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1

Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov., from traditional meju in Korea.  

PubMed

Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5-5.5 ?m) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests and tuberculate or reticulate convex surface. The species was resolved as phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus species with an Eurotium teleomorph based on multilocus sequence typing using partial fragments of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and RNA polymerase II genes. PMID:22923125

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Meijer, Martin; Majoor, Eline; Vankuyk, Patricia A; Samson, Robert A

2012-08-01

2

Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

3

Metabolically Independent and Accurately Adjustable Aspergillus sp. Expression System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous fungi are well-established expression hosts often used to produce extracellular proteins of use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The expression systems presently used in Aspergillus species rely on either strong constitutive promoters, e.g., that for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, or inducible systems derived from metabolic pathways, e.g., glaA (glucoamylase) or alc (alcohol dehydrogenase). We de- scribe for Aspergillus nidulans and

Robert Pachlinger; Rudolf Mitterbauer; Gerhard Adam; Joseph Strauss

2005-01-01

4

Biosorption of an Azo Dye by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. Fungal Biomasses.  

PubMed

Biosorption is an eco-friendly and cost-effective method for treating the dye house effluents. Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. were cultivated in bulk and biomasses used as biosorbents for the biosorption of an azo dye Orange G. Batch biosorption studies were performed for the removal of Orange G from aqueous solutions by varying the parameters like initial aqueous phase pH, biomass dosage, and initial dye concentration. It was found that the maximum biosorption was occurred at pH 2. Experimental data were analyzed by model equations such as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and it was found that both the isotherm models best fitted the adsorption data. The monolayer saturation capacity was 0.48 mg/g for Aspergillus niger and 0.45 mg/g for Trichoderma sp. biomasses. The biosorption kinetic data were tested with pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order rate equations, and it was found that the pseudo second-order model fitted the data well for both the biomasses. The rate constant for the pseudo second-order model was found to be 10-0.8 (g/mg min?ą) for Aspergillus niger and 8-0.4 (g/mg min?ą) for Trichoderma sp. by varying the initial dye concentrations from 5 to 25 mg/l. It was found that the biomass obtained from Aspergillus niger was a better biosorbent for the biosorption of Orange G dye when compared to Trichoderma sp. PMID:20644933

Sivasamy, Arumugam; Sundarabal, Nethaji

2011-02-01

5

Biotransformation of geraniol, nerol and citral by sporulated surface cultures of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotransformation of geraniol, nerol and citral by Aspergillus niger was studied. A comparison was made between submerged liquid, sporulated surface cultures and spore suspensions. This bioconversion was also carried out with surface cultures of Penicillium sp. The main bioconversion products obtained from geraniol and nerol by liquid cultures of A. niger were linalool and ?-terpineol. Linalool, ?-terpineol and limonene

Jan C. R. Demyttenaere; M. del Carmen Herrera; Norbert De Kimpe

2000-01-01

6

Methylthio-Aspochalasins from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed Central

Two novel aspochalasins, 20-?-methylthio-aspochalsin Q (named as aspochalasin V), (1) and aspochalasin W (2), were isolated from culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectral data analysis. This is the first report about methylthio-substituted aspochalasin derivatives. Cytotoxicity against the prostate cancer PC3 cell line and HCT116 cell line was assayed using the MTT method. Apochalasin V showed moderate activity at IC50 values of 30.4 and 39.2 ?M, respectively. PMID:25272329

Liu, Ying; Zhao, Shizhe; Ding, Wanjing; Wang, Pinmei; Yang, Xianwen; Xu, Jinzhong

2014-01-01

7

Three New Asperentin Derivatives from the Algicolous Fungus Aspergillus sp. F00785  

PubMed Central

Three new asperentin-type compounds, 6-O-?-d-ribosylasperentin (1) and 6-O-?-d-ribosyl-8-O-methylasperentin (2) and 5-hydroxyl-6-O-methylasperentin (3), along with asperentin (4) and its known analogues (5–9), were isolated from a halotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain F00785, an endotrophic fungus from marine alga. Their structures were determined using extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of compound 9. Compound 4 exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against crop pathogens, Colletotrichum gleosporioides Penz. and Colletotrichum gleosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. PMID:25517217

Tang, Qian; Guo, Kai; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Xiu-Ying; Kong, Xiang-Jian; Zheng, Zhong-Hui; Xu, Qing-Yan; Deng, Xianming

2014-01-01

8

Efficacy of Aspergillus sp. for Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Batch and Continuous Aerated Packed Bed Bioreactors.  

PubMed

Aerobic biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Aspergillus sp. was investigated in batch and continuous packed bed bioreactors. The optimal process parameters for achieving the maximum removal efficiency (RE), determined using a batch bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam pieces, were inoculum level: 2.5 mg?(wet weight)?mL(-1), pH 7.0, temperature 28 °C, DO 5.8 mg L(-1), and CP concentration 300 mg L(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at flow rates ranging from 10 to 40 mL h(-1) while keeping other parameters at their optimal level. Steady-state CP removal efficiencies greater than 85 % were obtained up to the inlet loading of 180 mg L(-1) d(-1). The continuous bioreactor behaved as a plug flow unit and was able to stabilize quickly after perturbation in the inlet loading. PMID:25234399

Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

2015-01-01

9

In vitro comparative analysis of monocrotophos degrading potential of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp.  

PubMed

Fungal degradation is emerging as a new powerful tool for the removal of potent neurotoxin pesticide, monocrotophos. Therefore, the present study is aimed at comparative characterization of monocrotophos degrading ability of three different fungal strains. Fungal strains were isolated from local agricultural soil by enrichment culture method, screened by gradient culture and identified as Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp. Growth kinetics revealed a direct positive influence of monocrotophos on the viability of fungal isolates. Fungal degradation was studied in phosphorus free liquid culture medium supplemented with 150 mg L(-1) concentration of monocrotophos for a period of 15 days under optimized culture conditions. Degradation of MCP followed first order kinetics with kdeg of 0.007, 0.002 and 0.005 day(-1) and half life (t1/2) of 4.21, 12.64 and 6.32 days for A. flavus, F. pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp. respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report signifying the potential of monocrotophos degradation by Fusarium and Macrophomina sp. The results were further confirmed by HPTLC and FTIR which indicates disappearance of monocrotophos by hydrolytic cleavage of vinyl phosphate bond. Degradation of monocrotophos by fungal isolates was accompanied by the release of extracellular alkaline phosphatases, inorganic phosphates and ammonia. The overall comparative analysis followed the order of A. flavus > Macrophomina sp. > F. pallidoroseum. Therefore, it could be concluded from the study that these three different fungal strains could be effectively used as a potential candidate for the removal of monocrotophos from contaminated sites. PMID:24179090

Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena; Yadav, Deepak

2014-06-01

10

Relationship between coffee husk caffeine degradation and respiration of Aspergillus sp. LPBx in solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out in a packed-bed column fermentor using coffee husk as substrate in order to verify a relationship\\u000a between caffeine degradation and the respiration of Aspergillus sp. LPBx. Fermentation conditions were optimized by using factorial design experiments. The kinetic study showed that the\\u000a caffeine degradation was related to the development of mold and its respiration and also with

Débora Brand; Ashok Pandey; Jose A. Rodriguez-Leon; Sevastianos Roussos; Ivo Brand; Carlos R. Soccol

2002-01-01

11

Decolorization and biotransformation of triphenylmethane dye, methyl violet, by Aspergillus sp. isolated from Ladakh, India.  

PubMed

Methyl violet, used extensively in the commercial textile industry and as a biological stain, is a hazardous recalcitrant. Aspergillus sp. strain CB-TKL-1 isolated from a water sample from Tsumoriri Lake, Karzok, Ladakh, India, was found to completely decolorize methyl violet within 24 h when cultured under aerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. The rate of decolorization was determined by monitoring the decrease in the absorbance maxima of the dye by UV-visible spectroscopy. The decolorization of methyl violet was optimal at pH 5.5 and 30 degrees C when agitated at 200 rpm. Addition of glucose or arabinose (2%) as a carbon source and sodium nitrate or soyapeptone (0.2%) as a nitrogen source enhanced the decolorization ability of the culture. Furthermore, the culture exhibited a maximum decolorization rate of methyl violet after 24 h when the C:N ratio was 10. Nine N-demethylated decolorized products of methyl violet were identified based on UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and LC-MS analyses. The decolorization of methyl violet at the end of 24 h generated mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-Ndemethylated intermediates of pararosaniline. The variation of the relative absorption peaks in the decolorized sample indicated a linear decrease of hexa-N-demethylated compounds to non-N-demethylated pararosaniline, indicating a stepwise N-demethylation in the decolorization process. PMID:21464597

Kumar, C Ganesh; Mongolla, Poornima; Basha, Anver; Joseph, Joveeta; Sarma, V U M; Kamal, Ahmed

2011-03-01

12

An overview of the safety evaluation of the Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase enzyme (SP 628) and the Aspergillus aculeatus xylanase enzyme (SP 578).  

PubMed

Xylanases SP 628 and SP 578 were produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus oryzae, containing a gene code originating from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Aspergillus aculeatus, respectively. Both enzymes were subject to the same series of toxicological tests to document their safety in use. The enzymes are to be applied as processing aids in the baking industry and in wheat starch separation. Neither enzyme was found to be mutagenic in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, nor did they cause chromosomal aberrations in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes. No evidence of inhalation toxicity or skin and eye irritation was found. The enzymes are not regarded as skin-sensitizers, although the Buehler test with guinea-pigs revealed a minor potential. Oral administration up to 10.0 ml/kg bw/day (equivalent to a Total Organic Solids amount of 13.3% for SP 628 and of 11.3% for SP 578) in 13-week rat studies did not show any adverse effect. PMID:9205568

Bergman, A; Broadmeadow, A

1997-01-01

13

Lumazine peptides penilumamides B-D and the cyclic pentapeptide asperpeptide A from a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus.  

PubMed

Three new lumazine peptides, penilumamides B-D (2-4), and one known analogue, penilumamide (1), together with a new cyclic pentapeptide, asperpeptide A (5), were isolated from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15. Among them, 2 was obtained from the feeding culture with l-methionine of this strain. All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatization. Compounds 1-4 are rare lumazine peptides, of which 1 and 3 are formed from 2 by oxidation of the l-methionine residue. PMID:25001296

Chen, Min; Shao, Chang-Lun; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; She, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Chang-Yun

2014-07-25

14

Penicillium parvulum and Penicillium georgiense sp. nov. Isolated from the Conidial Heads of Aspergillus Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new Penicillium species were isolated from peanut-field soils in Georgia. The species were particularly noted because they sporulated on the conidial heads of Aspergillus species. Phenotypic descriptions were prepared using standard media. ITS and lsu-rDNA sequences were made from the new spe...

15

Asperlones A and B, Dinaphthalenone Derivatives from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5C  

PubMed Central

Racemic dinaphthalenone derivatives, (±)-asperlone A (1) and (±)-asperlone B (2), and two new azaphilones, 6?-hydroxy-(R)-mitorubrinic acid (3) and purpurquinone D (4), along with four known compounds, (?)-mitorubrinic acid (5), (?)-mitorubrin (6), purpurquinone A (7) and orsellinic acid (8), were isolated from the cultures of Aspergillus sp. 16-5C. The structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the structures of 1 further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configuration of 3 and 4 were determined by comparing their optical rotation and CD with those of the literature, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with IC50 values of 4.24 ± 0.41, 4.32 ± 0.60 and 3.99 ± 0.34 ?M, respectively. PMID:25591039

Xiao, Ze’en; Lin, Shao’e; Tan, Chunbing; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

2015-01-01

16

Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prenylated Dihydroquinolone Derivatives from the Gorgonian-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15.  

PubMed

Two new prenylated dihydroquinolone derivatives, 22-O-(N-Me-l-valyl)aflaquinolone B (1) and 22-O-(N-Me-l-valyl)-21-epi-aflaquinolone B (2), and two known analogues, aflaquinolones A (3) and D (or a diastereomer of D, 4), were isolated from the mycelia of a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, ECD spectra, Marfey's method, and chemical conversion. Compounds 1 and 2 display an unusual esterification of N-Me-l-Val to the side-chain prenyl group. Compound 2 exhibited outstanding anti-RSV activity with an IC50 value of 42 nM, approximately 500-fold stronger than that of the positive control ribavirin (IC50 = 20 ?M), and showed a comparatively higher therapeutic ratio (TC50/IC50 = 520). PMID:25420212

Chen, Min; Shao, Chang-Lun; Meng, Hong; She, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Chang-Yun

2014-12-26

17

Aspergiloid I, an unprecedented spirolactone norditerpenoid from the plant-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3  

PubMed Central

Summary An unusual C18 norditerpenoid, aspergiloid I (1), was isolated from the culture broth of Aspergillus sp. YXf3, an endophytic fungus derived from Ginkgo biloba. Its structure was unambiguously established by analysis of HRMS–ESI and spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration was determined by low-temperature (100 K) single crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu K? radiation. This compound is structurally characterized by a new carbon skeleton with an unprecedented 6/5/6 tricyclic ring system bearing an ?,?-unsaturated spirolactone moiety in ring B, and represents a new subclass of norditerpenoid, the skeleton of which is named aspergilane. The hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for 1 was also proposed. The cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of 1 were evaluated. PMID:25550731

Guo, Zhi Kai; Wang, Rong; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiao Nian; Jiang, Rong

2014-01-01

18

Nine new and five known polyketides derived from a deep sea-sourced Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1.  

PubMed

Nine new C9 polyketides, named aspiketolactonol (1), aspilactonols A-F (2-7), aspyronol (9) and epiaspinonediol (11), were isolated together with five known polyketides, (S)-2-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-?-butyrolactone (8), dihydroaspyrone (10), aspinotriol A (12), aspinotriol B (13) and chaetoquadrin F (14), from the secondary metabolites of an Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1 that was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample. Structures of the new compounds, including their absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially the 2D NMR, circular dichroism (CD), Mo2-induced CD and Mosher's 1H NMR analyses. Compound 8 was isolated from natural sources for the first time, and the possible biosynthetic pathways for 1-14 were also proposed and discussed. Compounds 1-14 inhibited human cancer cell lines, K562, HL-60, HeLa and BGC-823, to varying extents. PMID:24871461

Chen, Xiu-Wen; Li, Chang-Wei; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Hua, Wei; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

2014-06-01

19

Asperlones A and B, Dinaphthalenone Derivatives from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5C.  

PubMed

Racemic dinaphthalenone derivatives, (±)-asperlone A (1) and (±)-asperlone B (2), and two new azaphilones, 6'-hydroxy-(R)-mitorubrinic acid (3) and purpurquinone D (4), along with four known compounds, (-)-mitorubrinic acid (5), (-)-mitorubrin (6), purpurquinone A (7) and orsellinic acid (8), were isolated from the cultures of Aspergillus sp. 16-5C. The structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the structures of 1 further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configuration of 3 and 4 were determined by comparing their optical rotation and CD with those of the literature, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with IC50 values of 4.24 ± 0.41, 4.32 ± 0.60 and 3.99 ± 0.34 ?M, respectively. PMID:25591039

Xiao, Ze'en; Lin, Shao'e; Tan, Chunbing; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

2015-01-01

20

Structural characterization and antioxidant properties of an exopolysaccharide produced by the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. Y16.  

PubMed

A homogeneous exopolysaccharide, designated As1-1, was obtained from the culture medium of the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. Y16 and purified by anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR) spectroscopy showed that As1-1 was mainly composed of mannose with small amounts of galactose, and that its molecular weight was about 15 kDa. The backbone of As1-1 mainly consists of (1?2)-linked ?-d-mannopyranose units, substituted at C-6 by the (1?6)-linked ?-d-mannopyranose, (1?)-linked ?-d-galactofuranose and (1?)-linked ?-d-mannopyranose units. As1-1 possessed good in vitro antioxidant activity as evaluated by scavenging assays involving 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals. The investigation demonstrated that As1-1 is an exopolysaccharide different from those of other marine microorganisms, and could be a potential antioxidant and food supplement. PMID:21733681

Chen, Yin; Mao, Wenjun; Tao, Hongwen; Zhu, Weiming; Qi, Xiaohui; Chen, Yanli; Li, Hongyan; Zhao, Chunqi; Yang, Yupin; Hou, Yujiao; Wang, Chunyan; Li, Na

2011-09-01

21

Effect of forced aeration on citric acid production by Aspergillus sp. mutants in SSF.  

PubMed

Citric acid (CA) is one of the most important products of fermentation in the world. A great variety of agro-industrial residues can be used in solid state fermentation. Aspergillus niger parental strain (CCT 7716) and two strains obtained by mutagenesis (CCT 7717 and CCT 7718) were evaluated in Erlenmeyer flasks and glass columns using citric pulp (CP) as substrate/support, sugarcane molasses and methanol. Best results using glass columns (forced aeration) were found in the fourth day of fermentation: 278.4, 294.9 and 261.1 g CA/kg of dry CP with CCT 7716, CCT 7718 and CCT 7717, respectively. In Erlenmeyer flasks (aeration by diffusion) CA reached 410.7, 446.8 and 492.7 g CA/kg of dry CP with CCT 7716, CCT 7718 and CCT 7717, respectively. The aeration by diffusion improved CA production by the three strains. A data acquisition system specially developed for biotechnological processes analysis was used to perform the respirometric parameters measurement. PMID:23760557

Rodrigues, Cristine; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Sturm, Wilerson; Dergint, Dario E A; Spier, Michele Rigon; de Carvalho, Júlio Cesar; Soccol, Carlos R

2013-12-01

22

The potential hazards of Aspergillus sp. in foods and feeds, and the role of biological treatment: a review.  

PubMed

The contamination of food and feed by Aspergillus has become a global issue with a significant worldwide economic impact. The growth of Aspergillus is unfavourable to the development of food and feed industries, where the problems happen mostly due to the presence of mycotoxins, which is a toxic metabolite secreted by most Aspergillus groups. Moreover, fungi can produce spores that cause diseases, such as allergies and asthma, especially to human beings. High temperature, high moisture, retarded crops, and poor food storage conditions encourage the growth of mold, as well as the development of mycotoxins. A variety of chemical, biological, and physical strategies have been developed to control the production of mycotoxins. A biological approach, using a mixed culture comprised of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus resulted in the inhibition of the growth of fungi when inoculated into fermented food. The results reveal that the mixed culture has a higher potential (37.08%) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus (producer of Aflatoxin) compared to either single culture, L. rhamnosus NRRL B-442 and S. cerevisiae, which inhibit the growth by 63.07% and 64.24%, respectively. PMID:25269603

Sheikh-Ali, Sheikh Imranudin; Ahmad, Akil; Mohd-Setapar, Siti-Hamidah; Zakaria, Zainul Akmal; Abdul-Talib, Norfahana; Khamis, Aidee Kamal; Hoque, Md Enamul

2014-10-01

23

New Isocoumarin Derivatives and Meroterpenoids from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013  

PubMed Central

Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6) were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a), reticulol (2c), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4), and pyripyropene E (5) from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2a–c and 3–6 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3) was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:25317534

Prompanya, Chadaporn; Dethoup, Tida; Bessa, Lucinda J.; Pinto, Madalena M. M.; Gales, Luís; Costa, Paulo M.; Silva, Artur M. S.; Kijjoa, Anake

2014-01-01

24

Surgical management of Aspergillus colonization associated with lung hydatid disease.  

PubMed

Colonization with Aspergillus sp. usually occurs in previously formed lung cavities. Cystectomy is a widely used surgical technique for hydatid lung disease that can also leave residual cavities and potentially result in aspergilloma. We present two cases of this rare entity and a case with Aspergillus sp. colonization of an existing ruptured hydatid cyst. PMID:18414351

Vasquez, Julio C; Montesinos, Efrain; Rojas, Luis; Peralta, Julio; Delarosa, Jacob; Leon, Juan J

2008-04-01

25

A fossil Aspergillus from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

A piece of Baltic amber (Tertiary, Eocene) contains an inclusion of a springtail (Collembola) which is overgrown by an Aspergillus species. The fossil fungus is described as A. collembolorum sp. nov. The excellent mode of preservation of the numerous conidiophores is remarkable and can be explained by sporulation in liquid resin. This is the second report of a fossil Aspergillus, the first being from Dominican amber. PMID:16175799

Dörfelt, Heinrich; Schmidt, Alexander R

2005-08-01

26

A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed for transcriptome analysis of any of the three above-mentioned aspergilli. Transcriptome analysis of triplicate batch cultivations of all three aspergilli on glucose and xylose media was used to validate the performance of the microarray. Gene comparisons of all three species and cross-analysis with the expression data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XlnR-binding site to be 5?-GGNTAAA-3?. The composition of the conserved gene-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross-species evolutionary studies within a genus using comparative transcriptomics. PMID:18332432

Andersen, Mikael R.; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita P.; Lehmann, Linda; Nielsen, Jens

2008-01-01

27

New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati.  

PubMed

Three new species of Neosartorya and one new Aspergillus of section Fumigati are proposed using a polyphasic approach based on morphology, extrolite production and partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences. The phylogenetic analyses using the three genes clearly show that the taxa grouped separately from the known species and confirmed the phenotypic differences. Neosartorya denticulata is characterized by its unique denticulate ascospores with a prominent equatorial furrow; N. assulata by well developed flaps on the convex surface of the ascospores which in addition have two distinct equatorial crests and N. galapagensis by a funiculose colony morphology, short and narrow conidiophores and ascospores with two wide equatorial crests with a microtuberculate convex surface. Aspergillus turcosus can be distinguished by velvety, gray turquoise colonies and short, loosely columnar conidial heads. The four new taxa also have unique extrolite profiles, which contain the mycotoxins gliotoxin and viriditoxin in N. denticulate; apolar compounds provisionally named NEPS in N. assulata and gregatins in N. galapagensis. A. turcosus produced kotanins. N. denticulata sp. nov., N. assulata sp. nov., N. galapagensis sp. nov., and A. turcosus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. PMID:17610141

Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Hong, Joonbae; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Per V; Varga, János; Samson, Robert A

2008-01-01

28

New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati  

PubMed Central

Three new species of Neosartorya and one new Aspergillus of section Fumigati are proposed using a polyphasic approach based on morphology, extrolite production and partial ?-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences. The phylogenetic analyses using the three genes clearly show that the taxa grouped separately from the known species and confirmed the phenotypic differences. Neosartorya denticulata is characterized by its unique denticulate ascospores with a prominent equatorial furrow; N. assulata by well developed flaps on the convex surface of the ascospores which in addition have two distinct equatorial crests and N. galapagensis by a funiculose colony morphology, short and narrow conidiophores and ascospores with two wide equatorial crests with a microtuberculate convex surface. Aspergillus turcosus can be distinguished by velvety, gray turquoise colonies and short, loosely columnar conidial heads. The four new taxa also have unique extrolite profiles, which contain the mycotoxins gliotoxin and viriditoxin in N. denticulate; apolar compounds provisionally named NEPS in N. assulata and gregatins in N. galapagensis. A. turcosus produced kotanins. N.denticulata sp. nov., N. assulata sp. nov., N. galapagensis sp. nov., and A. turcosus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10482-007-9183-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17610141

Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Hong, Joonbae; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Per V.; Varga, János

2007-01-01

29

Serology of Aspergillus granuloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 21 cases of granuloma caused by Aspergillus species were encountered during the period 1972–79. The organs involved were nasal and paranasal sinuses, brain, orbit, subcutaneous tissue of cheek, lungs and endocardial valve in the decreasing order of their frequency. Aspergillus flavus was the main etiological agent. Immunodiffusion tests with various Aspergillus species as antigen showed a positivity

P. Talwar; M. Sharma; S. C. Sehgal; K. K. Ghose

1982-01-01

30

Clinical significance of the recovery of Aspergillus species from the respiratory secretions of cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

The frequent recovery of Aspergillus species from the respiratory tract secretions of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is well recognized, and the presence of the fungus in the airways may trigger an inflammatory response that can manifest as the clinical entity known as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). In our CF patient population we studied the clinical characteristics of those who had Aspergillus sp. recovered from their respiratory tract secretions (n = 45) and compared them with the characteristics seen, during the same time period, in those patients who were culture negative for Aspergillus sp. (n = 167). There were no differences in peripheral blood eosinophil count (P = 0.9) or serum immunoglobulin E levels (P = 0.61). By logistic regression analysis there seemed to be an increased risk for more advanced lung disease, both radiographically (defined by a Brasfield chest radiograph score < 18) and by lung function parameters in those who were culture positive. However, after appropriate adjustment, almost all the increased risk was associated with age and gender, but not with the presence of Aspergillus sp. in respiratory secretions. Additionally, increasing age was strongly correlated with the risk of Aspergillus sp. being cultured from respiratory secretions (P = 0.0025). The presence of Aspergillus sp. in respiratory secretions was not associated with two indicators of atopy in our CF patient population. We do not have evidence that the culture of Aspergillus sp. from CF respiratory secretions is independently associated with an increased risk for more advanced lung disease. PMID:8776259

Milla, C E; Wielinski, C L; Regelmann, W E

1996-01-01

31

Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess  

SciTech Connect

A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

1982-12-17

32

Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans. PMID:25401068

2014-01-01

33

New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti  

PubMed Central

Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inclucing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (= Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species has identical ITS sequences with A. insuetus CBS 119.27, but is clearly distinct from that species based on ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequence data. This species is unable to grow at 37 °C, similarly to A. keveii and A. insuetus. Aspergillus carlsbadensis sp. nov. was isolated from the Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. This taxon is related to, but distinct from a clade including A. calidoustus, A. pseudodeflectus, A. insuetus and A. keveii on all trees. This species is also unable to grow at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Aspergillus californicus sp. nov. is proposed for an isolate from chamise chaparral (Adenostoma fasciculatum) in California. It is related to a clade including A. subsessilis and A. kassunensis on all trees. This species grew well at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. The strain CBS 504.65 from soil in Turkey showed to be clearly distinct from the A. deflectus ex-type strain, indicating that this isolate represents a distinct species in this section. We propose the name A. turkensis sp. nov. for this taxon. This species grew, although rather restrictedly at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Isolates from stored maize, South Africa, as a culture contaminant of Bipolaris sorokiniana from indoor air in Finland proved to be related to, but different from A. ustus and A. puniceus. The taxon is proposed as the new species A. pseudoustus. Although supported only by low bootstrap values, F. monodii was found to belong to section Usti based on phylogenetic analysis of either loci BLAST searches to the GenBank database also resulted in closest hits from section Usti. This species obviously does not belong to the Fennellia genus, instead it is a member of the Emericella genus. However, in accordance with the guidelines of the Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature (Hawksworth et al. 2011), and based on phylogenetic and physiological evidence, we propose the new combination Aspergillus monodii comb. nov. for this taxon. Species assigned to section Usti can be assigned to three chemical groups based on the extrolites. Aspergillus ustus, A. granulosus and A. puniceus produced ustic acid, while A. ustus and A. puniceus also produced austocystins and versicolorins. In the second chemical group, A. pseudodeflectus produced drimans in common with the other species in this group, and also several unique unknown compounds. Aspergillus calidoustus isolates produced drimans and ophiobolins in common with A. insuetus and A. keveii, but also produced austins. Aspergillus insuetus isolates also produced pergillin while A. keveii isolates produced nidulol. In the third chemical group, E. heterothallica has been reported to produce emethallicins, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin, emeheterone, emesterones, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin. PMID:21892244

Samson, R.A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.; Frisvad, J.C.

2011-01-01

34

Immobilisation of fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus aculeatus on epoxy-activated Sepabeads EC for the synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfructosylating activity present in two commercial pectinase preparations (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, from Aspergillus aculeatus, and Rapidase TF, from Aspergillus niger) was studied. Pectinex Ultra SP-L, which has a high transferase\\/hydrolase ratio, was covalently immobilised on a polymethacrylate-based polymer (Sepabeads® EC) activated with epoxy groups. The influence of pore volume and average pore size on biocatalyst performance was studied for

Iraj Ghazi; Aránzazu Gómez De Segura; Lucía Fernández-Arrojo; Miguel Alcalde; Malcolm Yates; M. Luisa Rojas-Cervantes; Francisco J. Plou; Antonio Ballesteros

2005-01-01

35

Development in Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

2013-01-01

36

GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

37

Bronchoscopic and serologic diagnosis of Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed

A 4-yr-old male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) developed an Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Fungal elements were identified by cytology and microbiology from endoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage and brushings of a raised yellow endobronchial lesion. The results of qualitative immunodiffusion serology, a technique that identifies specific circulating antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus, were suggestive of an active infection. The dolphin was treated with itraconazole for over 2 yr, which resulted in remission of clinical signs. Pneumonia caused by Aspergillus sp. accounts for the large majority of pulmonary mycoses in marine mammals. Bronchoscopy facilitated an early definitive diagnosis, accurate treatment, and remission. PMID:10065855

Reidarson, T H; Harrell, J H; Rinaldi, M G; McBain, J

1998-12-01

38

Transformation in Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Mutants (lysine requiring) of Aspergillus ochraceus were kept under starvation conditions for 15 days and finally were treated with DNA of a 40-h-old culture of the wild strain. The donor DNA-treated mutant conidia were then grown on plates containing minimal medium at 28 degrees C for 4 days. The number of transformed cells was estimated by colony counting and hence percentage transformants. The transforming activity of the donor DNA was found to be inhibited by the action of heat and variation of pH, and also varied with the period of starvation and with the concentration of donor DNA. PMID:7765888

Saha, D; Das, T K

1995-02-01

39

X-ray Structure Analysis and Characterization of AFUEI, an Elastase Inhibitor from Aspergillus fumigatus*  

PubMed Central

Elastase from Aspergillus sp. is an important factor for aspergillosis. AFUEI is an inhibitor of the elastase derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. AFUEI is a member of the I78 inhibitor family and has a high inhibitory activity against elastases of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, human neutrophil elastase and bovine chymotrypsin, but does not inhibit bovine trypsin. Here we report the crystal structure of AFUEI in two crystal forms. AFUEI is a wedge-shaped protein composed of an extended loop and a scaffold protein core. The structure of AFUEI shows remarkable similarity to serine protease inhibitors of the potato inhibitor I family, although they are classified into different inhibitor families. A structural comparison with the potato I family inhibitors suggests that the extended loop of AFUEI corresponds to the binding loop of the potato inhibitor I family, and AFUEI inhibits its cognate proteases through the same mechanism as the potato I family inhibitors. PMID:23640894

Sakuma, Mayuko; Imada, Katsumi; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Yamashita, Nobuo; Ogawa, Kenji; Hijikata, Atsushi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Michio; Nikai, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

40

Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

1996-01-01

41

Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048=NRRL 58570), ...

42

Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaďs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaďde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

2011-01-01

43

Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections  

PubMed Central

Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects. PMID:22194666

Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

2011-01-01

44

Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

Latgé, Jean-Paul

1999-01-01

45

Pulmonary aspergillus intracavitary colonization (PAIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have attempted to elucidate the natural history of pulmonary aspergillus intracavitary colonization (PAIC) based on more than 350 cases of the disease observed in the last 11 years and on data collected from the literature. The data indicate that PAIC is a dynamic process consequent to the continual growth and death of fungal elements and also with their relationships

L. C. Severo; G. R. Geyer; N. S. Porto

1990-01-01

46

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii  

PubMed Central

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-01-01

47

Aspergillus nomius , a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus nomius is described and represents a new aflatoxigenic species phenotypically similar to A. flavus. Strains examined were isolated from insects and agricultural commodities. Separation from A. flavus is based on the presence of indeterminate sclerotia and a lower growth temperature. Comparisons of DNA relatedness show A. nomius to have only relatively recently evolved from A. flavus and A. tamarii.

C. P. Kurtzman; B. W. Horn; C. W. Hesseltine

1987-01-01

48

Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, ?-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including the transcriptional regulator aflR, norsolonic acid reductase and O-methyltransferase were also carried out. A detailed overview of the species accepted in Aspergillus section Flavi is presented. PMID:21892243

Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

2011-01-01

49

The Phylogenetics of Mycotoxin and Sclerotium Production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geiser, D. M., Dorner, J. W., Horn, B. W., and Taylor, J. W. 2000. The phylogenetics of mycotoxin and scle- rotium production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Fungal Genetics and Biology 31, 169 -179. Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus that produces aflatoxins and presents a major threat to agriculture and human health. Previous phylogenetic studies of A.

David M. Geiser; Joe W. Dorner; Bruce W. Horn; John W. Taylor

2001-01-01

50

Pulmonary Hyalinizing Granuloma Associated with Aspergillus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 38-year-old immunocompetent man with occupational exposure to Aspergillus presented with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and hemoptysis. Chest roentgenograms and computed tomography scans demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules bilaterally. An initial set of bronchial washing cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, serologic testing showed an elevated anti-Aspergillus titer, and immunodiffusion testing was positive for antibody against A. fumigatus and A. niger. There was

J. Keith Pinckard; Daniel B. Rosenbluth; Kishor Patel; Louis P. Dehner; John D. Pfeifer

2003-01-01

51

Chronic Granulomatous Aspergillus Synovitis: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus can cause invasive disease of various organs especially in patients with weakened immune systems. Aspergillus synovitis and arthritis are uncommon types of involvement due to this infection. Approaches to fungal osteoarticular infections are based on only case reports. This paper presents a rare case of chronic granulomatous Aspergillus synovitis in an immunocompromised 5-year old girl who was treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23795281

Ayhan, Aylin Canbolat; Özkan, Korhan; Timur, Cetin; Akta?, Birol; Ceyran, Ayse Bahar

2013-01-01

52

The Pharmacodynamics of Antifungal Agents Against Aspergillus.  

E-print Network

??Background: Voriconazole is a first line agent for the treatment for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. There are increasing reports of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates with reduced susceptibility… (more)

Jeans, Adam Rupert

2013-01-01

53

Itraconazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis is an increasingly frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Only two agents, amphotericin B and itraconazole, are licensed for therapy. Itraconazole acts through inhi- bition of a P-450 enzyme undertaking sterol 14a demethylation. In vitro resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus to itraconazole correlated with in vivo outcome has not been previously described. For three isolates (AF72, AF90, and AF91)

DAVID W. DENNING; K. VENKATESWARLU; KAREN L. OAKLEY; M. J. ANDERSON; N. J. MANNING; DAVID A. STEVENS; DAVID W. WARNOCK; STEVEN L. KELLY; Sheffield S; Bristol BS

1997-01-01

54

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis. PMID:25473411

Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

2014-11-01

55

Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma associated with Aspergillus infection.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old immunocompetent man with occupational exposure to Aspergillus presented with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and hemoptysis. Chest roentgenograms and computed tomography scans demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules bilaterally. An initial set of bronchial washing cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, serologic testing showed an elevated anti-Aspergillus titer, and immunodiffusion testing was positive for antibody against A. fumigatus and A. niger. There was no microbiologic or serologic evidence of infection by other pathogens, and no clinical or laboratory evidence of autoimmune disease. An open lung biopsy was diagnostic of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This novel association with Aspergillus infection not only expands the spectrum of pathogens linked to pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma but also documents a new pattern of lung disease that can be caused by Aspergillus. PMID:12598920

Pinckard, J Keith; Rosenbluth, Daniel B; Patel, Kishor; Dehner, Louis P; Pfeifer, John D

2003-01-01

56

Induction of mutation in Aspergillus niger for conversion of cellulose into glucose  

SciTech Connect

Plant wastes are very important part of biomass used and investigated for energy, chemical, and fuel production. Cellulose is the major renewable form of carbohydrate in the world, about 10{sup 11} tons of which is synthesized annually. For general use, it must be hydrolyzed first, either chemically or by cellulases derived from a few specialized microorganisms. Enzymes are acceptable environmentally but expensive to produce. Certainly, induction of mutations and selection of high cellulose microbial strains with significant adaptability to degrade cellulose to glucose is promising solutions. Induction of mutations in other fungi and Aspergillus sp. rather than Aspergillus niger was reported. Aspergillus ustus and Trichoderma harzianum were induced by gamma irradiation indicating mutants that excrete higher cellulose yields, particularly exocellobiohydrolase (Avicelase) than their respective wild types. Mutants from the celluiolytic fungus Penicillium pinophilum were induced by chemical and UV-irradiation. Enhancing the production of endo-1,4-{Beta}-D-glucanase (CMCase) and particularly {Beta}-glucosidase was obtained by gamma irradiation of Altemaria alternate. To overcome the lower activity of {beta}-glucosidase in certain fungi species rather than A. niger, mixed cultures of different species were tried. Thus, Aspergillus phonicis with Trichoderma reesei Rut 30, produced a cellulose complex that improved activity twofold over cellulose from Trichoderma alone.

