-xylosidase was cloned from Aspergillus nidulans. The deduced primary structure of the protein exhibits considerable similarity to the primary structures of the Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei ?-xylosidases and some similarity to the primary structures of the class 3 ?-glucosidases. xlnD is regulated at the transcriptional level; it is induced by xylan and d-xylose and is repressed by d-glucose. Glucose repression is mediated by the product of the creA gene. Although several binding sites for the pH regulatory protein PacC were found in the upstream regulatory region, it was not clear from a Northern analysis whether PacC is involved in transcriptional regulation of xlnD. PMID:9546179

Perez-Gonzalez, Jose A.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Bezoen, Alja; Maccabe, Andrew P.; Ramon, Daniel; de Graaff, Leo H.

1998-01-01

353

_q .. SP-6102 -" IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

_�q .. SP-6102 -" READINGS IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Edited by Francis T. Hoban and William M. Lawbaugh co ! (NASA-SP-6102) REAOINGS IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (NASa) 215 p N93-24678 --THRU-- N93-24693 Unclas H1/31 0158570 #12;.J T ,j J #12;READINGS IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Edited by Francis T. Hoban

Rhoads, James

354

Inhibitory Effects of Ephedra major Host on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth and Aflatoxin Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Ephedra major Host, an important medicinal plant with various biological activities, on growth and aflatoxin (AF) production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. The fungus was cultured in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth, a conductive medium that supports AF production,\\u000a in the presence of various concentrations of essential oil (EO), hexanic and methanolic

Shahrokh Bagheri-Gavkosh; Mohsen Bigdeli; Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

2009-01-01

355

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

356

The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, transporter genes, and azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous use of triazoles can result in the development of drug resistance. Azole-resistant clinical isolates, spontaneous and induced mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus have been documented. The azoles block the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway by inhibiting the enzyme 14-a-demethylase, product of the CYP51. Fungal azole resistance involves both amino acid changes in the target site that alter drug-target interactions and those

M. E. DA; SILVA FERREIRA; A. L. COLOMBO; I. PAULSEN; Q. REN; Jennifer R. Wortman; J. HUANG; M. H. S. GOLDMAN; G. H. GOLDMAN

2005-01-01

357

Molecular Evaluation of the Plasma Membrane Proton Pump from Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding the plasma membrane proton pump (H-ATPase) of Aspergillus fumigatus, PMA1, was characterized from A. fumigatus strain NIH 5233 and clinical isolate H11-20. An open reading frame of 3,109 nucleotides with two introns near the N terminus predicts a protein consisting of 989 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 108 kDa. The predicted A. fumigatus enzyme

Henriette P. Burghoorn; Patricia Soteropoulos; Padmaja Paderu; Ryota Kashiwazaki; David S. Perlin

2002-01-01

358

Purification and characterization of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used biodegradable plastics as fermentation substrates for the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. This fungus could grow under culture conditions that contained emulsified poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) and emulsified poly-(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) as the sole carbon source, and could digest PBS and PBSA, as indicated by clearing of the culture supernatant. We purified the PBS-degrading enzyme from the culture supernatant, and

Hiroshi Maeda; Youhei Yamagata; Keietsu Abe; Fumihiko Hasegawa; Masayuki Machida; Ryoji Ishioka; Katsuya Gomi; Tasuku Nakajima

2005-01-01

359

Genes differentially expressed by Aspergillus flavus strains after loss of aflatoxin production by serial transfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species. Levels of aflatoxins in agricultural commodities are stringently regulated by many countries\\u000a because of the health hazard, and thus, aflatoxins are of major concern to both producers and consumers. A cluster of genes\\u000a responsible for aflatoxin biosynthesis has been identified; however, expression of these genes

Perng-Kuang Chang; Jeffery R. Wilkinson; Bruce W. Horn; Jiujiang Yu; Deepak Bhatnagar; Thomas E. Cleveland

2007-01-01

360

Differences in fungicidal efficiency against Aspergillus flavus for neutralized and acidic electrolyzed oxidizing waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralized electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) and acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AcEW) are electrolyzed oxidizing waters (EOW) that have significantly different fungicidal efficiencies against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) (The actuation durations of no survival population to NEW and AcEW were 90s and 120s, respectively.), even when used at the same available chlorine concentration (30ppm). It has been verified by our previous

Ke Xiong; Hai-jie Liu; Rong Liu; Li-te Li

2010-01-01

361

Activities of an Intravenous Formulation of Itraconazole in Experimental Disseminated Aspergillus, Candida, and Cryptococcus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intravenous (i.v.) formulation of itraconazole was evaluated in disseminated fungal infection models in guinea pigs. In acute disseminated Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus infections, treatment at 5 mg\\/kg of body weight twice a day (b.i.d.) significantly prolonged survival. In these models and in animals with chronic disseminated cryptococcosis, itraconazole given i.v. at 2.5 and 5 mg\\/kg b.i.d. greatly reduced

FRANK C. ODDS; MICHEL ORIS; PASCAL VAN DORSSELAER; FRANS VAN GERVEN

2000-01-01

362

C-20 Ketone reduction of hydrocortisone by Fusarium solani and Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

The biotransformation of hydrocortisone (1) by Fusarium solani and Aspergillus ochraceus was investigated for the first time. After 10 days at 30 °C, just one metabolite was produced by both fungi: 11?, 17?, 20?, 21-tetrahydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (2) established on the basis of spectroscopic data. The reaction was reduction of the 20-carbonyl group. Time course study determined by HPLC showed 60 and 45 % yield for the metabolite by F. solani and A. ochraceus, respectively. PMID:25048228

Gandomkar, Somayyeh; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Habibi, Zohreh

2014-11-01

363

Bioleaching of spent refinery processing catalyst using Aspergillus niger with high-yield oxalic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spent refinery processing catalyst was physically and chemically characterized, and subjected to one-step and two-step bioleaching processes using Aspergillus niger. During bioleaching of the spent catalysts of various particle sizes (“as received”, 100–150?m, <37?m, and x¯=2.97 (average) ?m) and pulp densities, the biomass dry weight and pH were determined. The corresponding leach liquor was analysed for excreted organic acids

Deenan Santhiya; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

364

Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA )i n Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA )i nSaccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase's activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene

YANMING HAN; DAVID B. WILSON; XIN GEN LEI

1999-01-01

365

Purification and characterization of endoxylanase Xln-1 from Aspergillus niger B03  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular endoxylanase was isolated from the xylanolytic complex of Aspergillus niger B03. The enzyme was purified to a homogenous form using consecutive ultrafiltration and anion exchange chromatography. The\\u000a endoxylanase was a monomer protein with a molecular weight of 33,000 Da determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide\\u000a gel electrophoresis, and 34,000 Da determined by gel filtration. The optimal pH and temperature values for

Georgi Dobrev; Boriana Zhekova; Ginka Delcheva; Lidia Koleva; Nicola Tziporkov; Ivan Pishtiyski

2009-01-01

366

Transcriptional Activation of the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA Promoter by Osmotic Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A differentially expressed gpdA cDNA clone was isolated from NaCl-adapted Aspergillus nidulans (FGSC359) and identified as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdA) on the basis of its nucleotide sequence. The level of gpdA RNA substantially increased in cultures gradually adapted to NaCl but was greatly reduced in cultures exposed briefly to a high concentration of NaCl. A pyrG auxotroph of A. nidulans (A773)

RAJENDRA J. REDKAR; ROLAND W. HERZOG; NARENDRA K. SINGH

1998-01-01

367

Inhibition of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of Bacillus pumilus were tested for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus\\u000a NRRL 2999 in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth. Aflatoxin production was inhibited in both simultaneous and deferred antagonism\\u000a assays, suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolite(s) produced in cell-free supernatant fluids\\u000a of cultured broth. The inhibition was not due to

Célestin Munimbazi; Lloyd B. Bullerman

1997-01-01

368

Effect of naturally occurring antimicrobials and chemical preservatives on the growth of Aspergillus Parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of water activity (aw, 0.99), pH (4.5) and their interaction on the growth inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus was studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) using various antimicrobial agents (citral, carvacrol, eugenol, cineole, thymol\\u000a guaiacol, vanillin, anethol, potassium sorbate and sorbic acid). The results demonstrate that colony diameter (mm) exhibited\\u000a a constant increase with time (zero order kinetics) for all

Prathesha Pillai; K. Ramaswamy

369

Aspergillus flavus dose–response curves to selected natural and synthetic antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of selected concentrations of antimicrobials from natural (vanillin, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol or citral) or synthetic (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) origin on Aspergillus flavus lag time inoculated in laboratory media formulated at water activity (aw) 0.99 and pH 4.5 or 3.5, were evaluated. Time to detect a colony with a diameter >0.5 mm was determined. Mold response was

