Background Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the standard diagnostic modality for thyroid nodules. However, it has limitations among which is the incidence of non-diagnostic results (Thy1). Management of cases with repeatedly non-diagnostic FNAC ranges from simple observation to surgical intervention. We aim to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in non-diagnostic FNAC, and the success rate of repeated FNAC. We also aim to evaluate risk factors for malignancy in patients with non-diagnostic FNAC. Materials and Methods Retrospective analyses of consecutive cases with thyroid non diagnostic FNAC results were included. Results Out of total 1657 thyroid FNAC done during the study period, there were 264 (15.9%) non-diagnostic FNAC on the first attempt. On repeating those, the rate of a non-diagnostic result on second FNAC was 61.8% and on third FNAC was 47.2%. The overall malignancy rate in Thy1 FNAC was 4.5% (42% papillary, 42% follicular and 8% anaplastic), and the yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. Ultrasound guidance by an experienced head neck radiologist produced the lowest non-diagnostic rate (38%) on repetition compared to US guidance by a generalist radiologist (65%) and by non US guidance (90%). Conclusions There is a low risk of malignancy in patients with a non-diagnostic FNAC result, commensurate to the risk of any nodule. The yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC.
Al Maqbali, Talib; Tedla, Miroslav; Weickert, Martin O.; Mehanna, Hisham
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent tumor in the world, and the third cause of death related to cancer. Histological samples obtained from diseased liver likely to have HCC are currently prescribed in selected patients in whose imaging studies and tumor markers are not sufficient for the diagnosis. In recent years, a risk of tumoral seeding along needle tract of FNAC to obtain histological samples has been reported. We present a case of tumor implantation of HCC cells in the needle tract, a year and four months after a percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). PMID:24719916
Carlin, Sáez P; García-Botella, A; Diez-Valladares, L; Perez-Aguirre, E; Ortega, L; Mendez, R; Torres, A J
Currently, accurate diagnosis of breast lesions depends on a triple assessment approach comprising clinical, imaging and pathologic examinations. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is widely adopted for the pathologic assessment because of its accurracy and ease of use. While much has been written about the atypical and maliganant categories of FNAC diagnosis, little covers the non-malignanat category which represents a sheer number in all FNAC cases. Moreover, any false-negative diagnosis of the non-malignant cases may lead to missed diagnosis of cancer. This paper aims to discuss the issues of smear adequacy, the cytologic features of benign breast lesions and the dilemma of a false-negative aspirate. Much has been suggested about the smear adequacy criterion, including quantifying epithelial clusters, whereas others advocate basing adequacy on qualitative quantum of using noncellular features of FNAC. Various benign lesions could be easily diagnosed at FNAC; however, they have cytologic features overlapped with malignant lesions. False negativity of FNAC does occur; this could be caused by either “true” false-negative cases attributed to suboptimal sampling technique, poor localization of the mass or nonpalpable lesions or “false” false-negative cases due to interpretational errors. Though false-positive cases are less commonly found, they will also be discussed briefly.
Mendoza, Paulo; Lacambra, Maribel; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Tse, Gary M.
Aims: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon breast lesion that mimics carcinoma. The fine needle aspiration cytological (FNAC) features of GM have rarely been discussed in the literature. These features are reported in eight histologically confirmed cases of GM. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken in which a diagnosis of GM had been made on histopathology, and the FNAC slides were reviewed and assessed for the presence of granulomas, necrosis, multinucleated giant cells, and inflammatory background cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was performed on the histological material to exclude tuberculosis. Results: All cases were confirmed histologically and PCR for mycobacterial DNA was negative. In the FNACs, varying numbers of granulomas composed of epithelioid histiocytes were present in four cases. The same four cases showed giant cells of either foreign body or Langhan’s type. No necrosis was noted. Six cases showed many histiocytes, some plump and others epithelioid, in the background. The number of epithelioid histiocytes corresponded to the presence of granulomas. Neutrophils were the predominant background inflammatory cells in most cases (six). Conclusions: The cytological diagnosis of GM is difficult because the features overlap with other aetiologies, including tuberculosis. Specific features are absent. The absence of necrosis and a predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate in the background favour a diagnosis of GM. This diagnosis should also be considered when abundant epithelioid histiocytes are seen in smears, even in the absence of granulomas. However, the definitive diagnosis of GM depends on histology from fine needle biopsies and negative microbiological investigations.
Tse, G M K; Poon, C S P; Law, B K B; Pang, L M; Chu, W C W; Ma, T K F
Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images
Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a valuable adjunct to pre-operative screening in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and in most cases, it can distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Aim: To study the cytology of neoplastic thyroid lesions to minimize surgical intervention and for confirmation of the diagnosis by histopathological study. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of thyroid FNAC smears were analyzed and cyto-histopathological correlation was done in 47 cases. Galen and Gambino's method was used to calculate the sensitivity and positive predictive value. Results: Of the 100 cases, 90 were diagnosed as neoplastic lesions by FNAC and ten cases as non-neoplastic lesions, which turned out to be neoplasms on histopathological study. Among 100 cases, 47 were biopsied and subjected to histopathological study. The sensitivity of FNAC was 75.60%, and positive predictive value was 83.78% for malignant lesions. Conclusions: FNAC is a rapid, efficient, cost-effective, relatively painless procedure with a high diagnostic accuracy. It has high rate of sensitivity and positive predictive value in diagnosing thyroid neoplastic lesions. Hence, it is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients.
Rangaswamy, M; Narendra, KL; Patel, S; Gururajprasad, C; Manjunath, GV
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is associated with an increased risk of developing papillary carcinoma of thyroid. We hereby report a case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with papillary carcinoma in a 45-year-old ear old female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) which was later confirmed on histopathological examination .Such an occurrence, when both lesions are picked up on FNAC in a patient with no palpable thyroid nodule is rare. The case is presented here for its rarity.
Makhdoomi, Rumana; Mustafa, Farhat; Malik, Rais; Bhat, Salma; Alam, Khurshid; Bashir, Humaira; Samoon, Nuzhat; Rasool, Mohsin; Baba, Khalil Mohammed
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) are widely used in diagnosing breast lesions, with both\\u000a achieving high sensitivity and specificity. Whether FNAC or CNB is better remains highly controversial. In this review, the\\u000a advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods are discussed, especially in relation to specific problematic groups\\u000a of breast lesions. In general, CNB
Gary M. TsePuay-Hoon; Puay-Hoon Tan
Background. Breast lumps have varied pathology, and there are different techniques to prove the diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast lesions at our center. Methods. We had retrospectively analysed 854 patients who underwent FNAC for primary breast lumps and 190 patients who underwent FNAC for an axillary lymph node in the year 2010. Results. Of 854 patients, histological correlation was available in 723 patients. The analysis was done for 812 patients as medical records were not available for 42 patients. FNAC was false negative in seven cases; 2 cases of phyllodes were reported as fibroadenoma, and 5 cases of carcinoma were diagnosed as atypical hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity, and false negative value of FNAC in diagnosing breast lumps were 99% (715/723), 100%, and 1%, respectively. Of 190 patients for whom FNAC was performed for axilla, 170 had proven to have axillary lymph node metastases, and the rest had reactive hyperplasia or inflammatory cells. Conclusions. FNAC is rapid, accurate, outpatient based, and less complicated procedure and helps in diagnosis of breast cancer, benign diseases, and axillary involvement in experienced hands with less chance of false results. PMID:24455419
Challa, Vasu Reddy; Yale Guru, Basavanna Goud; Rangappa, Poornima; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Gayathri, Devi M
During a period of 5 years (2001-2005), six cases of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule (umbilical metastasis) were diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In all the cases, FNAC of umbilical nodules was the first investigation and subsequently the patients were investigated for the primary tumor. The primary carcinoma was found in the stomach in three cases, ovary in two cases and one case was of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Based on our findings, we suggest FNAC as an initial diagnostic procedure in cases suspected of umbilical metastasis. It is not only simple, fast, accurate and inexpensive but can also save the patient from other invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:18418857
Handa, Uma; Garg, Sukant; Mohan, Harsh
This paper describes the results of transproctoscopic fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of rectal lesions. Fifty one consecutive patients referred with a presumptive diagnosis of rectal mass were subjected to proctoscopic examination when fine needle aspiration cytology, brush cytology and biopsy samples were taken. Of the 30 patients of malignancy of rectum in whom all the three sampling techniques were applied, the biopsy was positive in 27 (90%), brush cytology in 25 (83.3%) and fine needle aspiration cytology in 29 (96.6%). A combination of fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a positive yield in 96.6% while that fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a yield of 100%. Fine needle aspiration cytology was most helpful in infiltrative tumours. All 10 patients with secondaries in the pouch of Douglas or rectovesical pouch, and the single patient with submucosal rectal carcinoma were correctly diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology. There were no false positive results with fine needle aspiration cytology and no complications were encountered with the procedure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
Kochhar, R; Rajwanshi, A; Wig, J D; Gupta, N M; Kesiezie, V; Bhasin, D K; Malik, A K; Gupta, S K; Mehta, S K
Thyroid cancer is not very common, accounting for 1-2% of all cancers, with a population incidence of about 0.004%. Currently, the ability to discriminate between follicular adenoma and carcinoma represents the major challenge in preclinical diagnosis of thyroid proliferative lesions. Better discrimination between the two would help avoid unnecessary thyroidectomy and save valuable resources. Over the years, galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been proposed as a diagnostic marker with varied success. In this paper, we used Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Immunogold Labelling (ESEM-IGL) to investigate the expression of Gal-3 on Thin-Prep fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We optimized the ESEM-IGL method on thyroid cell lines (RO-82 and FTC-133) comparing our membrane Gal-3 labeling data with Western blot. We evaluated 183 thyroid FNAC from Italian patients with a uncertain pre-surgical diagnosis. ESEM-IGL method marker sensitivity is 71.2%, while specificity is 53.3% and diagnostic efficacy is 61.2%. Our results confirmed that Gal-3 expression is associated with situations of hypertrophy and/or cellular hyperproliferation, pathophysiological situations common both to adenomas and to thyroid carcinomas. The innovation of thyroid FNAC Thin-Prep ESEM-IGL shows the levels of Gal-3 immunolabeling clearly, even through the individual cells of a thyroid nodule. However, Gal-3 alone, as a molecular marker of thyroid cancer, can still have a limited application in pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:23042505
Papale, F; Cafiero, G; Grimaldi, A; Marino, G; Rosso, F; Mian, C; Barollo, S; Pennelli, G; Sorrenti, S; De Antoni, E; Barbarisi, A
Background: Methodical and meticulous understanding of clinico-pathological procedures and decision making process of cancer diagnosis and identification of aspects that are well-suited for computer-aided analysis are first steps toward development of assistive computational tool for analysis of breast fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) slides. Aims: To identify variables in practice of FNAC as used for diagnosis of breast lesions and commonly perceived diagnostic significance of cytological features for diagnosis of benign or malignant condition of breast lesions. Materials and Methods: An India-wide questionnaire-based survey of cytopathologists/pathologists’ breast FNAC reporting practices and their opinion on diagnostic significance of cytological features in diagnosis of benign or malignant nature of breast lesion were conducted. Results: Fifty-one experts working with various medical education institutes (~52% of participants), oncological tertiary care centers (~28%) and primary care centers/private diagnostic pathology laboratories (~20%) spread over 13 states of India have participated in the survey. Constants and variables observed in clinico-cytopathological practices and combined opinion of the participants on diagnostic significance of cytological features are presented here. Conclusions: There exist analogous as well as varied components in clinico-pathological procedures and diagnostic interpretation by individuals. These constants and variables in the practice of breast FNAC should be considered, when drawing up specifications for an assistive computational tool for analysis of breast FNAC slides. The estimate for commonly perceived significance of cytological features obtained through this study will help in their selection for computer-aided analysis of breast FNAC slides and further in selection of corresponding feature quantification techniques.
Garud, Hrushikesh Tukaram; Sheet, Debdoot; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Ghosh, Arindam
The aim of this study was to determine the value of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and frozen section (FS) in the diagnosis of malignant parotid tumours. One hundred and thirty-eight patients who underwent FNAC and FS of a parotid tumour between 2006 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of FNAC and FS were determined using final histological diagnosis as the gold standard. Of the 138 tumours assessed in our study, 30 were malignant and 108 benign. For FNAC, the sensitivity was 73%, specificity 87%, positive predictive value 61%, and negative predictive value 90%. For FS, the sensitivity was 80%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 92%, and negative predictive value 94%. Four false-negative results by FNAC were corrected by FS, and surgery was completed. Two false-positive results were identified by both FNAC and FS. FNAC is an important examination that provides valuable information for the preoperative diagnostic work-up and alerts the surgeon to the possible presence of malignancy. However, FNAC cannot be used alone, and FS has a very important place in the intraoperative management of parotid tumours. PMID:24513407
Fakhry, N; Santini, L; Lagier, A; Dessi, P; Giovanni, A
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the second most common thyroid lesion next to goiter diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). It is also an important cause for hypothyroidism. FNAC plays a significant role in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions due to its simplicity and low cost. It can accurately diagnose Hashimoto's thyroidits in most patients. However, a small percentage of cases may be missed due to the inherent limitations of this procedure and the varied cytomorphology of this lesion. Therefore thorough cytological evaluation and an integrated approach are necessary to pick up correct diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary surgery. We present a 56-year-old female with solitary thyroid nodule diagnosed as Hurthle cell neoplasm on FNAC, but subsequent histopathological diagnosis following resection revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis with marked Hurthle cell change. PMID:22090699
Gayathri, Bn; Kalyani, R; Harendra, Kumar Ml; Krishna, Prasad K
Acute progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) may be the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, cutaneous involvement is very rare. We present an unusual case of acute PDH with multiple diffuse cutaneous papulonodular lesions predominantly on the face, trunk, and upper extremities, diagnosed initially with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Subsequent serological tests revealed positivity for antibodies for HIV 1 and 2. The cytomorphological features were further confirmed by biopsy and histochemical stains. FNAC is a rapid, cost-effective tool that may be utilized in the diagnosis of papulonodular forms of PDH and for initiating prompt therapy. We discuss the clinical features, clinical differentials, and treatment of the condition.
Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Khan, Kalyan; Choudhary, Sanjiv; Banerjee, Sabyasachi
Aim: The primary goal of our study was to evaluate the value and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of various intraoral lesions and to correlate the cytological diagnosis with final histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Fine needle aspiration was performed in 229 patients presented with different lesions of the oral cavity at our institution. Cytological findings were then compared with final histopathological diagnosis. Results: With a male to female ratio of 1.79:1, 229 patients presented with different lesions of the oral cavity were aspirated. Histopathological correlation was available in 86.9% of cases while inadequate material was obtained in 13.1% cases. The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration in diagnosing benign, pre-malignant and malignant lesions were 95.8%, 84.6% and 97% respectively. Overall the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing intraoral lesions was 94.9% with sensitivity and specificity of 93.2% and 96.8% respectively. Conclusion: FNAC of intraoral lesion is recommended as a valuable procedure for the initial evaluation of all intraoral lesions as it is simple, inexpensive, convenient and comfortable to the patient. Moreover, it can offer a rapid and accurate diagnosis for further management of the patient.