Helmi, S.; Khalil, A.E.; Tahoun, M.K.; Khairy, A.H. [Univ. of Alexandria Research Centre, Alexandria (Egypt)

1991-12-31

57

Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods 10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) median and 90th percentile were determined. Results BAK had the lowest MIC for both Fusarium and Aspergillus. Chloramphenicol had activity against both Fusarium and Aspergillus, while moxifloxacin and tobramycin had activity against Fusarium but not Aspergillus. Conclusions The susceptibility of Fusarium to tobramycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, and BAK and of Aspergillus to chloramphenicol and BAK may explain anecdotal reports of fungal ulcers that improved with antibiotic treatment alone. While some of the MICs of antibiotics and BAK are lower than the typically prescribed concentrations, they are not in the range of antifungal agents such as voriconazole, natamycin, and amphotericin B. Antibiotics may, however, have a modest effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus when used as initial treatment prior to identification of the pathologic organism. PMID:18952649

Day, Shelley; Lalitha, Prajna; Haug, Sara; Fothergill, Annette W.; Cevallos, Vicky; Vijayakumar, Rajendran; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V.; Acharya, Nisha R.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

58

[Comparison of immunodiffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis for the detection of precipitating antibodies against Candida and Aspergillus antigens].  

PubMed

Early diagnosis of disseminated fungal infections is a major problem in patients at risk, e.g. patients with malignancies or other severe illnesses. A number of serological tests for the detection of fungal antigens or antibodies can be performed in addition to culture methods. Valuable serological tests exist for the detection of precipitating antibodies to Candida sp. or Aspergillus sp. Precipitating antibodies against intracellular fungal antibodies can be detected by the immunodiffusion test (ID) or by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). In our study 103 patients' sera were examined in parallel with these two methods for antibodies against Candida sp. and 100 sera for antibodies against Aspergillus sp. The results indicate that counterimmunoelectrophoresis is more sensitive than immunodiffusion, and that the results of CIE also correlate better with elevated titers in other serological tests, e.g. the hemagglutination test or the immunofluorescence test. One of the limitations is that precipitating antibodies cannot be detected until relatively late in the course of infection. This disadvantage is further intensified by the long duration of performance of the immunodiffusion test in the laboratory. In comparison with the ID test, the detection of precipitating antibodies by counterimmunoelectrophoresis shortened the duration of performance in our laboratory by up to 5 days. PMID:7854371

Freidank, H; Thiel, L; Henninger, S

1994-01-01

59

Mycetoma caused by Aspergillus nidulans in India.  

PubMed

The first case of mycetoma caused by Aspergillus nidulans has been described from India in a young farmer of Jaisalmer situated in the Thar desert of Western Rajasthan, India. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological and mycological studies. PMID:3894683

Joshi, K R; Mathur, D R; Sharma, J C; Vyas, M C; Sanghvi, A

1985-02-01

60

Aflaquinolones A–G: Secondary Metabolites from Marine and Fungicolous Isolates of Aspergillus Spp.†  

PubMed Central

Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A – G; 1 – 7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048 = NRRL 58570), while the others were obtained from a marine Aspergillus isolate (SF-5044) collected in Korea. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of NMR and MS data. Relative and absolute configurations were assigned on the basis of NOESY data and 1H NMR J-values, comparison of calculated and experimental ECD spectra, and analysis of a Mosher’s ester derivative of 2. Several known compounds, including alantrypinone, aspochalasins I and J, methyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-2((2-((3-pyridinylcarbonyl)amino) benzoyl)amino) benzoate, and trans-dehydrocurvularin were also encountered in the extract of the Hawaiian isolate. PMID:22295903

Neff, Scott A.; Lee, Sang Un; Asami, Yukihiro; Ahn, Jong Seog; Oh, Hyuncheol; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gloer, James B.; Wicklow, Donald T.

2012-01-01

61

Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aims:To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin and benzalkonium chloride (BAK).Methods:10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration

S Day; P Lalitha; S Haug; A W Fothergill; V Cevallos; R Vijayakumar; N V Prajna; N R Acharya; S D McLeod; T M Lietman

2009-01-01

62

Antifungal Susceptibility Tests of Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although different methods are now available to assess the susceptibility of Aspergillus species to antifungal agents, there are still limited data correlating in vitro resistance with meaningful clinical endpoints.\\u000a Moreover, there is no consensus on the breakpoints to define resistance\\/susceptibility to different antifungal agents. This\\u000a chapter reviews the technical issues related to antifungal susceptibility tests for Aspergillus species, including the

Arnaldo Lopes Colombo; Viviane Reis; Patricio Godoy

63

Biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a well adapted, opportunistic fungus that causes a severe and commonly fatal disease, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), in highly immunocompromised patients, aspergilloma in patients with lung cavities and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in hypersensitive individuals. Recent studies have suggested that biofilm formation by A. fumigatus may be one of the most important virulence factors in IPA and aspergilloma. Several fungal constituents may contribute to the formation of biofilm structures on host cells, including cell wall components, secondary metabolites and drug transporters. The biofilm phenotype of the fungus is refractory to most conventional antifungal treatment options. Thus, an in-depth analysis and understanding of A. fumigatus biofilms is necessary to devise newer and better antifungal targets for treating complex A. fumigatus biofilm-associated diseases. PMID:23962172

Kaur, Savneet; Singh, Shweta

2014-01-01

64

21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to identify antibodies to Aspergillus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like)...

2012-04-01

65

Purification and characterization of endo-xylanases from Aspergillus Niger. III. An enzyme of PL 365  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endo-xylanase (1,4-..beta..-D-xylan xylanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) from Aspergillus niger was purified to homogeneity by chromatography with Ultrogel AcA 54, SP-Sephadex C-25 at pH 4.5, DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.4, Sephadex G-50, and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.15. The enzyme was active on soluble xylan, on insoluble xylan only after arabinosyl-initiated branch points were removed, and on xylooligosaccharides longer than xylotetraose.

R. A. Fournier; M. M. Frederick; J. R. Frederick; P. J. Reilly

1985-01-01

66

The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P.

2014-01-01

67

Calmodulin inhibitors from Aspergillus stromatoides.  

PubMed

An organic extract was prepared from the culture medium and mycelia of the marine fungus Aspergillus stromatoides RAPER & FENNELL. The extract was fractionated via column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were tested for their abilities to quench the fluorescence of the calmodulin (CaM) biosensor hCaM M124C-mBBr. From the active fraction, emodin (1) and ?-hydroxyemodin (2) were isolated as CaM inhibitors. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 quenched the fluorescence of the hCaM M124C-mBBr biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner with K(d) values of 0.33 and 0.76 ?M, respectively. The results were compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a classical inhibitor of CaM, with a K(d) value of 1.25 ?M. Docking analysis revealed that 1 and 2 bind to the same pocket of CPZ. The CaM inhibitor properties of 1 and 2 were correlated with some of their reported biological properties. Citrinin (3), methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), and coniochaetone A (5) were also isolated in the present study. The X-ray structure of 5 is reported for the first time. PMID:23495150

González-Andrade, Martín; Del Valle, Paulina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Del Carmen González, María; Mata, Rachel

2013-03-01

68

Antioxidant Activity of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity of Aspergillus fumigatus was assayed by different procedures and correlated with its extracellular total phenolic contents. Different physio-chemical parameters were optimized to enhance the activity. The culture grown under stationary conditions for 10 days at 25°C at pH 7 gave the best antioxidant activity. Statistical approaches demonstrated sucrose and NaNO3 to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Response surface analysis showed 5% sucrose, 0.05% NaNO3, and incubation temperature of 35°C to be the optimal conditions for best expression of antioxidant activity. Under these conditions, the antioxidant potential assayed through different procedures was 89.8%, 70.1%, and 70.2% scavenging effect for DPPH radical, ferrous ion and nitric oxide ion, respectively. The reducing power showed an absorbance of 1.0 and FRAP assay revealed the activity of 60.5%. Extracellular total phenolic content and antioxidant activity as assayed by different procedures positively correlated. PMID:22084718

Arora, Daljit Singh; Chandra, Priyanka

2011-01-01

69

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

70

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

71

Detection of Aspergillus in lung and other tissue samples using the MycAssay Aspergillus real-time PCR kit.  

PubMed

The MycAssay™ Aspergillus real-time PCR kit was tested on tissues from patients with invasive fungal infections. Tissue samples from nine organ transplant recipients and 33 patients with haematological malignancy were from lung (n = 30), skin (n = 4), and others. Samples were preprocessed with proteinase K and lyticase, followed by DNA extraction and real-time PCR. For all samples, the sensitivity of the MycAssay Aspergillus test was 82% and specificity 79% relative to microscopy and 90% and 64%, respectively, compared with Aspergillus culture. The positive predictive value and negative predictive values compared with culture were 69% and 88% and were 88% and 69% compared with microscopy, respectively. The MycAssay Aspergillus test detected tissue invasive infections with Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus flavus , and Aspergillus terreus. PMID:21861765

Lass-Flörl, C; Follett, S A; Moody, A; Denning, D W

2011-09-01

72

Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

73

Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes.  

PubMed

Fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods are at risk for contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably Aspergillus fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. PMID:20638611

Harrison, Elizabeth; Stalhberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Follett, Sarah A; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

2010-08-01

74

Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence an...

75

ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

76

GENOME SEQUENCING AND ANALYSIS OF ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, an important industrial fungus used in the production of oriental fermented foods, such as soy sauce, miso, and sake, has been sequenced. The genome sequence reveals a wealth of genes encoding secreted enzymes. A comparison with the genome sequences of A. nidulans...

77

New species in Aspergillus section Terrei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus section Terrei is reviewed and revised using information from DNA sequences, extrolite examination, and phenotypic assessment in an integrated analysis. The taxonomic status of six species from the section is modified either by describing new species or by providing new names for previou...

78

SHORT COMMUNICATION Presence of Aspergillus sydowii, a  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Presence of Aspergillus sydowii, a pathogen of gorgonian sea fans in the marine Pawlik5 and Oded Yarden3 1 Department of Zoology, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv; 4 Department of Biology, University of South Carolina-Aiken, Aiken, SC, USA and 5 Center for Marine

Pawlik, Joseph

79

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

80

SP Fonts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for funky fonts to include in Web designs, papers, or posters, SP Fonts may be your answer. Scholars Press (SP) Fonts "are a set of simple, public domain fonts" designed for print and non-commercial Web use. This site currently offers eight public domain fonts that may be downloaded and used free of charge. Three of the fonts are Hebrew/Aramaic fonts: "SPTiberian (a standard Hebrew font), SPDamascus (a thinner font with Palestinian as well as Tiberian vowel points), and SPEzra (a simple, fixed-width Hebrew font)." Two are Greek fonts: "SPIonic (a more complete Greek font) and SPDoric (a simpler, uncial font)." Other fonts include "SPEdessa (a Syriac Estrangela font), SPAchmim (a Coptic font), and SPAtlantis (a transliteration font that includes diacriticals and other special characters that allow the representation of numerous Indo-European, Semitic, and other languages"-- available in both Roman and Italic type). All fonts are TrueType fonts and are compatible with PC (Windows) and Mac computers. In addition, each font has a .readme file that explains the standard keyboard mapping used by the font. Although the fonts are free to the public, the Web site requests permission from the copyright holder before including the typefaces in commercial electronic products.

2000-01-01

81

Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins ?-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1?) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B?, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-?-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. PMID:22036292

Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

2011-11-01

82

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS 2006 #12;IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS: IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS RESISTANT

Ray, David

83

Real-time PCR for detection of the Aspergillus genus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus is a genus of mold that has strong indoor sources, including several species capable of acting as opportunistic pathogens. Previous studies suggest that Aspergillus could serve as an indicator for abnormal mold growth or moisture, making it an important genus for environmental monitoring. Here, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, or real-time PCR) assay is presented for Aspergillus. The assay shows good specificity for the genus, detecting all Aspergillus species tested, although a few non-Aspergillus species are also amplified. Sensitivity testing demonstrates that DNA representing one conidium can be detected. A validation study compared qPCR results against direct microscopy counts using A. fumigatus conidia aerosolized into a laboratory chamber. The assay was then used to quantify Aspergillus in indoor air samples, demonstrating its utility for environmental monitoring. Analysis of a small number of clinical sputum samples showed complete agreement with culturing results. PMID:17554432

Goebes, Marian D; Hildemann, Lynn M; Kujundzic, Elmira; Hernandez, Mark

2007-06-01

84

New species in Aspergillus section Terrei  

PubMed Central

Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus. PMID:21892242

Samson, R.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

2011-01-01

85

Immuno-polymerase chain reaction for detection of Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of Aspergillus infections are caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogenAspergillus fumigatus in humans especially under immunosuppressed conditions. Major forms of the disease include invasive aspergillosis, allergic\\u000a bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and aspergilloma. A procedure that uses chitinase and microwave treatment is described for\\u000a the extraction of genomic DNA of Aspergillus species from the sputum and bronchial aspirate of patients with

P. Usha Sarma; Nivedita Bir; Anubha Paliwal; Prasad Reddy

1997-01-01

86

Aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.  

PubMed

This report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. We describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. He subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with Aspergillus terreus. PMID:23685108

Vivek, V; Kavar, B; Hogg, M; Eisen, D P; Butzkueven, H

2013-08-01

87

Restriction endonuclease analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To develop a genome based DNA fingerprinting system for Aspergillus fumigatus mould. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 21 isolates obtained from eight patients with an aspergilloma. This was with a freeze-dried mycelial extract fragmented in liquid nitrogen. DNA was subsequently purified by phenol-chloroform extraction followed by ultracentrifugation on a caesium chloride gradient. The DNA was restricted by EcoRI and

J P Burnie; A Coke; R C Matthews

1992-01-01

88

Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, ?-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

2014-01-01

89

In vitro susceptibility-testing in Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive mould infections in immunocompromised patients. The introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment of Aspergillus infections have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility-testing. Various testing procedures have been proposed, including macrodilution and microdilution, agar diffusion, disc diffusion and Etest. At present, one of

Cornelia Lass-Flörl; Susanne Perkhofer

2008-01-01

90

Isolation of Bacterial Antagonists of Aspergillus flavus from Almonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from California almond orchard samples to evaluate their potential antifungal activity against aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Fungal populations from the same samples were examined to determine the incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. Antagonistic activities of the isolated bacterial strains were screened against a nonaflatoxigenic nor mutant of A. flavus, which accumulates the pigmented aflatoxin precursor norsolorinic acid (NOR)

Jeffrey D. Palumbo; James L. Baker; Noreen E. Mahoney

2006-01-01

91

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 Inulin and sucrose affecting on inulinase production from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611  

Microsoft Academic Search

???????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 ????????????????????????????????? (????\\/????) ?????????????????????????? 25 : 2, 25 : 4,12.5 : 4 ??? 6.25 : 4 ???????????????????????????????????????? ??????? 5.48, 2.56, 1.67 ??? 1.22 ?????\\/????????? ??????? 8, 12, 6 ??? 7.5 ??. ????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????????? (YE) ??????? 0.59, 0.84, 0.98 ??? 0.59 ?????\\/???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? (qE) ??????? 0.07, 0.10, 0.16 ??? 0.08 ?????\\/?????????

Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul; Thikumporn Tantivimongkol; Sittiwat Lertsiri

92

The Phylogenetics of Mycotoxin and Sclerotium Production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus that produces aflatoxins and presents a major threat to agriculture and human health. Previous phylogenetic studies of A. flavus have shown that it consists of two subgroups, called groups I and II, and morphological studies indicated that it consists of two morphological groups based on sclerotium size, called “S” and “L.” The industrially

David M Geiser; Joe W Dorner; Bruce W Horn; John W Taylor

2000-01-01

93

The function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome  

PubMed Central

Species in the filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus display a wide diversity of lifestyles and are of great importance to humans. The decoding of genome sequences from a dozen species that vary widely in their degree of evolutionary affinity has galvanized studies of the function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome in clinical, industrial, and agricultural environments. Here, we synthesize recent key findings that shed light on the architecture of the Aspergillus genome, on the molecular foundations of the genus’ astounding dexterity and diversity in secondary metabolism, and on the genetic underpinnings of virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus, one of the most lethal fungal pathogens. Many of these insights dramatically expand our knowledge of fungal and microbial eukaryote genome evolution and function and argue that Aspergillus constitutes a superb model clade for the study of functional and comparative genomics. PMID:23084572

Gibbons, John G.; Rokas, Antonis

2012-01-01

94

Aspergillus Meningitis: Diagnosis by Non-Culture-Based Microbiological Methods and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galacto- mannan was detected in the

PAUL E. VERWEIJ; KEES BRINKMAN; HERBERT P. H. KREMER; BART-JAN KULLBERG; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS

1999-01-01

95

ADOPTING SELECTED HYDROGEN BONDING AND IONIC INTERACTIONS FROM ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS PHYTASE STRUCTURE IMPROVES THE THERMOSTABILITY OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER PHYA PHYTASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although it has been widely used as a feed supplement to reduce manure phosphorus pollution of swine and poultry, Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase is unable to withstand heat inactivation during feed pelleting. Crystal structure comparisons with its close homolog, the thermostable Aspergillus fumigatu...

96

Characterization of phytase produced by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular activity ofAspergillus niger phytase at the end of the growth phase was 132 nkat\\/mL in a laboratory bioreactor. The purified enzyme has molar mass approximately\\u000a 100 kDa, pH optimum at 5.0, temperature optimum at 55°C and high pH and temperature stability. TheK\\u000a m for dodecasodium phytate, calcium phytate and 4-nitrophenyl phosphate are 0.44, 0.45 and 1.38 mmol\\/L, respectively.

J. Dvo?áková; O. Volfová; J. Kopecký

1997-01-01

97

SP100 progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

SP-100 technology satisfies the emerging high power requirements that will enable future space missions and is readily adaptable to provide base power for lunar and Martian surface applications. The SP-100 nuclear power reactor can also be coupled to various static and dynamic power conversion systems as they achieve technology readiness. This unique capability expands SP-100's applicability into the range needed

J. S. Armijo; A. T. Josloff; H. S. Bailey; D. N. Matteo

1991-01-01

98

Arachnomyces kanei (anamorph Onychocola kanei) sp. nov., from human nails.  

PubMed

Five isolates of a slow-growing cycloheximide resistant hyphomycetous fungus were obtained from nail specimens and investigated for their relationship to Onychocola canadensis (teleomorph Arachnomyces nodosetosus), a known agent of onychomycosis. In one patient diagnosed with superficial white onychomycosis, etiology was confirmed by a nail sample showing atypical filaments in direct microscopy, and by a follow-up specimen yielding cultures of the same fungus. A case of mixed infection with Aspergillus sydowii was also confirmed after examination of cultures grown from three successive microscopic-positive hallux nail specimens. For other isolates, etiological significance could not be confirmed by repeat sampling or results of direct microscopy were negative or unknown. Mating experiments yielded setose ascomata containing smooth oblate ascospores typical of Arachnomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS 2 region sequences support the conspecificity of the isolates and their placement within the genus. A. kanei sp. nov. (anamorph O. kanei sp. nov.) is described. PMID:12521121

Gibas, C F C; Sigler, L; Summerbell, R C; Hofstader, S L R; Gupta, A K

2002-12-01

99

Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE and IgG antibodies for diagnosis of Aspergillus-related lung diseases.  

PubMed

IgE and IgG antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus were detected by crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) on the sera of seven patients with aspergilloma, six patients with allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 25 patients with extrinsic asthma with Aspergillus allergy. IgE-CRIE analysis indicated the presence of A. fumigatus-specific IgE in sera of patients with ABPA and Aspergillus asthma but not of aspergilloma patients. IgG-CRIE showed that both aspergilloma and ABPA patient sera contained high levels of circulating specific IgG antibodies in contrast to sera of Aspergillus asthma patients, which did not show detectable amounts of Aspergillus-specific IgG antibodies. Specific IgE binding could be demonstrated for the major allergens Ag-10 and AG-40 in all ABPA patients, in 80% of Aspergillus asthma patients but not in sera from aspergilloma patients. Specific IgG antibodies directed towards the major allergens could be detected in most of the aspergilloma patients, between 30-70% of the ABPA patients but not in sera from patients with Aspergillus asthma. PMID:1928661

Wallenbeck, I; Dreborg, S; Zetterström, O; Einarsson, R

1991-07-01

100

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

101

Expression of Aspergillus oryzae phytase gene in Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 niaD(-).  

PubMed

Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 niaD(-) was transformed using a plasmid constructed with the A. oryzae phytase gene and pNAN8142 vector. The culture broth of the transformant, which was grown in a medium containing starch as a carbon source and polyvinylpyrrolidone showed phytase activity of a maximum of 2.0 units ml(-1) at 37 degrees C, pH 5.5. PMID:17270723

Uchida, Hiroyuki; Arakida, Shinya; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Kawasaki, Haruhiko

2006-12-01

102

Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador).  

PubMed

From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A. amazonicus, and A. ecuadorensis. PMID:18594910

Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Maldonado, Maria Elena; Pedrini, Paola; Colalongo, Chiara; Romagnoli, Carlo

2008-09-01

103

Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

conducted through inoculation with a highly concentrated solution of Aspergillus flavus FR: Link spores, a naturally occurring fungus which infects maize and produces a toxic metabolite (aflatoxin) to humans and animals consuming the grain. No commercial...

Mayfield, Kerry L.

2009-05-15

104

Thoracic spinal cord intramedullary aspergillus invasion and abscess.  

PubMed

Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is a rare form of fungal infection that presents most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. There have been multiple previous reports of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and spinal epidural aspergillus abscess; however to our knowledge there are no reports of intramedullary aspergillus infection. We present a 19-year-old woman with active acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with several weeks of fevers and bilateral lower extremity weakness. She was found to have an intramedullary aspergillus abscess at T12-L1 resulting from adjacent vertebral osteomyelitis and underwent surgical debridement with ultra-sound guided aspiration and aggressive intravenous voriconazole therapy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of spinal aspergillosis invading the intramedullary cavity. Though rare, this entity should be included in the differential for immunocompromised patients presenting with fevers and neurologic deficit. Early recognition with aggressive neurosurgical intervention and antifungal therapy may improve outcomes in future cases. PMID:25088481

McCaslin, Addason F; Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Sugrue, Patrick A; Koski, Tyler R

2015-02-01

105

Heterologous expression of lysergic acid and novel ergot alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Different lineages of fungi produce distinct classes of ergot alkaloids. Lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids produced by fungi in the Clavicipitaceae are particularly important in agriculture and medicine. The pathway to lysergic acid is partly elucidated, but the gene encoding the enzyme that oxidizes the intermediate agroclavine is unknown. We investigated two candidate agroclavine oxidase genes from the fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii × Epichloë typhina isolate Lp1 (henceforth referred to as Epichloë sp. Lp1), which produces lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids. Candidate genes easH and cloA were expressed in a mutant strain of the mold Aspergillus fumigatus, which typically produces a subclass of ergot alkaloids not derived from agroclavine or lysergic acid. Candidate genes were coexpressed with the Epichloë sp. Lp1 allele of easA, which encodes an enzyme that catalyzed the synthesis of agroclavine from an A. fumigatus intermediate; the agroclavine then served as the substrate for the candidate agroclavine oxidases. Strains expressing easA and cloA from Epichloë sp. Lp1 produced lysergic acid from agroclavine, a process requiring a cumulative six-electron oxidation and a double-bond isomerization. Strains that accumulated excess agroclavine (as a result of Epichloë sp. Lp1 easA expression in the absence of cloA) metabolized it into two novel ergot alkaloids for which provisional structures were proposed on the basis of mass spectra and precursor feeding studies. Our data indicate that CloA catalyzes multiple reactions to produce lysergic acid from agroclavine and that combining genes from different ergot alkaloid pathways provides an effective strategy to engineer important pathway molecules and novel ergot alkaloids. PMID:25107976

Robinson, Sarah L; Panaccione, Daniel G

2014-10-01

106

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis of a mushroom worker due to Aspergillus glaucus.  

PubMed

We present the first reported case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) due to Aspergillus glaucus in a mushroom worker. The Aspergillus glaucus group is one of the most popular storage fungi and a possible subsidiary etiologic agent of farmer's lung, but no case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) due to A. glaucus has been reported. This first case may demonstrate the etiologic role of A. glaucus in HP and in farmer's lung. PMID:2119164

Yoshida, K; Ando, M; Ito, K; Sakata, T; Arima, K; Araki, S; Uchida, K

1990-01-01

107

L-histidine utilization in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed Central

Histidase activity rather than uptake of L-histidine is the limiting factor for the utilization of histidine as the sole nitrogen source for Aspergillus nidulans. Histidine cannot act as the sole carbon source, and evidence is presented indicating that this is attributable to an inability to convert histidine to L-glutamate in vivo. It has been shown that this fungus lacks an active urocanase enzyme and that histidine is quantitatively converted to urocanate, which accumulates in the extracellular medium. The use of histidine as a nitrogen source is regulated by nitrogen metabolite repression control of histidase synthesis. In addition, evidence for a requirement for a carbon source for histidase synthesis and for a minor form of control by nitrate is presented. The activity of the histidase enzyme is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the product urocanate and by physiological levels of L-glutamate and L-glutamine. PMID:6120926

Polkinghorne, M A; Hynes, M J

1982-01-01

108

Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security. PMID:23616354

Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

2014-02-01

109

Histopathological Implications of Aspergillus Infection in Lung  

PubMed Central

This paper opens with a discussion on the significance of invasive fungal infections in advanced contemporary medicine, with an emphasis on the intractability of disease management and the difficulties of diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion concerning classification, histopathological features, and pathophysiology. While it has been largely accepted that Aspergillus species is recognized by cellular receptors and attacked by neutrophils, the radiological and macroscopic findings linking infection with neutropenia remain unconfirmed. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, we wish to emphasize the utility of radiological and histopathological examinations since these can provide detailed information on the extremely complex interaction between the causative microbes and tissue responses. A review of noninvasive or semi-invasive aspergillosis is also provided, with particular emphasis on chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, which is recognized as a transition form of simple pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, although few findings have been reported in this area. PMID:24347836

Tochigi, Naobumi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Gocho, Kyoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Ishiwatari, Takao; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2013-01-01

110

Improved enzyme production by co-cultivation of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae and with other fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae were co-cultivated with each other and with Magnaporthe grisea or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, respectively. Enzyme assays for plant polysaccharide and lignin-degrading enzymes showed that co-cultivation can improve extracellular enzyme production. Highest ?-glucosidase, ?-cellobiohydrolase, ?-galactosidase, and laccase activities were found for A. oryzae in combination with other fungi, in particular with P. chrysosporium. Highest ?-xylosidase activity was

H. L. Hu; J. van den Brink; B. S. Gruben; H. A. B. Wösten; J.-D. Gu; R. P. de Vries

2011-01-01

111

Does fungicide application in vineyards induce resistance to medical azoles in Aspergillus species?  

PubMed

This study assessed if the use of sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides in vineyard production can induce resistance to azoles in Aspergillus strains and if it can induce selection of resistant species. We also tried to identify the Aspergillus species most prevalent in the vineyards. Two vineyards from northern Portugal were selected from "Vinhos Verdes" and "Douro" regions. The vineyards were divided into plots that were treated or not with penconazole (PEN). In each vineyard, air, soil, and plant samples were collected at three different times. The strains of Aspergillus spp. were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular techniques. We identified 46 Aspergillus section Nigri, eight Aspergillus fumigatus, seven Aspergillus lentulus, four Aspergillus wentii, two Aspergillus flavus, two Aspergillus terreus, one Aspergillus calidoustus, one Aspergillus westerdijkiae, one Aspergillus tamarii, and one Eurotium amstelodami. Aspergillus strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to medical azoles used in human therapy (itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and to agricultural azoles (PEN) used in the prevention and treatment of plant diseases. The isolates showed moderate susceptibility to voriconazole. We did not observe any decrease of susceptibility to the medical azoles tested throughout the testing period in any of the treated plots, although some of the resistant species were isolated from there. PMID:24833021

Lago, Magali; Aguiar, Ana; Natário, André; Fernandes, Carla; Faria, Miguel; Pinto, Eugénia

2014-09-01

112

Arp11 Affects Dynein–Dynactin Interaction and is Essential for Dynein Function in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

The dynactin complex contains proteins including p150 that interacts with cytoplasmic dynein and an actin-related protein Arp1 that forms a minifilament. Proteins including Arp11 and p62 locate at the pointed end of the Arp1 filament, but their biochemical functions are unclear (Schroer TA. Dynactin. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2004;20: 759–779). In Aspergillus nidulans, loss of Arp11 or p62 causes the same nuclear distribution (nud) defect displayed by dynein mutants, indicating that these pointed-end proteins are essential for dynein function. We constructed a strain with S-tagged p150 of dynactin that allows us to pull down components of the dynactin and dynein complexes. Surprisingly, while the ratio of pulled-down Arp1 to S-p150 in Arp11-depleted cells is clearly lower than that in wild-type cells, the ratio of pulled-down dynein to S-p150 is significantly higher. We further show that the enhanced dynein–dynactin interaction in Arp11-depleted cells is also present in the soluble fraction and therefore is not dependent upon the affinity of these proteins to the membrane. We suggest that loss of the pointed-end proteins alters the Arp1 filament in a way that affects the conformation of p150 required for its proper interaction with the dynein motor. PMID:18410488

Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liqin; Zhuang, Lei; Huo, Liang; Musa, Shamsideen; Li, Shihe; Xiang, Xin

2008-01-01

113

Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and cranium. Based upon this comprehensive review, management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis optimally includes antifungal therapy and selective surgery to avoid relapse and to achieve a complete response. PMID:24378282

Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

114

CROP ROTATION INFLUENCES AFLATOXIN PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH TEXAS  

E-print Network

CROP ROTATION INFLUENCES AFLATOXIN PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH TEXAS Tucson, AZ Abstract Aspergillus flavus, the causal agent of aflatoxin contamination, is a natural a greater aflatoxin contamination potential than L strain isolates. Aflatoxin contamination can be severe

Cotty, Peter J.

115

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2014-04-01

116

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2011-04-01

117

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

118

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2012-04-01

119

Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Results Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5–8 times higher than previously described. Conclusions Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over twenty five-fold higher levels of itaconic acid and show a twenty-fold increase in yield compared to a strain expressing only CadA. PMID:24438100

2014-01-01

120

THE ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS GROUP: TWO NEW SPECIES FROM WESTERN SOILS AND A SYNOPTIC KEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species in the Aspergillus ochraceus group are described and compared to related taxa. Aspergillus bridgeri, from soils collected in a native community dominated by Atriplex gardneri in Wyoming, somewhat resembles A. elegans and A. lanosus, but differs in cultural and morphological details. Aspergillus campestris, from a native prairie in northern North Dakota, resembles A. dimorphicus in having metulae

MARTHA CHRISTENSEN

121

Sequencing of Aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with A. fumigatus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. Here we report the genome sequence of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, and a comparative study with Aspergillus fumigatus, a serious human pathogen, and Aspergillus oryzae, used in the production of sake, miso and soy sauce. Our analysis of genome structure provided a quantitative

James E. Galagan; Sarah E. Calvo; Christina Cuomo; Li-Jun Ma; Jennifer R. Wortman; Serafim Batzoglou; Su-In Lee; Meray Bastürkmen; Christina C. Spevak; John Clutterbuck; Vladimir Kapitonov; Jerzy Jurka; Claudio Scazzocchio; Mark Farman; Jonathan Butler; Seth Purcell; Steve Harris; Gerhard H. Braus; Oliver Draht; Silke Busch; Christophe D'Enfert; Christiane Bouchier; Gustavo H. Goldman; Deborah Bell-Pedersen; Sam Griffiths-Jones; John H. Doonan; Jaehyuk Yu; Kay Vienken; Arnab Pain; Michael Freitag; Eric U. Selker; David B. Archer; Miguel Á. Peńalva; Berl R. Oakley; Michelle Momany; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Kiyoshi Asai; Masayuki Machida; William C. Nierman; David W. Denning; Mark Caddick; Michael Hynes; Mathieu Paoletti; Reinhard Fischer; Bruce Miller; Paul Dyer; Matthew S. Sachs; Stephen A. Osmani; Bruce W. Birren

2005-01-01

122

A Case Report on Aspergillus lentulus Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background: Aspergillus lentulus was described as a new species in 2005 but it was isolated from Turkey for the first time. Case report: A. lentulus was isolated as the cause of pneumonia from a patient who had renal transplantation 4 months ago. The patient received immunosuppressive treatment after transplantation. A. lentulus was isolated from his sputum as an agent in pneumonia developed 4 months after the transplantation. Leukocytes, blastospores, and hyphae were seen in both Gram- and Giemsastained smears of the sputum. The isolate was identified by using the Maren A. Klich algorithm and molecular methods and confirmed by the reference laboratory of the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre (The Netherlands). In the susceptibility tests of the isolate, minimal inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin were found to be 0.5 ?g/mL, 0.25 ?g/mL, 0.125 ?g/mL, and 0.25 ?g/mL, respectively. The patient recovered with voriconazole treatment (2×200 mg/day). Conclusion: The use of the molecular tests is important for identification of A. lentulus strains because they are very easily confused with A.fumigatus strains according to phenotypic characteristics. PMID:25207153

Gürcan, ?aban; Tikve?li, Melek; Üstünda?, Sedat; Ener, Beyza

2013-01-01

123

Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols. PMID:24957370

Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

2012-01-01

124

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-11-01

125

Biodegradation of anthracene by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An anthracene-degrading strain, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, showed a favorable ability in degradation of anthracene. The degradation efficiency could be maintained at about 60% after 5d with initial pH of the medium kept between 5 and 7.5, and the optimal temperature of 30 °C. The activity of this strain was not affected significantly by high salinity. Exploration on co-metabolism showed that the highest degradation efficiency was reached at equal concentration of lactose and anthracene. Excessive carbon source would actually hamper the degradation efficiency. Meanwhile, the strain could utilize some aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, phenol etc. as sole source of carbon and energy, indicating its degradation diversity. Experiments on enzymatic degradation indicated that extracellular enzymes secreted by A. fumigatus could metabolize anthracene effectively, in which the lignin peroxidase may be the most important constituent. Analysis of ion chromatography showed that the release of anions of A. fumigatus was not affected by addition of anthracene. GC-MS analysis revealed that the molecular structure of anthracene changed with the action of the microbe, generating a series of intermediate compounds such as phthalic anhydride, anthrone and anthraquinone by ring-cleavage reactions. PMID:20932640

Ye, Jin-Shao; Yin, Hua; Qiang, Jing; Peng, Hui; Qin, Hua-Ming; Zhang, Na; He, Bao-Yan

2011-01-15

126

[Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Aspergillus niger--a case report].  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman was hospitalized because of severe cough in August 1994. She had engaged in culturing roses in greenhouses since 1968, and had developed a cough during the summer of 1990. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields, and she suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 45.6 torr) while breathing room air. The lymphocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased, and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis in the alveolar spaces. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. However, on her return to work, the cough and hypoxemia reappeared. In her rose culture, she had used Rockwool, and Aspergillus niger was detected predominantly in the Rockwool. Precipitins against the extracts of Aspergillus niger were detected with the double immunodiffusion test and the inhalation provocation test yielded clinical symptoms. Our diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Aspergillus niger. PMID:15357273

Miyazaki, Hiroo; Gemma, Hitoshi; Uemura, Keiichi; Ono, Takahisa; Masuda, Masafumi; Sano, Takehisa; Sato, Masaki; Koshimizu, Naoki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

2004-07-01

127

[Aspergillus serology, from yesterday to today for tomorrow].  