Aurelio López-Malo; Stella M Alzamora; Enrique Palou

2002-01-01

370

Aspergillus flavus growth in the presence of chemical preservatives and naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of water activity ([aw] 0.99 or 0.95), pH (4.5 or 3.5) and antimicrobial agent (potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium bisulfite, carvacrol, citral, eugenol, thymol, or vanillin) concentration (0, 100, 200 up to 1800 ppm) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus were evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA).Mold spore germination time and radial growth rates (RGR) were significantly

Aurelio López-Malo; Stella Maris Alzamora; Enrique Palou

2005-01-01

371

Novel Hydrophobic Surface Binding Protein, HsbA, Produced by Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrophobic surface binding protein A (HsbA) is a secreted protein (14.5 kDa) isolated from the culture broth of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 grown in a medium containing polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) as a sole carbon source. We purified HsbA from the culture broth and determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence. We found a DNA sequence encoding a protein whose N terminus matched

Shinsaku Ohtaki; Hiroshi Maeda; Toru Takahashi; Youhei Yamagata; Fumihiko Hasegawa; Katsuya Gomi; Tasuku Nakajima; Keietsu Abe

2006-01-01

372

Comparison of Aflatoxigenic and Nonaflatoxigenic Isolates of Aspergillus flavus using DNA Amplification Fingerprinting Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a filamentous fungus that produces mycotoxins in many food and feed crops, such as maize (Zea mays L.). Isolates were analyzed for toxin production by nucleic acid profiles in an attempt to differentiate aflatoxigenic from\\u000a nonaflatoxigenic isolates. A total of 41 aflatoxigenic and 34 nonalfatoxigenic isolates were included in the study. The isolates\\u000a were evaluated initially using

R. E. Baird; R. N. Trigiano; G. Windham; P. Williams; R. Kelley; H. K. Abbas; J. K. Moulton; M. L. Scruggs

2006-01-01

373

Biology Aand Ecology of Mycotoxigenic Aspergillus Species as Related to Economicand Health Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fungal genusAspergilluswas established in 1729, and includes species that are adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Many aspergilli\\u000a produce mycotoxins in foods that may be toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic in animals. Most of the Aspergillus species are soil\\u000a fungi or saprophytes but some are capable of causing decay in storage, disease in plants or invasive disease in

David M. Wilson; Wellington Mubatanhema; Zeljko Jurjevic

374

Biological control of Botrytis, Aspergillus and Rhizopus rots on table and wine grapes in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and twenty-nine strains of epiphytic micro-organisms, isolated from table and wine grapes in Israel, were screened for antagonistic activity against Botrytis cinerea on table grapes. Two isolates (Candida guilliermondii, strain A42 and Acremonium cephalosporium, strain B11) were further evaluated for the control of decay in grapes caused by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Decay incidence caused by Botrytis

Tirtza Zahavi; Lea Cohen; Batia Weiss; Leonardo Schena; Avinoam Daus; Tania Kaplunov; Johanan Zutkhi; Ruth Ben-Arie; Samir Droby

2000-01-01

375

Production, Purification and Activity of an Extracellular Depolymerase from Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus, which was observed to rapidly degrade poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in a leaf compost, was found to secrete an extracellular hydrolase when grown on PHB as the sole carbon source. Isolation and characterization of the PHB hydrolase (depolymerase) from this fungus revealed that the enzyme had a molecular weight of 57 kDa, an isoelectric point of 7.2,

Thomas M. Scherer; R. Clinton Fuller; Robert W. Lenz; Steve Goodwin

1999-01-01

376

Extracellular synthesis of silver bionanoparticles from Aspergillus clavatus and its antimicrobial activity against MRSA and MRSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

New enzymatic approaches using bacteria and fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles in both intra- and extracellular are playing an advanced key role in pharmacotherapeutics. In the present study we have reported on the use of fungus Aspergillus clavatus for the extracellular synthesis of bionanoparticles from silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The bionanoscale particles were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, thin layer

M. Saravanan; Anima Nanda

2010-01-01

377

Designing a treatment protocol with voriconazole to eliminate Aspergillus fumigatus from experimentally inoculated pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the efficacy of voriconazole for the treatment of aspergillosis, three groups of six racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) were inoculated in the apical part of the right lung with 2×107 conidia of an avian derived Aspergillus fumigatus strain. The minimal inhibitory concentration of voriconazole for this strain was 0.25?g\\/ml. In two groups, voriconazole treatment was started upon appearance

Lies A. Beernaert; Frank Pasmans; Kris Baert; Lieven Van Waeyenberghe; Koen Chiers; Freddy Haesebrouck; An Martel

2009-01-01

378

Efficient cloning system for construction of gene silencing vectors in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach based on Gateway recombination technology to efficiently construct silencing vectors was developed for use in\\u000a the biotechnologically important fungus Aspergillus niger. The transcription activator of xylanolytic and cellulolytic genes XlnR of A. niger was chosen as target for gene silencing. Silencing was based on the expression vector pXLNRir that was constructed and used\\u000a in co-transformation. From all the

José Miguel Oliveira; Douwe van der Veen; Leo H. de Graaff; Ling Qin

2008-01-01

379

Purification and characterization of a thermostable ?-galactosidase with transglycosylation activity from Aspergillus parasiticus MTCC-2796  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular thermostable ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus parasiticus MTCC-2796 was purified 16.59-fold by precipitation with acetone, followed by sequential column chromatography with DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-100. The purified enzyme was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of about 67.5kDa. The purified enzyme showed optimum activity against

Kumar Shivam; Sarad Kumar Mishra

2010-01-01

380

The use of Aspergillus niger for the bioconversion of olive mill waste-waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill waste-water was used for protein production in small-scale experiments, using non-sterilized medium without pH control. A 14 g\\/1 concentration of proteins, 61% chemical oxygen demand removal and a 58% reduction in total phenolic compounds were obtained using an Aspergillus niger strain. The removal of phenolic compounds resulted in a change in the colour of the waste-water from black

Moktar Hamdi; Abdelkader Khadir; Jean-Louis Garcia

1991-01-01

381

Ethanol production from starch by immobilized Aspergillus awamori and Saccharomyces pastorianus using cellulose carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

  A simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process was investigated to produce ethanol using two kinds of cellulose\\u000a carriers that were respectively suitable for immobilization of Aspergillus awamori and Saccharomyces pastorianus. The maximum ethanol concentration attained by the batch operation was 25.5 g l?1. Under suitable conditions, both cellulose carriers with immobilized cells could be reused efficiently for three cycles.\\u000a The

N Fujii; T Oki; A Sakurai; S Suye; M Sakakibara

2001-01-01

382

Comparison of four supports for adsorption of reactive dyes by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four materials sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) sodium alginate (SA) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan (CTS) were prepared as supports for entrapping fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The adsorption of synthetic dyes Reactive Brilliant Blue KNR and Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP by these immobilized gel beads and plain gel beads was evaluated. The adsorption efficiencies of Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP and Reactive Brilliant Blue

Bao-e WANG; Yong-you HU

2007-01-01

383

Cloning and characterization of a sialidase from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding a putative sialidase was identified in the genome of the opportunistic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus. Computational analysis showed that this protein has Asp box and FRIP domains, it was predicted to have an extracellular\\u000a localization, and a mass of 42 kDa, all of which are characteristics of sialidases. Structural modeling predicted a canonical\\u000a 6-bladed ?-propeller structure with the

Mark L. Warwas; Juliana H. F. Yeung; Deepani Indurugalla; Arne Ø. Mooers; Andrew J. Bennet; Margo M. Moore

2010-01-01

384

Evaluation of several tree species for activity against the animal fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus causes severe problems in poultry production systems. Seven South African tree species were selected from the database of the Phytomedicine Programme based on its antifungal activity against the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. The acetone leaf extracts of the selected species had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.16 mg\\/ml and lower in the preliminary screening. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of

M. M. Suleiman; L. J. McGaw; V. Naidoo; J. N. Eloff

2010-01-01

385

Characterization and evaluation of Aspergillus oryzae lactase coupled to a regenerable support  

Microsoft Academic Search

A derivative of crosslinked Sepharose, p-(N-acetyl-L-tyrosine azo) benzamidoethyl-CL-Sepharose 4B, was synthesized and used for the selective immobilization of thermostable lactase from Aspergillus oryzae. Preparations of soluble and immobilized lactase were evaluated under initial velocity conditions in a batch process. Immobilization had no significant effect on the pH optimum at 50 degrees C or kinetic parameters at pH 4.5 or pH

B. A. Friend; K. M. Shahani

1982-01-01

386

Properties of ?-glucosidase purified from Aspergillus niger mutants USDB 0827 and USDB 0828  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two extracellular ß-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) were isolated from Aspergillus niger USDB 0827 and A. niger USDB 0828, and their physical and kinetic properties studied. Both enzymes were very similar in terms of molecular size (230000 Da), pH optimum (pH 4.6), temperature optimum (65° C), stability at high temperatures and substrate preferences. They were capable of hydrolysing ß-linked disaccharides, phenyl ß-d-glucoside,