Khan, Nazoora; Afroz, Nishat; Haider, Aiman; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem; Hashmi, Sarwat Hussain; Hasan, Syed Abrar
Carcinoid of the ovary is an uncommon tumor. In the present article we have described the cytological features of carcinoid of the ovary in a 53-year old post-menopausal female. The patient presented with abdominal discomfort and loose stools. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the left adnexal mass showed clusters and also scattered, relatively monomorphic population of tumor cells with vague rosette-like structures. Cytological diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumor possibly sex cord stromal tumor or carcinoid of ovary was offered and subsequent histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of carcinoid. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:612-614. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23456982
Kumar, Mahendra; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Dey, Pranab
In squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, staging of the neck cannot rule out occult metastatic disease. An improved staging is necessary to avoid elective neck dissection in pa- tients staged as N0. The study was performed to determine the feasibility of the detection of occult metastatic disease by ultra- sound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (USgFNAC) of sentinel lymph
Steffen Hoft; Claus Muhle; Winfried Brenner; Ernst Sprenger; Steffen Maune
Background: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a simple, minimally invasive, cost effective, outpatient based and a rapid diagnostic method for breast lesions. The aim of the present study was to correlate cytological findings with histopathological findings and to determine the accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Material and Methods: A total of 222 breast aspirates were studied. Histo-cytopathological correlations were obtained in 91 cases. All the aspirates were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H andE) stain. Results: Among 222 patients, 217 were females and 5 were males. Benign breast lesions were found in 144 cases (64.87%); among which fibroadenoma (30.18%) was the commonest lesion which was observed. Malignancy was observed in 69 cases (31.08%); among them, ductal carcinoma was the predominant lesion (29.28%) which was seen. Histopathological confirmations were obtained in 90 cases out of 91 cases in which histo-cytopathological corrections were possible. All 45 malignant aspirates were confirmed by histopathology. Benign reports were confirmed in 45 out of 46 cases by doing histological examinations; except one case which was diagnosed as malignant by studying its histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in breast lesions were reported to be 97.82% and 100% respectively, with 100% positive predictive value and 97.85% negative predictive value. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in the present study was found to be 98.90%. Conclusion: It is important to remember that a negative FNAC of a breast lesion does not preclude the diagnosis of a carcinoma, particularly in presence of a clinical suspicion of malignancy and/or an abnormal mammogram.
Panjvani, Sahil I.; Parikh, Biren J.; Parikh, Swati B.; Chaudhari, Bhawana R.; Patel, Kazoomi K.; Gupta, Garima S.; Kodnani, Ashka H.; Anandani, Garima M.
Background: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a simple, minimally invasive, cost effective, outpatient based and a rapid diagnostic method for breast lesions. The aim of the present study was to correlate cytological findings with histopathological findings and to determine the accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Material and Methods: A total of 222 breast aspirates were studied. Histo-cytopathological correlations were obtained in 91 cases. All the aspirates were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H andE) stain. Results: Among 222 patients, 217 were females and 5 were males. Benign breast lesions were found in 144 cases (64.87%); among which fibroadenoma (30.18%) was the commonest lesion which was observed. Malignancy was observed in 69 cases (31.08%); among them, ductal carcinoma was the predominant lesion (29.28%) which was seen. Histopathological confirmations were obtained in 90 cases out of 91 cases in which histo-cytopathological corrections were possible. All 45 malignant aspirates were confirmed by histopathology. Benign reports were confirmed in 45 out of 46 cases by doing histological examinations; except one case which was diagnosed as malignant by studying its histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in breast lesions were reported to be 97.82% and 100% respectively, with 100% positive predictive value and 97.85% negative predictive value. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in the present study was found to be 98.90%. Conclusion: It is important to remember that a negative FNAC of a breast lesion does not preclude the diagnosis of a carcinoma, particularly in presence of a clinical suspicion of malignancy and/or an abnormal mammogram. PMID:24551635
Panjvani, Sahil I; Parikh, Biren J; Parikh, Swati B; Chaudhari, Bhawana R; Patel, Kazoomi K; Gupta, Garima S; Kodnani, Ashka H; Anandani, Garima M
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women worldwide and usually presents as lump in the breast. Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) are two investigational tools often used to differentiate malignant breast lump from benign one. Aims and Objects: To find out and compare the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC in diagnosing malignant breast lump. Material and Methods: Patients who presented with clinically palpable breast lump at the department of Surgery, RIMS, India, from September, 2010 to August, 2012, were included. Recurrent lumps, breast abscess and cystic breast lumps were excluded. All the patients underwent Ultrasonographic evaluation using 7.5 MHz probe (©SIEMENS, Sonoline Versa Plus) at the department of Radiodiagnosis, RIMS and FNAC at the department of Pathology, RIMS. All the patients underwent excision of the lumps and tissues were sent for Histopathological examination. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC were calculated taking Histopathological result as the gold standard. Values were compared. Results: Sixty patients with 62 breast lumps (40 benign and 22 malignant) were included. FNAC reported 42 lumps as benign and 19 as malignant and was indeterminate in 1 case. Ultrasonography reported 36 cases as benign, 18 as malignant and 6 as indeterminate; it failed to detect breast lump in 2 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC in diagnosing malignant breast lump were respectively 94.74%, 100%, 100%, 97.22% and 90.48%, 100%, 100%, 95.24%. Conclusion: Ultrasonography and FNAC are 100% specific in diagnosing malignant breast lesion. Although Ultrasonography appears more sensitive than FNAC, the percentage of indeterminate report is higher with Ultrasonography.
Takhellambam, Yumjaobabu Singh; Lourembam, Sunil Singh; Sapam, Opendro Singh; Kshetrimayum, Raju Singh; Ningthoujam, Bhubon Singh; Khan, Tousif
Background: Cytological reports of ameloblastoma are relatively rare in the literature. Appropriate cytologic diagnosis may play a significant role in its preoperative presumptive diagnosis, especially when incisional biopsy findings are inadequate. Aim: To systematically study the detailed cytomorphologic features of ameloblastoma and to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in its preoperative diagnosis. Materials and Methods: In this study, FNAC was done on 26 cases of intra-osseous jaw lesion, clinically diagnosed as odontogenic tumor or developmental odontogenic cysts and detailed cytopathological interpretation was carried out and the results were correlated with the corresponding histopathology. Results: Of the 26 cases, 15 were found to be ameloblastoma and sensitivity of FNAC in the diagnosis of ameloblastoma was found to be 86.6%. None of the intra-osseous jaw lesion was false positively diagnosed as ameloblastoma in FNAC and hence the specificity was found to be 100%. Conclusion: Presence of cohesive epithelial cell clusters exhibiting smaller basaloid cells with peripherally placed tall columnar cells and occasional large squamous cells either adjoining the basaloid epithelial clusters or in isolated group aids in the specific cytological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and FNAC offers an excellent diagnostic aid that may play a significant role in preoperative presumptive diagnosis of ameloblastoma along with incisional biopsy.
Kaliamoorthy, Sriram; Venkatapathy, Ramesh; Babu, Premalatha; Veeran, Veeravarmal
Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (US-guided FNAC) of regional nodal basins is increasingly incorporated into the national follow-up schemes of high risk melanoma patients. In this paper we describe an additional added value of US-guided FNAC in the detection and verification of subcutaneous/in-transit metastases. A patient presented with a long lasting, smooth, movable node, close to the scar of the primary melanoma, mimicking a lipoma in every clinical follow-up. Ultrasound at once suspected a metastasis. FNAC was performed within one day of sampling in an outpatient setting, without side effects. A hypothesis of an auto-vaccination in this case could not be proven by examining the T-cell response. Despite the clinically benign aspect of this metastasis, US-guided FNAC can provide diagnosis within 1 day. FNAC is a rapid, cost-effective method, free of complications, of great value in the diagnosis of putative metastases. PMID:21489911
Schaefer-Hesterberg, Gregor; Akkooi, Alexander J C Van; Letsch, Anne; Roewert, Joachim; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Keilholz, Ulrich; Voit, Christiane
Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour and the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A large number of patients in Bangladesh have been suffering from breast cancer. Now-a-days, Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is being performed as a pre-operative test to evaluate breast lump. FNAC is cost effective and can prevent unnecessary surgery. As FNAC became more reliable in diagnosing malignancy and thereby the use of frozen-section histology had been reduced by about 80%. But erroneous diagnosis is more common with FNAC than with histopathology. However, mammography can identify breast cancers too small to palpate on physical examination and theoretically beneficial to diagnose even noninvasive lesions. Present study aimed to see the accuracy of FNAC and mammography in the diagnosis of palpable breast lumps and to study their correlation. In this study 222 patients were included in the study and FNAC was done in all the patients. Mammography was done in 112 cases. Among these 112 patients 32 cases were found malignant. Histopathology was done in total 89 cases. Among 112 patients who were underwent mammography only 43 were found for histopathology. Finally, 36 cases were found malignant. Fibroadenoma is mostly found in below 20 years group and malignancy is mostly occurring in older age group. Mammography shows total 8 false positive and 5 false negative cases. FNAC shows only 1 false positive and 1 false negative case. On analysis mammography showed 82.76% sensitivity, 90.36% specificity, 75% Positive predictive value (PPV), 93.75% Negative predictive value (NPV) and 88.39% accuracy. FNAC showed 97.22% sensitivity, 99.46% specificity, 97.220% PPV, 99.46% NPV and 99.095% accuracy. Mammography was found to be less sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of breast lump though there is highly significant correlation among them. However, the study has shown a much higher performance of FNAC than other previous studies indicating the improved skill in cytological diagnosis to a satisfactory level. PMID:22081186
Rahman, M Z; Sikder, A M; Nabi, S R
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, cheap and reliable method for diagnosing any accessible lesion. However, there remains a group of malignant undifferentiated neoplasms, which can only be categorized with the help of immunocytochemistry (ICC). The categorization is important due to their vast difference in treatment and prognosis. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of ICC in categorizing the undifferentiated neoplasms diagnosed on routine FNAC smears. Materials and Methods: Thirty six cases of undifferentiated neoplasms were selected from a group of total 78 cytology cases of undifferentiated tumors from different sites like head and neck, lymph node, soft tissue etc. These were then subjected to a panel of ICC markers based on the clinical and cytomorphological features. Results: Of these, 21 were simple, ten were computerized tomography guided and five were ultrasound guided FNACs respectively. All the 78 cases were confirmed by histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. Of the 36 cytological cases, final diagnosis correlated in 30 cases histologically. The six cases were incorrect either due to inadequate material on the smears (three cases) or false positive staining (three cases). Conclusions: Our study found that ICC is a sensitive and specific method for early and definitive diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasms. However, selection of antibodies must be judicious to make it cost effective.
Mandal, Palash Kumar; Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Roy, Shravasti; Adhikari, Anindya; Basu, Nandita; Sinha, Swapan Kumar
Background. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is the second most common thyroid lesion diagnosed on FNAC after goiter. FNAC is reliable tool in the diagnosis of thyroid lesion. Objective. To correlate FNAC cytologic findings with TFT in the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Methods. 175 patients with thyroid swellings were referred for FNAC as well as TFT during 2011–2013. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed using non-aspiration or aspiration techniques and TFT performed on Beckman culter access 2. Results. Lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 55 cases. The commonest age group of lymphocytic thyroiditis was 21–30 years with male?:?female ratio being 1?:?10. Anti-TPO and TSH were elevated in 96.16% (25/26) of cases with grade 3 lymphoid infiltrate, 94.12% (16/17) of cases with grade 2, and 91.67% (11/12) of cases with 1 grade. Increased anti-TPO with raised TSH without any lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 5 cases and 5 cases showed only raised TSH without raised anti-TPO and without any lymphoid infiltrate. We observed that grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. We also observed that anti-TPO and TSH together are significant even if no lymphocytic infiltration is present. Conclusion. Grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has statistical correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. Anti TPO was adjunct to TSH in grade 3. The presence of Hurthle cell change, giant cells, and granulomas has no statistical correlation with lymphocytic thyroiditis.
Sood, Neelam; Nigam, Jitendra Singh
A Ki-67 index was determined in 63 fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimens from patients with rectal cancer, 21 with primary cancers and 42 with local recurrences. Seventeen of the patients had received external irradiation before the examination. In primary cancers, in recurrences as well as in the post-irradiation cases, the mean percentage of Ki-67 positive cells was about 55% with a wide variation. The percentage of Ki-67 positive cells was independent of the length of the recurrence-free period. In conclusion, the Ki-67 antigen may well be studied in FNAC specimens. The presence of antigen did not correlate with development of recurrence, length of recurrence-free period or irradiation prior to the analysis. PMID:9073057
Wiig, J N; Lilleng, R; Paksoy, N; Berner, A; Yogesan, S; Giercksky, K E
In ENT clinical practice patients with neck swelling is a common presentation. To know their exact nature a simple, sensitive and diagnostic tool is required to prevent unnecessary costlier investigation and corresponding treatment. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a very safe, sensitive and diagnostic tool. This study was done to know the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the FNAC in head and neck masses. Present prospective study was done in 179 patients of head and neck masses which were subjected to FNAC and their results were later correlated with histopathological examination report (HPR) wherever available. Out of 179 FNAC, HPR available only in 152 cases. In present study 104 cases (58.10 %) of lymph node, 35 cases (19.55 %) of thyroid gland, 17 cases (9.49 %) of salivary gland, 12 cases (6.70 %) of soft tissue and 11 cases (6.14 %) of miscellaneous swellings were present. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of present study were 81.8, 95.0, 81.8 and 95.0 % respectively. The accuracy was 92.10 %. PMID:24822159
Poorey, V K; Tyagi, Amit
Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) for diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma has evolved in the USA since the late 1970's. Initial reports advised that aspirated specimens be flushed into a container by normal saline or Hank's solution and processed in a cytology laboratory usually by Millipore filter and other techniques. A highly sophisticated cytology laboratory is the key to the success of this procedure. This study was designed to assess a simpler alternative method of processing the specimen by a direct smear technique. From June 1990 to September 1990, 40 procedures were performed on 34 consecutive patients. Seventy two paired direct smear and fluid specimens for cytology examination were collected. Fifty specimens were found to be negative in both types of specimen preparation. Fifteen were found to be positive in both types of specimens preparation, and six specimens were found to be positive only in the direct smear preparation. One of the 72 specimens was found to be positive in the Millipore and other preparation techniques. Based on our data, we conclude that the use of the direct smear for TBNA specimen preparation is an effective, simpler, and improved method. Proper use of it may increase the diagnostic yield and result in better acceptance of this new procedure. PMID:8087128
Wang, K P; Selcuk, Z T; Erozan, Y
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) has proven to be of significant value as a diagnostic method for the evaluation of esophageal mesenchymal tumors, such as true leiomyomas. Utilizing the cell block procedure, the present study reports the diagnostic approach of EUS-FNAC in two patients affected by this lesion, describing the cytological and immunocytochemical findings. Spindle-shaped elements with elongated nuclei were appreciable; moreover, the cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical positivity for smooth muscle actin and desmin strongly supported the diagnosis of leiomyoma when also taking into account the constant negativity for CD34, CD117 and S100. The differential diagnosis between spindle cell mesenchymal tumors and leiomyomas, and the clinico-therapeutic management of the latter are also discussed in the study.
TODARO, P.; CRINO, S.F.; IENI, A.; PALLIO, S.; CONSOLO, P.; TUCCARI, G.
Abstract Conclusion: The accuracy and sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in this analysis were not satisfactory, and the false-negative rate seemed to be higher than for parotid tumours. The possibility of low-grade malignancy should be considered in the surgical treatment of accessory parotid gland (APG) tumours, even if the preoperative results of FNAC suggest that the tumour is benign. Objectives: Little is known about the usefulness of FNAC in the preoperative evaluation of APG tumours, probably due to the paucity of APG tumour cases. We examined the usefulness of FNAC in the detection of malignant APG tumours. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 3 cases from our hospital, along with 18 previously reported Japanese cases. We compared the preoperative FNAC results with postoperative histopathological diagnoses of APG tumours and evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and false-negative rates of FNAC in detecting malignant APG tumours. Results: There were four false-negative cases (19.0%), three of mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one of malignant lymphoma. One false-positive result was noted in the case of a myoepithelioma, which was cytologically diagnosed as suspected adenoid cystic carcinoma. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumours were 76.2%, 60.0% and 90.9%, respectively. PMID:24847949
Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Matsushita, Naoki; Oishi, Masahiro; Teranishi, Yuichi; Yamane, Hideo
Two improvements in the methodology for obtaining and preparing nipple aspirates from nonlactating women are reported. The first is the development and use of a new breast pump with a controllable vacuum and cups of various sizes. The second is the use of centrifugal cytology to prepare the dispersions. Twenty-one of 24 breasts of patients in the age range 30 to 49 years produced cellular dispersions which contained foam cells; of them, 13 contained ductal cells. A comparison of glutaraldehyde and ethanol fixation indicated that the cells appeared substantially the same. PMID:6931468
Leif, R C; Bobbitt, D; Railey, C; Guarino, V; DerHagopian, R; Ng, A B; Silverman, M
Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a small, round, and blue cell malignancy that occurs most often in bone and soft tissues of children and young adults. The intraspinal manifestation of the disease is rare, and when present, this is often misdiagnosed with other varieties of primary spinal tumors. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays important role in the early diagnosis of these cases. We report such a case of Ewing's sarcoma of thoracic spine with extension into the intradural space, which was initially suspected to be a case of metastatic lesion in an 18-year-old boy.