PubMed

Anti-Aspergillus antibody detection has been performed for over 50 years for the diagnosis of different chronic Aspergillus infections, starting with aspergilloma and later with chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis. It also enters into definition criteria for allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis and contributes to the initial diagnosis of the aspergillosis, to the follow-up under treatment or to the detection of exacerbations. For the acute invasive aspergillosis, antibody detection has low interest compared to galactomannan antigen detection. Serology results have to be interpreted together with other clinical, radiological and biological, mycological criteria. This review describes the origins, the technical evolutions and the current place of Aspergillus serology in France. Finally, future improvements are discussed. PMID:23177817

Persat, F

2012-03-01

128

Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.  

PubMed

Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of this review, an overview of heterothallic reproduction in Aspergillus and Penicillium is given. The new insights in the taxonomy of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera will help to interpret the results generated with comparative genomics studies or other studies dealing with evolution of, for example, enzymes, mating-type loci, virulence genes, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:24377856

Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

2014-01-01

129

The complete nucleotide sequence of a totivirus from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was first described in the 1970s, and the purified virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. AfV-S consists of a mixture of two viruses, the larger of which, called AfV-S1, is a dsRNA-containing member of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae, and its complete nucleotide sequence is described here. PMID:22729614

Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Coutts, Robert H A

2013-01-01

130

Humoral immunity in disseminated Aspergillus terreus infection in the dog.  

PubMed

Aspects of humoral immunity were studied in 17 dogs with disseminated aspergillosis (16 cases Aspergillus terreus, 1 case Aspergillus flavipes). All dogs had markedly raised serum IgG levels by single radial immunodiffusion (range 1500-6000 mg dl-1). Despite this, serum antibody to A. terreus was demonstrated in only 7/16 cases by agar gel diffusion, 9/16 cases by counter immunoelectrophoresis, 10/16 by ELISA and 11/16 by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Serum antibody was also detected in 2/5 clinically normal relatives of 2 cases, indicating previous exposure or subclinical infection. PMID:3131949

Day, M J; Penhale, W J

1988-03-01

131

Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya  

PubMed Central

The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species. PMID:18490953

Samson, R.A.; Hong, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

2007-01-01

132

Identification of glucose transporters in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and -E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ?hxtB, ?hxtC or ?hxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ?hxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ?hxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ?hxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, Joăo Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

133

Identification of Glucose Transporters in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and –E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ?hxtB, ?hxtC or ?hxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ?hxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ?hxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ?hxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, Joăo Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

134

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of Aspergillus section Flavi community structure  

E-print Network

of lethal levels of aflatoxins in Kenyan maize (Zea mays) C. Probst1 , F. Schulthess2 and P.J. Cotty1,3 1 is a primary avenue through which humans in Africa become exposed to aflatoxins (Egal et al. 2005; Shephard 2008). Aflatoxins are meta- bolites produced by several Aspergillus species. These meta- bolites

Cotty, Peter J.

135

Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

136

POPULATION OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ON PISTACHIO BUDS AND FLOWERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus Link is an economically important fungus which produces carcinogenic compounds known as aflatoxins in agricultural crops such as corn, peanuts, cotton and tree nuts. The fungus has no known sexual stage; consequently, most studies on its genetic variability have been evaluated m...

137

Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

138

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus in a greenhouse.  

PubMed

A 57-y-old female who had cultivated vegetables in a plastic greenhouse developed a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis from Aspergillus fumigatus. This report exemplifies a potential hazard caused by a thermotolerant fungus, A. fumigatus, in a poorly constructed greenhouse. PMID:8357277

Yoshida, K; Ueda, A; Yamasaki, H; Sato, K; Uchida, K; Ando, M

1993-01-01

139

Absorbed substrate fermentation for pectinase production with Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 130 litre packed-bed bioreactor was used for pectinase production with Aspergillus niger using absorbed substrate fermentation techniques. Pectinolytic enzyme activity and relative CO2 production were used as indicators of metabolic activity. Absorbed substrate fermentation is an efficient process for pectinase production and is also an interesting model because the culture medium, water, nutrients and specific inducers, can be designed

S. Huerta; E. Favela; R. López-Ulibarri; A. Fonseca; G. Viniegra-González; M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

1994-01-01

140

Factors regulating production of glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain factors affecting production of extracellular and cell-bound glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger were investigated. The intention was to maximize total glucose oxidase activity of academic and potential commercial application by the selection of the appropriate strain and consecutive optimization of growth media and conditions. It was possible to identify combinations resulting in the utilization of molasses as the best

D. G. Hatzinikolaou; B. J. Macris

1995-01-01

141

Hydrolase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production of macerating enzymes which liquefy and hydrolyze the mandarin orange peel was studied in a solid state cultivation of Aspergillus niger on wheat bran substrate. Solid state cultivation in a 2 l drum fermenter capable of interchangeable operation under dynamic or static conditions were carried out maintaining the moisture content of the substrate at 32, 39, 46, 56,

Naomichi Nishio; Kiyoshi Tai; Shiro Nagai

1979-01-01

142

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. To...

143

Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin to livestock 3. Mycotoxin testing 4. How to minimize losses and handle diseased grain after harvest 5. How these levels. detecting Mycotoxins An ultraviolet lamp, or black light, is often used as an initial screen

Holland, Jeffrey

144

Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1–12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and

Khin Moh Moh Aung; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

145

The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

146

Telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation in Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

We truncated the short arm of chromosome 3 to delete the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene homolog cluster using telomeric repeats in Aspergillus oryzae. The predicted deletion was confirmed by Southern blot analyses. This telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation method enables the development of an artificial chromosome in A. oryzae. PMID:25034635

Tada, Sawaki; Ohkuchi, Hikaru; Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Hattori, Ryota; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

2015-01-01

147

Colonization of an Intralobar Pulmonary Sequestration by Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus is an opportunistic fungus that usually colonizes preexisting lung cavities, especially tuberculous ones. Colonization of a pulmonary sequestration by this germ is exceptional, with just 14 cases reported in the world literature, most of them in Asia. A case is presented of a 48-year-old woman with pleuritic thoracic pain. Simple chest radiology revealed a lower right pulmonary tumor with

Ríos A. Zambudio; Roca M. J. Calvo; Polo L. A. García; Torres J. Lanzas; Panilla P. Paricio

2003-01-01

148

Kitchens as a source of Aspergillus niger infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the epidemiology of a cluster of cutaneous infections owing to Aspergillus niger, which occurred in neutropenic patients in a bone marrow transplant unit. Heavy environmental contamination with the mould was found in the ward kitchen adjacent to the unit. The clinical and environmental isolates were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), which showed

K. W. Loudon; A. P. Coke; J. P. Burnie; A. J. Shaw; B. A. Oppenheim; C. Q. Morris

1996-01-01

149

Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic species widely distributed in nature and the human environment that are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The high level of phenoplasticity and frequent occurrence of mutants with atypical morphology...

150

Method for Measuring Postantifungal Effect in Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro method for determination of postantifungal effect (PAFE) in molds was developed by using three isolates each of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. nidulans, and A. ustus. MICs of amphotericin B and itraconazole were determined by using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (M38-P). The inoculum was prepared in RPMI 1640 broth buffered with MOPS

Roxana G. Vitale; Johan W. Mouton; Javier Afeltra; Jacques F. G. M. Meis; Paul E. Verweij

2002-01-01

151

Azole-resistance in Aspergillus: Proposed nomenclature and breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus have been more frequent since the millennium. Identifying azole resistance is critically method dependent; nevertheless reproducible methods, reflective of in vivo outcome, are now in routine use. Some isolates also have elevated MICs to posaconazole and voriconazole. Multiple mechanisms of resistance are now known to be responsible, with differing degrees of azole cross-resistance,

Paul E. Verweij; Susan J. Howard; Willem J. G. Melchers; David W. Denning

2009-01-01

152

Aspergillus niser for the study of in vitro drug metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug metabolism is an important aspect for the study of toxic effect in human being. However, the occurrence of several regulatory issues and high cost involved in experimental study on drug metabolism, restrict the study using human as a model system. Keeping this in view, in the present study, the fungus Aspergillus niser was chosen as a model organism for

K. Pramanik; N. Panda; J. Satapathy; A. Biswas

2010-01-01

153

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are potent producers of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary metabolites that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. Strains with opposite mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 within each species were crossed in an att...

154

Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

155

Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

156

Calcineurin Controls Growth, Morphology, and Pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcineurin is implicated in a myriad of human diseases as well as homeostasis and virulence in several major human pathogenic microorganisms. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infectious death in the rapidly expanding immunocompromised patient population. Current antifungal treatments for invasive aspergillosis are often ineffective, and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We demon- strate that a

William J. Steinbach; Robert A. Cramer; B. Z. Perfect; Y. G. Asfaw; T. C. Sauer; L. K. Najvar; W. R. Kirkpatrick; T. F. Patterson; D. K. Benjamin; J. Heitman; J. R. Perfect

2006-01-01

157

The relationship of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with reference to production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus were analyzed for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and cyclopiazonic acid. None produced cyclopiazonic acid, whereas 46 of 47 produced aflatoxins B1 and G1. These data are related to previous studies pertaining to A. flavus and illustrate species validity from a biochemical standpoint.

Joe W. Dorner; Richard J. Cole; Urban L. Diener

1984-01-01

158

Purification and characterization of endo-xylanases from aspergillus Niger. II. An enzyme of PL 45  

SciTech Connect

A homogeneous endo-xylanase (1,4-..beta..-D-xylan xylano-hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) was obtained from a crude Aspergillus niger pentosanase by chromatography with Ultrogel AcA 54, SP-Sephadex C-25 at pH 4.5, DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.4, Sephadex G-50, and SP-Sephadex C-25 with a gradient from pH 2.8 to pH 4.6. It was much more active on soluble than on insoluble xylan yielding large amounts of unreacted xylan and a mixture of oligosaccharides with chain lengths from two to six. No xylose or L-arabinose was produced. There was high activity on a xylopentaose through xylononaose mixture, but not on xylobiose, xylotriose, or xylotetraose. The enzyme had slight activity on untreated cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, and pectin. Molecular weight was ca. 1.4 x 10/sup 4/, with an isoelectric point of 4.5 and an amino acid profile high in acidic but low in sulfur-containing residues. In a 25-min assay at pH 4.7, this endo-xylanase was most active at 45 degrees C, with an activation energy from 5 to 35 degrees C of 33.3 kJ/mol. The optimum pH for activity was 4.9. Decay in buffer was first order, with an activation energy at pH 4.7 from 48 to 53 degrees C of 460 kJ/mol. Optimum pH for stability was about 5.6, where the half-life at 48 degrees C in buffer was ca. 40 h.

Shei, J.C.; Fratzke, A.R.; Frederick, M.M.; Frederick, J.R.; Reilly, P.J.

1985-04-01

159

Study of Spanish Grape Mycobiota and Ochratoxin A Production by Isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and Other Members of Aspergillus Section Nigri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native mycobiota of five grape varieties grown in Spain has been studied. Four (Bobal, Tempranillo, Garnacha, and Monastrell) were red varieties and one (Moscatel) was white. The main fungal genera isolated were Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. section Nigri in contaminated samples was 82%. Ochratoxin A (OTA) production was assessed using yeast extract-sucrose broth

Angel Medina; Rufino Mateo; Laura Lopez-Ocana; Francisco Manuel Valle-Algarra; Misericordia Jimenez

2005-01-01

160

Bioactive Phenylalanine Derivatives and Cytochalasins from the Soft Coral-Derived Fungus, Aspergillus elegans  

PubMed Central

One new phenylalanine derivative 4?-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5–12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by chemical synthesis and Marfey’s method. All isolated metabolites (1–12) were evaluated for their antifouling and antibacterial activities. Cytochalasins 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed strong antifouling activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, with the EC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 37 ?M. This is the first report of antifouling activity for this class of metabolites. Additionally, 8 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially against four pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. PMID:23752358

Zheng, Cai-Juan; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wu, Lu-Yong; Chen, Min; Wang, Kai-Ling; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Sun, Xue-Ping; Chen, Guang-Ying; Wang, Chang-Yun

2013-01-01

161

Characterization and application of aminoamide-oxidizing enzyme from Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205.  

PubMed

We isolated Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205 as a new producer of an enzyme catalyzing oxidative deamination of 4-aminobutanamide (4-ABAD) to 4-oxobutanamide with the subsequent release of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Since the strain produced three enzymes with different Km values for 4-ABAD, the enzyme with lowest Km value (0.31 mM) was purified and revealed certain remarkable properties. The enzyme also oxidized aliphatic monoamines, aromatic amines and aliphatic aminoalcohols, but did not oxidize l-amino acids and aliphatic diamines. The Vmax/Km values for aliphatic monoamines were higher than that for 4-ABAD, and the enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by inhibitors of copper-containing amine oxidases. Thus, it was concluded that the enzyme might belong to a group of copper-containing amine oxidase. The 4-ABAD oxidase activity of this enzyme was optimum at pH 7.0, and the enzyme activity at pH 6.0 was 65% of that at pH 7.0. The enzyme was useful for increasing the sensitivity of l-lysine assay using l-amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813. PMID:24113361

Sugawara, Asami; Matsui, Daisuke; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

2014-03-01

162

Purification and characterization of endo-xylanases from Aspergillus Niger. III. An enzyme of PL 365  

SciTech Connect

An endo-xylanase (1,4-..beta..-D-xylan xylanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) from Aspergillus niger was purified to homogeneity by chromatography with Ultrogel AcA 54, SP-Sephadex C-25 at pH 4.5, DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.4, Sephadex G-50, and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.15. The enzyme was active on soluble xylan, on insoluble xylan only after arabinosyl-initiated branch points were removed, and on xylooligosaccharides longer than xylotetraose. There was slight activity on carboxymethyl-cellulose, arabinogalactan, glucomannan, and p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D- glucopyranoside. The main products of the hydrolysis of soluble and insoluble xylan were oligosaccharides of intermediate length, especially the tri- and pentasaccharides. The isolectric point of the enzyme was 3.65. It had a molecular weight of 2.8 x 10/sup 4/ by SDS-gel electrophoresis, and was high in acidic amino acids but low in those containing sulfur. Highest activity in a 20-min assay at pH 5 was between 40 and 45 degrees C, with an activation energy up to 40 degrees C of 11.1 kJ/mol. The optimum pH for activity was at 5.0. The enzyme was strongly activated by Ca/sup 2 +/. 15 references.

Fournier, R.A.; Frederick, M.M.; Frederick, J.R.; Reilly, P.J.

1985-04-01

163

Dihydroramulosin from Botrytis sp.  

PubMed

Botrytis sp., isolated from the inner bark of the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, was shown to produce ramulosin (1), 6-hydroxyramulosin (2), and the new compound 8-dihydroramulosin (3). The structure of dihydroramulosin was deduced from the NMR spectra and confirmed by chemical conversion from ramulosin. PMID:9784167

Stierle, D B; Stierle, A A; Kunz, A

1998-10-01

164

Homoptera: Cicadidae Magicicada sp.  

E-print Network

Homoptera: Cicadidae Magicicada sp. Other Common names Periodical cicadas are also commonly called the 17-year cicada, 13-year cicada, or locusts. The name "locust" is misleading because it applies to migratory grasshoppers. Plants Attacked In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental

Liskiewicz, Maciej

165

SP100 reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SP-100 space reactor power system is being designed and developed as part of the Ground Engineering System (GES) contract between General Electric Company as the system developer and the Department of Energy. Other key participants in the GES program include Westinghouse Hanford Company (site operator), Los Alamos National Laboratory (fuel development and production), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (materials), and

J. S. Armijo; J. Atwell; P. R. Pluta; M. A. Smith; E. R. Solorzano

1987-01-01

166

Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals\\u000a and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental\\u000a and applied Aspergillus research with a

Vera Meyer; Bo Wu; Arthur F. J. Ram

2011-01-01

167

Variants of Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus (formerly Aspergillus ochraceus) with altered ochratoxin A production.  

PubMed

The present studies, using Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus Berkeley et Curtis (formerly A. ochraceus Wilhelm) NRRL 3174 along with three other wild-type strains, were undertaken in an attempt to understand the effects of irradiation and other treatments on mycotoxin production in grain. Bedford barley was inoculated with spores of NRRL 3174, gamma irradiated, and incubated at 28 degrees C and 25% moisture. After 10 days of incubation, two colony types, ochre (parental) and yellow (variant), were isolated from the grain. Further culturing of the yellow variant resulted in the spontaneous appearance of a white variant that exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence under UV light. In subsequent work, we have also isolated variants producing a soluble red pigment. In addition, in model experiments involving irradiation (1 kGy) of pure cultures, induction frequencies ranging between 2 and 4% (survival basis) were observed for the yellow and red variants. Inoculation of these variants into wheat and incubation for 14 days at 28 degrees C and 32% moisture resulted in ochratoxin A production in the relative amounts of 0.09:1:4.6:9.3 for the red, ochre (parental), yellow, and white variants, respectively. Additional characteristics of these isolates are described. Confirmation that the white high-ochratoxin-A-producing variants were derived from the parental strain was demonstrated by obtaining revertant sectors in monoclonal cultures of the variants. PMID:1768122

Chelack, W S; Borsa, J; Szekely, J G; Marquardt, R R; Frohlich, A A

1991-09-01

168

The Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus terreus: purification and biochemical comparison with the Aspergillus fumigatus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase.  

PubMed Central

Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) have been purified to homogeneity from Aspergillus flavus and A. niger, which are significant causative agents of aspergillosis, and from A. nidulans and A. terreus, which are much rarer causative agents of disease, using a combination of isoelectric focusing and gel filtration fast protein liquid chromatography. The purified enzymes have been compared with the previously described SOD from the most important pathogen in the genus, A. fumigatus (M. D. Holdom, R. J. Hay, and A. J. Hamilton, Free Radical Res. 22:519-531, 1995). The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the four newly purified enzymes were almost identical and demonstrated homology to known Cu,Zn SODs from a range of organisms including that from the previously described SOD from A. fumigatus. SOD activity was detectable in the culture filtrates of all species, and intracellular Cu,Zn SOD activity as a proportion of total protein was highest in early-log-phase cultures. The specific activities of the purified enzymes were similar, and all four of the newly described enzymes were inhibited by potassium cyanide and diethyldithiocarbamate, known Cu,Zn SOD inhibitors. Sodium azide and o-phenanthroline demonstrated inhibition at concentrations from 5 to 30 mM, and EDTA also exhibited a varying degree of inhibition of SOD activity. However, there were differences in the nonreduced molecular masses, the reduced molecular masses, and the isoelectric points of the four newly described SODs and the A. fumigatus enzyme; these varied from 55 to 123 kDa, 17.5 to 19.5 kDa, and 5.0 to 5.9, respectively. Of particular note was the observation that the A. fumigatus enzyme was thermostable compared with the SODs from the other species; in addition, the A.fiumigatus enzyme retained all of its activity at 37 degrees C relative to 20 degrees C, whereas the SODs of A. nidulans and A. terreus lost significant activity at the higher temperature. Aspergillus Cu,Zn SOD plays a hypothetical role in the avoidance of oxidative killing mechanisms, and our data suggest that the thermotolerant A. fumigatus Cu,Zn SOD would be more effective in such a protective system than, for example, the equivalent enzyme from the more rarely pathogenic A. nidulans. PMID:8757871

Holdom, M D; Hay, R J; Hamilton, A J

1996-01-01

169

Molecular characterization of Aspergillus infections in an Iranian educational hospital using RAPD-PCR method  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The nosocomial infections by Aspergillus species are associated with constructions and increased dust loads in hospital indoors. Our main object was to find the environmental sources of Aspergillus species causing hospital acquired infections. Materials and Methods: The clinical and environmental samplings were performed during 18 months from spring 2010 to summer 2011 in Imam educational hospital, Urmia, Iran. A morphological diagnosis was performed including microscopic characterization of isolated aspergillus from cultured specimens and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the identification in the level of species. Random amplified polymorphic DNA - PCR RAPD-PCR using random primers for rDNA gene was performed to compare Aspergillus isolates of clinical cases with the relevant environmental sources. Results: Use of RAPD method resulted various differential patterns, so that some Aspergillus isolates from the clinical and hospital indoor were completely matched (matched pairs) and some other Aspergillus isolates were not matched. In the case of matched pairs, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus isolated from broncoalveolar lavage and sinus discharge were relevant to those of air conditioner and walls surfaces, respectively. Conclusion: The hospital sources for the Aspergillus clinical isolates included air condition and walls. RAPD-PCR analysis can play a trivial role to find the hospital sources of Aspergillus clinical isolates.

Diba, Kambiz; Makhdoomi, Khadijeh; Mirhendi, Hossein

2014-01-01

170

[A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus terreus].  

PubMed

A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cough, wheezing, and expectoration. Chest X-ray and CT scanning revealed atelectasis and infiltration of the middle lobe, but no central bronchiectatic change. The patient had eosinophilic infiltration elevated serum IgE, RAST against Aspergillus )(A.) fumigatus, a positive immediate skin reaction, and a positive test for antibodies against A. funmigatus. Bronchoscopy demonstrated mucoid impaction that plugged the middle lobe bronchus. The mucoid plug contained A. terreus and numerous eosinophils. Because the level of the precipitating antibody for counter immunoelectrophoresis against A. terreus was higher than that at A. fumigatus, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillus caused be A. terreus was diagnosed. Oral and inhalation therapy of corticosteroids ameliorated the symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings. PMID:9567092

Oshima, M; Soda, H; Oda, H; Watanabe, A

1997-12-01

171

The chemical identification and analysis of Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites  

PubMed Central

Filamentous fungi have long been recognized to be a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications. The recent genomic sequencing of several Aspergillus species has revealed that many secondary metabolite gene clusters are apparently silent under standard laboratory conditions. Several successful approaches have been utilized to upregulate these genes and unearth the corresponding natural products. A straightforward, reliable method to purify and characterize new metabolites therefore should be useful. Details are provided herein on the cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans and the LC/MS analysis of the metabolic profile. Following is an explanation of silica gel chromatography, HPLC, and preparative TLC. Finally, the NMR characterization of previously unknown A. nidulans metabolites is detailed. PMID:23065610

Sanchez, James F.

2013-01-01

172

Interference of Aspergillus fumigatus with the immune response.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic filamentous fungus and also the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Depending on the host's immune status, the variety of diseases caused by A. fumigatus ranges from allergies in immunocompetent hosts to life-threatening invasive infections in patients with impaired immunity. In contrast to the majority of other Aspergillus species, which are in most cases nonpathogenic, A. fumigatus features an armory of virulence determinants to establish an infection. For example, A. fumigatus is able to evade the human complement system by binding or degrading complement regulators. Furthermore, the fungus interferes with lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophil granulocytes to prevent killing by these immune cells. This chapter summarizes the different strategies of A. fumigatus to manipulate the immune response. We also discuss the potential impact of recent advances in immunoproteomics to improve diagnosis and therapy of an A. fumigatus infection. PMID:25404120

Heinekamp, Thorsten; Schmidt, Hella; Lapp, Katrin; Pähtz, Vera; Shopova, Iordana; Köster-Eiserfunke, Nora; Krüger, Thomas; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A

2015-03-01

173

Aspergillus fumigatus Scleritis Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman presented with pain in her left eye. Necrosis with calcium plaques was observed on the medial part of the sclera. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the culture of the necrotic area. On systemic work-up including serum and urine electrophoresis studies, the serum monoclonal protein of immunoglobulin G was detected. The patient was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and fungal scleritis. Despite intensive treatment with topical and oral antifungal agents, scleral inflammation and ulceration progressed, and scleral perforation and endophthalmitis developed. Debridement, antifungal irrigation, and tectonic scleral grafting were performed. The patient underwent a combined pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreal injection of an antifungal agent. However, scleral and intraocular inflammation progressed, and the eye was enucleated. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the cultures of the eviscerated materials. Giemsa staining of the excised sclera showed numerous fungal hyphae. PMID:20532146

Jo, Dong Hyun; Oh, Joo Youn; Kim, Mee Kum; Heo, Jang Won; Lee, Jin Hak

2010-01-01

174

?-Fructofuranosidase production by repeated batch fermentation with immobilized Aspergillus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Aspergillus japonicus ATCC 20236 was immobilized in vegetal fiber and used in repeated batch fermentations of sucrose (200 g\\/l) for the production\\u000a of ?-fructofuranosidases (FFase). The assays were performed during eight consecutive cycles that were completed in a total\\u000a period of 216 h. After each 24-h cycle of fermentation (except for the first cycle, which lasted 48 h), the fermented broth

S. I. Mussatto; L. R. Rodrigues; J. A. Teixeira

2009-01-01

175

Protopectinase production in solid state culture of Aspergillus awamori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Protopectinases (PPases) are a heterogeneous group of enzymes that release water soluble pectin from insoluble protopectin\\u000a in plant tissues by restricted degradation of the substrate. In all cases reported to date, PPases of bacterial or yeast origin\\u000a were produced in liquid culture. Here, we describe the growth and PPase production ofAspergillus awamori IFO 4033 in solid state culture.\\u000a \\u000a Petri dishes

Takuo Sakai

1994-01-01

176

Saccharification of Job's Tears Flour during Fermentation of Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pH, initial substrate concentration and addition of sodium chloride on saccharification of Job's tears flour during fermen tation of Aspergillus oryzae were examined. The result of proximate analysis of Job's Tears flo ur showed that it contained 64.3% carbohydrate, 12.4% protein, 4.8% fat, 6.6% insolub le fiber, 1.7% ash and 10.2% moisture. The saccharification rate based on

Sasivimol Chuen-Im Ahmed; Wanida Chiansanoi; Sivatat Cosa

177

[Occupational extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to Aspergillus oryzae].  

PubMed

We report a case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis, provoked by Deterzyme, a product used in dermatology for the cleaning of cutaneous sores, and containing fractions of protolytic enzymes and amylases of Aspergillus oryzae. The diagnosis was based on the positive precipitins to an extract of antigen of the product as well as positive bronchial provocation tests (semi-delayed) and the disappearance of the symptomatology without any sequelae following cessation of exposure to the risk. PMID:7694333

Gueland, C; Fruit, J; Vannimenus, C; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B

1993-01-01

178

Immunochemical relationship between glucoamylases I and II of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabbit antisera were prepared against the purified glucoamylases I and II ofAspergillus niger. Relationships between the two enzyme forms were investigated by using the antisera in immunodiffusion and immunoinhibition\\u000a experiments. Both the forms of glucoamylase gave a single continuous precipitin band demonstrating very close structural resemblance.\\u000a They gave almost identical immunoprecipitation patterns and had the same equivalence points indicating that

P. Manjunath; M. R. Raghavendra Rao

1980-01-01

179

Molecular analysis of the arg B gene of Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional organization and sequence of the Aspergillus nidulans argB gene, encoding ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCTase; E.C. 2.1.3.3.), was determined. Transcription of the gene begins within a methionine-initiated open translation reading frame, indicating that a second methionine codon of the open reading frame is used for translation initiation. The predicted length of the OCTase precursor peptide is 359 amino acids,

A. Upshall; T. Gilbert; G. Saari; P. J. O'Hara; P. Weglenski; B. Berse; K. Miller; W. E. Timberlake

1986-01-01

180

Location of glucose oxidase during production by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of the enzyme glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger is well documented. However, its distribution within the fungal culture is less well defined. Since the enzyme location impacts\\u000a significantly on enzyme recovery, this study quantifies the enzyme distribution between the extracellular fluid, cell wall,\\u000a cytoplasm and slime mucilage fractions in an A. niger NRRL-3. The culture was separated into

K. G. Clarke; M. Johnstone-Robertson; B. Price; S. T. L. Harrison

2006-01-01

181

Optimized bioprocess for production of fructofuranosidase by recombinant Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive approach of bioprocess design at various levels was used to optimize microbial production of extracellular\\u000a fructofuranosidase, important as biocatalyst to derive fructooligosaccharides with broad application in food or pharmaceutical\\u000a industry. For production, the recombinant strain Aspergillus niger SKAn1015 was used, which expresses the fructofuranosidase encoding gene suc1 under control of a strong constitutive promoter. In a first screening

Habib Driouch; Andreas Roth; Petra Dersch; Christoph Wittmann

2010-01-01

182

Cellulase production by free and immobilized Aspergillus terreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus terreus, isolated from rotting bagasse, showed comparable cellulolytic activities when grown either in the free or immobilized states\\u000a with cellulose as the sole carbon source. The cultural and nutritional requirements for maximum cellulase production by the\\u000a organism either in the free or immobilized states were similar, except an increase in the temperature optimum from 30 to 40°C,\\u000a occurred upon

Yeoh Seak Hui; A. A. Amirul; Ahmad R. M. Yahya; M. N. M. Azizan

2010-01-01

183

Induction of glucose oxidase, catalase, and lactonase in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of glucose oxidase, catalase, and lactonase activities was studied both in wild-type and in glucose oxidase regulatory and structural mutants of Aspergillus niger. The structural gene for glucose oxidase was isolated and used for Northern analysis and in transformation experiments using various gox mutations. Wild-type phenotype could be restored in the glucose oxidase-negative mutant (goxC) by transformation with

Cor F. B. Witteveen; Hetty C. van den Broeck; Frank A. C. van Engelenburg; Leo H. de Graaff; Marcel H. B. C. Hillebrand; Peter J. Schaap; Jaap Visser

1993-01-01

184

Xylanolytic enzyme production by an Aspergillus niger isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of xylanolytic enzymes by anAspergillus niger CCMI 850 isolate was investigated in batch cultures. The effect of the composition of a fermentation medium that did not\\u000a include chemical inducers, on ?-xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, and total cellulase activity was studied. With 4% xylan as the carbon source, about 65 U\\/mL of ?-xylanase\\u000a was obtained, whereas the total cellulase activity was

M. Costa-Ferreira; A. Dias; C. Maximo; M. J. Morgado; G. Sena-Martins; J. Cardoso Duarte

1994-01-01

185

On the safety of Aspergillus niger – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce\\u000a extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste

E. Schuster; N. Dunn-Coleman; J. Frisvad; P. van Dijck

2002-01-01

186

[Aspergillus terreus as a cause of mycotic abortion in cows].  

PubMed

The fungus Aspergillus terreus Thom et Church was subjected to microscopic and cultivation study in the organs of an aborted foetus and was demonstrated to be the causative agent of abortion in cattle. The culture of the isolated organism is described and brief data reporting on its ecology are presented. Attention is drawn to the probable source of infection and to the insufficiently known aspects of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:6782741

Adámková, A; Otcenásek, M; Lávicka, M

1981-01-01

187

Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

2011-01-01

188

Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

2010-01-01

189

Cytoplasmic Dynein is Involved in Nuclear Migration in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear migration plays an important role in the growth and development of many organisms including the multinuclear fungus Aspergillus nidulans. We have identified four genes, nudA, nudC, nudF, and nudG, in which temperature-sensitive mutations affect nuclear distribution. In this report, we describe the cloning of the nudA gene by complementation of the mutant phenotype by using a chromosome VIII-specific cosmid

Xin Xiang; Susan M. Beckwith; N. Ronald Morris

1994-01-01

190

Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus —Current Epidemiology and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates is increasingly reported in different nosologic contexts with variable prevalence in different countries. Mutations\\u000a in the target of triazoles are widely described in azole-resistant clinical isolates. The recovery of mutated\\/resistant isolates\\u000a is described either in patients undergoing long-term azole treatment or after inhalation of environmentally acquired resistant\\u000a isolates. Acquisition in patients during azole therapy

Alexandre Alanio; Catherine Cordonnier; Stéphane Bretagne

2011-01-01

191

Aspergillus in the lung: diverse and coincident forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus has traditionally been regarded as belonging to one of the following, apparently distinct, entities: saprophytic aspergilloma;\\u000a allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA); and invasive aspergillosis (IPA); which may be further categorised as angioinvasive,\\u000a acute or chronic airway invasive) [1]. It is not always obvious that there is overlap between these entities, and that in\\u000a any

Susan J. Buckingham; David M. Hansell

2003-01-01

192

Microbial transformations of 3-methoxyflavone by strains of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of 3-methoxyflavone into 3'-hydroxyflavon-3-yloxymethyl myristate was presented. Six filamentous fungi were used as biocatalysts: a wild strain of Aspergillus niger KB, its four UV mutants (A. niger MB, SBP, SBJ, 13/5) and the strain of Penicillium chermesinum 113. The highest yields were observed for the strains of A. niger KB and A. niger SBP (69.8% and 63.1%, respectively). PMID:25033671

Kostrzewa-Sus?ow, Edyta; Dymarska, Monika; Janeczko, Tomasz

2014-01-01

193

Chronic monolateral otomycosis in a dog caused by Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus ochraceus, a widely distributed filamentous fungus, was isolated and identified by cytology and culture as the cause of unilateral ceruminous purulent otitis in a 4-year-old male mixed-breed dog. The pathogenic role of the fungal isolate was confirmed by a good response to antifungal therapy and the absence of other pathogens. No underlying diseases were identified and the dog recovered after 3 weeks of therapy with oral itraconazole and topical miconazole. PMID:20409075

Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Peano, Andrea

2010-10-01

194

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

195

Optimization of Acid Protease Production by Aspergillus niger I1 on Shrimp Peptone Using Statistical Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Medium composition and culture conditions for the acid protease production by Aspergillus niger I1 were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A significant influence of temperature, KH2PO4, and initial pH on the protease production was evaluated by Plackett-Burman design (PBD). These factors were further optimized using Box-Behnken design and RSM. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the experimental protease production (183.13?U?mL?1) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (172.57?U?mL?1) with R2 = 0.914. Compared with the initial M1 medium on which protease production was 43.13?U?mL?1, a successful and significant improvement by 4.25 folds was achieved in the optimized medium containing (g/L): hulled grain of wheat (HGW) 5.0; KH2PO4 1.0; NaCl 0.3; MgSO4(7H2O) 0.5; CaCl2 (7H2O) 0.4; ZnSO4 0.1; Na2HPO4 1.6; shrimp peptone (SP) 1.0. The pH was adjusted at 5 and the temperature at 30°C. More interestingly, the optimization was accomplished using two cheap and local fermentation substrates, HGW and SP, which may result in a significant reduction in the cost of medium constituents. PMID:22593695

Siala, Rayda; Frikha, Fakher; Mhamdi, Samiha; Nasri, Moncef; Sellami Kamoun, Alya

2012-01-01

196

Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out, and flux control was shown to be dependent on the metabolite levels. Due to thermodynamic constraints, flux control may reside at the first step in the pathway, i.e., at the xylose reductase, even when the intracellular xylitol concentration is high. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, the general dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of Aspergillus nidulans grown on media containing xylose, and a concentration up to 30 mM was found. Applying MCA showed that the first polyol dehydrogenase (XDH) in the catabolic pathway of xylose exerted the main flux control in the two strains of A. nidulans and A. niger NW324, but the flux control was exerted mainly at the first enzyme of the pathway (XR) of A. niger NW 296. PMID:12892473

Prathumpai, W; Gabelgaard, J B; Wanchanthuek, P; van de Vondervoort, P J I; de Groot, M J L; McIntyre, M; Nielsen, J

2003-01-01

197

Aspergillus Flavus Keratitis after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the clinical, microbiologic, confocal scan and histopathologic features of Aspergillus flavus keratitis which developed immediately after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Case Report A 28-year-old woman underwent DALK using the big-bubble technique for keratoconus. The operation was uneventful, yielding a bare Descemet’s membrane (DM) followed by transplantation of a corneal graft devoid of DM and endothelium. Four days after keratoplasty, mild infiltrates were noticed in the inferonasal margin of the graft, which rapidly progressed to involve the adjacent recipient cornea. Confocal scan findings suggested filamentous fungal keratitis, leading to initiation of topical and systemic antifungal medications followed by immediate replacement of the graft. Histopathologic examination disclosed keratitis caused by a filamentous fungus, which was determined by microbiologic cultures to be Aspergillus flavus. Early diagnosis and appropriate management resulted in complete recovery from this potentially devastating infection. Conclusion Aspergillus Flavus can cause graft ulcers immediately after DALK. Confocal scan proved to be a valuable tool for early diagnosis and prompt intervention to control this otherwise devastating infection. PMID:23275826

Jafarinasab, Mohammad-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

2012-01-01

198

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

199

Extraction of Zinc from Industrial Waste by a Penicillium sp  

PubMed Central

Zinc was extracted from a filter residue of a copper works (58.6% zinc) by a Penicillium sp. isolated from a metal-containing location. By isotachophoresis citric acid was identified as the leaching agent. Citrate was only formed when the leaching substrate was present. This production of citrate was different in several ways from that achieved by Aspergillus niger: glucose was utilized before fructose; the initial concentration of zinc was 50 to 500 times higher than usual in citrate fermentations with A. niger; citrate production stopped when 80 to 90% of the zinc was leached, although sufficient sugar for further synthesis was still present; and in synthetic media citrate production by A. niger needs an acidic environment (pH 2), while the formation of citric acid by Penicillium sp. occurred in a pH range of 7 to 4. Tests with different concentrations of waste material (0.5, 2.5, and 5%) showed that the highest yield of solubilized zinc occurred with a 2.5% substrate (93% zinc extracted after 13 days). PMID:16347908

Schinner, Franz; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

1989-01-01

200

Detection of Aspergillus antigen and anti-Aspergillus precipitating antibodies by a new method: the radial immunoelectro-osmophoresis (RIEOP).  