Yin Kiong Hoh; Hock-Hin Yeoh; Teck Koon Tan

1992-01-01

387

Aspergillus flavus growth response to cinnamon extract and sodium benzoate mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of selected combinations of cinnamon extract (CE, 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 or 800ppm) and sodium benzoate (NaB, 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 or 800ppm) on the growth response of Aspergillus flavus inoculated on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to 0.98 aw and pH 3.5 or 4.5 were evaluated for 30 days. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were

Aurelio López-Malo; Jaime Barreto-Valdivieso; Enrique Palou; Fernanda San Martín

2007-01-01

388

Use of Potato Nitrogen Concentrate in the Production of a-Amylase by Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The influence of various nitrogen sources and media supplements on a-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) formation by Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 1011 was investigated in shake flask experi- ments and batch fermentations. Both inorganic and organic nitrogen-containing supple- ments have been applied, while corn starch and ammonium sulphate were used as the major source of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Shake flask experiments

Marie-Astrid Dolnik; Eric Thaller; Ferdinand Karner; Werner A. Hampel; Ulrich Stifter; Eduard Taufratzhofer; Marnik-Michel Wastyn; Bernhard F. Adamitsch

2007-01-01

389

Purification and characterisation of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200 has been achieved using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography, in conjunction with two additional chromatographic steps employing hydroxylapatite, and Mimetic Green. The enzyme was purified 186-fold with a yield of 15%. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 77 kDa

Michael Kotik; Pavel Kyslík

2006-01-01

390

Identification of alternative splice variants in Aspergillus flavus through comparison of multiple tandem MS search algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Database searching is the most frequently used approach for automated peptide assignment and protein inference of tandem mass\\u000a spectra. The results, however, depend on the sequences in target databases and on search algorithms. Recently by using an\\u000a alternative splicing database, we identified more proteins than with the annotated proteins in Aspergillus flavus. In this study, we aimed at finding a

Kung-Yen Chang; David C Muddiman

2011-01-01

391

The effects of Aspergillus fumigatus challenge on exhaled and nasal NO levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have previously shown that exposure to indoor air microbes from moisture-damaged buildings can cause adverse health effects. Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the best-documented moulds causing health problems to those exposed. In this study, inhalation of a commercial A. fumigatus solution was assessed, to establish if it would have effects on fractional exhaled (FeNO) and nasal (FnNO) nitric

H. J. Stark; J. T. Randell; M. R. Hirvonen; M. K. Purokivi; M. H. Roponen; H. O. Tukiainen

2005-01-01

392

Cellulase production by Aspergillus niger in biofilm, solid-state, and submerged fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulase production by Aspergillus niger was compared in three different culture systems: biofilm, solid-state, and submerged fermentation. Biofilm and solid-state\\u000a fermentations were carried out on perlite as inert support, and lactose was used as a carbon source in the three culture systems.\\u000a In cryo-scanning electron microscopy, biofilm and solid-state cultures gave similar morphological patterns and confirmed that\\u000a both spore first

Norma N. Gamarra; Gretty K. Villena; Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

2010-01-01

393

Screening of Nutritional Parameters for the Production of Protease from Aspergillus Oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of protease enzyme by fungus Aspergillus oryzae was investigated. The proteolytic activity was observed when the fungus was grown in the medium containing glucose, malt extract, yeast extract, peptone, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and FeSO4. The present paper describes the screening of media components and fermentation conditions in shake flask. The organism utilized carbon sources glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, dextrin and

G. SRINUBABU; N. LOKESWARI; K. JAYARAJU

394

Construction of a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain secreting high levels of Aspergillus niger ?-galactosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain secreting Aspergillus niger ?-galactosidase activity was constructed by transforming S. cerevisiae NCYC869-A3 strain with plasmid pVK1.1 harboring the A. niger ?-ga- lactosidase gene, lacA, under the control of the ADH1 promoter and terminator. Compared to other recombinant S. cerevisiae strains, this recombinant yeast has higher levels of extracellular ?-galactosidase activity. In shake- flask cultures, the

J. A. Teixeira; M. Penttilä; N. Lima

2002-01-01

395

Primary structure of the trpC gene from Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the structure and complete nucleotide sequence of the trifunctional trpC gene from the Ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Results from RNA gel blot analyses showed that this gene encodes two size classes of polyribosomal, poly (A)+RNAs with approximate lengths of 2,400 and 2,600 nucleotides. S1 nuclease protection studies demonstrated that the distribution into the two size classes is

Edward J. Mullaney; John E. Hamer; Kellee A. Roberti; M. Melanie Yelton; William E. Timberlake

1985-01-01

396

Purification and properties of three cellobiases from Aspergillus niger A20  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cellobiases, here called cellobiase A, B, and C, from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger A20, were purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, gel filtration through Sephadex G-75, and column chromatography\\u000a of DEAE-cellulose. The purified enzymes were homogeneous on polyacrylamide disk electrophoresis. The mol wt of the purified\\u000a enzymes were estimated by SDS-gelelectrophoresis to be 88,000, 80,000, and 71,000

Mohamed A. Abdel-Naby; Mona Y. Osman; Ahmed F. Abdel-Fattah

1999-01-01

397

Production and characterization of a highly active cellobiase from Aspergillus niger grown in solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Aspergillus niger produced extracellular cellobiase when grown on different lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation. The enzyme activity and yield were variable according to the carbon source. In Vogel’s medium, the cellobiase productivity was significantly higher on wheat bran, followed by Leptochloa fusca (kallar grass) straw augmented with corn steep liquor. Maximum yield of cellobiase\\/g wheat bran was significantly

Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka; Muhammad Waheed Akhtar; Atif Hanif; A. M. Khalid

2006-01-01

398

High efficient expression of cellobiase gene from Aspergillus niger in the cells of Trichoderma reesei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellobiase gene from Aspergillus niger was cloned and connected with the strong promoter Pcbh1 from Trichoderma reesei to construct a recombinant plasmid pHB9 with the hygromycin B resistance marker. The plasmid was transformed into conidia of T. reesei using the modified PEG–CaCl2 method. Main factors effecting the transformation were discussed and about 99–113transformants\\/?g DNA could be obtained under optimal

Bingbing Wang; Liming Xia

2011-01-01

399

Aspergillus niger lipases: induction, isolation and characterization of two lipases from a MZKI A116 strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger strain MZKI A116 was used to produce lipolytic enzymes in submerged culture. Lipase production was induced by addition of olive oil to a complex medium with an initial pH of 5.0. Maximal activity was reached after 70 h in a 15 1 bioreactor at 30 °C with aeration of 0.5 vvm and agitation 400 rpm. Optimal temperature and

D. Pokorny; A. Cimerman; W. Steiner

1997-01-01

400

Aspewentins A-C, norditerpenes from a cryptic pathway in an algicolous strain of Aspergillus wentii.  

PubMed

Through addition of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, two new aromatic norditerpenes, aspewentins A (1) and B (2), along with an oxygenated derivative, aspewentin C (3), were obtained from the culture of an Aspergillus wentii strain (na-3) isolated from the tissue of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme. The structures and absolute configurations were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and quantum chemical calculations. Aspewentins A-C were produced before sporulation and exhibited potent bioactivities against some marine-derived organisms. PMID:24499164

Miao, Feng-Ping; Liang, Xiao-Rui; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Ji, Nai-Yun

2014-02-28

401

PREVALENCE OF Aspergillus fumigatus IN FREE-LIVING GOSHAWKS (Accipiter gentilis atricapillusj  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: During the fall migration, of 1972 and 1973 unusually large numbers of goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) were counted at Hawk Ridge in Duluth, Minnesota. These birds were,sampled,for prevalence,of fungi of the genus ,Aspergillus. Fungi of this genus,were,recovered,from,26 of 49 birds (53%) in 1972 and,4 of 45 (7%) birds in 1973. Aspergillosis was confirmed at necropsy in three wild goshawks

P. T. Redig; M. R. Fuller; D. L. Evans

402

Molecular characterization of the Aspergillus fumigatus NCS1 homologue, NcsA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we characterize the Aspergillus fumigatus homologue ncsA Neuronal Calcium Sensor. We showed that ncsA is not an essential gene and ?ncsA growth was decreased in the presence of EGTA and SDS. Furthermore, the ?ncsA mutant is more resistant to calcium chloride. NcsA:mRFP localizes to the cytoplasm and its cellular localization is not affected\\u000a by the cellular response to either

André Oliveira Mota Júnior; Frederico Marianetti Soriani; Thorsten Heinekamp; Ilse Jacobsen; Axel A. Brakhage; Marcela Savoldi; Maria Helena S. Goldman; Márcia Eliana da Silva Ferreira; Gustavo Henrique Goldman

2008-01-01

403

Can airborne fungal allergens pass through an air-conditioning system. [Aspergillus fumigatus  

SciTech Connect

Fungal spores, an important fraction of aeroplankton particles, can be filtered in an air-conditioning system, resulting in a drastic reduction of the spore count in the air-conditioned rooms. Nevertheless, using the EISA inhibition test against Aspergillus fumigatus, it was found that air samples from air-conditioned rooms show inhibition of the serum activity of a highly sensitized patient. There is evidence that airborne allergens can pass both coarse and fine filters of an air-conditioning system.