Bordia, Sandhya; Meena, Sweta; Meena, Bijendar Kumar; Rajak, Vijay
Background: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy globally. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is largely subjective. Gradual progression of cells from normal to invasive involves nuclear changes that need to be viewed objectively. Aims: This study aims to apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates. It evaluates its utility in differentiating benign vs. malignant lesions and correlates it with cytologic grading in malignant cases. Setting and Design: Nuclear morphometric parameters of malignant and benign cases were compared. Parameters of malignant cases were correlated with cytologic grading. Materials and Methods: Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from breast lumps into malignant (53 cases) and benign (29 cases). One hundred cells per case in both groups were mapped on DEBEL Cytoscan and six geometrical and three textural parameters obtained were compared. In malignant cases, morphometry was correlated with Robinson’s cytologic grading, which was further correlated in tissue sections (45 cases) with modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. Statistical Analysis: Students “t”-test was applied for comparison between benign and malignant cases. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc comparison was applied to compare the three cytologic grades. Results were considered significant when P<0.05. Results: Nuclear morphometry successfully differentiated between benign and malignant aspirates and correlated significantly with cytologic grades. Morphometry was especially useful in the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Useful parameters were mean nuclear area, long axis, short axis and total run length. Cytohistologic correlation was 83.3%, 88.9% and 88.9% for cytological grades 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusions: Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in the evaluation of breast masses.
Kalhan, Shivani; Dubey, Suparna; Sharma, Sonia; Dudani, Sharmila; Preeti; Dixit, Monika
The present study reports the diagnostic utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNAC) in two patients affected by gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) of the stomach. Clinically, the patients demonstrated skin pallor, melena, gastric discomfort and pain that had lasted three days or weeks. The cytological findings are discussed; these were strongly supported by immunocytochemical procedures that were performed on cell blocks and further confirmed following post-surgical histopathological examination. The crucial aim of GIST management is to determine a correct diagnosis in early-phase disease in order to realize an adequate curative surgical resection before the tumour becomes unresectable or metastatic. Moreover, a correct pre-surgical differential diagnosis of GISTs from other mesenchymal neoplasms may be easily made by EUS-FNAC, supported by cytological and immunocytochemical features.
TODARO, P.; CRINO, S.F.; PALLIO, S.; FAZZARI, C.; CONSOLO, P.; TUCCARI, G.
Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) is a diagnostic method that has been used extensively in Sweden for a quarter of a century. The technical steps involved in this biopsy procedure are described, and the differences from large needle biopsy techniques are pointed out. An overview is given of the different pathologic conditions that present as thyroid nodules and are recognizable by
Torsten Löwhagen; Jan-Silvester Willems; Göran Lundell; Rolf Sundblad; Per-Ola Granberg
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a high rating in the assessment of breast lesions. Various methods have been used to diagnose cytology of breast lesions. Aims: Present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of application of systematic pattern analysis based on morphology in diagnosing breast aspirates. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of FNAC of the breast done over a period of 4 years in a tertiary care centre. A total of 225 cases of breast lesions for which FNAC was done with histological follow-up were included in the study. Breast aspirates were provisionally diagnosed based on systematic pattern analysis. Aspirates were grouped into six categories based on predominant cellular pattern, and correlation between cytological and histological diagnosis was assessed. Results: Application of pattern analysis on FNAC of breast lesions in our study had a sensitivity of 94.5%, specificity of 98%, diagnostic accuracy of 97%, positive predictive value of 95.8%, and negative predictive value of 97.4%. Conclusions: Systematic pattern analysis based on morphology of FNAC smears was found to be highly reliable and could be easily reproducible in the assessment of breast masses.
Muddegowda, Prakash H; Lingegowda, Jyothi B; Kurpad, Ramkumar; Konapur, PG; Shivarudrappa, AS; Subramaniam, PM
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used for preoperative diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours, especially in centres where preoperative chemotherapy is advocated in Wilms’ tumour. This review focuses on salient cytological features in specific paediatric renal tumours, the approach to resolving a differential diagnosis and the role of ancillary methods in diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours. Crucial differential diagnoses include
T Shet; S Viswanathan
A correlative cytologic and histologic study of 13 myxofibrosarcomas is presented. The myxofibrosarcomas were grouped histologically into four grades (I to IV) according to the degree of cellularity, atypica and prevalence of mitotic figures. Cytologically, the neoplasms exhibited two types of malignant cells: an elongated, spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like cell and a larger, histocyte-like cell, often embedded in myxoid material. Some aspirates contained small capillary-like fragments. The degree of cellular and nuclear polymorphism and the quantitative distribution between the two types of cells in the different grades corresponded to the histologic classification. The differential diagnosis between myxofibrosarcoma and other myxoid soft tissue neoplasms is discussed. Staining the aspirated material with Alcian blue at different pHs helps to distinguish between myxomatous mesenchymal neoplasms containing nonsulphated glucosaminoglycans, such as myxofibrosarcoma, and those containing sulphated ones, such as myxoid chondrosarcoma and chordoma. PMID:6154396
Merck, C; Hagmar, B
Breast carcinoma shows amplification/overexpression of Her-2/neu in ?20-30% of cases. The determination of Her-2/neu expression accurately is vital in clinical practice as it has significant predictive value and eligibility for anti Her-2/neu therapy. Amplification and overexpression of Her-2/neu gene is traditionally identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue sections; only a few studies have evaluated feasibility of these techniques on cytological smears. One hundred cases of breast cancer with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples and corresponding surgically resected specimen were selected. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) and FISH for Her-2/neu was done on FNA smears, whereas IHC was performed on corresponding tissue sections. Diagnostic accuracy of ICC was 99% when compared with IHC. Comparison of FISH results with IHC showed 100% concordance. Unlike many centers in West, FNAC is still routinely performed in developing countries like India where vast majority of breast cancer cases present as palpable lumps. The high rates of accuracy of ICC and FISH for Her-2/neu detection can make FNAC a relevant first line of investigation as a cost effective model with a rapid turn-around time, providing complete information necessary for initial management of breast cancer patients. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:726-731. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24376261
Durgapal, Prashant; Mathur, Sandeep R; Kalamuddin, Md; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Parshad, Rajinder; Julka, Pramod K; Panda, S K
The 23 cases of malignant melanoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology from the years 1974 to 1983 were reviewed. The smears showed an abundance of melanin pigment overshadowing the tumor cells in six cases, a pleomorphic cytology in six, a round-cell morphology in four, an epithelial-like appearance in six and a spindle-cell pattern in one. Melanin pigment was readily seen in the May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears in all cases except two, in one of which it was apparent after use of the Schmorl stain for melanin. An interesting observation was the presence of multiple, well-defined clear vacuoles in the cytoplasm of many cells and similar nuclear vacuolization in some cells in smears from ten cases. These cells could be regarded as intermediate forms between the nonvacuolated cells and the hypervacuolated balloon cells. The cause of this vacuolization is probably the result of degeneration and coalescence of melanosomes due to abnormal melanogenesis. These vacuoles were prominent in May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears but were only faintly visible in Papanicolaou-stained smears, which may be the reason why this observation had not received emphasis in earlier reports of the FNA cytologic diagnosis of melanoma, in which the Papanicolaou stain was primarily used. PMID:3866463
Gupta, S K; Rajwanshi, A K; Das, D K
AIMS: To assess the value of flow cytometry (FCM) in the diagnosis and classification of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and malignant lymphoma by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. METHODS: Forty six fine needle aspirates of lymphoproliferative disorders were examined by FCM as well as routine cytological assessment. An immunoglobulin light chain ratio (LCR) was calculated for clonality analysis. Additional immunophenotyping was
M. D. Jeffers; J. Milton; R. Herriot; M. McKean
Rhinosporidium seeberi causes granulomatous inflammation of mucocutaneous sites, presenting most frequently as polypoidal lesions in the nose. Sites like the conjunctiva, trachea, nasopharnyx, skin, and genitourinary tract are less frequently involved. Primary cutaneous lesion is extremely rare. We report the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of rhinosporidiosis occurring as a primary cutaneous lesion. FNAC of polypoidal and warty skin growths on leg in a 28-year-old male revealed numerous sporangia and spores of R. seeberi. There were no mucocutaneous lesions. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis. Globular bodies in endospores of R. seeberi are specific; their demonstration confirms diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis. FNAC or scrape cytology is economical and reliable in preoperative diagnosis of suspected and unsuspected cutaneous lesions of R. seeberi. PMID:19021218
Deshpande, Archana H; Agarwal, Sameer; Kelkar, Arundhati A
Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087
Shyamala, K; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay
Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding.
Shyamala, K.; Girish, H. C.; Murgod, Sanjay
AIMS: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology to distinguish reactive lymphoid hyperplasia from malignant lymphoma, and to evaluate the contribution of ancillary techniques applied to cytological material. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy seven consecutive lymph node FNA specimens reported to be consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (n = 213) or suggestive\\/diagnostic of malignant
C. J. Stewart; J. A. Duncan; M. Farquharson; J. Richmond
Nonulcerative penile mass lesions are rare. Pathological diagnosis of these lesions would traditionally be a biopsy. We report two such primary penile lesions which were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Both lesions were present in the shaft and were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The first patient had a recurrence on the penile stump of partial amputation without any ulceration. The second had a primary urethral carcinoma on the terminal penile shaft infiltrating the corpora cavernosa dorsally. Open biopsies were avoided in both cases. FNAC was associated with very little and tolerable discomfort. There were no complications. The aspirate yield was sufficient for cytological diagnosis. FNAC of nonulcerated penile lesions is safe, well tolerated, and capable of providing a cytological diagnosis. Hence, it is a very useful outpatient procedure and could be the procedure of choice for diagnosis. PMID:14648797
Harish, K; Alva, N Kishore; Arun Kumar, S P; Mangala Gouri, S R
Aspergillus are ubiquitous and more than 30 species have been reported to be involved in human infection. Most of the cases occur in immunocompromised patients and are disseminated in the blood. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in immunocompetent hosts is rare. We report a unique case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. The characteristic ascocarp and ascospores of Aspergillus species were found in the aspirate and Aspergillus glaucus was isolated in pure culture. The case is presented to increase the awareness of the usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology for diagnosing fungal infections.
Venugopal, Taralakshmi V.; Venugopal, Pankajalakshmi V.
We report the fine needle aspiration cytology findings in six cases of neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. Three cases were from the pancreas, two from hepatic metastases and one from a peripancreatic lymph node metastasis. The cytologic features that permitted a preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor were: a cellular aspirate; numerous isolated cells and irregular, loose, dyshesive cellular aggregates; minimal nuclear pleomorphism; infrequent mitoses; fine, evenly dispersed nuclear chromatin with occasional inconspicuous nucleoli; a scant-moderate amount of granular, amphophilic, well-defined cytoplasm; clustering of tumor cells around segments of capillaries; and rosette formation. The differential diagnosis includes cells derived from normal pancreatic acini, islet cell hyperplasia, acinic cell carcinoma, well-differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the lung, pancreatic small cell anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma. The application of immunocytochemistry to cytologic smears can be easily and reliably performed to confirm the neuroendocrine nature of the tumor and identify the specific type of polypeptide hormone or hormones produced by these tumors. Four aspirates showed immunoreactivity for chromogranin, and one was positive for gastrin. Cells of a lipid-rich neuroendocrine tumor were negative for chromogranin; however, the tissue section contained neuron specific enolase, and neurosecretory granules were demonstrated by electron microscopy. PMID:1523921
al-Kaisi, N; Weaver, M G; Abdul-Karim, F W; Siegler, E
Introduction: Fine Needle Aspiration(FNA) which is used for making a cytologic diagnosis has become an indispensable component of the work-up of many abnormalities.The objectives of this study were to adopt USG guided fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of abdomino-pelvic masses, to assess its efficacy and to study the cytological features of abdominopelvic masses. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients with clinically or sonologically diagnosed abdomino-pelvic masses were taken up for the study. FNAC was performed under real time USG guidance. The aspirates were smeared onto a minimum of 2 slides and they were routinely stained with H&E, MGG and Papanicolaou stains. Observations: The diagnostic accuracy rates of USG guided FNAC for benign, malignant and non-neoplastic lesions were 100%,96% and 94.4% respectively.The overall accuracy rate was 96.3%. Conclusion: USG guided FNAC is a rapid , economical,non-invasive, highly accurate and a safe diagnostic procedure which can pre-empt a lengthy and expensive workup in various abdomino- pelviv masses.
A.L, Hemalatha; Sindhuram V, Sumana; S, Sushma; J.K, Suma; I, Varna; Aditya, Anubha
Objective Ultrasonography (USG)-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of ovarian masses is an efficient diagnostic modality for accurately diagnosing ovarian tumours prior to surgery. The main aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing ovarian masses. Material and Methods Eighty-three patients with ovarian masses were recruited and correlation of USG-guided FNAC was made with histopathology in all but 6 cases, where surgery was not indicated. Results Cytological diagnosis was obtained in all 83 ovarian lesions: 56 cases were benign, 6 possibly benign, 3 suspicious of malignancy and 18 cases as malignant. Out of 77 cases where histology was available, the 12 non-neoplastic cysts were endometriotic cysts and follicular cysts. The majority of neoplastic lesions were surface epithelial tumours. Out of 12 non-neoplastic cysts and 43 benign tumours, all but two were diagnosed as benign or possibly benign on cytology; of the 22 histologically malignant or borderline tumours, 18 were malignant or suspicious of malignancy on cytology, while four were false negative (three of these were borderline tumours). Thus, the sensitivity of cytological diagnosis was 83%, specificity was 97% and accuracy was 93%. Conclusion USG-guided FNAC seems to be a relatively safe, simple, fast and cost-effective procedure where most ovarian malignancies either present late in their course or no screening method is available. In addition, cyto-radiological correlation through this procedure may be useful in deciding management guidelines prior to any surgical intervention.
