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1

Aspergillus asperescens n. sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A newAspergillus species,Aspergillus asperescens, is described. Three strains of this fungus have been isolated from soil and dung of bats in caves in Great-Britain and Poland.\\u000a It is characterized by a yellow green colour, radiate conidial heads, two series of sterigmata, a brown conidiophore, hülle\\u000a cells and subglobose conidia, which are smooth in young and rough in old cultures.

Amelia C. Stolk

1954-01-01

2

Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. and Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov., two species in section Usti from Spanish caves.  

PubMed

Two novel species of Aspergillus that are clearly distinct from all known species in section Usti were revealed during a study of microfungal communities in Spanish caves. The novel species identified in this study and additional species of Aspergillus section Usti are associated with places and substrates related to human activities in caves. Novel species are described using data from four loci (ITS, benA, caM and rpb2), morphology and basic chemical and physiological analyses. Members of the species Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov. were isolated from various substrates, including decaying organic matter, cave air and cave sediment of the Cueva del Tesoro Cave (the Treasure cave); the species is represented by twelve isolates and is most closely related to the recently described Aspergillus germanicus. Members of the species Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. were isolated from cave sediment in the Gruta de las Maravillas Cave (the Grotto of the Marvels); the species is represented by two isolates. An additional isolate was found in the Cueva del Tesoro Cave and in the Demänovská Peace Cave (Slovakia), suggesting a potentially wide distribution of this micro-organism. The species is related to Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus pseudoustus. Both species were unable to grow at 37 °C, and a weakly positive, light greenish yellow Ehrlich reaction was observed in A. thesauricus. Unique morphological features alone are sufficient to distinguish both species from related taxa. PMID:22505602

Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vit; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Kolarik, Miroslav

2012-11-01

3

Purification of soyasaponin -?-galactosidase from Aspergillus sp.39  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase physiological activity of soyasaponin, enzyme hydrolysis of soyasaponin was studied. The enzyme which hydrolyzes soyasaponin to lower sugar soyasaponin was obtained from Aspergillus sp.39s. And it was purified by the method of biologic chromatography system. The method of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to determine the molecular weight of the enzyme produced by Aspergillus sp.39s. The molecular weight was about 50 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of soyasaponin-?-galactosidase produced from sp.39s was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. Soyasaponin-?-galactosidase was comparatively stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 7.0 and in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C.

Tian, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Yi

4

Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov., from traditional meju in Korea.  

PubMed

Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5-5.5 ?m) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests and tuberculate or reticulate convex surface. The species was resolved as phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus species with an Eurotium teleomorph based on multilocus sequence typing using partial fragments of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and RNA polymerase II genes. PMID:22923125

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Meijer, Martin; Majoor, Eline; Vankuyk, Patricia A; Samson, Robert A

2012-08-01

5

Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

6

Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi.  

PubMed

The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of ?-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A. carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37°C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals. PMID:24951723

Hubka, Vit; Lyskova, Pavlina; Frisvad, Jens C; Peterson, Stephen W; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

2014-08-01

7

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL. PMID:24079168

Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Peng, Jiang; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

8

Preparation, characterization and application of Aspergillus sp. xylanase immobilized on Eudragit S-100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus sp. 5 (strain 5) and Aspergillus sp. 44 (strain 44) produced xylanase (34.3 and 32.7 IU ml?1, respectively) with very low levels of cellulases when grown on 1% wheat bran medium. Xylanase was non-covalently immobilized on Eudragit S-100 for saccharification. The system retained 70 and 80% of strain 5 and strain 44 xylanase activity, respectively. On immobilization, optimum temperature

P. V Gawande; M. Y Kamat

1998-01-01

9

Purification of Aspergillus sp xylanase by precipitation with an anionic polymer Eudragit S100  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of xylanases from the crude culture filtrates of Aspergillus sp 5 and Aspergillus sp 44 was carried out using affinity precipitation with a commercially available enteric polymer Eudragit S100. With affinity precipitation the yield of enzyme was 85.3, 82.7% with 10.8, 4.08-folds (specific activity of ammonium sulphate precipitate was taken as 100%) increases in the specific activity of

P. V Gawande; M. Y Kamat

1999-01-01

10

Mactanamide, A New Fungistatic Diketopiperazine Produced By A Marine Aspergillus Sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mactanamide (1), a new diketopiperazine containing the uncommon amino acid D-2,6-dihydroxyphenylalanine, has been isolated from the mycelium of an undescribed marine fungus of the genus Aspergillus. the new fungal strain was obtained from the surface of the brown marine alga Sargassum sp. collected near Mactan Island in the Philippines. the structure and absolute stereochemistry of 1 was determined by interpretation

Peter Lorenz; Paul R. Jensen; William Fenical

1998-01-01

11

Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging Aspergillus section Candidi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The identity of nine clinical isolates from Czech patients presumably belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi based on morphology of colonies was revised using sequences of ß-tubulin, calmodulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. The set of isolates included six isolates from suspected (n...

12

Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

13

Aspergillus sp. isolated in critically ill patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.  

PubMed

This study reports Aspergillus isolation in critically ill patients who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and highlights the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis of aspergillosis in this population. The diagnosis of Aspergillus infection or colonization was retrospectively performed using the proposed modified criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) adapted to critically ill patients. Between 2005 and 2011, 11 of 151 patients (7.2%) who underwent ECMO had Aspergillus sp. isolates, 10 in a pulmonary sample and 1 in a mediastinal wound sample. Five patients did not have any classical risk factors for aspergillosis. One patient had a proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), 2 had a putative IPA, and 1 patient had a possible Aspergillus mediastinitis, whilst in 7 patients this was considered colonization. However, the clinical relevance of Aspergillus isolation was based on an algorithm not validated in patients undergoing ECMO. Our data support the need to implement non-invasive diagnostic procedures for aspergillosis in this population. PMID:23746344

Aubron, Cecile; Pilcher, David; Leong, Tim; Cooper, D James; Scheinkestel, Carlos; Pellegrino, Vince; Cheng, Allen C

2013-09-01

14

Assessment of the efficacy of Aspergillus sp . EL2 in textile waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal biomass has the ability to decolorize a wide variety of dyes successfully through a number of mechanisms. A brown rot\\u000a isolate, previously identified as Aspergillus sp. EL-2, was used in the aerobic treatment of textile waste water efficiently. In the current work, the treated waste water\\u000a was tested chemically using more than one combined treatment. Microbial toxicity, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity

Ola M. GomaaHussein; Hussein Abd El Kareem; Reham Fatahy

15

Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of an inulinase gene from an Aspergillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected endophytic fungi have been report to be inulin degraders to produce fructose or other oligosaccharides. In this study,\\u000a the Aspergillus sp. producing inulinase were isolated from selected plant species at Serdang area in Malaysia. Fungal isolates were screened\\u000a solely based on inulin degrading enzymes production and two isolates named Asf1 and Onf1 were selected as the best inulinase\\u000a enzyme

S. Raba’atun Adawiyah; M. Shuhaimi; A. M. Mohd Yazid; A. Abdul Manaf; N. Rosli; S. Sreeramanan

16

New flavonol and diterpenoids from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3.  

PubMed

One new flavonol, chlorflavonin A (1), four new diterpenoids, aspergiloids E-H (3, 5-7), together with eight known compounds (2, 4, 8-13) were isolated from solid fermentation of Aspergillus sp. (strain no. YXf3), an endophytic fungus from Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were determined through detailed spectroscopic analysis combined with comparison of NMR spectra data with reported ones. All of them were screened on cytotoxicity against KB, SGC-7901, SW1116, and A549 cell lines; compounds 4, 9-11 exhibited moderate activities with IC50 values ranging from 6.74 to 46.64 µM. PMID:23457022

Yan, Tong; Guo, Zhi Kai; Jiang, Rong; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ting; Guo, Ye; Song, Yong Chun; Jiao, Rui Hua; Tan, Ren Xiang; Ge, Hui Ming

2013-03-01

17

Three New Asperentin Derivatives from the Algicolous Fungus Aspergillus sp. F00785  

PubMed Central

Three new asperentin-type compounds, 6-O-?-d-ribosylasperentin (1) and 6-O-?-d-ribosyl-8-O-methylasperentin (2) and 5-hydroxyl-6-O-methylasperentin (3), along with asperentin (4) and its known analogues (5–9), were isolated from a halotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain F00785, an endotrophic fungus from marine alga. Their structures were determined using extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of compound 9. Compound 4 exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against crop pathogens, Colletotrichum gleosporioides Penz. and Colletotrichum gleosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. PMID:25517217

Tang, Qian; Guo, Kai; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Xiu-Ying; Kong, Xiang-Jian; Zheng, Zhong-Hui; Xu, Qing-Yan; Deng, Xianming

2014-01-01

18

Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synozol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synozol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synozol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50°C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synozol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes. PMID:23369298

2013-01-01

19

Efficacy of Aspergillus sp. for degradation of chlorpyrifos in batch and continuous aerated packed bed bioreactors.  

PubMed

Aerobic biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Aspergillus sp. was investigated in batch and continuous packed bed bioreactors. The optimal process parameters for achieving the maximum removal efficiency (RE), determined using a batch bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam pieces, were inoculum level: 2.5 mg?(wet weight)?mL(-1), pH 7.0, temperature 28 °C, DO 5.8 mg L(-1), and CP concentration 300 mg L(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at flow rates ranging from 10 to 40 mL h(-1) while keeping other parameters at their optimal level. Steady-state CP removal efficiencies greater than 85 % were obtained up to the inlet loading of 180 mg L(-1) d(-1). The continuous bioreactor behaved as a plug flow unit and was able to stabilize quickly after perturbation in the inlet loading. PMID:25234399

Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

2015-01-01

20

New mycotoxins from marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093.  

PubMed

Nine mycotoxins including six aspergillic acid group toxins, aluminiumneoaspergillin (1), zirconiumneoaspergillin (2), aspergilliamide (3), ferrineoaspergillin (5), flavacol (6), neoaspergillic acid (7), and three ochratoxins, ochratoxin A n-butyl ester (4), ochratoxin A (8), ochratoxin A methyl ester (9), were isolated from the fermentation broth of marine gorgonian derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Four of them (1-4) were new mycotoxins, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. The bio-toxicity of compounds 1-9 were determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 2.59-205.67 ?M. This was the first report about zirconium complex obtained from nature and ochratoxins isolated from marine environment. PMID:23220611

Xu, Xinya; He, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Bao, Jie; Qi, Shuhua

2013-03-01

21

In vitro comparative analysis of monocrotophos degrading potential of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp.  

PubMed

Fungal degradation is emerging as a new powerful tool for the removal of potent neurotoxin pesticide, monocrotophos. Therefore, the present study is aimed at comparative characterization of monocrotophos degrading ability of three different fungal strains. Fungal strains were isolated from local agricultural soil by enrichment culture method, screened by gradient culture and identified as Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp. Growth kinetics revealed a direct positive influence of monocrotophos on the viability of fungal isolates. Fungal degradation was studied in phosphorus free liquid culture medium supplemented with 150 mg L(-1) concentration of monocrotophos for a period of 15 days under optimized culture conditions. Degradation of MCP followed first order kinetics with kdeg of 0.007, 0.002 and 0.005 day(-1) and half life (t1/2) of 4.21, 12.64 and 6.32 days for A. flavus, F. pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp. respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report signifying the potential of monocrotophos degradation by Fusarium and Macrophomina sp. The results were further confirmed by HPTLC and FTIR which indicates disappearance of monocrotophos by hydrolytic cleavage of vinyl phosphate bond. Degradation of monocrotophos by fungal isolates was accompanied by the release of extracellular alkaline phosphatases, inorganic phosphates and ammonia. The overall comparative analysis followed the order of A. flavus > Macrophomina sp. > F. pallidoroseum. Therefore, it could be concluded from the study that these three different fungal strains could be effectively used as a potential candidate for the removal of monocrotophos from contaminated sites. PMID:24179090

Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena; Yadav, Deepak

2014-06-01

22

Stress and release : chemical modulation of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus sp.  

E-print Network

Cyclosporin A induced biosynthesis of colored compounds in three species of Aspergillus. Diode array HPLC MS analysis of culture extracts revealed Aspergillus terreus demonstrated the most profound response, with upregulation ...

Hanlon, Amy

2006-01-01

23

1H and 13C NMR assignments of two new indolic enamide diastereomers from a mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

Terpeptin A (1) and B (2), two new members of the indolic enamides, along with three known compounds (3-5) were identified from a strain of Aspergillus sp. (w-6), an endophytic fungus associated with Acanthus ilicifolius. The complete (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments for these compounds were carried out using (1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC NMR experiments. Terpeptin A and B exhibited modest cytotoxicity against A-549 cell line. PMID:18846581

Lin, Zhenjian; Zhu, Tianjiao; Fang, Yuchun; Gu, Qianqun

2008-12-01

24

Assessment of the efficacy of Aspergillus sp. EL-2 in textile waste water treatment.  

PubMed

Fungal biomass has the ability to decolorize a wide variety of dyes successfully through a number of mechanisms. A brown rot isolate, previously identified as Aspergillus sp. EL-2, was used in the aerobic treatment of textile waste water efficiently. In the current work, the treated waste water was tested chemically using more than one combined treatment. Microbial toxicity, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were also studied to assess the toxicity level for each treatment. The obtained data suggest that the contribution of more than one mode of treatment is essential to ensure complete destruction of the by-products. The use of gamma irradiation (25 kGy) after the bioremediation step led to the decrease of the by-products of biodegradation as observed by visible spectrum and Fourier transfer infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The toxicity assessment presented variable results indicating the need for more than one toxicity test to confirm the presence or absence of hazardous compounds. Brown rot fungus could be used efficiently in the treatment of textile waste water without the risk of obtaining high carcinogenic or genotoxic compounds, especially if combined treatment is employed. PMID:21822953

Gomaa, Ola M; Kareem, Hussein Abd El; Fatahy, Reham

2012-04-01

25

Diphenyl ethers from Aspergillus sp. and their anti-A??? aggregation activities.  

PubMed

Two new compounds with the character of diphenyl ether structure, oxisterigmatocystin D (1) and 9-acetyldiorcinol B (6), were isolated from the endolichenic fungal strain Aspergillus sp. (No. 16-20-8-1), along with six known compounds, oxisterigmatocystin A (2), oxisterigmatocystin C (3), sterigmatocystin (4), diorcinol B (5), violaceol-I (7), and violaceol-II (8). The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, the A?42 aggregation inhibitory activities of 5-8 were evaluated by the standard thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as the positive control. Compounds 7 and 8 displayed significant anti-A?42 aggregation activity with IC50 values of 5.1 and 2.3?M, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship of these diphenyl ethers as anti-A?42 aggregation inhibitors was proposed. PMID:25038471

Zhao, Huan; Wang, Gao-Qian; Tong, Xu-Peng; Chen, Guo-Dong; Huang, Yuan-Fan; Cui, Jia-Yu; Kong, Ming-Zhu; Guo, Liang-Dong; Zheng, Yi-Zhi; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

2014-10-01

26

Synthesis of galactosyl glycerol from guar gum by transglycosylation of ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus sp. MK14.  

PubMed

A guar gum-hydrolyzing strain, Aspergillus sp. MK14, secreted ?-galactosidase selectively in liquid culture. Its ?-galactosidase activity (0.820 U/ml) was much higher than its ?-mannosidase and ?-mannanase activities (0.027 and 0.050 U/ml, respectively). The molecular weight was estimated to be 59,000 Da by SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH was 5 and it was active from pH 2.2 to 6.2. The optimal temperature was 60 °C and the activity was stable below 50 °C. Enzyme activity toward melibiose was much lower than that with pNP-?-D-galactopyranoside. The activities toward 6(1)-?-D-galactosyl-mannobiose and 6(3),6(4)-?-D-galactosyl-mannopentaose were relatively high (86.2% and 48.4% relative to pNP-?-D-galactopyranoside, respectively). MK14 crude enzyme released only the monosaccharides, galactose and mannose (Gal/Man: 0.64) from guar gum. When glycerol was added to the reaction mixture, the transglycosylation proceeded efficiently, and the synthesis of galactosyl glycerol was 76.6 mg/g of guar gum. MK14 ?-galactosidase could use guar gum as a good substrate (donor) in the transglycosylation. PMID:25442536

Kurakake, Masahiro; Okumura, Takumi; Morimoto, Youichirou

2015-04-01

27

Penicillium parvulum and Penicillium georgiense sp. nov. Isolated from the Conidial Heads of Aspergillus Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new Penicillium species were isolated from peanut-field soils in Georgia. The species were particularly noted because they sporulated on the conidial heads of Aspergillus species. Phenotypic descriptions were prepared using standard media. ITS and lsu-rDNA sequences were made from the new spe...

28

Transesterification of used edible and non-edible oils to alkyl esters by Aspergillus sp. as a whole cell catalyst.  

PubMed

Aspergillus sp. (MTCC 5436), isolated from contaminated clarified butter was used as a whole cell catalyst for transesterification of oils from different sources. The strain was observed to be tolerant and grow in 90% oil as carbon source. Oils of Jathropa, karanj and spent cottonseed were used as carbon sources in the study. The product, alkyl ester, was characterized and quantified using (1) H-NMR. The strain was observed to facilitate transesterification in an oil:minimal medium with the ratio of 70:30 resulting in a 98% conversion of oil to ethyl esters within 48 h at 28 °C and 120 rpm. The physico-chemical characteristics of the ethyl ester (>98%) at 70% oil as carbon source were similar to the standards specified for biodiesel as per standards of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), India. PMID:21780141

Prakash, Ranjana; Aulakh, Satnam S

2011-12-01

29

Asperlones A and B, Dinaphthalenone Derivatives from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5C  

PubMed Central

Racemic dinaphthalenone derivatives, (±)-asperlone A (1) and (±)-asperlone B (2), and two new azaphilones, 6?-hydroxy-(R)-mitorubrinic acid (3) and purpurquinone D (4), along with four known compounds, (?)-mitorubrinic acid (5), (?)-mitorubrin (6), purpurquinone A (7) and orsellinic acid (8), were isolated from the cultures of Aspergillus sp. 16-5C. The structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the structures of 1 further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configuration of 3 and 4 were determined by comparing their optical rotation and CD with those of the literature, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with IC50 values of 4.24 ± 0.41, 4.32 ± 0.60 and 3.99 ± 0.34 ?M, respectively. PMID:25591039

Xiao, Ze’en; Lin, Shao’e; Tan, Chunbing; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

2015-01-01

30

Anti-respiratory syncytial virus prenylated dihydroquinolone derivatives from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15.  

PubMed

Two new prenylated dihydroquinolone derivatives, 22-O-(N-Me-l-valyl)aflaquinolone B (1) and 22-O-(N-Me-l-valyl)-21-epi-aflaquinolone B (2), and two known analogues, aflaquinolones A (3) and D (or a diastereomer of D, 4), were isolated from the mycelia of a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, ECD spectra, Marfey's method, and chemical conversion. Compounds 1 and 2 display an unusual esterification of N-Me-l-Val to the side-chain prenyl group. Compound 2 exhibited outstanding anti-RSV activity with an IC50 value of 42 nM, approximately 500-fold stronger than that of the positive control ribavirin (IC50 = 20 ?M), and showed a comparatively higher therapeutic ratio (TC50/IC50 = 520). PMID:25420212

Chen, Min; Shao, Chang-Lun; Meng, Hong; She, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Chang-Yun

2014-12-26

31

Nine New and Five Known Polyketides Derived from a Deep Sea-Sourced Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1  

PubMed Central

Nine new C9 polyketides, named aspiketolactonol (1), aspilactonols A–F (2–7), aspyronol (9) and epiaspinonediol (11), were isolated together with five known polyketides, (S)-2-(2?-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-?-butyrolactone (8), dihydroaspyrone (10), aspinotriol A (12), aspinotriol B (13) and chaetoquadrin F (14), from the secondary metabolites of an Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1 that was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample. Structures of the new compounds, including their absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially the 2D NMR, circular dichroism (CD), Mo2-induced CD and Mosher’s 1H NMR analyses. Compound 8 was isolated from natural sources for the first time, and the possible biosynthetic pathways for 1–14 were also proposed and discussed. Compounds 1–14 inhibited human cancer cell lines, K562, HL-60, HeLa and BGC-823, to varying extents. PMID:24871461

Chen, Xiu-Wen; Li, Chang-Wei; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Hua, Wei; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

2014-01-01

32

Nine new and five known polyketides derived from a deep sea-sourced Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1.  

PubMed

Nine new C9 polyketides, named aspiketolactonol (1), aspilactonols A-F (2-7), aspyronol (9) and epiaspinonediol (11), were isolated together with five known polyketides, (S)-2-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-?-butyrolactone (8), dihydroaspyrone (10), aspinotriol A (12), aspinotriol B (13) and chaetoquadrin F (14), from the secondary metabolites of an Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1 that was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample. Structures of the new compounds, including their absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially the 2D NMR, circular dichroism (CD), Mo2-induced CD and Mosher's 1H NMR analyses. Compound 8 was isolated from natural sources for the first time, and the possible biosynthetic pathways for 1-14 were also proposed and discussed. Compounds 1-14 inhibited human cancer cell lines, K562, HL-60, HeLa and BGC-823, to varying extents. PMID:24871461

Chen, Xiu-Wen; Li, Chang-Wei; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Hua, Wei; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

2014-06-01

33

Asperlones A and B, dinaphthalenone derivatives from a mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5C.  

PubMed

Racemic dinaphthalenone derivatives, (±)-asperlone A (1) and (±)-asperlone B (2), and two new azaphilones, 6'-hydroxy-(R)-mitorubrinic acid (3) and purpurquinone D (4), along with four known compounds, (-)-mitorubrinic acid (5), (-)-mitorubrin (6), purpurquinone A (7) and orsellinic acid (8), were isolated from the cultures of Aspergillus sp. 16-5C. The structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the structures of 1 further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configuration of 3 and 4 were determined by comparing their optical rotation and CD with those of the literature, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with IC50 values of 4.24 ± 0.41, 4.32 ± 0.60 and 3.99 ± 0.34 ?M, respectively. PMID:25591039

Xiao, Ze'en; Lin, Shao'e; Tan, Chunbing; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

2015-01-01

34

Aspergiloid I, an unprecedented spirolactone norditerpenoid from the plant-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3  

PubMed Central

Summary An unusual C18 norditerpenoid, aspergiloid I (1), was isolated from the culture broth of Aspergillus sp. YXf3, an endophytic fungus derived from Ginkgo biloba. Its structure was unambiguously established by analysis of HRMS–ESI and spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration was determined by low-temperature (100 K) single crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu K? radiation. This compound is structurally characterized by a new carbon skeleton with an unprecedented 6/5/6 tricyclic ring system bearing an ?,?-unsaturated spirolactone moiety in ring B, and represents a new subclass of norditerpenoid, the skeleton of which is named aspergilane. The hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for 1 was also proposed. The cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of 1 were evaluated. PMID:25550731

Guo, Zhi Kai; Wang, Rong; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiao Nian; Jiang, Rong

2014-01-01

35

Robusta coffee beans post-harvest microflora: Lactobacillus plantarum sp. as potential antagonist of Aspergillus carbonarius.  

PubMed

Coffee contamination by ochratoxigenic fungi affects both coffee quality as well as coffee price with harmful consequences on the economy of the coffee exporting countries for whom which is their main source of income. Fungal strains were isolated from coffee beans and identified as black Aspergilli. Ochratoxigenic moulds like Aspergillus carbonarius were screened and selected for detailed studies. Also lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from silage coffee pulp and their antifungal activity was tested on dual-culture agar plate. Ten of the isolated LAB demonstrated antifungal effect against A. carbonarius. API 50 CH and APIZYM were used to perform phenotypic identification. 16S rDNA sequencing was made to confirm the results. PMID:21497665

Djossou, Olga; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Mirleau, Fatma Lakhal; Rodriguez-Serrano, Gabriela; Karou, Germain; Niamke, Sebastien; Ouzari, Imene; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Roussos, Sevastianos

2011-12-01

36

Penicillium parvulum and Penicillium georgiense, sp. nov., isolated from the conidial heads of Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Two new Penicillium species were isolated from peanut-field soils in Georgia. The species were noted particularly because they sporulated on the conidial heads of Aspergillus species. Phenotypic descriptions were prepared with standard media. LSU-rDNA sequences were determined for the new species and compared to existing homologous sequences from Penicillium species with parsimony analysis. The monoverticillate species, P. parvulum, was related most closely to E. cinnamopurpureum, while the furcate species, P. georgiense, appeared in the tree near P. thiersii. Because P. parvulum was closely related to E. cinnamopurpureum additional loci were sequenced (beta-tubulin and calmodulin) for these and some other closely related species to establish the status of the species through genealogical concordance. Some proposed synonymies from prior studies were examined and resolved. PMID:19274850

Peterson, Stephen W; Horn, Bruce W

2009-01-01

37

Aspergillus felis sp. nov., an Emerging Agent of Invasive Aspergillosis in Humans, Cats, and Dogs  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph) isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a dog with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Disease in all host species was often refractory to aggressive antifungal therapeutic regimens. Four other human isolates previously reported as A. viridinutans were identified as A. felis on comparative sequence analysis of the partial ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin genes. A. felis is a heterothallic mold with a fully functioning reproductive cycle, as confirmed by mating-type analysis, induction of teleomorphs within 7 to 10 days in vitro and ascospore germination. Phenotypic analyses show that A. felis can be distinguished from the related species A. viridinutans by its ability to grow at 45°C and from A. fumigatus by its inability to grow at 50°C. Itraconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance was common in vitro. PMID:23798996

Barrs, Vanessa R.; van Doorn, Tineke M.; Houbraken, Jos; Kidd, Sarah E.; Martin, Patricia; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Richardson, Malcolm; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

38

The potential hazards of Aspergillus sp. in foods and feeds, and the role of biological treatment: a review.  

PubMed

The contamination of food and feed by Aspergillus has become a global issue with a significant worldwide economic impact. The growth of Aspergillus is unfavourable to the development of food and feed industries, where the problems happen mostly due to the presence of mycotoxins, which is a toxic metabolite secreted by most Aspergillus groups. Moreover, fungi can produce spores that cause diseases, such as allergies and asthma, especially to human beings. High temperature, high moisture, retarded crops, and poor food storage conditions encourage the growth of mold, as well as the development of mycotoxins. A variety of chemical, biological, and physical strategies have been developed to control the production of mycotoxins. A biological approach, using a mixed culture comprised of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus resulted in the inhibition of the growth of fungi when inoculated into fermented food. The results reveal that the mixed culture has a higher potential (37.08%) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus (producer of Aflatoxin) compared to either single culture, L. rhamnosus NRRL B-442 and S. cerevisiae, which inhibit the growth by 63.07% and 64.24%, respectively. PMID:25269603

Sheikh-Ali, Sheikh Imranudin; Ahmad, Akil; Mohd-Setapar, Siti-Hamidah; Zakaria, Zainul Akmal; Abdul-Talib, Norfahana; Khamis, Aidee Kamal; Hoque, Md Enamul

2014-10-01

39

Antifungal activity of metabolites from the marine sponges Amphimedon sp. and Monanchora arbuscula against Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).  

PubMed

Contamination of preharvest and stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) by aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is an important economical and food safety problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The present investigation reports the antifungal activity of a halitoxins/amphitoxins enriched extract obtained from the sponge Amphimedon sp. (HAEEAsp), and of batzelladine L isolated from the sponge Monanchora arbuscula on Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored peanuts. A PCR system directed against the ITS region and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes of A. flavus was applied for identification of aflatoxin producing strains. The HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range between 1.9 to 15.6 microg/mL and between 1.9 to 7.8 microg/mL, respectively. The minimal fungicide concentration (MFC) of HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L was in the range between 3.9 to 31.3 microg/mL and 3.9 to 15.6 microg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that these marine alkaloids may be further explored for the development of potential lead compounds active against aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:24660456

Arevabini, Cynthia; Crivelenti, Yasmin D; de Abreu, Mariana H; Bitencourt, Tamires A; Santos, Mário F C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Hajdu, Eduardo; Beleboni, Renę O; Fachin, Ana L; Marins, Mozart

2014-01-01

40

Identification of ten KB425796-A congeners from Paenibacillus sp. 530603 using an antifungal assay against Aspergillus fumigatus in combination with micafungin.  

PubMed

The discovery and characterization of natural congeners is one approach for understanding the relationship between chemical structure and biological function. We recently isolated the novel antifungal metabolite KB425796-A produced by the recently isolated bacterium Paenibacillus sp. 530603. On the basis of morphological changes of Aspergillus fumigatus induced by KB425796-A in combination with micafungin, we developed a highly sensitive screening method for the specific detection of KB425796-A congeners. Using this method, we isolated ten congeners of KB425796-A, named KB425796-B, -C, -D, -E, -F, -G, -H, -I, -J and -K, which exhibited diverse antifungal potencies against A. fumigatus. One of the most potent congeners, KB425796-C, had antifungal activities against several micafungin-resistant infectious fungi. KB425796-C can be a potential drug candidate for treating micafungin-resistant fungal infections. PMID:23778114

Kai, Hirohito; Yamashita, Midori; Takase, Shigehiro; Hashimoto, Michizane; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Ikuko; Yoshikawa, Koji; Kanasaki, Ryuichi; Ezaki, Masami; Nitta, Kumiko; Watanabe, Masato; Inamura, Noriaki; Fujie, Akihiko

2013-08-01

41

Shornephine A: structure, chemical stability, and P-glycoprotein inhibitory properties of a rare diketomorpholine from an Australian marine-derived Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

Chemical analysis of an Australian marine sediment-derived Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M081F) yielded the new diketomorpholine (DKM) shornephine A (1) together with two known and one new diketopiperazine (DKP), 15b-?-hydroxy-5-N-acetyladreemin (2), 5-N-acetyladreemin (3), and 15b-?-methoxy-5-N-acetyladreemin (4), respectively. Structure elucidation of 1-4 was achieved by detailed spectroscopic analysis, supported by chemical degradation and derivatization, and biosynthetic considerations. The DKM (1) underwent a facile (auto) acid-mediated methanolysis to yield seco-shornephine A methyl ester (1a). Our mechanistic explanation of this transformation prompted us to demonstrate that the acid-labile and solvolytically unstable DKM scaffold can be stabilized by N-alkylation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that at 20 ?M shornephine A (1) is a noncytotoxic inhibitor of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in multidrug-resistant human colon cancer cells. PMID:25158286

Khalil, Zeinab G; Huang, Xiao-cong; Raju, Ritesh; Piggott, Andrew M; Capon, Robert J

2014-09-19

42

New Isocoumarin Derivatives and Meroterpenoids from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013  

PubMed Central

Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6) were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a), reticulol (2c), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4), and pyripyropene E (5) from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2a–c and 3–6 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3) was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:25317534

Prompanya, Chadaporn; Dethoup, Tida; Bessa, Lucinda J.; Pinto, Madalena M. M.; Gales, Luís; Costa, Paulo M.; Silva, Artur M. S.; Kijjoa, Anake

2014-01-01

43

Biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-citronellol by Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., and the use of solid-phase microextraction for screening.  

PubMed

The biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-citronellol by fungi was studied. For screening experiments, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used as analytical sampling technique. It was found that sporulated surface cultures of Aspergillus niger were able to convert the substrate into cis- and trans-rose oxides and nerol oxide. The relative contents in the headspace SPME extract of the three bioconversion products cis- and trans-rose oxide and nerol oxide were up to 54, 21 and 12%, respectively. Rose oxide is found in minor amounts in some essential oils, such as Bulgarian rose oil and geranium oil and contributes to its unique odor. It is one of the most important fragrance materials in perfumery in creating rosy notes. Other bioconversion products were 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, limonene, terpinolene, linalool and alpha-terpineol. These bioconversion reactions were confirmed by sporulated surface cultures on larger scale and sampling by dynamic headspace sweep and steam distillation solvent extraction. The same conversions were noticed with A. tubingensis and Penicillium roqueforti. This bioconversion was enantioselective since more of the chiral cis- than trans-rose oxide was obtained (cisitrans ratio up to 95/5). Submerged liquid cultures of P. roqueforti yielded two unidentified metabolites after conversion of citronellol (yield up to 5%). The stability and acid-catalyzed conversion of citronellol was also investigated. No chemical oxidation or auto-oxidation products were detected in acidified liquid control broths up to pH 3.5. However, when control tests were run with solid media, acid-catalyzed conversion of the substrate to small amounts of cis- and trans-rose oxides, nerol oxide, linalool and alpha-terpineol was observed at pH 3.5 and when heat treatment (steam distillation solvent extraction) was applied. PMID:14971495

Demyttenaere, Jan C R; Vanoverschelde, Jan; De Kimpe, Norbert

2004-02-20

44

Aspergillus Sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Aspergillus sinusitis has several distinct clinical manifestations, which are determined by the presence or absence of tissue invasion\\u000a as well as the host’s response to the fungus. Most, but not all fungal sinusitis is caused by Aspergillus organisms. This section on Aspergillus sinusitis utilizes the currently accepted classification scheme for categorising fungal rhinosinusitis. An aspergilloma (fungal\\u000a ball) is a non-invasive

Matthew W. Ryan; Bradley F. Marple

45

New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati.  