Elixmann, J.H. (Katholieke Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Linskens, H.F.; Schata, M.; Jorde, W. (Forderverein Allergieforschung Moenchengladbach e.V. (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

404

Identifying and characterizing the most significant ?-glucosidase of the novel species Aspergillus saccharolyticus  

SciTech Connect

A newly discovered fungal species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus, was found to produce a culture broth rich in beta-glucosidase activity. In this present work, the main beta-glucosidase of A. saccharolyticus responsible for the efficient hydrolytic activity was identified, isolated, and characterized. Ion exchange chromatography was used to fractionate the culture broth, yielding fractions with high beta-glucosidase activity and only one visible band on an SDS-PAGE gel. Mass spectrometry analysis of this band gave peptide matches to beta-glucosidases from aspergilli. Through a PCR approach using degenerate primers and genome walking, a 2919 base pair sequence encoding the 860 amino acid BGL1 polypeptide was determined. BGL1 of A. saccharolyticus has 91% and 82% identity with BGL1 from Aspergillus aculeatus and BGL1 from Aspergillus niger, respectively, both belonging to Glycoside hydrolase family 3. Homology modeling studies suggested beta-glucosidase activity with preserved retaining mechanism and a wider catalytic pocket compared to other beta-glucosidases. The bgl1 gene was heterologously expressed in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, purified, and characterized by enzyme kinetics studies. The enzyme can hydrolyze cellobiose, pNPG, and cellodextrins. The enzyme showed good thermostability, was stable at 50°C, and at 60°C it had a half-life of approximately 6 hours.

Sorensen, Anette; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Lubeck, Mette; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Culley, David E.; Lubeck, Peter S.

2012-08-20

405

Partial Reconstruction of the Ergot Alkaloid Pathway by Heterologous Gene Expression in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Ergot alkaloids are pharmaceutically and agriculturally important secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi. Ergot alkaloid pathways vary among different fungal lineages, but the pathway intermediate chanoclavine-I is evolutionarily conserved among ergot alkaloid producers. At least four genes, dmaW, easF, easE, and easC, are necessary for pathway steps prior to chanoclavine-I; however, the sufficiency of these genes for chanoclavine-I synthesis has not been established. A fragment of genomic DNA containing dmaW, easF, easE, and easC was amplified from the human-pathogenic, ergot alkaloid-producing fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and transformed into Aspergillus nidulans, a model fungus that does not contain any of the ergot alkaloid synthesis genes. HPLC and LC-MS analyses demonstrated that transformed A. nidulans strains produced chanoclavine-I and an earlier pathway intermediate. Aspergillus nidulans transformants containing dmaW, easF, and either easE or easC did not produce chanoclavine-I but did produce an early pathway intermediate and, in the case of the easC transformant, an additional ergot alkaloid-like compound. We conclude that dmaW, easF, easE, and easC are sufficient for the synthesis of chanoclavine-I in A. nidulans and expressing ergot alkaloid pathway genes in A. nidulans provides a novel approach to understanding the early steps in ergot alkaloid synthesis. PMID:23435153

Ryan, Katy L.; Moore, Christopher T.; Panaccione, Daniel G.

2013-01-01

406

Incidence of fumonisin B2 production within Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from California raisins.  

PubMed

Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri occur frequently and in high populations on grapes. Species within this section include Aspergillus niger, A. tubingensis, and A. carbonarius, and they are potential sources for mycotoxins including ochratoxin A and fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) in grapes and grape products. Aspergillus section Nigri strains were isolated from California raisins to examine the frequency and extent of FB(2) production. Of 392 strains isolated, 197 strains were identified as A. niger, 131 of which produced FB(2). These strains produced from 1.2 to 27 ?g/ml FB(2) in culture. PCR amplification of fum1 and fum19 gene fragments showed that all FB(2)-producing strains and nearly all nonproducing strains of A. niger contain these genes. An additional 175 strains were identified as A. tubingensis, none of which produced FB(2). PCR with fum1 and fum19 primers amplified gene fragments of 14 and 25% of A. tubingensis strains, respectively, suggesting that putative orthologs of A. niger fumonisin biosynthetic genes might occur in A. tubingensis. These results indicate that FB(2) production is common among field isolates of A. niger and suggest that the potential for FB(2) contamination of California raisins should be addressed further. PMID:21477486

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; McGarvey, Jeffery A

2011-04-01

407

Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis Causing Subtotal Tracheal Stenosis in a Liver Transplant Recipient  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis is recognized as one of the most significant opportunistic infections after liver transplantation. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in transplant recipients has been proven to be challenging, and optimal approach to the treatment of invasive aspergillosis is still controversial. We here present an unusual case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in the setting of liver transplantation. A 47-year-old female patient with persistent dry cough after liver transplantation developed respiratory insufficiency and was readmitted to the intensive care unit 55 days after liver transplantation. A CT scan revealed subtotal tracheal stenosis; bronchoscopy was performed, and extended white mucus coverings causative of the tracheal stenosis were removed. Microbiological assessment isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. The diagnosis was obstructive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis. The patient was started on a treatment of voriconazole 200?mg orally twice daily, adjusted to a trough level of 1–4?mg/L. For further airway management, a tracheal stent had to be implanted. The patient is alive and well 28 months after liver transplantation. Invasive aspergillosis should be considered a possible etiology in liver transplant patients presenting with unspecific symptoms such as persistent dry cough. Optimal strategies for improved and early diagnosis as well as prophylaxis need to be defined. PMID:23984170

Radunz, Sonia; Kirchner, Carmen; Treckmann, Jurgen; Paul, Andreas; Saner, Fuat H.

2013-01-01

408

Comparison of four automated nucleic acid extraction platforms for the recovery of DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality within at-risk groups. Directed antifungal chemotherapy, guided by effective screening algorithms that incorporate reliable and validated molecular assays, reduces the morbidity associated with empirical administration and allows earlier diagnosis. The efficient extraction of nucleic acid from Aspergillus fumigatus is the main limiting factor for successful Aspergillus PCR from clinical specimens. With the integration of automated extraction platforms, assessment of the suitability of these platforms for specific targets is of paramount importance. In this study, four extraction robots (Applied Biosystems MagMAX, bioMérieux easyMAG, Qiagen EZ1 and Roche MagNA Pure LC) were evaluated for their ability to extract clinically significant levels of A. fumigatus from blood. All of the platforms could detect 10(1) c.f.u. ml(-1) from EDTA whole blood, although only the easyMAG, EZ1 and MagNA Pure had 100?% reproducibility at this level. Despite good analytical sensitivity, contamination associated with the easyMAG platform excluded its use for diagnostic Aspergillus PCR. The EZ1 and MagNA Pure platforms demonstrated equivalent high sensitivity and negative predictive values (97.4-100?%), essential for screening assays. PMID:24987100

Perry, Michael D; White, P Lewis; Barnes, Rosemary A

2014-09-01

409

Expression of Innate and Adaptive Immune Mediators in Human Corneal Tissue Infected With Aspergillus or Fusarium  

PubMed Central

Background.?Filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium are major causes of corneal ulcers in the United States and in the developing world and result in significant visual impairment and blindness. Methods.?RNA was extracted from 110 patients with corneal ulcers in southern India within 1 week of infection with either Fusarium solani or Aspergillus flavus, and gene expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Posttransplant corneas from later stage disease (>2 weeks after infection) were also examined. Results.?Expression of Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, and NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP)3 messenger RNA was elevated >1000-fold compared with uninfected donor corneas, whereas Dectin-2 was constitutively expressed in uninfected corneas. Furthermore, interleukin 1? (IL-1?) expression was elevated >1000-fold, whereas IL-1? expression was not increased. Expression of IL-8, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor ? was also elevated. CD3+and CD4+ T cells were detected in infected posttransplant corneas. Expression of IL-17 and interferon ? was elevated but not that of IL-4. There were no significant differences in the host response between Aspergillus- and Fusarium-infected corneas at any time point. Conclusions.?There is a common innate and adaptive immune response to these filamentous fungi, which includes the generation of T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 cells. PMID:21828275

Karthikeyan, Rajapandian Sivaganesa; Leal, Sixto M.; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Geiser, David M.; Lalitha, Prajna

2011-01-01

410

Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius.  