Ray, Sailesh; Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Majumdar, Kaushik; Chaudhury, Nilanjana
Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic tumor with aggressive biological behavior, high recurrence rate, and a complex microscopic appearance with many different histologic patterns. Primary ameloblastoma is also described in extragnathic locations. Because of its wide morphologic spectrum, which is mirrored also in cytologic smears, a thorough study of distinctive features is required to reach a reliable diagnosis. Twelve cases of ameloblastoma were examined both cytologically and histologically. The patients were seven women and five men 24-85 years old, mean age being 64 years. Eleven cases were primary tumors of the mandible and maxilla, and one case was a lung tumor metastatic from the tibia. The epithelial element in the cytologic smears of the various cases was morphologically diverse. The basaloid pattern and minimal nuclear atypia were rather constant findings, and the most helpful features toward reaching a cytological diagnosis. However in most cases, careful consideration of the clinical, radiological, cytological, and occasionally immunocytochemical data was required to rule out other entities with similar cytological findings. In some cases, the final diagnosis was only possible by histologic examination. Due to their variable microscopic morphology, ameloblastomas are quite often misdiagnosed for other entities, both benign and malignant. Nevertheless, when one is aware of their distinctive features, an accurate diagnosis can be made by fine-needle aspiration cytology, in conjunction with clinical and radiological findings. Both the preoperative surgical planning and the postoperative follow-up of the patients benefit significantly from this method. PMID:21965020
Klapsinou, Eirini; Stavros, Archondakis; Smaragda, Angeli; Despoina, Proestou; Dimitra, Daskalopoulou
Here we described a rare case of malignant endovascular papillary angioendothelioma (Dabska tumor) in an adult female. On fine needle aspiration, the smear showed many small clusters of tumor cells with rosettoid arrangement along with papillary fragments with fibrovascular core and hobnail like arrangement of the cells. Histopathological examination revealed a vascular tumor in the form of papillary projection into the vascular lumina, lined by atypical endothelial cells. PMID:21695802
Banik, Tarak; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Rai, Manoj Kumar; Prasad, Janardan
Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) is an uncommon pancreatic neoplasm with low malignant potential. It occurs predominantly in young women. It is very rare in males and nonrelated pediatrics. In children, SPT commonly present as abdominal mass and pain. A 10-year-old male presented with progressively growing palpable tumor in upper abdomen. SPT of pancreas is diagnosed on preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology. This was subsequently confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Due to rarity, SPT is not the first option to rule out, especially in children. Preoperative cytological diagnosis of SPT helps in management of this surgically curable neoplasm with good prognosis. PMID:23301913
Nasit, Jitendra Gordhanbhai; Jetly, Dhaval; Shah, Manoj
The National Breast Screening Service in the UK depends upon triple assessment, with or without core biopsy, to determine the need for diagnostic biopsy or treatment for screen-detected lesions. To determine the efficacy of cytology in this process a nationwide survey of sensitivity and specificity of the technique was instituted by the National Coordinating Committees for both Radiology and Pathology. Although some units were performing to the national recommended standards, a significant number of units were shown to have problems with a high false negative rate and high inadequate rates from lesions which were eventually diagnosed as cancer. This suggests problems in localizing lesions adequately at aspiration. Generally, indicators of pathology diagnostic performance (e.g. positive predictive values) were good. The figures suggest that some units are not benefiting from an optimal cytological service. Consequently training programmes targeted at aspiration technique may be beneficial. PMID:14965741
Wells, C A; Perera, R; White, F E; Domizio, P
Fifty-five patients underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration from the pancreas. Adequate material was obtained from 33 of the 41 patients with pancreatic malignancy. A cytological diagnosis of cancer was made in 31 (94%) of these; the overall clinical success rate was 75.6%. There were no false-positive results or complications. The sensitivity of the procedure may be increased by repeating the punctures.
Hovdenak, N; Lees, W R; Pereira, J; Beilby, J O; Cotton, P B
Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.
Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen
Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 is a major P450 enzyme in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. It plays an important role in the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs, some endogenous steroids, and harmful environmental contaminants. To investigate the interindividual variation in CYP3A4 levels we have carried out a study on the genetic polymorphism of 100 breast cancer subjects using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) sampling procedure. DNA was extracted from all the samples and PCR was carried out for detecting the CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms. We selected exon-7 and 10 which are present on the 5'-flanking coding region of the gene using the respective primers for PCR followed by direct automated sequencing method for detecting the mutations. These mutations were compared to the wild type sequence structures obtained from GenBank database (accession no. AF209389). We found two novel point mutations which are heterozygous mutant alleles. The two variant alleles were Ile222Arg and Phe175Val occurring in coding region of exon-7. Ile222Arg mutation was found in 3 malignant cases whereas Phe175Val mutation was found in 4 malignant cases. This is the first report of these two novel point mutations in CYP3A4 gene. These mutations in the gene in respective patients were found to relate to drug response in invasive ductal carcinomas of breast cancer. PMID:19242060
Suman, G; Jamil, Kaiser; Suseela, K; Vamsy, M Ch
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft tissue tumor arising in extremities. We report a typical case of EMC in left inguinal region of a 71-year-old man, which was first approached by fine-needle aspiration, followed by surgical excision and subsequently diagnosed by microscopic examination and immunohistochemical study. We discuss briefly the differential diagnosis. It is important to separate EMC from other myxoid soft tissue tumors. We point out that although cytologic features may be orientating to a myxoid tumor, may not be completely distinctive. PMID:19894252
Laforga, Juan B; Gasent, Joan M
Pseudosarcomatous lesions are reactive proliferative lesions of the soft tissue, that are likely to be misdiagnosed as malignant, based on clinical and histological features. The most common lesions are nodular fasciitis, proliferative fasciitis, proliferative myositis and myositis ossificans. These rapidly growing soft-tissue lesions can represent a variety of diagnoses involving radically different treatment modalities. Accurate diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary and often mutilating surgery. We report two cases to illustrate the importance of correct identification of these lesions by fine needle aspiration cytology. PMID:23326034
Satish, Suchitha; Shivalingaiah, Sheeladevi Chandakavadi; Ravishankar, Sunila; Vimalambika, Manjunath Gubbanna
Hydatid cysts (echinococcosis) are caused by an infestation with larval tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The disease is extensively distributed worldwide, and it has been rarely reported in Korea. We describe the cytologic features of a case of hepatic hydatid cyst in a 28-year-old male. Computed tomography revealed a cystic mass in the right lobe of the liver. A right hemihepatectomy was performed. The aspirated fluid from the hepatic cystic mass was clear. The smears showed protoscolices, hooklets, and a laminated membrane. PMID:24009638
Kim, Ae Ri; Park, Seok Ju; Gu, Mi Jin; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Hong Jin
Background. A study was designed to see the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in palpable breast lumps. Materials and Methods. Four hundred and twenty five (425) patients came to the Department of Pathology King Edward Medical University, Lahore in four years for FNAC of their palpable breast masses from June 2006 to June 2010. FNAC diagnosis was compared with histological diagnosis to see the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology for neoplastic lesions. Results. There were 271/425 benign, 120/425 malignant, and 32/425 suspicious smears. Inadequate samples were repeated twice or thrice, and the degree of success was improved with consecutive repeating approaches. The frequency of inadequacy declined from 86 to 18, and 2 for first, second and third attempts, respectively. The number of repeats increased the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates which is statistically significant (P = .000). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most commonly reported lesion with maximum incidence in the 4th, 5th, and 6th decades followed by invasive lobular carcinoma and other malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and the positive predictive value of FNAC was 98%, 100%, 98%, 100%, and 97%, respectively. Conclusion. FNAC serves as a rapid, economical, and reliable tool for the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions because the cytopathological examination of these lesions before operation or treatment serves as an important diagnostic modality.
Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Arshad, Madiha; Jamal, Shahid; Niazi, Shahida; Bashir, Shahid; Bakhshi, Irfan M.; Shaharyar
A prospective study of 114 patients was conducted to assess the clinical correlation and diagnostic accuracy between FNAC and histopathology of breast lumps. Correlation was found out between clinical suspicion with FNAC and histopathological findings. The results obtained from histopathology were matched with those of FNAC and a correlation was sought based on statistical tests. Statistical analysis was performed on data and sensitivity and specificity with positive and negative predictive value were obtained. Although FNAC was performed on 114 patients presented with breast lump but histopathology available for 75 cases. Fifteen cases were found to be malignant on both FNAC and histopathology. For malignant lesion the sensitivity of the study was 96% and the specificity for malignant lesions was 100%. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 95.12%. It was concluded that FNAC is a cheap, rapid, reliable and accurate test of diagnosing a palpable breast lump. It provides a good histological correlation, thus avoiding undue surgical biopsy prior to definitive surgery for malignancy. PMID:22828542
Saleh, F M; Ansari, N P; Alam, O
Background Optimal management of patients with lung cancer requires accurate cell typing of tumours and staging at the time of diagnosis. Endobronchial ultrasound?guided lymph node aspiration as a method of diagnosing and staging lung cancer is a relatively new technique. Aim To report the use of liquid?based?thin?layer cytology for the processing and reporting of these specimens. Methods The specimens obtained from 80 patients were processed using the ThinPrep system, with the remainder of the samples being processed as a cell block. Results 40 of the 81 procedures yielded malignant cells (30 non?small cell carcinoma, 8 small?cell carcinoma and 2 combined small?cell carcinoma/non?small?cell carcinoma). The cell blocks were found to contain sufficient material to allow the immunohistochemical characterisation of tumour cells with a range of antibodies. Conclusion The use of liquid?based?thin?layer cytological techniques provides high?quality specimens for diagnostic purposes. When used in conjunction with cell blocks, sufficient material may be obtained to allow immunohistochemical studies to confirm the tumour cell type. Given the current move towards centralisation of pathology services, this approach gives the pathologist high?quality specimens without the need for direct onsite support at the time of the procedure.
Wallace, W A H; Monaghan, H M; Salter, D M; Gibbons, M A; Skwarski, K M
While about 15% of menstruating women develop endometriosis, abdominal wall endometriosis is relatively rare. We present 10 cases of abdominal wall endometriosis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and confirmed by subsequent surgical excision. A palpable abdominal wall mass was the most common symptom, followed by pain. Nine cases were associated with previous surgery. The smear showed glandular epithelial cells and spindle or ovoid stromal cells accompanied by macrophages in eight cases. The nucleus was round-to-oval and the nucleolus was inconspicuous. Mitosis was not observed in any case. In two cases, which were suspicious of malignancy on FNA, the epithelial cells showed anisonucleosis, hyperchromasia, and small conspicuous nucleoli. The stromal cells were spindle or ovoid in shape, without metaplastic changes. Histiocytes were noted in nine cases and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes were noted in two cases. The proportion of inflammatory cells varied. FNA diagnosis of abdominal wall endometriosis is possible when the cytological features are interpreted cautiously, together with the patient's clinical history. An accurate diagnosis on FNA will prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:21987456
Kim, Jung Yeon; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Kyeongmee
Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is a rare disease, which comprises 0.04-0.53% of all primary malignant tumors of the breast. The most frequent histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell type (DLBCL) (40-70%). Differentiation of PBLs from other breast tumors such as poorly differentiated carcinomas and lobular carcinoma may at times be difficult on cytomorphology alone. An audit of breast lymphomas diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) over a period of 9 years (2001-2009) was performed. Ten cases were retrieved and the cytomorphology was reviewed along with immunochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry as well as histopathology, wherever available. The age of patients ranged from 17 to 83 years. Eight cases were diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, high-grade on FNAC. Histopathology was available in four of these cases and cell block was available in one case. Lymphoid cells were positive for leukocyte-common antigen (LCA) and CD20 and negative for CD3 in these cases. The same was confirmed by flow cytometry on aspirated material in one case. A diagnosis of DLBCL was offered in these five cases. One case was a low-grade NHL and another case was a young male, a known case of acute leukemia and had leukemic infiltration in the breast lump. We wish to emphasize the potential importance of FNAC in breast lymphoma and the same can be helpful to avoid unnecessary surgery in these cases. The differential diagnostic entities have been discussed. IHC and flow cytometry can be performed on the aspirated material and provide valuable information. PMID:21698785
Arora, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Nalini; Srinivasan, Radhika; Das, Ashim; Nijhawan, Raje; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Singh, Gurpreet
Background: Cytological grading is a useful tool for selection of therapy and prognosis in breast carcinoma. Despite having many cytological grading systems, there is still no agreement among pathologists to accept one of them as a gold standard. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate six such three-tier cytological grading systems to determine which system corresponds best to histological grading done by Nottingham modification of Scarff Bloom Richardson (SBR)'s method. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind study, preoperative cytological grades obtained by six systems on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears were compared by testing concordance, association and correlation with histological grade derived postoperatively by the SBR's method in 57 patients of breast carcinoma. Bivariate correlation studies and multiple linear regressions were done to assess the significance of the different cytological parameters to predict final cytological grades. Results: Robinson's system demonstrated the best correlation (? = 0.799; P = 0.000 and ? = 0.765; P = 0.000), maximum percent agreement (77.19%) and a substantial kappa value of agreement (? = 0.62) with the SBR's grading system. All the six cytological grading systems correlated with histological grading strongly and positively. In multiple regression analysis, all of the cytological parameters of Robinson's system except cell size and nucleoli had significance in predicting the final cytological grade. Conclusions: Robinson's grading system is simple, more objective and reproducible, and demonstrated the best concordance with histological grading. So, Robinson's system should be used routinely for breast carcinoma aspirates.
Saha, Kaushik; Raychaudhuri, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Bitan Kuamr; Das, Indranil
Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology is widely accepted as a safe diagnostic procedure in various neoplastic and non-plastic disorders. This study was conducted to determine the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of intraabdominal lesions. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh during the period of June 2007 to June 2009. A total 78 patients with intra abdominal lesions were included in this study. Fifty nine (75.6%) were males and 19 (24.4%) were females. Out of total aspirates 29 (37.2%) were categorized as benign, 41 (52.6%) were malignant and 8 (10.3%) were non-representative, as it contained only blood. Most of the benign lesions were liver abscess 19 (24.4%). A diagnosis of primary malignancy was established in 26 (33.3%) and that of secondary in 15 (19.2%). The results showed a sensitivity of 89.7%. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology is a sensitive diagnostic tool in a wide spectrum of intra-abdominal neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders. It is a simple, safe, rapidand inexpensive technique. PMID:23923406
Islam, T; Hossain, F; Rumpa, A P; Sikder, N H; Bhuiyan, M A; Karim, E; Hossain, A
Background Axillary lymph node status is an important staging and prognostic factor in breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of axilla fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in primary breast cancer without a palpable node and even without image characteristics of a metastatic node. Methods From June 2008 to January 2012, 77 patients met the inclusion criteria of having received a FNAC procedure during the diagnostic protocol of primary breast cancer with the characteristic of impalpable axilla nodes, and of having received axillary surgery after that, according to the guidelines. The patients’ characteristics, clinical-pathological features, pre-operative axillary lymph node FNAC findings, surgical lymph node report, and definite pathologic staging were reviewed. Results The FNAC procedures had a reported sensitivity of 58.82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 72.55%, and accuracy of 80.28%. There were no false positives on FNAC; therefore, the positive likelihood ratio approached infinity. The negative likelihood ratio was 41.18%. Axillary lymph node FNAC is feasible in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients to evaluate metastatic lymph nodes even in those without clinical or ultrasonic evidence of lymphadenopathy. Conclusions FNAC can be a routine evaluation for most primary breast cancer patients with benefits in expediting treatment. For those patients with positive findings of the axilla, sentinel node biopsy can be avoided.
A series of testicular fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens from 272 infertile men with azoospermia were reviewed and categorized according to morphologic patterns. These included active spermatogenesis, 14 (5%); hypospermatogenesis, 106 (39%); Sertoli cells only, 70 (26%); atrophic pattern, 52 (19%); and maturation arrest, 1 (0.36%). In 29 cases (11%) the amount of material was insufficient for evaluation. The histologic and cytologic findings in 52 cases showing spermatogenesis correlated very well in 52 cases for which open testicular biopsy specimens were also available. These findings indicate that fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the testis is a reliable and useful technique for the investigation of patients with azospermia. PMID:2065565
Ali, M A; Akhtar, M; Woodhouse, N; Burgess, A; Faulkner, C; Huq, M
Hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of intermediate malignancy. Cytologically, it can simulate a non-vascular malignant tumor. We report two cases of this tumor, which were misdiagnosed at cytology. In the first case, a 27-year-old man presented with an anterior abdominal wall tumor. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the tumor showed polygonal cells with vacuolated cytoplasm in clusters having moderate nuclear atypia in a background of necrosis. A diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma was made. The histological examination showed features of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. In the second case, a 13-year-old female child presented with unilateral enlargement of the right tonsil. At ultrasound-guided FNAC, a diagnosis of, ‘small round cell tumor, could be consistent with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma,’ was made. The histological examination showed features of papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (Dabska's tumor). We conclude that epithelioid hemangioendothelioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma and small round cell tumor even at unusual sites.