PubMed

Three new species of Neosartorya and one new Aspergillus of section Fumigati are proposed using a polyphasic approach based on morphology, extrolite production and partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences. The phylogenetic analyses using the three genes clearly show that the taxa grouped separately from the known species and confirmed the phenotypic differences. Neosartorya denticulata is characterized by its unique denticulate ascospores with a prominent equatorial furrow; N. assulata by well developed flaps on the convex surface of the ascospores which in addition have two distinct equatorial crests and N. galapagensis by a funiculose colony morphology, short and narrow conidiophores and ascospores with two wide equatorial crests with a microtuberculate convex surface. Aspergillus turcosus can be distinguished by velvety, gray turquoise colonies and short, loosely columnar conidial heads. The four new taxa also have unique extrolite profiles, which contain the mycotoxins gliotoxin and viriditoxin in N. denticulate; apolar compounds provisionally named NEPS in N. assulata and gregatins in N. galapagensis. A. turcosus produced kotanins. N. denticulata sp. nov., N. assulata sp. nov., N. galapagensis sp. nov., and A. turcosus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. PMID:17610141

Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Hong, Joonbae; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Per V; Varga, János; Samson, Robert A

2008-01-01

46

Biological active metabolite cyclo ( l Trp l -Phe) produced by South China Sea sponge Holoxea sp. associated fungus Aspergillus versicolor strain TS08  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponge-associated fungi represent the single most prolific source of novel natural products from marine fungi. Cyclo (l-Trp-l-Phe) exhibits biological functions such as plant growth regulation, moderate cytotoxicity and thus has the application potential\\u000a in pharmaceutical and agricultural biotechnologies. In this study, a fungal strain TS08 was isolated from sponge Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea and identified as A.

Dan Chu; Chongsheng Peng; Bo Ding; Fang Liu; Fengli Zhang; Houwen Lin; Zhiyong Li

2011-01-01

47

Glycosylinositolphosphoceramides in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Fungal glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPCs) are involved in cell growth and fungal-host interactions. In this study, six GIPCs from the mycelium of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus were purified and characterized using Q-TOF mass spectrometry and 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. All structures have the same inositolphosphoceramide moiety with the presence of a C(18:0)-phytosphingosine conjugated to a 2-hydroxylated saturated fatty acid (2-hydroxy-lignoceric acid). The carbohydrate moiety defines two types of GIPC. The first, a mannosylated zwitterionic glycosphingolipid contains a glucosamine residue linked in alpha1-2 to an inositol ring that has been described in only two other fungal pathogens. The second type of GIPC presents an alpha-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-Manp-(1-->2)-IPC common core. A galactofuranose residue is found in four GIPC structures, mainly at the terminal position via a beta1-2 linkage. Interestingly, this galactofuranose residue could be substituted by a choline-phosphate group, as observed only in the GIPC of Acremonium sp., a plant pathogen. PMID:17971386

Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; Delepierre, Muriel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry

2008-01-01

48

Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess  

SciTech Connect

A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

1982-12-17

49

Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans. PMID:25401068

2014-01-01

50

Aspergillus fumigatus and related species.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. Among the pathogenic aspergilli, Aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section Fumigati that morphologically resemble A. fumigatus. Patients that are at risk for acquiring aspergillosis are those with an altered immune system. Early diagnosis, species identification, and adequate antifungal therapy are key elements for treatment of the disease, especially in cases of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis that often advance very rapidly. Incorporating knowledge of the basic biology of Aspergillus species to that of the diseases that they cause is fundamental for further progress in the field. PMID:25377144

Sugui, Janyce A; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Steinbach, William J

2015-02-01

51

GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

52

Identification of fungi of the genus Aspergillus section nigri using polyphasic taxonomy  

PubMed Central

In spite of the taxonomy of the Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section being regarded as troublesome, a number of methods have been proposed to aid in the classification of this Section. This work aimed to distinguish Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section from foods, grains and caves on the basis in Polyphasic Taxonomy by utilizing morphologic and physiologic characters, and sequencing of ß-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The morphologic identification proved useful for some species, such as A. carbonarius and Aspergillus sp UFLA DCA 01, despite not having been totally effective in elucidating species related to A. niger. The isolation of the species of the Nigri Section on Creatine Sucrose Agar (CREA) enabled to distinguish the Aspergillus sp species, which was characterized by the lack of sporulation and by the production of sclerotia. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) allowed distinguishing the species into two distinct groups. The production of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was only found in the A. carbonarius and A. niger species. The sequencing of ?-tubulin gene was efficient in differing most of the Aspergillus species from the Nigri Section with the exception of Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01, which could not be distinguished from A. costaricaensis. This species is morphologically similar to A. costaricaencis for its low sporulation capacity and high sclerotia production, but it differs morphologically from A. costaricaensis for its conidial ornamentation and size of vesicles. Equally, based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01 differs from A. costaricaensis. PMID:24031691

Silva, Daiani M.; Batista, Luís R.; Rezende, Elisângela F.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Sartori, Daniele; Alves, Eduardo

2011-01-01

53

Overview of Aspergillus Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fungi in general and, Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in particular, are able to produce complex patterns of IgE-binding molecules. Robotics-based high throughput screening of\\u000a A. fumigatus cDNA libraries displayed on phage surfaces revealed at last 81 different sequences encoding structures potentially able to\\u000a bind to serum IgE of sensitised individuals suffering from A. fumigatus-related complications. Although not all of these

R. Crameri; A. G. Glaser; M. Vilhelmsson; S. Zeller; C. Rhyner

54

Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

2009-02-01

55

Aspergillus: sex and recombination.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

2014-12-01

56

Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by agar gel double immunodiffusion and IgG ELISA in feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis.  

PubMed

Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) is an emerging infectious disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the diagnostic value of detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies using an agar gel double immunodiffusion (AGID) assay and an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA; and (2) to determine if an aspergillin derived from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus can be used to detect serum antibodies against cryptic Aspergillus spp. in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Sera from cats with URTA (group 1: n?=?21) and two control groups (group 2: cats with other upper respiratory tract diseases, n?=?25; group 3: healthy cats and cats with non-respiratory, non-fungal illness, n?=?84) were tested. Isolates from cats with URTA comprised A. fumigatus (n?=?5), A. flavus (n?=?1) and four cryptic species: Aspergillus felis (n?=?12), Aspergillus thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri, n?=?1), Aspergillus lentulus (n?=?1) and Aspergillus udagawae (n?=?1). Brachycephalic purebred cats were significantly more likely to develop URTA than other breeds (P?=?0.013). The sensitivity (Se) of the AGID was 43% and the specificity (Sp) was 100%. At a cut-off value of 6 ELISA units/mL, the Se of the IgG ELISA was 95.2% and the Sp was 92% and 92.9% for groups 2 and 3 cats, respectively. Aspergillus-specific antibodies against all four cryptic species were detected in one or both assays. Assay Se was not associated with species identity. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by IgG ELISA has high Se and Sp for diagnosis of feline URTA. PMID:25634077

Barrs, V R; Ujvari, B; Dhand, N K; Peters, I R; Talbot, J; Johnson, L R; Billen, F; Martin, P; Beatty, J A; Belov, K

2015-03-01

57

X-ray Structure Analysis and Characterization of AFUEI, an Elastase Inhibitor from Aspergillus fumigatus*  

PubMed Central

Elastase from Aspergillus sp. is an important factor for aspergillosis. AFUEI is an inhibitor of the elastase derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. AFUEI is a member of the I78 inhibitor family and has a high inhibitory activity against elastases of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, human neutrophil elastase and bovine chymotrypsin, but does not inhibit bovine trypsin. Here we report the crystal structure of AFUEI in two crystal forms. AFUEI is a wedge-shaped protein composed of an extended loop and a scaffold protein core. The structure of AFUEI shows remarkable similarity to serine protease inhibitors of the potato inhibitor I family, although they are classified into different inhibitor families. A structural comparison with the potato I family inhibitors suggests that the extended loop of AFUEI corresponds to the binding loop of the potato inhibitor I family, and AFUEI inhibits its cognate proteases through the same mechanism as the potato I family inhibitors. PMID:23640894

Sakuma, Mayuko; Imada, Katsumi; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Yamashita, Nobuo; Ogawa, Kenji; Hijikata, Atsushi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Michio; Nikai, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

58

Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

1996-01-01

59

Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048=NRRL 58570), ...

60

Innate Immunity to Aspergillus Species  

PubMed Central

Summary: All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results in a uniquely diverse set of illnesses caused by Aspergillus species, which includes diseases caused by the colonization of the respiratory tract, invasive infection, and hypersensitivity. A key concept in immune responses to Aspergillus species is that the susceptibilities of the host determine the morphological form, antigenic structure, and physical location of the fungus. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the multiple layers of innate defenses against Aspergillus species that dictate the outcome of this host-microbe interaction. PMID:19822887

Park, Stacy J.; Mehrad, Borna

2009-01-01

61

Innate immunity to Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results in a uniquely diverse set of illnesses caused by Aspergillus species, which includes diseases caused by the colonization of the respiratory tract, invasive infection, and hypersensitivity. A key concept in immune responses to Aspergillus species is that the susceptibilities of the host determine the morphological form, antigenic structure, and physical location of the fungus. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the multiple layers of innate defenses against Aspergillus species that dictate the outcome of this host-microbe interaction. PMID:19822887

Park, Stacy J; Mehrad, Borna

2009-10-01

62

76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...studies, which monitored air and soil populations of Aspergillus flavus...g., peeling, shucking, washing, and cooking) should further...things, percolation through soil. Thus, EPA expects exposure...EPA. 2003. BPPD Review of Soil and Air Monitoring Studies...

2011-03-23

63

Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaďs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaďde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

2011-01-01

64

Catalases of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Upon infection of a host, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is attacked by the reactive oxygen species produced by phagocytic cells. Detoxification of hydrogen peroxide by catalases was proposed as a way to overcome this host response. A. fumigatus produces three active catalases; one is produced by conidia, and two are produced by mycelia. The mycelial catalase Cat1p was studied previously. Here we characterized the two other catalases, their genes, and the phenotypes of gene-disrupted mutants. CatAp, a spore-specific monofunctional catalase, is resistant to heat, metal ions, and detergent. This enzyme is a dimeric protein with 84.5-kDa subunits. The 749-amino-acid polypeptide exhibits high levels of similarity to the Aspergillus nidulans CatA catalase and to bacterial catalase HPII of Escherichia coli. In spite of increased sensitivity to H2O2, killing of ?catA conidia by alveolar macrophages and virulence in animals were similar to the killing of conidia by alveolar macrophages and virulence in animals observed for the wild type. In contrast to the Cat1p and CatAp catalases, the mycelial Cat2p enzyme is a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase and is sensitive to heat, metal ions, and detergent. This enzyme, an 82-kDa monomer, is homologous to catalase-peroxidases of several fungi and bacteria. Surprisingly, mycelium of the double ?cat1?cat2 mutant with no catalase activity exhibited only slightly increased sensitivity to H2O2 and was as sensitive to killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils as mycelium of the wild-type strain. However, this mutant exhibited delayed infection in the rat model of aspergillosis compared to infection by the wild-type strain. These results indicate that conidial catalase is not a virulence factor and that mycelial catalases transiently protect the fungus from the host. PMID:12761140

Paris, Sophie; Wysong, Deborah; Debeaupuis, Jean-Paul; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Philippe, Bruno; Diamond, Richard D.; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2003-01-01

65

Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections  

PubMed Central

Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects. PMID:22194666

Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

2011-01-01

66

Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

Latgé, Jean-Paul

1999-01-01

67

New metabolites from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

A new alkaloid, fumiquinazoline K (1), and a new nordammarane triterpenoid (2), together with three known diketopiperazines (3-5) and tryptoquivaline F (6) have been isolated from a marine strain of Aspergillus fumigatus KMM 4 631 associated with the soft coral Sinularia sp. Their structures were determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR. Compounds 3-5 exhibit weak cytotoxicity against cytoplasm non-specific esterase in Ehrlich carcinoma cells. Compound 3 also induces early apoptosis of the same cells in a non-toxic range of concentrations. PMID:22574452

Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh; Zhuravleva, Olesya I; Antonov, Alexandr S; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Pivkin, Michail V; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S; Aminin, Dmitry L

2012-04-01

68

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide and is also an important opportunistic human pathogen in aspergillosis. The sexual state of this heterothallic fungus is described from crosses between strains of the opposite mating type. Sexual reproduction oc...

69

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii  

PubMed Central

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-01-01

70

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii.  

PubMed

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-04-12

71

Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, ?-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including the transcriptional regulator aflR, norsolonic acid reductase and O-methyltransferase were also carried out. A detailed overview of the species accepted in Aspergillus section Flavi is presented. PMID:21892243

Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

2011-01-01

72

Cross-reactivity of non-Aspergillus fungal species in the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

The Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (EIA) has been demonstrated to facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of invasive aspergillosis. However, test specificity has not been fully evaluated in non-Aspergillus fungal species. Of 53 fungal isolates, cross-reactivity was observed with 5 non-Aspergillus spp.: Blastomyces dermatitidis, Nigrospora oryzae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Trichothecium roseum. PMID:17662550

Cummings, Jessica R; Jamison, Ginger R; Boudreaux, Jan W; Howles, Merry J; Walsh, Thomas J; Hayden, Randall T

2007-09-01

73

Chronic Granulomatous Aspergillus Synovitis: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus can cause invasive disease of various organs especially in patients with weakened immune systems. Aspergillus synovitis and arthritis are uncommon types of involvement due to this infection. Approaches to fungal osteoarticular infections are based on only case reports. This paper presents a rare case of chronic granulomatous Aspergillus synovitis in an immunocompromised 5-year old girl who was treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23795281

Ayhan, Aylin Canbolat; Özkan, Korhan; Timur, Cetin; Akta?, Birol; Ceyran, Ayse Bahar

2013-01-01

74

Itraconazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis is an increasingly frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Only two agents, amphotericin B and itraconazole, are licensed for therapy. Itraconazole acts through inhi- bition of a P-450 enzyme undertaking sterol 14a demethylation. In vitro resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus to itraconazole correlated with in vivo outcome has not been previously described. For three isolates (AF72, AF90, and AF91)

DAVID W. DENNING; K. VENKATESWARLU; KAREN L. OAKLEY; M. J. ANDERSON; N. J. MANNING; DAVID A. STEVENS; DAVID W. WARNOCK; STEVEN L. KELLY; Sheffield S; Bristol BS

1997-01-01

75

Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

2010-07-01

76

Coinfection by Aspergillus and Zygomycetes Species in a Case of Acute Rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

Invasive mycotic infections can be effectively treated if rapid identification of fungus is obtained. We reported a case of coinfection by Aspergillus and Rhizopus sp. involving nose, paranasal sinuses, orbit, and brain in a 68-year-old known hypertensive male. He was presented to ENT OPD with history of fever and intermittent headache since fifteen days along with history of right-sided nasal obstruction and proptosis since seven days. CT scan of brain and paranasal sinuses showed findings of pansinusitis with cellulitic changes in right orbit. MRI confirmed the same along with features of intracranial extension with focal meningitis in right frontotemporal region. Laboratory parameters did not conclude much except for leucocytosis and hyponatremia. Patient was taken for endoscopic debridement from nose and paranasal sinuses, and tissue was sent for microbiological and histopathological examination. Minced tissue was processed, and after 48?hrs of incubation two types of growth were identified, one was yellowish, granular, and powdery consistent with Aspergillus sp., and another was cottony and woolly consistent with Rhizopus sp. LCB mount confirmed presence of Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus arrhizus. Patient responded to therapy with IV amphotericin B and surgical debridement. On discharge patient's condition was good. PMID:22937365

Vaidya, Dhara; Shah, Parul

2011-01-01

77

Coinfection by Aspergillus and zygomycetes species in a case of acute rhinosinusitis.  

PubMed

Invasive mycotic infections can be effectively treated if rapid identification of fungus is obtained. We reported a case of coinfection by Aspergillus and Rhizopus sp. involving nose, paranasal sinuses, orbit, and brain in a 68-year-old known hypertensive male. He was presented to ENT OPD with history of fever and intermittent headache since fifteen days along with history of right-sided nasal obstruction and proptosis since seven days. CT scan of brain and paranasal sinuses showed findings of pansinusitis with cellulitic changes in right orbit. MRI confirmed the same along with features of intracranial extension with focal meningitis in right frontotemporal region. Laboratory parameters did not conclude much except for leucocytosis and hyponatremia. Patient was taken for endoscopic debridement from nose and paranasal sinuses, and tissue was sent for microbiological and histopathological examination. Minced tissue was processed, and after 48?hrs of incubation two types of growth were identified, one was yellowish, granular, and powdery consistent with Aspergillus sp., and another was cottony and woolly consistent with Rhizopus sp. LCB mount confirmed presence of Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus arrhizus. Patient responded to therapy with IV amphotericin B and surgical debridement. On discharge patient's condition was good. PMID:22937365

Vaidya, Dhara; Shah, Parul

2011-01-01

78

Isolation of notoamide S and enantiomeric 6-epi-stephacidin A from the fungus Aspergillus amoenus: biogenetic implications.  

PubMed

Notoamide S has been hypothesized to be a key biosynthetic intermediate for characteristic metabolites stephacidin A, notoamide B, and versicolamide B in Aspergillus sp. but has not yet been isolated. The isolation of notoamide S and an enantiomeric mixture of 6-epi-stephacidin A enriched with the (-)-isomer from Aspergillus amoenus is reported. The presence of (+)-versicolamide B suggests that the fungus possesses only the oxidase, which converts (+)-6-epi-stephacidin A into (+)-Versicolamide B, but not for (-)-6-epi-Stephacidin A. PMID:25615822

Kato, Hikaru; Nakahara, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kayo; Matsuo, Kanae; Kagiyama, Ippei; Frisvad, Jens C; Sherman, David H; Williams, Robert M; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

2015-02-01

79

An electrophoretic karyotype of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrophoretic karyotype of Aspergillus niger was obtained using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis. Chromosomesized DNA was separated into four bands. Seven of the eight linkage groups could be correlated with specific chromosomal bands. For this purpose DNA preparations from seven transformant strains of A. niger each carrying the heterologous amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans on a different

Alfons J. M. Debets; Edu F. Holub; Klaas Swart; Henk W. J. Broek; Cees J. Bos

1990-01-01

80

Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

2009-01-01

81

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis. PMID:25473411

Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

2014-11-01

82

Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis in a Mild Immunocompromised Host  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis. PMID:25473411

Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man

2014-01-01

83

Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Aspergillus Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu The fungus Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin

Holland, Jeffrey

84

Induction of mutation in Aspergillus niger for conversion of cellulose into glucose  

SciTech Connect

Plant wastes are very important part of biomass used and investigated for energy, chemical, and fuel production. Cellulose is the major renewable form of carbohydrate in the world, about 10{sup 11} tons of which is synthesized annually. For general use, it must be hydrolyzed first, either chemically or by cellulases derived from a few specialized microorganisms. Enzymes are acceptable environmentally but expensive to produce. Certainly, induction of mutations and selection of high cellulose microbial strains with significant adaptability to degrade cellulose to glucose is promising solutions. Induction of mutations in other fungi and Aspergillus sp. rather than Aspergillus niger was reported. Aspergillus ustus and Trichoderma harzianum were induced by gamma irradiation indicating mutants that excrete higher cellulose yields, particularly exocellobiohydrolase (Avicelase) than their respective wild types. Mutants from the celluiolytic fungus Penicillium pinophilum were induced by chemical and UV-irradiation. Enhancing the production of endo-1,4-{Beta}-D-glucanase (CMCase) and particularly {Beta}-glucosidase was obtained by gamma irradiation of Altemaria alternate. To overcome the lower activity of {beta}-glucosidase in certain fungi species rather than A. niger, mixed cultures of different species were tried. Thus, Aspergillus phonicis with Trichoderma reesei Rut 30, produced a cellulose complex that improved activity twofold over cellulose from Trichoderma alone.

Helmi, S.; Khalil, A.E.; Tahoun, M.K.; Khairy, A.H. [Univ. of Alexandria Research Centre, Alexandria (Egypt)

1991-12-31

85

Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.  

PubMed

The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. PMID:25737146

Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

2015-05-01

86

Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

87

Onychomycosis due to Aspergillus candidus: case report.  

PubMed

A patient is described who suffered from chronic fungal involvement of right great toe nail. Serial cultures of the removed nail demonstrated a non-dermatophyte, Aspergillus candidus, as the causative agent. PMID:125865

Cornere, B M; Eastman, M

1975-07-01

88

Sexual recombination in Aspergillus tubingensis.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tubingensis from section Nigri (black Aspergilli) is closely related to A. niger and is used extensively in the industrial production of enzymes and organic acids. We recently discovered sexual reproduction in A. tubingensis, and in this study we demonstrate that the progeny are products of meiosis. Progeny were obtained from six crosses involving five MAT1-1 strains and two MAT1-2 strains. We examined three loci, including mating type (MAT), RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and ?-tubulin (BT2), and found that 84% (58/69) of progeny were recombinants. Recombination associated with sexual reproduction in A. tubingensis provides a new option for the genetic improvement of industrial strains for enzyme and organic acid production. PMID:25572097

Olarte, Rodrigo A; Horn, Bruce W; Singh, Rakhi; Carbone, Ignazio

2015-01-01

89

Antifungal Susceptibility Tests of Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although different methods are now available to assess the susceptibility of Aspergillus species to antifungal agents, there are still limited data correlating in vitro resistance with meaningful clinical endpoints.\\u000a Moreover, there is no consensus on the breakpoints to define resistance\\/susceptibility to different antifungal agents. This\\u000a chapter reviews the technical issues related to antifungal susceptibility tests for Aspergillus species, including the

Arnaldo Lopes Colombo; Viviane Reis; Patricio Godoy

90

Aspergillus and Penicillium allergens: Focus on proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penicillium and Aspergillus species are prevalent airborne fungi. It is imperative to identify and characterize their major allergens. Alkaline and\\/or\\u000a vacuolar serine proteases are major allergens of several prevalent Penicillium and Aspergillus species. They are also major immunoglobulin (Ig) E-reacting components of the most prevalent airborne yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and the most prevalent Cladosporium species, C. cladosporioides. IgE cross-reactivity has

Horng-Der Shen; Ming F. Tam; Ren-Bin Tang; Hong Chou

2007-01-01

91

Aflaquinolones A-G: secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.  

PubMed

Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048 = NRRL 58570), while the others were obtained from a marine Aspergillus isolate (SF-5044) collected in Korea. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of NMR and MS data. Relative and absolute configurations were assigned on the basis of NOESY data and (1)H NMR J-values, comparison of calculated and experimental ECD spectra, and analysis of a Mosher's ester derivative of 2. Several known compounds, including alantrypinone, aspochalasins I and J, methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxy-2((2-((3-pyridinylcarbonyl)amino)benzoyl)amino)benzoate, and trans-dehydrocurvularin were also encountered in the extract of the Hawaiian isolate. PMID:22295903

Neff, Scott A; Lee, Sang Un; Asami, Yukihiro; Ahn, Jong Seog; Oh, Hyuncheol; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gloer, James B; Wicklow, Donald T

2012-03-23

92

In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens. PMID:23997920

Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

93

21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to identify antibodies to Aspergillus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like)...

2012-04-01

94

Relative reactivity of Aspergillus allergens used in serological tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus is a common disease-causing agent, both as an allergen causing ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) and as a pathogen causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals and chronic cavitating disease (CCPA) in apparently immune competent individuals. Currently detection of Aspergillus is problematic and some of the most useful tests rely on detection of antibody response to Aspergillus

P. Bowyer; O. Blightman; D. W. Denning

2006-01-01

95

The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P.

2014-01-01

96

Extracellular siderophores from Aspergillus ochraceous.  

PubMed Central

A large number of iron-chelating compounds (siderophores) were isolated from supernatants of iron-deficient cultures of a mold isolate, subsequently identified as Aspergillus ochraceous . Siderophores in their iron chelate form were purified to homogeneity by using Bio-Gel P2, silica gel, and C-18 bonded silica gel (reverse-phase) columns. Most of these compounds, as identified by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, belong to the ferrichrome family. The organism produces ferrirubin and ferrichrysin as the predominant and the second major compound (62 and 15% of the total siderophores), respectively. Ferrichrysin appears as the first siderophore in the medium on day 2 of growth. Several of the other siderophores are novel and ranged in quantities from 0.2 to 5% of the total. The trivial names asperchrome A, B1, B2, C, D1, D2, and D3 are proposed for these novel compounds, which are all members of the ferrichrome family, and all but the first one contain a common Orn1 - Orn2 - Orn3 - Ser1 -Ser2-Gly cyclic hexapeptide ring with three dissimilar ornithyl delta-N-acyl groups. Another compound which appeared late in the growth period was similar to fusarinine C ( fusigen ). All of these compounds showed growth factor activity to various extents in bioassays with Arthrobacter flavescens Jg-9. None of these compounds showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium. PMID:6233261

Jalal, M A; Mocharla, R; Barnes, C L; Hossain, M B; Powell, D R; Eng-Wilmot, D L; Grayson, S L; Benson, B A; van der Helm, D

1984-01-01

97

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

98

Structure of the Aspergillus niger pel A gene and its expression in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger pectin lyases are encoded by a multigene family. The complete nucleotide sequence of the pectin lyase PLA-encoding gene pelA has been determined. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the deduced amino acid sequence of the other characterized pectin lyase, PLD, shows that the proteins share 69% amino acid identity. When grown on media with pectin as

Margo A. Kusters-van Someren; Jan A. M. Harmsen; Harry C. M. Kester; Jaap Visser

1991-01-01

99

Expression and sequence comparison of the Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubigensis genes encoding polygalacturonase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and expression of the polygalacturonase-encoding pgaII genes of two recently recognized species, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubigensis, was investigated. While the structure of the pgaII genes is very similar, showing 83% DNA sequence identity and 94% identity at the amino acid level, they have diverged significantly. The NH2-terminal sequence suggests that these PGs are made as pre pro-proteins

Hendrik J. D. Bussink; Frank P. Buxton; Jaap Visser

1991-01-01

100

Efficacy of Caspofungin against Aspergillus terreus  

PubMed Central

We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of caspofungin against Aspergillus terreus. The drug increased survival and reduced tissue fungal burden in neutropenic mice. Therefore, our data support the role of caspofungin in treating systemic infections due to this emerging pathogen. PMID:16304185

Barchiesi, Francesco; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Santinelli, Alfredo; Fothergill, Annette W.; Fallani, Stefania; Manso, Esther; Pisa, Eleonora; Giannini, Daniele; Novelli, Andrea; Cassetta, Maria I.; Mazzei, Teresita; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Scalise, Giorgio

2005-01-01

101

ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

102

Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus Species from Thailand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species were isolated from soil samples from ten different regions within Thailand. A. flavus was present in soil samples from all of the regions, but unlike previous studies, we found no A. parasiticus or A. flavus isolates capable of both B and G production in any ...

103

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

104

Dye biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing dyes from an aqueous solution. In the study, the roles played by three major functional groups: carboxyl, amino and phosphate, and the lipid fraction in the biomass of A. niger in biosorption of four dyes, Basic Blue 9, Acid Blue 29, Congo Red and Disperse Red 1, were investigated. These functional groups in A.

Yuzhu Fu; T Viraraghavan

2002-01-01

105

Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

2011-07-01

106

Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence an...

107

ASCOCARPS OF ASPERGILLUS AND PENICILLIUM l  

Microsoft Academic Search

(WITH 21 FIGURES) The industrial and commercial importance of Aspergillus and Peni- cillium has stimulated extensive study of these form genera. According to Raper and Thorn (1949), more than 700 species have been described as penicillia alone. The emphasis in current literature is on the conidial stages, and the manuals by Raper and Thorn (1949) and Thorn and Raper (1945)

CHESTER R. BENJAMIN

108

N-Glycan Modification in Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production by filamentous fungi of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in mammals is held back by the inherent difference in protein N-glycosylation and by the inability of the fungal cell to modify proteins with mammalian glycosylation structures. Here, we report protein N-glycan engineering in two Aspergillus species. We functionally expressed in the fungal hosts heterologous chimeric fusion proteins containing

Elke Kainz; Andreas Gallmetzer; Christian Hatzl; Juergen H. Nett; Huijuan Li; Thorsten Schinko; Robert Pachlinger; Harald Berger; Yazmid Reyes-Dominguez; Andreas Bernreiter; Tillmann Gerngross; Stefan Wildt; Joseph Strauss

2008-01-01

109

Biotransformation of agallochaexcoerin A by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Agallochaexcoerin A (1), a seco-manoyl oxide diterpenoid was metabolised by pathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, in growth media to yield a new metabolite, termed agallochaexcoerin G (2). It was confirmed by using IR, UV, (1)H NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. This microbial bioconversion was achieved by unusual dehydration at C-4 position. PMID:25515683

Sura, Madhu Babu; Ankireddy, Madhu; Gowri Ponnapalli, Mangala

2015-05-01

110

SP Fonts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for funky fonts to include in Web designs, papers, or posters, SP Fonts may be your answer. Scholars Press (SP) Fonts "are a set of simple, public domain fonts" designed for print and non-commercial Web use. This site currently offers eight public domain fonts that may be downloaded and used free of charge. Three of the fonts are Hebrew/Aramaic fonts: "SPTiberian (a standard Hebrew font), SPDamascus (a thinner font with Palestinian as well as Tiberian vowel points), and SPEzra (a simple, fixed-width Hebrew font)." Two are Greek fonts: "SPIonic (a more complete Greek font) and SPDoric (a simpler, uncial font)." Other fonts include "SPEdessa (a Syriac Estrangela font), SPAchmim (a Coptic font), and SPAtlantis (a transliteration font that includes diacriticals and other special characters that allow the representation of numerous Indo-European, Semitic, and other languages"-- available in both Roman and Italic type). All fonts are TrueType fonts and are compatible with PC (Windows) and Mac computers. In addition, each font has a .readme file that explains the standard keyboard mapping used by the font. Although the fonts are free to the public, the Web site requests permission from the copyright holder before including the typefaces in commercial electronic products.

111

Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins ?-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1?) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B?, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-?-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. PMID:22036292

Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

2011-11-01

112

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS 2006 #12;IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS: IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS RESISTANT

Ray, David

113

Lung surfactant proteins A and D can inhibit specific IgE binding to the allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus and block allergen-induced histamine release from human basophils  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen which, in the immunocompetent host, causes allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, allergic sinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). In the present study, the interaction of 3-week culture filtrate (3wcf) allergens and various purified glycosylated and non-glycosylated allergens of A. fumigatus with lung surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, was investigated. Purified SP-A and SP-D, isolated from human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, bound to the 3wcf allergens and purified allergens, gp55 and gp45, in a carbohydrate-specific and calcium-dependent manner. Both SP-A and SP-D did not bind to deglycosylated allergens, suggesting that the ability of SP-A and SP-D to bind certain allergens is mediated through their carbohydrate recognition domains, interacting with the carbohydrate residues on the allergen. Both SP-A and SP-D could inhibit the ability of allergen-specific IgE from Aspergillosis patients to bind these allergens, suggesting that SP-A and SP-D may be involved in the modulation of allergic sensitization and/or development of allergic reactions. The view that SP-A and SP-D play a protective role against airborne allergens is further supported by the demonstration of their ability to inhibit A. fumigatus allergen-induced histamine release from allergic patients' basophils. PMID:9367408

MADAN, T; KISHORE, U; SHAH, A; EGGLETON, P; STRONG, P; WANG, J Y; AGGRAWAL, S S; SARMA, P U; REID, K B M

1997-01-01

114

Mutually facilitated dispersal between the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and the swarming  

E-print Network

Mutually facilitated dispersal between the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and the swarming show that two very different inhabitants of the rhizosphere, the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

Jacob, Eshel Ben

115

Chronic bilateral otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger, an opportunistic filamentous fungus, was identified as the cause of chronic bilateral otomycosis in a 46-year-old female patient who was unresponsive to different drugs. The patient showed signs of erythema, otalgia, itching, otorrhoea and presence of greyish black coloured mass in both the ear canals. The direct microscopical examination of the ear debris in potassium hydroxide preparations, Giemsa, phase contrast and Gram revealed many thin, branched septate hyphae, condia and conidiophores morphologically indistinguishable from Aspergillus spp. The histopathological section of the ear wax mass by haematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff techniques also showed similar fungal elements. The patient responded to 1% solution of mercurochrome. The use of mercurochrome in developing countries like India may be recommended to treat the fungal otitis in patients. We also emphasize that 'Narayan' stain should be routinely employed by microbiology and public health laboratories to study the morphology of pathogenic fungi. PMID:14998406

Mishra, G S; Mehta, Niral; Pal, M

2004-02-01

116

Nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Aspergillus nidulans, mutations, designated areAr, can result in the inability to utilise a wide variety of nitrogen sources including amino acids, purines, amides, nitrate, and nitrite, whilst not affecting growth on ammonium. Other allelic areA mutations, designated areAd, lead to derepression of one or more activities which are ammonium repressible in wild type (areA+) strains, whilst not affecting their

Herbert N. Arst; David J. Cove

1973-01-01

117

Primary Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the sternum.  

PubMed

We report 2 cases of primary sternal osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus; previously reported cases have been complications of sternotomy. Both patients were healthy young men with recent intravenous drug abuse. No other focus or predisposing factors were found. Both were treated with partial sternectomy and chondrectomy; 1 received long-term amphotericin B therapy. Both are doing well 2 1/2 years after operation. Drug usage, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and medical immunosuppression may lead to other cases. PMID:1929646

Walker, W A; Pate, J W

1991-10-01

118

Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

119

Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, ?-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

2014-01-01

120

Original article The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on the digestion cerevisiae / Aspergillus oryzae / protozoa / digestion / fibre RĂ©sumĂ© - Effet de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et of the SAB in rumen digesta and the growth of protozoa. © Inra/Elsevier, Paris rumen / Saccharomyces

Boyer, Edmond

121

METHODOLOGY ARTICLE Open Access Comparative proteomic profiles of Aspergillus  

E-print Network

involved in various forms of aspergillosis in humans and animals [1-3]. Infections caused Aspergillus species within the Fumigati section (Aspergillus fumigatus wild-types and natural abnormally and two oxygenation conditions. Nine strains were investigated: three wild-types and four natural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus

T. M. Hammond; M. D. Andrewski; M. J. Roossinck; N. P. Keller

2008-01-01

123

Production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus carbonarius on coffee cherries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On ?-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 ?g

H. M. L. J Joosten; J Goetz; A Pittet; M Schellenberg; P Bucheli

2001-01-01

124

Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...