PubMed

The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigated a collection of Aspergillus nomius strains isolated from Brazil nuts using different approaches, including morphological characters, RAPD and AFLP profiles, partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin nucleotide sequences, aflatoxin patterns, as well as tolerance to low water activity in cultured media. Results showed that most of the isolates do belong to A. nomius species, but a few were re-identified as Aspergillus pseudonomius, a very recently described species. The results of the analyses of molecular variance, as well as the high pairwise FST values between A. nomius and A. pseudonomius suggested the isolation between these two species and the inexistence of gene flow. Fixed interspecific nucleotide polymorphisms at ?-tubulin and calmodulin loci are presented. All A. pseudonomius strains analyzed produced aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2. This study contains the first-ever report on the occurrence in Brazil nuts of A. pseudonomius. The G-type aflatoxins and the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid are reported here for the first time in A. pseudonomius. PMID:24974275

Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Vieira, Maria Lúcia Carneiro; Sartori, Daniele; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; de Freitas Munhoz, Carla; Ferreira, Josué Maldonado; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Frisvad, Jens C; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

2014-09-01

411

Isolation and Identification of a Strain of Aspergillus Tubingensis With Deoxynivalenol Biotransformation Capability  

PubMed Central

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common contaminants of various foodstuffs. A biotransformation system was used in order to lessen the toxicity of DON. A strain of Aspergillus (NJA-1) was isolated from soil and cultured in an inorganic salt medium containing DON. Bt2a/Bt2b primers were used to amplify the ?-tubulin gene of NJA-1. Sequence analysis the PCR product and morphology observation indicated that NJA-1 belonged to Aspergillus tubingensis (aerobic fungi). The DNA sequence information of the PCR product was deposited in GenBank (accession number DQ9025790). The DNA sequence had 99% similarity to the Aspergillus tubingensis accession number AY820009. An unknown compound in NJA-1 showed the ability to convert DON into another product. The molecular weight of the bioconversion product was 18.1 D (H2O) larger than that of DON. The analysis showed that DON could be hydrolyzed by NJA-1. The mean DON biotransformation rate was 94.4% after two weeks of cultivation. The finding presents a new method for DON biotransformation. PMID:19330081

He, Chenghua; Fan, Yanhong; Liu, Guofang; Zhang, Haibin

2008-01-01

412

Inhibition of inositol phosphorylceramide synthase by aureobasidin A in Candida and Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase is an enzyme common to fungi and plants that catalyzes the transfer of phosphoinositol from phosphatidylinositol to ceramide to form IPC. The reaction is a key step in fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis and the target of the antibiotics galbonolide A, aureobasidin A, and khafrefungin. As a first step toward understanding the antifungal spectrum of IPC synthase inhibitors, we examined the sensitivity of IPC synthase to aureobasidin A in membrane preparations of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus). As expected, preparations from the five Candida species, all exquisitely susceptible to aureobasidin A (MICs, <2 microgram/ml), had IPC synthase activity (specific activity, 50 to 400 pmol/min/mg of protein) sensitive to aureobasidin A (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC(50)s], 2 to 4 ng/ml). Surprisingly, preparations from the four Aspergillus species, including A. fumigatus and A. flavus, which are intrinsically resistant to aureobasidin A (MICs, >50 microgram/ml), had IPC synthase activity (specific activity, 1 to 3 pmol/min/mg of protein) also sensitive to aureobasidin A (IC(50)s, 3 to 5 ng/ml). The mammalian multidrug resistance modulators verapamil, chlorpromazine, and trifluoperazine lowered the MIC of aureobasidin A for A. fumigatus from >50 microgram/ml to 2 to 3 microgram/ml, suggesting that the resistance of this major fungal pathogen is the result of increased efflux. PMID:10681333

Zhong, W; Jeffries, M W; Georgopapadakou, N H

2000-03-01

413

Epidemiology of Aspergillus keratitis at a tertiary care eye hospital in South India and antifungal susceptibilities of the causative agents.  

PubMed

In recent years, Aspergillus species are reported frequently as aetiological agents of fungal keratitis in tropical countries such as India. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological features of Aspergillus keratitis cases over a 3-year period in a tertiary eye care hospital and to determine the antifungal susceptibilities of the causative agents. This study included culture proven Aspergillus keratitis cases diagnosed between September 2005 and August 2008. Data including prevalence, predisposing factors and demography were recorded, the isolates were identified by morphological and molecular methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration values of antifungal agents towards the isolates were determined by the microdilution method. Two hundred Aspergillus isolates were identified among 1737 culture proven cases. Most of the aspergilli (75%) proved to be A. flavus, followed by A. fumigatus (11.5%). Sixteen (8%) isolates belonged to species that are recently identified causative agents of mycotic keratitis. Most of the infected patients (88%) were adults ranging from 21 to 70 years of age. Co-existing ocular disease was confirmed in 16.5% of the patients. Econazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole were notably active against A. flavus. Aspergillus keratitis is a significant problem in patients with ocular lesions in South-Indian States, warranting early diagnosis and initiation of specific antifungal therapy to improve outcome. PMID:22487304

Manikandan, Palanisamy; Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Anita, Raghavan; Revathi, Rajaraman; Németh, Tibor Mihály; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László

2013-01-01

414

Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5?336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

2014-01-01

415

Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. Essential Oil From Alborz Mountain Against Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and hepatocarcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species. Some natural products are known to kill fungi and destroy toxins and toxin-producing agents. Objectives The purpose of this study is to provide experimental data on the antifungal activity of cumin oils and their components that could be considered suitable for application in foods and drugs. Materials and Methods The essential oil (EO) of Cuminum cyminum L. collected from Alborz Mountain, Iran, was obtained by hydro-distillation. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the oil was studied with regard to the inhibition of the growth of Aspergillus flavus PICC-AF39 , Aspergillus flavus PICC-AF24, Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 and Aspergillus niger. The minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oil were determined. Results ?–Pinene (29.2%), limonene (21.7%), 1,8-cineole (18.1%), linalool (10.5%), linalyl acetate (4.8%), and ?-terpineole (3.17%) were the major components of the essential oil from C. cyminum L., and the oil showed a strong inhibitory effect on fungal growth. Conclusions Essential oils could be safely used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals as well as health and food products to protect them against toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:24624154

Mohammadpour, Hossein; Moghimipour, Eskandar; Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Alipoor Astaneh, Shakiba; Shehni Moosaie, Sara; Jalili, Zeynab

2012-01-01

416

The antifungal activity of Sarcococca saligna ethanol extract and its combination effect with fluconazole against different resistant Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Microbial resistance is a major drawback in chemotherapy of microbial or fungal infection disease. In this study, the antifungal activity of ethanol extract of a selected plant (Sarcococca saligna) has been investigated against clinical isolates of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus treus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Also, the enhancement of the antifungal activity of fluconazole by this extract was further evaluated against mentioned test strains. Conventional disk diffusion method was used to assay the antifungal activity of S. saligna ethanol extract in the absence and presence of fluconazole. The highest antifungal activity was observed against A. treus. The ethanol extract of S. saligna enhanced the antifungal activity of fluconazole against A. niger and A. treus and A. flavus. At the highest tested contents (4 mg/disk), 1.15-, 0.64-, and 2.47-fold increases in inhibition zone surface area were observed for A. niger, A. treus, and A. flavus, respectively. However, no enhancing effect was observed for this plant extract against Aspergillus fumigates at tested contents (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/disk). In a separate experiment, the general cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of S. saligna was examined with brine shrimp assay. This plant extract showed low cytotoxicity against Artemia salina (LC(50) = 186 microg/ml). PMID:19685213

Mollazadeh Moghaddam, Kamyar; Arfan, Mohammad; Rafique, Jamal; Rezaee, Sassan; Jafari Fesharaki, Parisa; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

2010-09-01

417

Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

Shaw, L. T., Jr.; Womack, J. R.

1984-01-01

418

S&P 100 Index Option Volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using transaction data on the S&P 100 index options, the authors study the effect of valuation simplifications that are commonplace in previous research on the time-series properties of implied market volatility. Using an American-style algorithm that accounts for the discrete nature of the dividends on the S&P 100 index, they find that spurious negative serial correlation in implied volatility changes

Campbell R Harvey; Robert E Whaley

1991-01-01

419

Development of RFLP-PCR method for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species using single restriction enzyme MwoI  

PubMed Central

In this study we attempted to modify the PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzyme MwoI for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species. Our subjects included nine standard Aspergillus species and 205 Aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. First of all, Aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. A twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest Aspergillus mycelia and then genomic DNA was extracted using Phenol-Chloroform method. PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme MwoI was performed in ITS regions of rDNA gene. The electrophoresis data were analyzed and compared with those of morphologic identifications. Total of 205 Aspergillus isolates included 153 (75%) environmental and 52 (25%) clinical isolates. A. flavus was the most frequently isolate in our study (55%), followed by A. niger 65(31.7%), A. fumigatus 18(8.7%), A. nidulans and A. parasiticus 2(1% each). MwoI enabled us to discriminate eight medically important Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus as the most common isolated species. PCR-RFLP method using the restriction enzyme MwoI is a rapid and reliable test for identification of at least the most medically important Aspergillus species.

Diba, K.; Mirhendi, H.; Kordbacheh, P.; Rezaie, S.

2014-01-01

420

Cloning and characterization of a dynein light chain gene from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.  