PubMed

A new method of Immunoprecipitation-in-gel, the Radial Immunoelectro-osmophoresis (RIEOP) has been applied to detect precipitating anti-Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies and to study the antigens present in various antigenic extracts of this fungus. The results obtained with this method have been compared with those obtained when applying the Comparative Double Diffusion (CDD) and the Immunoelectro-osmophoresis (IEOP). The data presented prove that the RIEOP method is more sensitive than CDD and the IEOP in: (1) detecting precipitating anti-Aspergillus antibodies, since (a) precipitating bands are detected with higher serum dilutions, and (b) when using undiluted serum, the number of precipitating bands obtained by RIEOP is higher; and (2) studying antigens present in the antigenic extracts, since (a) the number of antigens detected by RIEOP is higher than that by CDD, and (b) identity/non-identity reactions can be studied among the antigens present in the various extracts. PMID:6811158

Llopis, F; Sánchez-Cuenca, J M; González-Molina, A; Basomba, A

1982-07-01

201

[A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis resulting from inhalation of Aspergillus niger in a greenhouse worker who raised roses].  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman was referred because of exertional dyspnea, fever, and cough in June 2006. She had been employed to culture roses in greenhouses since 1991 and had developed a cough during the summer from 2003. Chest CT scan revealed diffuse centrilobular micronodules. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens demonstrated alveolitis with lymphocytes and non-necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas. After admission, both the patient's symptoms and laboratory data improved without medication. However, upon her return to work in the greenhouse, cough and exertional dyspnea reappeared. Aspergillus niger was detected in the greenhouse. Her serum was assayed for precipitating antibodies against various antigens, and precipitating antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus glaucus, and Aspergillus niger were demonstrated. In a double immunodiffusion test, cross-reactivity between Aspergillus niger and other Aspergillus species was indicated. Consequently, she was diagnosed as having hypersensitivity pneumonitis resulting from the inhalation of Aspergillus niger. PMID:19348267

Hamaguchi, Reo; Saito, Hiroaki; Kegasawa, Kyoko; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Ryujin, Yasushi; Noguchi, Saiko; Sugimoto, Hideyasu; Kobayashi, Akiko; Yamazaki, Keiichi; Jin, Yasuto; Yoshimura, Nobuyuki; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Akiyama, Kazuo

2009-03-01

202

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:23899775

Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

2013-09-01

203

Phytase production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through submerged and solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

204

Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

205

An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

2014-03-01

206

Divergent regulation of aflatoxin production at acidic pH by two Aspergillus strains  

E-print Network

Divergent regulation of aflatoxin production at acidic pH by two Aspergillus strains Kenneth C; accepted in revised form 6 January 2005 Abstract Production of aflatoxins (AF) by Aspergillus flavus and A production was not well correlated with decreases in expression of the aflatoxin pathway regulatory gene, afl

Cotty, Peter J.

207

Characterisation of a pks gene which is expressed during ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus carbonarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus carbonarius is considered the main fungus responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes. OTA is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen with a polyketide derived structure. Fungal polyketide synthases (PKSs) have recently been demonstrated to be involved in OTA biosynthesis in both Penicillium and Aspergillus species. We report here on the identification and characterisation of part

Antonia Gallo; Giancarlo Perrone; Michele Solfrizzo; Filomena Epifani; Abdelhamid Abbas; Alan D. W. Dobson; Giuseppina Mulč

2009-01-01

208

Identification of Aspergillus Species Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus species are the most frequent cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. Although over 180 species are found within the genus, 3 species, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and A. terreus, account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. ustus being rare causes of IA. The ability to distinguish between the various

TRAVIS HENRY; PETER C. IWEN; STEVEN H. HINRICHS

2000-01-01

209

RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

210

Comparison of immunodiffusion and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to four Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigenic extracts were prepared from Aspergillus fumigatus, A niger, A flavus and A terreus for use in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests for Aspergillus antibodies to determine whether the use of antigenic extracts from species other than A fumigatus increased the sensitivity of the ELISA. ELISA titres correlated well with positive ID tests. Patient titres by

J H Froudist; G B Harnett; R McAleer

1989-01-01

211

Effect of culture conditions on the biosynthesis of Aspergillus niger phytase and acid phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of phytate content in plant feeds is advisable for increasing of their nutritional values. The dephosphorylation of phytates is believed to be mainly effected by phytase. A strain of Aspergillus niger shows a high potential for phytase production. In this study the possibilities to increase the enzyme production by alteration of the growth conditions of Aspergillus niger 307

S Gargova; M Sariyska

2003-01-01

212

Isolation and Identification of Indigenous Aspergillus oryzae for Saccharification of Rice Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to isolate an indigenous Aspergillus oryzae strain for use in saccharification of high amylose rice starch. Bread, black gram, soya grains, 'kevum', and cooked rice samples assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Ten pure cultures obtained by culturing and sub- culturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) were maintained on PDA

S. S. Sooriyamoorthy; K. F. S. T. Silva; M. H. W. Gunawardhane; C. K. Illeperuma

213

Tissue-specific components of resistance to Aspergillus ear rot of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and other Aspergillus spp. infect maize and produce aflatoxins. One control measure is the use of resistant maize lines. There are several reports of maize lines that are resistant to aflatoxin accumulation, but the mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. To gain a better unde...

214

Correlation between Gliotoxin Production and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus in Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is a pathogenic fungus capable of causing both allergic lung disease and invasive aspergillosis, a serious, life-threatening condition in neutropenic patients. Aspergilli express an array of mycotoxins and enzymes which may facilitate fungal colonisation of host tissue. In this study we investigated the possibility of using the insect, Galleria mellonella, for in vivo pathogenicity testing of Aspergillus species.

Emer P. Reeves; C. G. M. Messina; S. Doyle; K. Kavanagh

2004-01-01

215

Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee and wheat-based media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most widespread mycotoxins, and is produced by several Aspergillus or Penicillium species. Human exposure to OTA is mainly by intake of contaminated food, with cereal products, followed by coffee and red\\u000a wine as the main sources of OTA. In this study, the OTA production of four ochratoxigenic fungi (two Aspergillus and two Penicillium

Katherine Muńoz; Mario Vega; Gisela Rios; Rolf Geisen; Gisela H. Degen

216

NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

217

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

218

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to cell wall antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Aspergillus fumigatus were produced and characterized. Splenocytes from cell wall-immunized BALB/c mice were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. The hybridomas were screened with a cold alkali (CA) extract of mycelium containing protein, mannose, and galactose, and two MAbs of the immunoglobulin M class were purified from ascites fluid. MAbs 1 and 40 were characterized by double immunodiffusion against CA antigen, indirect enzyme immunoassay with mannans of Candida albicans serotypes A or B or Candida tropicalis, indirect immunofluorescence with C. albicans- or A. fumigatus-infected tissues, indirect immunofluorescence with smears of other pathogenic fungi, Western blotting (immunoblotting) with the lectin concanavalin A or BS-1 from the seeds of Bandeirea simplicifolia, and immunoelectron microscopy. MAb 1 did not cross-react with Candida mannan and recognized a periodate-sensitive, pronase- and heat-resistant epitope in CA antigen and three mannose- and galactose-containing components (80, 62, and 49 kilodaltons) of a mycelial homogenate. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated binding of MAb 1 to the inner cell wall and intracellular membranes of hyphae and conidia of A. fumigatus. Circulating antigen was detected in experimental invasive aspergillosis by inhibition enzyme immunoassay with MAb 1 and CA antigen. MAb 40 was a nonprecipitating antibody cross-reactive with Candida species, and competition for an epitope located diffusely in the cell wall of A. fumigatus hyphae was demonstrated by incubating MAb 40 with mannan of C. albicans serotype A. These results suggest that MAb 1 recognizes immunodominant oligogalactoside side chains of A. fumigatus galactomannan, while MAb 40 binds to mannopyranosyl side chains common to A. fumigatus galactomannan and C. albicans mannan. PMID:2194959

Ste-Marie, L; Sénéchal, S; Boushira, M; Garzon, S; Strykowski, H; Pedneault, L; de Repentigny, L

1990-07-01

219

Fractionation of culture filtrate antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and two-dimensional crossed immunoelectrophoresis (2D-CIE) of crude culture filtrate antigens prepared from three clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus revealed a striking similarity in the number and nature of their antigenic components, notwithstanding the wide differences in their total protein contents. The antigenic components, which are largely proteins and glycoproteins, varied from 9-10 in number depending on the isolate. A prominent glycoprotein band, common to all the three isolates, merits further purification and detailed study. The serodiagnostic value of culture filtrate antigens of A. fumigatus vis-a-vis mycelial antigens, has been discussed. PMID:2081627

Chandrashekara, K V; Kumari, S

1990-01-01

220

Bioremediation of Dyes in Textile Effluents by Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized\\u000a mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B\\u000a (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption

Carlos Renato Corso; Ana Carolina Maganha de Almeida

2009-01-01

221

Iron homeostasis—Achilles’ heel of Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed Central

The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus adapts to iron limitation by upregulation of iron uptake mechanisms including siderophore biosynthesis and downregulation of iron-consuming pathways to spare iron. These metabolic changes depend mainly on the transcription factor HapX. Consistent with the crucial role of iron in pathophysiology, genetic inactivation of either HapX or the siderophore system attenuates virulence of A. fumigatus in a murine model of aspergillosis. The differences in iron handling between mammals and fungi might serve to improve therapy and diagnosis of fungal infections. PMID:21724450

Schrettl, Markus; Haas, Hubertus

2011-01-01

222

Characterization of two forms of glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger glucoamylases GI and GII (E.C. 3.2.1.3) were isolated from a commercial enzyme preparation by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Both enzymes consist of a single glycosylated polypeptide\\u000a chain. The molecular weights of GI and GII were determined by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation to 52,000 and\\u000a 46,000, respectively, and by molecular sieving to 65,000 and 55,000.

Birte Svensson; Torben Graves Svendsen; IB Svendsen; Takuo Sakai; Martin Ottesen

1982-01-01

223

The crucial role of iron uptake in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition has been shown to be essential for virulence. New studies have revealed that enzymes involved in siderophore biosynthesis and uptake are compartmentalized in peroxisomes and endosome-like vesicles, respectively. Gene and protein expression studies have revealed coordinated regulation of siderophore and sterol metabolism linked to the common precursor mevalonate. Several A. fumigatus transcription factors have been identified that are unexpectedly involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. New diagnostic and drug treatments are being developed that exploit the requirement of A. fumigatus for extracellular siderophores. PMID:23962820

Moore, Margo M

2013-12-01

224

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

225

Fungal infection of aortic Endograft because of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old male, referred to our center with a ruptured aortic aneurysm, underwent urgent endovascular repair and femoro-femoral crossover bypass. An endograft infection because of Aspergillus fumigatus occurred about 20 days after surgery. We removed the endograft and femoral prosthesis and we then performed an aorto-bi-iliac bypass with autogenous reversed superficial femoral veins. Five days after surgery, the patient died. Microbiological examination and postmortem examination showed the presence of A. fumigatus in femoral prosthesis, aortic wall, and periaortic exudate. PMID:24858585

Ferrero, Emanuele; Ferri, Michelangelo; Viazzo, Andrea; Trevisan, Alessandra; Psacharopulo, Daniele; Ripepi, Matteo; Gibello, Lorenzo; Nessi, Franco

2014-10-01

226

SP mountain data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

1981-01-01

227

Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4?g/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649

Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

2013-05-01

228

Laser Sculpting of Atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) Hybrid Orbitals.  

PubMed

Atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals were introduced by Linus Pauling to explain the nature of the chemical bond. Quantum dynamics simulations show that they can be sculpted by means of a selective series of coherent laser pulses, starting from the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atom. Laser hybridization generates atoms with state-selective electric dipoles, opening up new possibilities for the study of chemical reaction dynamics and heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:25257703

Liu, Chunmei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang

2015-01-12

229

SP100 flight safety tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety test program to be conducted as part of the SP-100 Power System Qualification Program is described. Safety tests needed to establish SP-100 technology readiness are identified through consideration of uncertainties in analytical predictions. Critical experiments already completed provide sufficient confidence in the technology supporting criticality predictions under accident conditions. Plans for the future include: testing of safety rod

Mark I. Temme; Neil W. Brown; Michael A. Smith

1993-01-01

230

The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

2003-01-01

231

Enzyme profile and immunochemical characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.  

PubMed

We have compared the immunochemical characteristics of culture-filtrate antigens (Ag) from Aspergillus fumigatus extracted in our laboratory with commercially available Ags. A total of 20 different preparations were studied for protein and carbohydrate content, presence of endotoxins, mycotoxins, and hemolytic toxins. These extracts were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis for protein components. The immunogenicity of the preparations was determined by rocket electrophoresis with rabbit anti-A. fumigatus sera and by agar gel diffusion with sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and normal control subjects. In order to have dependable immunologic results, the Ags must be sufficiently pure and reproducible. Until such time as pure and standardized Ags are available, the crude Ags used should be characterized to the extent that adequate reproducibility between preparations can be ascertained. The enzyme profile of the Ag preparations provides a fair indication of the quality of antigenic components, and together with other immunochemical parameters, it will be of use in determining the suitability of the extracts in immunodiagnosis. Immunochemical results demonstrate that commercial Ags contain less proteins and carbohydrates and fewer enzymes than the homemade antigens. In addition, fewer patients demonstrated specific precipitins against commercial Ags than with homemade Ags. This study once again confirms the need for pure standardized Ags for studying the immunologic response in patients with Aspergillus-induced diseases. Until such preparations are readily available, partially purified or crude Ags with known immunochemical properties and enzyme profile may be the choice for immunodiagnosis. PMID:3097110

Kurup, V P; Resnick, A; Scribner, G H; Gunasekaran, M; Fink, J N

1986-12-01

232

Genomic characterization of a novel partitivirus infecting. Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Three double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments from Aspergillus ochraceus isolate FA 0611, designated as AoR1, AoR2, and AoR3, were cloned and sequenced. AoR1 was identical with AoV dsRNA 1 previously reported from A. ochraceus ATCC 28706, which putatively encoded an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of an unidentified mycovirus. AoR2 was found to encode a putative viral capsid protein (CP) with 63% similarity to that of Penicillium stoloniferum virus S, which was detected from P. stoloniferum ATCC 14586. The function of AoR3 was unknown. The three segments were found to contain a conserved sequence at their 5' termini, while an identical sequence was only found at the 3' termini of AoR1 and AoR2. It is suggested that AoR1, AoR2, and AoR3 originate from an independent partitivirus infecting A. ochraceus. The novel virus is suggested to be Aspergillus ochraceus virus 1, AoV1. PMID:18770020

Liu, Weixia; Duns, Greg; Chen, Jishuang

2008-12-01

233

Induced Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae (A. niger group)  

PubMed Central

The examination of substances formed during induced autolysis by Aspergillus niger was continued in this work, which dealt in particular with carbohydrates. The autolysate contained a large amount of d-glucose (14 to 20% dry wt) and traces of glycolic aldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, ribose, xylose, and fructose. It also contained glycopeptides (about 10% dry wt), which were split from the cell wall during autolysis and which differed from one another in their level of polymerization and their composition. They were constituted by glucose and mannose, glucose and galactose, or mannose, glucose, and galactose (mannose being the most abundant in this case), and amino acids (chiefly alanine, serine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid). During autolysis, only a part of the cell wall was dissolved, since it retained its shape. Upon further chemical hydrolysis, it produced mostly glucose and glucosamine, and smaller amounts of mannose, galactose, and amino acids. Presumably, glucomannoproteins and glucogalactoproteins were present in the intact cell as a macromolecular complex, constituting, together with chitin, the major part of the cell wall of Aspergillus. PMID:16349623

Emiliani, Ezio; de Davie, I. Ucha

1962-01-01

234

DADiSP processing guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A guide for DADiSP software, intended for use by the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) Team during and after the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-1 mission, is presented. DADiSP is a Data Analysis and Display Software developed and marketed by DSP Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This guide is intended to be used in addition to the DADiSP Worksheet User Manual and Reference Manual which are supplied by the company with the software. Technical support for DADiSP is available from DSP at (617) 577-1133. Access to DADiSP on Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) EGSE is being provided to the LPE team during USMP-1 for off-line processing of SAMS data.

Rogers, Melissa J. B.

1993-01-01

235

Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.  

PubMed

Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization. PMID:24430250

Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

2014-03-01

236

Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).  

PubMed

Abstract We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115?bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships. PMID:25329289

Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

2014-10-20

237

Regulation of pentose utilisation by AraR, but not XlnR, differs in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are important producers of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes that are used in many industrial applications. These enzymes are produced by the fungus to liberate monomeric sugars that are used as carbon source. Two of the main components of plant polysaccharides are L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are metabolized through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP) in these fungi. In Aspergillus niger, the regulation of pentose release from polysaccharides and the PCP involves the transcriptional activators AraR and XlnR, which are also present in other Aspergilli such as Aspergillus nidulans. The comparative analysis revealed that the regulation of the PCP by AraR differs in A. nidulans and A. niger, whereas the regulation of the PCP by XlnR was similar in both species. This was demonstrated by the growth differences on L-arabinose between disruptant strains for araR and xlnR in A. nidulans and A. niger. In addition, the expression profiles of genes encoding L-arabinose reductase (larA), L-arabitol dehydrogenase (ladA) and xylitol dehydrogenase (xdhA) differed in these strains. This data suggests evolutionary changes in these two species that affect pentose utilisation. This study also implies that manipulating regulatory systems to improve the production of polysaccharide degrading enzymes, may give different results in different industrial fungi. PMID:21484208

Battaglia, Evy; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Leendertse, Anne; Madrid, Susan; Mulder, Harm; Nikolaev, Igor; de Vries, Ronald P

2011-07-01

238

Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

Frisvad, Jens C.

2014-01-01

239

Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 ?g/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed. PMID:22409377

Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2012-04-01

240

Biodegradation of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) by Mixed Culture of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Aspergillus niger in Soil  

PubMed Central

In this study, two strains of Aspergillus sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. with remarkable abilities to degrade low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were isolated from landfill soils in Tehran using enrichment culture and screening procedures. The biodegradation process was performed for 126 days in soil using UV- and non-UV-irradiated pure LDPE films without pro-oxidant additives in the presence and absence of mixed cultures of selected microorganisms. The process was monitored by measuring the microbial population, the biomass carbon, pH and respiration in the soil, and the mechanical properties of the films. The carbon dioxide measurements in the soil showed that the biodegradation in the un-inoculated treatments were slow and were about 7.6% and 8.6% of the mineralisation measured for the non-UV-irradiated and UV-irradiated LDPE, respectively, after 126 days. In contrast, in the presence of the selected microorganisms, biodegradation was much more efficient and the percentages of biodegradation were 29.5% and 15.8% for the UV-irradiated and non-UV-irradiated films, respectively. The percentage decrease in the carbonyl index was higher for the UV-irradiated LDPE when the biodegradation was performed in soil inoculated with the selected microorganisms. The percentage elongation of the films decreased during the biodegradation process. The Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine structural, morphological and surface changes on polyethylene. These analyses showed that the selected microorganisms could modify and colonise both types of polyethylene. This study also confirmed the ability of these isolates to utilise virgin polyethylene without pro-oxidant additives and oxidation pretreatment, as the carbon source. PMID:24086254

Esmaeili, Atefeh; Pourbabaee, Ahmad Ali; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Shabani, Farzin; Esmaeili, Ensieh

2013-01-01

241

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2012-07-01

242

Influence of plant host species on intraspecific competition during infection by Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

of aflatoxin contamination. Host factors should be considered when designing and implementing aflatoxin management strategies including biocontrol with atoxigenic strains. Keywords: aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, cottonseed, intraspecific competition, maize Introduction Aflatoxins, highly carcinogenic secondary

Cotty, Peter J.

243

Secondary metabolite profiling, growth profiles and other tools for species recognition and important Aspergillus mycotoxins  

PubMed Central

Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifying and identifying aspergilli appear to be applicable: Morphology combined with physiology and nutritional features, secondary metabolite profiling and DNA sequencing. These three ways of identifying Aspergillus species often point to the same species. This consensus approach can be used initially, but if consensus is achieved it is recommended to combine at least two of these independent ways of characterising aspergilli in a polyphasic taxonomy. The chemical combination of secondary metabolites and DNA sequence features has not been explored in taxonomy yet, however. Examples of these different taxonomic approaches will be given for Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:18490955

Frisvad, J.C.; Larsen, T.O.; de Vries, R.; Meijer, M.; Houbraken, J.; Cabańes, F.J.; Ehrlich, K.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

244

Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus species: a review of 310 reported cases.  

PubMed

Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare infection. We reviewed 310 individual cases reported in the literature from 1936 to 2013. The median age of patients was 43 years (range, 0-86 years), and 59% were males. Comorbidities associated with this infection included chronic granulomatous disease (19%), haematological malignancies (11%), transplantation (11%), diabetes (6%), pulmonary disease (4%), steroid therapy (4%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (4%). Sites of infection included the spine (49%), base of the skull, paranasal sinuses and jaw (18%), ribs (9%), long bones (9%), sternum (5%), and chest wall (4%). The most common infecting species were Aspergillus fumigatus (55%), Aspergillus flavus (12%), and Aspergillus nidulans (7%). Sixty-two per cent of the individual cases were treated with a combination of an antifungal regimen and surgery. Amphotericin B was the antifungal drug most commonly used, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. Several combination or sequential therapies were also used experimentally. The overall crude mortality rate was 25%. PMID:24303995

Gabrielli, E; Fothergill, A W; Brescini, L; Sutton, D A; Marchionni, E; Orsetti, E; Staffolani, S; Castelli, P; Gesuita, R; Barchiesi, F

2014-06-01

245

Aspergillus flavus AF36 Biopesticides Registration Action Document Final July 03, 2003  

E-print Network

AGENCY OFFICE OF PESTICIDE PROGRAMS BIOPESTICIDES AND POLLUTION PREVENTION DIVISION #12;Aspergillus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. Dietary Exposure and Risk Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Occupational and Residential Exposure and Risk Characterization . . . 21 5. Drinking Water Exposure and Risk

Cotty, Peter J.

246

Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus Link laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

247

Genetic relatedness versus biological compatibility between Aspergillus fumigatus and related species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus section Fumigati contains twelve clinically relevant species. Among them, A. fumigatus is the most frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis followed by A. lentulus and A. viridinutans. Genealogical concordance and mating experiments were performed to examine the relationship between phyl...

248

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by  

E-print Network

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

Gu, Tingyue

249

Allochromatium renukae sp. nov.  

PubMed

An ovoid to rod-shaped, phototrophic, purple sulfur bacterium, designated strain JA136(T), was isolated in pure culture from brackish water near Kakinada, India, in a medium that contained 2 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were Gram-negative and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain JA136(T) had no absolute salt requirement for growth but was able to tolerate up to 4 % NaCl (w/v). Intracellular photosynthetic membranes were of the vesicular type. Bacteriochlorophyll a and the carotenoid lycopene of the rhodopinal series were present as photosynthetic pigments. Strain JA136(T) was able to grow photolithoautotrophically and photolithoheterotrophically. There was no vitamin requirement for growth of strain JA136(T). Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JA136(T) clustered with species of the genus Allochromatium in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Strain JA136(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of Allochromatium vinosum (97.0 %), Allochromatium minutissimum (95.8 %) and Allochromatium warmingii (90.0 %). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data and morphological and physiological characteristics, strain JA136(T) was sufficiently distinct from recognized Allochromatium species to be described as representing a novel species of the genus, for which the name Allochromatium renukae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA136(T) (=JCM 14262(T) =DSM 18713(T)). PMID:18218939

Anil Kumar, P; Srinivas, T N R; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2008-02-01

250

Streptomyces muensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

A strain of Streptomyces, MBRL 179(T), isolated from a sample from a Limestone quarry located at Hundung, Manipur, India, was characterized by polyphasic taxonomy. The strain formed a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces spinoverrucosus NBRC 14228(T) (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3 %) in the Neighbour-joining tree. DNA-DNA hybridization experiment gave a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 34.7 % between MBRL 179(T) and S. spinoverrucosus NBRC 14228(T). Strain MBRL 179(T) contained LL-diaminopimelic acid, xylose, glucose, and mannose in the whole cell-wall hydrolysates along with small amount of ribose. The major polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositolmannoside, with other unknown phospholipids and aminophospholipid. MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4) were the predominant menaquinones detected. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C16:0 (28.1 %), iso-C16:0 (20.3 %), C16:0 (9.4 %) and anteiso-C17:0 (8.3 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.1 %. Based on the polyphasic experiment results, the strain MBRL 179(T) merits recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces muensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MBRL 179(T) (=JCM 17576(T) = KCTC 29124(T)). PMID:24037482

Ningthoujam, Debananda S; Nimaichand, Salam; Ningombam, Dollyca; Tamreihao, K; Li, Li; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Cheng, Juan; Liu, Min-Jiao; Li, Wen-Jun

2013-12-01

251

Application of maltitol to improve production of raw starch digesting glucoamylase by Aspergillus niger F-08  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the addition of maltitol on the production of raw starch digesting glucoamylase (RSDG) by Aspergillus niger F-08 was studied in the paper. The activity of RSDG formed by Aspergillus niger F-08 was enhanced dramatically by the addition of maltitol to the medium and it was confirmed that maltitol acted as a very\\u000a efficient inducer for RSDG production.

Haiyan Sun; Pingjuan Zhao; Ming Peng

2008-01-01

252

Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients with Probable Cerebral Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus galactomannan test was performed on cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 5 patients with probable cerebral aspergillosis and from 16 control patients. Cerebrospinal fluid galactomannan levels were significantly higher in aspergillosis patients, and most galactomannan was produced intrathecally. Comparison of serum galactomannan values in pulmonary and cerebral aspergillosis patients showed significant overlapping. Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan in cerebrospinal fluid may be diagnostic of cerebral aspergillosis. PMID:11923380

Viscoli, Claudio; Machetti, Marco; Gazzola, Paola; De Maria, Andrea; Paola, Dimitri; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Gualandi, Francesca; Truini, Mauro; Bacigalupo, Andrea

2002-01-01

253

Population structure and Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, ?-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa. PMID:24750813

Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

2014-08-01

254

Structural assessment of peanut cultivars for pod resistance to Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF PEANUT CULTIVARS FOR POD RESISTANCE TO ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS A Thesis by RUSSELYN DEE HENSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Committee) Olin . Smith (Member) Ruth A. Taber (Member) . c )i~i ~) (, g. le j'(ZP'( I John S. Calahan (Member) eal Van Alfen (Department Head) May 1991 ABSTRACT Structural Assessment of Peanut Cultivars for Pod Resistance to Aspergillus flavus...

Henson, Russelyn Dee

2012-06-07

255

Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

Baker, Scott E.

2006-09-01

256

Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 ?s, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. PMID:24680880

Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magańa-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

2014-08-01

257

Characterization of a major antigenic component of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

A component of Aspergillus fumigatus, Ag 7, previously identified as a major antigen for patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, has been isolated by gel filtration and further purified by affinity chromatography using monospecific antiserum. The antigen, which binds both specific IgG and IgE antibodies, was shown to be a high molecular weight, 150-200 kD, heat-stable glycoprotein, which binds to concanavalin A, suggesting the presence of alpha-D mannopyrannoside, or alpha-D glucopyrannoside end residues. On sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) it had a subunit of molecular weight 36 kD (with or without prior reduction), which retained antigenicity and allergenicity when tested with patients' sera. PMID:3539424

Harvey, C; Longbottom, J L

1986-07-01

258

Pathogenicity differences of multiple isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus in turkeys.  

PubMed

Sixteen Aspergillus fumigatus isolates of environmental, mammalian, and avian origin were used to assess: 1) intra-air-sac inoculation as a viable challenge alternative to aerosol exposure, and 2) isolate variability in pathogenicity. Development of lesions, antibody response in survivors, mortality, and weight gains were assessed. Turkey poults were challenged with equal numbers of viable conidia. Total number of conidia given per experimental group varied markedly and did not influence mortality. Antibody response as measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and agar gel immunodiffusion test was erratic, although most poults with high antibody scores had marked lesions and low weight. Lesions were characterized by necrogranulomatous pneumonia and airsacculitis with marked visceral involvement. The source of the isolate was not a factor in mortality, although this was biased by the high numbers of isolates from birds with aspergillosis. The single environmental isolate produced no mortality. PMID:1417585

Peden, W M; Rhoades, K R

1992-01-01

259

Flocculation behavior and mechanism of bioflocculant produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

In this study, the flocculation behavior and mechanism of a cation-independent bioflocculant IH-7 produced by Aspergillus flavus were investigated. Results showed 91.6% was the lowest flocculating rate recorded by IH-7 (0.5 mg L(-1)) at pH range 4-8. Moreover, IH-7 showed better flocculation performance than polyaluminum chloride (PAC) at a wide range of flocculant concentration (0.06-25 mg L(-1)), temperature (5-45 °C) and salinity (10-60% w/w). The current study found that cation addition did not significantly enhance the flocculating rate and IH-7 is a positively charged bioflocculant. These findings suggest that charge neutralization is the main flocculation mechanism of IH-7 bioflocculant. IH-7 was significantly used to flocculate different types of suspended solids such as activated carbons, kaolin clays, soil solids and yeast cells. PMID:25560664

Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Idris, Azni; Al-Joubory, Hamid Hussain Rijab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Ibn Abubakar, B S U

2015-03-01

260

Genetic analysis of resistance to fenpropimorph in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Resistance to the morpholine-fungicide fenpropimorph was studied in Aspergillus niger and A. nidulans. Mass selection of conidia of A. nidulans on agar amended with the fungicide at different concentrations did not yield of resistant mutants, even after UV-treatment of the conidia. In contrast, similar experiments with A. niger generated many fenpropimorph-resistant mutants. The mutants displayed cross-resistance to fenpropidin and generally showed wild-type sensitivity to the unrelated toxicants fenarimol and cycloheximide. Genetic analysis of fenpropimorph resistance in A. niger was carried out by means of the parasexual cycle. In the mutants tested, two genes located on linkage group II were involved in fenpropimorph resistance. Dominance tests showed that resistance to fenpropimorph in A. niger is recessive. PMID:9506903

Engels, A J; Holub, E F; Swart, K; De Waard, M A

1998-02-01

261

Aminopeptidase C of Aspergillus niger Is a Novel Phenylalanine Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

A novel enzyme with a specific phenylalanine aminopeptidase activity (ApsC) from Aspergillus niger (CBS 120.49) has been characterized. The derived amino acid sequence is not similar to any previously characterized aminopeptidase sequence but does share similarity with some mammalian acyl-peptide hydrolase sequences. ApsC was found to be most active towards phenylalanine ?-naphthylamide (F-?NA) and phenylalanine para-nitroanilide (F-pNA), but it also displayed activity towards other amino acids with aromatic side chains coupled to ?NA; other amino acids with nonaromatic side chains coupled to either pNA or ?NA were not hydrolyzed or were poorly hydrolyzed. ApsC was not able to hydrolyze N-acetylalanine-pNA, a substrate for acyl-peptide hydrolases. PMID:12571053

Basten, Daniëlle E. J. W.; Dekker, Peter J. T.; Schaap, Peter J.

2003-01-01

262

Characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans Monodictyphenone Gene Cluster? †  

PubMed Central

Deletion of cclA, a component of the COMPASS complex of Aspergillus nidulans, results in the production of monodictyphenone and emodin derivatives. Through a set of targeted deletions in a cclA deletion strain, we have identified the genes required for monodictyphenone and emodin analog biosynthesis. Identification of an intermediate, endocrocin, from an mdpH? strain suggests that mdpH might encode a decarboxylase. Furthermore, by replacing the promoter of mdpA (a putative aflJ homolog) and mdpE (a putative aflR homolog) with the inducible alcA promoter, we have confirmed that MdpA functions as a coactivator. We propose a biosynthetic pathway for monodictyphenone and emodin derivatives based on bioinformatic analysis and characterization of biosynthetic intermediates. PMID:20139316

Chiang, Yi-Ming; Szewczyk, Edyta; Davidson, Ashley D.; Entwistle, Ruth; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.; Oakley, Berl R.