125

Nomenclatural considerations in naming species of Aspergillus and its teleomorphs  

PubMed Central

The nomenclature of Aspergillus is important in many fields of research and therefore the strategies for stable and efficient naming are important. The conservation of species names as accepted by the Aspergillus community is described. Published lists of accepted names provide that people who use Aspergillus and Penicillium taxonomies need no longer fear the overturning of names currently used. Aspergillus is a good example of a genus where the naming of both anamorph and teleomorph has been applied and arguments are given for maintaining the system of dual nomenclature. A protocol for describing new taxa in Aspergillus and their teleomorphs is proposed, including the availability of living ex type cultures, deposit of type cultures in at least two recognised culture collections, deposits of sequence data in specialised data bases and registration of the new names in MycoBank. PMID:18490944

Pitt, J.I.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

126

Studies of In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole and Itraconazole against Aspergillus Hyphae Using Viability Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of voriconazole and itraconazole for five clinical isolates each of Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were determined by a broth macrodilution method. Conidial suspensions as inocula were compared to hyphae as inocula since the invasive form of aspergillosis is manifested by the appearance of hyphal structures. In addition, cell viability staining

CORNELIA LASS-FLORL; MARKUS NAGL; CORNELIA SPETH; HANNO ULMER; MANFRED P. DIERICH; REINHARD WURZNER

2001-01-01

127

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

128

Lecythomycin, a new macrolactone glycoside from the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp.  

PubMed

A new macrolactone glycoside, lecythomycin (1), 23-methyl-3-(1-O-mannosyl)-oxacyclotetracosan-1-one, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp. (code 30.1), an endopyte of the Indonesian plant Alyxia reinwardtii. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. The isolated compound displayed antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida kruzei at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5-125 microg/mL. PMID:21615031

Sugijanto, Noor Erma; Diesel, Arnulf; Rateb, Mostafa; Pretsch, Alexander; Gogalic, Selma; Zaini, Noor Cholies; Ebel, Rainer; Indrayanto, Gunawan

2011-05-01

129

Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

2014-11-01

130

Aspergillus terreus recovered from a corneal scraping.  

PubMed

A 52 year old, healthy male presented to his optometrist complaining of redness and irritation in the right eye. A foreign body was removed from the eye. The patient was started on ophthalmic solutions of vigamox and systane. At 48 hours, the patient reported increased redness, limited vision, and yellow discharge from the eye. The patient was referred to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Physical assessment revealed a superlative central infiltrate (extreme, centrally located injury that had permeated the cornea), diffuse corneal haze, and edema with a 3- to 4+ conjunctival injection and a 1 millimeter hypopyon (an effusion of pus into the anterior chamber of the eye). Corneal scrapings were collected for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal cultures. The patient was then prescribed. vancomycin, tobramycin, and natamycin ophthalmic eyedrops. On day three, fungal culture results indicated possible fungal forms seen. On day 12, results from the fungal culture of the corneal scraping revealed the causative agent to be Aspergillus terreus. Voriconazole eyedrops were added to the treatment regimen and continued for 10 weeks. The physician order for a fungal culture as well as laboratory data providing the final identification of Aspergillus terreus and laboratory comments indicating an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (> 2 microg/mL) to amphotericin B is associated with treatment failure positively impacted the patient outcome. After completion of the treatment regimen, a photo-therapeutic keratectomy (PTK) was performed in an attempt to remove the dense corneal scarring caused by the fungal infection. PMID:25000648

Campbell, Suzanne

2014-01-01

131

Aspergillus and Penicillium allergens: focus on proteases.  

PubMed

Penicillium and Aspergillus species are prevalent airborne fungi. It is imperative to identify and characterize their major allergens. Alkaline and/or vacuolar serine proteases are major allergens of several prevalent Penicillium and Aspergillus species. They are also major immunoglobulin (Ig) E-reacting components of the most prevalent airborne yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and the most prevalent Cladosporium species, C. cladosporioides. IgE cross-reactivity has been detected among these major pan-fungal serine protease allergens. In addition, the alkaline serine protease of P. chrysogenum (Pen ch 13) induces histamine release from basophils of asthmatic patients, degrades the tight junction protein occludin, and stimulates release of proinflammatory mediators from human bronchial epithelial cells. In addition to induction of IgE and inflammatory airway responses, the alkaline serine protease allergen of A. fumigatus (Asp f 13) has synergistic effects on Asp f 2-induced immune response in mice. Studies of these serine protease major allergens elucidate the diverse allergic disease mechanisms and facilitate the development of better therapeutic strategies. PMID:17697643

Shen, Horng-Der; Tam, Ming F; Tang, Ren-Bin; Chou, Hong

2007-09-01

132

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

133

Optimization of culture conditions for Aspergillus sojae expressing an Aspergillus fumigatus ?-galactosidase.  

PubMed

Using Response Surface Methodology, carbon and nitrogen sources and agitation speed for cultivation of Aspergillus sojae expressing the ?-galactosidase gene, aglB of Aspergillus fumigatus IMI 385708 were optimized. Compared to cultivation in modified YpSs medium, cultivation in 250-mL Erlenmeyer flasks agitated at 276 rpm and containing 100 mL of optimized medium consisting of 10.5% molasses (w/v) and 1.3% NH(4)NO(3) (w/v), 0.1% K(2)HPO(4), and 0.005% MgSO(4)·7H(2)O achieved a 4-fold increase in ?-galactosidase production (10.4 U/mL). These results suggest the feasibility of industrial large scale production of an ?-galactosidase known to be valuable in galactomannan modification. PMID:21316941

Gurkok, Sumeyra; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Ogel, Zumrut B

2011-04-01

134

Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the two most important aflatoxin-producing fungi responsible for the contamination of agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here we examine the possibility of interspecific matings between A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These species can be distinguished morphologically and genetically, as well as by their mycotoxin profiles. Aspergillus flavus produces both B aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), B aflatoxins or CPA alone, or neither mycotoxin; Aspergillus parasiticus produces B and G aflatoxins or the aflatoxin precursor O-methylsterigmatocystin, but not CPA. Only four of forty-five attempted interspecific crosses between opposite mating types of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were fertile and produced viable ascospores. Single ascospore strains from each cross were shown to be recombinant hybrids using multilocus genotyping and array comparative genome hybridization. Conidia of parents and their hybrid progeny were haploid and predominantly monokaryons and dikaryons based on flow cytometry. Multilocus phylogenetic inference showed that experimental hybrid progeny were grouped with naturally occurring A. flavus L strain and A. parasiticus. Higher total aflatoxin concentrations in some F1 progeny strains compared to midpoint parent aflatoxin levels indicate synergism in aflatoxin production; moreover, three progeny strains synthesized G aflatoxins that were not produced by the parents, and there was evidence of allopolyploidization in one strain. These results suggest that hybridization is an important diversifying force resulting in the genesis of novel toxin profiles in these agriculturally important fungi. PMID:25773520

Olarte, Rodrigo A; Worthington, Carolyn J; Horn, Bruce W; Moore, Geromy G; Singh, Rakhi; Monacell, James T; Dorner, Joe W; Stone, Eric A; Xie, De-Yu; Carbone, Ignazio

2015-04-01

135

Plasmids in Frankia sp.  

PubMed Central

A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plasmids ranging in size from 7.1 to 32.2 kilobase pairs as estimated from agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. A total of 11 plasmids were detected. Images PMID:6863219

Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

1983-01-01

136

Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp.  

E-print Network

A complex and fascinating aspect of fungal development is the production of secondary metabolites. One of the best characterized secondary metabolite pathway is the aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) pathway, found in many Aspergillus spp...

Ramaswamy, Anitha

2002-01-01

137

Thoracic spinal cord intramedullary aspergillus invasion and abscess.  

PubMed

Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is a rare form of fungal infection that presents most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. There have been multiple previous reports of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and spinal epidural aspergillus abscess; however to our knowledge there are no reports of intramedullary aspergillus infection. We present a 19-year-old woman with active acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with several weeks of fevers and bilateral lower extremity weakness. She was found to have an intramedullary aspergillus abscess at T12-L1 resulting from adjacent vertebral osteomyelitis and underwent surgical debridement with ultra-sound guided aspiration and aggressive intravenous voriconazole therapy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of spinal aspergillosis invading the intramedullary cavity. Though rare, this entity should be included in the differential for immunocompromised patients presenting with fevers and neurologic deficit. Early recognition with aggressive neurosurgical intervention and antifungal therapy may improve outcomes in future cases. PMID:25088481

McCaslin, Addason F; Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Sugrue, Patrick A; Koski, Tyler R

2015-02-01

138

Synthesis of lead nanoparticles by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

In the context of the current demand to develop green technologies in material synthesis, a natural process in the synthesis of lead particles by Aspergillus species to suit such technology is reported. The fungal strain was grown in medium containing different concentrations of lead (0.2-1.5 mM) to determine its resistance to heavy metals. The organism was found to utilize some mechanism and accumulate lead particles outside and inside the cell. The extracellular presence of lead particles in the range of 1.77-5.8 microm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of particles of lead in the 5-20 nm size range was found on the cell surface, in the periplasmic space and in the cytoplasm and was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:22708348

Pavani, K V; Kumar, N Sunil; Sangameswaran, B B

2012-01-01

139

Transformation of xanthohumol by Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of xanthohumol isolated from agro-residue (spent hops), by Aspergillus ochraceus was investigated. A new aurone, (Z)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:6,7]-3',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxyaurone, was obtained as a main transformation product. Three minor metabolites were identified as 2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:3',4']-2',4-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone, (2S,2?S)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone and (2S,2?R)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences. The antioxidant properties of xanthohumol and its metabolites were investigated using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The major biotransformation product, was 8.6-fold stronger antioxidant than xanthohumol and 2.3-fold than ascorbic acid. PMID:23463662

Tronina, Tomasz; Bartma?ska, Agnieszka; Pop?o?ski, Jaros?aw; Huszcza, Ewa

2014-01-01

140

Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security. PMID:23616354

Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

2014-02-01

141

Effects of fungicides on Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated thermophilous fungus from green leaf surfaces. The application of fungicides significantly reduced the frequency of its occurrence there. A. fumigatus was relatively tolerant to fungicides. On Captan-, Thiram-, and Verdasan-treated leaves, A. fumigatus constituted 66%--80% of the total number of isolates obtained at 45 degrees C from each treatment while Dicloran did not depress the percentages. At 45 degrees C, A. fumigatus was found to be strongly cellulolytic with a slow rate of radial extension on YpSs agar and rapid rate of mycelial growth in Czapek Dox liquid medium. Increasing concentrations of all four fungicides reduced or prevented growth, sporulation, starch depletion and cellulose clearing of A. fumigatus. The fungus could tolerate higher concentrations of HgCl2 than of Verdasan. 2.5 microgram/ml of the four fungicides altered the rates of mycelial growth but not the maximum amount of mycelial dry weight attained. PMID:386945

Kuthubutheen, A J; Pugh, G J

1979-01-01

142

A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

2014-10-01

143

Comprehensive genomic analysis of cell wall genes in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell wall biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. is of high relevance to medicine and food safety, and for biotechnological applications. The cell wall of Aspergillus nidulans is composed of galactomannoproteins, 1,3-?-glucan, ?-glucans, and chitin. Here, we present a comprehensive inventory of the cell wall-related genes in A. nidulans. This includes glycan-synthetic and glycan-processing enzymes, spore wall

Piet W. J. de Groot; Bernd W. Brandt; Hiroyuki Horiuchi; Arthur F. J. Ram; Chris G. de Koster; Frans M. Klis

2009-01-01

144

Production of citric acid with immobilized Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spores of Aspergillus niger were entrapped in calcium-alginate beads and precultivated in growth media with various amounts of nitrogen. During the following citric acid production in shaking cultures an optimum of acid formation and yield was observed after the precultivation with 100–200 mg\\/l NH4NO3. The productivity of the immobilized Aspergillus was found to be 1.5 times higher than in

H. Eikmeier; H. J. Rehm

1984-01-01

145

LTR retrotransposons in the Aspergillus fumigatus and A. nidulans genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi of the genus Aspergillus can infect all tissues and organs, causing invasive mycosis (aspergillosis). This disease can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised\\u000a patients. Microbiological monitoring of these infectious agents is obligatory in modern medical facilities. Mobile elements\\u000a can be used as markers to identify the Aspergillus species and strains found indoors as well as to diagnose aspergillosis. Genomic sequences

O. S. Novikova; V. Fet; A. G. Blinov

2007-01-01

146

Upstream and Downstream Regulation of Asexual Development in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces a large quantity of asexual spores (conidia), which are the primary agent causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. We investigated the mechanisms controlling asexual sporulation (conidiation) in A. fumigatus via examining functions of four key regulators, GpaA (G), AfFlbA (RGS), AfFluG, and AfBrlA, previously studied in Aspergillus nidulans. Expression analyses of gpaA ,A

Jae-Hyung Mah; Jae-Hyuk Yu

2006-01-01

147

Heterologous expression of lysergic acid and novel ergot alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Different lineages of fungi produce distinct classes of ergot alkaloids. Lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids produced by fungi in the Clavicipitaceae are particularly important in agriculture and medicine. The pathway to lysergic acid is partly elucidated, but the gene encoding the enzyme that oxidizes the intermediate agroclavine is unknown. We investigated two candidate agroclavine oxidase genes from the fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii × Epichloë typhina isolate Lp1 (henceforth referred to as Epichloë sp. Lp1), which produces lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids. Candidate genes easH and cloA were expressed in a mutant strain of the mold Aspergillus fumigatus, which typically produces a subclass of ergot alkaloids not derived from agroclavine or lysergic acid. Candidate genes were coexpressed with the Epichloë sp. Lp1 allele of easA, which encodes an enzyme that catalyzed the synthesis of agroclavine from an A. fumigatus intermediate; the agroclavine then served as the substrate for the candidate agroclavine oxidases. Strains expressing easA and cloA from Epichloë sp. Lp1 produced lysergic acid from agroclavine, a process requiring a cumulative six-electron oxidation and a double-bond isomerization. Strains that accumulated excess agroclavine (as a result of Epichloë sp. Lp1 easA expression in the absence of cloA) metabolized it into two novel ergot alkaloids for which provisional structures were proposed on the basis of mass spectra and precursor feeding studies. Our data indicate that CloA catalyzes multiple reactions to produce lysergic acid from agroclavine and that combining genes from different ergot alkaloid pathways provides an effective strategy to engineer important pathway molecules and novel ergot alkaloids. PMID:25107976

Robinson, Sarah L; Panaccione, Daniel G

2014-10-01

148

Heterologous Expression of Lysergic Acid and Novel Ergot Alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Different lineages of fungi produce distinct classes of ergot alkaloids. Lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids produced by fungi in the Clavicipitaceae are particularly important in agriculture and medicine. The pathway to lysergic acid is partly elucidated, but the gene encoding the enzyme that oxidizes the intermediate agroclavine is unknown. We investigated two candidate agroclavine oxidase genes from the fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii × Epichloë typhina isolate Lp1 (henceforth referred to as Epichloë sp. Lp1), which produces lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids. Candidate genes easH and cloA were expressed in a mutant strain of the mold Aspergillus fumigatus, which typically produces a subclass of ergot alkaloids not derived from agroclavine or lysergic acid. Candidate genes were coexpressed with the Epichloë sp. Lp1 allele of easA, which encodes an enzyme that catalyzed the synthesis of agroclavine from an A. fumigatus intermediate; the agroclavine then served as the substrate for the candidate agroclavine oxidases. Strains expressing easA and cloA from Epichloë sp. Lp1 produced lysergic acid from agroclavine, a process requiring a cumulative six-electron oxidation and a double-bond isomerization. Strains that accumulated excess agroclavine (as a result of Epichloë sp. Lp1 easA expression in the absence of cloA) metabolized it into two novel ergot alkaloids for which provisional structures were proposed on the basis of mass spectra and precursor feeding studies. Our data indicate that CloA catalyzes multiple reactions to produce lysergic acid from agroclavine and that combining genes from different ergot alkaloid pathways provides an effective strategy to engineer important pathway molecules and novel ergot alkaloids. PMID:25107976

Robinson, Sarah L.

2014-01-01

149

Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus,

Liliana de Aguirre; Steven F. Hurst; Jong Soo Choi; Jong Hee Shin; Hans Peter Hinrikson; Christine J. Morrison

2004-01-01

150

New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri.  

PubMed

Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either ?-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-?-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods which could be used to distinguish the two closely related and economically important species A. niger and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or ?-tubulin genes, AFLP analysis, UP-PCR analysis or mtDNA RFLP analysis can be used reliably to distinguish these sibling species. Aspergillus section Nigri now includes 26 taxa. PMID:21892239

Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Kocsubé, S; Brankovics, B; Tóth, B; Szigeti, G; Samson, R A

2011-06-30

151

Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and cranium. Based upon this comprehensive review, management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis optimally includes antifungal therapy and selective surgery to avoid relapse and to achieve a complete response. PMID:24378282

Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

152

Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Results Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5–8 times higher than previously described. Conclusions Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over twenty five-fold higher levels of itaconic acid and show a twenty-fold increase in yield compared to a strain expressing only CadA. PMID:24438100

2014-01-01

153

Comparative effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on rumen fermentations  

E-print Network

Comparative effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on rumen fermentations F Aubière Cedex, France Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) and Aspergillus oryzae (AO) have both been proposed

Boyer, Edmond

154

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2011-04-01

155

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2010-04-01

156

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

157

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2014-04-01

158

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2012-04-01

159

Early Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Kidney Transplant Recipient Caused by Aspergillus lentulus: First Brazilian Report.  

PubMed

We report the first Brazilian case of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus lentulus, a new opportunistic Aspergillus species included in the section fumigati that is usually resistant to amphotericin B and azoles. PMID:25515242

de Azevedo Bastos, Viviane Reis; de Castro Lima Santos, Daniel Wagner; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa; Melo, Analy Salles Azevedo; de Abreu Mazzolin, Milene; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

2015-04-01

160

Sequencing of Aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with A. fumigatus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. Here we report the genome sequence of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, and a comparative study with Aspergillus fumigatus, a serious human pathogen, and Aspergillus oryzae, used in the production of sake, miso and soy sauce. Our analysis of genome structure provided a quantitative

James E. Galagan; Sarah E. Calvo; Christina Cuomo; Li-Jun Ma; Jennifer R. Wortman; Serafim Batzoglou; Su-In Lee; Meray Bastürkmen; Christina C. Spevak; John Clutterbuck; Vladimir Kapitonov; Jerzy Jurka; Claudio Scazzocchio; Mark Farman; Jonathan Butler; Seth Purcell; Steve Harris; Gerhard H. Braus; Oliver Draht; Silke Busch; Christophe D'Enfert; Christiane Bouchier; Gustavo H. Goldman; Deborah Bell-Pedersen; Sam Griffiths-Jones; John H. Doonan; Jaehyuk Yu; Kay Vienken; Arnab Pain; Michael Freitag; Eric U. Selker; David B. Archer; Miguel Á. Peńalva; Berl R. Oakley; Michelle Momany; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Kiyoshi Asai; Masayuki Machida; William C. Nierman; David W. Denning; Mark Caddick; Michael Hynes; Mathieu Paoletti; Reinhard Fischer; Bruce Miller; Paul Dyer; Matthew S. Sachs; Stephen A. Osmani; Bruce W. Birren

2005-01-01

161

THE ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS GROUP: TWO NEW SPECIES FROM WESTERN SOILS AND A SYNOPTIC KEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species in the Aspergillus ochraceus group are described and compared to related taxa. Aspergillus bridgeri, from soils collected in a native community dominated by Atriplex gardneri in Wyoming, somewhat resembles A. elegans and A. lanosus, but differs in cultural and morphological details. Aspergillus campestris, from a native prairie in northern North Dakota, resembles A. dimorphicus in having metulae

MARTHA CHRISTENSEN

162

4-Ethylphenol metabolism by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 was found to be capable of growth on 4-ethylphenol as its sole carbon and energy source. A pathway for the metabolism of this compound has been proposed. The initial step involves hydroxylation of the methylene group of 4-ethylphenol to form 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, followed by oxidation to 4-hydroxyacetophenone. The hydroxylase was NADPH and oxygen dependent, which is a characteristic of a monooxygenase type of enzyme. The 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol isolated from growth medium was a racemic mixture of R-(+) and S-(-) enantiomers. 4-Hydroxyacetophenone undergoes an NADPH-dependent Baeyer-Villiger type of oxygenation to give 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, which is hydrolyzed to form hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene). Hydroxylation of hydroquinone by an NADPH-dependent enzyme produces 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, the ring fission substrate, which is cleaved by ortho fission to form maleylacetate. The pathway was elucidated by various kinds of investigations. Analysis of culture medium sampled during growth on 4-ethylphenol revealed the transient appearance of 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, and hydroquinone. Cells grown on 4-ethylphenol were able to oxidize all of these compounds immediately, whereas oxidation by succinate-grown cells showed a lag period. Extracts prepared from cells grown on 4-ethylphenol contained enzyme activities for all of the proposed steps. Apart from a low level of esterase activity towards 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, extracts prepared from cells grown on succinate did not contain any of these enzyme activities. PMID:8031091

Jones, K H; Trudgill, P W; Hopper, D J

1994-01-01

163

Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:6996615

Luther, J P; Lipke, H

1980-01-01

164

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-11-01

165

Receptor-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted. PMID:23430083

Grice, C. M.; Bertuzzi, M.; Bignell, E. M.

2013-01-01

166

N-Glycan Modification in Aspergillus Species?  

PubMed Central

The production by filamentous fungi of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in mammals is held back by the inherent difference in protein N-glycosylation and by the inability of the fungal cell to modify proteins with mammalian glycosylation structures. Here, we report protein N-glycan engineering in two Aspergillus species. We functionally expressed in the fungal hosts heterologous chimeric fusion proteins containing different localization peptides and catalytic domains. This strategy allowed the isolation of a strain with a functional ?-1,2-mannosidase producing increased amounts of N-glycans of the Man5GlcNAc2 type. This strain was further engineered by the introduction of a functional GlcNAc transferase I construct yielding GlcNAcMan5GlcNac2 N-glycans. Additionally, we deleted algC genes coding for an enzyme involved in an early step of the fungal glycosylation pathway yielding Man3GlcNAc2 N-glycans. This modification of fungal glycosylation is a step toward the ability to produce humanized complex N-glycans on therapeutic proteins in filamentous fungi. PMID:18083888

Kainz, Elke; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Hatzl, Christian; Nett, Juergen H.; Li, Huijuan; Schinko, Thorsten; Pachlinger, Robert; Berger, Harald; Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Bernreiter, Andreas; Gerngross, Tillmann; Wildt, Stefan; Strauss, Joseph

2008-01-01

167

DEMONSTRATION OF ASPERGILLUS SP. IN TISSUES OF THE COMMON LOON, GAVIA IMMER: INCIDENCE, PROGRESSION AND SEVERITY  

EPA Science Inventory

By studying a large group of loons affected by an oil spill, much can be learned about the toxic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in exposed birds, their ability to handle these environmental stressors, and their ability to combat natural pathogens. On January 19, 1996 the North...

168

[Aspergillus serology, from yesterday to today for tomorrow].  

PubMed

Anti-Aspergillus antibody detection has been performed for over 50 years for the diagnosis of different chronic Aspergillus infections, starting with aspergilloma and later with chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis. It also enters into definition criteria for allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis and contributes to the initial diagnosis of the aspergillosis, to the follow-up under treatment or to the detection of exacerbations. For the acute invasive aspergillosis, antibody detection has low interest compared to galactomannan antigen detection. Serology results have to be interpreted together with other clinical, radiological and biological, mycological criteria. This review describes the origins, the technical evolutions and the current place of Aspergillus serology in France. Finally, future improvements are discussed. PMID:23177817

Persat, F

2012-03-01

169

Unraveling polyketide synthesis in members of the genus Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus species have the ability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites including polyketides that are generated by multi-domain polyketide synthases (PKSs). Recent biochemical studies using dissected single or multiple domains from PKSs have provided deep insight into how these PKSs control the structural outcome. Moreover, the recent genome sequencing of several species has greatly facilitated the understanding of the biosynthetic pathways for these secondary metabolites. In this review, we will highlight the current knowledge regarding polyketide biosynthesis in Aspergillus based on the domain architecture of non-reducing, highly reducing, and partially reducing PKSs, and PKS-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:20361326

Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.

2011-01-01

170

Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.  

PubMed

Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of this review, an overview of heterothallic reproduction in Aspergillus and Penicillium is given. The new insights in the taxonomy of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera will help to interpret the results generated with comparative genomics studies or other studies dealing with evolution of, for example, enzymes, mating-type loci, virulence genes, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:24377856

Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

2014-01-01

171

The complete nucleotide sequence of a totivirus from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was first described in the 1970s, and the purified virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. AfV-S consists of a mixture of two viruses, the larger of which, called AfV-S1, is a dsRNA-containing member of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae, and its complete nucleotide sequence is described here. PMID:22729614

Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Coutts, Robert H A

2013-01-01

172

Processing of mitochondrial RNA in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Genes for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (oxiA), ATPase subunit 9, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ndhC) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (oxiB) are located within a 7.2 kb (1 kb = 10(3) bases or base-pairs) segment of the Aspergillus nidulans mitochondrial genome. Northern hybridization shows that abundant RNA molecules of 4.0, 2.5 and 1.5 kb, each containing copies of two or more genes, are transcribed from this region. The 4.0 kb molecule, which contains copies of each of the four genes but lacks the three oxiA introns, is cleaved at a point just upstream from ndhC to give rise to the 2.5 kb RNA, which contains copies of oxiA and the ATPase subunit 9 gene, and the 1.5 kb RNA, which carries ndhC and oxiB. The ATPase subunit 9 gene, which has no identified function, is therefore transcribed into an abundant RNA. S1 nuclease analysis indicates that there are no additional introns in the amino-terminal region of oxiA and that the 4.0 and 2.5 kb transcripts of this gene have staggered 5' termini, the most upstream of which is adjacent to the 3' end of the histidinyl-tRNA gene. The results suggest that transcription of this genome proceeds via a very limited number of primary transcripts with mature RNAs produced by extensive processing events including tRNA excision. RNA synthesis and processing in A. nidulans mitochondria therefore resembles the events occurring in metazoa rather than yeast. PMID:2530353

Dyson, N J; Brown, T A; Ray, J A; Waring, R B; Scazzocchio, C; Davies, R W

1989-08-20

173

Functional Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans Kinome  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. Protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have made systematic approaches to study large gene sets possible. To enhance A. nidulans functional genomics we have created gene deletion constructs for 9851 genes representing 93.3% of the encoding genome. To illustrate the utility of these constructs, and advance the understanding of fungal kinases, we have systematically generated deletion strains for 128 A. nidulans kinases including expanded groups of 15 histidine kinases, 7 SRPK (serine-arginine protein kinases) kinases and an interesting group of 11 filamentous fungal specific kinases. We defined the terminal phenotype of 23 of the 25 essential kinases by heterokaryon rescue and identified phenotypes for 43 of the 103 non-essential kinases. Uncovered phenotypes ranged from almost no growth for a small number of essential kinases implicated in processes such as ribosomal biosynthesis, to conditional defects in response to cellular stresses. The data provide experimental evidence that previously uncharacterized kinases function in the septation initiation network, the cell wall integrity and the morphogenesis Orb6 kinase signaling pathways, as well as in pathways regulating vesicular trafficking, sexual development and secondary metabolism. Finally, we identify ChkC as a third effector kinase functioning in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. The identification of many previously unknown functions for kinases through the functional analysis of the A. nidulans kinome illustrates the utility of the A. nidulans gene deletion constructs. PMID:23505451

De Souza, Colin P.; Hashmi, Shahr B.; Osmani, Aysha H.; Andrews, Peter; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Osmani, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

174

Validation of a New Aspergillus Real-Time PCR Assay for Direct Detection of Aspergillus and Azole Resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid.  

PubMed

Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. Here, we describe the validation of the AsperGenius, a new multiplex real-time PCR assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs, one that identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one that detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, and Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. The diagnostic performance of the AsperGenius assay was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from hematology patients and 40 BAL fluid samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using a BAL fluid galactomannan level of ?1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for detecting the presence of Aspergillus. In the hematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL fluid samples from patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) (2 proven, 9 probable, and 11 nonclassifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL fluid samples were positive, according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was <36. Sixteen of the 19 BAL fluid samples had a positive PCR (2 Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus samples). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7%, and 96.2%, respectively, for the hematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%, respectively, in the ICU group. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wild-type and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34-L98H and 1 TR46-Y121F-T289A mutant). Voriconazole therapy failed for both patients. The AsperGenius multiplex real-time PCR assay allows for sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly from BAL fluid samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wild-type from resistant strains, even if BAL fluid cultures remain negative. PMID:25568431

Chong, Ga-Lai M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dingemans, Gijs J H; Gaajetaan, Giel R; Vonk, Alieke G; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; van Tegelen, Dennis W E; Simons, Guus F M; Rijnders, Bart J A

2015-03-01

175

The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease.  

PubMed

Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal sensitized asthma. Humans inhale Aspergillus spores every day and when the host is immunocompromised, Aspergillus spp. may cause severe pulmonary disease. There is increasing evidence that the microbiome plays a significant role in immune regulation, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolism, and other physiological processes, including recovery from the effects of antibiotic treatment. Bacterial microbiome mediated resistance mechanisms probably play a major role in limiting fungal colonization of the lungs, and may therefore prevent humans from contracting Aspergillus-related diseases. In this perspective, we review this emerging area of research and discuss the role of the microbiome in aspergillosis, role of Aspergillus in the microbiome, and the influence of the microbiome on anti-Aspergillus host defense and its role in preventing aspergillosis. PMID:25256637

Kolwijck, Eva; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

2014-11-01

176

Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic species widely distributed in nature and the human environment that are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The high level of phenoplasticity and frequent occurrence of mutants with atypical morphology...

177

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. To...

178

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ...

179

Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to the formation of toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is...

180

Genetic Response to Seed Colonizatin by Aspergillus flavus in Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies to evaluate peanut genotypes for in vitro resistance to seed colonization by Aspergillus flavus have not resulted in the development of cultivars with resistance to aflatoxin contamination in the field. New breeding lines showing pre-harvest field resistance to aflatoxin contaminat...

181

Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

182

A novel improved method for Aspergillus nidulans transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We systematically investigated the efficiency of Aspergillus nidulans transformation using protoplasts prepared from different stages of conidiospore germination and young mycelium. Using standard integrative plasmids, increased transformation yields were obtained with protoplasts isolated from a specific stage coincident with germ tube emergence. This increase ranged, on the average, from two- to eightfold depending on different plasmids used. Transformation efficiencies with

Marina Koukaki; Eleni Giannoutsou; Amalia Karagouni; George Diallinas

2003-01-01

183

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are potent producers of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary metabolites that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. Strains with opposite mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 within each species were crossed in an att...

184

Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

185

QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

186

Genomic sequence for the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of the A. nomius type strain was sequenced using a personal genome machine. Annotation of the genes was undertaken, followed by gene ontology and an investigation into the number of secondary metabolite clusters. Comparative studies with other Aspergillus species involved shared/unique ge...

187

Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin production on black pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black peppercorns supported the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus (flavus) NRRL 3145. Incubation at 28 C and RH of 85% for 30 days resulted in profuse conidial production on the reticulate ridges of the peppercorns. An SEM study of these ridges showed that they were cortical eruptions, and the particulate matter present favored mycelial establishment. Hyphal anastamoses were commonly observed. Following

M. Seenappa; A. G. Kempton

1980-01-01

188

Pesticide Use and Mycotoxin Production in Fusarium and Aspergillus Phytopathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium and Aspergillus phytopathogens have been identified in this review. Since fungicides are widely used to control crop diseases caused by these fungi, it is pertinent to assess efficacy with respect to mycotoxin production. In both laboratory studies with pure cultures of phytopathogens and field trials with crop plants, the overall evidence concerning the effectiveness

J. P. Felix D'Mello; Ann M. C. Macdonald; David Postel; Wilko T. P. Dijksma; Aude Dujardin; Cristina M. Placinta

1998-01-01

189

Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We revised the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati along with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya. Our species concept is based phenotype (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed:...

190

The origins of aflatoxin chemotype diversity in Aspergillus populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins, which can be classified into B and G toxin chemotype classes. Experimental matings in the laboratory...

191

The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

192

EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES IN THE AFLATOXIN GENE CLUSTER IN ASPERGILLUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are potent natural carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by several species in the genus Aspergillus. Recently nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains were approved as biocontrol agents for use on cotton and peanuts. Although these biocontrol strains have proven to be effective, we have ...

193

The Innate and Acquired Pulmonary Immune Response to Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies, clinical research, and anecdotal evidence illustrate a mounting risk for the development of fungus-related diseases throughout the world. The reason for an increased incidence of fungal allergic disease is not well understood, but is probably linked to the general increase in allergic asthma and allergy in developed countries. Aspergillus is an emerging pathogen in the increasing population of

Jane M. Schuh; Cory M. Hogaboam

194

Hydrolase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production of macerating enzymes which liquefy and hydrolyze the mandarin orange peel was studied in a solid state cultivation of Aspergillus niger on wheat bran substrate. Solid state cultivation in a 2 l drum fermenter capable of interchangeable operation under dynamic or static conditions were carried out maintaining the moisture content of the substrate at 32, 39, 46, 56,

Naomichi Nishio; Kiyoshi Tai; Shiro Nagai

1979-01-01

195

Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

196

Biosorption of heavy metals on Aspergillus niger: Effect of pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pretreatment of Aspergillus niger biomass on biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper and nickel was studied. Pretreatment of live A. niger biomass using sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, dimethyl sulphoxide and detergent resulted in significant improvements in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper in comparison with live A. niger cells. Pretreatment of A. niger reduced biosorption of nickel as compared

A. Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1998-01-01

197

Stable accumulation of Aspergillus niger phytase in transgenic tobacco leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytase from Aspergillus niger increases the availability of phos- phorus from feed for monogastric animals by releasing phosphate from the substrate phytic acid. A phytase cDNA was constitutively expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicofiana tabacum) plants. Secre- tion of the protein to the extracellular fluid was established by use of the signal sequence from the tobacco pathogen-related protein S. lhe specific

Theo C. Verwoerd; Paridon van P. A; Oosen van A. J. J; Lent van J. W. M; André Hoekema; Jan Pen

1995-01-01

198

Glucoamylase production by a newly isolated strain of Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger 57 was studied in complex and synthetic media under stationary vs. submerged conditions. Stationary cultivation resulted in significantly greater yields than did submerged culture. Crude enzyme activity was optimum at 60 degrees and pH 4.0.