PubMed

Stripe rust is one of the most serious wheat diseases worldwide. The fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal agent of this disease, is an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete fungus. Numerous studies have shown that dyneins play important roles during fungal growth and propagation. However, knowledge is limited regarding the function of dyneins in Pst. In this study, we cloned the dynein light chain gene PsDLC1 from Pst and characterized its expression. The function of PsDLC1 was determined by heterologous mutant complementation. Expression of PsDLC1 in Aspergillus nidulans partially complemented the defects of the ?nudG mutant, indicating that PsDLC1 belongs to the dynein light chain LC8 family. In addition, PsDLC1 was identified in Pst using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Knockdown of PsDLC1 produces no significant effect on Pst growth and development, indicating that PsDLC1 is unnecessary for Pst infection of wheat. PMID:24470306

Liu, Jie; Zhang, Qiong; Chang, Qing; Wang, Qiuling; Han, Lina; Liu, Jia; Li, Man; Zhuang, Hua; Kang, Zhensheng

2014-07-01

421

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity, and pH on Growth and Production of Ochratoxin A by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius from Brazilian Grapes.  

PubMed

The growth of ochratoxigenic fungus and the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and their derivatives can be caused by a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological factors. The determination of interactions between these factors and fungal species from different climatic regions is important in designing models for minimizing the risk of OTA in wine and grape juice. This study evaluated the influence of temperature, water activity (aw), and pH on the development and production of OTA in a semisynthetic grape culture medium by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger strains. To analyze the growth conditions and production of OTA, an experimental design was conducted using response surface methodology as a tool to assess the effects of these abiotic variables on fungal behavior. A. carbonarius showed the highest growth at temperatures from 20 to 33°C, aw between 0.95 and 0.98, and pH levels between 5 and 6.5. Similarly, for A. niger, temperatures between 24 and 37°C, aw greater than 0.95, and pH levels between 4 and 6.5 were optimal. The greatest toxin concentrations for A. carbonarius and A. niger (10 ?g/g and 7.0 ?g/g, respectively) were found at 15°C, aw 0.99, and pH 5.35. The lowest pH was found to contribute to greater OTA production. These results show that the evaluated fungi are able to grow and produce OTA in a wide range of temperature, aw, and pH. However, the optimal conditions for toxin production are generally different from those optimal for fungal growth. The knowledge of optimal conditions for fungal growth and production of OTA, and of the stages of cultivation in which these conditions are optimal, allows a more precise assessment of the potential risk to health from consumption of products derived from grapes. PMID:25364929

Passamani, Fabiana Reinis Franca; Hernandes, Thais; Lopes, Noelly Alves; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Santiago, Wilder Douglas; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Batista, Luís Roberto

2014-11-01

422

Seasonal and daily variation of Aspergillus Mich. Ex Fr. spores in the atmosphere of Córdoba (Spain).  

PubMed

The atmosphere contains a complex of spores whose concentration and variation have been the subject of much study, mainly because of the relevance of fungi to allergic and aerobiological pollution problems. This paper reports on the cataloguing of the Aspergillus species present in the atmosphere of Córdoba, their seasonal and daily variation and their potential relationship with meterological parameters. The sampling was carried out in the city of Córdoba by using a volumetric trap on a culture medium; three samplings were done daily at various times throughout the year (May 1986-April 1987). An unreplicated variance analysis was applied to two variation sources in order to check for statistically significant differences between the number of colony forming units (CFU) detected at each sampling time. Meterological data and concentrations were also contrasted through statistical correlation tests. A total of 94,200 colonies were counted; 32.3% of all were from 24 species of the Aspergillus genus, of which A. fumigatus Fresen, was found to be the most abundant. Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, A. oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn, A. terreus Thom and A. ochraceus Wilhelm also occurred at a high frequency. All these species were detected throughout the year and in virtually all of the samplings, but particularly in autumn, which was the most favourable period for the occurrence of their spores, which in turn seemed to be conditioned by the time at which samplings were carried out, at least for the six most frequent species--A. candidus expected as it only occurred occasionally. Finally, the occurrence of spores of this genus seems to be positively and negatively correlated with meterological factors such as the wind speed and the temperature, respectively. PMID:2251978

Trujillo Jurado, D; Infante García-Pantaleón, F; Galán Soldevilla, C; Domínguez Vilches, E

1990-01-01

423

Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.  

PubMed

Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 ?g/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

2014-01-01

424

Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 ?L for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 ?L for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

2014-01-01

425

Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp  

PubMed Central

Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 ?g/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

2014-01-01

426

Aspergillus PCR-Based Investigation of Fresh Tissue and Effusion Samples in Patients with Suspected Invasive Aspergillosis Enhances Diagnostic Capabilities  

PubMed Central

Although it is a severe complication in immunocompromised patients, diagnosing invasive fungal disease (IFD), especially invasive aspergillosis (IA), remains difficult. In certain clinical scenarios, examining tissue samples for identification of the infectious organism becomes important. As culture-based methods rarely yield results, the performance of an Aspergillus-specific nested PCR in fresh tissue or pleural effusion samples was evaluated. Fresh tissue (n = 59) and effusion (n = 47) specimens from 79 immunocompromised patients were subjected to an Aspergillus-specific PCR assay. Twenty-six patients had proven (n = 20) or probable (n = 6) IFD, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria, while the remaining patients were classified as having either possible IFD (n = 30) or no IFD (n = 23). IA was identified as the underlying IFD in 21/26 proven/probable cases. PCR positivity was observed for 18/21 proven/probable and 6 possible IA cases; cases classified as no IA did not show positive signals. Patients with proven IFD (n = 5) with cultures positive for non-Aspergillus molds also had negative Aspergillus PCR results. Aspergillus PCR performance analysis yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65% to 95%) and 100% (95% CI, 86% to 100%), respectively, thus leading to a diagnostic odds ratio of >200. In this analysis, good diagnostic performance of the PCR assay for detection of IA was observed for tissue samples, while effusion samples showed lower sensitivity rates. PCR testing represents a complementary tool; a positive PCR result strengthens the likelihood of IA, whereas IA seems unlikely in cases with negative results but findings could indicate non-Aspergillus IFD. Thus, PCR testing of these specimens enhances the diagnostic capabilities. PMID:24108612

Reinwald, M.; Spiess, B.; Heinz, W. J.; Heussel, C. P.; Bertz, H.; Cornely, O. A.; Hahn, J.; Lehrnbecher, T.; Kiehl, M.; Laws, H. J.; Wolf, H. H.; Schwerdtfeger, R.; Schultheis, B.; Burchardt, A.; Klein, M.; Durken, M.; Claus, B.; Schlegel, F.; Hummel, M.; Hofmann, W.-K.

2013-01-01

427

Expression Patterns of SP1 and SP3 During Mouse Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Because of their prominent roles in regulation of gene expression, it is important to understand how levels of Krüpple-like transcription factors SP1 and SP3 change in germ cells during spermatogenesis. Using immunological techniques we found that both factors decreased sharply during meiosis. SP3 declined during the leptotene to pachytene transition while SP1 fell somewhat later, as spermatocytes progressed beyond early pachytene. SP3 reappeared for a period in round spermatids. For Sp1 it is known that the transition to pachytene is accompanied by loss of the normal 8.2 kb mRNA and appearance of a prevalent 8.8 kb variant, which has not been well characterized. We have now shown that this pachytene-specific transcript contains a long, unspliced sequence from the first intron and that this sequence inhibits expression of a reporter, probably due to its many short open reading frames. A second testis-specific Sp1 transcript in spermatids of 2.4 kb has also been reported previously. Like the 8.8 kb variant, it is also translationally compromised. We have confirmed by Northern blotting that the 8.8, 8.2 and 2.4 kb variants account for the major testis Sp1 transcripts. Thus the unexpected decline of SP1 protein in the face of continuing Sp1 transcription is explained in large part by poor translation of both novel testis transcripts. As part of this work we also identified five additional minor Sp1 cap sites by 5? RACE, including a trans-spliced RNA originating from the Glcci1 gene. PMID:18417714

Ma, Wenli; Horvath, Gary C.; Kistler, Malathi K.; Kistler, W. Stephen

2008-01-01

428

Aniquinazolines A-D, four new quinazolinone alkaloids from marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A-D (1-4), were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality. PMID:23880937

An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Wang, Ming-Hui; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

2013-01-01

429

Biotransformation of methylphenylacetonitriles by Brazilian marine fungal strain Aspergillus sydowii CBMAI 934: eco-friendly reactions.  