2010-01-01

263

Categorisation of sugar acid dehydratases in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

In the genome of Aspergillus niger five genes were identified coding for proteins with homologies to sugar acid dehydratases. The open reading frames were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activities tested with a library of sugar acids. Four genes were identified to code for proteins with activities with sugar acids: an l-galactonate dehydratase (gaaB), two d-galactonate dehydratases (dgdA, dgdB) and an l-rhamnonate dehydratase (lraC). The specificities of the proteins were characterised. The l-galactonate dehydratase had highest activity with l-fuconate, however it is unclear whether the enzyme is involved in l-fuconate catabolism. None of the proteins showed activity with galactaric acid or galactarolactone. PMID:24382357

Motter, Francine A; Kuivanen, Joosu; Keränen, Hanna; Hilditch, Satu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

2014-03-01

264

Optimization of triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin productions in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element for all microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi produce versatile siderophores for binding and storing this essential transition metal when its availability is limited in the environment. The aim of the study was to optimize the fermentation medium of Aspergillus fumigatus for siderophore production. Triacetyl-fusarinine C and ferricrocin yields were dependent on glucose and glycine supplementations as well as the initial pH of the culture media. The optimal fermentation medium for triacetylfusarinine C production contained 8% glucose, 0.4% glycine and the initial pH was set to 5.9. Meanwhile, maximal ferricrocin yields were recorded in the presence of 10% glucose, 0.5% glycine and at an initial pH of 7.4. Under optimized fermentation conditions, the yields for triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin increased up to 2.9 g/l culture medium and 18.9 mg/g mycelium, respectively. PMID:24939680

Szigeti, Zsuzsa M; Szaniszló, Szilvia; Fazekas, Erika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Szabon, Judit; Antal, Károly; Emri, Tamás; Balla, József; Balla, György; Csernoch, László; Pócsi, István

2014-06-01

265

Aspergillus fumigatus: virulence genes in a street-smart mold  

PubMed Central

Infections with the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are among the most devastating of the systemic mycoses. Unlike most primary pathogens, which possess virulence traits that developed in association with a host organism, evidence suggests that the virulence of A. fumigatus entails a collection of ‘street-smart’ attributes that have evolved to resist the adverse selection pressures encountered in decaying vegetation. These features enhance the overall competitiveness of the organism in its environmental niche, but are also thought to promote growth and survival in a human host. Although many of the genes that are responsible for these characteristics do not fit into the classical definition of a virulence factor, they are nonetheless important to the pathogenesis of aspergillosis and may therefore provide novel opportunities for antifungal development. PMID:18579432

Askew, David S.

2008-01-01

266

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

2010-10-01

267

Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Covering: up to 2014 Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections. PMID:25140791

2014-01-01

268

SP-100 Advanced Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

Sovie, Ronald J.

1987-01-01

269

SP-100 advanced technology program  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

Sovie, R.J.

1987-01-01

270

FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

2015-01-01

271

Identification of high-affinity copper transporters in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

We investigated the copper metabolism of Aspergillus fumigatus, which has not been characterized well. We cloned the putative copper transporters ctrA2 and ctrC from A. fumigatus and investigated the functions of these transporters in copper metabolism. Four putative copper transporters were identified in the A. fumigatus genome; ctrA2 and ctrC complemented CTR1 functionally and localized to the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ctrA2 and ctrC single-deletion mutants and a double-deletion mutant of ctrA2 and ctrC were constructed in A. fumigatus. The ctrA2 and ctrC double-deletion mutant exhibited a growth defect on Aspergillus minimal medium (AMM) supplemented with bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCS) and was sensitive to H2O2. Furthermore, the deletion of ctrA2 and ctrC reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, laccase activity, and intracellular copper contents. The activities of the ctrA2 and ctrC genes were up-regulated by BCS treatment. In addition, the deletion of ctrA2 up-regulated ctrC and vice versa. ctrA2 and ctrC were localized to the A. fumigatus plasma membrane. Although ctrA2 and ctrC failed to affect the mouse survival rate, these genes affected conidial killing activity. Taken together, these results indicate that ctrA2 and ctrC may function as membrane transporters and that the involvement of these genes in pathogenicity merits further investigation. PMID:25281782

Park, Yong-Sung; Lian, Haojun; Chang, Miwha; Kang, Chang-Min; Yun, Cheol-Won

2014-12-01

272

Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.  

PubMed

During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA. PMID:16715545

Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

2006-05-01

273

Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Haliclona sp. from the Persian Gulf, Iran.  

PubMed

In this study, antifungal and antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Haliclona sp. were assessed (in vitro). The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spizizenii. The antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by using a broth microdilution test against clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our results showed diethyl ether extract of Haliclona sp. was active on Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, methanol extract in comparison with diethyl ether extract had better activity against C. albicans (MIC: 0.75 mg/mL, MFC: 1.5mg/mL) and A. fumigatus (MIC: 2mg/mL, MFC: 3mg/mL). Aqueous extract had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities. Based our results, Haliclona sp. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic and antifungal. PMID:24934592

Nazemi, M; Alidoust Salimi, M; Alidoust Salimi, P; Motallebi, A; Tamadoni Jahromi, S; Ahmadzadeh, O

2014-09-01

274

Polygalacturonases Produced Under Solid State and Submerged Fermentation Conditions by Two Strains of Aspergillus foetidus (Aspergillus foetidus 'a Ait ?ki Su? Tarafindan Kati Kültür ve Batik Kültür Fermentasyon Ko?ullarinda Üretilen Poligalakturonazlar) Research Article (Ara?tirma Makalesi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Polygalacturonases produced by two strains of Aspergillus foetidus (EGEK145, EGEK635) under solid state and submerged conditions were investigated for some of their biochemical characteristics.

Eva Stratilová

275

Combined Expression of Aspergillus nidulans Endoxylanase X24 and Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-Amylase in Industrial Baker's Yeasts and Their Use in Bread Making  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus nidulans endoxylanase X24 and the Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-amylase cDNAs were placed under the control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin promoter (pACT1) and introduced into baker's yeast. Bread made with transformants expressing both enzymes (YEpACT-AMY-ACT-X24) showed a 30% increase in volume and reduced firmness in comparison with that produced with a commercial strain. Endoxylanase X24 and (alpha)-amylase seem to act synergistically to improve the quality of bread in terms of volume and density. PMID:16535419

Monfort, A.; Blasco, A.; Prieto, J. A.; Sanz, P.

1996-01-01

276

Amplification and diversity analysis of ketosynthase domains of putative polyketide synthase genes in Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius producers of ochratoxin A.  

PubMed

The diversity of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 and Aspergillus carbonarius 2Mu134 has been investigated using different primer pairs previously developed for the ketosynthase (KS) domain of fungal PKSs. Nine different KS domain sequences in A. ochraceus NRRL 3174 as well as five different KS domain sequences in A. carbonarius 2Mu134 have been identified. The identified KS fragments were distributed in five different clusters on the phylogenetic tree, indicating that they most probably represent PKSs responsible for different functions. PMID:16715542

Atoui, Ali; Dao, Huy Phong; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

2006-05-01

277

Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)). PMID:17392194

Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

2007-04-01

278

Marmoricola korecus sp. nov.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain Sco-A36(T), was isolated from volcanic ash. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, non-motile cocci; colonies were yellow-coloured, smooth, entire and convex. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the organism formed a distinct phyletic line within the radiation of the genus Marmoricola. Its closest phylogenetic neighbours were Marmoricola aurantiacus DSM 12652(T) (97.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Marmoricola scoriae Sco-D01(T) (97.9?%), Marmoricola aequoreus SST-45(T) (97.4?%) and Marmoricola bigeumensis MSL-05(T) (96.3?%). The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell walls was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H(4)). The polar lipids contained phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and an unknown phospholipid. The predominant fatty acids were C(16?:?0), C(17?:?1)?8c, C(18?:?1)?9c and C(16?:?1)?7c and/or iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH. The DNA G+C content of strain Sco-A36(T) was 71.0 mol%. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Marmoricola were 4.9-29.2?%. The phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization data presented here strongly suggest that strain Sco-A36(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marmoricola, for which the name Marmoricola korecus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Sco-A36(T) (?=?KCTC 19596(T)?=?DSM 22128(T)). PMID:20693360

Lee, Soon Dong; Lee, Dong Wan; Ko, Young-Hwan

2011-07-01

279

Natural Control of Corn Postharvest Fungi Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. Using Essential Oils from Plants Grown in Argentina.  

PubMed

The objective in this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from native and commercial aromatic plants grown in Argentina against corn postharvest fungi and to link the essential oil bioactivity with lipid oxidation and morphological changes in fungus cell membrane. Essential oil (EO) of oregano variety Mendocino (OMen), Cordobes (OCor), and Compacto (OCom), mint variety Inglesa (Mi), and Pehaujo (Mp), Suico (Sui); rosemary (Ro), and Aguaribay (Ag) were tested in vitro against 4 corn fungi: A. flavus (CCC116-83 and BXC01), P. oxalicum (083296), and P. minioluteum (BXC03). The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. The chemical profiles of the EOs were analyzed by GC-MS. Lipid oxidation in cell membrane of fungi was determined by hydroperoxides and related with essential oil antifungal activity. The major compounds were Thymol in OCor (18.66%), Omen (12.18%), and OCom (9.44%); menthol in Mi and Mp; verbenone in Sui; dehydroxy-isocalamendiol in Ag; and eucaliptol in Ro. OCor, Omen, and OCom showed the best antifungal activity. No antifungal activity was observed in Ag and Ro EO. The hydroperoxide value depended on the fungi (P < 0.001) and the antimicrobial agent (P < 0.001).Membrane lipids were oxidized by Sui EO in A. flavus BXC01 and A. flavus CCC116-83 (0.021 and 0.027 meqO2 /kg, respectively). The results suggest that the EOs of OCor, OMen, OCom, Mi, Mp, and Sui grown in Argentina can be used as natural alternatives to control fungi that produce mycotoxin in maize. PMID:25376651

Camiletti, Boris X; Asensio, Claudia M; Pecci, María de la Paz Giménez; Lucini, Enrique I

2014-12-01

280

Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.  

PubMed

Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. PMID:25392351

Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

2015-01-01

281

Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500?g/kg B and 341,000?g/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (p<0.001) positive (r=0.99) influence on AFB1 concentrations in the feed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention. PMID:25108761

Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

2014-10-17

282

Biopelículas de Aspergillus niger para la producción de celulasas: algunos aspectos estructurales y fisiológicos Aspergillus niger biofilms for celulasas production: some structural and physiological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger biofilms developed on polyester cloth were evaluated considering two aspects related to the growth on surfaces: structure and physiological behavior focused on cellulase production. The biofilm structure was assessed by using electron scanning microphotographs from inoculation and adsorption to 120 h growth. The microphotographs show that biofilm formation can be divided into three phases: 1) Adhesion, which is

Gretty K. Villena; Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

2003-01-01

283

Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus nidulans is a member of a diverse group of filamentous fungi, sharing many of the properties of its close relatives with significance in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industry. Furthermore, A. nidulans has been a classical model organism for studies of development biology and gene regulation, and thus it has become one of the best-characterized filamentous fungi. It was the first Aspergillus species to have its genome sequenced, and automated gene prediction tools predicted 9,451 open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, of which less than 10% were assigned a function. Results In this work, we have manually assigned functions to 472 orphan genes in the metabolism of A. nidulans, by using a pathway-driven approach and by employing comparative genomics tools based on sequence similarity. The central metabolism of A. nidulans, as well as biosynthetic pathways of relevant secondary metabolites, was reconstructed based on detailed metabolic reconstructions available for A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and information on the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of A. nidulans. Thereby, it was possible to identify metabolic functions without a gene associated, and to look for candidate ORFs in the genome of A. nidulans by comparing its sequence to sequences of well-characterized genes in other species encoding the function of interest. A classification system, based on defined criteria, was developed for evaluating and selecting the ORFs among the candidates, in an objective and systematic manner. The functional assignments served as a basis to develop a mathematical model, linking 666 genes (both previously and newly annotated) to metabolic roles. The model was used to simulate metabolic behavior and additionally to integrate, analyze and interpret large-scale gene expression data concerning a study on glucose repression, thereby providing a means of upgrading the information content of experimental data and getting further insight into this phenomenon in A. nidulans. Conclusion We demonstrate how pathway modeling of A. nidulans can be used as an approach to improve the functional annotation of the genome of this organism. Furthermore we show how the metabolic model establishes functional links between genes, enabling the upgrade of the information content of transcriptome data. PMID:18405346

David, Helga; Özçelik, ?lknur ?; Hofmann, Gerald; Nielsen, Jens

2008-01-01

284

Roseospira visakhapatnamensis sp. nov. and Roseospira goensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, vibrioid, phototrophic, purple non-sulfur strains, JA131T and JA135T, were isolated from marine habitats. Strain JA131T is non-motile but strain JA135T is motile by means of a pair of monopolar flagella. Both strains have an obligate requirement for NaCl for growth. The intracellular photosynthetic membranes of the two novel strains are of the vesicular type. Bacteriochlorophyll a and probably rhodovibrine are present as photosynthetic pigments. Niacin, thiamine and p-aminobenzoic acid are required as growth factors for both novel strains. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, morphological and physiological characteristics, strains JA131T and JA135T are significantly different from each other and from other species of the genus Roseospira and thus represent two novel species for which the names Roseospira visakhapatnamensis sp. nov. and Roseospira goensis sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. The type strain of Roseospira visakhapatnamensis sp. nov. is JA131T (=ATCC BAA-1365T=JCM 14190T) and the type strain of Roseospira goensis sp. nov. is JA135T (=ATCC BAA-1364T=JCM 14191T). PMID:17978198

Kalyan Chakravarthy, S; Srinivas, T N R; Anil Kumar, P; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2007-11-01

285

Increased frequency of non- fumigatus Aspergillus species in amphotericin B– or triazole–pre-exposed cancer patients with positive cultures for aspergilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) can occur despite prior prophylactic or empiric use of triazoles or amphotericin B (AMB). Although profound immunosuppression may account for breakthrough IA, resistance of Aspergillus to antifungals may also play a role. To examine this question, we measured the minimal inhibitory concentration of 105 Aspergillus isolates recovered from 105 cancer patients (64 with IA, 41 with Aspergillus

Michail S. Lionakis; Russell E. Lewis; Harrys A. Torres; Nathaniel D. Alberta; Issam I. Raad; Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis

2005-01-01

286

Detection of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India.  

PubMed

Twelve hundred rice samples consisting of paddy (675) and milled rice (525) were collected from 20 states across India. These samples were assessed for Aspergillus spp. infection on selective medium and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) by indirect competitive ELISA. In this investigation, Aspergillus flavus contamination dominated in all the seed samples. The other major contaminants were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Out of 1200 rice samples, 67.8% showed AFB1 ranging from 0.1 to 308.0 microg/kg. All the paddy samples from Chattishgarh, Meghalaya and Tamil Nadu showed AFB1 contamination. Milled rice grains from different states showed below the permissible levels of AFB1 (average 0.5-3.5 microg/kg). Eighty-two percent of samples from open storage that were exposed to rain showed AFB1 contamination followed by one-year-old seed. Out of 1200 samples, 2% showed AFB1 contamination above the permissible limits (>30 microg/kg). This is the first comprehensive report of aflatoxin contamination in rice across 20 states in India. PMID:19028301

Reddy, K R N; Reddy, C S; Muralidharan, K

2009-02-01

287

Induction of extracellular arabinases on monomeric substrates in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The induction of extracellular arabinases by pentose sugars and polyols generated by the metabolic pathway of L-arabinose and D-xylose catabolism in Aspergillus niger was investigated. Induction occurred with L-arabinose and L-arabitol but not with D-xylose or xylitol. L-arabitol in particular was found to be a good inducer for alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and endo-arabinase activities. Western blotting analysis showed both alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase A and B to be present. No induction was observed using D-arabitol. Unlike the wild type A. niger N402 strain, the A. niger xylulose kinase negative mutant N572 also showed induction of alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases A and B and endo-arabinase activity on D-xylose and xylitol. This is due to metabolic conversion of these compounds leading to the accumulation of both xylitol and L-arabitol in this mutant, the latter of which then acts as inducer. The induction of the two alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases and endo-arabinase is under the control of two regulatory systems namely pathway specific induction and carbon catabolite repression. Under derepressing conditions in the wild type only alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase B could be detected by Western blotting analysis. This indicates that alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase B is of importance in the initiation of specific induction of the various arabinose activities in A. niger grown on arabinose containing structural polysaccharides. PMID:8427548

v d Veen, P; Flipphi, M J; Voragen, A G; Visser, J

1993-01-01

288

SreA-mediated iron regulation in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common airborne fungal pathogen of humans, employs two high-affinity iron uptake systems: iron uptake mediated by the extracellular siderophore triacetylfusarinine C and reductive iron assimilation. Furthermore, A. fumigatus utilizes two intracellular siderophores, ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin, to store iron. Siderophore biosynthesis, which is essential for virulence, is repressed by iron. Here we show that this control is mediated by the GATA factor SreA. During iron-replete conditions, SreA deficiency partially derepressed synthesis of triacetylfusarinine C and uptake of iron resulting in increased cellular accumulation of both iron and ferricrocin. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis identified 49 genes that are repressed by iron in an SreA-dependent manner. This gene set, termed SreA regulon, includes all known genes involved in iron acquisition, putative novel siderophore biosynthetic genes, and also genes not directly linked to iron metabolism. SreA deficiency also caused upregulation of iron-dependent and antioxidative pathways, probably due to the increased iron content and iron-mediated oxidative stress. Consistently, the sreA disruption mutant displayed increased sensitivity to iron, menadion and phleomycin but retained wild-type virulence in a mouse model. As all detrimental effects of sreA disruption are restricted to iron-replete conditions these data underscore that A. fumigatus faces iron-depleted conditions during infection. PMID:18721228

Schrettl, Markus; Kim, H Stanley; Eisendle, Martin; Kragl, Claudia; Nierman, William C; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Werner, Ernst R; Jacobsen, Ilse; Illmer, Paul; Yi, Hyojeong; Brakhage, Axel A; Haas, Hubertus

2008-01-01

289

VelC Positively Controls Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia). In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ?velC ?vosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ?vosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting. PMID:24587098

Park, Hee-Soo; Nam, Tae-Young; Han, Kap-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2014-01-01

290

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

291

Novel cytosolic allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus identified from germinating conidia.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is the common cause of allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and most of the allergens have been described from its secreted fraction. In the present investigation, germinating conidial cytosolic proteins of A. fumigatus were extracted from a 16 h culture. The proteome from this fraction was developed, and immuno-blots were generated using pooled ABPA patients' sera. Well separated Immunoglobulin-E (IgE) and Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) reactive spots were picked from corresponding 2DE gels and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. As a result, 66 immuno-reactive proteins were identified from two geographically different strains (190/96 and DAYA) of A. fumigatus. Only 3 out of 66 proteins reacted with IgG, and the remaining 63 proteins were found to be IgE reactive. These 63 IgE-reactive cytosolic proteins from germinating conidia included 2 already known (Asp f12 and Asp f22) and 4 predicted allergens (Hsp88, Hsp70, malate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase) based on their homology with other known fungal allergens. In view of this, the panel of presently identified IgE-reactive novel proteins holds the potential of providing a basis for the wider diagnostic application in assay for allergic aspergillosis. We could demonstrate that recombinantly expressed proteins from this panel showed consistent reactivity with IgE of individual sera of ABPA patients. The recombinantly expressed proteins may also be useful in desensitization therapy of allergic disorders including ABPA. PMID:20828162

Singh, Bharat; Sharma, Gainda L; Oellerich, Michael; Kumar, Ram; Singh, Seema; Bhadoria, Dharam P; Katyal, Anju; Reichard, Utz; Asif, Abdul R

2010-11-01

292

Inverting character of alpha-glucuronidase A from Aspergillus tubingensis.  

PubMed

Alpha-glucuronidase A from Aspergillus tubingensis was found to be capable of liberating 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) only from those beechwood glucuronoxylan fragments in which the acid is attached to the non-reducing terminal xylopyranosyl residue. Reduced aldotetrauronic acid, 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronosyl-alpha-1,2-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-1,4-xylopyranosyl-beta-1,4-xylitol, was found to be a suitable substrate to follow the stereochemical course of the hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by the purified enzyme. The configuration of the liberated MeGlcA was followed in a D(2)O reaction mixture by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. It was unambiguously established that MeGlcA was released from the substrate as its beta-anomer from which the alpha-anomer was formed on mutarotation. This result represents the first experimental evidence for the inverting character of a microbial alpha-glucuronidase, a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 67 (EC 3.1.1.139). PMID:10779688

Biely, P; de Vries RP; Vrsanská, M; Visser, J

2000-05-01

293

[The isolation and evaluation of Aspergillus fumigatus antigens].  

PubMed

Antigens from three strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (354, 356, and JIG) and an antiserum against the mixing of these antigens have been produced, and evaluated immunochemically. The antigens were obtained through a modified Coleman & Kaufman technique (culture filtrate concentrated by acetone). Analysis by the immunodiffusion test (ID) against homologous serum has yielded 100% sensitivity (with the studied sera). Concerning heterologous sera we found reactivity with a serum of a patient of candidiasis and another with histoplasmosis. The same result was obtained with a reference antigen in immunodiffusion, showing similar standards of response. Titration of the antiserum by ID and counterimmunoelectrophoresis showed a title of 1:32, and by complement fixation (micro-technique) a title of 1:128. Using immunoelectrophoresis (IEF), the produced antiserum yielded 8 lines of precipitation (5 in the anodic pole and 3 in the cathodic one). In SDS-PAGE at 12.5% the antigen has presented a rather complex electrophoretic profile (26 proteic subunits with a molecular weight ranging from 18 a > 100 kDa). Immunogenicity of the antigen was observed in all fractions of SDS-PAGE when the immunoblotting against the antiserum was carried out. PMID:1342095

Lirio, V de S; de Assis, C M; Cano, M I; Lacaz, C da S

1992-01-01

294

Optimized preparation of Aspergillus fumigatus extracts for allergy diagnosis.  

PubMed

Extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus are required for the measurement of specific antibodies that are important indices in the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). This study investigated the effect of different culture conditions on the production and release of antigenic and allergenic proteins of A. fumigatus. Increasing the incubation temperature from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C altered the production of proteins by the mycelium which resulted in the release of a greater number of proteins that reacted with precipitating antibodies. Static sporulating cultures produced a much wider antigenic spectrum than shake cultures although the number of precipitating proteins (5 and 3 respectively) and major IgE binding proteins (5 and 3 respectively) was not greatly altered. The widest range of proteins bound by precipitating antibody or IgE from ABPA serum were released into the culture filtrate during 28 day static incubation at 37 degrees C. The resultant extract proved useful for screening patients for specific IgE and will provide a starting material for the identification of individual antigens or allergens. PMID:10780890

Little, S A; Longbottom, J L; Warner, J O

1993-10-01

295

Characterization of immunologically important antigens and allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Using a variety of immunochemical methods, including quantitative immuno-electrophoretic techniques, combined with gel filtration and iso-electric focusing, and production of monospecific antisera for identification and affinity purification, 4 major components of Aspergillus fumigatus have now been partially characterized. Numbering of these was derived from a reference allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) self-crossed radio-immuno-electrophoresis pattern of reactivity. Two major intracellular/cytoplasmic, concanavalin A (Con A)-binding antigens, Ag 7 and Ag 13, of molecular weights 150-200 and 70 kilodaltons (kD), respectively, were confirmed to be of importance for both ABPA and aspergilloma in specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A rapidly released component, Ag 5, of molecular weight 35 kD, proved both antigenic and allergenic, with aspergilloma patients having especially high-titre IgG antibodies. The major allergenic component Ag 3, of molecular weight 24 kD by gel filtration and 18 kD by SDS-PAGE was, like Ag 5, relatively heat-labile and non-Con-A-binding. Interestingly, T cell clones have been identified which respond primarily to an 18-kD fraction. PMID:2651315

Longbottom, J L; Harvey, C; Taylor, M L; Austwick, P K; Fitzharris, P; Walker, C A

1989-01-01

296

Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem  

PubMed Central

One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

2013-01-01

297

Glycosidases induced in Aspergillus tamarii. Mycelial alpha-D-galactosidases.  

PubMed Central

Two alpha-D-galactosidases (alpha-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.22) produced by Aspergillus tamarii were purified from the mycelial extract by a procedure including chromatography on hydroxyapatite, DEAE-cellulose and ECTEOLA-cellulose. Each of these enzymes showed a single protein band corresponding to the alpha-D-galactosidase activity when examined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. They catalysed the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, but did not attack the galactomannans. Their Mr values were respectively 265000 +/- 5000 and 254000 +/- 5000 by the method of Hedrick & Smith [(1968) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 126, 155-164]. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate in each case showed a single protein band, with Mr 88000 and 77500 respectively. The purified enzymes contained carbohydrate, consisting of N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, glucose and galactose in the estimated molar proportions of 1:9:5:8 in alpha-galactosidase I. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6331398

Civas, A; Eberhard, R; Le Dizet, P; Petek, F

1984-01-01

298

Cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from thermophilic Aspergillus terreus RWY.  

PubMed

Thermophilic Aspergillus terreus RWY produced cellulases and xylanases in optimal concentrations at 45?°C in solid state fermentation process, though enzyme production was also observed at 50 and 55?°C. Filter paper cellulase (FP), endoglucanase (EG), ?-glucosidase (BGL), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ?-L-arabinofuranosidase and xylan esterase activities for A. terreus RWY at 45?°C in 72?h were 11.3?±?0.65, 103?±?6.4, 122.5?±?8.7, 10.3?±?0.66, 872?±?22.5, 22.1?±?0.75, 126.4?±?8.4 and 907?±?15.5?U?(g-ds)(-1) , respectively. Enzyme was optimally active at temperatures and pH ranging between 50-60?°C and 4.0-6.0, respectively. The half life (T1/2 ) of 270 and 240?min at 70 and 75?°C, respectively for the enzyme indicates its stability at higher temperatures. The addition of MnCl2 , CoCl2 , and FeCl3 significantly enhanced cellulase activity. Enzyme demonstrated multiplicity by having seven, one and three isoform(s) for EG, CBH and BGL, respectively. Significant production of functionally active consortium of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from A. terreus RWY makes it a potential candidate in bioprocessing applications. PMID:25047723

Sharma, Reetika; Kocher, Gurvinder Singh; Bhogal, Ravinder Singh; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

2014-12-01

299

Heterogeneity of Aspergillus niger microcolonies in liquid shaken cultures.  

PubMed

The fungus Aspergillus niger forms (sub)millimeter microcolonies within a liquid shaken culture. Here, we show that such microcolonies are heterogeneous with respect to size and gene expression. Microcolonies of strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the promoter of the glucoamlyase gene glaA or the ferulic acid esterase gene faeA were sorted on the basis of diameter and fluorescence using the Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS) technology. Statistical analysis revealed that the liquid shaken culture consisted of two populations of microcolonies that differ by 90 ?m in diameter. The population of small microcolonies of strains expressing GFP from the glaA or faeA promoter comprised 39% and 25% of the culture, respectively. Two populations of microcolonies could also be distinguished when the expression of GFP in these strains was analyzed. The population expressing a low level of GFP consisted of 68% and 44% of the culture, respectively. We also show that mRNA accumulation is heterogeneous within microcolonies of A. niger. Central and peripheral parts of the mycelium were isolated with laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC), and RNA from these samples was used for quantitative PCR analysis. This analysis showed that the RNA content per hypha was about 45 times higher at the periphery than in the center of the microcolony. Our data imply that the protein production of A. niger can be improved in industrial fermentations by reducing the heterogeneity within the culture. PMID:21169437

de Bekker, Charissa; van Veluw, G Jerre; Vinck, Arman; Wiebenga, L Ad; Wösten, Han A B

2011-02-01

300

Optimized bioprocess for production of fructofuranosidase by recombinant Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

A comprehensive approach of bioprocess design at various levels was used to optimize microbial production of extracellular fructofuranosidase, important as biocatalyst to derive fructooligosaccharides with broad application in food or pharmaceutical industry. For production, the recombinant strain Aspergillus niger SKAn1015 was used, which expresses the fructofuranosidase encoding gene suc1 under control of a strong constitutive promoter. In a first screening towards an optimized medium, glucose, nitrate, Fe(2+), and Mn(2+) were identified as beneficial for production. A minimal medium with optimized concentration of these key nutrients, obtained by central composite design experiments and quadratic modelling, provided a threefold increased fructofuranosidase activity in the culture supernatant (400 U/mL) as compared to the originally described medium. Utilizing the optimized medium, the process was then transferred from shake flask into a fed-batch-operated bioreactor. Hereby, the intended addition of talc microparticles allowed engineering the morphology of A. niger into a highly active mycelial form, which strongly boosted production. Fructofuranosidase production was highly specific as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The secreted enzyme activity of 2,800 U/mL, corresponding to about 3 g/L of fructofuranosidase, achieved by the microparticle-enhanced fed-batch process, is tenfold higher than that of any other process reported so far, so that the presented bioprocess strategy appears as a milestone towards future industrial fructofuranosidase production. PMID:20502893

Driouch, Habib; Roth, Andreas; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

2010-08-01

301

Genome shuffling of Aspergillus niger for improving transglycosylation activity.  

PubMed

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO), the glucosylsaccharides used as food additives, are made from saccharified starch by enzymes or microbial cells with transglycosylation activity. This study aimed to generate shuffled futants of Aspergillus niger with enhanced transglycosylation activity for industrial IMO production. The starting mutant population was generated by (60)Co-? radiation; mutants with higher transglycosylation activity were selected and subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. The resulting fusants were screened by a novel high-throughput method based on detecting non-fermentable reducing sugar. After three rounds of genome shuffling, the best performing strain GS3-3 was obtained, its transglycosylation activity (14.91 U/mL) was increased by 194.1 % compared to that of original strain C-6181. In fermentor test, transglycosylation activity of GS3-3 was obtained at 16.61 U/mL. The mycelia of GS3-3 were reused ten times to produce IMO syrup from liquefied cassava starch containing about 280 g/L total sugar within 4 days. The conversion of liquefied cassava starch to IMO was at 71.3-72.1 %, which was higher than the best conversion (68 %) ever reported. GS3-3 shows a great potential for industrial IMO production. PMID:24043449

Li, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Gu, Lingli; Zeng, Wei; Liang, Zhiqun

2014-01-01

302

Fermentation of rice hull by Aspergillus japonicus under ultrasonic pretreatment.  

PubMed

The application of ultrasound for treating rice hull used as the fermentation substrate for xylooligosaccharides production was investigated. Aspergillus japonicus CY6-1 was selected to produce cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from untreated rice hull (RH) and rice hull treated with ultrasound (USRH-M). The hemicellulose yield was increased to 1.4-fold with ultrasound, and treatment time was greatly shortened from 24h to 1.5h at 80 °C and 300 W/28 kHz. The morphology of RH from various pretreatments was observed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), revealing the surface structure of USRH-M smoother than that of RH. USRH-M was much easier to be utilized by fungi, to extend the stability of enzyme activity and to increase activities of CMCase, ?-glucosidase, and xylanase compared with those of untreated RH. The final fermentative products were xylotetraose, xylohexaose, and higher molecular weight xylooligosaccharides, achieving xylohexaose yield for USRH-M 80% higher than that for RH group. PMID:22177967

Yang, Chun-Yao; Sheih, I-Chuan; Fang, Tony J

2012-05-01

303

Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1-12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and gluconic acids), as well as a mixture of organic acids at the same concentrations as that biogenically produced. It was shown that bioleaching realised higher metal extraction than chemical leaching, with A. niger mobilizing Ni (9%), Fe (23%), Al (30%), V (36%) and Sb (64%) at 1% pulp density. Extraction efficiency generally decreased with increased pulp density. Compared with abiotic controls, bioleaching gave rise to higher metal extractions than leaching using fresh medium and cell-free spent medium. pH decreased during bioleaching, but remained relatively constant in both leaching using fresh medium and cell-free spent medium, thus indicating that the fungus played a role in effecting metal extraction from the spent catalyst. PMID:15664080

Aung, Khin Moh Moh; Ting, Yen-Peng

2005-03-16

304

Pathway of Glycine Betaine Biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

The choline oxidase (CHOA) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) genes identified in Aspergillus fumigatus are present as a cluster specific for fungal genomes. Biochemical and molecular analyses of this cluster showed that it has very specific biochemical and functional features that make it unique and different from its plant and bacterial homologs. A. fumigatus ChoAp catalyzed the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine with betaine aldehyde as an intermediate and reduced molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide using FAD as a cofactor. A. fumigatus Badhp oxidized betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine with reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Analysis of the AfchoA?::HPH and AfbadA?::HPH single mutants and the AfchoA?AfbadA?::HPH double mutant showed that AfChoAp is essential for the use of choline as the sole nitrogen, carbon, or carbon and nitrogen source during the germination process. AfChoAp and AfBadAp were localized in the cytosol of germinating conidia and mycelia but were absent from resting conidia. Characterization of the mutant phenotypes showed that glycine betaine in A. fumigatus functions exclusively as a metabolic intermediate in the catabolism of choline and not as a stress protectant. This study in A. fumigatus is the first molecular, cellular, and biochemical characterization of the glycine betaine biosynthetic pathway in the fungal kingdom. PMID:23563483

Lambou, Karine; Pennati, Andrea; Valsecchi, Isabel; Tada, Rui; Sherman, Stephen; Sato, Hajime; Beau, Remi

2013-01-01

305

Genetic Control of Asexual Development in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Conidia, the asexual spores, serve as the main dispersal and infection agent allowing entrance of the fungus into the host through the respiratory tract. Therefore, understanding the asexual developmental process that gives rise to the conidia is of great interest to the scientific community and is currently the focus of an immense load of research being conducted. We have been studying the genetic basis that controls asexual development and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus. In this review, we discuss the genetic regulatory system that dictates conidiation in this important fungus by covering the roles of crucial genetic factors from the upstream heterotrimeric G-protein signaling components to the more specific downstream central activators of the conidiation pathway. In addition, other key asexual regulators including the velvet regulators, the Flb proteins and their associated regulatory factors are discussed. PMID:25596030

Alkhayyat, Fahad; Chang Kim, Sun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2015-01-01

306

Zinc acquisition: a key aspect in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of all microorganisms. To grow in the lungs of a susceptible patient Aspergillus fumigatus must obtain zinc from the surrounding tissues. The concentration of Zn(2+) ions in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of them are tightly bound to proteins at the physiological pH. However, A. fumigatus has several zinc transporters (ZrfA, ZrfB and ZrfC) that enable it to uptake zinc efficiently under the extreme zinc-limiting conditions provided by a susceptible host. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of these transporters and is essential for virulence. ZrfC is required for fungal growth within the host tissues, whereas ZrfA and ZrfB play an accessory role. The zinc-scavenging capacity of ZrfC relies on its unusually long N-terminus. In addition, ZrfC also enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized in high amounts by neutrophils, even in immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. In summary, the regulation of zinc homeostasis and zinc acquisition could be promising targets for the discovery and development of a new generation of antifungals for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:24947168

Amich, Jorge; Calera, José Antonio

2014-12-01

307

Interactions in solution and crystallization of Aspergillus flavus urate oxidase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interparticle interactions of urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus have been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering to determine crystallization conditions. This enzyme is a homotetramer with a total molecular weight of 128 kDa. It is a slightly basic protein (pI between 7.5 and 8). The interaction potentials have been studied as a function of the main thermodynamic and chemical parameters: temperature, protein concentration, pH, salt nature and concentration, addition of polyols. In 10 mM sodium carbonate at pH 10.5, the interactions are slightly repulsive and become less repulsive with a pH closer to pI. With the addition of carbonate, the protein loses its tetrameric structure for a dimeric one; with formate, the tetrameric structure remains stable. We also studied the effect of polyethylene glycols as it had been done with high molecular weight proteins. With the addition of PEG 8 K, the interactions became less repulsive and even turned attractive with the addition of both PEG 8 K and salt. Protein crystals of urate oxidase were observed in slightly repulsive conditions (second virial coefficient A2 about +10 -5 mol ml g -2 instead of -2 to -8×10 -4 mol ml g -2 for low molecular weight proteins).