Sinkar, V.P.; Lewis, N.F.

1982-01-01

199

Population structure of Aspergillus flavus before and after biocontrol treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. Plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of which are ...

200

[Aspergillus galactomannan detection in allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation].  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis has become the leading cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This is partially due to the lack of a prompt diagnosis. Recently the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen by means an ELISA technique in serum has been described. The objective of this study was to validate its usefulness in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting. PMID:15456367

Rovira Tarrats, Montserrat; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge

2003-09-01

201

[Melanin pigments of the fungi Paecilomyces variotii and Aspergillus carbonarius].  

PubMed

Pigments synthesized by micromycetes Paecilomyces variotii and Aspergillus carbonarius are true melanins. Copper ions and bicyclic phenolic compounds stimulated melaninogenesis, whereas benzotriazole inhibited this process. Precursors of melanin pigments were obtained and identified. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was shown to be the main product of melanin degradation. Melanins of these fungi are concluded to belong to the dihydronaphthalene group. PMID:10780001

Babitskaia, V G; Shcherba, V V; Filimonova, T V; Grigorchuk, E Z

2000-01-01

202

Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Although the arsenal of agents with anti-Aspergillus activity has expanded over the last decade, mortality due to invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unacceptably high. Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for the majority of cases of IA; however less susceptible to antifungals non-fumigatus aspergilli began to emerge. Antifungal drug resistance of Aspergillus might partially account for treatment failures. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of antifungal drug action in Aspergillus, along with the standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing methods, has brought resistance testing to the forefront of clinical mycology. In addition, molecular biology has started to shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of A. fumigatus to azoles and the echinocandins, while genome-based assays show promise for high-throughput screening for genotypic antifungal resistance. Several problems remain, however, in the study of this complex area. Large multicenter clinical studies--point prevalence or longitudinal--to capture the incidence and prevalence of antifungal resistance in A. fumigatus isolates are lacking. Correlation of in vitro susceptibility with clinical outcome and susceptibility breakpoints has not been established. In addition, the issue of cross-resistance between the newer triazoles is of concern. Furthermore, in vitro resistance testing for polyenes and echinocandins is difficult, and their mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:16488654

Chamilos, G; Kontoyiannis, D P

2005-12-01

203

Health Effects of Aspergillus in Food and Air  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produces them, affected crops and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as...

204

Novel metabolites in phenanthrene and pyrene transformation by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger, isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was examined for its potential to degrade phenanthrene and pyrene. Two novel metabolites, 1-methoxyphenanthrene and 1-methoxypyrene, were identified by conventional chemical techniques. Minor metabolites identified were 1- and 2-phenanthrol and 1-pyrenol. No 14CO2 evolution was observed in either [14C]phenanthrene or [14C]pyrene cultures. PMID:9212437

Sack, U; Heinze, T M; Deck, J; Cerniglia, C E; Cazau, M C; Fritsche, W

1997-01-01

205

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS GENOMICS FOR STUDYING THE MECHANISM OF AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolisms produced by the molds, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These compounds are toxic and extremely carcinogenic. It poses a serious health hazard when they contaminate food and feed commodities. Sequencing and annotation of A. flavus ESTs identified 7,218 u...

206

Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

207

A Highly Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gene targeting via homologous recombination is often used to elucidate gene function. For filamentous fungi, the majority of transforming DNA integrates ectopically. Deletion of Aspergillus parasiticus ku70, a gene of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, drastically increased the gene targeting...

208

Genomic Islands in the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

E-print Network

University School of Medicine, Washington DC, United States of America Abstract We present the genomeGenomic Islands in the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Natalie D. Fedorova1 Institute, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, 3 School of Medicine and Faculty of Life

Cotty, Peter J.

209

Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus nidulans is a member of a diverse group of filamentous fungi, sharing many of the properties of its close relatives with significance in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industry. Furthermore, A. nidulans has been a classical model organism for studies of development biology and gene regulation, and thus it has become one of the best-characterized filamentous fungi.

Helga David; ?lknur ? Özçelik; Gerald Hofmann; Jens Nielsen

2008-01-01

210

Zinc-Regulated Biosynthesis of Immunodominant Antigens from Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASPND1 and ASPF2 are immunodominant antigens from Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus, respectively, that are readily synthesized in infections in the human host, as demonstrated by their reactivity with more than 80% of sera from patients with aspergilloma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. We demonstrate here that both antigens are exclusively produced under situations of low bioavailability of free Zn 21

MONICA SEGURADO; RAQUEL LOPEZ-ARAGON; JOSEANTONIO CALERA; JOSEMANUEL FERNANDEZ-ABALOS; FERNANDO LEAL

1999-01-01

211

Integrated Database for Functional Analysis in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the carcinogen, aflatoxin. Because of its economic importance and well characterized pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis, several labs are studying the development, metabolism, ecology and pathogenicity of this fungus. To facilitate...

212

Ochratoxin A production and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger strains isolated from grapes in Italy.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen that can contaminate various agricultural products, including grapes and wine. The capabilities of species other than Aspergillus carbonarius within Aspergillus section Nigri to produce ochratoxin A from grapes are uncertain, since strain identification is based primarily on morphological traits. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genomic DNA sequences (rRNA, calmodulin, and beta-tubulin genes) to identify 77 black aspergilli isolated from grape berries collected in a 2-year survey in 16 vineyards throughout Italy. Four main clusters were distinguished, and they shared an AFLP similarity of <25%. Twenty-two of 23 strains of A. carbonarius produced ochratoxin A (6 to 7,500 microg/liter), 5 of 20 strains of A. tubingensis produced ochratoxin A (4 to 130 microg/liter), 3 of 15 strains of A. niger produced ochratoxin A (250 to 360 microg/liter), and none of the 19 strains of Aspergillus "uniseriate" produced ochratoxin A above the level of detection (4 microg/liter). These findings indicate that A. tubingensis is able to produce ochratoxin and that, together with A. carbonarius and A. niger, it may be responsible for the ochratoxin contamination of wine in Italy. PMID:16391107

Perrone, Giancarlo; Mulč, Giuseppina; Susca, Antonia; Battilani, Paola; Pietri, Amedeo; Logrieco, Antonio

2006-01-01

213

Ochratoxin A Production and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger Strains Isolated from Grapes in Italy  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen that can contaminate various agricultural products, including grapes and wine. The capabilities of species other than Aspergillus carbonarius within Aspergillus section Nigri to produce ochratoxin A from grapes are uncertain, since strain identification is based primarily on morphological traits. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genomic DNA sequences (rRNA, calmodulin, and ?-tubulin genes) to identify 77 black aspergilli isolated from grape berries collected in a 2-year survey in 16 vineyards throughout Italy. Four main clusters were distinguished, and they shared an AFLP similarity of <25%. Twenty-two of 23 strains of A. carbonarius produced ochratoxin A (6 to 7,500 ?g/liter), 5 of 20 strains of A. tubingensis produced ochratoxin A (4 to 130 ?g/liter), 3 of 15 strains of A. niger produced ochratoxin A (250 to 360 ?g/liter), and none of the 19 strains of Aspergillus “uniseriate” produced ochratoxin A above the level of detection (4 ?g/liter). These findings indicate that A. tubingensis is able to produce ochratoxin and that, together with A. carbonarius and A. niger, it may be responsible for the ochratoxin contamination of wine in Italy. PMID:16391107

Perrone, Giancarlo; Mulč, Giuseppina; Susca, Antonia; Battilani, Paola; Pietri, Amedeo; Logrieco, Antonio

2006-01-01

214

A thermophilic and acid stable family-10 xylanase from the acidophilic fungus Bispora sp. MEY-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete gene, xyl10C, encoding a thermophilic endo-1,4-?-xylanase (XYL10C), was cloned from the acidophilic fungus Bispora sp. MEY-1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. XYL10C shares highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of 57.3 and 49.7%, respectively, with a putative xylanase\\u000a from Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 of glycoside hydrolase family 10. A high expression level in P. pastoris (73,400 U ml?1) was achieved

Huiying Luo; Jiang Li; Jun Yang; Hui Wang; Yuhui Yang; Huoqing Huang; Pengjun Shi; Tiezheng Yuan; Yunliu Fan; Bin Yao

2009-01-01

215

Purification and characterization of endo-xylanases from aspergillus Niger. II. An enzyme of PL 45  

SciTech Connect

A homogeneous endo-xylanase (1,4-..beta..-D-xylan xylano-hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) was obtained from a crude Aspergillus niger pentosanase by chromatography with Ultrogel AcA 54, SP-Sephadex C-25 at pH 4.5, DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.4, Sephadex G-50, and SP-Sephadex C-25 with a gradient from pH 2.8 to pH 4.6. It was much more active on soluble than on insoluble xylan yielding large amounts of unreacted xylan and a mixture of oligosaccharides with chain lengths from two to six. No xylose or L-arabinose was produced. There was high activity on a xylopentaose through xylononaose mixture, but not on xylobiose, xylotriose, or xylotetraose. The enzyme had slight activity on untreated cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, and pectin. Molecular weight was ca. 1.4 x 10/sup 4/, with an isoelectric point of 4.5 and an amino acid profile high in acidic but low in sulfur-containing residues. In a 25-min assay at pH 4.7, this endo-xylanase was most active at 45 degrees C, with an activation energy from 5 to 35 degrees C of 33.3 kJ/mol. The optimum pH for activity was 4.9. Decay in buffer was first order, with an activation energy at pH 4.7 from 48 to 53 degrees C of 460 kJ/mol. Optimum pH for stability was about 5.6, where the half-life at 48 degrees C in buffer was ca. 40 h.

Shei, J.C.; Fratzke, A.R.; Frederick, M.M.; Frederick, J.R.; Reilly, P.J.

1985-04-01

216

Bioactive Phenylalanine Derivatives and Cytochalasins from the Soft Coral-Derived Fungus, Aspergillus elegans  

PubMed Central

One new phenylalanine derivative 4?-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5–12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by chemical synthesis and Marfey’s method. All isolated metabolites (1–12) were evaluated for their antifouling and antibacterial activities. Cytochalasins 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed strong antifouling activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, with the EC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 37 ?M. This is the first report of antifouling activity for this class of metabolites. Additionally, 8 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially against four pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. PMID:23752358

Zheng, Cai-Juan; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wu, Lu-Yong; Chen, Min; Wang, Kai-Ling; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Sun, Xue-Ping; Chen, Guang-Ying; Wang, Chang-Yun

2013-01-01

217

Volatile Flavor Compounds Produced by Molds of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fungi imperfecti  

PubMed Central

Strains of molds Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. oryzae, A. parasiticus, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. funiculosum, P. raistrickii, P. viridicatum, Alternaria, Cephalosporium, and Fusarium sp. were grown on sterile coarse wheat meal at 26 to 28 C for 120 h. The volatiles from mature cultures were distilled at low temperature under reduced pressure. The distillates from traps -40 and -78 C were extracted with methylene chloride and subsequently concentrated. All the concentrates thus obtained were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, chemical reactions of functional groups, and olfactory evaluation. Six components detected in the culture distillates were identified positively: 3-methylbutanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and 2-octen-1-ol. They represented 67 to 97% of all the volatiles occurring in the concentrated distillate. The following 14 components were identified tentatively: octane, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, butyl acetate, amyl acetate, octyl acetate, pyridine, hexanol, nonanone, dimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, benzaldehyde, propylbenzene, and phenethyl alcohol. Among the volatiles produced by molds, 1-octen-3-ol yielding a characteristic fungal odor was found predominant. PMID:16349989

Kaminski, E.; Stawicki, S.; Wasowicz, E.

1974-01-01

218

Bioactive phenylalanine derivatives and cytochalasins from the soft coral-derived fungus, Aspergillus elegans.  

PubMed

One new phenylalanine derivative 4'-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5-12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by chemical synthesis and Marfey's method. All isolated metabolites (1-12) were evaluated for their antifouling and antibacterial activities. Cytochalasins 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed strong antifouling activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, with the EC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 37 ?M. This is the first report of antifouling activity for this class of metabolites. Additionally, 8 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially against four pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. PMID:23752358

Zheng, Cai-Juan; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wu, Lu-Yong; Chen, Min; Wang, Kai-Ling; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Sun, Xue-Ping; Chen, Guang-Ying; Wang, Chang-Yun

2013-06-01

219

Secondary Aspergillus in Bronchoalveolar Lavages (BALs) of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients from North-India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find out the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. in Bronchoalveolar Lavages (BALs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, to study the anti-Aspergillus antibodies in patient's sera and to study the anti-fungal susceptibility of the isolated Aspergillus strains. BALs obtained from sixty-five patients of pulmonar y tuberculosis and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. Direct microscopy was performed by 10% KOH and Lacto- Phenol

M. Shahid; A. Malik; R. Bhargava

220

Cryptococcus neoformans Galactoxylomannan Contains an Epitope(s) That Is Cross-Reactive with Aspergillus Galactomannan  

PubMed Central

We report a case of cryptococcosis in which a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus galactomannan was positive, with no evidence of aspergillosis. Soluble antigens from 19 Cryptococcus neoformans strains and purified carbohydrates of C. neoformans capsule were thus assayed in the Aspergillus galactomannan ELISA. Antigens from all C. neoformans strains, and purified galactoxylomannan, gave a positive reaction, suggesting that C. neoformans galactoxylomannan contains an epitope(s) that is cross-reactive with Aspergillus galactomannan. PMID:15956422

Dalle, Frédéric; Charles, Pierre Emmanuel; Blanc, Karine; Caillot, Denis; Chavanet, Pascal; Dromer, Françoise; Bonnin, Alain

2005-01-01

221

76 FR 56876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP), 9789 and 9789(SP) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...

2011-09-14

222

Sp(2)-BRST  

SciTech Connect

A general method is given for the construction of gauge-fixed actions for theories with local gauge symmetries. The method is based on the single requirement that the space of fields carries an irreducible representation of the Sp(2)-BRST algebra, with respect to which the resultant actions are then automatically invariant.

Twisk, S.; Zhang, R.B.

1988-09-01

223

Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

224

Aspergillus Colonization of the Lung Allograft is a Risk Factor for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Multiple infections have been linked with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that Aspergillus colonization may promote the development of BOS and may decrease survival post-lung transplantation. We reviewed all lung transplant recipients transplanted in our center between 1/2000 and 6/2006. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a surveillance protocol and when clinically indicated. Aspergillus colonization was defined as a positive culture from bronchoalveolar lavage or two sputum cultures positive for the same Aspergillus species, in the absence of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. We found that Aspergillus colonization was strongly associated with BOS and BOS related mortality in Cox regression analyses. Aspergillus colonization typically preceded the development of BOS by a median of 261 days (95% CI 87 to 520). Furthermore, in a multivariate Cox regression model, Aspergillus colonization was a distinct risk factor for BOS, independent of acute rejection. These data suggest a potential causative role for Aspergillus colonization in the development of BOS post-lung transplantation and raise the possibility that strategies aimed to prevent Aspergillus colonization may help delay or reduce the incidence of BOS. PMID:19459819

Weigt, S. Samuel; Elashoff, Robert M.; Huang, Cathy; Ardehali, Abbas; Gregson, Aric L.; Kubak, Bernard; Fishbein, Michael C.; Saggar, Rajeev; Keane, Michael P.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Zisman, David A.; Ross, David J.; Belperio, John A.

2014-01-01

225

Aspergillus colonization of the lung allograft is a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.  

PubMed

Multiple infections have been linked with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that Aspergillus colonization may promote the development of BOS and may decrease survival post-lung transplantation. We reviewed all lung transplant recipients transplanted in our center between January 2000 and June 2006. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a surveillance protocol and when clinically indicated. Aspergillus colonization was defined as a positive culture from bronchoalveolar lavage or two sputum cultures positive for the same Aspergillus species, in the absence of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. We found that Aspergillus colonization was strongly associated with BOS and BOS related mortality in Cox regression analyses. Aspergillus colonization typically preceded the development of BOS by a median of 261 days (95% CI 87-520). Furthermore, in a multivariate Cox regression model, Aspergillus colonization was a distinct risk factor for BOS, independent of acute rejection. These data suggest a potential causative role for Aspergillus colonization in the development of BOS post-lung transplantation and raise the possibility that strategies aimed to prevent Aspergillus colonization may help delay or reduce the incidence of BOS. PMID:19459819

Weigt, S S; Elashoff, R M; Huang, C; Ardehali, A; Gregson, A L; Kubak, B; Fishbein, M C; Saggar, R; Keane, M P; Saggar, R; Lynch, J P; Zisman, D A; Ross, D J; Belperio, J A

2009-08-01

226

Monitoring environmental Aspergillus spp. contamination and meteorological factors in a haematological unit.  

PubMed

The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward. PMID:24158616

Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L

2013-12-01

227

Aspergillus fumigatus epidural abscess in a renal transplant recipient.  

PubMed

An epidural abscess caused by Aspergillus fumigatus occurred in a recipient of a cadaveric, renal allograft. The patient had persistent back pain and a peripheral neuropathy that involved the lower extremities. Signs of spinal cord compression evolved. No definite portal of entry was found. Diagnosis was made by histologic examination and culture of a biopsy specimen. Therapy, consisting of aggressive surgical debridement, intravenous amphotericin B, and oral flucytosine was unsuccessful in eradicating the organism. At postmortem examination, Aspergillus was identified at the abscess site. To our knowledge, aspergillosis presenting as an epidural abscess in the immunosuppressed, renal transplant recipient has not previously been reported and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of back pain and peripheral neuropathy in such a patient. PMID:339864

Ingwer, I; McLeish, K R; Tight, R R; White, A C

1978-01-01

228

Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis following intracorneal ring segment implantation  

PubMed Central

Background Fungal keratitis has been rarely reported following intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) inmplantation. This paper aims to report a case of fungal keratitis with aspergillus fumigatus following ICRS implantation for correction of keratoconus. Methods A retrospective chart review was done. Data including demographics, clinical history and presentation, microbiological analysis as well as clinical management were recorded. Results A 34?year old male presented with pain, photophobia, redness and decreased vision in his right eye ten days after ICRS implantation for correction of keratoconus. Slit-lamp examination showed chemosis, ciliary injection, corneal abcess with ill defined edges and hypopyon. Microbiological analysis and culture of the corneal scrapes were positive for aspergillus fumigatus. The patient did not respond to medical treatment and ended up with corneal transplantation. Conclusion Although rare, fungal keratitis is a serious vision threatening complication that can complicate intrastromal ring implantation. Prompt and aggressive treatment is essential to prevent irreversible reduction of vision. PMID:22769849

2012-01-01

229

Salmonella and Aspergillus infections in common loons overwintering in Florida.  

PubMed

During a 5-year period (1970-1975), 190 common loons (Gavia immer) from overwintering populations on the east and west coasts of Florida were examined for evidence of infectious diseases. Salmonella spp (representing 8 serotypes) were isolated from 27 (14%) of the loons, and lesions typical of those produced by Aspergillus fumigatus were found in 34 (18%) of the loons. Seven loons were infected with Salmonella spp and had lesions typical of aspergillus infection. The largest number of loons (124) was obtained during the winter of 1973-1974, in connection with an offshore oil spill. There was no significant difference between the isolation rates of Salmonella spp from oiled vs nonoiled loons, but the occurrence of aspergillosis was higher in nonoiled than in oiled loons. PMID:789314

White, F H; Forrester, D J; Nesbitt, S A

1976-11-01

230

The chemical identification and analysis of Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites  

PubMed Central

Filamentous fungi have long been recognized to be a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications. The recent genomic sequencing of several Aspergillus species has revealed that many secondary metabolite gene clusters are apparently silent under standard laboratory conditions. Several successful approaches have been utilized to upregulate these genes and unearth the corresponding natural products. A straightforward, reliable method to purify and characterize new metabolites therefore should be useful. Details are provided herein on the cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans and the LC/MS analysis of the metabolic profile. Following is an explanation of silica gel chromatography, HPLC, and preparative TLC. Finally, the NMR characterization of previously unknown A. nidulans metabolites is detailed. PMID:23065610

Sanchez, James F.

2013-01-01

231

Quantification of the Aspergillus versicolor allergen in house dust.  

PubMed

Aspergillus versicolor, a fungus commonly found on damp building materials, produces the allergen, Asp v 13. Here we report a sensitive Asp v 13 capture ELISA for A. versicolor spores and spore- and mycelial fragments in house dust samples. The method is based on a double polyclonal capture ELSIA. The detection limits for Asp v 13 antigen and A. versicolor spores without dust were 2.44 pg and 12 ng (ca. 110 spores). Detection limits for Asp v 13 and A. versicolor spores in sieved house dust samples were 1.0 ng and 7.8 ?g per gram dry weight house dust, respectively. This detection limit is lower than for other house dust allergen immunoassays including for Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, but much lower than that from Alternaria alternata. PMID:21763696

Shi, Chunhua; Belisle, Donald; Miller, J David

2011-09-30

232

Impact of Aspergillus oryzae genomics on industrial production of metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus oryzae is used extensively for the production of the traditional Japanese fermented foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste). In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to enhance industrial enzyme production by A. oryzae. Recently completed genomic studies using expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses and whole-genome sequencing are quickly expanding\\u000a the industrial potential

Keietsu Abe; Katusya Gomi; Fumihiko Hasegawa; Masayuki Machida

2006-01-01

233

Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type\\u000a I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses,\\u000a rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic

Neelkamal Chaudhary; Kieren A Marr

2011-01-01

234

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. Tolerance of the A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutant, sakA?, to these drugs indicates the osmotic\\/oxidative stress MAPK pathway is

Jong Kim; Bruce Campbell; Noreen Mahoney; Kathleen Chan; Russell Molyneux; Gregory May

2008-01-01

235

Fractionation of ?-Glucosidases and Related Extracellular Enzymes from Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Industrial concentrates from Aspergillus niger culture filtrates were fractionated by ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography. Several other types of hydrolases were completely removed. Eight partially purified components were obtained. Using specific activity as an estimate of purification, one aryl-?-glucosidase was purified 35-fold. Another component showed 147-fold purification using a viscosimetric assay with carboxymethylcellulose as substrate. The aryl-?-glucosidase was distinctly more thermolabile than the carboxymethylcellulase. PMID:13930396

Li, L.-h.; King, K. W.

1963-01-01

236

Genetic requirements for initiating asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conidiation in the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans requires activation of brlA, a well-characterized transcriptional regulator of genes that are induced specifically during asexual development. We have isolated and characterized developmental mutations in six loci, designated fluG, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, and flbE, that result in defective development and reduced brlA expression. These mutants grow indeterminately to produce masses of aerial

Jenny Wieser; Bee Na Lee; John W. Fondon; Thomas H. Adams

1994-01-01

237

Aspergillus niger mutants with increased glucose oxidase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger NRRL-3, an organism used for the industrial scale production of d-gluconic acid and glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4), was subjected to mutagenesis and selection for acid production on diagnostic media containing methyl red. The plates contained 0.1 M d-glucose, a concentration that does not produce a color change in the medium surrounding mycelia of the parental strain under the

John Markwell; Laura G. Frakes; Eugene C. Brott; John Osterman; Fred W. Wagner

1989-01-01

238

On the safety of Aspergillus niger – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce\\u000a extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste

E. Schuster; N. Dunn-Coleman; J. Frisvad; P. van Dijck

2002-01-01

239

Purification and immobilization of Aspergillus niger. beta. -xylosidase  

SciTech Connect

..beta..-Xylosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation was purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and either gel permeation or cation exchange chromatography, giving 16-fold purification in 32% yield for the first technique or 27-fold purification in 19% yield for the second. Enzyme prepared by this method was immobilized to 10 different carriers, but only when it was bound to alumina with TiCl/sub 4/ and to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde were substantial efficiencies and stabilities achieved.

Oguntimein, G.B.; Reilly, P.J.

1980-01-01

240

Regulation of the glaA gene of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glucoamylase gene of Aspergillus niger, glaA, is expressed at high levels in the presence of starch. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of 1966 bp of the 5' flanking region of the glaA gene and have begun to identify sequences important for the control of glaA expression by deletion analysis. Constructs containing deletions extending into the glaA gene promotor

Timothy Fowler; Randy M. Berka; Michael Ward

1990-01-01

241

Production of emodin from Aspergillus ochraceus at preparative scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the chemical constituents in the pigmented culture produced from Aspergillus ochraceus, solid phase extraction method was employed to isolate the pigment molecules from the primary culture, followed by fractionation on preparative liquid chromatography. Structural characterization confirmed that one of the two major pigment components in the culture was emodin (1,3,8 -trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone). It was observed that production

Ping Lu; Xueming Zhao; Taian Cui

242

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

243

The 18-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

One of the major antigens secreted in vitro by Aspergillus fumigatus is an 18-kDa basic protein which has been purified by cation-exchange chromatography. It is recognized by sera from aspergilloma patients. It is also the major circulating antigen found in urine of patients with invasive aspergillosis. Our results indicated that this antigen has potential for the diagnosis of both aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis. Images PMID:1855978

Latgé, J P; Moutaouakil, M; Debeaupuis, J P; Bouchara, J P; Haynes, K; Prévost, M C

1991-01-01

244

Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic fungi that are widely distributed in nature and the human environment and are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The taxa were revised based on sequence data from four loci, PCR fingerprinting, micro- and macromorphology, and physiology. The number of taxa was reduced to 17 species, all of which can be distinguished with sequence data from either the caM or RPB2 locus. The original description of A. proliferans was supplemented by a description of its teleomorph. This species seems to be relatively common and often has been confused with A. glaucus. In addition, green sporulating isolates of A. niveoglaucus isolated from food and several other substrates are indistinguishable in phenotype from A. glaucus. A dichotomous key based on ascospore size and ornamentation and the ability to grow at specific combinations of temperature and water activity is provided for identification of species. In response to recent changes in the botanical code, we transferred the Eurotium species to Aspergillus and selected one name for each species. PMID:23396159

Hubka, Vit; Kolarík, Miroslav; Kubátová, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W

2013-01-01

245

Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion. PMID:22927844

Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

2012-01-01

246

Population ecology of Aspergillus flavus associated with Mississippi Delta soils.  

PubMed

Understanding the source of Aspergillus flavus is required to manage aflatoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L.). Studies assessed A. flavus propagules, Fusarium spp., and total fungi associated with Mississippi Delta soils. Soils from 12 and 15 sites were collected in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The propagule density of A. flavus ranged from log(10) 2.0 to 4.3 colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1) soil, while total fusaria ranged from log(10) 3.0 to 5.4 cfu g(-1) soil. The highest populations of A. flavus were associated with soils containing higher organic matter, especially in sites under a no-tillage management. The frequency of aflatoxin production in isolates ranged from 13 to 81% depending on soil. In 2001, there was a highly significant correlation between A. flavus and the history of maize cultivation. Soil fertility factors such as organic matter content, nitrate and extractable phosphorus correlated with the density of Aspergillus, Fusarium spp., and total fungi. The relationship between soil parameters and Aspergillus populations may be useful in predicting the contribution of soil microflora to aflatoxin contamination. PMID:17886181

Zablotowicz, R M; Abbas, H K; Locke, M A

2007-10-01

247

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

248

Optimization of Acid Protease Production by Aspergillus niger I1 on Shrimp Peptone Using Statistical Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Medium composition and culture conditions for the acid protease production by Aspergillus niger I1 were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A significant influence of temperature, KH2PO4, and initial pH on the protease production was evaluated by Plackett-Burman design (PBD). These factors were further optimized using Box-Behnken design and RSM. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the experimental protease production (183.13?U?mL?1) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (172.57?U?mL?1) with R2 = 0.914. Compared with the initial M1 medium on which protease production was 43.13?U?mL?1, a successful and significant improvement by 4.25 folds was achieved in the optimized medium containing (g/L): hulled grain of wheat (HGW) 5.0; KH2PO4 1.0; NaCl 0.3; MgSO4(7H2O) 0.5; CaCl2 (7H2O) 0.4; ZnSO4 0.1; Na2HPO4 1.6; shrimp peptone (SP) 1.0. The pH was adjusted at 5 and the temperature at 30°C. More interestingly, the optimization was accomplished using two cheap and local fermentation substrates, HGW and SP, which may result in a significant reduction in the cost of medium constituents. PMID:22593695

Siala, Rayda; Frikha, Fakher; Mhamdi, Samiha; Nasri, Moncef; Sellami Kamoun, Alya

2012-01-01

249

Water relations of Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, xerophilic fungi isolated from Indonesian dried fish.  

PubMed

The water relations of four xerotolerant fungi, Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, isolated from dried salt fish, were examined at 25 degrees C, on media in which water activity (aW) was controlled by NaCl or a glucose/fructose mixture. All fungi were less tolerant of NaCl than glucose/fructose at low aW. P. variotii grew 2 to 3 times faster on glucose/fructose media than on NaCl. The minimum aW permitting germination varied from 0.753 for E. amstelodami and, 0.776 for A. candidus and A. sydowii to 0.793 for P. variotii. At low aW germination was not always followed by growth. In most cases the minimum for growth was 0.02 aW units above that for germination. PMID:3275312

Wheeler, K A; Hocking, A D

1988-08-01

250

Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus falvus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger group colonization of deep-plowed, decomposing rye green manure cover crops in peanut field soils was studied in four fields during 1972 and 1973; colonization of decomposing peanut fruits was studied in 1972 in two fields. A. flavus colonization of rye and peanut fruits was greater in soils of heavy texture, and an A. flavus population as high as 165 propagules per g of soil was observed in soil adjacent to rye, whereas A. flavus populations in soils not associated with rye were 18 propagules per g of soil or lower. Highest A. flavus populations in soil adjacent to decomposing peanut fruits were usually comparable to populations associated with rye. Little decomposing rye or peanut fruit colonization was generally observed by the A. flavus competitor, A. niger group. A. flavus may maintain or increase its inoculum potential by colonization of these and other moribund plant tissues. PMID:823865

Griffin, G J; Garren, K H

1976-01-01

251

An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

2014-03-01

252

Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

253

Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from compound feeds in South Africa.  

PubMed

Isolation of filamentous species of two Aspergillum genera from compound feeds produced in South Africa, and subsequent extraction of their individual DNA in this study, presents a simple but rapid molecular procedure for high through-put analysis of the individual morphological forms. DNA was successfully isolated from the Aspergillus spp. from agar cultures by use of a commercial kit. Agarose gel electrophoresis fractionation of the fungi DNA, showed distinct bands. The DNA extracted by this procedure appears to be relatively pure with a ratio absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. However, the overall morphological and molecular data indicated that 67.5 and 51.1% of feed samples were found to be contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, respectively, with poultry feed having the highest contamination mean level of 5.7 × 105 CFU/g when compared to cattle (mean: 4.0 × 106 CFU/g), pig (mean: 2.7 × 104 CFU/g) and horse (1.0 × 102 CFU) feed. This technique presents a readily achievable, easy to use method in the extraction of filamentous fungal DNA and it's identification. Hence serves as an important tool towards molecular study of these organisms for routine analysis check in monitoring and improving compound feed quality against fungal contamination. PMID:25084661

Iheanacho, Henry E; Njobeh, Patrick B; Dutton, Francis M; Steenkamp, Paul A; Steenkamp, Lucia; Mthombeni, Julian Q; Daru, Barnabas H; Makun, Anthony H

2014-12-01

254

Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.  

PubMed

The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

2014-06-01

255

Identification and susceptibility of Aspergillus section nigri in china: prevalence of species and paradoxical growth in response to echinocandins.  

PubMed

Molecular identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests of 43 Aspergillus section Nigri isolates from China were performed. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis were present in almost equal numbers. All of the isolates had low MIC/MECs (minimum effective concentrations) for the 7 common antifungals, and a paradoxical effect was observed for the first time in response to caspofungin and micafungin. PMID:25502526

Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

2015-02-01

256

Tissue-specific components of resistance to Aspergillus ear rot of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and other Aspergillus spp. infect maize and produce aflatoxins. One control measure is the use of resistant maize lines. There are several reports of maize lines that are resistant to aflatoxin accumulation, but the mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. To gain a better unde...

257

Secondary Metabolite Profiling, Growth Profiles and Other Tools for Species Recognition and Important Aspergillus Mycotoxins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifyin...

258

Removal of cadmium, chromium, lead and copper from urban sewage by Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens have the ability to absorb heavy metals during the stationary phase of growth. To improve the removal the efficiency of the oxidation ditch, we have introduced Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens to the traditional Carrousel oxidation ditch process and the comparative experimental study were carried out when the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) was 36h. According

Haihua Li; Guoqiang Bai; Yingying Fu; Yanyan Jin

2011-01-01

259

Secretome analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus reveals Asp-hemolysin as a major secreted protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-associated and secreted proteins represent primarily exposed components of Aspergillus fumigatus during host infection. Several secreted proteins are known to be involved in defense mechanisms or immune evasion, thus, probably contributing to pathogenicity. Furthermore, several secreted antigens were identified as possible biomarkers for the verification of diseases caused by Aspergillus species. Nevertheless, there is only limited knowledge about the composition

Dirk Wartenberg; Katrin Lapp; Ilse D. Jacobsen; Hans-Martin Dahse; Olaf Kniemeyer; Thorsten Heinekamp; Axel A. Brakhage

2011-01-01

260

Analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four Aspergillus genomes.  