PubMed

This study reports the biotransformation of methylphenylacetonitriles by Brazilian marine filamentous fungus Aspergillus sydowii CBMAI 934 under eco-friendly reaction conditions. The phenylacetonitrile 1, 2-methylphenylacetonitrile 2, 3-methylphenylacetonitrile 3, and 4-methylphenylacetonitrile 4 were quantitatively biotransformed into 2-hydroxyphenylacetic 1a, 2-methylphenylacetic acid 2a, 3-methylphenylacetic acid 3a, and 4-methylphenylacetic acid 4a by enzymatic processes using whole cell as biocatalyst. The marine fungus A. sydowii CBMAI 934 is thus a promising biocatalyst for the preparation of important carboxylic acids under mild conditions (pH 7.5 and 32 °C) from nitrile compounds. PMID:24057165

de Oliveira, Julieta Rangel; Seleghim, Mirna Helena Regali; Porto, André Luiz Meleiro

2014-04-01

430

A single aspergillus fumigatus intracranial abscess in an immunocompetent patient with parietal lobe tumorectomy  

PubMed Central

Aspergillosis of the central nervous system is a rare fungal infection that is mainly reported in patients with immune deficiency, such as AIDS patients and organ transplant patients treated with immunosuppressive agents, and is uncommon among patients with intact immune function. We report here a rare case of intracranial aspergillosis in a patient who had previously undergone a parietal lobe tumorectomy. Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by histopathology, and susceptibility tests reported that this infection should respond to voriconazole. We believe the immunosuppression resulting from surgical trauma and glucocorticosteroid treatment may be contributing to the infection, and therefore management of these two factors may improve the prognosis. PMID:24906819

2014-01-01

431

Interactions of Saprophytic Yeasts with a nor Mutant of Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities. PMID:10347069

Hua, Sui-Sheng T.; Baker, James L.; Flores-Espiritu, Melanie

1999-01-01

432

The characterization and distribution of hexahydropolyprenyl esters in cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius  

PubMed Central

The total mycelial lipid of Aspergillus fumigatus was analysed and over half of its hexahydropolyprenol was shown to be esterified with fatty acids. Comparison of the fatty acid content of the prenyl esters with the sterol ester and the total lipid indicated a marked predominance of saturated fatty acids in the polyprenyl esters. The predominant acids esterified to the prenols were palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, lignoceric acid, stearic acid and palmitoleic acid. Most of the unesterified polyprenol was found in the mitochondrial fraction, but the esterified prenol was equally distributed throughout the cell fractions. This distribution was unlike that found for ergosteryl ester in the same tissue. PMID:5696868

Stone, K. J.; Hemming, F. W.

1968-01-01

433

Studies on an alkali-thermostable xylanase from Aspergillus fumigatus MA28  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkalitolerant fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus strain MA28 produced significant amounts of cellulase-free xylanase when grown on a variety of agro-wastes. Wheat bran as\\u000a the sole carbon source supported higher xylanase production (8,450 U\\/L) than xylan (7,500 U\\/L). Soybean meal was observed\\u000a to be the best nitrogen source for xylanase production (9,000 U\\/L). Optimum medium pH for xylanase production was 8 (9,800 U\\/L),\\u000a though, significant

Bijender Kumar Bajaj; Massarat Abbass

434

Crystallization and diffraction analysis of [beta]-N-acetylhexosaminidase from Aspergillus oryzae  

SciTech Connect

Fungal {beta}-N-acetylhexosaminidases are enzymes that are used in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of biologically interesting oligosaccharides. The enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae was produced and purified from its natural source and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Diffraction data from two crystal forms (primitive monoclinic and primitive tetragonal) were collected to resolutions of 3.2 and 2.4 {angstrom}, respectively. Electrophoretic and quantitative N-terminal protein-sequencing analyses confirmed that the crystals are formed by a complete biologically active enzyme consisting of a glycosylated catalytic unit and a noncovalently attached propeptide.

Vanek, Ondrej; Brynd, Jirí; Hofbauerová, Katerina; Kukack, Zdenek; Pachl, Petr; Bezouska, Karel; Rezácová, Pavlína (Czech Academy)

2012-05-08

435

Identification and characterization of the polyketide synthase involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis in Aspergillus carbonarius.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species and is a common contaminant of a wide variety of food commodities, with Aspergillus carbonarius being the main producer of OTA contamination in grapes and wine. The molecular structure of OTA comprises a dihydroisocoumarin ring linked to phenylalanine and, as shown in different producing fungal species, a polyketide synthase (PKS) is a component of the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Similar to observations in other filamentous ascomycetes, the genome sequence of A. carbonarius contains a large number of genes predicted to encode PKSs. In this work a pks gene identified within the putative OTA cluster of A. carbonarius, designated as AcOTApks, was inactivated and the resulting mutant strain was unable to produce OTA, confirming the role of AcOTApks in this biosynthetic pathway. AcOTApks protein is characteristic of the highly reduced (HR)-PKS family, and also contains a putative methyltransferase domain likely responsible for the addition of the methyl group to the OTA polyketide structure. AcOTApks is different from the ACpks protein that we previously described in A. carbonarius, which showed an expression profile compatible with OTA production. We performed phylogenetic analyses of the ?-ketosynthase and acyl-transferase domains of the OTA PKSs that had been identified and characterized in different OTA producing fungal species. The phylogenetic results were similar for both domains analyzed and showed that OTA PKS of A. carbonarius, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceus clustered in a monophyletic group with 100% bootstrap support suggesting a common origin, while the other OTA PKSs analyzed were phylogenetically distant. A quantitative RT-PCR assay monitored AcOTApks expression during fungal growth and concomitant production of OTA by A. carbonarius in synthetic grape medium. A clear correlation between the expression profile of AcOTApks and kinetics of OTA production was observed, with AcOTApks reaching its maximum level of transcription before OTA accumulation in mycelium reached its highest level, confirming the fact that gene transcription always precedes phenotypic production. PMID:24699234

Gallo, Antonia; Knox, Benjamin P; Bruno, Kenneth S; Solfrizzo, Michele; Baker, Scott E; Perrone, Giancarlo

2014-06-01

436

Interaction of tannase from Aspergillus niger with polycations applied to its primary recovery.  

PubMed

The interaction of tannase (TAH) with chitosan, polyethyleneimine and Eudragit(®)E100 was studied. It was found that TAH selectively binds to these polycations (PC), probably due to the acid nature of the target protein. TAH could interact with these PC depending on the medium conditions. The effect of the interaction on the secondary and tertiary structure of TAH was assayed through circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. TAH was recovered from Aspergillus niger culture broth by means of precipitation and adsorption using chitosan. PMID:23706551

Durán, Luis V Rodríguez; Spelzini, Darío; Boeris, Valeria; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Picó, Guillermo A

2013-10-01

437

Decolorization of a dye industry effluent by Aspergillus fumigatus XC6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strain Aspergillus fumigatus XC6 isolated from mildewing rice straw was evaluated for its ability to decolorize a dye industry effluent. The strain was\\u000a capable of decolorizing dyes effluent over a pH range 3.0–8.0 with the dyes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum\\u000a pH was 3.0; however, supplemented with either appropriate nitrogen sources (0.2% NH4Cl or (NH4)2SO4 )

Xian-Chun Jin; Gao-Qiang Liu; Zheng-Hong Xu; Wen-Yi Tao

2007-01-01

438

Effect of Aeration on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus flavus in Submerged Culture  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 produced up to 212 mg per liter of total aflatoxin in submerged culture in aerated (3,000, 6,000, 9,000, and 12,000 ml/min) and agitated medium in 14-liter fermentors with 10 liters of medium consisting of 2% yeast extract and 10% sucrose. Aflatoxin production increased with time. A maximum of 212 mg/liter was produced at 9,000 ml/min aeration, whereas the yield decreased substantially at the lower aeration rates. Two other strains of A. flavus synthesized aflatoxin in smaller quantities. PMID:16349672

Hayes, A. Wallace; Davis, Norman D.; Diener, Urban L.

1966-01-01

439

A protein from the mold Aspergillus giganteus is a potent inhibitor of fungal plant pathogens.  

PubMed

A purified preparation of antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus exhibited potent antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Magnaporthe grisea and Fusarium moniliforme, as well as the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Under conditions of total inhibition of fungal growth, no toxicity of AFP toward rice protoplasts was observed. Additionally, application of AFP on rice plants completely inhibited M. grisea growth. These results are discussed in relation to the potential of the afp gene to enhance crop protection against fungal pathogens in transgenic plants. PMID:11763131

Vila, L; Lacadena, V; Fontanet, P; Martinez del Pozo, A; San Segundo, B

2001-11-01

440

Generation, annotation, and analysis of an extensive Aspergillus niger EST collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Aspergillus niger, a saprophyte commonly found on decaying vegetation, is widely used and studied for industrial purposes. Despite its place\\u000a as one of the most important organisms for commercial applications, the lack of available information about its genetic makeup\\u000a limits research with this filamentous fungus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We present here the analysis of 12,820 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated fromA. nigercultured

Natalia Semova; Reginald Storms; Tricia John; Pascale Gaudet; Peter Ulycznyj; Xiang Jia Min; Jian Sun; Greg Butler; Adrian Tsang

2006-01-01

441

Metabolites from Aspergillus versicolor, an endolichenic fungus from the lichen Lobaria retigera.  