Bonneté, F.; Vivarčs, D.; Robert, Ch.; Colloc'h, N.

2001-11-01

308

Aspergillus niger time to growth in dried tomatoes.  

PubMed

Individual and combined effects of aw and incorporation of selected concentrations of Mexican oregano essential oil on the time to growth (TTG) of Aspergillus niger intentionally inoculated into dried tomatoes were studied during storage at 25°C for 100 days. For aw 0.96, 1,000 ppm of Mexican oregano essential oil inhibited A. niger growth during 100 days, whereas 500 ppm were sufficient at aw 0.91 and 250 ppm for tomatoes with aw 0.78. A. niger growth was evident at different incubation times depending on tested tomato aw and concentration of essential oil; these data were utilized to model TTG. Regression analysis revealed good agreement between experimental and predicted data with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.98. Analysis of mold growth data through TTG models makes possible to include observations detected as no growth and can be utilized to predict mold time to growth for specific preservation factor combinations or to select preservation factor levels for an expected shelf-life based on A. niger growth. PMID:23587709

Gómez-Ramírez, C; Sosa-Morales, M E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

2013-06-01

309

Does farm fungicide use induce azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed

Azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates has been reported worldwide and it would appear to be mainly due to a point mutation in the 14?-sterol demethylase (CYP51A) gene, which is the target enzyme for azoles. The mutation has been confirmed in isolates from patients who received long-term itraconazole (ITZ) therapy and from agricultural fields where high levels of azole fungicides were employed. However, the relationship between farm environments and azole-resistant A. fumigatus has not been fully studied. In this investigation, 50 isolates of A. fumigatus were obtained from a farm where tetraconazole has been sprayed twice a year for more than 15 years. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolates was 0.74 (0.19-1.5) mg/L against ITZ, which was below the medical resistance level of ITZ. The sequence of CYP51A from isolates indicated no gene mutations in isolates from the farm. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates to tetraconazole showed that spraying with tetraconazole did not induce resistance to tetraconazole or ITZ in A. fumigatus. PMID:25541556

Kano, Rui; Kohata, Erina; Tateishi, Akira; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Hirose, Dai; Shibata, Yasuko; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

2015-02-01

310

Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage. PMID:17418318

Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

2007-01-01

311

Regulation of conidiation by light in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. To understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used Aspergillus nidulans as a model. We have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify >400 genes upregulated and >100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. Among the upregulated genes were genes required for the regulation of asexual development, one of the major biological responses to light in A. nidulans, which is a pathway controlled by the master regulatory gene brlA. The expression of brlA, like conidiation, is induced by light. A detailed analysis of brlA light regulation revealed increased expression after short exposures with a maximum after 60 min of light followed by photoadaptation with longer light exposures. In addition to brlA, genes flbA-C and fluG are also light regulated, and flbA-C are required for the correct light-dependent regulation of the upstream regulator fluG. We have found that light induction of brlA required the photoreceptor complex composed of a phytochrome FphA, and the white-collar homologs LreA and LreB, and the fluffy genes flbA-C. We propose that the activation of regulatory genes by light is the key event in the activation of asexual development by light in A. nidulans. PMID:21624998

Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Fernández-Barranco, Raul; Olmedo, María; Fischer, Reinhard; Corrochano, Luis M; Canovas, David

2011-08-01

312

Regulation of Conidiation by Light in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. To understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used Aspergillus nidulans as a model. We have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify >400 genes upregulated and >100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. Among the upregulated genes were genes required for the regulation of asexual development, one of the major biological responses to light in A. nidulans, which is a pathway controlled by the master regulatory gene brlA. The expression of brlA, like conidiation, is induced by light. A detailed analysis of brlA light regulation revealed increased expression after short exposures with a maximum after 60 min of light followed by photoadaptation with longer light exposures. In addition to brlA, genes flbA–C and fluG are also light regulated, and flbA–C are required for the correct light-dependent regulation of the upstream regulator fluG. We have found that light induction of brlA required the photoreceptor complex composed of a phytochrome FphA, and the white-collar homologs LreA and LreB, and the fluffy genes flbA–C. We propose that the activation of regulatory genes by light is the key event in the activation of asexual development by light in A. nidulans. PMID:21624998

Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Fernández-Barranco, Raul; Olmedo, María; Fischer, Reinhard; Corrochano, Luis M.; Canovas, David

2011-01-01

313

Anti-inflammatory drimane sesquiterpene lactones from an Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

IFN-? inducible protein 10 (IP-10, CXCL10) is a 10 kDa chemokine, which is secreted from various cell types after exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli. This chemokine is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor and regulates immune responses by activating and recruiting leukocytes such as T cells, eosinophils, monocytes, and NK cells to sites of inflammation. Altered expression of CXCL10 has been associated with chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases and therefore CXCL10 represents a promising target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. In a search for inhibitors of CXCL10 promoter activity, three structurally related drimane sesquiterpene lactones (compounds 1-3) were isolated from fermentations of an Aspergillus species. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-1? induced CXCL10 promoter activity in transiently transfected human DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 12.4 ?M for 1 and 55 ?M for 2, whereas 3 was devoid of any biological activity. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 reduced CXCL10 mRNA levels and synthesis in IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-1? stimulated DLD-1 cells. PMID:24792812

Felix, Silke; Sandjo, Louis P; Opatz, Till; Erkel, Gerhard

2014-06-01

314

Aspergillus Enzymes Involved in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides is of major importance in the food and feed, beverage, textile, and paper and pulp industries, as well as in several other industrial production processes. Enzymatic degradation of these polymers has received attention for many years and is becoming a more and more attractive alternative to chemical and mechanical processes. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the structural characteristics of these polysaccharides and in characterizing the enzymes involved in their degradation and the genes of biotechnologically relevant microorganisms encoding these enzymes. The members of the fungal genus Aspergillus are commonly used for the production of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. This genus produces a wide spectrum of cell wall-degrading enzymes, allowing not only complete degradation of the polysaccharides but also tailored modifications by using specific enzymes purified from these fungi. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from aspergilli and the genes by which they are encoded. PMID:11729262

de Vries, Ronald P.; Visser, Jaap

2001-01-01

315

Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

2014-01-01

316

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT (?=?DSM 26257T?=?CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT (?=?DSM 26254T?=?CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT (?=?DSM 26255T?=?CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT (?=?DSM 26256T?=?CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT (?=?DSM 26263T?=?CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT (?=?DSM 26265T?=?CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT (?=?DSM 26262T?=?CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Čile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-01-01

317

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera.  

PubMed

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) (?=?DSM 26257(T)?=?CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) (?=?DSM 26254(T)?=?CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) (?=?DSM 26255(T)?=?CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) (?=?DSM 26256(T)?=?CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) (?=?DSM 26263(T)?=?CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) (?=?DSM 26265(T)?=?CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) (?=?DSM 26262(T)?=?CCUG 63631(T)). PMID:24944337

Olofsson, Tobias C; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-09-01

318

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Thailand Kenneth C. Ehrlich , Kerri Kobbeman, Beverly G. Montalbano, Peter J. Cotty  

E-print Network

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Thailand Kenneth C. Ehrlich , Kerri Kobbeman, Beverly; accepted 25 August 2006 Abstract Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species were isolated from soil samples. Unlike previous studies, we found no A. parasiticus or A. flavus capable of both B- and G-type aflatoxin

Cotty, Peter J.

319

Evaluation of intraspecific competition (Aspergillus flavus Link) and aflatoxin formation in suspended disc culture and preharvest maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The abilities of non-aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 32354; 18543; 21882; 21368 as well as domesticated koji strains Aspergillus oryzae (syn. A. flavus var. oryzae) NRRL 451; 1911; 5592; 6271; 30038 to interfere with aflatoxin formation by A. flavus NRRL 3357; 32355 were exami...

320

Aspergillus flavus biomass in maize estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is strongly correlated with aflatoxin concentration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot of maize and produces aflatoxins. There are published assertions that resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and pathogen colonization are distinct traits in maize. However, the levels of colonization are difficult to characterize for a pathogen such as ...

321

Correlation between in-vitro susceptibility testing to itraconazole and in-vivo outcome of Aspergillus fumigatus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increased choice of therapeutic agents and the rising incidence of serious invasive disease, it is important that reliable in-vitro methods for detecting antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus spp. are developed. Six clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, obtained from patients in whom the clinical outcome was known, were selected for study. Each was used to examine a range of

D. W. Denning; S. A. Radford; K. L. Oakley; L. Hall; E. M. Johnson; D. W. Warnock

1997-01-01

322

Argonne's SpEC Module  

SciTech Connect

Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

Harper, Jason

2014-05-05

323

Argonne's SpEC Module  

ScienceCinema

Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

Harper, Jason

2014-06-05

324

The Sp(1)-Kepler problems  

SciTech Connect

Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

Meng Guowu [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2009-07-15

325

SP100 control drive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10 year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking

Thomas E. Gleason; A. Richard Gilchrist; Gary B. Schuster

1993-01-01

326

Manufacturing SP100 rhenium tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before

Edwin D. Sayre; Thomas J. Ruffo

1992-01-01

327

SP100 control system modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

SP-100 Control Systems modeling was done using a thermal hydraulic transient analysis model called ARIES-S. The ARIES-S Computer Simulation provides a basis for design, integration and analysis of the reactor including the control and protection systems. It is a modular digital computer simulation written in FORTRAN that operates interactively in real time on a VAX minicomputer.

R. A. Meyer; F. J. Halfen; A. D. Alley

1987-01-01

328

Defective Aspergillus killing by neutrophil leucocytes in a case of systemic aspergillosis.  

PubMed Central

A persistent defect of Aspergillus killing was observed in the neutrophils of a 6-year-old patient with a systemic A. fumigatus infection which was highly refractory to anti-mycotic therapy. Aspergillus phagocytosis in vitro was normal, but nearly 80% of the ingested organisms (versus 30% in the controls) survived intracellularly during the 2-hr assay period. The patient's neutrophils showed a subnormal frequency of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and a subnormal hexose monophosphate shunt activation in response to phagocytosis. The metabolic responsiveness, however, was clearly superior to that of chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils tested for comparison. The immune status of the patient and the following properties of his neutrophils were found to be normal: random and chemotactic motility, killing of S. aureus and C. albicans, and the contents of several granula enzymes. Our findings suggest the existence of neutrophil factors or functions which are required for killing Aspergillus, but not S. aureus and C. albicans. PMID:7018757

Pagani, A; Spalla, R; Ferrari, F A; Duse, M; Lenzi, L; Bretz, U; Baggiolini, M; Siccardi, A G

1981-01-01

329

Lipoxygenase Activation in Peanut Seed Cultivars Resistant and Susceptible to Aspergillus parasiticus Colonization.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Accumulative evidence indicates that the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway plays a significant role in the Aspergillus-seed interaction, such as interfering with activities of endogenous fungal oxylipins or producing antimicrobial compounds and signaling molecules. In this study, we characterized the LOX pathway in peanut seed during Aspergillus parasiticus colonization in a model of two cultivars distinguished as resistant ('PI337394') and susceptible ('Florman INTA') to Aspergillus spp. infection and aflatoxin contamination. The LOX activity together with the content of LOX substrate and LOX products demonstrated the presence of a differential response mechanism to A. parasiticus infection between cultivars. Our findings suggest that this mechanism is under transcriptional control of previously identified (LOX 2 and LOX 3) and novel (LOX 4 and LOX 5) LOX genes. The results of this study support the role of these enzymes in defense during fungus infection in peanut seed. PMID:24941329

Müller, V; Amé, M V; Carrari, V; Gieco, J; Asis, R

2014-12-01

330

Reliable and simple detection of ochratoxin and fumonisin production in black Aspergillus.  

PubMed

To date, edible fungi such as black Aspergillus (Aspergillus niger aggregates) have been considered as safe. However, it has recently been reported that some strains have a mycotoxin biosynthetic capability, and this capability must be evaluated to determine the safety of edible fungi. In this study, we assessed the ability of mycotoxin production in A. niger aggregates isolated from various Korean foods using multiplex PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Multiplex PCR and HPLC analyses of 32 A. niger aggregates showed that ochratoxin and fumonisin were produced only by strains exhibiting positive PCR patterns with ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis genes. However, several strains did not produce mycotoxins, even though they contained mycotoxin biosynthesis genes. Using multiplex PCR pattern and HPLC analyses, we selected Aspergillus strains that do not produce mycotoxins, which will contribute to the development of safer fermented foods. PMID:24680080

Kim, Nam Yeun; Lee, Inhyung; Ji, Geun Eog

2014-04-01

331

Aspergillus flavus endocarditis of the native mitral valve in a bone marrow transplant patient.  

PubMed

Background Infective endocarditis due to Aspergillus species is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It mostly occurs after the implantation of prosthetic heart valves. Parenteral nutrition, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens, and illegal intravenous drug use are the risk factors for developing infection. Case Report We report a case of Aspergillus flavus native mitral valve endocarditis in a patient who had allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the past due to myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusions Although it is rare and there is limited experience available with the diagnosis and treatment, early recognition and therapeutic intervention with systemic antifungal therapy and aggressive surgical intervention are critical to prevent further complications that may eventually lead to death. In addition, better novel diagnostic tools are needed to facilitate more accurate identification of patients with invasive Aspergillus and to permit earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. PMID:25603977

Demir, Tolga; Ergenoglu, Mehmet Umit; Ekinci, Abdurrahman; Tanrikulu, Nursen; Sahin, Mazlum; Demirsoy, Ergun

2015-01-01

332

Aspergillus Collagen-Like Genes (acl): Identification, Sequence Polymorphism, and Assessment for PCR-Based Pathogen Detection  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus is a burden to public health due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, its production of allergens, and wide demographic susceptibility among cystic fibrosis, asthmatic, and immunosuppressed patients. Current methods of detection of Aspergillus colonization and infection rely on lengthy morphological characterization or nonstandardized serological assays that are restricted to identifying a fungal etiology. Collagen-like genes have been shown to exhibit species-specific conservation across the noncollagenous regions as well as strain-specific polymorphism in the collagen-like regions. Here we assess the conserved region of the Aspergillus collagen-like (acl) genes and explore the application of PCR amplicon size-based discrimination among the five most common etiologic species of the Aspergillus genus, including Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus. Genetic polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of the aclF1 gene were additionally examined among the available strains. Furthermore, the applicability of the PCR-based assay to identification of these five species in cultures derived from sputum and bronchoalveolar fluid from 19 clinical samples was explored. Application of capillary electrophoresis on nanogels was additionally demonstrated to improve the discrimination between Aspergillus species. Overall, this study demonstrated that Aspergillus acl genes could be used as PCR targets to discriminate between clinically relevant Aspergillus species. Future studies aim to utilize the detection of Aspergillus acl genes in PCR and microfluidic applications to determine the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Aspergillus colonization and invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised subjects. PMID:24123732

Tuntevski, Kiril; Durney, Brandon C.; Snyder, Anna K.; LaSala, P. Rocco; Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Rio, Rita V. M.; Holland, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

333

Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-01-01

334

Identification and cloning of a second phytase gene (phyB) from Aspergillus niger (ficuum).  

PubMed

An Aspergillus niger (ficuum) genomic DNA lambda EMBL3 library was probed with a 354-bp DNA fragment obtained by polymerase chain reaction of A. niger DNA with oligonucleotides based on partial amino acid sequence of a pH 2.5 optimum acid phosphatase. A clone containing a 1605 bp segment (phyB) encoding the 479 amino acid enzyme was isolated and found to contain four exons. Global alignment revealed 23.5% homology to Aspergillus niger phytase (PhyA); four regions of extensive homology were identified. Some of these regions may contain catalytic sites for phosphatase function. PMID:7916610

Ehrlich, K C; Montalbano, B G; Mullaney, E J; Dischinger, H C; Ullah, A H

1993-08-31

335

Metabolic peculiarities of Aspergillus niger disclosed by comparative metabolic genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus niger is an important industrial microorganism for the production of both metabolites, such as citric acid, and proteins, such as fungal enzymes or heterologous proteins. Despite its extensive industrial applications, the genetic inventory of this fungus is only partially understood. The recently released genome sequence opens a new horizon for both scientific studies and biotechnological applications. Results Here, we present the first genome-scale metabolic network for A. niger and an in-depth genomic comparison of this species to seven other fungi to disclose its metabolic peculiarities. The raw genomic sequences of A. niger ATCC 9029 were first annotated. The reconstructed metabolic network is based on the annotation of two A. niger genomes, CBS 513.88 and ATCC 9029, including enzymes with 988 unique EC numbers, 2,443 reactions and 2,349 metabolites. More than 1,100 enzyme-coding genes are unique to A. niger in comparison to the other seven fungi. For example, we identified additional copies of genes such as those encoding alternative mitochondrial oxidoreductase and citrate synthase in A. niger, which might contribute to the high citric acid production efficiency of this species. Moreover, nine genes were identified as encoding enzymes with EC numbers exclusively found in A. niger, mostly involved in the biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites and degradation of aromatic compounds. Conclusion The genome-level reconstruction of the metabolic network and genome-based metabolic comparison disclose peculiarities of A. niger highly relevant to its biotechnological applications and should contribute to future rational metabolic design and systems biology studies of this black mold and related species. PMID:17784953

Sun, Jibin; Lu, Xin; Rinas, Ursula; Zeng, An Ping

2007-01-01

336

Iron – A Key Nexus in the Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential but, in excess, toxic nutrient. Therefore, fungi evolved fine-tuned mechanisms for uptake and storage of iron, such as the production of siderophores (low-molecular mass iron-specific chelators). In Aspergillus fumigatus, iron starvation causes extensive transcriptional remodeling involving two central transcription factors, which are interconnected in a negative transcriptional feed-back loop: the GATA-factor SreA and the bZip-factor HapX. During iron sufficiency, SreA represses iron uptake, including reductive iron assimilation and siderophore-mediated iron uptake, to avoid toxic effects. During iron starvation, HapX represses iron-consuming pathways, including heme biosynthesis and respiration, to spare iron and activates synthesis of ribotoxin AspF1 and siderophores, the latter partly by ensuring supply of the precursor, ornithine. In accordance with the expression pattern and mode of action, detrimental effects of inactivation of SreA and HapX are confined to growth during iron sufficiency and iron starvation, respectively. Deficiency in HapX, but not SreA, attenuates virulence of A. fumigatus in a murine model of aspergillosis, which underlines the crucial role of adaptation to iron limitation in virulence. Consistently, production of both extra and intracellular siderophores is crucial for virulence of A. fumigatus. Recently, the sterol regulatory element binding protein SrbA was found to be essential for adaptation to iron starvation, thereby linking regulation of iron metabolism, ergosterol biosynthesis, azole drug resistance, and hypoxia adaptation. PMID:22347220

Haas, Hubertus

2012-01-01

337

Morphology engineering of Aspergillus niger for improved enzyme production.  

PubMed

Supplementation with silicate microparticles was used as novel approach to control the morphological development of Aspergillus niger, important as the major world source of citric acid and higher-value enzymes, in submerged culture. With careful variation of size and concentration of the micromaterial added, a number of distinct morphological forms including pellets of different size, free dispersed mycelium, and short hyphae fragments could be reproducibly created. Aluminum oxide particles similarly affected morphology, showing that this effect is largely independent of the chemical particle composition. Image analysis of morphological development of A. niger during the cultivation process showed that the microparticles influence the morphology by collision-induced disruption of conidia aggregates and probably also the hindrance of new spore-spore interactions in the very early stage of the process. Exemplified for different recombinant A. niger strains enzyme production could be strongly enhanced by the addition of microparticles. Linked to the formation of freely dispersed mycelium, titers for glucoamylase (GA) expressed as intracellular enzyme (88 U/mL) and fructofuranosidase secreted into the supernatant (77 U/mL), were up to fourfold higher in shake flasks. Moreover, accumulation of the undesired by-product oxalate was suppressed by up to 90%. The microparticle strategy could be successfully transferred to fructofuranosidase production in bioreactor, where a final titer of 160 U/mL could be reached. Using co-expression of GA with green fluorescent protein, enzyme production was localized in the cellular aggregates of A. niger. For pelleted growth, protein production was maximal only within a thin layer at the pellet surface and markedly decreased in the pellet interior, whereas the interaction with the microparticles created a highly active biocatalyst with the dominant fraction of cells contributing to production. PMID:19953678

Driouch, Habib; Sommer, Becky; Wittmann, Christoph

2010-04-15

338

Characterization of a recombinant ?-glucuronidase from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The degradation of xylan requires the action of glycanases and esterases which hydrolyse, in a synergistic fashion, the main chain and the different substituents which decorate its structure. Among the xylanolytic enzymes acting on side-chains are the ?-glucuronidases (AguA) (E.C. 3.2.1.139) which release methyl glucuronic acid residues. These are the least studies among the xylanolytic enzymes. In this work, the gene and cDNA of an ?-glucuronidase from a newly isolated strain of Aspergillus fumigatus have been sequenced, and the gene has been expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 2523 bp long, has no introns and codes for a protein of 840 amino acid residues including a putative signal peptide of 19 residues. The mature protein has a calculated molecular weight of 91,725 and shows 99 % identity with a putative ?-glucuronidase from A. fumigatus A1163. The recombinant enzyme was expressed with a histidine tag and was purified to near homogeneity with a nickel nitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column. The purified enzyme has a molecular weight near 100,000. It is inactive using birchwood glucuronoxylan as substrate. Activity is observed in the presence of xylooligosaccharides generated from this substrate by a family 10 endoxylanase and when a mixture of aldouronic acids are used as substrates. If, instead, family 11 endoxylanase is used to generate oligosaccharides, no activity is detected, indicating a different specificity in the cleavage of xylan by family 10 and 11 endoxylanases. Enzyme activity is optimal at 37 °C and pH 4.5-5. The enzyme binds cellulose, thus it likely possesses a carbohydrate binding module. Based on its properties and sequence similarities the catalytic module of the newly described ?-glucuronidase can be classified in family 67 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The recombinant enzyme may be useful for biotechnological applications of ?-glucuronidases. PMID:23719223

Rosa, Lorena; Ravanal, María Cristina; Mardones, Wladimir; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

2013-05-01

339

Spatial Differentiation in the Vegetative Mycelium of Aspergillus niger? †  

PubMed Central

Fungal mycelia are exposed to heterogenic substrates. The substrate in the central part of the colony has been (partly) degraded, whereas it is still unexplored at the periphery of the mycelium. We here assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a main determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus niger. This question was addressed by analyzing whole-genome gene expression in five concentric zones of 7-day-old maltose- and xylose-grown colonies. Expression profiles at the periphery and the center were clearly different. More than 25% of the active genes showed twofold differences in expression between the inner and outermost zones of the colony. Moreover, 9% of the genes were expressed in only one of the five concentric zones, showing that a considerable part of the genome is active in a restricted part of the colony only. Statistical analysis of expression profiles of colonies that had either been or not been transferred to fresh xylose-containing medium showed that differential expression in a colony is due to the heterogeneity of the medium (e.g., genes involved in secretion, genes encoding proteases, and genes involved in xylose metabolism) as well as to medium-independent mechanisms (e.g., genes involved in nitrate metabolism and genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification). Thus, we conclude that the mycelia of 7-day-old colonies of A. niger are highly differentiated. This conclusion is also indicated by the fact that distinct zones of the colony grow and secrete proteins, even after transfer to fresh medium. PMID:17951513

Levin, Ana M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Conesa, Ana; de Bekker, Charissa; Talon, Manuel; Menke, Hildegard H.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Wösten, Han A. B.

2007-01-01

340

Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus from the lung. Acute A. fumigatus challenge in normal mice induced the recruitment of CD11b+ Siglec F+ Ly-6Glo Ly-6Cneg CCR3+ eosinophils to the lungs, which was accompanied by an increase in lung Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) mRNA levels. Mice deficient in the transcription factor dblGATA1, which exhibit a selective deficiency in eosinophils, demonstrated impaired A. fumigatus clearance and evidence of germinating organisms in the lung. Higher burden correlated with lower mRNA expression of Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) and Prg2 (major basic protein) as well as lower interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-17A, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and CXCL1 levels. However, examination of lung inflammatory cell populations failed to demonstrate defects in monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell, or neutrophil recruitment in dblGATA1-deficient mice, suggesting that the absence of eosinophils in dlbGATA1-deficient mice was the sole cause of impaired lung clearance. We show that eosinophils generated from bone marrow have potent killing activity against A. fumigtaus in vitro, which does not require cell contact and can be recapitulated by eosinophil whole-cell lysates. Collectively, our data support a role for eosinophils in the lung response after A. fumigatus exposure. PMID:24379296

Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W.

2014-01-01

341

Comparison of the EUCAST-AFST broth dilution method with the CLSI reference broth dilution method (M38-A) for susceptibility testing of posaconazole and voriconazole against Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibilities of 40 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus) were determined for posaconazole and voriconazole by the CLSI M38-A and EUCAST-AFST broth dilution methods. Where a discrepancy was observed between the methods, the EUCAST method tended to give higher MIC values. Overall, the level of agreement was 92.5% and the intra-class correlation

E. Chryssanthou; M. Cuenca-Estrella

2006-01-01

342

Five novel Kitasatospora species from soil: Kitasatospora arboriphila sp. nov., K. gansuensis sp. nov., K. nipponensis sp. nov., K. paranensis sp. nov. and K. terrestris sp. nov.  

PubMed

A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of six strains isolated from diverse soil samples and provisionally assigned to the genus Kitasatospora. The isolates were found to have chemical and morphological properties consistent with their classification as Kitasatospora strains. Direct 16S rRNA gene sequence data confirmed the taxonomic position of the strains following the generation of phylogenetic trees by using three tree-making algorithms. Five of the isolates were considered to merit species status using complementary genotypic and phenotypic data. These organisms were designated Kitasatospora arboriphila sp. nov. (HKI 0189(T)=2291-120(T)=DSM 44785(T)=NCIMB 13973(T)), Kitasatospora gansuensis sp. nov. (HKI 0314(T)=2050-015(T)=DSM 44786(T)=NCIMB 13974(T)), Kitasatospora nipponensis sp. nov. (HKI 0315(T)=2148-013(T)=DSM 44787(T)=NCIMB 13975(T)), Kitasatospora paranensis sp. nov. (HKI 0190(T)=2292-041(T)=DSM 44788(T)=NCIMB 13976(T)) and Kitasatospora terrestris sp. nov. (HKI 0186(T)=2293-012(T)=DSM 44789(T)=NCIMB 13977(T)). The remaining organism, isolate HKI 0316 (=2122-022=DSM 44790=NCIMB 13978), was considered to be a strain of Kitasatospora kifunensis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data. PMID:15545445

Groth, Ingrid; Rodríguez, Carlos; Schütze, Barbara; Schmitz, Petra; Leistner, Eckhard; Goodfellow, Michael

2004-11-01

343

Recovery and phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi associated with marine sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea.  

PubMed

Sponge-associated fungi represent an important source of marine natural products, but little is known about the fungal diversity and the relationship of sponge-fungal association, especially no research on the fungal diversity in the South China Sea sponge has been reported. In this study, a total of 111 cultivable fungi strains were isolated from two South China Sea sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. using eight different media. Thirty-two independent representatives were selected for analysis of phylogenetic diversity according to ARDRA and morphological characteristics. The culturable fungal communities consisted of at least 17 genera within ten taxonomic orders of two phyla (nine orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) including some potential novel marine fungi. Particularly, eight genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Davidiella, Didymocrea, Lentomitella, Marasmius, Pestalotiopsis, and Rhizomucor were isolated from sponge for the first time. Sponge C. luteoculcitella has greater culturable fungal diversity than sponge Holoxea sp. Five genera of Aspergillus, Davidiella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were isolated from both sponges, while 12 genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Candida, Marasmius, Cladosporium, Didymocrea, Hypocrea, Lentomitella, Nigrospora, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor, and Scopulariopsis were isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella only. Order Eurotiales especially genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and order Hypocreales represented the dominant culturable fungi in these two South China Sea sponges. Nigrospora oryzae strain PF18 isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella showed a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activities suggesting the potential for antimicrobial compounds production. PMID:21088979

Ding, Bo; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

2011-08-01

344

Effect of feeding Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract or Aspergillus oryzae plus yeast culture plus mineral and vitamin supplement on performance of Holstein cows during a complete lactation.  

PubMed

The addition of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (Amaferm) increased milk flow and mean 3.5% FCM production during the latter stages of the full lactation trial compared with the control group and the Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract plus yeast culture plus mineral-vitamin supplement (VitaFerm) group. Based on the differences observed when FCM production was determined for the cows at various stages of lactation, Amaferm apparently had its greatest effect during the early stages of the lactation cycle and subsequent milk production was likely a result of higher initial production. The response difference observed between the Amaferm and VitaFerm treatments could have resulted from the additional minerals provided by the VitaFerm compared with the Amaferm and control groups. PMID:2283420

Kellems, R O; Lagerstedt, A; Wallentine, M V

1990-10-01

345

SP100 space reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SP100 space nuclear reactor was designed for use as an orbital power supply, lunar or Martian surface power station, and power supply for nuclear electric propulsion, with a scaleable power range of 10's kWe to 100's kWe. The original mission was an orbital power supply for the United State's (U.S.) Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) of the 1980s. Although the

Scott F. Demuth

2003-01-01

346

SP100 Control System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work in lower power generic early applications for the SP-100 have resulted in control system design simplification for a 20 kWe design with thermoelectric power conversion. This paper presents the non-mission-dependent control system features for this design. The control system includes a digital computer based controller, dual purpose control rods and drives, temperature sensors, and neutron flux monitors. The

Jaikaran N. Shukla; Frank J. Halfen; Glen V. Brynsvold; Akbar Syed; Thomas J. Jiang; Kwok K. Wong; Robert L. Otwell

1994-01-01

347

Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B1.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

2014-11-01

348

Effect of ultraviolet radiation A and B on growth and mycotoxin production by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus in grape and pistachio media.  

PubMed

The effects of two exposure times per day (6 and 16 h) of UV-A or UV-B radiation, combined with dark and dark plus light incubation periods during 7-21 d on fungal growth and mycotoxins production of Aspergillus species were studied. Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus were inoculated on grape and pistachio media under diurnal and nocturnal temperatures choosing light photoperiod according to harvest conditions of these crops in Spain. Ultraviolet irradiation had a significant effect on A. carbonarius and A. parasiticus colony size (diameter, biomass dry weight, and colony density) and mycotoxin accumulation, although intraspecies differences were observed. Inhibition of A. carbonarius fungal growth decreased when exposure time was reduced from 16 h to 6 h, but this was not always true for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. OTA reduction was higher under UV-A than UV-B radiation and the reduction increased along time conversely to the aflatoxins (AFs). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the main toxin produced by A. parasiticus except in the UV-B light irradiated colonies which showed a higher percentage of AFG than AFB. Morphological changes were observed in colonies grown under UV-B light. PMID:25601150

García-Cela, Esther; Marin, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Ramos, Antonio J

2015-01-01

349

Substrate Utilization by Aspergillus flavus in Inoculated Whole Corn Kernels and Isolated Tissues  

E-print Network

Substrate Utilization by Aspergillus flavus in Inoculated Whole Corn Kernels and Isolated Tissues, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210036, Tucson, Arizona 85721 Utilization of the major corn (Zea mays carbon substrates followed by triglycerides. When invading nonwounded corn kernels, the fungus

Cotty, Peter J.

350

948 Plant Disease / Vol. 98 No. 7 Evaluation of the Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Strain AF36  

E-print Network

in Pistachio Orchards Mark A. Doster, Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards. Plant Dis. 98:948-956. The atoxigenic strain fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005

Cotty, Peter J.

351

Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003–2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus flavus L -morphotype as the predominant species in maize field, no evidence of the highly toxigenic S-morphotype and of other aflatoxigenic species are reported. The risk of a shift in traditional occurrence areas for aflatoxins is expected in the world and in particular in South East of Europe due to the increasing average temperatures. Biological control of aflatoxin risk in the field by atoxigenic strains of A. flavus starts to be widely used in Africa and USA. Studies are necessary on the variation of aflatoxin production in populations of A. flavus to characterize stable atoxigenic A. flavus strains. The aim of present article is to give an overview on biodiversity and genetic variation of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxins risk in the field. PMID:25101075

Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio F.

2014-01-01

352

NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

353

What Can Comparative Genomics Tell Us About Species Concepts in the Genus Aspergillus?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the nature of species’ boundaries is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. The availability of genomes from several species of the genus Aspergillus allows us for the first time to examine the demarcation of fungal species at the whole-genome level. Here, we examine four ca...

354

Volatile profiles of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus using SPME for solid phase extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and wetted sterile, cracked corn for 21 and 14 days, respectively. Volatile compounds produced by A. flavus, as well as those present in the PDA controls and sterile cracked corn, were collected using sol...

355

EFFECT OF SOYBEAN LIPOXYGENASE ON VOLATILE GENERATION AND INHIBITION OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS MYCELIAL GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatiles generated from LOX-normal and LOX-deficient soybean (Glycine max) varieties with and without added lipase inhibited Aspergillus flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin production. Soybean volatiles were analyzed using a solid phase microextraction (SPME) method combined with gas chromatograp...

356

Deadly strains of Kenyan Aspergillus are distinct from other aflatoxin producers  

E-print Network

Deadly strains of Kenyan Aspergillus are distinct from other aflatoxin producers C. Probst & K. A Aflatoxin contamination of crops is a world- wide problem. Lethal aflatoxicosis of humans has been was identified as the primary cause of aflatoxin contamination events occurring between 2004 and 2006 in Kenya

Cotty, Peter J.

357

Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil  

E-print Network

s t r a c t Aspergillus flavus, the most important cause of aflatoxin contamination, has two major morphotypes commonly termed `S' and `L' strains. Strain S isolates, on average, produce more aflatoxins than aflatoxin severity, and that periods of increased soil temperature drive selection of the highly toxigenic

Cotty, Peter J.

358

Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus, like approximately one- third of ascomycete fungi, is thought to be cosmopolitan and clonal because it has uniform asexual morphology. A. flavus produces af latoxin on nuts, grains, and cotton, and assump- tions about its life history are being used to develop strategies for its biological control. We tested the assumptions of clonality and conspecificity in a sample

DAVID M. GEISER; J OHN I. PITT; JOHN W. TAYLOR

1998-01-01

359

Effect of Atoxigenie Strains of AspergillusJlavus on Aflatoxin Contamination of Developing Cottonseed  

E-print Network

Effect of Atoxigenie Strains of AspergillusJlavus on Aflatoxin Contamination of Developing. flavw in the quantity of aflatoxins produced (5.7); this quantity is independent of a strain's ability to infect and coloniz.e deY'Cloping cottonseed. Strains of A.. flavus that do not produce aflatoxins

Cotty, Peter J.