PubMed

Several Aspergillus fungal genomic sequences have been published, with many more in progress. Obviously, it is essential to have high-quality, consistently annotated sets of proteins from each of the genomes, in order to make meaningful comparisons. We have developed a dedicated, publicly available, splice site prediction program called NetAspGene, for the genus Aspergillus. Gene sequences from Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. Compared to many animals and plants, Aspergillus contains smaller introns; thus we have applied a larger window size on single local networks for training, to cover both donor and acceptor site information. We have applied NetAspGene to other Aspergilli, including Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger. Evaluation with independent data sets reveal that NetAspGene performs substantially better splice site prediction than other available tools. NetAspGene will be very helpful for the study in Aspergillus splice sites and especially in alternative splicing. A webpage for NetAspGene is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetAspGene. PMID:18948220

Wang, Kai; Ussery, David Wayne; Brunak, Sřren

2009-03-01

261

Immunohistologic identification of Aspergillus spp. and other hyaline fungi by using polyclonal fluorescent antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Isolation and identification of pathogenic Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. from clinical materials provide the most accurate means for establishing a diagnosis of infections by these molds. Such efforts, however, are not always successful. Histologic diagnosis also has its limitations. In vivo the hyphae of Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. are very similar and their in situ manifestations are not pathognomonic. To improve the histologic diagnosis of infections by Aspergillus and Fusarium species, we developed polyclonal fluorescent-antibody reagents to Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani and evaluated their diagnostic utilities. Our studies revealed that A. fumigatus and F. solani share epitopes not only with one another but also with other Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. as well as with Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pseudallescheria boydii. Adsorption of the A. fumigatus conjugate with cells of Fusarium proliferatum and F. solani and F. solani antiserum with cells of Aspergillus flavus resulted in reagents that distinguished Aspergillus spp. from Fusarium spp. but that still cross-stained P. lilacinus and P. boydii. Adjunctive use of a specific P. boydii conjugate enabled the identification of Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., P. lilacinus, and P. boydii in formalin-fixed tissue sections from 19 humans with culture-proven cases of mycotic infection. PMID:9276388

Kaufman, L; Standard, P G; Jalbert, M; Kraft, D E

1997-01-01

262

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

263

Highly sensitive PCR-based detection method specific for Aspergillus flavus in wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is frequently found in food, producing a wide variety of toxins, aflatoxins being the most relevant in food safety. A specific PCR-based protocol for this species is described which allowed discrimination from other closely related species having different profiles of secondary metabolites from the Aspergillus Section Flavi, particularly A. parasiticus. The specific primers were designed on the multi-copy

Amaia González-Salgado; Teresa González-Jaén; Covadonga Vázquez; Belén Patińo

2008-01-01

264

Function of Conserved Tryptophans in the Aspergillus niger Glucoamylase 1 Starch Binding Domain  

E-print Network

Function of Conserved Tryptophans in the Aspergillus niger Glucoamylase 1 Starch Binding Domain of tryptophan residues in the granular starch binding domain (SBD) of glucoamylase 1 from Aspergillus niger. Wild-type SBD and three variant (W563K, W590K, and W615K) proteins were produced using an A. niger

Williamson, Mike P.

265

Biochemical Engineering Journal 8 (2001) 187193 Enhanced heterologous protein production in Aspergillus niger through  

E-print Network

in Aspergillus niger through pH control of extracellular protease activity Dara O'Donnella, Liping Wanga 2000; accepted 15 February 2001 Abstract The extracellular protease activity of Aspergillus niger AB4 glucose in the culture medium had been completely utilized. When grown at pH 6, A. niger protease activity

Gu, Tingyue

266

Solution structure of the granular starch binding domain of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase bound to -cyclodextrin  

E-print Network

Solution structure of the granular starch binding domain of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase bound the catalytic domains of hydrolytic enzymes. Glucoamylase 1 (G1) from Aspergillus niger, an enzyme used widely of insoluble polysaccharides. Results: The solution structure of the SBD of A. niger G1 bound to -cyclodextrin

Williamson, Mike P.

267

Influence of manganese on morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger during citric acid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger were studied under conditions of manganese sufficient or deficient cultivation in an otherwise citric acid producing medium. Omission of Mn2+ (less than 10-7 M) from the nutrient medium of Aspergillus niger results in abnormal morphological development which is characterized by increased spore swelling, and squat, bulbeous hyphae. Fractionation and analysis of manganese

Monika Kisser; C. P. Kubicek; M. Röhr

1980-01-01

268

Detection and discrimination of four Aspergillus section Nigri species by PCR.  

PubMed

Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are not easily distinguished by traditional morphological techniques, and typically are identified by DNA sequencing methods. We developed four PCR primers to distinguish between Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus welwitschiae, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus tubingensis, based on species-conserved differences in the calmodulin gene sequence. PCR amplification from total DNA using these primers was species specific; no amplification occurred from nontarget species DNA for each primer pair. Species-specific PCR could distinguish between species in mixed DNA templates, indicating a utility in determining culture uniformity of isolated Aspergillus strains. In addition, with these primer sets, each species could be detected in soil following mixed-species inoculation with Aspergillus spores. This indicates that PCR with these species-specific primers may be useful in determining the distribution of Aspergillus species in environmental samples without the need for species identification from isolated strains, as well as detecting species that may be infrequently isolated by culture-based methods. PMID:25384730

Palumbo, J D; O'Keeffe, T L

2015-02-01

269

Isolation and chemical characterization of naphthoquinone metabolites of Aspergillus parvulus Smith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several benzoquinone and anthraquinone compounds have been isolated from Aspergillus species, only two naphthoquinone monomers have been reported thus far. Aspergillus parvulus Smith (ATCC number16911) was first investigated chemically in 1974, and five naphthalenones, along with one naphthoquinone, were isolated and characterized. Based on biosynthetic considerations, it was thought that A. parvulus might be capable of producing additional naphthoquinones

1984-01-01

270

Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee and wheat-based media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most widespread mycotoxins, and is produced by several Aspergillus or Penicillium species. Human exposure to OTA is mainly by intake of contaminated food, with cereal products, followed by coffee and red\\u000a wine as the main sources of OTA. In this study, the OTA production of four ochratoxigenic fungi (two Aspergillus and two Penicillium

Katherine Muńoz; Mario Vega; Gisela Rios; Rolf Geisen; Gisela H. Degen

271

NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

272

Comparsion of Cultural and Analytical Methods for Determination of Aflatoxin Production by Mississippi Delta Aspergillus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study compared cultural versus analytical methods to detect aflatoxin production by Aspergillus species. Aspergillus isolates (517) were obtained from various Mississippi Delta crops (corn, peanut, rice, cotton) and soils. Ten standard aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates were also included in thi...

273

DETERMINATION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES FROM THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA BY VARIOUS METHODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated several methods to detect aflatoxins in Aspergillus. Aspergillus isolates (517) were obtained from various Mississippi Delta crops (corn, peanut, rice, cotton) and soils. Cultural methods included fluorescence on Beta-cyclodextrin media (FL), yellow pigment (YP), and color cha...

274

Genomic analysis of allergen genes in Aspergillus spp.: the relevance of genomics to everyday research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full genomic sequencing of Aspergillus fumigatus and other genomes has allowed correction of Aspergillus allergen gene sequences and requires revision of Genbank and IUIS sequences of allergens. In addition allergens in other fungal species may be found in the aspergilli. We compared the published sequences of numerous allergens with recently available genome sequences. This analysis suggests that Aspf 56KD, Asp

Paul Bowyer; David W. Denning

2007-01-01

275

Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous mold and the most common mold contaminating foodstuffs. Many strains of A. flavus produce aflatoxins. In addition it is an allergen and an opportunistic pathogen of animals and plants. A. flavus often is underestimated in traditional culture analyses due to the expertise required and the cost associated with speciating members of the genus Aspergillus. The

Patricia Cruz; Mark P. Buttner

2008-01-01

276

Genetic and structural validation of Aspergillus fumigatus UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase as an  

E-print Network

of chitin, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP fungi. Here, we demonstrate that the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus possesses an active UAP (AfUAP, constructed by replacing the native promoter of the A. fumigatus uap1 gene with the Aspergillus nidulans alc

van Aalten, Daan

277

Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with Aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. The aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in New Zealand to assess the levels of Aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. Samples were received from 11 nocturnal kiwi houses from throughout New Zealand, with one site supplying multiple samples over time. Aspergillus was isolated and quantified by colony counts from litter samples using selective media and incubation temperatures. Isolates were identified to the species level by amplification and sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from almost every sample; however, the levels in most kiwi houses were below 1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of wet material. The predominant species was Aspergillus fumigatus, with rare occurrences of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus parasiticus. Only one site had no detectable Aspergillus. The limit of detection was around 50 CFU/g wet material. One site was repeatedly sampled as it had a high loading of A. fumigatus at the start of the survey and had two recent clinical cases of aspergillosis diagnosed in resident kiwi. Environmental loading at this site with Aspergillus spp. reduced but was not eliminated despite changes of the litter. The key finding of our study is that the background levels of Aspergillus spores in kiwi nocturnal houses in New Zealand are low, but occasional exceptions occur and are associated with the onset of aspergillosis in otherwise healthy birds. The predominant Aspergillus species present in the leaf litter was A. fumigatus, but other species were also present. Further research is needed to confirm the optimal management of leaf litter to minimize Aspergillus spore counts. However, in the interim, our recommendations are that leaf litter should be freshly collected from areas of undisturbed forest areas and spread immediately after collection, without interim storage. PMID:24758108

Glare, Travis R; Gartrell, Brett D; Brookes, Jenny J; Perrott, John K

2014-03-01

278

Fruit flies as a minihost model for studying drug activity and virulence in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in profoundly immunosuppressed patients. The mediocre efficacy of antifungals for IA in clinical practice and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of IA contribute to its overall poor prognosis. Although logistically difficult for large scale use, conventional animal models of IA provide valuable information regarding both antifungal drug efficacy and Aspergillus mutant virulence. However, in the era of introduction of molecular biology techniques for studying Aspergillus and increasing antifungal options, the existing in vivo models of IA might be well complemented by nonvertebrate minihost models such as the Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Drosophila may offer the distinct advantage of performing fast, inexpensive high-throughput screening of compounds for anti-Aspergillus activity and putative Aspergillus mutants for their role in Aspergillus virulence. PMID:16110801

Lionakis, M S; Kontoyiannis, D P

2005-05-01

279

Geobacillus sp., a thermophilic soil bacterium producing volatile antibiotics.  

PubMed

Geobacillus, a bacterial genus, is represented by over 25 species of Gram-positive isolates from various man-made and natural thermophilic areas around the world. An isolate of this genus (M-7) has been acquired from a thermal area near Yellowstone National Park, MT and partially characterized. The cells of this organism are globose (ca. 0.5 mu diameter), and they are covered in a matrix capsule which gives rise to elongate multicelled bacilliform structures (ranging from 3 to 12 mum) as seen by light and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The organism produces unique petal-shaped colonies (undulating margins) on nutrient agar, and it has an optimum pH of 7.0 and an optimum temperature range of 55-65 degrees C. The partial 16S rRNA sequence of this organism has 97% similarity with Geobacillus stearothermophilus, one of its closest relatives genetically. However, uniquely among all members of this genus, Geobacillus sp. (M-7) produces volatile organic substances (VOCs) that possess potent antibiotic activities. Some of the more notable components of the VOCs are benzaldehyde, acetic acid, butanal, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, and benzeneacetaldehyde. An exposure of test organisms such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae, and Geotrichum candidum produced total inhibition of growth on a 48-h exposure to Geobacillus sp.(M-7) cells (ca.10(7)) and killing at a 72-h exposure at higher bacterial cell concentrations. A synthetic mixture of those available volatile compounds, at the ratios occurring in Geobacillus sp. (M-7), mimicked the bioactivity of this organism. PMID:20091406

Ren, Yuhao; Strobel, Gary; Sears, Joe; Park, Melina

2010-07-01

280

Healthy Human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (TH1–TH17) and destructive allergic (TH2) immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins) participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with TH2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-?, IL-4 or IL-17) to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-? more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 TH1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein), Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase), Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase) and Asp f22 (enolase). Strong IFN-? responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals. Conclusions Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases. PMID:20174463

Chaudhary, Neelkamal; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

2010-01-01

281

Anidulafungin in Combination with Amphotericin B against Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of anidulafungin alone and in combination with amphotericin B against Aspergillus fumigatus. Indifference was the only type of interaction observed in vitro. Anidulafungin at 1 and 5 mg/kg of body weight/day, amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day, and combination therapy prolonged the survival of mice with invasive aspergillosis. Anidulafungin at 5 mg/kg/day, alone and in combination with amphotericin B, reduced the kidney fungal burden. Overall, the combination was not superior to the most active single drug. PMID:19596890

Spreghini, Elisabetta; Orlando, Fiorenza; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pisa, Eleonora; Loretelli, Cristian; Manso, Esther; Milici, Maria Eleonara; Scalise, Giorgio; Barchiesi, Francesco

2009-01-01

282

Butyrolactone and cycloheptanetrione from mangrove-associated fungus Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

A new butyrolactone, 7?-hydroxybutyrolactone III (1) and three new cycloheptanetriones, terretrione A-C (2-4), together with five known compounds, butyrolactone I, cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Val-Pro), cyclo(Ile-Pro), cyclo(Phe-Pro), were isolated from mangrove-associated marine fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of physical data analysis (NMR, high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI)-MS), especially by 2D-NMR techniques. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity in vitro against HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A2780 cell lines. PMID:23124567

Shen, Yi; Zou, Jianhua; Xie, Dan; Ge, Hanlin; Cao, Xiuping; Dai, Jungui

2012-01-01

283

Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.  

SciTech Connect

Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Gladden, John Michael

2013-09-01

284

Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection  

PubMed Central

Background: A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. Case Description: We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. Conclusion: Rare combinations of such infections do exist and should be treated aggressively to achieve good outcomes in a losing battle with fastidious organisms in the backdrop of compromised immunity. PMID:24778920

Reddy, Sunkara Srikanth; Penmmaiah, Devi Chendira; Rajesh, Alugolu; Patil, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

285

Characterization of two forms of glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger glucoamylases GI and GII (E.C. 3.2.1.3) were isolated from a commercial enzyme preparation by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Both enzymes consist of a single glycosylated polypeptide\\u000a chain. The molecular weights of GI and GII were determined by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation to 52,000 and\\u000a 46,000, respectively, and by molecular sieving to 65,000 and 55,000.

Birte Svensson; Torben Graves Svendsen; IB Svendsen; Takuo Sakai; Martin Ottesen

1982-01-01

286

Steady-state shear characteristics of Aspergillus niger broths  

SciTech Connect

It can be difficult to obtain reliable rheological data for filamentous fermentation broths using conventional instruments. One common approach is to measure the torque drawn by an impeller rotating in the suspension. Many previous workers have assumed that the applicable shear rate in such a device is related to the impeller speed by a fluid-independent constant determined by calibration with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The rheology of Aspergillus niger broths have been characterized using the impeller viscometer approach. The changes in the broth rheology were measured, and used to interpret the growth of biomass and the evolution of the microorganism morphology.

Svihla, C.K.; Dronawat, S.N.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

287

Furandiones from an endophytic Aspergillus terreus residing in Malus halliana.  

PubMed

Two new furandiones named asperterone B (1) and C (2) together with four known metabolites (3-6) were isolated from the liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus MHL-P22 residing in the fresh leaves of Malus halliana. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra. 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against human colorectal carcinoma SW1116 cells with IC(50) values of 57.5 and 71.0?µM, respectively. The biosynthetic pathway for 1, 2 and their analogues was also postulated and briefly discussed. PMID:22971827

Gu, Wen; Qiao, Chao

2012-01-01

288

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

289

Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole.  

PubMed Central

A case of Aspergillus flavus keratitis treated successfully with 4% suspension of thiabendazole is reported. This seems to be the first case of successful treatment of keratomycosis with thiabendazole. All other reported cases treated with this drug either had their eyes removed or did not retain any useful vision. Its ability to penetrate ocular tissues, ability to remain in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration of many fungi, and broad spectrum of activity make it a worthwhile drug for further investigation in keratomycosis. Images PMID:6766732

Upadhyay, M P; West, E P; Sharma, A P

1980-01-01

290

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to cell wall antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Aspergillus fumigatus were produced and characterized. Splenocytes from cell wall-immunized BALB/c mice were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. The hybridomas were screened with a cold alkali (CA) extract of mycelium containing protein, mannose, and galactose, and two MAbs of the immunoglobulin M class were purified from ascites fluid. MAbs 1 and 40 were characterized by double immunodiffusion against CA antigen, indirect enzyme immunoassay with mannans of Candida albicans serotypes A or B or Candida tropicalis, indirect immunofluorescence with C. albicans- or A. fumigatus-infected tissues, indirect immunofluorescence with smears of other pathogenic fungi, Western blotting (immunoblotting) with the lectin concanavalin A or BS-1 from the seeds of Bandeirea simplicifolia, and immunoelectron microscopy. MAb 1 did not cross-react with Candida mannan and recognized a periodate-sensitive, pronase- and heat-resistant epitope in CA antigen and three mannose- and galactose-containing components (80, 62, and 49 kilodaltons) of a mycelial homogenate. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated binding of MAb 1 to the inner cell wall and intracellular membranes of hyphae and conidia of A. fumigatus. Circulating antigen was detected in experimental invasive aspergillosis by inhibition enzyme immunoassay with MAb 1 and CA antigen. MAb 40 was a nonprecipitating antibody cross-reactive with Candida species, and competition for an epitope located diffusely in the cell wall of A. fumigatus hyphae was demonstrated by incubating MAb 40 with mannan of C. albicans serotype A. These results suggest that MAb 1 recognizes immunodominant oligogalactoside side chains of A. fumigatus galactomannan, while MAb 40 binds to mannopyranosyl side chains common to A. fumigatus galactomannan and C. albicans mannan. Images PMID:2194959

Ste-Marie, L; Sénéchal, S; Boushira, M; Garzon, S; Strykowski, H; Pedneault, L; de Repentigny, L

1990-01-01

291

Identification of antifungal niphimycin from Streptomyces sp. KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.  

PubMed

Microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. A microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (AK) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. A culture extract of Streptomyces sp. strain KP6107 lysed cells of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high AK activity. The active ingredient N-1 was purified from the culture extract using various chromatographic procedures and identified to be the guanidyl-polyol macrolide antibiotic, niphimycin, which is a potent fungal cell membrane disruptor. Niphimycin showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Alternaria mali, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cercospora canescens, Cylindrocarpon destructans, F. oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani at concentrations of 8-64?µg?ml(-1). Anthracnose development in pepper plants was completely inhibited by treatment with 50 µg?ml(-1) niphimycin, which was as effective as chlorothalonil. These results show that the AK assay is an efficient and selective tool in screening for cell membrane/wall disruptors of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:22915202

Kim, Hye Yoon; Kim, Jeong Do; Hong, Jin Sung; Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok

2013-07-01

292

Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4?g/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649

Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

2013-05-01

293

Laser sculpting of atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals.  

PubMed

Atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals were introduced by Linus Pauling to explain the nature of the chemical bond. Quantum dynamics simulations show that they can be sculpted by means of a selective series of coherent laser pulses, starting from the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atom. Laser hybridization generates atoms with state-selective electric dipoles, opening up new possibilities for the study of chemical reaction dynamics and heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:25257703

Liu, Chunmei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang

2015-01-12

294

?-Glucosylated 6-gingerol: chemoenzymatic synthesis using ?-glucosidase from Halomonas sp. H11, and its physical properties.  

PubMed

6-Gingerol [(S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one] is a biologically active compound and is abundant in the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale). It has some beneficial functions in healthcare, but its use is limited because of its insolubility in water and its heat-instability. To improve these physical properties, the glucosylation of 6-gingerol was investigated using ?-glucosidases (EC. 3.2.1.20) from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans ABPU1, Acremonium strictum, Halomonas sp. H11, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTase, EC. 2.4.1.19) from Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus sp. No. 38-2, Bacillus clarkii 7364, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Among these, only ?-glucosidase from Halomonas sp. H11 (HaG) transferred a glucosyl moiety to 6-gingerol, and produced glucosylated compounds. The chemical structure of the reaction product, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, was (S)-5-(O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one (5-?-Glc-gingerol). Notably, the regioisomer formed by glucosylation of the phenolic OH was not observed at all, indicating that HaG specifically transferred the glucose moiety to the 5-OH of the ?-hydroxy keto group in 6-gingerol. Almost 60% of the original 6-gingerol was converted into 5-?-Glc-gingerol by the reaction. In contrast to 6-gingerol, 5-?-Glc-gingerol, in the form of an orange powder prepared by freeze-drying, was water-soluble and stable at room temperature. It was also more stable than 6-gingerol under acidic conditions and to heat. PMID:22537860

Ojima, Teruyo; Aizawa, Kenta; Saburi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Takeshi

2012-06-01

295

Environmental investigations and molecular typing of Aspergillus in a Chinese hospital.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections due to Aspergillus species have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In order to determine the possible relationship between environmental contamination by Aspergillus and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis, a 1-year prospective study was carried out in a tertiary hospital in China. Air, surface, and tap water sampling was performed twice monthly at the bone marrow transplant (BMT) department, intensive care unit (ICU), neurosurgery intensive care unit (NICU), and outdoors. Nose, pharynx, and sputum samples were collected from high-risk patients. Isolates of Aspergillus from the environment and patients were genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to investigate the origin of infection. Mean total Aspergillus count was 7.73, 8.94, 13.19, and 17.32 cfu/m(3) in the BMT department, ICU, NICU, and outdoors, respectively. RAPD analysis by R108 primer demonstrated that strains isolated from patients in NICU were identical to the environmental strain. Strains isolated from patients in ICU differed from the environmental strain. Aspergillus contamination was found in the BTM department, NICU, and ICU. Clinical and environmental strains from NICU had identical genotypes. These findings suggest that Aspergillus is found in the hospital environment including the air, surface, and tap water. The genotypes of Aspergillus were identical from patients and the environment, suggesting that clinical infection may originate from the hospital environment. PMID:24442359

Ao, Jun-hong; Hao, Zhen-feng; Zhu, He; Wen, Liang; Yang, Rong-ya

2014-02-01

296

Characterization of a novel lipolytic enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the characterization of a protein from Aspergillus oryzae, exhibiting sequence identity with paraben esterase from the genus Aspergillus. The coding region of 1,586 bp, including a 77-bp intron, encoded a protein of 502 amino acids. The gene without the signal peptide of 19 amino acids was cloned into a vector, pPICZ?C, and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. The purified recombinant protein had pH and temperature optima of 7.0-8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, and was stable at the pH range of 7.0-10.0 and up to 40 °C. The optimal substrate for hydrolysis by the purified recombinant protein, among a panel of ?-naphthyl esters (C2-C16), was ?-naphthyl butyrate (C4), with activity of 0.16 units/mg protein. The considerable hydrolytic activity of the purified recombinant enzyme toward tributyrin was determined. However, no paraben esterase activity was detected toward the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, no activity was detected toward the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids that would indicate feruloyl esterase activity. PMID:23001008

Koseki, Takuya; Asai, Shungo; Saito, Natsumi; Mori, Masayo; Sakaguchi, Yasuko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shiono, Yoshihito

2013-06-01

297

Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections.

Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P.; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A.

2015-01-01

298

Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections. PMID:25774155

Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A

2015-01-01

299

Characterization of two amine oxidases from Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205.  

PubMed

We have reported that Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205, which was isolated by our group, produced three enzymes exhibiting oxidase activity for 4-aminobutanamide (4-ABAD) (J. Biosci. Bioeng., 117, 263-268 (2014)). Among three enzymes, characteristics of enzyme I have been revealed, but those of the other two enzymes have not. In this study, we purified enzymes II and III, and compared their characteristics with those of enzyme I. Enzymes II and III also oxidized aliphatic monoamines, aromatic amines, and aliphatic aminoalcohols. In addition, the oxidase activity of both enzymes was strongly inhibited by carbonyl reagents and specific inhibitors for copper-containing amine oxidases. Thus, enzymes II and III were also classified into the copper-containing amine oxidase group (EC 1.4.3.6) along with enzyme I. However, these three enzymes differed from each other in their enzymatic, kinetic, and physicochemical properties. The N-terminal amino acid sequences also differed from each other; that of enzyme I was modified, that of enzyme II was similar to those of peroxisomal copper-containing amine oxidases, and that of enzyme III was similar to those of copper-containing amine oxidases from the genus Aspergillus. Therefore, we concluded that A. carbonarius AIU 205 produced three different types of amine oxidase in the mycelia. PMID:25468423

Sugawara, Asami; Matsui, Daisuke; Yamada, Miwa; Asano, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

2014-11-22

300

Enhanced pulmonary allergic responses to Aspergillus in CCR2-/- mice.  

PubMed

Allergic responses to Aspergillus species exacerbate asthma and cystic fibrosis. The natural defense against live Aspergillus fumigatus spores or conidia depends on the recruitment and activation of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, events that are dependent on chemotactic cytokines. In this study, we explored the relative contribution of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 receptor, CCR2, in the pulmonary response to A. fumigatus conidia. Following sensitization to soluble A. fumigatus Ags, mice lacking CCR2 due to targeted deletion were markedly more susceptible to the injurious effects of an intrapulmonary challenge with live conidia compared with mice that expressed CCR2 or CCR2+/+. CCR2-/- mice exhibited a major defect in the recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells, but these mice also had significantly more eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples. CCR2-/- mice also had significant increases in serum levels of total IgE and whole lung levels of IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and RANTES compared with CCR2+/+ mice. Airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness to spasmogens, and subepithelial fibrosis were significantly enhanced in CCR2-/- mice compared with CCR2+/+ mice after the conidia challenge. Thus, these findings demonstrate that CCR2 plays an important role in the immune response against A. fumigatus, thereby limiting the allergic airway inflammatory and remodeling responses to this fungus. PMID:10946288

Blease, K; Mehrad, B; Standiford, T J; Lukacs, N W; Gosling, J; Boring, L; Charo, I F; Kunkel, S L; Hogaboam, C M

2000-09-01

301

Cytokines in host defense against Aspergillus: recent advances.  

PubMed

Many aspects of antimicrobial host responses are orchestrated by a complex network of cytokines and their receptors. This review focuses on recent progress in our understanding of the function of cytokines in innate immune responses to Aspergillus. TNF, a recognition cytokine, has been shown to be required for initiation of the innate response in the mouse model of invasive aspergillosis. Several recruitment cytokines play critical roles in mediating influx of specific leukocytes to the site of infection in invasive aspergillosis. Among these, the ELR + subset of CXC chemokines and their receptor CXCR2 are critical to neutrophil recruitment, while CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and CCL2/ monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 are critical to recruitment of monocyte-lineage leukocytes and NK cells, respectively. Of the activation cytokines, those associated with the Th-1 phenotype, including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), are critical to protective responses to the infection. Conversely, the Th2-phenotype cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 contribute to progression of infection. Modulation of the immune response to Aspergillus by manipulating these mediators remains intriguing as a potential adjunctive treatment in patients with invasive aspergillosis. PMID:16110808

Phadke, A P; Mehrad, B

2005-05-01

302

The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

2003-01-01

303

Testing an innovative device against airborne Aspergillus contamination.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a major airborne nosocomial pathogen that is responsible for severe mycosis in immunocompromised patients. We studied the efficacy of an innovative mobile air-treatment device in eliminating A. fumigatus from the air following experimental massive contamination in a high-security room. Viable mycological particles were isolated from sequential air samples in order to evaluate the device's effectiveness in removing the fungus. The concentration of airborne conidia was reduced by 95% in 18 min. Contamination was reduced below the detection threshold in 29 min, even when the machine was at the lowest airflow setting. In contrast, during spontaneous settling with no air treatment, conidia remained airborne for more than 1 h. This indoor air contamination model provided consistent and reproducible results. Because the air purifier proved to be effective at eliminating a major contaminant, it may prove useful in preventing air-transmitted disease agents. In an experimental space mimicking a hospital room, the AirLyse air purifier, which uses a combination of germicidal ultraviolet C irradiation and titanium photocatalysis, effectively eliminated Aspergillus conidia. Such a mobile device may be useful in routine practice for lowering microbiological air contamination in the rooms of patients at risk. PMID:24965945

Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Bernard, Marie-Charlotte; Gros, Valérie; Sarradin, Pierre; Perrodeau, Elodie; Vecellio, Laurent; Piscopo, Antoine; Chandenier, Jacques; Bernard, Louis

2014-08-01

304

Update on antifungal resistance in Aspergillus and Candida.  

PubMed

Antifungal resistance in Candida and Aspergillus may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug-naďve patient. Prior antifungal treatment confers a selection pressure and notoriously raises the awareness of possible resistance in patients failing therapy, thus calling for susceptibility testing. On the contrary, antifungal resistance in the drug-naďve patient is less expected and therefore more challenging. This is particularly true when it concerns pathogens with acquired resistance which cannot be predicted from the species identification itself. This scenario is particularly relevant for A. fumigatus infections due to the increasing prevalence of azole-resistant isolates in the environment. For Candida, infections resistance is most common in the context of increasing prevalence of species with intrinsic resistance. Candida glabrata which has intrinsically reduced susceptibility to fluconazole is increasingly common particularly among the adult and elderly population on the Northern Hemisphere where it may be responsible for as many as 30% of the blood stream infections in population-based surveillance programmes. Candida parapsilosis is prevalent in the paediatric setting, at centres with increasing echinocandin use and at the southern or pacific parts of the world. In the following, the prevalence and drivers of intrinsic and acquired resistance in Aspergillus and Candida will be reviewed. PMID:24372701

Arendrup, M C

2014-06-01

305

Viriditoxin production by Aspergillus viridi-nutans and related species.  

PubMed

Bioproduction of viriditoxin on various substrates by strains of the Aspergillus fumigatus group was determined under several incubation conditions. Aspergillus viridi-nutans strains NRRL 4365 and 576 produced the largest quantities of toxin, A. brevipes gave reduced yields, and there was no detectable synthesis by isolates of four related species. After 30 days in static culture at 20 C on various autoclaved agricultural commodities, optimal yields of 440 and 380 mg of toxin were observed per kilogram of sorghum and rice. Toxin levels were reduced on corn, rye, and wheat (40-200 mg/kg); yields were low on cottonseed, barley, and oats. Incubation at 10 C restricted biosynthesis of viriditoxin, and no toxin accumulated on substrates maintained at 5 C for 120 days. In a liquid, yeast extract-sucrose medium, maximal mycotoxin production developed in shake flasks; after 156 h, 10 mg of toxin accumulated per gram of mycelium. Viriditoxin produced in submerged culture was associated with the mycelium; less than 1% was detected in the filtered broth after 156 h of incubation. PMID:4582816

Lillehoj, E B; Milburn, M S

1973-08-01

306

Putative cell wall integrity sensor proteins in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

The cell wall integrity (CWI) signal transduction pathway, which has been well-studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an important role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. Recently, we characterized the CWI stress sensor orthologs WscA and WscB in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Disruption of the wscA and wscB genes causes a change in the transcriptional levels of agsA and agsB, which encode ?-1,3-glucan synthase, resulting in an increase in alkaline soluble cell wall glucan. However, the contribution of these putative sensors to downstream CWI pathway signaling remains unclear because MpkA-RlmA signaling remains active in wscA-wscB double disruptants exposed to cell wall stress associated with exposure to micafungin, a potent inhibitor of ?-1,3-glucan synthase. In this addendum, we report the results of further studies involving hypo-osmotic shock as a stressor that suggest WscA and WscB are not essential for MpkA-RlmA signaling. Finally, we describe for the first time other Aspergillus CWI stress sensor candidate Mid2-like protein. PMID:22808335

Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi

2012-01-01

307

Putative cell wall integrity sensor proteins in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The cell wall integrity (CWI) signal transduction pathway, which has been well-studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an important role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. Recently, we characterized the CWI stress sensor orthologs WscA and WscB in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Disruption of the wscA and wscB genes causes a change in the transcriptional levels of agsA and agsB, which encode ?-1,3-glucan synthase, resulting in an increase in alkaline soluble cell wall glucan. However, the contribution of these putative sensors to downstream CWI pathway signaling remains unclear because MpkA-RlmA signaling remains active in wscA-wscB double disruptants exposed to cell wall stress associated with exposure to micafungin, a potent inhibitor of ?-1,3-glucan synthase. In this addendum, we report the results of further studies involving hypo-osmotic shock as a stressor that suggest WscA and WscB are not essential for MpkA-RlmA signaling. Finally, we describe for the first time other Aspergillus CWI stress sensor candidate Mid2-like protein. PMID:22808335

Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi

2012-03-01

308

Genetic transfers in Brevibacterium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive genetic transfer by protoplast fusion was obtained in auxotrophic mutantsBrevibacterium sp. M27his andBrevibacterium sp. M27arg. Transformation and protoplast fusion with liposomes (as genetic transfers in intact cells and their protoplasts by both\\u000a the chromosomal and plasmid DNA) did not lead to transfer of the markers followed.

V. Rytí?; A. Šroglová; I. Holubová; M. Koní?ková-Radochová; J. Koní?ek

1986-01-01

309

NASA SP-4009 APOLLO SPACECRAFT  

E-print Network

. 8, 1962-Sept. 30, 1964. [etc.] Includes bibliographical references. 1. Project Apollo. I. ErtelNASA SP-4009 THE APOLLO SPACECRAFT VOLUME IV January 21, 1966-July 13, 1974 hy Ivan D. Ertel (revised) Main entry under title: The Apollo spacecraft. (The NASA historical series) (NASA SP-4009

Rathbun, Julie A.