PubMed

Three new anthraquinone derivatives (1-3) and one new artifact (4) were isolated, along with six known anthraquinone derivatives (5-10) and three xanthones (11-13), from a culture of an endolichenic fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, that was isolated from the lichen Lobaria retigera. The structures of these substances were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR and MS analyses. The substances 1-4 were also tested for their cytotoxic activity. PMID:24815583

Dou, Yanli; Wang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Daifeng; Wang, Haiying; Jiao, Yang; Lou, Hongxiang; Wang, Xiaoning

2014-04-01

442

Aspergillines A-E, Highly Oxygenated Hexacyclic Indole-Tetrahydrofuran-Tetramic Acid Derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

Aspergillines A-E (1-5) are highly oxygenated cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-derived alkaloids bearing a rigid and sterically congested hexacyclic indole-tetrahydrofuran-tetramate scaffold, isolated from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus vesicolor. Apergillines A-C represent a new subclass of CPA-derived alkaloids, and aspergillines B and E possess a butanoic acid methyl ester moiety. The structures, including absolute configuration, were elucidated by interpretation of the NMR, X-ray crystallographic, and circular dichroism data. All compounds displayed anti-TMV and cytotoxic activities. PMID:25226561

Zhou, Min; Miao, Ming-Ming; Du, Gang; Li, Xiao-Nian; Shang, Shan-Zhai; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Guang-Yu; Che, Chun-Tao; Hu, Qiu-Fen; Gao, Xue-Mei

2014-10-01

443

The biosynthesis of 4-hydroxycoumarin and dicoumarol by Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius  

PubMed Central

A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, isolated from spoiled hay, converts melilotic acid (o-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid) and o-coumaric acid into 4-hydroxycoumarin and dicoumarol. The sequence is shown to be melilotic acid (I) [Formula: see text] coumaric acid (IV) [Formula: see text] ?-hydroxymelilotic acid (II) [Formula: see text] ?-oxomelilotic acid (III) [Formula: see text] 4-hydroxycoumarin (VI), on the basis of (1) studies on the formation of postulated intermediates, (2) experiments with isotopically labelled materials and (3) sequential enzyme induction. In the presence of semicarbazide, o-coumaraldehyde is formed from o-coumaric acid: there is no evidence, however, that this lies on the normal metabolic pathway. PMID:4192639

Bye, A.; King, H. K.

1970-01-01

444

Westerdijkin A, a new hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative from deep sea fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae SCSIO 05233.  

PubMed

A new methyl 2-(4-((2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)oxy)phenyl) acetate 1, together with five known compounds 2-6, was isolated from the culture of the deep sea-derived fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae SCSIO 05233. The new structure was determined by NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and MS) and optical rotation analysis. Compound 5 displayed weak inhibitory activities towards K562 and promyelocytic HL-60 with IC50 values of 25.8 and 44.9 ?M, and compound 6 showed strong antifouling activity with EC50 value 8.81 ?g/mL. PMID:25325177

Fredimoses, Mangaladoss; Zhou, Xuefeng; Ai, Wen; Tian, Xinpeng; Yang, Bin; Lin, Xiuping; Xian, Jia-Yun; Liu, Yonghong

2015-01-01

445

Concurrent pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus and mucor infection in a cardiac transplant recipient: a case report.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections are a significant complication of solid organ transplantation. Here we report the first case of concurrent invasive pulmonary fungal infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor species in a heart transplant recipient. Polymicrobial mold infection is rare but should be considered in solid organ transplant recipients who fail to respond to initial antifungal therapy targeting a single organism. It is also of interest that in addition to potent immunosuppression and prolonged voriconazole therapy, possible airway fungal colonization following hurricane Katrina cleaning efforts might have contributed to this dual invasive mold infection. PMID:23267784

Webb, B J; Blair, J E; Kusne, S; Scott, R L; Steidley, D E; Arabia, F A; Vikram, H R

2013-03-01

446

Aniquinazolines A-D, Four New Quinazolinone Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A–D (1–4), were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality. PMID:23880937

An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Wang, Ming-Hui; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

2013-01-01

447

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of recombinant ?-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

?-Mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25) is an important exoglycosidase specific for the hydrolysis of terminal ?-linked mannoside in various oligomeric saccharide structures. ?-Mannosidase from Aspergillus niger was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to clear homogeneity. ?-Mannosidase was crystallized in the presence of D-mannose and the crystal diffracted to 2.41?Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a=62.37, b=69.73, c=69.90?Å, ?=108.20, ?=101.51, ?=103.20°. The parameters derived from the data collection indicate the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit. PMID:23519806

Demo, Gabriel; Fliedrová, Barbora; Weignerová, Lenka; Wimmerová, Michaela

2013-03-01

448

Racemic Resolution of some dl Amino Acids using Aspergillus fumigatus l Amino Acid Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus\\u000a l-amino acid oxidase (l-aao) to cause the resolution of racemic mixtures of dl-amino acids was investigated with dl-alanine, dl-phenylalanine, dl-tyrosine, and dl-aspartic acid. A chiral column, Crownpak CR+ was used for the analysis of the amino acids. The enzyme was able to cause the\\u000a resolution of the three dl-amino acids resulting in the production of

Susmita SinghBinod; Binod K. Gogoi; Rajib L. Bezbaruah

2011-01-01

449

Efficient expression of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase gene in Aspergillus oryzae  

SciTech Connect

A manganese peroxidase (mnp1) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was efficiently expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression was achieved by fusing the mature cDNA of mnp1 with the A. oryzae Taka amylase promoter and secretion signal. The 3{prime} untranslated region of the glucoamylase gene of Asperigillus awamori provided the terminator. The recombinant protein (rMnP) was secreted in an active form, permitting rapid detection and purification. Physical and kinetic properties of rMnP were similar to those of the native protein. The A. oryzae expression system is well suited for both mechanistic and site-directed mutagenesis studies. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Stewart, P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitwam, R.E.; Tien, Ming [Pennsylvanis State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

1996-03-01

450

Cloning and sequencing of cellulase cDNA from Aspergillus kawachii and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The cDNA encoding the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (carboxymethylcellulase; CMCase-I) from Aspergillus kawachii IFO 4308 was cloned. Nucleotide-sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA insert showed a 717-bp open reading frame that encoded a protein of 239 amino-acid residues. The predicted amino-acid sequence of the mature protein had considerable homology with the protein sequence of the FI-CMCase of Aspergillus aculeatus. The cDNA was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expressed enzyme had carboxylmethylcellulase activity, identified by clear zones on a CMC-agar plate after Congo Red staining. PMID:7586029

Sakamoto, S; Tamura, G; Ito, K; Ishikawa, T; Iwano, K; Nishiya, N

1995-04-01

451

Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. and N. ostovani sp.nov. (Acari: Camerobiidae) from Iran.  

PubMed

Two new species of the genus Neophyllobius Berlese, 1886 are described: Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. collected from soil under Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae) in Markazi province and Neophyllobius ostovani sp. nov. from soil and rotten leaves of oak trees in Fars province, Iran. A key to all known Iranian and Turkish species of Neophyllobius is provided. PMID:24870646

Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Yazdanpanah, Shima; Masoudian, Farshad

2014-01-01

452

Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov. (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Kurdistan, Iran.  

PubMed

Two new species belonging to the family Stigmaeidae, Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov., are described from specimens collected from soil and litter under pear trees, Pyrus communis L. (Rosaceae) in Iran. A key to all Iranian species of the genera Cheylostigmaeus (male) and Stigmaeus (female) are provided.  PMID:25082045

Khanjani, Mohammad; Nasrollahi, Siamak; Zamani, Ali Sina; Fayaz, Bahman Asali

2014-01-01

453

Leptochlorella corticola gen. et sp. nov. and Kalinella apyrenoidosa sp. nov.: two novel  

E-print Network

Leptochlorella corticola gen. et sp. nov. and Kalinella apyrenoidosa sp. nov.: two novel Chlorella algal genus, Chlorella, which accommodated coccoid unicellular green algal species with globular to oval. These algae share the general Chlorella-like morphology and their 18S rRNA and rbcL gene sequences place them

454

Immunoproteome of Aspergillus fumigatus Using Sera of Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening lung or systemic infection caused by the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease affects mainly immunocompromised hosts, and patients with hematological malignances or who have been submitted to stem cell transplantation are at high risk. Despite the current use of Platelia™ Aspergillus as a diagnostic test, the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a major challenge in improving the prognosis of the disease. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to identify proteins that could be putative candidates for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Antigenic proteins expressed in the first steps of A. fumigatus germination occurring in a human host were revealed using 2-D Western immunoblots with the serum of patients who had previously been classified as probable and proven for invasive aspergillosis. Forty antigenic proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A BLAST analysis revealed that two of these proteins showed low homology with proteins of either the human host or etiological agents of other invasive fungal infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing specific antigenic proteins of A. fumigatus germlings that are recognized by sera of patients with confirmed invasive aspergillosis who were from two separate hospital units. PMID:25141105

Virginio, Emylli D.; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H.; Batista, Marjorie Vieira; Schirmer, Marcelo R.; Abdelhay, Eliana; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria A.; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.

2014-01-01