360

STABILITY OF MODIFIED ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS COMMUNITIES: NEED FOR AREA-WIDE  

E-print Network

of Agriculture New Orleans, LA Abstract Aspergillus flavus, the causal agent of aflatoxin contamination belonging to different vegetative compatibility groups may produce widely different quantities of aflatoxins. Some naturally occurring isolates of A. flavus produce no aflatoxins. Some of these atoxigenic strains

Cotty, Peter J.

361

1366 Plant Disease / Vol. 88 No. 121366 Aspergillus flavus in Soils and Corncobs in South Texas  

E-print Network

: Implications for Management of Aflatoxins in Corn­Cotton Rotations Ramon Jaime-Garcia and Peter J. Cotty and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721 Aspergillus flavus is the main causal agent of aflatoxin contamination in several agricultural products, including cottonseed and corn (2,11,15,22). Aflatoxins are toxic

Cotty, Peter J.

362

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USE OF ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS TO  

E-print Network

270 DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USE OF ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS TO PREVENT AFLATOXIN aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed in field plot experiments. This has stimulated interest in large scale aflatoxin levels differ over the cotton belt. In Arizona, losses due to aflatoxin contamination havebeen

Cotty, Peter J.

363

212 Plant Disease / Vol. 95 No. 2 Identification of Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolates to Reduce Aflatoxin  

E-print Network

to Reduce Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Kenya C. Probst, The University of Arizona, School of Plant aflatoxin con- tamination of maize in Kenya. Plant Dis. 95:212-218. Aspergillus flavus has two morphotypes, the S strain and the L strain, that differ in aflatoxin-producing ability and other characteristics. Fun- gal

Cotty, Peter J.

364

Effect of polyols on heat inactivation of Aspergillus niger van Teighem inulinase.  

PubMed

The effect of polyols (ethylene glycol, glycerol, erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol) on partially purified inulinase from Aspergillus niger van Teighem mutant grown on Kuth (Saussurea lappa) root as source of inulin was determined. Seventy per cent of inulinase activity was retained in the presence of 4 mol l-1 sorbitol at 75 degrees C. PMID:7576522

Viswanathan, P; Kulkarni, P R

1995-11-01

365

Methods to sample air borne propagules of Aspergillus flavus C.H. Bock1,2,  

E-print Network

viable conidia of A. flavus under controlled environment conditions, but not in the field, although-dispersed propagules of Aspergillus flavus can infect and colonize many agricultural products, including cottonseed. To help reduce the risk of toxin entering the food chain, aflatoxin content is strictly regulated by law

Cotty, Peter J.

366

Endophytic associations and production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section Nigri species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are considered plant pathogens of maize (Zea mays) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) where they can cause similar disease symptoms as Fusarium verticillioides, such as seedling blight. However, the main concern with black aspergi...

367

Codon Optimization Increases Steady-State mRNA Levels in Aspergillus oryzae Heterologous Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of codon optimization on the expression levels of heterologous proteins in Aspergillus oryzae, using the mite allergen De rf7a s amodel protein. A codon-optimized Der f 7 gene was synthesized according to the frequency of codon usage in A. oryzae by recursive PCR. Both native and optimized Der f 7 genes were expressed under the control

Masafumi Tokuoka; Mizuki Tanaka; Kazuhisa Ono; Shinobu Takagi; Takahiro Shintani; Katsuya Gomi

2008-01-01

368

A Potent Nonpeptide Cholecystokinin Antagonist Selective for Peripheral Tissues Isolated from Aspergillus alliaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, competitive, nonpeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist, asperlicin, was isolated from the fungus Aspergillus alliaceus. The compound has 300 to 400 times the affinity for pancreatic, ileal, and gallbladder CCK receptors than proglumide, a standard agent of this class. Moreover, asperlicin is highly selective for peripheral CCK receptors relative to brain CCK and gastrin receptors. Since asperlicin also exhibits long-lasting

Raymond S. L. Chang; Victor J. Lotti; Richard L. Monaghan; Jerome Birnbaum; Edward O. Stapley; Michael A. Goetz; Georg Albers-Schonberg; Arthur A. Patchett; Jerrold M. Liesch; Otto D. Hensens; James P. Springer

1985-01-01

369

Simple and highly discriminatory microsatellite-based multiplex PCR for Aspergillus fumigatus strain typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The answers to important questions concerning Aspergillus fumigatus pathogenicity, transmissions routes and efficacy of treatments require highly discriminating and reproducible genotyping methods. The present study was aimed at improving microsatellite methodol- ogy for A. fumigatus typing by reducing the task of strain identification to a single multiplex reaction and by selecting highly accurate short tandem repeat polymorphisms. A set of

R. Araujo; C. Pina-Vaz; A. G. Rodrigues; A. Amorim; L. Gusmăo

2009-01-01

370

Characterization of a novel gene for strain typing reveals substructuring of Aspergillus fumigatus across North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifty five epidemiologically linked Aspergillus fumigatus isolates obtained from six nosocomial outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis were sub-typed by sequencing the polymorphic region of the gene encoding a putative cell surface protein, Afu3g08990 (denoted as CSP). Comparative sequence analysis sh...

371

Sequoiatones C-f, constituents of the redwood endophyte Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus parasiticus, a fungal isolate from a coast redwood tree (Sequoia sempervirens), has been shown to produce four new compounds, sequoiatones C-F (1-4). The structures of these compounds, all of which are cytotoxic to brine shrimp, were deduced by spectral analysis. PMID:11678666

Stierle, A A; Stierle, D B; Bugni, T

2001-10-01

372

Anticancer and antifungal compounds from Aspergillus, Penicillium and other filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

This review covers important anticancer and antifungal compounds reported from filamentous fungi and in particular from Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The taxonomy of these fungi is not trivial, so a focus of this review has been to report the correct identity of the producing organisms based on substantial previous in-house chemotaxonomic studies. PMID:24064454

Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

2013-01-01

373

ANTíGENOS NATIVOS DE ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS CON UTILIDAD PARA EL INMUNODIAGNÓSTICO DE ASPERGILOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the usefulness of native antigens of autochthonous strains of Aspergillus fumigatus for immunodiagnosis of aspergilloma, We was conducted a study using two strains of this fungus, isolated from patients with aspergilloma (533 and 554), which were confronted with commercial control serum of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, Candida, Coccidioides, Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides by immunodiffusion test,

José Casquero; Elizabeth Sánchez

2009-01-01

374

Biosorption of chromium from aqueous solutions by pretreated Aspergillus niger: Batch and column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved the investigation of enhancement of chromium biosorption capacity of dead Aspergillus niger fungal biomass by pretreatment and its use in a column mode. Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) pretreatment exhibited maximum chromium removal. An initial factorial design of experiments showed that factors such as pH of the solution, temperature and biomass mass were important. The kinetics of

Deepa Prabhu Mungasavalli; Thiruvenkatachari Viraraghavan; Yee-Chung Jin

2007-01-01

375

Production of gluconic acid from glucose by Aspergillus niger: growth and non-growth conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentation of glucose to gluconic acid was conducted using Aspergillus niger under growth and non-growth conditions using pure oxygen and air as a source of oxygen for the fermentation in 2 and 5l stirred tank reactors (batch reactor). Production of gluconic acid under growth conditions was conducted in a 5l batch reactor. Production and growth rates were higher during

H. Znad; J. Markoš; V. Baleš

2004-01-01

376

Intraspecific competition during infection by Aspergillus flavus is influenced by plant host species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Communities of Aspergillus flavus are composed of diverse genotypes that collectively influence incidence and severity of crop aflatoxin contamination. Isolates vary in competitive ability on maize, but empirical data on the extent to which host-specific influences determine outcomes of competition ...

377

Successful treatment with voriconazole of Aspergillus brain abscess in a boy with medulloblastoma.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis is an increasing problem in immuno-incompetent patients after prolonged steroid therapy, cancer radio-chemotherapy, and bone marrow or solid organ transplantation. Cerebral aspergillosis is a well-described complication of the invasive aspergillosis but only in rare cases, the brain is the sole site of infection. Despite increasing availability of antifungal drugs, the prognosis of cerebral aspergillosis is poor. We report on an 11-year-old boy with medulloblastoma in the area of the fourth ventricle. Following tumor surgery and radio-chemotherapy, several abscess-like structures occurred in the operating field. After incomplete abscess, resection histology and culture confirmed a localized Aspergillus fumigatus infection. The initial treatment of the Aspergillus fumigatus infection with conventional amphotericin B failed, and treatment with the triazole voriconazole was started. Intravenous treatment with voriconazole resulted in a reduction of the Aspergillus fumigatus abscess. After switching to oral ambulatory therapy, the Aspergillus fumigatus abscess increased in size. To improve treatment, voriconazole dosage was adapted to reach drug concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) above the minimal fungicidal concentration and plasma specimens. During the concentration-controlled voriconazole therapy for a period of 18 months, a complete response was achieved. PMID:16333861

Stiefel, M; Reiss, T; Staege, M S; Rengelshausen, J; Burhenne, J; Wawer, A; Foell, J L

2007-08-01

378

Molecular Typing of Environmental and Patient Isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from Various Hospital Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerprinting of more than 700 clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from four differential hospital settings was undertaken with a dispersed repeated DNA sequence. The analysis of the environmental isolates showed that the airborne A. fumigatus population is extremely diverse, with 85% of the strains being represented as a single genotype isolated once. The remaining 15% of the strains

VALERIE CHAZALET; JEAN-PAUL DEBEAUPUIS; JACQUELINE SARFATI; JACQUES LORTHOLARY; PATRICIA RIBAUD; PRAMOD SHAH; MURIEL CORNET; HOANG VU THIEN; ELIANE GLUCKMAN; GILLES BRUCKER; JEAN-PAUL LATGE

1998-01-01

379

ENZYMATIC DEHAIRING OF CATTLE HIDE WITH AN ALKALINE PROTEASE ISOLATED FROM ASPERGILLUS TAMARII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An alkaline protease isolated from Aspergillus tamarii shows promise as a dehairing agent for use in the tannery. Standard dehairing conditions established for the protease isolated from Streptomyces griseus proved to be unsatisfactory for the alkaline protease. We optimized the dehairing conditio...

380

Submerged production of pectolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger : effect of different aeration\\/agitation regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a pectolytic enzyme complex in a 10-l strirred tank bioreactor was studied using the Aspergillus niger mutant A 138. A time course of the fermentation showed that the enzyme synthesis is not associated with growth. Maximal activity was reached after 95 h and from that time on it remained constant. Redox potential and pH values proved to

Jožica Friedrich; Aleksa Cimerman; Walter Steiner

1989-01-01

381

Morphologically structured model for growth and citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphologically structured model for the batch process of biomass growth and citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger is presented in this paper. The model consists of ten ordinary differential equations, which balance biomass and four physiological zones of hyphae, and includes the most important medium components, such as carbon sources, nitrogen source and citric acid. Digital analysis of microscopic

Marcin Bizukojc; Stanislaw Ledakowicz

2003-01-01

382

Systems Analysis Unfolds the Relationship between the Phosphoketolase Pathway and Growth in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aspergillus nidulans is an important model organism for studies on fundamental eukaryotic cell biology and on industrial processes due to its close relation to A. niger and A. oryzae. Here we identified the gene coding for a novel metabolic pathway in A. nidulans, namely the phosphoketolase pathway, and investigated the role of an increased phosphoketolase activity. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Over-expression

Gianni Panagiotou; Mikael R. Andersen; Thomas Grotkjćr; Torsten B. Regueira; Gerald Hofmann; Jens Nielsen; Lisbeth Olsson

2008-01-01

383

Optimization of glucose oxidase production by Aspergillus niger in a benchtop bioreactor using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the speed of agitation and the rate of aeration for the maximum production of glucose oxidase (GOD) by Aspergillus niger. A 22 central composite design using RSM was employed in this investigation. A quadratic model for GOD production was obtained. Aeration had more negative effect on GOD production than agitation. Significant negative

Jian-Zhong Liu; Li-Ping Weng; Qian-Ling Zhang; Hong Xu; Liang-Nian Ji

2003-01-01

384

The effect of the sugar source on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under otherwise identical fermentation conditions, the sugar source has been shown to have a marked effect on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Sucrose was the most favourable source, followed by glucose and fructose and then lactose. No citric acid was produced from galactose. Strong relationships were observed between citric acid production and the activities of certain enzymes in myccelial

M. Hossain; J. D. Brooks; I. S. Maddox

1984-01-01

385

Isolation and characterization of mutants of Aspergillus niger deficient in extracellular proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the extracellular protease activity in a strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger was investigated and mutant strains deficient in the production of extracellular proteases were isolated. The major protease, which is responsible for 80–85% of the total activity, is aspergillopepsin A, a protein of ca. 43 kDa, the activity of which is inhibited by pepstatin.

Ineke E. Mattern; Johannes M. van Noort; Paul van den Berg; David B. Archer; Ian N. Roberts; Cees A. M. J. J. Hondel

1992-01-01

386

Optimization of medium composition for the production of glucosyltransferase by Aspergillus niger with response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger CCRC 31494 produced an extracellular glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.24) with a high transglucosylating activity. For production of glucosyltransferase by A. niger, yeast extract was the best nitrogen source after cultivation for 7 days. Addition of minerals to the medium showed no significant increase in the production of glucosyltransferase. A significant decrease in the production of glycosyltransferase was obtained when

Shiow-Ling Lee; Wen-Chang Chen

1997-01-01

387

Production of Aspergillus niger pectolytic enzymes by solid state bioprocessing of apple pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to develop a low cost process for apple pomace utilisation. Accordingly this production of pectynolitic enzymes based on solid state bioprocessing of this actual waste, was developed. Production of pectolytic enzymes of Aspergillus niger, pectinesterase and polygalacturonase as well as the activity of pectolytic enzymatic complex by solid state bioprocessing were studied. The results

M. Berovi?; H. Ostroveršnik

1997-01-01

388

Comparative study of amylolytic enzymes production by Aspergillus niger in liquid and solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Amylolytic enzymes produced by a strain ofAspergillus niger cultivated on cassava starch in liquid or solid culture were found to be mainly glucoamylases. For the same initial amount of substrate, the glucoamylase activity increased even after 60 h of culture on solid medium whereas it decreased in liquid culture. Some characteristics of the amylases produced in both culture conditions

Didier Alazard; Maurice Raimbault

1981-01-01

389

Phytase production and phytic acid reduction in rapeseed meal by Aspergillus niger during solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of moisture content of media, glucose, phosphate, some surfactants and gamma irradiation on the production of phytase and reduction of phytic acid in rapeseed meal by Aspergillus niger A-98 (local isolate) during solid state fermentation have been considered. Optimum moisture content of media for these processes was 60%. Glucose concentrations of up to 6% in solid state culture

A. I El-Batal; H Abdel Karem

2001-01-01

390

Morphological patterns of Aspergillus niger biofilms and pellets related to lignocellulolytic enzyme productivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To study the morphological patterns of Aspergillus niger during biofilm formation on polyester cloth by using cryo-scanning electron microscopy rela- ted to lignocellulolytic enzyme productivity. Methods and Results: Biofilm and pellet samples obtained from flask cultures were examined at )80? C in a LEO PV scanning electron microscope. Spore adhesion depends on both its rough surface and adhesive substances

G. K. Villena; M. Gutiérrez-Correa

2007-01-01

391

Myocardial Infarction Caused by Aspergillus Embolization in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 38-year-old Japanese man with severe aplastic anemia had invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as a compli- cation. He was treated with amphotericin B for six weeks, but the aspergillosis did not improve. Then he ex- perienced a fatal myocardial infarction. An autopsy revealed disseminated aspergillosis involving pericarditis and Aspergillus embolization to the coronary arteries. This led to the acute myocardial infarction.

Mitsuru Itoh; Masahiko Takahashi; Miyuki Mori; Hiromichi Tamekiyo; Hiroshi Yoshida; Kazuhiro Yago; Hideto Shimada; Kazumori Arai

2006-01-01

392

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON THE GROWTH OF Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 16 essential oils from aromatic plants were tested for their inhibitory effect on Aspergillus flavus IMI 242684 on PDA. The results showed that the essential oil of white wood (Melaleuca cajeputi) gave the highest inhibition followed by the essential oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) and lavender (Lavandula officinalis), respectively. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of these three essential

Dusanee Thanaboripat; Yaowapa Suvathi; Prapaporn Srilohasin; Saowalak Sripakdee

393

Disseminated Aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger in Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Many cases of pulmonary, cutaneous, cerebral, and paranasal sinus aspergillosis in immunocompetent patient were defined in literature but disseminated aspergillosis is very rare. Here we present an immunocompetent case with extrapulmonary disseminated aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger, totally recovered after effective antifungal treatment with voriconazole. PMID:23533852

Ergene, Ulku; Akcali, Zeynep; Ozbalci, Demircan; Nese, Nalan; Senol, Sebnem

2013-01-01

394

EVALUATION OF INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION (ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS LINK) AND AFLATOXIN FORMATION IN SUSPENDED DISC CULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of two non-aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus (NRRL 32354; NRRL 29269) to interfere with aflatoxin production by A. flavus NRRL 32355 was examined using a replacement series with the suspended disc culture method (R.A. Norton, 1995). Individual glass fiber discs, affixed ...

395

IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES IN PEANUT IN RESPONSE TO ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS INFECTION AND DROUGHT STRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a food safety problem worldwide. A. parasiticus infection and aflatoxin contamination are severe in peanuts under drought stressed. Drought tolerant peanut lines have less aflatoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to identify res...

396

Hyperspectral image classification and development of fluorescence index for single corn kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

397

Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions. PMID:7935731

Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

1994-06-01

398

SCLEROTIAL PRODUCTION IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS VARIES WITH TEMPERATURE AND NITROGEN SOURCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty strains of Aspergillus flavus from the culture collection of the Southern Regional Research Laboratory, New Orleans, LA, were grown on defined and complex media at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C for one week. Colonies were screened for sclerotial production, as well as other colony characters...

399

Ear Rot, Aflatoxin Accumulation, and Fungal Biomass in Maize after Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin, a toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link:Fries, occurs naturally in maize (Zea mays L.). Aflatoxin is a potent human carcinogen and is toxic to livestock, pets, and wildlife. When contaminated with aflatoxin, the value of maize grain is markedly reduced. Eight germplasm l...

400

Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycotoxin contamination in corn grain is a worldwide threat to both human food safety and animal feed ingredients. A select group of inbred corn lines was evaluated in field trials for mycotoxin accumulation in grain and ear rot caused by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Our goal ...

401

Understanding Nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae: A Windfall of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. A. sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing A. parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to...

402

Enzymatic Dehairing of Cattlehide with an Alkaline Protease Isolated from Aspergillus tamarii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An enzymatic dehairing protocol based on the alkaline serine protease isolated from Aspergillus tamarii required 16h, and we observed concomitant grain damage. The use of sodium dodecyl sulfate as a pretreatment to remove the lipids from the hide allowed a shortening of the dehairing time to 6 h wi...

403

EST Profiling for Elucidation of Molecular Regulation of Aflatoxin bBiosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Many internal and external factors, such as nutrition and environment, affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. A. flavus EST has been carried out and a microarray has be...

404

Inverse correlation of ability to produce aflatoxin and aspergillus colonization of maize seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds of aflatoxin-resistant and aflatoxin susceptible maize lines were inoculated with conidia of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus isolates or isogenic non-producing mutants. Conidial yields recovered from resistant maize seed after seven days were significantly lower for af...

405

Application of biotechnology towards the enhancement of maize resistance to aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Contamination of maize with aflatoxins by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus poses serious health hazards to humans and animals worldwide. This important fact and the regulations instituted in many countries to control the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and feed have stimulated rese...

406

Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of Peanut Responding to Drought Stress and Aspergillus Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest A. parasiticus infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions; however, drought tolerant peanut lines have less afl...

407

Formation of Aspergillus flavus sclerotia on corn grown under different drought stress conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in corn, peanuts, tree nuts, cottonseed, spices and other crops. Many countries have strict limits on the amount of aflatoxins permitted in human commodities and animal feed. Sclerotia produced by A. flavus serve several f...

408

Phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species using DNA sequences from four loci  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA was isolated from representatives of Aspergillus species and sequences were determined for beta tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and lsu rDNA and RNA polymerase. The sequences were analyzed phylogenetically using PAUP* and MRBayes and species boundaries were assessed using genealogical concordance anal...

409

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Other Filamentous Fungi Isolated From Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The 90 isolates included 41 Aspergillus spe- cies, 38 Fusarium species, and 11 others. The triazoles and caspofungin had the lowest MICs against Aspergil- lus species; voriconazole, amphotericin B, and posacona- zole had the lowest MICs against Fusarium species, and none of theFusarium species were inhibited by itracona- zole or caspofungin. Amphotericin B had significantly lower MICs compared with

Prajna Lalitha; Brett L. Shapiro; Muthiah Srinivasan; Namperumalsamy Venkatesh Prajna; Nisha R. Acharya; Annette W. Fothergill; Jazmin Ruiz; Jaya D. Chidambaram; Kathryn J. Maxey; Kevin C. Hong; Stephen D. McLeod; Thomas M. Lietman

410

Gardening can induce pulmonary failure: Aspergillus ARDS in an immunocompetent patient, a case report.  

PubMed

BackgroundAcute Aspergillus fumigatus infection in immunocompetent patients is rare. This is the first known case of a patient who survived Aspergillus sepsis after being treated early with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane (ECMO) and antifungal therapy.Case presentationAn immunocompetent 54-year-old woman was exposed to plant mulch during gardening and subsequently developed pulmonary failure that progressed to sepsis with multiorgan failure. Owing to her severe clinical condition, she was treated for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with veno-venous ECMO. Empiric antifungal therapy comprising voriconazole was also initiated owing to her history and a previous case report of aspergillosis after plant mulch exposure, though there was no microbiological proof at the time. A. fumigatus was later cultured and detected on antibody testing. The patient recovered, and ECMO was discontinued 1 week later. After 7 days of antifungal treatment, Aspergillus antibodies were undetectable.ConclusionsIn cases of sepsis that occur after gardening, clinicians should consider Aspergillus inhalation as an aetiology, and early antimycotic therapy is recommended. PMID:25425351

Jung, Nina; Mronga, Silke; Schroth, Susanne; Vassiliou, Timon; Sommer, Frank; Walthers, Eduard; Aepinus, Christian; Jerrentrup, Andreas; Vogelmeier, Claus; Holland, Angelique; Koczulla, Rembert

2014-11-26

411

Aspergillus Flavus Endocarditis of the Native Mitral Valve in a Bone Marrow Transplant Patient  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 36 Final Diagnosis: Aspergillus flavus endocarditis Symptoms: Malaise • fatigue and dyspnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Mitral vale replacemnet Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Infective endocarditis due to Aspergillus species is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It mostly occurs after the implantation of prosthetic heart valves. Parenteral nutrition, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens, and illegal intravenous drug use are the risk factors for developing infection. Case Report: We report a case of Aspergillus flavus native mitral valve endocarditis in a patient who had allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the past due to myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusions: Although it is rare and there is limited experience available with the diagnosis and treatment, early recognition and therapeutic intervention with systemic antifungal therapy and aggressive surgical intervention are critical to prevent further complications that may eventually lead to death. In addition, better novel diagnostic tools are needed to facilitate more accurate identification of patients with invasive Aspergillus and to permit earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. PMID:25603977

Demir, Tolga; Ergenoglu, Mehmet Umit; Ekinci, Abdurrahman; Tanrikulu, Nursen; Sahin, Mazlum; Demirsoy, Ergun

2015-01-01

412

Microsatellite (STRAf) Genotyping Cannot Differentiate between Invasive and Colonizing Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates.  

PubMed

We studied whether short tandem repeats of Aspergillus fumigatus (STRAf) can differentiate between invasive and colonizing genotypes of A. fumigatus. Of the 395 genotypes detected (n = 1,373 isolates), 50 were clusters and 24 (6% of all genotypes) involved the patients with invasive aspergillosis and those colonized with A. fumigatus, indicating that genotyping cannot discriminate between invasive and colonizing isolates. PMID:25411179

Escribano, Pilar; Peláez, Teresa; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

2015-02-01

413

Solution structure of the granular starch binding domain of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase bound to -cyclodextrin  

E-print Network

the catalytic domains of hydrolytic enzymes. Glucoamylase 1 (G1) from Aspergillus niger, an enzyme used widely the enzyme to noncrystalline (more hydrolyzable) areas of starch. The region of the SBD where the linker of the starch granules. Introduction Starch-degrading and related enzymes are abundant in animals, bacteria

Williamson, Mike P.

414

A multilocus database for the identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates using phenotypic methods is increasingly complex and difficult but genetic tools allow recognition and description of species formerly unrecognized or cryptic. We constructed a web-based taxonomic database using BIGSdb for the identification of ...

415

Chest wall invasion by Aspergillus in chronic granulomatous disease of childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chest wall invasion by the Aspergillus organism is described in two patients with chronic granulomatous disease of childhood. This complication is usually a result of contiguous spread from pulmonary disease. In this report and a review of the three previously reported cases, the chest wall involvement was the initial indication of underlying lung disease.

G. Gaisie; A'Delbert Bowen; F. L. Quattromani; Kook Sang Oh

1981-01-01

416

Pulmonary Aspergillus chest wall involvement in chronic granulomatous disease: CT and MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary Aspergillus infection in patients with chronic granulomatous disease tends to involve the chest wall and consequently carries a high mortality rate. We report the findings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three such cases. One patient underwent both CT and MRI, one, CT only, and one, MRI only. In all three, both CT and MRI

Akira Kawashima; Janet E. Kuhlman; Elliot K. Fishman; Clare M. Tempany; Donna Magid; Howard M. Lederman; Jerry A. Winkelstein; Elias A. Zerhouni

1991-01-01

417

Value of Aspergillus niger fermentation product as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment reported was a study on Aspergillus niger inoculation into the waste liquor from glutamate manufacturing and used as a dietary protein source for broilers. The program involved a toxicological and nutritional evaluation of the product using a short-term toxicity and a nutritional feeding trial in broilers. Both trials involved a total of 800 broilers from the commercial Arbor

Peter W. S Chiou; S. W Chiu; C. R Chen

2001-01-01

418

Peanut resistant gene expression in response to Aspergillus flavus infection during seed germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus produces potent mutagenic and carcinogenic polyketide-derived secondary metabolites known as aflatoxins. Development of host-plant resistance in peanut and other crops would be a cost-effective and practical approach to eliminate the serious problem of aflatoxin contamination due...

419

Survival of Aspergillus fumigatus in Serum Involves Removal of Iron from Transferrin: the Role of Siderophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungus which can cause invasive disease in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus can grow in medium containing up to 80% human serum, despite very low concen- trations of free iron. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which A. fumigatus obtains iron from the serum iron-binding protein transferrin. In iron-depleted minimal essential

A. H. T. Hissen; J. M. T. Chow; L. J. Pinto; M. M. Moore

2004-01-01

420

Interlaboratory comparison of results of susceptibility testing with caspofungin against Candida and Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen laboratories participated in a study of interlaboratory reproducibility with caspofungin microdilution susceptibility testing against panels comprising 30 isolates of Candida spp. and 20 isolates of Aspergillus spp. The laboratories used materials supplied from a single source to determine the influence of growth medium (RPMI 1640 with or without glucose additions and antibiotic medium 3 [AM3]), the same incubation times

Frank C. Odds; Mary Motyl; Roberto Andrade; Jacques Bille; Emilia Canton; Manuel Cuenca-Estrella; Amanda Davidson; Christian Durussel; David Ellis; Elyse Foraker; Annette W. Fothergill; Mahmoud A. Ghannoum; Robert A. Giacobbe; Miguel Gobernado; Rosemary Handke; Michel Laverdiere; Wendy Lee-Yang; William G. Merz; Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner; Javier Peman; Sophia Perea; John R. Perfect; Michael A. Pfaller; Laurie Proia; John H. Rex; Michael G. Rinaldi; Juan-Luis Rodriguez-Tudela; Wiley A. Schell; Christine Shields; Deanna A. Sutton; Paul E. Verweij; David W. Warnock

2004-01-01

421

Gram-scale production of a basidiomycetous laccase in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

We report on the expression in Aspergillus niger of a laccase gene we used to produce variants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grams of recombinant enzyme can be easily obtained. This highlights the potential of combining this generic laccase sequence to the yeast and fungal expression systems for large-scale productions of variants. PMID:23867099

Mekmouche, Yasmina; Zhou, Simeng; Cusano, Angela M; Record, Eric; Lomascolo, Anne; Robert, Viviane; Simaan, A Jalila; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Ullah, Sana; Chaspoul, Florence; Tron, Thierry

2014-01-01

422

Functional genomics of human bronchial epithelial cells directly interacting with conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is a ubiquitous fungus which reproduces asexually by releasing abundant airborne conidia (spores), which are easily respirable. In allergic and immunocompromised individuals A. fumigatus can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that A. fumigatus conidia are internalized by macrophages and lung epithelial cells;

Pol Gomez; Tillie L Hackett; Margo M Moore; Darryl A Knight; Scott J Tebbutt

2010-01-01

423

Transcriptional and Proteomic Analysis of the Aspergillus fumigatus DprtT Protease-Deficient Mutant  

E-print Network

-Aviv, Israel Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common opportunistic mold pathogen of humans, infecting immunocompromised patients. The fungus invades the lungs and other organs, causing severe damage. Penetration. Its small-sized conidia can easily reach the pulmonary alveoli by inhalation and cause a variety

Shamir, Ron

424

Comparing artificial and natural selection in rate of adaptation to genetic stress in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experimental study of adaptation to negative pleiotropic effects of a major fungicide resistance mutation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans we have investigated the relative effectiveness of artificial selection vs. natural selection on the rate of compensatory evolution. Using mycelial growth rate as a fitness measure, artificial selection involved the weekly transfer of the fastest growing sector onto

S. E. Schoustra; S. M. Slakhorst-Wandel; A. J. M. Debets; R. F. Hoekstra

2005-01-01

425

Xylanase production in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger mutant using statistical experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The initial moisture content, cultivation time, inoculum size and concentration of basal medium were optimized in solid state fermentation (SSF) for the production of xylanase by an Aspergillus niger mutant using statistical experimental designs. The cultivation time and concentration of basal medium were the most important factors affecting xylanase activity. An inoculum size of 5쎹 spores\\/g, initial moisture content

Y. S. Park; S. W. Kang; J. S. Lee; S. I. Hong; S. W. Kim

2002-01-01

426

Characterization of an Aspergillus flavus alkaline protease and its role in the infection of maize kernels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 33 kDa protein present in Aspergillus flavus infected maize embryo tissue was identified as a fungal alkaline protease (ALP). This protein became one of the major extracellular proteins of A. flavus in potato dextrose broth medium cultural filtrate after 3 days, but was expressed at low levels or ...

427

THE SEC- MUTANT OF ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS IS ALTERED IN ITS PROFILE OF SECONDARY METABOLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sec- (secondary metabolite minus) mutant of Aspergillus parasiticus SUI produces fewer conidia on complete and minimum media and fails to produce aflatoxin or to convert labeled aflatoxin pathway precursors into aflatoxin. Transcripts of the aflatoxin pathway genes are barely detectable and tra...

428

AFLATOXIN FORMATION AND GENE EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO CARBON SOURCE MEDIA SHIFT IN ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The biosynthesis of aflatoxins is modulated by many environmental factors, including the availability of a carbon source. The gene profile of A. parasiticus was...

429

Time Course Study of Substrate Utilization by Aspergillus flavus in Medium Simulating Corn (Zea mays) Kernels  

E-print Network

Utilization of the three major corn reserve materials, starch, triglycerides (refined corn oil), and zein kernels changed little over the first 18 h. Subsequently, hydrolysis of both starch and triglycerides such as starch or triglycerides. KEYWORDS: Aflatoxin; Aspergillus flavus; corn lipids; cornstarch; Zea mays; zein

Cotty, Peter J.

430

Genes Differentially Expressed in Conidia and Hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus upon Exposure to Human Neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Several studies have addressed the mechanism involved in host defense but only few have investigated the pathogen's response to attack by the host cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the genes differentially expressed in conidia vs hyphae of A. fumigatus

Janyce A. Sugui; H. Stanley Kim; Kol A. Zarember; Yun C. Chang; John I. Gallin; Willian C. Nierman; Kyung J. Kwon-Chung

2008-01-01

431

Aspergillus flavus Genomic Data Mining Provides Clues for Its Use in Producing Biobased Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is notorious for its ability to produce aflatoxins. It is also an opportunistic pathogen that infects plants, animals and human beings. The ability to survive in the natural environment, living on plant tissues (leaves or stalks), live or dead insects make A. flavus a ubiquitous...

432

Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46-48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = -0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

Ezekiel, C N; Udom, I E; Frisvad, J C; Adetunji, M C; Houbraken, J; Fapohunda, S O; Samson, R A; Atanda, O O; Agi-Otto, M C; Onashile, O A

2014-03-01

433

Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46–48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = ?0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Adetunji, M.C.; Houbraken, J.; Fapohunda, S.O.; Samson, R.A.; Atanda, O.O.; Agi-Otto, M.C.; Onashile, O.A.

2014-01-01

434

Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger  

E-print Network

Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger Jinglin Li in plant, bacteria, and fungi. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a putative type III PKS-pyrone synthase, and benzalacetone synthase have been cloned and characterized.4­6 They deviate from

Zhao, Huimin

435

Establishing In Vitro-In Vivo Correlations for Aspergillus fumigatus: the Challenge of Azoles versus Echinocandins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, designated AT and DK, were recently obtained from patients failing caspofungin and itraconazole therapy, respectively. The isolates were tested by microdilution for susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and caspofungin and by Etest for susceptibility to ampho- tericin B and caspofungin. Susceptibility testing documented that the DK isolate was azole resistant (itraconazole and posaconazole

Maiken Cavling Arendrup; Susanne Perkhofer; Susan J. Howard; Guillermo Garcia-Effron; Aimanianda Vishukumar; David Perlin; Cornelia Lass-Florl

2008-01-01

436

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world  

E-print Network

of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samplesAspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around serve as alternative identification markers. Key words: Environmental metagenomics, Indoor moulds

Amend, Anthony S.

437

Isoterreulactone A, a novel meroterpenoid with anti-acetylcholinesterase activity produced by Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

A new seven-membered lactone type meroterpenoid, isoterreulactone A, was isolated from the solid state fermentation of Aspergillus terreus and its structure was established by various spectral analysis. Isoterreulactone A inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an IC(50) value of 2.5 microM while did not inhibit butyrylcholinesterase even at 500 microM. PMID:15603953

Yoo, Ick-Dong; Cho, Kyung-Mi; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Won-Gon

2005-01-17

438

Genetic variability of Aspergillus flavus isolates from a Mississippi corn field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Aspergillus flavus represents a major threat to food safety and food security on a worldwide scale. Corn, peanuts, cotton, rice and edible nuts, can be colonized by A. flavus strains that produce carcinogenic aflatoxins. A biological strategy for control of toxigenic A. flavus starins inv...