310

DADiSP processing guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A guide for DADiSP software, intended for use by the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) Team during and after the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-1 mission, is presented. DADiSP is a Data Analysis and Display Software developed and marketed by DSP Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This guide is intended to be used in addition to the DADiSP Worksheet User Manual and Reference Manual which are supplied by the company with the software. Technical support for DADiSP is available from DSP at (617) 577-1133. Access to DADiSP on Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) EGSE is being provided to the LPE team during USMP-1 for off-line processing of SAMS data.

Rogers, Melissa J. B.

1993-01-01

311

Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis: Report of a case and review of literature  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient with subretinal abscess and also review the reported cases. A 50-year-old healthy male presented with sudden painful loss of vision in right eye. He was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis and underwent urgent vitrectomy. Aspergillus terreus growth was obtained in culture. At final follow-up, there was complete resolution of the infection but visual acuity was poor due to macular scar. Aspergillus terreus is a rare cause of endophthalmitis with usually poor outcomes. Newer antifungals like Voriconazole can be sometimes associated with better prognosis. PMID:25230968

Panigrahi, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, Rupak; Pal, Swakshyar Saumya; Mukherjee, Anjan; Lobo, Aneesha

2014-01-01

312

Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA. PMID:22205818

Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

2012-01-01

313

Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).  

PubMed

Abstract We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115?bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships. PMID:25329289

Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

2014-10-20

314

Modelling the effect of temperature and water activity in the growth boundaries of Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to model the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus, both mycotoxin producers, near to the growth/no growth boundaries and validate those models in sterile maize grain, peanuts and coffee beans. Malt extract agar was adjusted to six different water activities: 0.93, 0.91, 0.89, 0.87, 0.85 and 0.80. Plates were incubated at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. For each of the 42 conditions, 10 Petri dishes were inoculated. Both kinetic and probability models were applied to colony growth data. The results of the present study indicate that the developed probability modelling approach could be satisfactorily employed to quantify the combined effect of temperature and water activity on the growth responses of A. ochraceus and A. parasiticus. However, validation of kinetic results led to poor goodness of prediction. In this study, the validation samples were placed near to the expected boundaries of the models in order to test them under the worst situation. Probability of growth prediction under extreme growth conditions was somewhat compromised, but it can be considered acceptable. PMID:21356445

Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

2011-05-01

315

Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

Frisvad, Jens C.

2014-01-01

316

Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species.  

PubMed

Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions ("cryptic" gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

Frisvad, Jens C

2014-01-01

317

Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 ?g/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed. PMID:22409377

Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2012-04-01

318

Multilocus sequence analysis of Aspergillus Sect. Nigri in dried vine fruits of worldwide origin.  

PubMed

Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, ?-tubulin, elongation factor 1-?, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the strains were identified as A. tubingensis (138), A. awamori (38), A. carbonarius (27), A. uvarum (16) and A. niger (11). Four Aspergillus flavus strains were also identified from Chilean raisins. Two clusters closely related to the A. tubingensis species with a significant bootstrap (60% and 99%) were identified as distinct populations. Among the four loci, RPB2 showed the highest genetic variability. This is the first complete study on the worldwide distribution of black Aspergilli occurring on dried vine fruits identified by a molecular approach. PMID:23732831

Susca, Antonia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulč, Giuseppina

2013-07-15

319

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by  

E-print Network

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

Gu, Tingyue

320

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS AND MICROARRAY AS TOOLS IN UNDERSTANDING AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic naturally occurring mycotoxins. They are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control aflatoxin production, identification of genes using A. flavus expressed sequence ...

321

Recombination, balancing selection and geographic subdivision among worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a global agent of aflatoxin contamination of economically important crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. Extensive studies have elucidated the biochemical and regulatory mechanisms of aflatoxin production, but basic knowledge of the evolutionary processes that maintain ...

322

Analysis of aflatoxin regulatory factors in serial transfer-induced non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins (AFs) are carcinogenic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus parasiticus. In previous studies, non-toxigenic A. parasiticus sec' (for secondary metabolism negative) variants were generated from their toxigenic sec+ (for secondary metabolism positive) parents for genetic and physiological ...

323

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal; cotton, refined...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal; cotton, refined...

2010-07-01

325

Variecolactol: A New Sesterterpene Lactone from the Sclerotia of Aspergillus auricomus (Guegen) Saito  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variecolactol (1), a new sesterterpene lactone related to variecolin (2), has been isolated from the organic extracts of Aspergillus auricomus. Structure determination of this compound was achieved primarily through HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments. The known compounds dihydropenicillic acid (3) ...

326

OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

327

Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

328

Evaluation of Atoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus as Potential Biocontrol Agents for Aflatoxin in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination resulting from maize infection by Aspergillus flavus is both an economic concern and public health concern. Therefore, strategies for controlling maize contamination are being investigated. Abilities of 11 naturally occurring atoxigenic strains in Nigeria to reduce aflatox...

329

Dual genome microarray: Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus gene expression in co-culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, and fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, are prominent among the mycotoxins associated with economic losses to the maize grain industry worldwide. F. verticillioides is also recognized as a systemic endophyte of maize that prevents opportunisti...

330

Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Aspergillus flavus on Resistant and Susceptible Maize Genotypes during Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus, a mycotoxicogenic fungal genus, produces carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops like peanuts and maize. Development of fungal resistant maize cultivars is one strategy used to decrease contamination. Successful development and identification of resistant maize genotypes requires evaluation o...

331

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2012-07-01

332

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2010-07-01

333

Specificity of Eupenicillium and Penicillium species for the conidial heads of Aspergillus sections Flavi and Nigri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Penicillium comprises species that mostly colonize plant matter. However, early reports suggest that several species are capable of parasitizing Aspergillus. More recently Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum and E. cinnamopurpureum, both with Penicillium anamorphs, have been observed sporulatin...

334

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world  

E-print Network

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here, Penicillium alfredii Visagie, Seifert & Samson, P. dunedinense Visagie, Seifert & Samson, P. infrapurpureum

Amend, Anthony S.

335

SP-100 space reactor safety  

SciTech Connect

The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

Not Available

1987-05-01

336

Flocculation behavior and mechanism of bioflocculant produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

In this study, the flocculation behavior and mechanism of a cation-independent bioflocculant IH-7 produced by Aspergillus flavus were investigated. Results showed 91.6% was the lowest flocculating rate recorded by IH-7 (0.5 mg L(-1)) at pH range 4-8. Moreover, IH-7 showed better flocculation performance than polyaluminum chloride (PAC) at a wide range of flocculant concentration (0.06-25 mg L(-1)), temperature (5-45 °C) and salinity (10-60% w/w). The current study found that cation addition did not significantly enhance the flocculating rate and IH-7 is a positively charged bioflocculant. These findings suggest that charge neutralization is the main flocculation mechanism of IH-7 bioflocculant. IH-7 was significantly used to flocculate different types of suspended solids such as activated carbons, kaolin clays, soil solids and yeast cells. PMID:25560664

Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Idris, Azni; Al-joubory, Hamid Hussain Rijab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Ibn Abubakar, B S U

2015-03-01

337

Bioconversion of tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Theabrownins (TB) are water-soluble phenolic compounds associated with the various health benefits of Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented Chinese dark tea. This work reports on the production of theabrownins from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a pure culture of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from a solid-state Pu-erh tea fermentation. A theabrownins yield of 158 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves was obtained in 6 days at 45 °C in an aerobic fermentation. In a 2 l fermenter, the yield of theabrownins was 151 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves in 48 h of aerobic culture (45 °C, 1 vvm aeration rate, 250 rpm agitation speed). Extracellular polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of A. fumigatus contributed to this bioconversion. Repeated batch fermentation process was used for producing theabrownins but was less productive than the batch process. PMID:25214210

Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

2014-12-01

338

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

2010-10-01

339

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava [Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit, Biological Sciences Division, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata, West Bengal-700108 (India); Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Gogoi, Robin [Plant Pathology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S. [Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India)

2010-10-04

340

Purification and Characterization of Acid Phosphatase V from Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Acid phosphatase V of Aspergillus nidulans was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme demonstrated a charge microheterogeneity on starch and acrylamide gel electrophoresis, but proved to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. Phosphatase V was found to be a classic acid orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, and it cleaved p-nitrophenylphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and uridine-5?-monophosphate at maximal rates. It was inhibited by fluoride, borate, and molybdate ions, and demonstrated end-product inhibition by inorganic phosphate. Metallic ions or cofactors were not required for activity. The molecular weight was estimated to be 100,000, the S20,w was calculated to be 4.1, and the pH optimum was found to be 6.1. Images PMID:4552990

Harsanyi, Zsolt; Dorn, Gordon L.

1972-01-01

341

Biotransformation of germacranolide from Onopordon leptolepies by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Terpenes are present in the essential oils obtained from herbs and spices. They are produced by these plant species as a chemical defense mechanism against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, terpenes have attracted great attention in the food industry, e.g., they have been used in foods such as cheese as natural preservatives to prevent fungal growth. Herein, we describe the microbial transformation of onopordopicrin (1) by Aspergillus niger. Four product 11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (2), 11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (3), 3?-hydroxy-11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (4), and 14-hydroxy-11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (5) were obtained. Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All the four compounds were novel. PMID:22186324

Esmaeili, Akbar; Moazami, Nasrin; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

2012-01-01

342

Molecular characterization of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates collected in China.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus strains were isolated from peanut fields of Liaoning, Shandong, Hubei and Guangdong Provinces in China, and identified through phenotypic and molecular approaches. Of the 323 A. flavus strains isolated, 76 strains did not produce aflatoxins detectable by UPLC. The incidence of atoxigenic A. flavus strains decreased with increase in temperature and increased with increase in latitude in different geographical locations. Amplification of all the aflatoxin genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster in the atoxigenic isolates showed that there were 25 deletion patterns (A-Y), with 22 deletion patterns identified for the first time. Most of the atoxigenic A. flavus isolates with gene deletions (97%) had deletions in at least one of the four genes (aflT, nor-1, aflR, and hypB), indicating that these four genes could be targeted for rapid identification of atoxigenic strains. The atoxigenic isolates with gene deletions, especially the isolates with large deletions, are potential candidates for aflatoxin control. PMID:24879349

Wei, Dandan; Zhou, Lu; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Zhang, Chushu; Xing, Fuguo; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

2014-07-01

343

Halophilic Aspergillus penicillioides from athalassohaline, thalassohaline, and polyhaline environments  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus penicillioides is a true halophile, present in diverse econiches – from the hypersaline athalassohaline, and thalassohaline environments, to polyhaline systems, and in different geographical locations. Twenty seven isolates from these environments, were seen to be moderate halophiles, euryhaline in nature. They had an obligate need of a low aw and were unable to grow on a regular defined medium such as Czapek Dox Agar, as well as on varied nutrient rich agar media such as Malt Extract, Potato Dextrose and Sabouraud Agar; however, growth was obtained on all these media when amended with 10% solar salt. In absence of added salt, the conidia either did not germinate, or when germinated, distortions and lysis were seen in the short mycelial forms; on media with salt, the mycelia and vesicles appeared normal. PMID:25140168

Nazareth, Sarita W.; Gonsalves, Valerie

2014-01-01

344

Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Covering: up to 2014 Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections. PMID:25140791

2014-01-01

345

The mitochondrial ribosomal RNA molecules of Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The 16S and 23S mitochondrial rRNAs of Aspergillus nidulans have been identified by Northern hybridisation and the ends of the molecules mapped onto the mitochondrial genome by S1 nuclease analysis. The results show that both the rRNA molecules are longer than originally reported, forcing a reassessment of the potential secondary structures that can form in the terminal regions. In particular, structures resembling the 5.8S- and 4.5S-like domains of the bacterial large rRNA can now be recognised within the A. nidulans 23S molecule. The new 5' termini of the 16S and 23S genes lie within conserved 18-bp sequences that may be promoters but are more likely to be processing signals that cleave the mature rRNAs from larger precursor molecules. The new end of the 23S gene abuts the 5' end of the threonine-tRNA gene. PMID:2656406

Dyson, N J; Brown, T A; Waring, R B; Davies, R W

1989-01-30

346

Structure of N-myristoyltransferase from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an enzyme which translocates the 14-carbon saturated fatty acid myristate from myristoyl-CoA to the N-terminal glycine of substrate peptides. This myristoylation process is involved in protein modification in various eukaryotes, including animals and fungi. Furthermore, this enzyme has been shown to be essential to the growth of various species, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which indicates that NMT is an attractive target for the development of a novel antifungal drug. In this study, the crystal structure of a ternary complex of NMT from Aspergillus fumigatus with S-(2-oxo)pentadecyl-CoA, a myristoyl-CoA analogue cofactor, and a synthetic inhibitor is reported at a resolution of 2.1?Ĺ. The results advance the understanding of the specificity of NMT inhibitors and provide valuable information for structure-based drug design. PMID:25849386

Shimada, Takashi; Suzuki, Makoto; Katakura, Shin Ichi

2015-04-01

347

Characterization of the hexahydropolyprenols of Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius  

PubMed Central

The isolation and properties of a group of alcohols from the mycelium of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius are described. Mass-, nuclear-magnetic-resonance- and infrared-spectrometric studies coupled with evidence from ozonolytic degradation and chromatography show the mixture to contain hexahydroprenols-18, -19, -20, -21, -22, -23 and -24. Each contains a saturated `hydroxy-terminal' isoprene residue, a saturated ?-terminal isoprene residue and a saturated ?-isoprene residue (adjacent to the ?-residue). The presence of only two trans-isoprene residues is also a feature of the series of alcohols, but the precise position of these in each molecule is not known. ImagesFig. 4. (a)Fig. 4. (b) PMID:6029603

Stone, K. J.; Butterworth, P. H. W.; Hemming, F. W.

1967-01-01

348

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by an ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system.

Kamath, A.; Vaidyanathan, C.S. (Indiana Institute of Science, Bangalore (India))

1990-01-01

349

A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities. PMID:25401948

Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

2015-02-01

350

Analytical and computational approaches to define the Aspergillus niger secretome  

SciTech Connect

We used computational and mass spectrometric approaches to characterize the Aspergillus niger secretome. The 11,200 gene models predicted in the genome of A. niger strain ATCC 1015 were the data source for the analysis. Depending on the computational methods used, 691 to 881 proteins were predicted to be secreted proteins. We cultured A. niger in six different media and analyzed the extracellular proteins produced using mass spectrometry. A total of 222 proteins were identified, with 39 proteins expressed under all six conditions and 74 proteins expressed under only one condition. The secreted proteins identified by mass spectrometry were used to guide the correction of about 20 gene models. Additional analysis focused on extracellular enzymes of interest for biomass processing. Of the 63 glycoside hydrolases predicted to be capable of hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose or pectin, 94% of the exo-acting enzymes and only 18% of the endo-acting enzymes were experimentally detected.

Tsang, Adrian; Butler, Gregory D.; Powlowski, Justin; Panisko, Ellen A.; Baker, Scott E.

2009-03-01

351

Secondary Metabolites from an Algicolous Aspergillus versicolor Strain  

PubMed Central

Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC50 value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H.; Ji, Nai-Yun

2012-01-01

352

Sequence determination of a satellite RNA isolated from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV) has at least two distinct particle types, designated as AfV-fast (F) and AfV-slow (S). AfV-S includes AfV-S1, a victorivirus; AfV-S2, an unclassified satellite RNA; and AfV-S3, a previously uncharacterized dsRNA element. Here, we describe the complete sequence of AfV-S3, which is a short non-coding RNA with no known homologs. AfV-S3 is predicted to form an extended secondary structure, shares a 5' terminus with AfV-S2, and is a satellite RNA possibly dependent on both AfV-S1 and AfV-S2. This work concludes the sequencing of the A. foetidus virome. PMID:25613164

Shah, Unnati A; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

2015-03-01

353

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system. PMID:2310183

Kamath, A V; Vaidyanathan, C S

1990-01-01

354

Aspergillus flavus impairs antioxidative enzymes of Sternochetus mangiferae during mycosis.  

PubMed

Insects depend upon cuticular, humoral and cellular defenses to resist mycosis. However, entomopathogenic fungi through co-evolution have developed mechanisms to counter such defenses. Although a plethora of mechanisms of mycosis by entomopathogenic fungi are well-established, studies on the impairment of insects' antioxidative enzymes during mycosis remain elusive. Here, we used the interaction of Sternochetus mangiferae and its associated entomopathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, as a model to validate our hypothesis. Uninfected insects were exposed to fungal spores for infection to occur. We observed symptoms of mycosis within 48 h of incubation period. Biochemical studies on antioxidative enzymes namely catalase, peroxidase and phenoloxidase, in infected and uninfected insects revealed decreased activity of these enzymes. It appears that A. flavus disables the host's antioxidative enzyme system that plays a crucial role in elimination of oxidative toxins produced during mycosis. PMID:25446036

Jayanthi, Kamala P D; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Govindan, Selvakumar; Verghese, Abraham

2015-01-01

355

Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

Baker, Scott E.

2006-09-01

356

In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen ?-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these ?-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

2014-09-01

357

Comparative study of Aspergillus mycotoxin production on enriched media and construction material  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus from indoor air were compared with a known mycotoxin producer for their capacity to produce mycotoxins on a variety of enrichment\\u000a media and with growth on indoor substrates such as ceiling tile and wall board. In enrichment media, four of seven isolates\\u000a of A. flavus produced at least one aflatoxin and both isolates

P Ren; D G Ahearn; S A Crow Jr

1999-01-01

358

Study on characteristics of biocometabolic removal of omethoate by the Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain Aspergillus spp. F1 which could effectively metabolized omethoate was screened out in this study. F1 tended to form granula with diameter 4–5mm after 5 days culture in shaker. The pH range from 4.5 to 6.5 was the suitable pH range for growth and metabolism of Aspergillus spp. F1. The maximum omethoate removal rate was about 3.0mg\\/(hL), and the

Meng Chun; S. Chngchun; Guo Yanghao; Shi Xian’ai; Cheng Jianfeng; Yan Fen

2004-01-01

359

New PCR method to differentiate species in the Aspergillus niger aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA that encodes the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA and the two intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of the two proposed type strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate (A. niger and Aspergillus tubingensis) have been sequenced. By comparison of sequences we have found that both species could be differentiated by RsaI digestion of the PCR products of the

F. Accensi; J. Cano; L. Figuera; M. L. Abarca; F. J. Cabańes

1999-01-01

360

Immunosuppressive Compounds Exhibit Particular Effects on Functional Properties of Human Anti-Aspergillus TH1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis. Whereas adoptive immunotherapy transferring donor-derived anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells has been shown to be beneficial for HSCT recipients suffering from invasive aspergillosis, little is known about the impact of commonly used immunosuppressants on the functional properties of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells were coincubated with different concentrations of methylprednisolone, cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active component of mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Immunosuppressants were tested in concentrations reflecting common target levels in serum and in significantly lower and higher concentrations. Apoptosis of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells, as well as proliferation and production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) and CD154 upon restimulation, was evaluated in the presence and absence of immunosuppressive compounds. All dosages of CsA, MPA, and methylprednisolone significantly decreased the number of viable anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells in the cell culture, which was due partly to an impaired proliferative capacity of the cells and partly to an increased rate of apoptosis. In addition, CsA significantly decreased the number of IFN-?-producing cells and had the highest impact of all immunosuppressants on IFN-? levels in the supernatant. CsA also significantly decreased the expression of CD154 by anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Variant dosages of immunosuppressants exhibit particular effects on essential functional properties of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Our findings may have an important impact on the design of clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic benefit of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells in allogeneic HSCT recipients suffering from invasive aspergillosis. PMID:24711569

Tramsen, Lars; Schmidt, Stanislaw; Roeger, Frauke; Schubert, Ralf; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Klingebiel, Thomas

2014-01-01

361

Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus pacC gene  

E-print Network

and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by several Aspergi llus species. Ambient pH has been determined to affect mycotoxin (i. e. aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin) biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively.... The construction of constitutive mutations of pacC is achieved by engineering a truncated protein, which acts as the activated form. This permits an additional level of investigation into the effects of PacC and pH regulation besides that of a null mutation...

Pinero, David

1999-01-01

362

Heteroduplex Panel Analysis, a Novel Method for Genetic Identification of Aspergillus Section Flavi Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

For genetic identification of Aspergillus Section Flavi isolates and detection of intraspecific variation, we developed a novel method for heteroduplex panel analysis (HPA) utilizing fragments of the internal tran- scribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the rRNA gene that was PCR amplified with universal primers. The method involves formation of heteroduplexes with a set of reference fragments amplified from Aspergillus

YUKO KUMEDA; TSUTOMU ASAO

2001-01-01

363

FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

2015-01-01

364

Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

2011-01-01

365

An ammonium sulfate sensitive chitinase from Streptomyces sp. CS501.  

PubMed

A chitinase from Streptomyces sp. CS501 was isolated from the Korean soil sample, purified by single-step chromatography, and biochemically characterized. The extracellular chitinase (Ch501) was purified to 4.60 fold with yield of 28.74 % using Sepharose Cl-6B column. The molecular mass of Ch501 was approximately 43 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE and zymography. The enzyme (Ch501) was found to be stable over a broad pH range (5.0-10.0) and temperature (up to 50 °C), and have an optimum temperature of 60 °C. N-terminal sequence of Ch501 was AAYDDAAAAA. Intriguingly, Ch501 was highly sensitive to ammonium sulfate but it's completely suppressed activity was recovered after desalting out. TLC analysis of Ch501 showed the production of N-acetyl D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and Diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)2, as a principal hydrolyzed product. Ch501 shows antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Aspergillus brasiliensis, which can be used for the biological control of fungus. As has been simple in purification, stable in a broad range of pH, ability to produce oligosaccharides, and antifungal activity showed that Ch501 has potential applications in industries as for chitooligosaccharides production used as prebiotics and/or for the biological control of plant pathogens in agriculture. PMID:25359199

Rahman, Md Arifur; Choi, Yun Hee; Pradeep, G C; Yoo, Jin Cheol

2014-12-01

366

Analyses of black Aspergillus species of peanut and maize for ochratoxins and fumonisins.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus section Nigri, or the black aspergilli, represents genetically closely related species that produce the mycotoxins, ochratoxins and the fumonisins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of an added concern because it is also a virulence factor for maize. Our preliminary data indicated that black aspergilli could develop asymptomatic infections with maize and peanuts plants. Symptomless infections are potential problems, because under favorable conditions, there is a potential for accumulation of ochratoxins and the fumonisins in contaminated postharvest crops. In the present report, the ability of black aspergilli from peanuts and maize to produce ochratoxin A and FB1 on maize kernels was assessed. One hundred fifty strains from peanuts and maize were isolated from several southeastern and midwestern states. Aspergillus nigri (A. nigri var. nigri) was the dominant species (87%), while Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus japonicus, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus carbonarius were infrequently isolated. None of the wild isolates produced detectable amounts of ochratoxins. However, we do report the occurrence of the fumonisins B1, B2, and B3. Of 54 field isolates, 30% (n = 16) produced FB1, 61% (n = 33) produced FB2, and 44% (n = 24) produced FB3. The amounts of fumonisins produced during the test period of 30 days suggest that these strains might be weak to moderate producers of fumonisin on maize. To our knowledge, this is a first report of FB1 and FB3 production by isolates of black aspergilli from an American cereal and legume. PMID:24780336

Palencia, Edwin R; Mitchell, Trevor R; Snook, Maurice E; Glenn, Anthony E; Gold, Scott; Hinton, Dorothy M; Riley, Ronald T; Bacon, Charles W

2014-05-01

367

Environmental Dimensionality Controls the Interaction of Phagocytes with the Pathogenic Fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

The fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are major health threats for immune-compromised patients. Normally, macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes phagocytose inhaled Aspergillus conidia in the two-dimensional (2-D) environment of the alveolar lumen or Candida growing in tissue microabscesses, which are composed of a three-dimensional (3-D) extracellular matrix. However, neither the cellular dynamics, the per-cell efficiency, the outcome of this interaction, nor the environmental impact on this process are known. Live imaging shows that the interaction of phagocytes with Aspergillus or Candida in 2-D liquid cultures or 3-D collagen environments is a dynamic process that includes phagocytosis, dragging, or the mere touching of fungal elements. Neutrophils and alveolar macrophages efficiently phagocytosed or dragged Aspergillus conidia in 2-D, while in 3-D their function was severely impaired. The reverse was found for phagocytosis of Candida. The phagocytosis rate was very low in 2-D, while in 3-D most neutrophils internalized multiple yeasts. In competitive assays, neutrophils primarily incorporated Aspergillus conidia in 2-D and Candida yeasts in 3-D despite frequent touching of the other pathogen. Thus, phagocytes show activity best in the environment where a pathogen is naturally encountered. This could explain why “delocalized” Aspergillus infections such as hematogeneous spread are almost uncontrollable diseases, even in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:17274685

Hasenberg, Mike; Gunzer, Frank; Bilitewski, Ursula; Klippel, Nina; Rohde, Manfred; Brock, Matthias; Brakhage, Axel A; Gunzer, Matthias

2007-01-01

368

SP-100 advanced technology program  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

Sovie, R.J.

1987-01-01

369

SP-100 Advanced Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

Sovie, Ronald J.

1987-01-01

370

Streptomyces-Aspergillus flavus interactions: impact on aflatoxin B accumulation.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Streptomyces sp. as biocontrol agents against aflatoxins in maize. As such, we assumed that Streptomyces sp. could provide a complementary approach to current biocontrol systems such as Afla-guard(®) and we focused on biocontrol that was able to have an antagonistic contact with A. flavus. A previous study showed that 27 (out of 38) Streptomyces sp. had mutual antagonism in contact with A. flavus. Among these, 16 Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin content to below 17% of the residual concentration. We selected six strains to understand the mechanisms involved in the prevention of aflatoxin accumulation. Thus, in interaction with A. flavus, we monitored by RT-qPCR the gene expression of aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS. All the Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin concentration (24.0-0.2% residual aflatoxin B1). They all impacted on gene expression, but only S35 and S38 were able to repress expression significantly. Indeed, S35 significantly repressed aflM expression and S38 significantly repressed aflR, aflM and aflP. S6 reduced aflatoxin concentrations (2.3% residual aflatoxin B1) and repressed aflS, aflM and enhanced aflR expression. In addition, the S6 strain (previously identified as the most reducing pure aflatoxin B1) was further tested to determine a potential adsorption mechanism. We did not observe any adsorption phenomenon. In conclusion, this study showed that Streptomyces sp. prevent the production of (aflatoxin gene expression) and decontamination of (aflatoxin B1 reduction) aflatoxins in vitro. PMID:25632796

Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Zhu, Y; Mathieu, F

2015-04-01

371

Alkaline Serine Proteinase: A Major Allergen of Aspergillus oryzae and Its Cross-Reactivity with Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Aspergillus species are common indoor airborne fungi and have been considered as causative agents of human allergic disorders. However, allergens of different Aspergillus species have not been effectively characterized. The object of this study was to identify and characterize IgE-binding components of Aspergillus oryzae. Methods. Allergens of A. oryzae were identified by immunoblot analysis using sera from asthmatic patients. The

Horng-Der Shen; Win-Ling Lin; Ming F. Tam; Soo-Ray Wang; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Hong Chou; Shou-Hwa Han

1998-01-01

372

Streptomyces specialis sp. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming bacterium (GW41-1564(T)) was isolated from soil. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GW41-1564(T) is a member of the genus Streptomyces, exhibiting highest similarities with Streptomyces hainanensis YIM 47672(T) (97.8 %) and Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi NBRC 12748(T) (97.5 %). Strain GW41-1564(T) could be distinguished from any other Streptomyces species with validly published names by sequence similarity values less than 97.5 %. Strain GW41-1564(T) exhibited an unusual quinone system, with the predominant compounds MK-10(H(4)) and MK-10(H(6)) and smaller amounts of MK-9(H(4)) and MK-9(H(6)). The type strain of the most closely related species, S. hainanensis YIM 47672(T), also contained an unusual quinone system composed of MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(8)) in addition to MK-9(H(4)) and MK-10(H(0)), whereas the type strain of the second most closely related species, S. cacaoi NBRC 12748(T), contained a quinone system, composed of MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(8)), typical of Streptomyces. The polar lipid profile of GW41-1564(T) consisted of the predominant compound diphosphatidylglycerol, moderate amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol and minor to trace amounts of two phosphatidylinositol mannosides and several unknown lipids, and the major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0,) anteiso-C(17 : 1)omega9c and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed further phenotypic differentiation of strain GW41-1564(T) from the related species S. hainanensis. Strain GW41-1564(T) clearly merits species status, and we propose the name Streptomyces specialis sp. nov., with the type strain GW41-1564(T) (=DSM 41924(T) =CCM 7499(T)). PMID:18984700

Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Buczolits, Sandra; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

2008-11-01

373

Isolation and expression of enolase gene in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a fungus responsible for the tomato disease known as fusariosis. Enolase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate, is present during glycolysis. Enolase genes have been isolated from bacteria and fungi, among other organisms. In this research, a large portion of the enolase, eno, gene sequence was isolated from F. oxysporum and compared with those of other microorganisms, revealing a similarity of 51-69 %. We analyzed the copy number of the eno gene and determined that only a single copy is present in F. oxysporum, as in several fungi, such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus oryzae. We also detected the expression of the eno gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during in vitro growth under two growth conditions where glucose was used as the carbon source, and we observed the same eno gene expression levels under both growth conditions. PMID:25349089

Macías-Sánchez, Karla Lizbeth; García-Soto, Jesús; Roncero, M Isabel G; Hernández-Monjaraz, Wendy; Caudillo-Pérez, César; Martínez-Cadena, Ma Guadalupe

2015-01-01

374

Cushing's disease due to mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytoma of the posterior pituitary gland presenting with Aspergillus sp. sinus infection.  

PubMed

Gangliocytic lesions of the pituitary gland producing Cushing's disease are extremely rare entities that may exist with or without a pituitary adenoma. The latter have been designated mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas, the majority of which produce growth hormone, not adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and are localized to the anterior gland. We now report an immunocompetent woman with hypercortisolism who presented with an intranasal aspergilloma eroding the bony sellar floor. The fungal ball was contiguous with, and extended into, a large neurohypophyseal-centered mass. Transsphenoidal resection revealed a gangliocytic lesion of the posterior gland with small clusters of intimately admixed ACTH-immunoreactive adenoma cells as the cause of her Cushing's disease. Rare transitional sizes and shapes of cells coupled with immunohistochemical findings supported interpretation as advanced neuronal metaplasia within an ACTH adenoma. This mixed ACTH adenoma-gangliocytoma is the first example to present clinically with an opportunistic infection. PMID:23611590

Bridenstine, Mark; Kerr, Janice M; Lillehei, Kevin O; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K

2013-01-01

375

Natural control of corn postharvest fungi Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. using essential oils from plants grown in Argentina.  

PubMed

The objective in this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from native and commercial aromatic plants grown in Argentina against corn postharvest fungi and to link the essential oil bioactivity with lipid oxidation and morphological changes in fungus cell membrane. Essential oil (EO) of oregano variety Mendocino (OMen), Cordobes (OCor), and Compacto (OCom), mint variety Inglesa (Mi), and Pehaujo (Mp), Suico (Sui); rosemary (Ro), and Aguaribay (Ag) were tested in vitro against 4 corn fungi: A. flavus (CCC116-83 and BXC01), P. oxalicum (083296), and P. minioluteum (BXC03). The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. The chemical profiles of the EOs were analyzed by GC-MS. Lipid oxidation in cell membrane of fungi was determined by hydroperoxides and related with essential oil antifungal activity. The major compounds were Thymol in OCor (18.66%), Omen (12.18%), and OCom (9.44%); menthol in Mi and Mp; verbenone in Sui; dehydroxy-isocalamendiol in Ag; and eucaliptol in Ro. OCor, Omen, and OCom showed the best antifungal activity. No antifungal activity was observed in Ag and Ro EO. The hydroperoxide value depended on the fungi (P < 0.001) and the antimicrobial agent (P < 0.001).Membrane lipids were oxidized by Sui EO in A. flavus BXC01 and A. flavus CCC116-83 (0.021 and 0.027 meqO2 /kg, respectively). The results suggest that the EOs of OCor, OMen, OCom, Mi, Mp, and Sui grown in Argentina can be used as natural alternatives to control fungi that produce mycotoxin in maize. PMID:25376651

Camiletti, Boris X; Asensio, Claudia M; Pecci, María de la Paz Giménez; Lucini, Enrique I

2014-12-01

376

Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.  

PubMed

Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. PMID:25392351

Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

2015-01-01

377

Identification of Aspergillus species using internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2.  

PubMed

Aspergillus species are the most frequent cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. Although over 180 species are found within the genus, 3 species, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and A. terreus, account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. ustus being rare causes of IA. The ability to distinguish between the various clinically relevant Aspergillus species may have diagnostic value, as certain species are associated with higher mortality and increased virulence and vary in their resistance to antifungal therapy. A method to identify Aspergillus at the species level and differentiate it from other true pathogenic and opportunistic molds was developed using the 18S and 28S rRNA genes for primer binding sites. The contiguous internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, ITS 1-5.8S-ITS 2, from referenced strains and clinical isolates of aspergilli and other fungi were amplified, sequenced, and compared with non-reference strain sequences in GenBank. ITS amplicons from Aspergillus species ranged in size from 565 to 613 bp. Comparison of reference strains and GenBank sequences demonstrated that both ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions were needed for accurate identification of Aspergillus at the species level. Intraspecies variation among clinical isolates and reference strains was minimal. Sixteen other pathogenic molds demonstrated less than 89% similarity with Aspergillus ITS 1 and 2 sequences. A blind study of 11 clinical isolates was performed, and each was correctly identified. Clinical application of this approach may allow for earlier diagnosis and selection of effective antifungal agents for patients with IA. PMID:10747135

Henry, T; Iwen, P C; Hinrichs, S H

2000-04-01

378

Determination of isavuconazole susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida species by the EUCAST method.  