Mukherjee, Sumana; Mallick, Jayati; Pal, Prabir C; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani
Context: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is increasing in popularity as a means of diagnosing mass lesions in retroperitoneal area. With use of radiologic guidance for needle placement, this technique is an effective way to obtain diagnostic material. Aims: The aims of the study were (1) to establish the validity and reliability of fine needle aspiration cytology in preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, and (2) to compare the significance of cytological diagnosis with histopathological report. Settings and Design: A prospective, cross-sectional hospital-based study. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was designed on 45 cases of clinically and radiologically diagnosed retroperitoneal tumor in a tertiary care hospital. Computerized tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous FNA was performed and cytology smears were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain and conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) stain. Smears were broadly categorized into unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious of malignancy and malignant lesion. The cytological diagnosis was compared with subsequent histopathology report. Statistical Analysis: Positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic accuracy, chi-square test and others. Results: The total number of cases studied was 45, which include both epithelial tumors and mesenchymal tumors. Age group varied from 15 to 70 years. The overall sensitivity in our study to diagnose benign and malignant tumors by FNA cytology is 86% and the specificity is 96% with positive and negative predictive value of 86% and 96%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was 93.55% with high statistical significance (P < 0.001). Conclusions: FNA cytology is a simple, fast, reliable and less expensive method for diagnosis of various retroperitoneal neoplasms.
Das, Chhanda; Sengupta, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Saha, Ashis Kumar
We report the FNA features of a congenital malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (MERT) located in the right paratesticular area of a newborn full-term boy (39 wk gestation), with disseminated metastases in the liver and right parietal region. The diagnosis was suggested two days after birth by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the parietal mass, which demonstrated an atypical large cell proliferation with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm exhibiting paranuclear dense inclusions. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination of the primary paratesticular tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third MERT reported in the paratesticular region, one of the few congenital extrarenal non-central nervous system cases, and the third congenital case (renal or extrarenal) primarily diagnosed by FNAB. We emphasize the characteristic cytologic features of a congenital rhabdoid tumor, which must be known by pathologists because of the clinical and prognostic implications. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2004;30:46-50. PMID:14696145
Salamanca, Javier; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Azorín, Daniel; Ballestín, Claudio; De Agustín, Pedro
Castleman's disease (CD), also called giant lymph nodal hyperplasia, is a lymphoproliferative disorder secondary to lymphoid follicle hyperplasia and marked capillary proliferation with endothelial hyperplasia. It presents as enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum, neck, groin, axilla and other sites. On clinical examination as well as gross examination, this disease mimics lymphomas and tuberculosis. Since cytological appearances vary depending on the type and extent of hyperplasia, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings may not always be conclusive in all cases. We studied aspirates in two cases of CD, one of which presented with multiple enlarged axillary lymph nodes and the other with enlarged cervical lymph node. Cytology revealed reactive lymphadenitis with hyalinized capillaries and other features. Lymph node excision in both cases confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:21157570
Sudha, Ayyagari; Vivekanand, Namala
Lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest and significant manifestations of local as well as systemic ailments, especially malignancies. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps in diagnosing the disease itself, in general, but more importantly ruling out malignancy, in particular. Hence it saves much of the cost and use of resources incurred with excision biopsy of such lymph nodes. This prompted us to study the cytologic patterns of lymphadenopathy in our setting and the diagnostic utility of FNAC in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy. In this retrospective observational study, 1,579 patients (953 males and 626 females) with lymphadenopathy who were subjected to FNAC over a period of three years (January 2009 to December 2011) were studied. The cervical region was involved in most of the cases (76%) followed by the axillary region (17.5%). Metastatic malignancy (38.2%) was the commonest cause of lymphadenopathy followed by reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (36.9%), tuberculosis (9.1%) and lymphomas (8.6%). Squamous cell carcinoma (32.2%) followed by adenocarcinoma (21.9%) were the most frequent metastatic tumors. FNAC is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of patients presenting with lymphadenopathy and should be considered before more invasive and costly procedures are performed, particularly in developing countries. PMID:23098444
Qadri, Sumyra Khurshid; Hamdani, Nissar Hussain; Shah, Parveen; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; Baba, Khalil Mohammad
The aim of the present study is to confirm the value of electronic bronchoscopy-aided catheter aspiration technique with liquid-based cytological test in the diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma. A total of 815 patients of lung cancer were evaluated by bronchoscopy between February 2011 and June 2012. Catheter aspiration technique and forceps biopsy during bronchoscopy were employed to obtain adequate tissue specimens. Liquid-based cytological test and conventional smears for catheter aspiration were used for cytological detection of the tumors. For all cytological specimens, slide preparations with LCT and CS were reviewed by two senior pathologists, who were blinded to patient medical history. Complications related to electronic bronchoscopy, such as bleeding, were clinically judged as light, moderate or severe by the needs for clinical interventions. The diagnostic yield of catheter aspiration in endobronchial visible lesions (tumor, infiltrative and necrotic lesions) was 94.6% (success rates concerning malignancy), which was slightly higher than that of the forceps biopsy (91.4%, P < 0.05). The diagnostic yield of catheter aspiration in endobronchial invisible lesions (normal, compressive and nonspecific lesions) was 82.8%, which was significantly higher than that of the forceps biopsy (51.4%, P < 0.01). The combination of the forceps biopsy with the cytological analysis of the catheter aspiration increased the diagnostic sensitivity in both lesion types (P < 0.05). For catheter aspiration, the positive rate of lung cancer by liquid-based cytological test was superior to that by conventional smears (P < 0.05). The catheter aspiration is a sampling technique that produces higher diagnostic rate for lung cancers compared with forceps biopsy. Liquid-based cytological test is routinely applicable for the diagnosis of lung cancer using samples collected through electronic bronchoscopy.
Li, Dai-Rong; Wan, Tao; Su, Yi; Ding, Min; Wu, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Yong
The aim of the present study is to confirm the value of electronic bronchoscopy-aided catheter aspiration technique with liquid-based cytological test in the diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma. A total of 815 patients of lung cancer were evaluated by bronchoscopy between February 2011 and June 2012. Catheter aspiration technique and forceps biopsy during bronchoscopy were employed to obtain adequate tissue specimens. Liquid-based cytological test and conventional smears for catheter aspiration were used for cytological detection of the tumors. For all cytological specimens, slide preparations with LCT and CS were reviewed by two senior pathologists, who were blinded to patient medical history. Complications related to electronic bronchoscopy, such as bleeding, were clinically judged as light, moderate or severe by the needs for clinical interventions. The diagnostic yield of catheter aspiration in endobronchial visible lesions (tumor, infiltrative and necrotic lesions) was 94.6% (success rates concerning malignancy), which was slightly higher than that of the forceps biopsy (91.4%, P < 0.05). The diagnostic yield of catheter aspiration in endobronchial invisible lesions (normal, compressive and nonspecific lesions) was 82.8%, which was significantly higher than that of the forceps biopsy (51.4%, P < 0.01). The combination of the forceps biopsy with the cytological analysis of the catheter aspiration increased the diagnostic sensitivity in both lesion types (P < 0.05). For catheter aspiration, the positive rate of lung cancer by liquid-based cytological test was superior to that by conventional smears (P < 0.05). The catheter aspiration is a sampling technique that produces higher diagnostic rate for lung cancers compared with forceps biopsy. Liquid-based cytological test is routinely applicable for the diagnosis of lung cancer using samples collected through electronic bronchoscopy. PMID:24966963
Li, Dai-Rong; Wan, Tao; Su, Yi; Ding, Min; Wu, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Yong
The objective of this study was to introduce the clinical and cytological aspects of myospherulosis. A total of 5,174 consecutive breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology cases were reviewed, among which 23 cases of myospherulosis of the breast were found, all in female patients. The main findings of myospherulosis, best seen with the Papanicolaou stain, consisted in the observation of spherules that were homogeneously smooth or contained one or more internal dense bodies. Routine Papanicolaou-stained slides with or without Romanowsky staining were analyzed. Immunocytochemistry was conducted for carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1), glycophorin C, KP1, and PGM1. The patients' ages ranged from 41 to 79 years (mean age: 56 years). Of the 23 patients, 21 had a previous history of breast surgery. Cytologically malignant or suspicious diagnoses were made in four of the 23 cases. The size of parent bodies varied from 18.2 to 151 ?m (mean, 52 ?m). The size of spherules ranged from 2.1 to 16.4 ?m (mean, 6.6 ?m). Immunocytochemistry showed that the myospherules reacted with anti-CA1 and anti-glycophorin C antibodies. Most breast myospheruloses occur in patients with a history of breast surgery. Immunocytochemistry for CA1 and glycophorin C can enhance the diagnosis of myospherulosis. PMID:21319318
Hata, Sakae; Kanomata, Naoki; Kozuka, Yuji; Fukuya, Minako; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Ohno, Eiji; Moriya, Takuya
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important investigation in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid (FVPTC) is a well defined entity in histopathology, but its diagnosis in FNAC is usually missed and is challenging compared to classic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Aims: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively analyze cytological features in histologically confirmed cases of FVPTC, compare them with literature and document the features that could increase the sensitivity of FNAC diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cytological smears from 22 histologically confirmed cases of FVPTC were evaluated for microscopic pattern and nuclear features by two independent pathologists and results compared with previous studies. Statistical analysis was done based on bivariate Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Among 22 cases 21 were female and one male with age range 21 – 50 years. All patients had a solitary nodule except one with multicentric presentation. Preoperative cytological diagnosis were, classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); 7, FVPTC; 3, suspicious for PTC; 4, follicular neoplasm; 5 and adenomatous goiter;3. Diagnosis upon cytological review were, FVPTC; 11, classic PTC; 7 , suspicious for PTC; 2, follicular adenoma;1 and adenomatous goiter; 1. Conclusion: We conclude that cellular smears with features as observed in our case like microfollicular pattern, syncytial clusters, fine powdery chromatin, anisonucleosis and nucleomegaly should alert the pathologist to look carefully for other more specific features like nuclear grooves and nuclear pseudoinclusions. This approach will help in avoiding misdiagnosis of FVPTC and would aid in choosing the right treatment modality.
D, Manimaran; T M, Karthikeyan; Khan, Dost Mohamed; Raman R, Thulasi
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important investigation in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid (FVPTC) is a well defined entity in histopathology, but its diagnosis in FNAC is usually missed and is challenging compared to classic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Aims: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively analyze cytological features in histologically confirmed cases of FVPTC, compare them with literature and document the features that could increase the sensitivity of FNAC diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cytological smears from 22 histologically confirmed cases of FVPTC were evaluated for microscopic pattern and nuclear features by two independent pathologists and results compared with previous studies. Statistical analysis was done based on bivariate Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Among 22 cases 21 were female and one male with age range 21 - 50 years. All patients had a solitary nodule except one with multicentric presentation. Preoperative cytological diagnosis were, classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); 7, FVPTC; 3, suspicious for PTC; 4, follicular neoplasm; 5 and adenomatous goiter;3. Diagnosis upon cytological review were, FVPTC; 11, classic PTC; 7 , suspicious for PTC; 2, follicular adenoma;1 and adenomatous goiter; 1. Conclusion: We conclude that cellular smears with features as observed in our case like microfollicular pattern, syncytial clusters, fine powdery chromatin, anisonucleosis and nucleomegaly should alert the pathologist to look carefully for other more specific features like nuclear grooves and nuclear pseudoinclusions. This approach will help in avoiding misdiagnosis of FVPTC and would aid in choosing the right treatment modality. PMID:24783078
D, Manimaran; T M, Karthikeyan; Khan, Dost Mohamed; Raman R, Thulasi
Background: Carcinoma of the gallbladder (CaGB) is common in India and its prognosis depends primarily on the extent of the disease and histological type. We aim to study the role of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of CaGB and to evaluate the feasibility of applying world health organization (WHO) classification on fine needle aspiration (FNA) material to predict the outcome of the tumor. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cytomorphologic analysis was performed in all cases of CaGB diagnosed by ultrasound (US) guided FNAC over a period of 2 years. A specific subtype was assigned according to WHO classification based on characteristic cytologic features. These included papillary or acinar arrangement, intra and extracellular mucin, keratin, rosettes and columnar, signet ring, atypical squamous, small, clear, spindle and giant cells. Correlation with histopathology was performed when available. Results: A total of 541 aspirations with clinical or radiological suspicion of primary CaGB were studied. Of these, 54 aspirates were unsatisfactory. Fifty cases were negative for malignancy. Remaining 437 aspirates were positive for carcinoma. Histopathologic diagnosis was available in 32 cases. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent diagnosis in 86.7% of cases. Mucinous, signet ring, adenosquamous, squamous, small cell, mixed adenoneuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinoma including spindle and giant cell subtypes were diagnosed identifying specific features on FNAC. Correlation with histopathology was present in all, but one case giving rise to sensitivity of 96.8%. No post-FNA complications were recorded. Conclusions: US guided FNAC is a safe and effective method to diagnose CaGB. Although, rare, clinically and prognostically significant variants described in WHO classification can be detected on cytology.
Yadav, Rajni; Jain, Deepali; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Sharma, Atul; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.
Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) is a rare salivary gland tumor that was recently defined as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma by the 2005 World Health Orgazniation (WHO) classification system. We report cytologic findings of an unusual case of LGCCC with many psammoma bodies. A 90-year-old man presented a palpable mass on his left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology showed tumor cells that were arranged in clusters and dispersed individually. The tumor cells showed mild atypia and had clear or dense cytoplasm with some vacuoles. Numerous psammoma bodies were noted. After surgical resection, the histologic examination revealed a mixed solid and cystic mass showing intraductal growth with focal stromal invasion. The S-100 protein expressed in the tumor cells, but smooth muscle actin and p63 were positive only in myoepithelial cells. Although LGCCCs resemble other salivary gland tumors, differentiating LGCCC during preoperative FNA is important to avoid unnecessary overtreatment.
Jeong, Ji Yun; Ahn, Dongbin
Background: We previously showed that women with abnormal cytology in breast fluid obtained by nipple aspira- tion had an increased relative risk (RR) of breast cancer compared with women from whom fluid was not obtained and with women whose fluid had normal cytology. This study extends the follow- up in the original study group (n = 4046)and presents the first
Margaret R. Wrensch; Nicholas L. Petrakis; Rei Miike; Eileen B. King; Karen Chew; John Neuhaus; M. Lee; Moore Rhys
Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA)-cytology is widely used for the preoperative characterisation of thyroid nodules but this task is difficult for follicular lesions, which often remain undefined. We propose a strategy for improving the preoperative characterisation of selected follicular thyroid proliferations, which is based on large needle aspiration biopsy (LNAB) and galectin-3 expression analysis. Eighty-five thyroid specimens were obtained by LNAB (20-gauge needles) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate follicular FNA-cytology. Aspirated material was processed as a tissue microbiopsy to obtain cell blocks for both cyto/histo-morphological evaluation and galectin-3 expression analysis, by using a purified monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and a biotin-free immunoperoxidase staining method. Preoperative diagnosis was compared to the final histology. LNAB and cell-block technique allow a preliminary distinction between nodules with a homogeneous microfollicular/trabecular structure, as frequently observed in tumours, and lesions with mixed normo–micro–macrofollicular architecture, as observed in goitre. Furthermore, LNAB provides optimal substrates for galectin-3 expression analysis. Among 85 cases tested, 14 galectin-3-positive cases were discovered preoperatively (11 thyroid cancers and three adenomas confirmed at the final histology), whereas galectin-3-negative cases were 71 (one carcinoma and 70 benign proliferations at the final histology). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of this integrated morphologic and phenotypic diagnostic approach were 91.6, 97.2 and 95.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LNAB plus galectin-3 expression analysis when applied preoperatively to selected thyroid nodules candidate to surgery can potentially reduce unnecessary thyroid resections.