439

Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to their ability to produce toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is dependent upon a basic understanding of their diversity in agricultural ecosystems. This review summarizes our current knowledge

Bruce W. Horn

2007-01-01

440

Characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans nmrA Gene Involved in Nitrogen Metabolite Repression  

PubMed Central

The gene nmrA of Aspergillus nidulans has been isolated and found to be a homolog of the Neurospora crassa gene nmr-1, involved in nitrogen metabolite repression. Deletion of nmrA results in partial derepression of activities subject to nitrogen repression similar to phenotypes observed for certain mutations in the positively acting areA gene. PMID:9537404

Andrianopoulos, Alex; Kourambas, Sophie; Sharp, Julie A.; Davis, Meryl A.; Hynes, Michael J.

1998-01-01

441

Role of LAMMER Kinase in Cell Wall Biogenesis during Vegetative Growth of Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Depending on the acquisition of developmental competence, the expression of genes for ?-1,3-glucan synthase and chitin synthase was affected in different ways by Aspergillus nidulans LAMMER kinase. LAMMER kinase deletion, ?lkhA, led to decrease in ?-1,3-glucan, but increase in chitin content. The ?lkhA strain was also resistant to nikkomycin Z. PMID:25606019

Choi, Yu Kyung; Kang, Eun-Hye

2014-01-01

442

Pulmonary endarterectomy for saddling pulmonary embolism by Aspergillus fungus in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

We present a case of Tricuspid valve Aspergillus endocarditis with saddle shaped massive pulmonary embolism occurring in an immunocompetent host. The patient was managed uniquely by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and combination antifungal chemotherapy with Liposomal amphotericin-B + caspofungin. PMID:25443609

Minhas, Harpreet Singh; Jain, Gagan; Mangukia, Chirantan; Goyal, Mayank

2014-01-01

443

Comparison of Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination is generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin....

444

Use of a rep-PCR system to predict species in the Aspergillus section Nigri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Aspergillus niger aggregate within the A. section Nigri, is a group of black-spored aspergilli which taxonomy has been elusive. REP-PCR has become a rapid and cost-effective method for genotyping fungi and bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a semi-automate...

445

Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the

Baozhu Guo; Xiaoping Chen; Phat Dang; Brian T Scully; Xuanqiang Liang; C Corley Holbrook; Jiujiang Yu; Albert K Culbreath

2008-01-01

446

Levels of Total Fungus and Aspergillus on a Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this descriptive study was to deter- mine the levels of total fungus (TF) and Aspergillus in a pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) unit. One hundred twenty air samples and 120 floor samples were collected from the same locations in 10 patient rooms and bathrooms for 4 consecutive days. The count in colony-forming units of TF and

Mary Elizabeth Hensley; Weiming Ke; Randall T. Hayden; Rupert Handgretinger; Jonathan A. McCullers

2004-01-01

447

RECOMBINATION, BALANCING SELECTION AND ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION IN THE AFLATOXIN GENE CLUSTER OF ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that are known to contaminate agricultural commodities, posing a serious threat to animal and human health. Aflatoxin (AF) biosynthesis has been studied extensively and involves over 20 genes clustered in a 70...

448

Characterization and Population Analysis of the Mating-Type Genes in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins (AF) are acutely toxic and carcinogenic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species. A. flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of AF contamination of crops. Previously, we sequenced 21 intergenic regions in the aflatoxin gene cluster for 43 isolates of A. flavus and ...

449

Studies on Aspergillus oryzae Mutants for the Production of Single Cell Proteins from Deoiled Rice Bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ethyl methyl sulphonate was used to induce point mutation in Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC 1846). Incubation with ethyl methyl sulphonate for 1 h resulted in 98 % killing of spores. By screening the survived colonies three hypermorphs were found (Shan1, Shan2 and Shan3). These three mutants along with the A. oryzae (MTCC 1846) were used for the production of single

Rudravaram Ravinder; Linga Venkateshwar Rao; Pogaku Ravindra

2003-01-01

450

Aspergillus section Nigri as contributor of fumonisin B(2) contamination in maize.  

PubMed

Fumonisins (FBs), which are carcinogenic mycotoxins, are known to be typically produced by several phytopathogenic fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, two important pathogens of maize worldwide, are the most common species that produce FBs. The main FBs produced by these species are FB1, FB2 and FB3. Moreover, recently, fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus niger have been also reported to produce FBs (in particular, FB2 and FB4). In a survey on maize carried out in Central Italy, 17 maize kernel samples were collected at harvest and analysed for FB1, FB2 and FB3, as well as fungal contamination, with a particular attention to the species-producing FBs. All 17 samples were contaminated by F. verticillioides and/or F. proliferatum at a level ranging from 13% to 100% of kernels. However, 10 out of 17 samples were also contaminated by Aspergillus section Nigri with a range from 6% to 68% of kernels. There was a significant inverse logarithmic relationship between levels of Fusarium and Aspergillus contamination. All samples were contaminated by FBs; FB1 ranged from 0.09 to 30.2 ?g g(-1), whereas FB2 ranged from 0.04 to 13.2 ?g g(-1). The ratio of FB2/FB1 contamination in the maize samples was evaluated and the highest values occurred in samples contaminated with Aspergillus section Nigri. Thirty strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from these samples were molecularly identified (based on sequences of two housekeeping genes) and analysed for their capability to produce FB2. Among the 30 strains isolated, 12 were identified as Aspergillus welwitschiae (syn. A. awamori) and 18 as A. tubingensis. FB2 was produced by five out of 12 strains of A. welwitschiae within a range of 0.20-5 ?g g(-1). This is the first report showing the capability of Aspergillus section Nigri from maize to produce FB2 and its possibility to contribute to FB accumulation in kernels. PMID:24313896

Logrieco, A F; Haidukowski, M; Susca, A; Mulč, G; Munkvold, G P; Moretti, A

2014-01-01

451

Peptoniphilus gorbachii sp. nov., Peptoniphilus olsenii sp. nov., and Anaerococcus murdochii sp. nov. Isolated from Clinical Specimens of Human Origin?  

PubMed Central

Three groups of previously unknown gram-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacteria were characterized using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Phenotypic and genotypic data demonstrate that these organisms are distinct, and each group represents a previously unknown subline within Clostridium cluster XIII. Two groups are most closely related to Peptoniphilus harei in the genus Peptoniphilus, and the other group is most closely related to Anaerococcus lactolyticus in the genus Anaerococcus. Based on the findings, three novel species, Peptoniphilus gorbachii sp. nov., Peptoniphilus olsenii sp. nov., and Anaerococcus murdochii sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains of Peptoniphilus gorbachii sp. nov., Peptoniphilus olsenii sp. nov., and Anaerococcus murdochii sp. nov. are WAL 10418T (= CCUG 53341T = ATCC BAA-1383T), WAL 12922T (= CCUG 53342T = ATCC BAA-1384T), and WAL 17230T (= CCUG 53340T = ATCC BAA-1385T), respectively. PMID:17428937

Song, Yuli; Liu, Chengxu; Finegold, Sydney M.

2007-01-01

452

Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.  

PubMed

Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (?'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher ?' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced. PMID:24736090

Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

2014-06-01

453

Study of Spanish grape mycobiota and ochratoxin A production by Isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and other members of Aspergillus section Nigri.  

PubMed

The native mycobiota of five grape varieties grown in Spain has been studied. Four (Bobal, Tempranillo, Garnacha, and Monastrell) were red varieties and one (Moscatel) was white. The main fungal genera isolated were Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. section Nigri in contaminated samples was 82%. Ochratoxin A (OTA) production was assessed using yeast extract-sucrose broth supplemented with 5% bee pollen. Cultures of 205 isolates from this section showed that 74.2% of Aspergillus carbonarius and 14.3% of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates produced OTA at levels ranging from 1.2 to 3,530 ng/ml and from 46.4 to 111.5 ng/ml, respectively. No Aspergillus niger isolate had the ability to produce this toxin under the conditions assayed. Identification of the A. niger aggregate isolates was based on PCR amplification of 5.8S rRNA genes and its two intergenic spacers, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2, followed by digestion with restriction endonuclease RsaI of the PCR products. The restriction patterns were compared with those from strains of A. niger CECT 2807 and A. tubingensis CECT 20393, held at the Spanish Collection of Type Cultures. DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region of the OTA-producing isolates of A. tubingensis matched 99 to 100% with the nucleotide sequence of strain A. tubingensis CBS 643.92. OTA determination was accomplished by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA confirmation was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. The results showed that there are significant differences with regard to the isolation frequency of ochratoxinogenic fungi in the different grape varieties. These differences were uncorrelated to berry color. The ability of A. tubingensis to produce OTA and the influence of grape variety on the occurrence of OTA-producing fungi in grapes are described in this report for the first time. PMID:16085865

Medina, Angel; Mateo, Rufino; López-Ocańa, Laura; Valle-Algarra, Francisco Manuel; Jiménez, Misericordia

2005-08-01

454

Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases  

PubMed Central

Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 ?-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 and the semi-industrial strain, S. cerevisiae Mnu?1. The recombinant AmyA and GlaA displayed protein sizes of 110–150 kDa and 90 kDa, respectively, suggesting significant glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. The Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] and Y294[AmyA-GlaA] strains were able to utilise 20 g l-1 raw corn starch as sole carbohydrate source, with ethanol titers of 9.03 and 6.67 g l-1 (0.038 and 0.028 g l-1 h-1), respectively, after 10 days. With a substrate load of 200 g l-1 raw corn starch, Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] yielded 70.07 g l-1 ethanol (0.58 g l-1 h-1) after 120 h of fermentation, whereas Y294[AmyA-GlaA] was less efficient at 43.33 g l-1 ethanol (0.36 g l-1 h-1). Conclusions In a semi-industrial amylolytic S. cerevisiae strain expressing the A. tubingensis ?-amylase and glucoamylase genes, 200 g l-1 raw starch was completely hydrolysed (saccharified) in 120 hours with 74% converted to released sugars plus fermentation products and the remainder presumably to biomass. The single-step conversion of raw starch represents significant progress towards the realisation of CBP without the need for any heat pretreatment. Furthermore, the amylases were produced and secreted by the host strain, thus circumventing the need for exogenous amylases. PMID:24286270

2013-01-01

455

Expression of human ?1-proteinase inhibitor in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Human ?1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI), also known as antitrypsin, is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor (serpin) in plasma. Its deficiency is associated with development of progressive, ultimately fatal emphysema. Currently in the United States, ?1-PI is available for replacement therapy as an FDA licensed plasma-derived (pd) product. However, the plasma source itself is limited; moreover, even with efficient viral inactivation steps used in manufacture of plasma products, the risk of contamination from emerging viruses may still exist. Therefore, recombinant ?1-PI (r-?1-PI) could provide an attractive alternative. Although r-?1-PI has been produced in several hosts, protein stability in vitro and rapid clearance from the circulation have been major issues, primarily due to absent or altered glycosylation. Results We have explored the possibility of expressing the gene for human ?1-PI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger (A. niger), a system reported to be capable of providing more "mammalian-like" glycosylation patterns to secretable proteins than commonly used yeast hosts. Our expression strategy was based on fusion of ?1-PI with a strongly expressed, secreted leader protein (glucoamylase G2), separated by dibasic processing site (N-V-I-S-K-R) that provides in vivo cleavage. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ELISA, and ?1-PI activity assays enabled us to select the transformant(s) secreting a biologically active glycosylated r-?1-PI with yields of up to 12 mg/L. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis further confirmed that molecular mass of the r-?1-PI was similar to that of the pd-?1-PI. In vitro stability of the r-?1-PI from A. niger was tested in comparison with pd-?1-PI reference and non-glycosylated human r-?1-PI from E. coli. Conclusion We examined the suitability of the filamentous fungus A. niger for the expression of the human gene for ?1-PI, a medium size glycoprotein of high therapeutic value. The heterologous expression of the human gene for ?1-PI in A. niger was successfully achieved to produce the secreted mature human r-?1-PI in A. niger as a biologically active glycosylated protein with improved stability and with yields of up to 12 mg/L in shake-flask growth. PMID:17967194

Karnaukhova, Elena; Ophir, Yakir; Trinh, Loc; Dalal, Nimish; Punt, Peter J; Golding, Basil; Shiloach, Joseph

2007-01-01

456

New resources for functional analysis of omics data for the genus Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Background Detailed and comprehensive genome annotation can be considered a prerequisite for effective analysis and interpretation of omics data. As such, Gene Ontology (GO) annotation has become a well accepted framework for functional annotation. The genus Aspergillus comprises fungal species that are important model organisms, plant and human pathogens as well as industrial workhorses. However, GO annotation based on both computational predictions and extended manual curation has so far only been available for one of its species, namely A. nidulans. Results Based on protein homology, we mapped 97% of the 3,498 GO annotated A. nidulans genes to at least one of seven other Aspergillus species: A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. clavatus, A. terreus, A. oryzae and Neosartorya fischeri. GO annotation files compatible with diverse publicly available tools have been generated and deposited online. To further improve their accessibility, we developed a web application for GO enrichment analysis named FetGOat and integrated GO annotations for all Aspergillus species with public genome sequences. Both the annotation files and the web application FetGOat are accessible via the Broad Institute's website (http://www.broadinstitute.org/fetgoat/index.html). To demonstrate the value of those new resources for functional analysis of omics data for the genus Aspergillus, we performed two case studies analyzing microarray data recently published for A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae. Conclusions We mapped A. nidulans GO annotation to seven other Aspergilli. By depositing the newly mapped GO annotation online as well as integrating it into the web tool FetGOat, we provide new, valuable and easily accessible resources for omics data analysis and interpretation for the genus Aspergillus. Furthermore, we have given a general example of how a well annotated genome can help improving GO annotation of related species to subsequently facilitate the interpretation of omics data. PMID:21974739

2011-01-01

457

Genetic relatedness versus biological compatibility between Aspergillus fumigatus and related species.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Fumigati contains 12 clinically relevant species. Among these Aspergillus species, A. fumigatus is the most frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis, followed by A. lentulus and A. viridinutans. Genealogical concordance and mating experiments were performed to examine the relationship between phylogenetic distance and mating success in these three heterothallic species. Analyses of 19 isolates from section Fumigati revealed the presence of three previously unrecognized species within the broadly circumscribed species A. viridinutans. A single mating type was found in the new species Aspergillus pseudofelis and Aspergillus pseudoviridinutans, but in Aspergillus parafelis, both mating types were present. Reciprocal interspecific pairings of all species in the study showed that the only successful crosses occurred with the MAT1-2 isolates of both A. parafelis and A. pseudofelis. The MAT1-2 isolate of A. parafelis was fertile when paired with the MAT1-1 isolates of A. fumigatus, A. viridinutans, A. felis, A. pseudoviridinutans, and A. wyomingensis but was not fertile with the MAT1-1 isolate of A. lentulus. The MAT1-2 isolates of A. pseudofelis were fertile when paired with the MAT1-1 isolate of A. felis but not with any of the other species. The general infertility in the interspecies crossings suggests that genetically unrelated species are also biologically incompatible, with the MAT1-2 isolates of A. parafelis and A. pseudofelis being the exception. Our findings underscore the importance of genealogical concordance analysis for species circumscription, as well as for accurate species identification, since misidentification of morphologically similar pathogens with differences in innate drug resistance may be of grave consequences for disease management. PMID:25100816

Sugui, Janyce A; Peterson, Stephen W; Figat, Abigail; Hansen, Bryan; Samson, Robert A; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

2014-10-01

458

Postirradiation examination results from SP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the postirradiation examination results from several of the fuel pins irradiated in the SP-1 test. The SP-1 test is the first of two tests irradiated in EBR-II to be examined. These tests are designed to provide a direct comparison of the performance potential of UOâ and UN fuel pins under conditions anticipated for the SP-100 reactor. In

R. A. Karnesky; R. E. Mason

1986-01-01

459

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, Joăo Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

460

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca Dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Erica Simplício; Souza, Joăo Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

461

Environmental conditions affecting exopolysaccharide production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100mg\\/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest

Nur Koçberber K?l?ç; Gönül Dönmez

2008-01-01

462

Biosorption of Cr(VI) onto marine Aspergillus niger : experimental studies and pseudo-second order kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution was studied in batch experiments using dead biomass of three different\\u000a species of marine Aspergillus after alkali treatment. All the cultures exhibited potential to remove Cr(VI), out of which, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most promising one. This culture was further studied employing variation in pH, temperature, metal ion\\u000a concentration

Yasmin Khambhaty; Kalpana Mody; Shaik Basha; Bhavanath Jha

2009-01-01

463

The intra- and extracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger growing on defined medium with xylose or maltose as carbon substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is well-known as a producer of primary metabolites and extracellular proteins. For example, glucoamylase is the most efficiently secreted protein of Aspergillus niger, thus the homologous glucoamylase (glaA) promoter as well as the glaA signal sequence are widely used for heterologous protein production. Xylose is known to strongly repress glaA expression while maltose is

Xin Lu; Jibin Sun; Manfred Nimtz; Josef Wissing; An-Ping Zeng; Ursula Rinas

2010-01-01

464

The Functions of Myosin II and Myosin V Homologs in Tip Growth and Septation in Aspergillus nidulans  

E-print Network

The Functions of Myosin II and Myosin V Homologs in Tip Growth and Septation in Aspergillus nidulans Naimeh Taheri-Talesh1, Yi Xiong2¤, Berl R. Oakley1,2* 1Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States... of America, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America Abstract Because of the industrial and medical importance of members of the fungal genus Aspergillus, there is considerable interest...

Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Xiong, Yi; Oakley, Berl R.

2012-02-16

465

Aspergillus endocarditis in a paediatric patient after a cardiac surgery, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of pulmonary prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Aspergillus fumigatus, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and secondary pulmonary hypertension, in a 4-year-old boy with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot. The diagnosis and treatment of Aspergillus endocarditis remains highly challenging. The best therapeutic option for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension due to an infectious thromboembolic event is highly debatable and the results are poor. PMID:24702799

Miranda, Joana O; de Sousa, António Rodrigues; Monterroso, José

2015-03-01

466

Keratitis due to Chaetomium sp.  

PubMed Central

Aim. To describe keratitis due to Chaetomium sp. occurring in a 65-year-old woman who presented with a corneal ulcer with hypopyon of the right eye with a history of trauma by vegetable matter. Method. Multiple scrapings were obtained from the ulcer. A lactophenol cotton blue wet mount and a Gram-stained smear of the scrapings were made. Scrapings were also inoculated onto various culture media. Results. Direct microscopy of corneal scrapings revealed moderate numbers of septate fungal hyphae. Greenish-yellow-coloured fungal colonies with aerial mycelium were observed in culture of the corneal scrapes. On the basis of colony characteristics and conidial structure, the fungal isolate was identified as Chaetomium sp. The patient was treated with topical natamycin (5%) hourly and cyclopentolate 1% drops 3 times a day. After 4 weeks of therapy, the hypopyon had disappeared, the epithelial defect had healed, and the stromal infiltration had almost completely resolved; the visual acuity of the eye improved from hand movements to (1/2)/60. Conclusion. Fungi of the genus Chaetomium, which are rare causes of human disease (systemic mycosis, endocarditis, subcutaneous lesions), may also cause ocular lesions. PMID:22606471

Kaliamurthy, Jayaraman; Kalavathy, Catti Munuswamy; Nelson Jesudasan, Christadoss Arul; Thomas, Philip A.

2011-01-01

467

GAMBUSIA INFANS,sp. nov, Salamanca.Xlexico. NOTROPIS CHIHUAHUA, sp. nov. Salamanca.Xlexico.  

E-print Network

GAMBUSIA INFANS,sp. nov, Salamanca.Xlexico. NOTROPIS CHIHUAHUA, sp. nov. Salamanca.Xlexico. EVARRA EIGENMANNI, gen. et sp. nov, Mexico City, Mexico. NOTROPIS AZTECUS, ep. nov. Mexico City, JUexieo. CHIROSTOMA Grande'. Moxostoma austrinum. Rio Lerma. Family Cypriuidre. Notropis Iutreusis. Rio Couches. Notropis

468

Genetic and biochemical studies of nitrate reduction in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

1. In Aspergillus nidulans nitrate and nitrite induce nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase, and ammonium represses the three enzymes. 2. Nitrate reductase can donate electrons to a wide variety of acceptors in addition to nitrate. These artificial acceptors include benzyl viologen, 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride, cytochrome c and potassium ferricyanide. Similarly nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase (which are possibly a single enzyme in A. nidulans) can donate electrons to these same artificial acceptors in addition to the substrates nitrite and hydroxylamine. 3. Nitrate reductase can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen in place of the natural donor NADPH. The NADPH-nitrate-reductase activity is about twice that of reduced benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase under comparable conditions. 4. Mutants at six gene loci are known that cannot utilize nitrate and lack nitrate-reductase activity. Most mutants in these loci are constitutive for nitrite reductase, hydroxylamine reductase and all the nitrate-induced NADPH-diaphorase activities. It is argued that mutants that lack nitrate-reductase activity are constitutive for the enzymes of the nitrate-reduction pathway because the functional nitrate-reductase molecule is a component of the regulatory system of the pathway. 5. Mutants are known at two gene loci, niiA and niiB, that cannot utilize nitrite and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. 6. Mutants at the niiA locus possess inducible nitrate reductase and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is suggested that a single enzyme protein is responsible for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in A. nidulans and that the niiA locus is the structural gene for this enzyme. 7. Mutants at the niiB locus lack nitrate-reductase, nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is argued that the niiB gene is a regulator gene whose product is necessary for the induction of the nitrate-utilization pathway. The niiB mutants either lack or produce an incorrect product and consequently cannot be induced. 8. Mutants at the niiribo locus cannot utilize nitrate or nitrite unless provided with a flavine supplement. When grown in the absence of a flavine supplement the activities of some of the nitrate-induced enzymes are subnormal. 9. The growth and enzyme characteristics of a total of 123 mutants involving nine different genes indicate that nitrate is reduced to ammonium. Only two possible structural genes for enzymes concerned with nitrate utilization are known. This suggests that only two enzymes, one for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, the other for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium, are involved in this pathway. PMID:4382427

Pateman, J A; Rever, B M; Cove, D J

1967-07-01

469

Genetic and biochemical studies of nitrate reduction in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

1. In Aspergillus nidulans nitrate and nitrite induce nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase, and ammonium represses the three enzymes. 2. Nitrate reductase can donate electrons to a wide variety of acceptors in addition to nitrate. These artificial acceptors include benzyl viologen, 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride, cytochrome c and potassium ferricyanide. Similarly nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase (which are possibly a single enzyme in A. nidulans) can donate electrons to these same artificial acceptors in addition to the substrates nitrite and hydroxylamine. 3. Nitrate reductase can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen in place of the natural donor NADPH. The NADPH–nitrate-reductase activity is about twice that of reduced benzyl viologen–nitrate reductase under comparable conditions. 4. Mutants at six gene loci are known that cannot utilize nitrate and lack nitrate-reductase activity. Most mutants in these loci are constitutive for nitrite reductase, hydroxylamine reductase and all the nitrate-induced NADPH-diaphorase activities. It is argued that mutants that lack nitrate-reductase activity are constitutive for the enzymes of the nitrate-reduction pathway because the functional nitrate-reductase molecule is a component of the regulatory system of the pathway. 5. Mutants are known at two gene loci, niiA and niiB, that cannot utilize nitrite and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. 6. Mutants at the niiA locus possess inducible nitrate reductase and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is suggested that a single enzyme protein is responsible for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in A. nidulans and that the niiA locus is the structural gene for this enzyme. 7. Mutants at the niiB locus lack nitrate-reductase, nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is argued that the niiB gene is a regulator gene whose product is necessary for the induction of the nitrate-utilization pathway. The niiB mutants either lack or produce an incorrect product and consequently cannot be induced. 8. Mutants at the niiribo locus cannot utilize nitrate or nitrite unless provided with a flavine supplement. When grown in the absence of a flavine supplement the activities of some of the nitrate-induced enzymes are subnormal. 9. The growth and enzyme characteristics of a total of 123 mutants involving nine different genes indicate that nitrate is reduced to ammonium. Only two possible structural genes for enzymes concerned with nitrate utilization are known. This suggests that only two enzymes, one for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, the other for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium, are involved in this pathway. PMID:4382427

Pateman, J. A.; Rever, B. M.; Cove, D. J.

1967-01-01

470

Cryptic and rare Aspergillus species in Brazil: prevalence in clinical samples and in vitro susceptibility to triazoles.  

PubMed

Aspergillus spp. are among the most common causes of opportunistic invasive fungal infections in tertiary care hospitals. Little is known about the prevalence and in vitro susceptibility of Aspergillus species in Latin America, because there are few medical centers able to perform accurate identification at the species level. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of cryptic and rare Aspergillus species among clinical samples from 133 patients with suspected aspergillosis admitted in 12 medical centers in Brazil and to analyze the in vitro activity of different antifungal drugs. The identification of Aspergillus species was performed based on a polyphasic approach, as well as sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, calmodulin, and ?-tubulin genes and phylogenetic analysis when necessary. The in vitro susceptibility tests with voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole were performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 document (2008). We demonstrated a high prevalence of cryptic species causing human infection. Only three isolates, representing the species Aspergillus thermomutatus, A. ochraceus, and A. calidoustus, showed less in vitro susceptibility to at least one of the triazoles tested. Accurate identifications of Aspergillus at the species level and with in vitro susceptibility tests are important because some species may present unique resistance patterns against specific antifungal drugs. PMID:25078909

Negri, C E; Gonçalves, S S; Xafranski, H; Bergamasco, M D; Aquino, V R; Castro, P T O; Colombo, A L

2014-10-01

471

Anoxybacillus ayderensis sp. nov. and Anoxybacillus kestanbolensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two thermophilic bacilli were isolated from mud and water samples of the Ayder and Kestanbol hot springs in the provinces of Rize and Canakkale, respectively, in Turkey. Strains AB04T and K4T were sporulating, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. These isolates were moderately thermophilic (with an optimum temperature for growth of 50-55 degrees C), facultative anaerobes able to grow on a wide range of carbon sources including d-glucose, d-raffinose, d-sucrose, D-xylose, D-fructose, L-arabinose, maltose, D-mannose and D-mannitol. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these isolates resembled Anoxybacillus flavithermus DSM 2641T and Anoxybacillus gonensis NCIMB 13933T. DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that thermophilic isolate AB04T has only 51.2 % relatedness to A. flavithermus, 45.1 % relatedness to Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis and 68.6 % relatedness to A. gonensis. Thermophilic isolate K4T showed only 60.4 % relatedness to A. flavithermus, 42.9 % relatedness to A. pushchinoensis and 38.5 % relatedness to A. gonensis. On the basis of the DNA-DNA hybridization data, isolates AB04T and K4T are not related to A. flavithermus DSM 2641T, A. pushchinoensis DSM 12423T or A. gonensis NCIMB 13933T at the species level, but show relatedness to one another of 40.5 %. On the basis of the data presented, it is proposed that strains AB04T (= NCIMB 13972T = NCCB 100050T) and K4T (= NCIMB 13971T = NCCB 100051T) be designated as the type strains of Anoxybacillus ayderensis sp. nov. and Anoxybacillus kestanbolensis sp. nov., respectively. PMID:15388701

Dulger, Sabriye; Demirbag, Zihni; Belduz, Ali Osman

2004-09-01

472

Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of clinical isolates of Aspergillus flavus from Iran reveals the first cases of Aspergillus minisclerotigenes associated with human infection  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus flavus is intensively studied for its role in infecting crop plants and contaminating produce with aflatoxin, but its role as a human pathogen is less well understood. In parts of the Middle East and India, A. flavus surpasses A. fumigatus as a cause of invasive aspergillosis and is a significant cause of cutaneous, sinus, nasal and nail infections. Methods A collection of 45 clinical and 10 environmental A. flavus isolates from Iran were analysed using Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) markers with MICROSAT and goeBURST to determine their genetic diversity and their relatedness to clinical and environmental A. flavus isolates from Australia. Phylogeny was assessed using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing, and mating type was determined by PCR. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on selected isolates using a reference microbroth dilution method. Results There was considerable diversity in the A. flavus collection, with no segregation on goeBURST networks according to source or geographic location. Three Iranian isolates, two from sinus infections and one from a paranasal infection grouped with Aspergillus minisclerotigenes, and all produced B and G aflatoxin. Phylogenic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing confirmed two of these as A. minisclerotigenes, while the third could not be differentiated from A. flavus and related species within Aspergillus section flavi. Based on epidemiological cut-off values, the A. minisclerotigens and A. flavus isolates tested were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs. Conclusions This is the first report of human infection due to A. minisclerotigenes, and it raises the possiblity that other species within Aspergillus section flavi may also cause clinical disease. Clinical isolates of A. flavus from Iran are not distinct from Australian isolates, indicating local environmental, climatic or host features, rather than fungal features, govern the high incidence of A. flavus infection in this region. The results of this study have important implications for biological control strategies that aim to reduce aflatoxin by the introduction of non-toxigenic strains, as potentially any strain of A. flavus, and closely related species like A. minisclerotigenes, might be capable of human infection. PMID:24986045

2014-01-01

473

_q .. SP-6102 -" IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

_¢q .. SP-6102 -" READINGS IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Edited by Francis T. Hoban and William M. Lawbaugh co ! (NASA-SP-6102) REAOINGS IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (NASa) 215 p N93-24678 --THRU-- N93-24693 Unclas H1/31 0158570 #12;.J T ,j J #12;READINGS IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Edited by Francis T. Hoban

Rhoads, James

474

SP100 start-up control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control analysis was performed to evaluate the reference and two alternative reactor start-up control strategies for the SP-100, using a detailed nonlinear model of the reactor. The analysis results show that the reference control strategy for the SP-100 adequately meets the current requirements. The two alternative control strategies provide tighter control than the reference strategy. Use of the measured

Raymond A. Meyer; Sang K. Rhow; Kwok K. Wong; Frank J. Halfen

1991-01-01

475

SP100 liquid metal test loop design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SP-100 Power System Qualification (PSO) program validates the technology readiness of the SP-100 Generic Flight System (GFS). As part of the PSQ, the GFS reactor, heat transport and power generation systems are being validated, by test, in high temperature liquid metal test loops. The liquid metal test loop program consists of two test loops. The first, a natural circulation

T. Ted Fallas; Gordon B. Kruger; Frank R. Wiltshire; Grant C. Jensen; Harold Clay; Hugh A. Upton; Robert E. Gamble; Christian Kjaer-Olsen; Keith Lee

1992-01-01

476

SP100 nuclear subsystem hardware and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development status and prospective performance improvement assessment is presented for component technologies associated with the SP-100 spacecraft nuclear power system. These components encompass fuel pellets, materials and their fabrication methods, reactivity-control mechanisms, and sensors. The SP-100 system can be configured to support orbital, interplanetary, and surface power applications over a wide net-electrical-power range.

Philip R. Pluta; Anthony J. Bryhan; Samuel Kaplan; Raymond A. Meyer; Michael R. Schrag; Robert Yaspo

1992-01-01

477

SP100 early flight mission designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two systems design options are under consideration for the use of thermoelectric technology in conjunction with the SP-100 nuclear reactor for early implementation spaceflights. Attention is presently given to the option that employs radiatively coupled Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples. The flight-demonstrated status of RTG technology is consistent with a 1996 lauch date; the use of the SP-100 reactor ensures

N. F. Shepard; R. E. Biddiscombe; T. S. Chan; N. A. Deane; A. S. Kirpich; R. Murata; R. Protsik; M. A. Smith; J. D. Stephen

1992-01-01

478

Mixed Fungal Infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida) of Severe Hand Injury  

PubMed Central

Severe hand injuries are almost always heavily contaminated and hence wound infections in those patients are frequent. Fungal wound infections are rare in immunocompetent patients. A case of mixed fungal infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida) was documented in a young male patient, with a severe hand injury caused by a corn picker. The diagnosis of fungal infection was confirmed microbiologically and histopathologically. The treatment was conducted with repeated surgical necrectomy and administration of antifungal drugs according to the antimycogram. After ten weeks the patient was successfully cured. The aggressive nature of Mucor and Aspergillus skin infection was described. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are necessary for an early diagnosis and the initiation of the adequate treatment. Early detection, surgical intervention, and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential in the treatment of this rare infection that could potentially lead to loss of limbs or even death. PMID:24782933

Obradovic-Tomasev, Milana; Popovic, Aleksandra; Vuckovic, Nada; Jovanovic, Mladen

2014-01-01

479

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world.  

PubMed

As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samples included the culture-dependent dilution-to-extinction method and the culture-independent 454-pyrosequencing. Of the 7?904 isolates, 2?717 isolates were identified as belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The aim of this study was to identify isolates to species level and describe the new species found. Secondly, we wanted to create a reliable reference sequence database to be used for next-generation sequencing projects. Isolates represented 59 Aspergillus species, including eight undescribed species, 49 Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here as new. In total, 568 ITS barcodes were generated, and 391 ?-tubulin and 507 calmodulin sequences, which serve as alternative identification markers. PMID:25492981

Visagie, C M; Hirooka, Y; Tanney, J B; Whitfield, E; Mwange, K; Meijer, M; Amend, A S; Seifert, K A; Samson, R A

2014-06-01

480

Neutrophil chemotactic responses induced by fresh and swollen Rhizopus oryzae spores and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.  

PubMed Central

With the induction of germination, Rhizopus oryzae spores and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia activate the complement system and induce neutrophil chemotaxis. In contrast, freshly isolated R. oryzae spores did not induce neutrophil migration into lung tissue of mice after intranasal inoculation. Moreover, in microchemotaxis assays neither fresh R. oryzae spores nor A. fumigatus conidia activated sera to stimulate human neutrophil chemotaxis above control migration until at least 10(7) or 10(8) spores or conidia per ml of sera were used. The increased generation of chemotactic factors by swollen spores and conidia was not due to an increased surface area, as there was decreased neutrophil chemotactic response to Rhizopus or Aspergillus hyphae when compared with swollen spores or conidia. PMID:3157647

Waldorf, A R; Diamond, R D

1985-01-01

481

Comparison of immunodiffusion and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to four Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Antigenic extracts were prepared from Aspergillus fumigatus, A niger, A flavus and A terreus for use in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests for Aspergillus antibodies to determine whether the use of antigenic extracts from species other than A fumigatus increased the sensitivity of the ELISA. ELISA titres correlated well with positive ID tests. Patient titres by ELISA were significantly higher than control titres for all species. Patient titres to A niger were also significantly higher than titres to the other species. Total number of ID bands to A fumigatus correlated significantly with anti-A fumigatus ELISA titres. It is concluded that the use of antigenic extracts from species other than A fumigatus improves the sensitivity of the ELISA. PMID:2511230

Froudist, J H; Harnett, G B; McAleer, R

1989-11-01

482

Modification of c and n sources for enhanced production of cyclosporin ‘a’ by Aspergillus Terreus  

PubMed Central

Most of the studies regarding cyclosporin ‘A’ production through fungi concentrate around Tolypocladium inflatum. This is mainly due to lower reported production of this drug in other fungi. The present study was therefore conducted to explore indigenous isolates of Aspergillus terreus for synthesis of this drug and defining a production medium for obtaining high yield of cyclosporin ‘A’. For this purpose carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized for the selected best strain of A. terreus. Overall results depicted that the best cyclosporin ‘A’ yield from selected Aspergillus terreus (FCBP58) could be obtained by using p