PubMed

Isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the FDA as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase III clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. In this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 Aspergillus and 2,010 Candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by EUCAST methodology at four European mycology laboratories, producing the largest multicenter data set thus far for this compound. In addition, a blinded collection of 30 cyp51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates and 10 wild-type isolates was tested. From these two data sets, the following preliminary epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values were suggested: 2 mg/liter for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus; 4 mg/liter for Aspergillus niger; 0.25 mg/liter for Aspergillus nidulans; and 0.03 mg/liter for Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Unfortunately, ECOFFs could not be determined for Candida glabrata or Candida krusei due to an unexplained interlaboratory MIC variation. For the blinded collection of A. fumigatus isolates, all MICs were ?2 mg/liter for wild-type isolates. Differential isavuconazole MICs were observed for triazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates with different cyp51A alterations: TR34/L98H mutants had elevated isavuconazole MICs, whereas isolates with G54 and M220 alterations had MICs in the wild-type range, suggesting that the efficacy of isavuconazole may not be affected by these alterations. This study will be an aid in interpreting isavuconazole MICs for clinical care and an important step in the future process of setting official clinical breakpoints. PMID:23959309

Howard, Susan J; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Arendrup, Maiken C

2013-11-01

379

Determination of Isavuconazole Susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida Species by the EUCAST Method  

PubMed Central

Isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the FDA as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase III clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. In this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 Aspergillus and 2,010 Candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by EUCAST methodology at four European mycology laboratories, producing the largest multicenter data set thus far for this compound. In addition, a blinded collection of 30 cyp51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates and 10 wild-type isolates was tested. From these two data sets, the following preliminary epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values were suggested: 2 mg/liter for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus; 4 mg/liter for Aspergillus niger; 0.25 mg/liter for Aspergillus nidulans; and 0.03 mg/liter for Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Unfortunately, ECOFFs could not be determined for Candida glabrata or Candida krusei due to an unexplained interlaboratory MIC variation. For the blinded collection of A. fumigatus isolates, all MICs were ?2 mg/liter for wild-type isolates. Differential isavuconazole MICs were observed for triazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates with different cyp51A alterations: TR34/L98H mutants had elevated isavuconazole MICs, whereas isolates with G54 and M220 alterations had MICs in the wild-type range, suggesting that the efficacy of isavuconazole may not be affected by these alterations. This study will be an aid in interpreting isavuconazole MICs for clinical care and an important step in the future process of setting official clinical breakpoints. PMID:23959309

Howard, Susan J.; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia

2013-01-01

380

Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

381

Characterization of species of the Aspergillus section Nigri from corn field isolates co-infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus species and the potential for ochratoxin A production.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Aspergillus section Nigri, known as black-spored aspergilli, can contaminate several substrates including maize. Although some species within the group can produce plant disease symptoms such as black mold in onions and maize ear rot, the main concern with A. niger aggregate contamina...

382

Chemical stabilization of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger against thermal inactivation.  

PubMed

The applicability of crosslinking an enzyme to an oxidized polysaccharide by reductive alkylation to enhance thermostability has been investigated for glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger. Direct covalent coupling of the enzyme to periodate-oxidized dextran in the presence of NaBH(3)CN results in a conjugate which has thermal properties similar to those of the native enzyme. Our working hypothesis postulates that enhancement of thermostability will result from rigidification of the protein's conformation subsequent to the formation of multiple covalent bonds between the protein and the support. On the basis of the known characteristics of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger, it would seem necessary to introduce additional amino groups in the polypeptide chain of the protein. The incorporation of new amino groups was performed in two phases. First, the glycosidic part of glucoamylase was oxidized by periodate and the resulting aldehyde groups were reductively aminated by a diaminoalkane and NaBH(3)CIM. Secondly, additional amino groups were introduced on carboxyl functions into the previously aminated glucoamylase by a diaminoalkane and a water-soluble carbodiimide in the presence of maltose to protect the active site. The final derivative was then coupled to periodate-oxidized dextran T-70 in the presence of NaBH(3)CN. Starting with native glucoamylase, three successive operations give rise to a conjugate which retained 27% of the initial activity when measured with soluble starch and 39% when measured with maltopentaose. Using substrates of various sizes, it was observed that steric hindrance at the active site may result from covalent coupling to dextran T-70. It was demonstrated in heat inactivation experiments that the thermostability of the conjugate was in all cases superior to that of the native enzymes. Finally, it was observed that the operational stability of the conjugate was at least twice that of native glucoamylase at 70 degrees C on 18% maltodextrin. Additional experiments rule out the possibility that thermosta-bilization of the complex is due to other reasons than the increase in the amino content of the protein prior to crosslinking. Neither chemical modification, reticulation nor change in the net charge of the protein resulted in a derivative of glucoamylase which presented enhanced thermostability after conjugation. We conclude that for enzymes which have a low content of available amino groups, the thermostabilization method proposed previously by the present authors may still be applicable if additional amino groups are introduced into the protein prior to its crosslinking to an oxidized polysaccharide. This new example reinforces the generality of this method of stabilization. PMID:18584602

Lenders, J P; Crichton, R R

1988-02-20

383

A Genomics Based Discovery of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aspergillus ustus  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites (SMs) produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic. PMID:25706180

Pi, Borui; Yu, Dongliang; Dai, Fangwei; Song, Xiaoming; Zhu, Congyi; Li, Hongye; Yu, Yunsong

2015-01-01

384

Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. Case Report An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. Conclusions The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection. PMID:25848441

Ogawa, Masaki; Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

2015-01-01

385

Neutrophils mediate maturation and efflux of lung dendritic cells in response to Aspergillus fumigatus germ tubes.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening complication of neutrophil deficiency or dysfunction. Neutropenia has previously been associated with enhanced influx of CD11b-expressing conventional dendritic cells to the lungs in response to Aspergillus species, but whether neutrophils directly modulate the function of dendritic cells in this infection is not known. We hypothesized that, in the setting of intrapulmonary challenge with Aspergillus, neutrophils promote the maturation and traffic of lung conventional dendritic cells to draining mediastinal lymph nodes. We report that neutropenia results in a marked accumulation of dendritic cells in the lungs of mice challenged with Aspergillus but greatly diminishes their egress to mediastinal lymph nodes independent of neutrophil microbicidal functions. Furthermore, the phenotype of lung dendritic cells was more immature in neutropenic animals than in nonneutropenic mice exposed to the microorganism. Consistent with this, coincubation with neutrophils greatly enhanced the upregulation of costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells exposed to Aspergillus in vitro, a process that was dependent on cell contact and the dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN. Taken together, our data support an immunomodulatory cross talk between neutrophils and dendritic cells in the context of host response to Aspergillus that promotes the maturation and efflux of lung dendritic cells. PMID:22392929

Park, Stacy J; Burdick, Marie D; Mehrad, Borna

2012-05-01

386

Neutrophils Mediate Maturation and Efflux of Lung Dendritic Cells in Response to Aspergillus fumigatus Germ Tubes  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening complication of neutrophil deficiency or dysfunction. Neutropenia has previously been associated with enhanced influx of CD11b-expressing conventional dendritic cells to the lungs in response to Aspergillus species, but whether neutrophils directly modulate the function of dendritic cells in this infection is not known. We hypothesized that, in the setting of intrapulmonary challenge with Aspergillus, neutrophils promote the maturation and traffic of lung conventional dendritic cells to draining mediastinal lymph nodes. We report that neutropenia results in a marked accumulation of dendritic cells in the lungs of mice challenged with Aspergillus but greatly diminishes their egress to mediastinal lymph nodes independent of neutrophil microbicidal functions. Furthermore, the phenotype of lung dendritic cells was more immature in neutropenic animals than in nonneutropenic mice exposed to the microorganism. Consistent with this, coincubation with neutrophils greatly enhanced the upregulation of costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells exposed to Aspergillus in vitro, a process that was dependent on cell contact and the dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN. Taken together, our data support an immunomodulatory cross talk between neutrophils and dendritic cells in the context of host response to Aspergillus that promotes the maturation and efflux of lung dendritic cells. PMID:22392929

Park, Stacy J.; Burdick, Marie D.

2012-01-01

387

A Genomics Based Discovery of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aspergillus ustus.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites (SMs) produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic. PMID:25706180

Pi, Borui; Yu, Dongliang; Dai, Fangwei; Song, Xiaoming; Zhu, Congyi; Li, Hongye; Yu, Yunsong

2015-01-01

388

A real-time PCR for the detection and characterisation of Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

An early diagnosis of an invasive fungal infection is essential for the initiation of a specific antifungal therapy and to avoid unnecessary discontinuation of a baseline therapy for haematological or oncological diseases. A real-time PCR assay for the detection and strain identification of Aspergillus species from culture strains was evaluated. DNA preparation was evaluated in contaminated culture media, urine and serum. A LightCycler PCR to differentiate various Aspergillus species was established. A real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aspergillus species was improved and was able to detect and differentiate medically important Aspergillus spp. The sensitivity of the test was <10 plasmid equivalents/assay. The real-time PCR assay is a useful tool for the rapid identification of Aspergillus species and might be useful as an early diagnostic tool to detect an invasive fungal infection. A real-time PCR protocol was improved by generating plasmid standards, additional generation of melting curves for species identification and the correlation between the melting temperature and the nucleotide exchanges within the used 18S rRNA gene region. PMID:22151280

Fricke, Stephan; Fricke, Christian; Oelkrug, Christopher; Blatz, Rosemarie; Schönfelder, Uta; Niederwieser, Dietger; Hilger, Nadja; Ruhnke, Markus; Rodloff, Arne C

2012-09-01

389

The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: from rainforest to consumer.  

PubMed

A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and Săo Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and presence of aflatoxins. Aspergillus nomius was the most common species found (1235 isolates) which amounted to 30% of the total species with potential to produce aflatoxins. This species is of concern since 100% of all isolates produced aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Aspergillus flavus was almost equally common (1212 isolates) although only 46% produced aflatoxins under laboratory conditions, and only aflatoxins B(1) and B(2). Low number of other species with the potential to produce aflatoxins was isolated: Aspergillus arachidicola and Aspergillus bombycis produced B and G aflatoxins whilst Aspergillus pseudotamarii produced only aflatoxin B(1). The total aflatoxin levels found in samples taken from the rainforests was 0.7 ?g/kg, from processing plants before and after sorting 8.0 and 0.1 ?g/kg respectively, from street markets in the Amazon region 6.3 ?g/kg and from supermarkets in Săo Paulo State 0.2 ?g/kg. Processing, which included manual or mechanical sorting and drying at 60°C for 30 to 36 h, eliminated on average more than 98% of total aflatoxins. These results showed that sorting is a very effective way to decrease aflatoxin content in brazil nuts. PMID:23290234

Calderari, Thaiane O; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pitt, John I; Sartori, Daniele; Pereira, Jose Luiz; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Taniwaki, Marta H

2013-01-01

390

In vitro susceptibility of 188 clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus flavus for the new triazole isavuconazole and seven other antifungal drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently isavuconazole, an experimental triazole agent, was found to be active against Aspergillus species. As Aspergillus flavus is the second-most common Aspergillus species isolated from human infection and the fungus has not been widely tested against the drug, we studied a large collection of clinical (n = 178) and environmental (n = 10) strains of A. flavus against isavuconazole and

M. R. Shivaprakash; E. Geertsen; A. Chakrabarti; J. W. Mouton; J. F. G. M. Meis

2011-01-01

391

Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

2012-01-01

392

Proteomic profile of Aspergillus flavus in response to water activity.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus, a common contaminant of crops and stored grains, can produce aflatoxins that are harmful to humans and other animals. Water activity (aw) is one of the key factors influencing both fungal growth and mycotoxin production. In this study, we used the isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the effect of aw on the proteomic profile of A. flavus. A total of 3566 proteins were identified, of which 837 were differentially expressed in response to variations in aw. Among these 837 proteins, 403 were over-expressed at 0.99 aw, whereas 434 proteins were over-expressed at 0.93 aw. According to Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, the secretion of extracellular hydrolases increased as aw was raised, suggesting that extracellular hydrolases may play a critical role in induction of aflatoxin biosynthesis. On the basis of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) categorizations, we identified an exportin protein, KapK, that may down-regulate aflatoxin biosynthesis by changing the location of NirA. Finally, we considered the role of two osmotic stress-related proteins (Sln1 and Glo1) in the Hog1 pathway and investigated the expression patterns of proteins related to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The data uncovered in this study are critical for understanding the effect of water stress on toxin production and for the development of strategies to control toxin contamination of agricultural products. PMID:25749363

Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Hong; Han, Xiaoyun; Guo, Zhenni; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Yang, Kunlong; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

2015-03-01

393

Aspergillus, angiogenesis, and obesity: the story behind beloranib.  

PubMed

Fumagillin, an antimicrobial compound first isolated in 1949 from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, four decades later was unexpectedly found to inhibit angiogenesis. Interest in developing angiogenesis inhibitor drugs as possible treatments for cancer led to the synthesis of analogs of fumagillin. Preclinical studies of various analog drugs confirmed that they inhibited angiogenesis, but they also were associated with weight loss as an adverse effect. Because adipose tissue can grow and regress throughout adulthood, is highly vascularized, and has angiogenic properties, interest in investigating anti-angiogenic agents in animal models of obesity found that fumagillin analogs caused dose-dependent reversible weight reduction and adipose tissue loss. Beloranib, a fumagillin analog that is an angiogenesis inhibitor and associated with decreased adiposity in animals, has been studied in phase I clinical trials for cancer. It is currently being investigated for the treatment of obesity and related conditions. Three phase I and three phase II studies found significant degrees of weight loss and acceptable tolerability for beloranib compared to placebo, justifying further clinical development of the drug for obesity. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(3), 13-16.]. PMID:25751824

Howland, Robert H

2015-03-01

394

Immune responses against Aspergillus fumigatus: what have we learned?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive and allergenic disease. Host defense relies on the ability of the respiratory immune system to restrict spore germination into invasive hyphae and to limit fungus-induced or inflammation-induced damage in infected tissues. This review covers the molecular and cellular events that mediate innate and CD4 T-cell responses to A. fumigatus and fungal attributes that counter hostile microenvironments and, in turn, affect host responses. Recent findings Host recognition of fungal cell wall components is critical for fungal uptake, killing, and the formation of protective innate and CD4 T-cell effector populations. Beyond the known role of neutrophils and macrophages, circulating monocytes, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells contribute to optimal defense against A. fumigatus. Genetic and pharmacologic manipulation of A. fumigatus reveals that hypoxia adaptation, cell wall assembly, and secondary metabolite production in mammalian tissues contribute to fungal pathogenesis and the outcome of infection. Summary Greater understanding of the immune mechanisms that underlie protective responses and fungal pathways that promote microbial adaptation and growth in mammalian tissue provide a conceptual framework for improving current antifungal therapies. PMID:21666456

Cramer, Robert A.; Rivera, Amariliz; Hohl, Tobias M.

2013-01-01

395

Does farm fungicide use induce azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed

Azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates has been reported worldwide and it would appear to be mainly due to a point mutation in the 14?-sterol demethylase (CYP51A) gene, which is the target enzyme for azoles. The mutation has been confirmed in isolates from patients who received long-term itraconazole (ITZ) therapy and from agricultural fields where high levels of azole fungicides were employed. However, the relationship between farm environments and azole-resistant A. fumigatus has not been fully studied. In this investigation, 50 isolates of A. fumigatus were obtained from a farm where tetraconazole has been sprayed twice a year for more than 15 years. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolates was 0.74 (0.19-1.5) mg/L against ITZ, which was below the medical resistance level of ITZ. The sequence of CYP51A from isolates indicated no gene mutations in isolates from the farm. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates to tetraconazole showed that spraying with tetraconazole did not induce resistance to tetraconazole or ITZ in A. fumigatus. PMID:25541556

Kano, Rui; Kohata, Erina; Tateishi, Akira; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Hirose, Dai; Shibata, Yasuko; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

2015-02-01

396

Rapid genome resequencing of an atoxigenic strain of Aspergillus carbonarius  

PubMed Central

In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5?Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36?Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involved in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. PMID:25765923

Cabańes, F. Javier; Sanseverino, Walter; Castellá, Gemma; Bragulat, M. Rosa; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Sánchez, Armand

2015-01-01

397

Riboflavin Level Manipulates the Successive Developmental Sequences in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Auxotrophic markers are useful in fungal genetic analysis. Among the auxotrophic markers, riboB2 is one of the most commonly used markers in many laboratory strains. However, riboB2 mutants in Aspergillus nidulans confer self-sterility and thus are unable to form hybrid cleistothecia by outcross when both parent strains harbor riboB2 auxotrophic marker under the standard protocol. To assess the role of riboflavin during the different developmental stages of A. nidulans, the limited concentrations of riboflavin were monitored. The commonly used dosage of riboflavin (2.5 µg/ml) in the standard medium recipe is enough for hyphal growth and conidiation in the riboflavin auxotrophic riboB2 mutants (enough at 0.02 and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively) in A. nidulans. However, the dosage is not enough to support mature cleistothecium formation. Furthermore, the self-sterile defects in riboB2 mutants on standard medium could be restored by the addition of 25 ?g/ml riboflavin, although the required riboflavin concentrations are varied in different genotype strains in A. nidulans. Most importantly, the outcross between riboB2 mutants could also be achieved by the supply of riboflavin in the sexual developmental stage. Our results highlight the potential roles of auxotrophic markers in the development of fungi and improve the efficiency of the genetic analysis in A. nidulans. PMID:25567479

Zheng, Hailin; Zhang, Shenghua; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

2015-05-01

398

Isolation and toxigenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus from moldy silage.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine silage samples were collected from various silos on Terceira Island in the Azores. Samples were examined for the presence of total fungi, and isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus were analyzed for their ability to produce fumitremorgens B and C, fumigaclavines B and C, and gliotoxin. Thirty-four silage samples (87%) were contaminated with fungi, and A. fumigatus was isolated from 27 samples (69%). Samples that were taken from the surface of silos had significantly higher populations of both total fungi and A. fumigatus than did samples taken from the middle of silos. Analysis of 27 A. fumigatus isolates (one representing each positive sample) showed that 59.3% produced fumitremorgen B; 33.3% produced fumitremorgen C; 29.6% produced fumigaclavine B; 7.4% produced fumigaclavine C; and 11.1% produced gliotoxin. Fifty-two percent of the isolates produced multiple toxins, and 25.9% did not produce any of these toxins. Gliotoxin and fumigaclavine C were always produced in combination with other toxins. Because of the demonstrated potential of these A. fumigatus isolates to produce mycotoxins, it is important to properly construct and manage silos to prevent their contamination with A. fumigatus. PMID:12733634

dos Santos, Valentina Melo; Dorner, Joe W; Carreira, Fátima

2003-01-01

399

Facile production of Aspergillus niger ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in yeast.  

PubMed

?-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase (?-GalNAc-ase; EC.3.2.1.49) is an exoglycosidase specific for the hydrolysis of terminal ?-linked N-acetylgalactosamine in various sugar chains. The cDNA corresponding to the ?-GalNAc-ase gene was cloned from Aspergillus niger, sequenced, and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ?-GalNAc-ase gene contains an open reading frame which encodes a protein of 487 amino acid residues. The molecular mass of the mature protein deduced from the amino acid sequence of this reading frame is 54 kDa. The recombinant protein was purified to apparent homogeneity and biochemically characterized (pI4.4, K(M) 0.56 mmol/l for 2-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-galactopyranoside, and optimum enzyme activity was achieved at pH2.0-2.4 and 50-55°C). Its molecular weight was determined by analytical ultracentrifuge measurement and dynamic light scattering. Our experiments confirmed that the recombinant ?-GalNAc-ase exists as two distinct species (70 and 130 kDa) compared to its native form, which is purely monomeric. N-Glycosylation was confirmed at six of the eight potential N-glycosylation sites in both wild type and recombinant ?-GalNAc-ase. PMID:21982820

Mrázek, Hynek; Benada, Old?ich; Man, Petr; Van?k, Ond?ej; K?en, Vladimír; Bezouška, Karel; Weignerová, Lenka

2012-01-01

400

Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Recombinant Aspergillus niger?  

PubMed Central

A recombinant Aspergillus niger strain expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was grown on spent hydrolysates (stillage) from sugarcane bagasse and spruce wood. The spent hydrolysates served as excellent growth media for the Cel7B-producing strain, A. niger D15[egI], which displayed higher endoglucanase activities in the spent hydrolysates than in standard medium with a comparable monosaccharide content (e.g., 2,100 nkat/ml in spent bagasse hydrolysate compared to 480 nkat/ml in standard glucose-based medium). In addition, A. niger D15[egI] was also able to consume or convert other lignocellulose-derived compounds, such as acetic acid, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds, which are recognized as inhibitors of yeast during ethanolic fermentation. The results indicate that enzymes can be produced from the stillage stream as a high-value coproduct in second-generation bioethanol plants in a way that also facilitates recirculation of process water. PMID:19251882

Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

2009-01-01

401

Control of Ras-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Pathogenic fungi employ numerous mechanisms to flourish in the stressful environment encountered within their mammalian hosts. Central to this arsenal for filamentous fungi is invasive growth within the host microenvironment, mediated by establishment and maintenance of polarized hyphal morphogenesis. In Aspergillus fumigatus, the RasA signal transduction pathway has emerged as a significant regulator of hyphal morphogenesis and virulence, among other processes. The factors contributing to the regulation of RasA itself are not as thoroughly understood, although proper temporal activation of RasA and spatial localization of RasA to the plasma membrane are known to play major roles. Interference with RasA palmitoylation or prenylation results in mislocalization of RasA and is associated with severe growth deficits. In addition, dysregulation of RasA activation results in severe morphologic aberrancies and growth deficits. This review highlights the relationship between RasA signaling, hyphal morphogenesis, and virulence in A. fumigatus and focuses on potential determinants of spatial and temporal RasA regulation. PMID:24952717

Norton, Tiffany S; Fortwendel, Jarrod R

2014-12-01

402

Genetic control of asexual development in aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Conidia, the asexual spores, serve as the main dispersal and infection agent allowing entrance of the fungus into the host through the respiratory tract. Therefore, understanding the asexual developmental process that gives rise to the conidia is of great interest to the scientific community and is currently the focus of an immense load of research being conducted. We have been studying the genetic basis that controls asexual development and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus. In this review, we discuss the genetic regulatory system that dictates conidiation in this important fungus by covering the roles of crucial genetic factors from the upstream heterotrimeric G-protein signaling components to the more specific downstream central activators of the conidiation pathway. In addition, other key asexual regulators including the velvet regulators, the Flb proteins and their associated regulatory factors are discussed. PMID:25596030

Alkhayyat, Fahad; Chang Kim, Sun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2015-01-01

403

Biocatalytic synthesis of butein and sulfuretin by Aspergillus alliaceus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus alliaceus UI315 was examined for its potential to catalyze biotransformation reactions of chalcones that mimic plant biosynthetic processes. 3-(4' '-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)propenone (4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone, isoliquiritigein) (1) was efficiently transformed to two major metabolites that were isolated chromatographically and identified by spectroscopic methods as 3-(3' ',4' '-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-(2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)propenone (butein) (7) and 2-[(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene]-6-hydroxy-3(2H)benzofuranone (7,3',4'-trihydroxyaurone, sulfuretin) (10). Inhibition experiments suggested that initial C-3 hydroxylation of 1 to 7 was catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 enzyme system. A second A. alliaceus enzyme, partially purified and identified as a catechol oxidase, catalyzed the oxidation of the catechol butein (7) likely through an ortho-quinone (8) that cyclized to the aurone product 10. This work showed that A. alliaceus UI315 contains oxidative enzyme systems capable of converting phenolic chalcones such as 1 into aurones such as 10 in a process that mimics plant biosynthetic pathways. PMID:16787010

Sanchez-Gonzalez, Monica; Rosazza, John P N

2006-06-28

404

Glycosidases induced in Aspergillus tamarii. Mycelial alpha-D-galactosidases.  

PubMed Central

Two alpha-D-galactosidases (alpha-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.22) produced by Aspergillus tamarii were purified from the mycelial extract by a procedure including chromatography on hydroxyapatite, DEAE-cellulose and ECTEOLA-cellulose. Each of these enzymes showed a single protein band corresponding to the alpha-D-galactosidase activity when examined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. They catalysed the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, but did not attack the galactomannans. Their Mr values were respectively 265000 +/- 5000 and 254000 +/- 5000 by the method of Hedrick & Smith [(1968) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 126, 155-164]. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate in each case showed a single protein band, with Mr 88000 and 77500 respectively. The purified enzymes contained carbohydrate, consisting of N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, glucose and galactose in the estimated molar proportions of 1:9:5:8 in alpha-galactosidase I. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6331398

Civas, A; Eberhard, R; Le Dizet, P; Petek, F

1984-01-01

405

Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose – Chitin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens. PMID:22003399

Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Parker, Craig T.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

2011-01-01

406

Using Aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.  

PubMed

Systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. Most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). Antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. Identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. We used Aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tractable sexual cycle and calcofluor white as a model antifungal agent to cross-reference our results with other studies. Within 2 weeks from inoculation on sublethal doses of calcofluor white, we isolated 24 A. nidulans adaptive strains from sectoring colonies. Meiotic analysis showed that these strains had single-gene mutations. In each case, the resistance was specific to calcofluor white, since there was no cross-resistance to caspofungin (echinocandin). Mutation sites were identified in two mutants by next-generation sequencing. These were confirmed by reengineering the mutation in a wild-type strain using a gene replacement strategy. One of these mutated genes was related to cell wall synthesis, and the other one was related to drug metabolism. Our strategy has wide application for many fungal species, for antifungal compounds used in agriculture as well as health care, and potentially during protracted drug therapy once drug resistance arises. We suggest that our strategy will be useful for keeping ahead in the drug resistance arms race. PMID:24363365

He, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shengnan; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

2014-02-01

407

Biotransformation of ?-bromoacetophenones by the marine fungus Aspergillus sydowii.  

PubMed

The biotransformation reactions of ?-bromoacetophenone (1), p-bromo-?-bromoacetophenone (2), and p-nitro-?-bromoacetophenone (3) by whole cells of the marine fungus Aspergillus sydowii Ce19 have been investigated. Fungal cells that had been grown in artificial sea water medium containing a high concentration of chloride ions (1.20 M) catalysed the biotransformation of 1 to 2-bromo-1-phenylethanol 4 (56%), together with the ?-chlorohydrin 7 (9%), 1-phenylethan-1,2-diol 9 (26%), acetophenone 10 (4%) and phenylethanol 11 (5%) identified by GC-MS analysis. In addition, it was observed that the enzymatic reaction was accompanied by the spontaneous debromination of 1 to yield ?-chloroacetophenone 5 (9%) and ?-hydroxyacetophenone 6 (18%) identified by GC-FID analysis. When 2 and 3 were employed as substrates, various biotransformation products were detected but the formation of halohydrins was not observed. It is concluded that marine fungus A. sydowii Ce19 presents potential for the biotransformations of bromoacetophenone derivatives. PMID:19941024

Rocha, Lenilson Coutinho; Ferreira, Hercules Vicente; Pimenta, Eli Fernando; Berlinck, Roberto Gomes Souza; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Landgraf, Maria Diva; Seleghim, Mirna Helena Regali; Sette, Lara Durăes; Porto, André Luiz Meleiro

2010-10-01

408

Purification and properties of beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus  

SciTech Connect

A beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from the fungus Aspergillus terreus was purified to homogeneity as indicated by disc acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Optimal activity was observed at pH 4.8 and 50 degrees C. The beta-glucosidase had Km values of 0.78 and 0.40 mM for p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and cellobiose, respectively. Glucose was a competitive inhibitor, with a Ki of 3.5 mM when p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside was used as the substrate. The specific activity of the enzyme was found to be 210 IU and 215 U per mg of protein on p-nitrophenyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside and cellobiose substrates, respectively. Cations, proteases, and enzyme inhibitors had little or no effect on the enzyme activity. The beta-glucosidase was found to be a glycoprotein containing 65% carbohydrate by weight. It had a Stokes radius of 5.9 nm and an approximate molecular weight of 275,000. The affinity and specific activity that the isolated beta-glucosidase exhibited for cellobiose compared favorably with the values obtained for beta-glucosidases from other organisms being studied for use in industrial cellulose saccharification. (Refs. 34).

Workman, W.E.; Day, D.F.

1982-12-01

409

Production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF.  

PubMed

The production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF for the biocontrol of Phytophthora disease was investigated in submerged fermentation using media composed of different nutrients. Soluble starch was found to be the most effective substrate among the carbon sources used, and produced the highest penicillic acid concentration of 2.98 mg ml(-1). When organic nitrogen sources were used, pharmamedia, yeast extract, and polypeptone-S were found to be suitable organic nitrogen sources (2.46-2.71 mg ml(-1)). The production of penicillic acid was not detected in when inorganic nitrogen sources were used. Only Na2HPO4, among the metal ions and phosphate salts tested, increased the production of penicillic acid (approximately 20%). When A. sclerotiorum CGF was cultured in optimal medium [8.0% (w/v) soluble starch, 0.6% (w/v) yeast extract, and 0.3% (w/v) Na2HPO4], maximum penicillic acid concentration (approximately 9.40 mg ml(-1)) and cell mass (approximately 17.4 g l(-1)) were obtained after 12 days. PMID:16458001

Kang, S W; Park, C H; Hong, S I; Kim, S W

2007-01-01

410

Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism.  

PubMed

A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their kinetic properties were characterized. For the other enzymes of the pathway the kinetic data were available from the literature. The metabolic model was used to analyze flux and metabolite concentration control of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway. The model demonstrated that flux control does not reside at the enzyme following the intermediate with the highest concentration, L-arabitol, but is distributed over the first three steps in the pathway, preceding and following L-arabitol. Flux control appeared to be strongly dependent on the intracellular L-arabinose concentration. At 5 mM intracellular L-arabinose, a level that resulted in realistic intermediate concentrations in the model, flux control coefficients for L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and L-xylulose reductase were 0.68, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The analysis can be used as a guide to identify targets for metabolic engineering aiming at either flux or metabolite level optimization of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway of A. niger. Faster L-arabinose utilization may enhance utilization of readily available organic waste containing hemicelluloses to be converted into industrially interesting metabolites or valuable enzymes or proteins. PMID:16321042

de Groot, Marco J L; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, Jaap; Ruijter, George J G

2005-01-01

411

Aspergillus Enzymes Involved in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides is of major importance in the food and feed, beverage, textile, and paper and pulp industries, as well as in several other industrial production processes. Enzymatic degradation of these polymers has received attention for many years and is becoming a more and more attractive alternative to chemical and mechanical processes. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the structural characteristics of these polysaccharides and in characterizing the enzymes involved in their degradation and the genes of biotechnologically relevant microorganisms encoding these enzymes. The members of the fungal genus Aspergillus are commonly used for the production of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. This genus produces a wide spectrum of cell wall-degrading enzymes, allowing not only complete degradation of the polysaccharides but also tailored modifications by using specific enzymes purified from these fungi. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from aspergilli and the genes by which they are encoded. PMID:11729262

de Vries, Ronald P.; Visser, Jaap

2001-01-01

412

Isolation of Two Apsa Suppressor Strains in Aspergillus Nidulans  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually with single nucleated conidia. In apsA (anucleate primary sterigmata) strains, nuclear positioning is affected and conidiation is greatly reduced. To get further insights into the cellular functions of apsA, aconidial apsA strains were mutagenized and conidiating suppressor strains were isolated. The suppressors fell into two complementation groups, samA and samB (suppressor of anucleate metulae). samA mapped on linkage group I close to pyrG. The mutant allele was dominant in diploids homozygous for apsA. Viability of conidia of samA suppressor strains (samA(-); apsA(-)) was reduced to 50% in comparison to wild-type conidia. Eighty percent of viable spores produced small size colonies that were temperature- and benomyl-sensitive. samB mapped to chromosome VIII and was recessive. Viability of conidia from samB suppressor strains (apsA(-); samB(-)) was also affected but no small size colonies were observed. Both suppressors produced partial defects in sexual reproduction and both suppressed an apsA deletion mutation. In wild-type background the mutant loci affected hyphal growth rate (samA) or changed the colony morphology (samB) and inhibited sexual spore formation (samA and samB). Only subtle effects on conidiation were found. We conclude that both suppressor genes bypass the apsA function and are involved in microtubule-dependent processes. PMID:8889518

Kruger, M.; Fischer, R.

1996-01-01

413

Rapid genome resequencing of an atoxigenic strain of Aspergillus carbonarius.  

PubMed

In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5?Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36?Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involved in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. PMID:25765923

Cabańes, F Javier; Sanseverino, Walter; Castellá, Gemma; Bragulat, M Rosa; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Sánchez, Armand

2015-01-01

414

[Lipid metabolism in Aspergillus niger under conditions of heat shock].  

PubMed

The processes of lipid synthesis and decomposition in Aspergillus niger under conditions of heat shock (HS) were studied in a pulse-chase experiment with 14C-labeled sodium acetate. HS (60 min) resulted in the synthesis of phospholipids and sphingolipids intensified compared tothe.control, as was evident from incorporation of the labeled substrate. The same pattern was observed for neutral lipids, especially for triacylglycerides, while incorporation of the label into sterols remained almost the same. Further cultivation for 3 h in the medium without the labeled substrate resulted in a significant decrease of the label content in the membrane lipids of both the control and the experiment, although under HS conditions this decrease was much more pronounced, especially for phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. A threefold increase of the label content in phosphatidic acids was observed only under HS conditions. These results indicate more intense metabolism of the membrane lipids under heat shock and suggest the degradation of the major cell phospholipids as the factor responsible for the increased level of phosphatidic acids in A. niger mycelium. PMID:25509390

Tereshina, V M; Memorskaia, A S; Kotlova, E R

2013-01-01

415

Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem  

PubMed Central

One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

2013-01-01

416

Investigation of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation by various "omics" approaches.  