Carpi, A; Naccarato, A G; Iervasi, G; Nicolini, A; Bevilacqua, G; Viacava, P; Collecchi, P; Lavra, L; Marchetti, C; Sciacchitano, S; Bartolazzi, A
Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA)-cytology is widely used for the preoperative characterisation of thyroid nodules but this task is difficult for follicular lesions, which often remain undefined. We propose a strategy for improving the preoperative characterisation of selected follicular thyroid proliferations, which is based on large needle aspiration biopsy (LNAB) and galectin-3 expression analysis. Eighty-five thyroid specimens were obtained by LNAB (20-gauge needles) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate follicular FNA-cytology. Aspirated material was processed as a tissue microbiopsy to obtain cell blocks for both cyto/histo-morphological evaluation and galectin-3 expression analysis, by using a purified monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and a biotin-free immunoperoxidase staining method. Preoperative diagnosis was compared to the final histology. LNAB and cell-block technique allow a preliminary distinction between nodules with a homogeneous microfollicular/trabecular structure, as frequently observed in tumours, and lesions with mixed normo-micro-macrofollicular architecture, as observed in goitre. Furthermore, LNAB provides optimal substrates for galectin-3 expression analysis. Among 85 cases tested, 14 galectin-3-positive cases were discovered preoperatively (11 thyroid cancers and three adenomas confirmed at the final histology), whereas galectin-3-negative cases were 71 (one carcinoma and 70 benign proliferations at the final histology). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of this integrated morphologic and phenotypic diagnostic approach were 91.6, 97.2 and 95.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LNAB plus galectin-3 expression analysis when applied preoperatively to selected thyroid nodules candidate to surgery can potentially reduce unnecessary thyroid resections. PMID:16804521
Carpi, A; Naccarato, A G; Iervasi, G; Nicolini, A; Bevilacqua, G; Viacava, P; Collecchi, P; Lavra, L; Marchetti, C; Sciacchitano, S; Bartolazzi, A
The National Breast Screening Service in the UK depends upon triple assessment, with or without core biopsy, to determine the need for diagnostic biopsy or treatment for screen-detected lesions. To determine the efficacy of cytology in this process a nationwide survey of sensitivity and specificity of the technique was instituted by the National Coordinating Committees for both Radiology and Pathology.
C. A. Wells; R. Perera; F. E. White; P. Domizio
The diagnosis of endometriosis is usually established by a biopsy. Since endometriotic lesions can present as a mass lesion, it seems feasible to investigate them by the noninvasive method of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In this study, seven cases (5 from a cesarean scar and 2 from rectus sheath) are presented in which FNAC was indicative of endometriosis. The aspirate was obtained using a disposable 10 ml syringe and 22 gauge needle. The material was collected as syringe and needle washings in a cytology container in which 30% ethyl alcohol was present. From half of this material, filter preparations were made on size 3 mum filters and stained by Papanicolaou method, while the remaining aspirate was spun and a cell block was made from the sediment and sections cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. In all cases the cytologic preparations showed tubular structures indicative of endometrial tissue and stromal cells indicative of endometriosis. This was further confirmed on examination of cell blocks, which showed histologic features of endometriosis characterized by endometrial glands separated by endometrial stroma and rare siderophages. The seven cases described are interesting, since the cytohistological finding in FNAC sample and cell block not only were indicative of the diagnosis of endometriosis, but also obviated the need for an invasive surgical procedure. PMID:18335552
Gupta, Raj K
Background The diagnostic efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology may vary greatly depending\\u000a on the treatment of the samples obtained and the level of proficiency of the cytopathologist or cytoscreener.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of the cell block (CB) method and that of smear cytology using tissue samples\\u000a obtained in the same needle pass at EUS-FNA in
Yutaka Noda; Naotaka Fujita; Go Kobayashi; Kei Itoh; Jun Horaguchi; Takasawa T. Obana; Takashi Obana; Shinsuke Koshita; Yoshihide Kanno; Takashi Suzuki; Dai Hirasawa; Toshiki Sugawara; Tetsuya Ohira; Yoshihiro Harada; Takashi Tsuchiya; Takashi Sawai; Miwa Uzuki; Akira Kurose
The Japan Thyroid Association (JTA) recently published new guidelines for clinical management of thyroid nodules. This paper introduces their diagnostic system for reporting thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology. There are two points where the new reporting system that differs from existing internationally-accepted ones. The first is the subclassification of the so-called indeterminate category, which is divided into 'follicular neoplasm' and 'others'. The second is the subclassification of follicular neoplasm into 'favor benign', 'borderline' and 'favor malignant'. It is characterized by self-explanatory terminologies as to histological type and probability of malignancy to establish further risk stratification as well as to facilitate communication between clinicians and cytopathologists. The different treatment strategies adopted for thyroid nodules is deeply influenced by the particular diagnostic system used for thyroid cytology. In Western countries all patients with follicular neoplasms are advised to have immediate diagnostic surgery while patients in Japan often undergo further risk stratification without immediate surgery. The JTA diagnostic system of reporting thyroid cytology is designed for further risk stratification of patients with indeterminate cytology. If a surgeon applies diagnostic lobectomy to all patients with follicular neoplasm unselectively, this subclassification of follicular neoplasm has no practical meaning and is unnecessary. Cytological risk stratification of follicular neoplasms is optional and cytopathologists can choose either a simple 6-tier system without stratification of follicular neoplasm or a complicated 8-tier system depending on their experience in thyroid cytology and clinical management. PMID:24727657
Kakudo, Kennichi; Kameyama, Kaori; Miyauchi, Akira; Nakamura, Hirotoshi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant neoplasm, often presenting at late stage and portending a poor prognosis for the patient. The peripancreatic fat is a rare site of extrahepatic metastasis, and metastatic HCC can mimic primary pancreatic neoplasms, even in this location. It is crucial to be aware of this pitfall in the evaluation of aspiration cytology of pancreatic neoplasms and to develop a strategy to reach the correct diagnosis. We present an endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic HCC presenting as a pancreatic mass radiologically that had neuroendocrine features on various cytological and histological preparations. The metastatic lesions were located surgically in the peripancreatic adipose tissue with involvement of one peripancreatic lymph node. This case illustrates the utility of FNA for diagnosing uncommon presentations of HCC and the importance of clinical history, cell block, and an immunocytochemical panel in determining the origin of the tumor. PMID:19582809
Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Kim, Stacey A; Borcich, Anthony; Zhu, Hongfa; Wu, Maoxin; Szporn, Arnold H; Chen, Hua
[The diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma by combined endoscopic retrograde pancreatiography, aspiration cytology and carcinoembryonic antigen determination in the pancreatic secretion (author's transl)].
The reliability of diagnostic procedures in pancreatic disease can be significantly increased by the combination of endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography, determination of carcinoembryonic antigen and cytological examination of the aspirated pancreatic section. In the present study all cases of pancreatic carcinoma were correctly diagnosed by these methods. These combined diagnostic procedures seem to provide the basis for potential progress in the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:654299
Brandstäter, G; Kratochvil, P; Wiedner, F; Justich, E; Fladerer, H
To determine whether the routine use of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology reduces the rate of unnecessary surgery, the surgical pathology of 54 thyroidectomy patients who had preoperative FNA was compared to the results obtained with 24 thyroidectomy patients who did not have preoperative FNA. Twenty-nine (85.3%) of the 34 patients who had a positive FNA were confirmed by histology to have a thyroid neoplasm; in 24 patients, the neoplasm was malignant. Two of the 17 patients who had a negative FNA but underwent thyroidectomy based on other factors were found to have thyroid cancer. Only 8 (33.3%) of the 24 surgical specimens of patients who did not have an FNA were found to be malignant. FNA had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 75.0%. The results indicate that the routine use of FNA for patients with thyroid nodules reduces the incidence of unnecessary surgery. Furthermore, FNA alone is sufficient to identify most patients at risk and is, therefore, cost-effective. However, the presence of other findings suspicious of malignancy should preclude clinical decision making based on FNA alone. PMID:1453841
Bouvet, M; Feldman, J I; Gill, G N; Dillmann, W H; Nahum, A M; Russack, V; Robbins, K T
In cytology practice some papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases have indeterminate diagnoses and overlapping cytological features with benign lesions. This study was undertaken to find out if immunocytochemistry using Galectin-3, CD-44 and HBME-1 could be of help in such situations. Forty-six cases consisting of 22 malignancy (PTC) cases, 7 suspicious of (S/O) PTC, 1 follicular neoplasm, 5 follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), and 11 benign (colloid goiter) cases diagnosed by FNA were included in this study. Staining reactions were graded in a sliding scale of -, 1+, 2+, 3+, and 4+. In an assessment of 100 cells, each cell with weak, and moderate to strong positive reaction were assigned a score of 1 and 4, respectively. Staining reaction of ?+2 and scores >100 were considered positive. Frequency of cases with ?+2 reaction, and scores >100 for each of Galectin-3, CD-44, and HBME-1 were significantly higher in PTC or combined PTC and S/O PTC cases as compared with FLUS and benign cases taken together (P?=?0.01744 to 0.00000). When the cases were compared according to histological malignant and benign diagnoses, the difference was also significant in respect of ?+2 reaction, and scores >100 for Galectin-3 and CD44 (P?=?0.04923 to 0.00947); however, there was no significant difference, when these parameters for HBME1 were compared. Galectin 3, CD 44, and to some extent HBME 1 are useful immunocytochemical parameters with potential to support FNAC diagnosis of PTC, especially in situations with difficult differential diagnoses. PMID:24273003
Das, Dilip K; Al-Waheeb, Salah K M; George, Sara S; Haji, Bahiyah I; Mallik, Mrinmay K
Background Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) forms one of the first diagnostic tools in the evaluation of tumors. Its role in diagnosing soft tissue tumors (STT) has been fairly documented, as well as debated. Present study was aimed at evaluating its scope in diagnosing 127 cases of soft tissue tumors. Methods Conventional Pap and MGG staining was available in all the cases. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed in 15 cases. Histopathological details were available in 115 cases. Results 50% cases were referred for a primary diagnosis, while 26.8% & 22.8% cases were evaluated for recurrent and metastatic lesions, respectively. Extremities were the commonest sites. On FNAC, 101 cases (79.5%) were labeled as malignant, whereas 10 cases (7.9%) were labeled as benign. The remaining 16 cases (11%) were not categorized and were labeled as 'unsure/not specified'. Histopathological confirmation in 115 cases, gave a diagnostic accuracy of 98%, with a positive predictive value of 98% in malignant cases and a negative predictive value of 100% in benign cases. Two cases were false positive. Among the various cytological categories, 60 cases (47.2%) were of spindle cell type, followed by 32 (25.2%) of round cell type and 14 cases (11%) of lipomatous type. Other 12 cases (9.4%) were of pleomorphic type; 7 (5.5%) cases of epithelioid type and remaining 2 cases were of myxoid type. All the round cell, pleomorphic and myxoid type of tumors were sarcomas, whereas 73.3% cases of spindle cell type were labeled as 'malignant'. Exact cytological sub typing was offered in 58 cases, with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as the most frequently sub typed tumor. The two false positive malignant cases were of fibromatosis and a pigmented schwannoma, on biopsy. Out of 28 metastatic lesions, lymph nodes were the commonest site for metastasis, with epithelioid tumors that formed highest percentage of metastatic cases. Conclusion FNAC is fairly specific and sensitive in STT diagnoses for primary, recurrent and metastatic lesions. The cytological types, especially round cell and pleomorphic sarcomas, can be quickly identified. Clinicopathological correlation with ICC as an adjunct, are valuable in exact sub typing.
Rekhi, Bharat; Gorad, Biru D; Kakade, Anagha C; Chinoy, RF
Tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast with grooved and cerebriform nuclei: failure to identify this specific subtype in a case during routine fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathological diagnosis.
Tubulolobular carcinoma (TLC) is a rare tumor of the breast in which histologic features of both tubular and lobular carcinoma are combined. We report a case of TLC, in which the specific subtype was missed at routine cytologic and histopathological examination. A 69-year-old woman presented with a right breast lump. Imaging studies indicated a malignant lesion in right upper quadrant. Routine fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnosis was a duct cell carcinoma (small cell type). In a setting of cystic thyroid lesions, presence of excessive nuclear grooves, and rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma was also considered. However, both these possibilities were not supported by immunocytochemical findings (estrogen receptor+, thyroglobulin-, and chromogranin-). The histopathology diagnosis was invasive duct cell carcinoma. Review of FNA smears and paraffin sections led to the diagnosis of TLC, which was supported by positive immunohistochemical stainings for markers like e-cadherin and ?-catein. PMID:21162094
Das, Dilip K; Haji, Bahia I; Abdeen, Suad M; John, Bency; Sheikh, Mehraj; Al-Bader, Ibtisam; Behbehani, Abdulla I F
With the advances in the multidisciplinary treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC) over the last few years, it is crucial to obtain a histopathological diagnosis prior to treatment. Histopathological diagnosis for unresectable PC is currently performed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in combination with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We retrospectively assessed the results of these two methods and investigated diagnostic performance according to the location of the lesion and the complications. This study was conducted on a series of 263 consecutive cases of unresectable PC diagnosed with endoscopic cytology. Up to 2006, ERCP-guided cytology (group A) was performed as the first choice for the diagnosis of PC. EUS-FNA was introduced in 2007 and became the first choice thereafter (group B), except in cases with obstructive jaundice, in which ERCP-guided cytology during endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) remains the first choice. There were statistically significant differences in the overall cancer-positive rate between groups A and B (60.4 vs. 75.3%, P=0.01). The cancer-positive rate in the pancreatic body and tail was significantly higher in group B (59.5 vs. 83.3%, P=0.005), whereas there were no significant differences regarding cancer of the pancreatic head. The complication rate was 4.95% in group A and 3.09% in group B (P=0.448). The endoscopic cytology cancer-positive rate in unresectable PC cases was increased as a result of the introduction of EUS-FNA. In conclusion, we recommend performing EUS-FNA in combination with ERCP-guided cytology in cases with a lesion in the pancreatic head that requires EBS.