PubMed

In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF). This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment. This extracellular matrix is absent in fungal colonies grown under classical liquid shake conditions (PL), which were historically used to understand A. fumigatus pathobiology. Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence. These differences in pathological and physiological characteristics between BF and liquid shake conditions suggest that the PL condition is a poor in vitro disease model. In the laboratory, A. fumigatus mycelium embedded by the extracellular matrix can be produced in vitro in aerial condition using an agar-based medium. To provide a global and accurate understanding of A. fumigatus in vitro BF growth, we utilized microarray, RNA-sequencing, and proteomic analysis to compare the global gene and protein expression profiles of A. fumigatus grown under BF and PL conditions. In this review, we will present the different signatures obtained with these three "omics" methods. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and their complementarity. PMID:23407341

Muszkieta, Laetitia; Beauvais, Anne; Pähtz, Vera; Gibbons, John G; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Beau, Rémi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Rokas, Antonis; Francois, Jean M; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A; Latgé, Jean P

2013-01-01

417

Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep.  

PubMed

A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek) and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy. PMID:19653520

Botha, C J; Truter, M; Bredell, T; Lange, L; Mülders, M S G

2009-03-01

418

Regulation of Conidiation by Light in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. To understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used Aspergillus nidulans as a model. We have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify >400 genes upregulated and >100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. Among the upregulated genes were genes required for the regulation of asexual development, one of the major biological responses to light in A. nidulans, which is a pathway controlled by the master regulatory gene brlA. The expression of brlA, like conidiation, is induced by light. A detailed analysis of brlA light regulation revealed increased expression after short exposures with a maximum after 60 min of light followed by photoadaptation with longer light exposures. In addition to brlA, genes flbA–C and fluG are also light regulated, and flbA–C are required for the correct light-dependent regulation of the upstream regulator fluG. We have found that light induction of brlA required the photoreceptor complex composed of a phytochrome FphA, and the white-collar homologs LreA and LreB, and the fluffy genes flbA–C. We propose that the activation of regulatory genes by light is the key event in the activation of asexual development by light in A. nidulans. PMID:21624998

Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Fernández-Barranco, Raul; Olmedo, María; Fischer, Reinhard; Corrochano, Luis M.; Canovas, David

2011-01-01

419

Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus flavus by Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei KC-324 was tested for its ability to inhibit aflatoxin production and mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 in liquid culture. Aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and mycelial growth were inhibited in both simultaneous culture and individual antagonism assays,suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolites produced in cell-free supernatant fluids of the cultured broth of L. casei KC-324. In cell-free supernatant fluids of all media tested,deMan,Rogosa and Sharpe broth,potato dextrose broth,and Czapek-Dox broth + 1% yeast extract showed higher antiaflatoxigenic activity. In these case, fungal growths, however, was not affected as measured by mycelial dry weight. The antiaflatoxigenic metabolites from L. casei KC-324 were produced over wide range of temperatures between 25? and 37?. However, these metabolites were not thermostable since the inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 30 minutes at 100? and 121?. The inhibitory activity was not influenced by changing pH of supernatant between 4 and 10. However,the antiaflatoxigenic activity was slightly reduced at pH 10. PMID:24015075

Chang, Injeong

2007-01-01

420

Correlation between in-vitro susceptibility testing to itraconazole and in-vivo outcome of Aspergillus fumigatus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increased choice of therapeutic agents and the rising incidence of serious invasive disease, it is important that reliable in-vitro methods for detecting antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus spp. are developed. Six clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, obtained from patients in whom the clinical outcome was known, were selected for study. Each was used to examine a range of

D. W. Denning; S. A. Radford; K. L. Oakley; L. Hall; E. M. Johnson; D. W. Warnock

1997-01-01

421

Aspergillus flavus biomass in maize estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is strongly correlated with aflatoxin concentration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot of maize and produces aflatoxins. There are published assertions that resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and pathogen colonization are distinct traits in maize. However, the levels of colonization are difficult to characterize for a pathogen such as ...

422

Induction of contour sensing in Aspergillus niger by stress and its relevance to fungal growth mechanics and hyphal tip structure  

E-print Network

Induction of contour sensing in Aspergillus niger by stress and its relevance to fungal growth to investigate the thigmotropic reactions of the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus niger. This organism not appear to demonstrate thigmotropic growth under normal conditions. Our results show that A. niger undergoes significant

Davidson, Fordyce A.

423

Distribution and Toxigenicity of Aspergillus Species Isolated from Maize Kernels from Three Agro-ecological Zones in Nigeria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize samples were collected during a survey in three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria to determine the distribution and aflatoxin-producing potential of members of Aspergillus section Flavi. Among Aspergillus, A. flavus was the most predominant and L-strains constituted > 90% of the species identi...

424

Detection of Aspergillus DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Cerebral Aspergillosis by a Nested PCR Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis (IA), a complication with high mortality rates, especially in disseminated IA with cerebral involvement, is difficult to diagnose. Biopsy of cerebral lesions is often not feasible, and culture of Aspergillus spp. from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is frequently negative. New molecular methods have emerged for diagnosing IA. So far, there are only few reports of Aspergillus DNA detection in

M. Hummel; B. Spiess; K. Kentouche; S. Niggemann; C. Bohm; S. Reuter; M. Kiehl; H. Morz; R. Hehlmann; D. Buchheidt

2006-01-01

425

Distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus species isolated from maize kernels from three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria  

E-print Network

Distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus species isolated from maize kernels from three agro agro-ecological zones in Nigeria to determine the distribution and aflatoxin-producing potential of members of Aspergillus section Flavi. The three agro-ecological zones were, Derived Savannah (DS

Cotty, Peter J.

426

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera.  

PubMed

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) (?=?DSM 26257(T)?=?CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) (?=?DSM 26254(T)?=?CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) (?=?DSM 26255(T)?=?CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) (?=?DSM 26256(T)?=?CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) (?=?DSM 26263(T)?=?CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) (?=?DSM 26265(T)?=?CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) (?=?DSM 26262(T)?=?CCUG 63631(T)). PMID:24944337

Olofsson, Tobias C; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-09-01

427

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT (?=?DSM 26257T?=?CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT (?=?DSM 26254T?=?CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT (?=?DSM 26255T?=?CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT (?=?DSM 26256T?=?CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT (?=?DSM 26263T?=?CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT (?=?DSM 26265T?=?CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT (?=?DSM 26262T?=?CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Čile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-01-01

428

Detection of Aspergillus carbonarius and other black aspergilli from grapes by DNA OLISA microarray.  

PubMed

Black aspergilli, and particularly Aspergillus carbonarius, are responsible for ochratoxin A production in grapes. Correct identification of these species is essential for toxicological risk assessment in grape and wine. A low-complexity oligonucleotide microarray (OLISA, Apibio, F) based on DNA oligonucleotides probes, obtained from sequences of the calmodulin gene, was set up in order to detect A. carbonarius, A. japonicus/A. aculeatus and A. ibericus isolated from grape. The designed microarray distinguished all Aspergillus species and the detection limit for A. carbonarius was 3.2 pg of DNA as a template for the PCR reaction. This microarray offers a quick and parallel analysis to detect individual Aspergillus species in pure cultures and in naturally contaminated grape samples. PMID:17886186

Bufflier, E; Susca, A; Baud, M; Mulč, G; Brengel, K; Logrieco, A

2007-10-01

429

Argonne's SpEC Module  

SciTech Connect

Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

Harper, Jason

2014-05-05

430

Argonne's SpEC Module  

ScienceCinema

Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

Harper, Jason

2014-06-05

431

The Sp(1)-Kepler Problems  

E-print Network

Let $n\\ge 2$ be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation $\\sigma$ of $\\mathrm{Sp}(1)$, an $\\mathrm{Sp}(1)$-Kepler problem in dimension $(4n-3)$ is constructed and analyzed. This system is super integrable and when $n=2$ it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension five. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is $\\widetilde {\\mathrm O}^*(4n)$ with the Hilbert space of bound states ${\\mathscr H}(\\sigma)$ being the unitary highest weight representation of $\\widetilde {\\mathrm {O}^*}(4n)$ with highest weight $$(\\underbrace{-1, ..., -1}_{2n-1}, -(1+\\bar\\sigma)),$$ which occurs at the right-most nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here $\\bar\\sigma$ is the highest weight of $\\sigma$. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence $\\sigma\\leftrightarrow \\mathscr H(\\sigma)$ is the theta-correspondence for dual pair $(\\mathrm{Sp}(1), \\mathrm{O}^*(4n))\\subseteq\\mathrm{Sp}_{8n}(\\mathbb R)$.

Guowu Meng

2010-03-05

432

The Sp(1)-Kepler problems  

SciTech Connect

Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

Meng Guowu [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2009-07-15

433

A CHRONOLOGY NASA SP-4009  

E-print Network

the vantage point of the first Apollo Project Office Manager. It is hoped that it will aid the useri - A CHRONOLOGY #12;#12;NASA SP-4009 THE APOLLO SPACECRAFT A CHRONOLOGY VOLUME I Through November The chronology of the development of the Apollo spacecraft and the lunar mission provides specific documented

Rathbun, Julie A.

434

NASA SP-4214 HASGONE BEFORE  

E-print Network

) Supt. of Docs. no.: NAS 1.21:4214 1. Project Apollo (U.S.)--History. I. United States. NationalNASA SP-4214 HERENO MAN HASGONE BEFORE AHistoryofApolloLunarExplorationMissions William David, who would have to provide the money, and was accepted by a majority of Ameri- cans. But Apollo

Rathbun, Julie A.

435

Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-01-01

436

Aspergillus Collagen-Like Genes (acl): Identification, Sequence Polymorphism, and Assessment for PCR-Based Pathogen Detection  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus is a burden to public health due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, its production of allergens, and wide demographic susceptibility among cystic fibrosis, asthmatic, and immunosuppressed patients. Current methods of detection of Aspergillus colonization and infection rely on lengthy morphological characterization or nonstandardized serological assays that are restricted to identifying a fungal etiology. Collagen-like genes have been shown to exhibit species-specific conservation across the noncollagenous regions as well as strain-specific polymorphism in the collagen-like regions. Here we assess the conserved region of the Aspergillus collagen-like (acl) genes and explore the application of PCR amplicon size-based discrimination among the five most common etiologic species of the Aspergillus genus, including Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus. Genetic polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of the aclF1 gene were additionally examined among the available strains. Furthermore, the applicability of the PCR-based assay to identification of these five species in cultures derived from sputum and bronchoalveolar fluid from 19 clinical samples was explored. Application of capillary electrophoresis on nanogels was additionally demonstrated to improve the discrimination between Aspergillus species. Overall, this study demonstrated that Aspergillus acl genes could be used as PCR targets to discriminate between clinically relevant Aspergillus species. Future studies aim to utilize the detection of Aspergillus acl genes in PCR and microfluidic applications to determine the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Aspergillus colonization and invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised subjects. PMID:24123732

Tuntevski, Kiril; Durney, Brandon C.; Snyder, Anna K.; LaSala, P. Rocco; Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Rio, Rita V. M.; Holland, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

437

[Studies on the beta-D-fucosidase from Aspergillus phoenicis].  

PubMed

Although beta-D-fucosidase (beta-D-fucoside fucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.38) has been isolated from various sources, the identity of this enzyme is still not settled. We have purified a specific beta-D-fucosidase in electrophoretically homogeneous form crude extracts of Aspergillus phoenicis by polyethyleneglycol 6000-phosphate buffer aqueous two-phase separation, and successive chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, hydroxyapatite and Sephadex G-100 columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 57000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 50000 to 60000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme showed optimum coside were 2.4mmol/L, and 1.28 mumol min-1 the pH range 5.5-6.5 and below 35 degrees C. The Km and the Vmax values for pNP-beta-D-fucoside were 2.4mmol/L, and 1.28 mumol.min-1.mg-1 respectively. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by sulfhydryl group reagents, PCMB-NEM and iodoacetate. It was also inhibited by EDC, DEP and NBS. Thus, -SH, -COOH groups, histidyl and tryptophyl residues were essential for enzyme activity. The purified beta-D-fucosidase showed high specificity toward p-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucoside. The enzyme was inhibited by D-fucose and D-fucono-gamma-lactone, but not by D-galactose, D-galactono-gamma-lactone, D-glucose or D-glucono-gamma-lactone; the latter compounds are specific inhibitors of beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucosidase respectively. Thus, this enzyme is the most strictly specific beta-D-fucosidase when compared with those previously reported. PMID:1598757

Zeng, Y; Li, Y; Gu, Y; Zhang, S

1992-04-01

438

An alternative insect pathogenic strategy in an Aspergillus flavus auxotroph.  

PubMed

In order to study fungal pathogen evolution, we used a model system whereby the opportunistic fungus Aspergillus flavus was serially propagated through the insect (Galleria mellonella) larvae, yielding a cysteine/methionine auxotroph of A. flavus with properties of an obligate insect pathogen. The auxotroph exhibited insect host restriction but did not show any difference in virulence when compared with the wild-type (Scully LR, Bidochka MJ, 2006. Microbiology 152, 223-232). Here, we report that on 1% insect cuticle medium and synthetic Galleria medium, the auxotroph displayed increased extracellular protease production, a virulence factor necessary for insect pathogenesis. In the wild-type strain, protease production was deregulated during carbon (glucose), nitrogen (nitrate), or sulphate deprivation. If all three were present, protease production was vastly reduced. However, in the cysteine/methionine auxotroph, protease production was deregulated in complete medium. We suggest that the deficiency in sulphate assimilation in the auxotroph resulted in deregulation of protease production. The auxotroph exhibited delayed germination and slower hyphal growth when compared to the wild-type but there were no differences in virulence or cuticle penetration, suggesting a shift in pathogenic strategy that compensated decreased growth with increased virulence factor (extracellular protease) production. We concluded that the biosynthetic deficiency that mediated insect host restriction also increased protease production in the slow-growing auxotroph, resulting in an alternate, more host-specific pathogenic strategy. However, we argue that transmission is not necessarily correlated with virulence as competition bioassays in insect larvae showed that the wild-type generally out-competed the auxotroph by producing the majority of the conidia on the sporulating cadavers. This is one of the few examples that highlight the effect of genome decay on nutrition acquisition, virulence, and transmission in fungal pathogen evolution. PMID:19028580

Scully, Lisa R; Bidochka, Michael J

2009-02-01

439

Upstream and downstream processing of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

The present study describes the enhanced production and purification of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus in submerged batch fermentation. The enhancement of lovastatin production from A. terreus was attempted by random mutagenesis using ultraviolet radiations and nitrous acid. UV mutants exhibited increased efficiency for lovastatin production as compared with nitrous acid mutants. Among all the mutants developed, A. terreus UV-4 was found to be the hyper producer of lovastatin. This mutant gave 3.5-fold higher lovastatin production than the wild culture of A. terreus NRRL 265. Various cultural conditions were also optimized for hyper-producing mutant strain. 5 % glucose as carbon source, 1.5 % corn steep liquor as nitrogen source, initial pH value of 6, 120 h of incubation period, and 28 °C of incubation temperature were found as best parameters for higher lovastatin production in shake flasks. Production of lovastatin by wild and mutant strains of A. terreus was also scaled up to laboratory scale fermentor. The fermentation process was conducted at 28 °C, 200 rpm agitation, and 1vvm air flow rate without pH control. After the optimization of cultural conditions in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks and scaling up to laboratory scale fermentor, the mutant A. terreus UV-4 gave eightfold higher lovastatin production (3249.95 ?g/ml) than its production by wild strain in shake flasks. Purification of lovastatin was carried out by solvent extraction method which yielded 977.1 mg/l of lovastatin with 98.99 % chromatographic purity and 26.76 % recovery. The crystal structure of lovastatin was determined using X-ray diffraction analysis which is first ever reported. PMID:24671671

Mukhtar, Hamid; Ijaz, Syeda Sidra; Ikram-ul-Haq

2014-09-01

440

SAGA Complex Components and Acetate Repression in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism. PMID:23173087

Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A.; Kelly, Joan M.

2012-01-01

441

Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 †  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

2014-01-01

442

Base composition and nucleosome density in exonic and intronic regions in genes of the filamentous ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

We sequenced nucleosomal DNA fragments of the filamentous ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae and then mapped those sequences on their genomes. We compared the GC content and nucleosome density in the exonic and intronic regions in the genes of A. nidulans and A. oryzae. Although the GC content and nucleosome density in the exonic regions tended to be higher than those in the intronic regions, the difference in the distribution of the GC content was more notable than that of the nucleosome density. Next, we compared the GC content and nucleosome density in the exonic regions of 9616 orthologous gene pairs. In both Aspergillus species, the GC content did not correlate with the nucleosome density. In addition, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (?=0.51) between the GC content of the exonic regions of the 9616 orthologous gene pairs was higher than that (?=0.31) of the nucleosome densities of A. nidulans and A. oryzae. These results strongly suggest that the GC content in the exons of the orthologous gene pairs has been conserved during evolution but the nucleosome density has varied throughout. PMID:23664982

Nishida, Hiromi; Katayama, Takuya; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kondo, Shinji; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

2013-08-01

443

Effect of ultraviolet radiation A and B on growth and mycotoxin production by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus in grape and pistachio media.  

PubMed

The effects of two exposure times per day (6 and 16 h) of UV-A or UV-B radiation, combined with dark and dark plus light incubation periods during 7-21 d on fungal growth and mycotoxins production of Aspergillus species were studied. Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus were inoculated on grape and pistachio media under diurnal and nocturnal temperatures choosing light photoperiod according to harvest conditions of these crops in Spain. Ultraviolet irradiation had a significant effect on A. carbonarius and A. parasiticus colony size (diameter, biomass dry weight, and colony density) and mycotoxin accumulation, although intraspecies differences were observed. Inhibition of A. carbonarius fungal growth decreased when exposure time was reduced from 16 h to 6 h, but this was not always true for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. OTA reduction was higher under UV-A than UV-B radiation and the reduction increased along time conversely to the aflatoxins (AFs). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the main toxin produced by A. parasiticus except in the UV-B light irradiated colonies which showed a higher percentage of AFG than AFB. Morphological changes were observed in colonies grown under UV-B light. PMID:25601150

García-Cela, Esther; Marin, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Ramos, Antonio J

2015-01-01

444

GfsA encodes a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of galactofuranose antigen of O-glycan in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The cells walls of filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus have galactofuranose (Galf)-containing polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, including O-glycans, N-glycans, fungal-type galactomannan and glycosylinositolphosphoceramide, which are important for cell wall integrity. Here, we attempted to identify galactofuranosyltransferases that couple Galf monomers onto other wall components in Aspergillus nidulans. Using reverse-genetic and biochemical approaches, we identified that the AN8677 gene encoded a galactofuranosyltransferase, which we called GfsA, involved in Galf antigen biosynthesis. Disruption of gfsA reduced binding of ?-Galf-specific antibody EB-A2 to O-glycosylated WscA protein and galactomannoproteins. The results of an in-vitro Galf antigen synthase assay revealed that GfsA has ?1,5- or ?1,6-galactofuranosyltransferase activity for O-glycans in glycoproteins, uses UDP-d-Galf as a sugar donor, and requires a divalent manganese cation for activity. GfsA was found to be localized at the Golgi apparatus based on cellular fractionation experiments. ?gfsA cells exhibited an abnormal morphology characterized by poor hyphal extension, hyphal curvature and limited formation of conidia. Several gfsA orthologues were identified in members of the Pezizomycotina subphylum of Ascomycota, including the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of a fungal ?-galactofuranosyltransferase, which was shown to be involved in Galf antigen biosynthesis of O-glycans in the Golgi. PMID:24118544

Komachi, Yuji; Hatakeyama, Shintaro; Motomatsu, Haruka; Futagami, Taiki; Kizjakina, Karina; Sobrado, Pablo; Ekino, Keisuke; Takegawa, Kaoru; Goto, Masatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Takuji

2013-12-01

445

The growing promise of Toll-deficient Drosophila melanogaster as a model for studying Aspergillus pathogenesis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable progress over recent years, the prognosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unfavorable, reflecting an incomplete understanding of Aspergillus pathogenesis and suboptimal antifungal efficacy in vivo. Mammalian host systems including rodents and rabbits are important tools in elucidating antifungal drug activity and the immunopathogenesis of IA. Nonetheless, they are hampered by limitations that impose a “bottleneck” in mass screening of novel antifungal compounds and putative Aspergillus virulence factors including their cost, labor intensity and ethical constraints. Drosophila melanogaster is an invertebrate host with a long track record of genetic studies and a simple yet highly conserved innate immune system. Herein, we describe our experience using this fly model as a facile, non-laborious, inexpensive pathosystem for high-throughput screening of novel antifungal compounds and putative Aspergillus mutants, and studying antifungal innate immunity. We present three infection protocols (i.e., injection, rolling, ingestion) that introduce Aspergillus either directly into the hemolymph or at different epithelial surfaces of Toll-deficient Drosophila flies. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate attenuated virulence of known hypovirulent Aspergillus strains and protection of Aspergillus-infected flies given oral Aspergillus-active agents such as voriconazole. These protocols can be adapted for similar studies of other fungal pathogens. Crossing and generation of Toll-deficient Drosophila flies takes three weeks; Aspergillus conidial preparation takes three days; fly inoculation depending on the infection assay takes one to 6–8 hours; and assessment of fly survival, Aspergillus strain virulence, Drosophila innate host parameters and/or drug activity takes 4–8 days. PMID:21178494

Lionakis, Michail S

2010-01-01

446

Changes in lipid structure produced by surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant phospholipids may assume several different structures including tubular myelin, unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles, and others. These populations of materials appear to have similar phospholipid compositions but may differ in their association with surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, or SP-C. We have used electron microscopy to determine the changes in structure of simple lipid mixtures (phosphatidylglycerol, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) produced by adding one or combinations of the three proteins. Adding SP-A to lipids generated multilamellar structures composed of membranes with fuzzy or particulate surfaces. In contrast, SP-B or SP-C generated discoidal particles and structures that appeared to be sheets of membrane formed by associated particles. Used together, SP-A and SP-B reorganized some of the lipid into tubular myelin, a structure that was not observed in SP-A, SP-C recombinants. These observations confirm the in vitro formation of tubular myelin reported by others and support the possibility that surfactant materials with defined structure can be produced in vitro for analyses of their molecular organizations. PMID:1878252

Williams, M C; Hawgood, S; Hamilton, R L

1991-07-01

447

Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003-2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus flavus L -morphotype as the predominant species in maize field, no evidence of the highly toxigenic S-morphotype and of other aflatoxigenic species are reported. The risk of a shift in traditional occurrence areas for aflatoxins is expected in the world and in particular in South East of Europe due to the increasing average temperatures. Biological control of aflatoxin risk in the field by atoxigenic strains of A. flavus starts to be widely used in Africa and USA. Studies are necessary on the variation of aflatoxin production in populations of A. flavus to characterize stable atoxigenic A. flavus strains. The aim of present article is to give an overview on biodiversity and genetic variation of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxins risk in the field. PMID:25101075

Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio F

2014-01-01

448

Testing the efficacy of eGFP-transformed Aspergillus flavus as biocontrol strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control methods to prevent pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of corn, cottonseed, and ground and tree nuts involve field inoculation of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus. To date, the efficacy of this approach requires annual reapplication of the biocontrol agent. The reason ...

449

Effect of stalk inoculation site on kernel infection of corn by Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus may infect corn kernels on developing ears by several routes. Kernel infection is postulated to occur inside ears primarily by the colonization of silk tissues. Airborne conidia land on exposed silks, germinate, and then colonize the silks inside the ear. Onc...

450

SORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY THE SOIL FUNGI ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND MUCOR ROUXII  

EPA Science Inventory

Sorption of the nitrate salts of cadmium(II), copper (II), lanthanum(III) and silver (I) by two fungi, Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii, was evaluated using Fruendlich adsorption isotherms and energy dispersive X-ray electron microscopy. The linearized Freundlich isotherm descr...

451

Influences of Methodological Variables on Susceptibility Testing of Caspofungin against Candida Species and Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of test variables on the outcome of susceptibility testing with caspofungin were tested with isolates of Candida spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. Among six growth conditions tested with a range of inoculum sizes, the highest control growth yields were obtained in Sabouraud broth for all fungi, followed by RPMI 1640 (pH 7) for Candida spp. and antibiotic medium 3

C. Bartizal; F. C. Odds

2003-01-01

452

Time Course Study of Substrate Utilization by Aspergillus flavus in Medium Simulating Corn (Zea mays) Kernels  

E-print Network

Utilization of the three major corn reserve materials, starch, triglycerides (refined corn oil), and zein kernels changed little over the first 18 h. Subsequently, hydrolysis of both starch and triglycerides such as starch or triglycerides. KEYWORDS: Aflatoxin; Aspergillus flavus; corn lipids; cornstarch; Zea mays; zein

Cotty, Peter J.

453

Hyperspectral image classification and development of fluorescence index for single corn kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

454

Genetic variability of Aspergillus flavus isolates from a Mississippi corn field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Aspergillus flavus represents a major threat to food safety and food security on a worldwide scale. Corn, peanuts, cotton, rice and edible nuts, can be colonized by A. flavus strains that produce carcinogenic aflatoxins. A biological strategy for control of toxigenic A. flavus starins inv...

455

Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst with Complicating Aspergillus Infection Presenting as a Refractory Lung Abscess  

PubMed Central

Background Hydatid disease is rare in the United States. Rarely the hydatid cyst can become infected with mycotic organisms, such as Aspergillus. We describe a young male who presents with clinical features of suppurative lung abscess whose workup diagnosed hydatid cyst complicated by Aspergillus co-infection. Case presentation A 27-year-old Peruvian male was hospitalized because of fever, chills, and productive cough of three months’ duration. Clinical features were consistent with a suppurative lung abscess. Significant findings included leukocytosis with eosinophilia and a chest x-ray showing a large lingular lobe thick-walled cavity with a wavy irregular fluid level. The patient ultimately underwent surgical resection of the lingular lobe. Examination of the surgical specimen revealed the cavity to be a hydatid cyst. Histologic examination of the cyst wall showed intense inflammation and several septate hyphae of Aspergillus species. The patient recovered fully and has remained in good health. Conclusion A thick-walled cavity and a wavy meniscus constitute unusual features for an ordinary pyogenic lung abscess and suggests other possibilities. Endogenous cases of hydatid disease are uncommon in the United States, with the majority of cases occurring in immigrants. There are few published case reports describing incidental findings of Aspergillus in a hydatid cyst. The rare occurrence of such a condition can lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22174591

Mahmood, Nader; Azam, Hamad; Ali, M. Imran; Khan, M. Anees

2011-01-01

456

Multiple Genetically Distinct Groups Revealed among Clinical Isolates Identified as Atypical Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether genetic variants of A. fumigatus are found among clinical isolates, four isolates that were originally identified as poorly sporulating strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were subjected to molecular analysis. DNA sequence analysis of the alkaline protease genes of these isolates showed that each is genetically distinct and each shows substantial variation (7 to 11%) from the A. fumigatus

Margaret E. Katz; Annette M. Dougall; Brian F. Cheetham

2005-01-01

457

Transcriptional and Proteomic Analysis of the Aspergillus fumigatus ?prtT Protease-Deficient Mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common opportunistic mold pathogen of humans, infecting immunocompromised patients. The fungus invades the lungs and other organs, causing severe damage. Penetration of the pulmonary epithelium is a key step in the infectious process. A. fumigatus produces extracellular proteases to degrade the host structural barriers. The A. fumigatus transcription factor PrtT controls the expression of multiple

Shelly Hagag; Paula Kubitschek-Barreira; Gabriela W. P. Neves; David Amar; William Nierman; Itamar Shalit; Ron Shamir; Leila Lopes-Bezerra; Nir Osherov

2012-01-01

458

Aspergillus flavus aflatoxin occurrence and expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus is a major food safety concern in crops. However, information on AFB1 occurrence in soil and crop residue is scarce. A series of experiments investigated the oc- currence of AFB1 in soil and corn residues and ascertained the ecology of A. flavus in a Dundee silt loam soil. Samples of untilled

Cesare Accinelli; H. K. Abbas; R. M. Zablotowicz; J. R. Wilkinson

2008-01-01

459

Thermotolerance and virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus : role of the fungal nucleolus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to thrive at 378C is characteristic of all human pathogens and has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of aspergillosis. As a thermotolerant fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus is capable of growth at temperatures that approach the upper limit for all eukaryotes, suggesting that the organism has evolved unique mechanisms of stress resistance that may be

R. Bhabhra; D. S. Askew

2005-01-01

460

Survival of Aspergillus fumigatus in Serum Involves Removal of Iron from Transferrin: the Role of Siderophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungus which can cause invasive disease in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus can grow in medium containing up to 80% human serum, despite very low concen- trations of free iron. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which A. fumigatus obtains iron from the serum iron-binding protein transferrin. In iron-depleted minimal essential

A. H. T. Hissen; J. M. T. Chow; L. J. Pinto; M. M. Moore

2004-01-01

461

In-vivo itraconazole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus in systemic murine aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An animal model of disseminated aspergillosis was used to test the in-vivo activity of itraconazole against four isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Two reference isolates of A. fumigatus known to be resistant to itraconazole in vitro and in vivo were used as control isolates, and two new isolates were tested under the same conditions. For each isolate MICs for itraconazole and

E. DANNAOUI; E. BOREL; F. PERSAT; M. F. MONIER; M. A. PIENS

1999-01-01

462

Isolation of maize soil and rhizosphere bacteria with antagonistic activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial isolates from Mississippi maize field soil and maize rhizosphere samples were evaluated for their potential as biological control agents against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Isolated strains were screened for antagonistic activities in liquid co-culture against A. flav...

463

Inhibitory effects of gossypol-related compounds on growth of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gossypolone demonstrated growth inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus isolate AF13. Growth inhibition was concentration dependent, with a 50% effective dose of 90 µg gossypolone per mL of medium (165 µM). Growth inhibition levels of up to 95% were achieved with gossypolone concentrations ...

464

Comparison of Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination is generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin....

465

Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycotoxin contamination in corn grain is a worldwide threat to both human food safety and animal feed ingredients. A select group of inbred corn lines was evaluated in field trials for mycotoxin accumulation in grain and ear rot caused by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Our goal ...

466

Application of biotechnology towards the enhancement of maize resistance to aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Contamination of maize with aflatoxins by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus poses serious health hazards to humans and animals worldwide. This important fact and the regulations instituted in many countries to control the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and feed have stimulated rese...

467

Culture condition-dependent metabolite profiling of Aspergillus fumigatus with antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Three sections of Aspergillus (five species, 21 strains) were classified according to culture medium-dependent and time-dependent secondary metabolite profile-based chemotaxonomy. Secondary metabolites were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) and multivariate statistical methods. From the Aspergillus sections that were cultured on malt extract agar (MEA) and Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA) for 7, 12, and 16 d, Aspergillus sections Fumigati (A. fumigatus), Nigri (A. niger), and Flavi (A. flavus, A. oryzae, and A. sojae) clustered separately on the basis of the results of the secondary metabolite analyses at 16 d regardless of culture medium. Based on orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), we identified the secondary metabolites that helped differentiate sections between A. fumigatus and Aspergillus section Flavi to be gliotoxin G, fumigatin oxide, fumigatin, pseurotin A or D, fumiquinazoline D, fumagillin, helvolic acid, 1,2-dihydrohelvolic acid, and 5,8-dihydroxy-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (5,8-diHODE). Among these compounds, fumagillin, helvolic acid, and 1,2-dihydrohelvolic acid of A. fumigatus showed antifungal activities against Malassezia furfur, which is lipophilic yeast that causes epidermal skin disorders. PMID:23537878

Kang, Daejung; Son, Gun Hee; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Sarah; Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Choong Hwan

2013-03-01

468

Interlaboratory comparison of results of susceptibility testing with caspofungin against Candida and Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen laboratories participated in a study of interlaboratory reproducibility with caspofungin microdilution susceptibility testing against panels comprising 30 isolates of Candida spp. and 20 isolates of Aspergillus spp. The laboratories used materials supplied from a single source to determine the influence of growth medium (RPMI 1640 with or without glucose additions and antibiotic medium 3 [AM3]), the same incubation times

Frank C. Odds; Mary Motyl; Roberto Andrade; Jacques Bille; Emilia Canton; Manuel Cuenca-Estrella; Amanda Davidson; Christian Durussel; David Ellis; Elyse Foraker; Annette W. Fothergill; Mahmoud A. Ghannoum; Robert A. Giacobbe; Miguel Gobernado; Rosemary Handke; Michel Laverdiere; Wendy Lee-Yang; William G. Merz; Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner; Javier Peman; Sophia Perea; John R. Perfect; Michael A. Pfaller; Laurie Proia; John H. Rex; Michael G. Rinaldi; Juan-Luis Rodriguez-Tudela; Wiley A. Schell; Christine Shields; Deanna A. Sutton; Paul E. Verweij; David W. Warnock

2004-01-01

469

Aspergillus flavus Genomic Data Mining Provides Clues for Its Use in Producing Biobased Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is notorious for its ability to produce aflatoxins. It is also an opportunistic pathogen that infects plants, animals and human beings. The ability to survive in the natural environment, living on plant tissues (leaves or stalks), live or dead insects make A. flavus a ubiquitous...

470

N-acetylcysteine inhibits germination of conidia and growth of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp.  

PubMed Central

N-Acetylcysteine inhibited hyphal growth and germination of conidia of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. N-Acetylcysteine inhibited conidial germination as well as or better than L-cysteine. Cysteine-related compounds may provide a potential therapeutic strategy against agriculturally and medically important fungal pathogens. PMID:8723482

De Lucca, A J; Walsh, T J; Daigle, D J

1996-01-01

471

A multilocus database for the identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates using phenotypic methods is increasingly complex and difficult but genetic tools allow recognition and description of species formerly unrecognized or cryptic. We constructed a web-based taxonomic database using BIGSdb for the identification of ...

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Understanding Nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae: A Windfall of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. A. sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing A. parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to...