USHIJIMA, TOMOYUKI; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; SUGIYAMA, GEN; SASAKI, YU; KURAOKA, KEI; YASUMOTO, MAKIKO; TAIRA, TOMOKI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; TSURUTA, OSAMU; SATA, MICHIO
Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at increased risk of the development of a variety of skin infections that can result from graft-preserving immuno-suppressive therapy. In this study, we aimed to determine cytomorphological findings of fungal subcutaneous swelling in seven RTRs and to analyze diagnostic pitfalls in fungal cytology. A retrospective review of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears of subcutaneous swelling with positive fungal elements in RTRs from 2008 to 2010 was performed. We had seven cases (all males; age range, 34-58 years, mean, 46.3 years). The time interval between the renal transplantation and appearance of swelling ranged from 8 to 19 months (mean, 13.4 months). The swelling was located on lower limb (six cases) and arm (one case). The lesion was solitary (six cases) and multiple (one case). The cytology of aspirated material showed branched septate fungal hyphae in six cases. These were well delineated on Periodic acid schiffs (PAS) and chromic silver methenamine (CSM) stains. One case showed presence of faint, thin walled, broad ribbon like hyphae. Culture of aspirated material was performed in four cases which grew phaeohyphomycosis in all. Histology of excised tissue showed numerous septate, branched, pigmented fungal elements suggestive of pheohyphomycosis in four cases and broad ribbon hyphae suggestive of zygomycosis in one case. All of our cases responded well with anti-fungal treatment. Fungal infection can manifest as subcutaneous swelling in RTRs. It is often severe, rapidly progressive and difficult to diagnose. FNAC is an important diagnostic tool which is simple, cost effective and rapid method. PMID:21381226
Jaiswal, Sushila; Vij, Mukul; Prasad, Narayan; Kaul, Anupama; Marak, Rungmei S K; Pandey, Rakesh
Indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN) constitute the gray zone of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). About 70-80 % of ITN are later diagnosed as benign; therefore, it is very important to identify the predictors of malignancy. Aim of the study was to summarize published data about clinical risk factors for malignancy in patients with ITN and thereby provide more robust estimates of the effect of these risk factors. Sources comprised studies published through December 2012. Original articles that investigated clinical parameters as potential predictors of malignancy in ITN were identified. Two authors performed the data extraction independently. A meta-analysis of 19 relevant studies was conducted that included 3,494 patients with ITN according to FNAC. The pooled prevalence of malignancy was 28 % (95 % CI 23-33), 26 % in females and 34 % in males. The pooled OR was 1.51 (95 % CI 1.2-1.83) for males and 0.68 (95 % CI 0.53-0.88) for females. Regarding the nodule's size, the pooled OR was 2.10 (95 % CI 1.26-3.50) for nodules >4 cm in diameter. Analysis of the patient age as a risk factor was not feasible because of marked difference found between the studies. In patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules diagnosed at FNAC, the pooled rate of malignancy from 19 studies was 28 %. Patients that are male and have ITN greater than 4 cm in diameter should be considered at higher risk of cancer. PMID:24197803
Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Treglia, Giorgio; Guidobaldi, Leo; Saggiorato, Enrico; Nigri, Giuseppe; Crescenzi, Anna; Romanelli, Francesco; Orlandi, Fabio; Valabrega, Stefano; Sadeghi, Ramin; Giovanella, Luca
Gall bladder malignancy is very common in northern part of India. The diseases can virtually metastasise to every organ of the body however; skin metastasis from gall bladder cancer is extremely rare. The authors report, probably the first case of fine needle aspiration cytology site metastasis on anterior abdominal wall skin from adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder.
Kumar, Surender; Singh, Devendra; Goel, Madhu Mati; Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar
Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology.
Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali
A 61-year-old woman presented with an isolated, painless, slightly enlarged right laterocervical lymph node without any other signs and symptoms of disease. Laboratory test including hematological and biochemical parameters were normal. A cervical ultrasonography demonstrated one lymph node (10 mm) on the right laterocervical side and one small reactive lymph node on the left laterocervical side. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears revealed a polymorphic population of cells composed of lymphocytes, histiocytes, epitheloid cells, plasma cell, tingible body macrophages and macrophages infiltrated with Leishmania amastigotes. Treatment was initiated with Stiboglukonat Na (Pentostam) and led to a full recovery. PMID:20432756
Beljan, Renata; Sundov, Dinka; Luksi?, Boris; Solji?, Violeta; Burazer, Marina Pilji?
Cystic lesions are common in the head and neck. The most common are the cutaneous cysts, which are referred to as epidermal cysts. These cysts present as nodular and fluctuant subcutaneous lesions and they are seen most commonly in the acne - prone areas like the head, neck and the back. They arise following a localized inflammation of the hair follicle and occasionally after the implantation of the epithelium, following a trauma or surgery. The presence of benign cystic lesions in the salivary glands is rare.We are presenting a rare case of a 55-year-old male who presented with a soft swelling on the left side of the face. A diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst was given on cytology. A superficial parotidectomy was performed and the histopathology confirmed the above diagnosis. PMID:23634420
Hegde, Panna N; Prasad H L, Kishan; Kumar Y, Sunil; Sajitha, K; Roy, Pooja Sarda; Raju, Mary; Shetty, Vikram
Cystic lesions are common in the head and neck. The most common are the cutaneous cysts, which are referred to as epidermal cysts. These cysts present as nodular and fluctuant subcutaneous lesions and they are seen most commonly in the acne - prone areas like the head, neck and the back. They arise following a localized inflammation of the hair follicle and occasionally after the implantation of the epithelium, following a trauma or surgery. The presence of benign cystic lesions in the salivary glands is rare.We are presenting a rare case of a 55-year-old male who presented with a soft swelling on the left side of the face. A diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst was given on cytology. A superficial parotidectomy was performed and the histopathology confirmed the above diagnosis
Hegde, Panna N.; Prasad H.L., Kishan; Kumar Y., Sunil; Sajitha, K.; Roy, Pooja Sarda; Raju, Mary; Shetty, Vikram
Blastomycosis, usually presenting as pneumonia, is more common in adults than in children. Moreover, cutaneous blastomycosis is quite uncommon in children. We describe a case of cutaneous blastomycosis in an 8-year-old boy who presented with multiple hyperkeratotic verrucous plaques where diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the infection responded well to oral itraconazole therapy with reduction in number of spores and size of lesions. PMID:19021202
Shukla, Shailaja; Singh, Smita; Jain, Manjula; Kumar Singh, Sanjeet; Chander, Ram; Kawatra, Neha
In a pilot study, 21 patients underwent transbronchial fine needle aspiration (TBFNA) using a 45 cm-22 gauge needle guided by means of a semi-rigid metal sleeve, which was introduced through a standard rigid bronchoscope. A total of 33 aspirations were performed from main carina (15), paratracheal (five), and lobar carinal (13) foci. Six aspirations yielded malignant cellular samples, 22 aspirations presented only normal cells, and in five no adequate cellular sample was obtained. Fifteen patients underwent surgical exploration (mediastinoscopy with or without thoracotomy). Four of the cytologically malignant cases were explored and in three the aspiration site was confirmed histologically. In the remaining patients where the site of aspiration was explored, no tumour was demonstrated in the cytologically negative or cytologically inadequate cases. There were no complications from TBFNA. We suggest that TBFNA is useful in determining mediastinal malignant involvement rapidly and with lesser invasion than with current techniques. Images
Lemer, J; Malberger, E; Konig-Nativ, R
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is an unusual neoplasm, which is associated with specific supportive diagnostic markers. Despite this, its cytological diagnosis is often difficult. We report herewith three cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis was established on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Plasmacytoid cell pattern was observed in two cases and spindle cell pattern in the third case. PMID:21157553
Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Ansari, Hena A; Sadaf, Lubna; Khan, Mohammad Amanullah
We report two cases, with overlapping cyto-histological characteristics, of invasive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast with associated stromal features distinctive of carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed monomorphic, medium-sized, mildly atypical neoplastic cells, with interspersed multinucleated giant cells and lympho-histiocytic components; hemosiderin deposits were also appreciable. Macroscopic features were typical of invasive carcinoma, but with unusual brown staining. Light microscopy revealed moderately differentiated invasive carcinoma mainly composed of solid sheets of round to polygonal medium-sized cells with a tendency to produce peripheral palisading (carcinoid-like morphology); osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes and histiocytes were dispersed only among tumour cells in the distinctive stroma of the carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells; this stroma was characterised by reactive/fibroblastic features, hypervascularization, extravasated blood cells and hemosiderin deposits that gave rise to the typical staining seen macroscopically. Immunohistochemically, cancer cells were diffusely positive for the neuroendocrine marker synaptophisin with partial chromogranin and NSE staining; the ostoclastic giant cell and histiocyte component were strongly positive for CD68. Both cases also had lymph node metastases; the epithelial neoplastic cells, with regards to neuroendocrine markers, were overlapping to the primitive tumour, the histiocytic/giant cell component appeared present, although with a lower degree, while the distinctive stroma was absent. Breast neuroendocrine carcinomas, associated with multinucleated giant cells and stroma typical of the carcinoma with osteoclastic-like cells, to our knowledge, have not been reported. PMID:18841823
Pagani, A; Iandolo, M
A 69-year-old female presented with left leg pain 4 months after total hip replacement for left hip joint protrusio acetabuli. A "cystic" mass lesion was identified radiologically in relation to the arthroplasty and an initial CT-guided core needle biopsy showed a spindle cell proliferation with associated necrosis, interpreted as suspicious for malignancy. A repeat CT-guided fine needle aspiration showed necrosis, "ghost" spindle cells, aggregates of histiocytes, giant cells, and inflammatory cells as well as scattered large atypical spindle cells. The simultaneously obtained core biopsy showed extensive necrosis with ghost spindle cells that was surrounded by CD68+ histiocytes, which in turn were surrounded by a predominantly CD3+, CD4+ lymphocytic infiltrate. A diagnosis of necrotic granulomatous pseudotumor was made after a diagnosis of sarcoma was initially entertained. This unusual tissue response is rarely seen after metal-on-metal arthroplasty, occurs more often in females and may represent a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction incited by very small-sized particulate metallic debris that forms haptens in association with serum proteins. PMID:22927292
Singh, Charanjeet; Kaplan, Alesia; Pambuccian, Stefan E
Background The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) uses six diagnostic categories to standardize communication of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) interpretations between clinicians and cytopathologists. Since several studies have questioned the diagnostic accuracy of this system, we examined its accuracy in our hospital. Methods We calculated the incidences and malignancy rates of each diagnostic category in the BSRTC for 1,730 FNAs that were interpreted by four cytopathologists in Gangnam Severance Hospital between October 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011. Results The diagnostic incidences of categories I-VI were as follows: 13.3%, 40.6%, 9.1%, 0.4%, 19.3%, and 17.3%, respectively. Similarly, the malignancy rates of these categories were as follows: 35.3%, 5.6%, 69.0%, 50.0%, 98.7%, and 98.9%, respectively. In categories II, V, and VI, there were no statistically significant differences in the ranges of the malignancy rates among the four cytopathologists. However, there were significant differences in the ranges for categories I and III. Conclusions Our findings suggest that institutions that use the BSRTC should regularly update their diagnostic criteria. We also propose that institutions issue an annual report of incidences and malignancy rates to help other clinicians improve the case management of patients with thyroid nodules.
Park, Ji Hye; Yoon, Sun Och; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Hye Min; Nahm, Ji Hae
AIM--To develop an expert system model for the diagnosis of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast. METHODS--Knowledge and uncertainty were represented in the form of a Bayesian belief network which permitted the combination of diagnostic evidence in a cumulative manner and provided a final probability for the possible diagnostic outcomes. The network comprised 10 cytological features (evidence nodes), each independently linked to the diagnosis (decision node) by a conditional probability matrix. The system was designed to be interactive in that the cytopathologist entered evidence into the network in the form of likelihood ratios for the outcomes at each evidence node. RESULTS--The efficiency of the network was tested on a series of 40 breast FNAC specimens. The highest diagnostic probability provided by the network agreed with the cytopathologists' diagnosis in 100% of cases for the assessment of discrete, benign, and malignant aspirates. Atypical probably benign cases were given probabilities in favour of a benign diagnosis. Suspicious cases tended to have similar probabilities for both diagnostic outcomes and so, correctly, could not be assigned as benign or malignant. A closer examination of cumulative belief graphs for the diagnostic sequence of each case provided insight into the diagnostic process, and quantitative data which improved the identification of suspicious cases. CONCLUSION--The further development of such a system will have three important roles in breast cytodiagnosis: (1) to aid the cytologist in making a more consistent and objective diagnosis; (2) to provide a teaching tool on breast cytological diagnosis for the non-expert; and (3) it is the first stage in the development of a system capable of automated diagnosis through the use of expert system machine vision.
Hamilton, P W; Anderson, N; Bartels, P H; Thompson, D
Meningioma is a tumour most commonly located intracranially that may rarely extend extracranially. Ectopic meningioma presenting as parapharyngeal mass is a rare entity. We report a case of an 18-year-old female who presented with a complaint of swelling below the right angle of mandible associated with difficulty in swallowing for the last 3 months. The swelling measured 1.5 × 1 cm and was firm, fixed, non-pulsatile, non-transilluminant and non-tender. Computer tomography revealed a heterogenous enhancing mass with foci of calcification in parapharyngeal space without any intracranial component. Intraoral fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. A cytological diagnosis of spindle cell lesion of neural origin with the closest possibility of meningioma was rendered. Excision biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic parapharyngeal meningioma. It is important for clinicians and pathologists to be aware of this entity at the unusual site.
Kumar, Sanjay; Hasija, Sonia; Goyal, Rama; Kataria, Sant Prakash; Sen, Rajeev; Wadhera, Raman
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a relatively rare tumour arisingfrequently in patients with neurofibromatosis, type I (NF1). It is usually a high grade sarcoma. A 65 year old female patient presented with a swelling in left popliteal fossa of two months duration. She had multiple nodular lesions all over the body since childhood. She was subjected to fine needle aspiration for the popliteal mass and was reported as MPNST which was confirmed on histopathology. She developed recurrence within four months time. The prognosis of MPNST is poor. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a very useful, rapid sensitive and inexpensive investigative procedure for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumours and can replace an open biopsy for the diagnosis of MPNST in patients with neurofibromatosis-1. PMID:16761762
Yadavrao, Kshirsagar Ashok; Vijaykumar, Wader Jyotsna; Kanthirav, Kullolli Girish
Core-needle biopsy under CT fluoroscopy guidance and fine-needle aspiration cytology: Comparison of diagnostic yield in the diagnosis of lung and mediastinum tumors. Analysis of frequency and types of complications
Summary Background Patients with pathological tissue mass in thoracic cage found with imaging require histopathological or cytological confirmation of malignancy before treatment. The tissue material essential for patomorphological evaluation can be acquired with fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) controlled with CT and core-needle biopsy (CNB) under real-time CT fluoroscopy guidance. The purpose of this work is to carry out a retrospective analysis of the two methods with regards to their informativity, frequency and the kind of complications. Material/Methods From January, 2012 to May 2013, 76 core-needle biopsies of lung and mediastinum tumors were conducted and compared with 86 fine-needle aspiration biopsies(FNAB) of lung and mediastinum tumors, including 30 patients who underwent FNAB and were referred to CNB in order to specify the diagnosis. Results Complete histopathological diagnosis was made in 91% with the use of CNB and in 37% when FNAB was the chosen method. Early complications were observed in 32% patients who underwent BG and in group of 11% who underwent FNAB. Late complications, however, appeared in 29% patients after CNB and 13% after FNAB. In 24 cases CNB specified the complete diagnosis. Conclusions Core-needle biopsy in comparison to fine-needle aspiration biopsy has more frequent rate of negligible complications, however, it offers higher diagnostic yield for diagnostic of lung and mediastinum neoplastic disease and allows for more precise diagnosis of focal lesions.
Szlezak, Przemyslaw; Srutek, Ewa; Gorycki, Tomasz; Kowalewski, Janusz; Studniarek, Michal
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a very unusual form of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, which has rarely been diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. We report one such case with some overlapping cytomorphological features with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A 91-year-old man presented with generalized lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, ascites, and an ulcerated growth in rectum. FNA smears from the left cervical lymph node showed a monotonous population of small lymphoid cells having small but distinct nucleoli that was initially diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Smears from the left axillary lymph node contained both small and medium-sized lymphoid cells with frequent hand-mirror cell appearance, which has been described in acute lymphoblatic leukemia (ALL). Immunocyto/histochemical stainings on smears and cell block preparations of the aspirate showed the following immunophenotype: CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD8-, CD20-, CD23-, and Tdt-. Total peripheral blood leukocyte count was 26.4 × 10(9) /L and total lymphocyte count, 8.3 × 10(9) /L with predominance of small lymphocytes. T-cell nature of the neoplasm was confirmed by biopsies from the cervical lymph node (T-cell lymphoma), bone marrow (T-cell lymphoid neoplasm/chronic lymphocytic leukemia), and the ulcerated rectal lesion (atypical T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder). The patient developed deep vein thrombosis, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding from duodenal ulcer. By the time the reports of all the investigations were ready, the patient succumbed to bronchopneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this T-CLL/T-PLL which was diagnosed initially by FNA cytology with immunocytochemical support is first of its kind to be reported. PMID:21987484
Das, Dilip K; Pathan, Shahed K; Joneja, Munish; Al-Musawi, Fatma A; John, Bency; Mirza, Kamran R
Background and Objectives: Fine-needle aspiration has proven safe and efficacious in the evaluation of nodular diseases in the adults. It has been used extensively to select patients for surgical exploration with a high degree of reliability. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of its applicability in thyroid lesions in children and adolescents, as well as to determine distribution of thyroid lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients in whom the prevalence of thyroid nodules and probability of malignancy are different. Methodology: This is a four-year study undertaken between January 2009 and December 2012, during which, 284 fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed for palpable thyroid lesions in children and adolescents and analysed. Out of these 11, 52, 82 and 116 aspirates belonged to the age group between 7-<12 years, 12 -<16 years, 16 -<19 years, 19-21 years respectively. There were 261 (91.9%) satisfactory aspirates and 23 unsatisfactory aspirates (8.1%). These 261 satisfactory aspirates with adequate cellular material were taken up for interpretation and analysed. Thirty one patients underwent thyroidectomy. There were 4 true positives, 24 true negatives, 2 false positives and one false negative case in this study. Sensitivity, Specificity, Accuracy, Positive predictive value and Negative predictive value were calculated. Results: Benign cytology was reported in 89 cases (34.2%) where 11 cases (4.2%) were males. Thyroiditis was observed in 154 cases (59%) and 8 cases (3.1%) were males. Suspicious cytology was reported in 12 cases and comprised of 2 cases with a suspicion of Papillary Carcinoma and 10 cases (3.8%), with a suspicion of a Follicular lesion. Papillary Carcinoma was detected on 6 cases where all were females. The Sensitivity was 96%, Specificity was 66% and the Accuracy was 90%, Positive predictive value was 66%, Negative predictive value was 96%. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of palpable thyroid lesions in children and adolescents is a good screening test because of its high sensitivity. Majority of the nodules in this age-group are benign and fine-needle aspiration cytology helps prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:24596718
Vasudev, Vidya; A L, Hemalatha; B, Rakhi; S, Githanjali
Background/Aims Although the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in pancreas adenocarcinoma is high, endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) is often required in other lesions; in these cases, it may be possible to forgo initial EUS-FNA and rapid on-site cytology evaluation (ROSE). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB alone (EUS-FNB group) with a conventional sampling algorithm of EUS-FNA with ROSE followed by EUS-FNB (EUS-FNA/B group) in nonpancreas adenocarcinoma lesions. Methods Retrospective cohort study of subjects who underwent EUS sampling of nonpancreatic adenocarcinoma lesions between February 2011 and May 2013. Results Over the study period, there were 43 lesions biopsied in 41 unique patients in the EUS-FNB group and 53 patients in the EUS-FNA/B group. Overall diagnostic accuracy was similar between the EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA/B groups (83.7% vs. 84.9%; p=1.0). In the subgroup of subepithelial mass lesions, diagnostic accuracy remained similar in the EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA/B groups (81.0% and 70.6%; p=0.7). EUS-FNB procedures were significantly shorter than those in the EUS-FNA/B group (58.4 minutes vs. 73.5 minutes; p<0.0001). Conclusions EUS-FNB without on-site cytology provides a high diagnostic accuracy in nonpancreas adenocarcinoma lesions. There appears to be no additive benefit with initial EUS-FNA but this requires further study in a prospective study.
Krishnan, Kumar; Wani, Sachin; Keefer, Laurie; Komanduri, Srinadh
A method for the evaluation of splenic cellularity using samples collected by fine-needle aspirative biopsy was standardized in this work. The procedure includes erythrocyte lysing, preparation of cytospin films and staining by histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. The cellular profiles of spleen preparations were compared with those observed in peripheral blood samples subjected to the same procedure. Two groups were compared, one consisting of 14 healthy uninfected and the other of 15 polysymptomatic Leishmania chagasi/infantum-infected dogs, from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniosis. Cell populations were identified by conventional hematoxilin-eosin and Wright' stainings, and by immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against canine CD45RA and CD45RB, phagocytes and a pan-leukocyte antigen. Larger neutrophil (P < 0.0001) and monocyte/macrophage (P = 0.0036) relative counts and lower lymphocyte relative counts (P < 0.0001) were found in the spleen, and not in the blood, of the animals with leishmaniosis than in those of the healthy animals. The proportions of CD45RB+ cells were higher, and of CD45RA+ cells were lower, both in the spleen and in the blood of animals with leishmaniosis than in those of healthy dogs (P < 0.05). Additionally, hematoxilin-eosin-stained cytospins of spleen aspirates from Leishmania-infected animals permitted the easy visualization of amastigote forms inside phagocytes, under light microscopy. PMID:16546267
Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Santos, Silvana Ornelas; Chagas-Júnior, Adenizar Delgado; Paixão, Mariza; Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; dos-Santos, Washington Luís Conrado; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain
Pilomatrixoma (PMX) is a skin appendage tumor of hair matrix origin, which usually occurs on the face or upper extremities. Although the lesion can appear at any age, it is commonly seen in children and is more common in females. Despite being better defined, pilomatricomas continue to be frequently misdiagnosed and are not usually considered in differential diagnoses, either in clinical set-up or during cytological reporting. They typically present as a superficial, firm, solitary, slow-growing, painless mass in the dermis. The overlying skin may be normal or exhibit a bluish-red discoloration or ulceration. We report an 18-year-old girl presented with tender, subcutaneous nodule with overlying skin showing atrophy and hypopigmentation. Clinically, it was diagnosed as neurofibroma and sent for FNAC. We offered precise diagnosis of pilomatrixoma on cytological examination, (where chances of wrong diagnosis are very high) and it was subsequently confirmed by histopathology. We discuss the varied clinical presentations, diagnostic difficulties, and differential diagnoses of PMX. PMID:24082196
Sinhasan, Sankappa P; Jadhav, Chitra R; Bhat, Ramachandra V; Amaranathan, Anandhi
The detection of specific genetic alterations in breast cancer is useful for diagnosing, predicting prognosis and planning preoperative treatment. c-erbB2/neu overexpression is usually detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC), although this technique is neither completely reproducible nor highly reliable, owing to specimen and methodologic variability and antibody sensitivity. Here, we combine two well-established techniques, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to detect c-erbB2/neu amplification in patients candidate to primary chemotherapy and, in part, previously analysed for c-erbB2/neu overexpression. Sixty smears from FNA were used to simultaneously detect c-erbB2/neu and chromosome 17 centromere. FISH was successful in 58 cases and detected 24 amplified cases, three of which were negative by immunophenotyping, 28 negative cases, with evidence of two normal c-erbB2/neu/ signals, two cases with deletion of c-erbB2/neu, and four cases with polysomy, thus providing more reliable and informative results than ICC. This study underlines the advantages offered by the FNA and FISH combination which are two rapid, reliable, simple and informative techniques, to analyse one of the most important genetic markers for predicting prognosis and chemotherapy planning for breast carcinoma in particular in the light of the recently proposed trials of primary chemotherapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
Mezzelani, A; Alasio, L; Bartoli, C; Bonora, M G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F; Pilotti, S
Valoración pronóstica del carcinoma ductal infiltrante mamario en PAAF. Estudio comparativo de tres sistemas de graduación citológica Prognostic evaluation of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Comparative study of three cytological grading systems
SUMMARY We have evaluated three different systems of cytologic grading based in morphological parameters in order to define the Cytological Grade (CG) making a correlation with the Histological Grade (HG), Histological Cytological Grade (HCG) and the Histological Mitotic Index (HMI) in 366 FNA biopsies from surgical specimens of the breast without fixation diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma. The sensitivity and
Francisco Javier Torres Gómez; Luis Felipe Calle Cruz; Francisco Javier Torres Oliver
The book includes 26 papers dealing with exfoliative cytology. It focuses its attention on the contribution of cytology to the diagnosis of pre-clinical cancer of uterine cervix, as well as oral lesions. New methods such as the use of phase-contrast micro...
P. N. Wahi
Fine-needle aspiration cytology, which is well established to be accurate for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, may be inconclusive for the follicular thyroid neoplasms. As galectin-3 was suggested to be a marker of malignant thyrocytes, we investigated whether this protein might be helpful in the diagnosis of aspirates classified as undeterminate by cytology. After establishing an easy processing of aspirates
J F Collet; I Hurbain; C Prengel; O Utzmann; F Scetbon; J F Bernaudin; A Fajac
This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material.
Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.
Synovial sarcoma is highly malignant tumor of soft tissues, occurring chiefly in the extremities and limb girdle with a propensity for local recurrence and sometimes metastases to the lungs. Primary synovial sarcoma arising in the lungs is rare and brain metastasis as presentation is further uncommon. We report a case of primary monophasic synovial sarcoma lung presenting with brain metastasis in a 35-year-old male patient. The diagnosis was made on percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration from left-sided pulmonary mass and later confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The utility of preoperative diagnosis by percutaneous aspiration cytology is also stressed.
Nuwal, Paras; Dixit, Ramakant; Shah, Narender Singh; Samaria, Anil
In summary, aspiration pneumonia is the result of large-volume aspiration into the lower airways of material from the upper\\u000a respiratory or digestive tracts. Aspiration is suspected in approximately 10% of patients hospitalized due to CAP. The syndrome\\u000a is subdivided into three different forms, depending on the nature of the inoculum, and each form has specific clinical presentations\\u000a and therapies. These
Marcio Sa-Borges; Jordi Rello
Fibromatosis is a fibroblastic lesion composed of uniform fibroblasts and collagen with an infiltrative growth pattern but lacking malignant cytological features. It is a rare entity and is even more unusual when found in the breast. Multicentricity in fibromatosis has been reported in 10% cases. Multicentricity in breast cancer has been defined as the presence of two or more tumor foci within different quadrants of the same breast. Considering this definition of multicentricity for fibromatosis, we herein report a case of recurrent multicentric aggressive mammary fibromatosis and its cytological features with review of literature because of limited literature of (FNAC) in mammary fibromatosis.
Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Gupta, Nilakshi; Pant, Prabhat; Thapliyal, Naveen Chandra
Aspiration biopsy cytology or fine needle aspiration is a well-established, safe, highly reliable, inexpensive diagnostic procedure which must be distinguished from the more familiar `needle biopsy'. The Aspir-Gun, a plastic syringe `pistol', makes the technique simple enough for use in a solo practitioner's office. Since it is cheaper to send slides to referral centres than patients, it has a special screening value for doctors in isolated areas. Indications are discussed, with emphasis on those anatomic sites and palpable masses, which have practical application for the primary care physician. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2
Mack, Gordon; Morrow, Des
Aim. Enlarged cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with thyroid cancer are usually assessed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thyroglobulin (Tg) is frequently elevated in malignant FNAC needle wash specimens (FNAC-Tg). The objectives of the study were to (1) determine an appropriate diagnostic cut-off for FNAC-Tg levels (2) compare FNAC and FNAC-Tg results in a group of 108 patients affected by differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. A total of 126 consecutive FNACs were performed on enlarged LNs and the final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical pathology examination or clinical follow-up. The best FNAC-Tg cut-off level was selected by receiver operating curve analysis, and diagnostic performances of FNAC and FNAC-Tg were compared. Results. The rate of FNAC samples adequate for cytological examination was 77% in contrast FNAC-Tg available in 100% of aspirates (P < .01). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNAC were 71%, 80%, 74%, 100%, 80%, and 94%, respectively. The most appropriate cut-off value for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer metastatic LN was 1.1?ng/mL (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%). Conclusions. The diagnostic performance of needle washout FNAC-Tg measurement with a cut-off of 1.1?ng/mL compared favorably with cytology in detecting DTC node metastases.
Giovanella, Luca; Ceriani, Luca; Suriano, Sergio
The Cancergram focuses on the cytological techniques and methodologies employed in general experimental studies related to cancer research. The cytological technologies involved in preclinical, diagnostic and therapeutic studies are also included. Specifi...
The Cancergram focuses on the cytological techniques and methodologies employed in general experimental studies related to cancer research. The cytological technologies involved in preclinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic studies are also included. Specif...
The Cancergram focuses on the cytological techniques and methodologies employed in general experimental studies related to cancer research. The cytological technologies involved in preclinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic studies are also included. Specif...
AIMS: To review consecutive cell block preparations of cytological specimens in a large general hospital. METHODS: 50 cell blocks were made over an 18 month period in which about 1900 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) were performed. The aspirator was a cytologist or, for image guided FNAs, a radiologist with a cytologist at hand to collect the specimen. Forty eight cell
F Mayall; B Chang; A Darlington
OBJECTIVE: To compare cytology and histology on the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. METHOD: Fifty eight cases available to evaluation were analyzed both by cytology and histology. The results of the biopsies studied by histology and cytology were compared to the results obtained on the surgical specimen or immunohistochemistry. We determined the percentage of correct results, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of each method. RESULTS: Twelve per cent of biopsies were inconclusive by cytology. The percentage of correct diagnosis was 70.7% and 81% (p=.179), the ability to differentiate benign lesions from malignant ones was 84.5% and 93.1% (p=0.18) respectively, for cytology and histology. Cytology showed sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 76.5%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 72% and accuracy 84.5%. Histology showed sensitivity of 90.2%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 81% and accuracy of 93.1%. The Youden index for cytology was 64.3% and for histology it was 90.2%. CONCLUSION: Despite promising, cytology obtained by thin needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than the histological evaluation on musculoskeletal tumors diagnosis. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Studies.
Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Ferreira, George Rocha; Lima, Tulio Paes de Medeiros; Lima, Jairo de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto Jose Vieira
Cytological diagnosis of low grade sarcomas can be a daunting task, owing to the varied cytomorphological appearances possible. We report a case of acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (AMIFS) in a woman who presented with a longstanding mass on the dorsum of her left foot. The diagnosis was suggested by fine needle aspiration cytology and established by wide excision. Microscopic examination showed that fine needle aspirate smears of this lesion contained the characteristic features seen in the surgical excision of this AMIFS: myxoid material, spindled to epithelioid cells with variably prominent nucleoli, nuclear pseudoinclusions, bipolar cytoplasmic extensions, globules of extracellular material, and bizarre virocyte or ganglion-like giant cells. PMID:21548124
Wickham, M Quinn; Youens, Kenneth E; Dodd, Leslie G
Since its inception more than 50 years ago at Memorial Hospital for Cancer (New York), needle aspiration biopsy has traveled to its present popularity over a torturous road. The early influence of Stewart on the interpretation of aspiration smears and the use of this biopsy method is still worthy of review, particularly the importance of close cooperation between clinician and pathologist. While cytology has been profoundly influenced by individual cell interpretation as practiced by Papanicolaou, it is really pattern recognition that dominates successful diagnosis by the aspiration biopsy smear method. Present concerns over technical variation in procurement of the biopsy and staining methods should be of less importance than identification of the aspiration methodology that produces the best-quality microscopic image. Reliability of diagnosis by aspiration smear must also be judged by a suitable and reproducible standard, something that is not necessarily fulfilled by tissue pathology, although many would believe otherwise. The author proposes that aspiration may also now be judged, like tissue pathology, by clinical outcome. The application and ease of procuring cell samples from tumors for cell image analysis, for flow cytometry and ploidy studies, and for gene rearrangement place this biopsy method in the forefront of the integration of biologic research and clinical medicine. Aspiration biopsy has caused us to explore how the human eye and brain analyze microscopic images and may even assist in the design of useful artificial intelligence diagnostic systems in the future. PMID:2656496
Frable, W J
Cytological studies were carried out in 94 patients with malignant tumors of the orbit using fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagnostic potentialities of the method are shown. The method possesses the highest diagnostic informative value in evaluation of the type of the process (98.8%). Cytological characteristics of the most incident malignant tumors of the orbit are presented. PMID:11521434
Zhil'tsova, M G; Kaplina, A V
The cytological features of myoepithelioma of the parotid gland are documented in only a few case reports. We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytological findings in a case of epithelioid myoepithelioma of the parotid gland in a 43-year-old male. The differential diagnosis with other salivary gland neoplasms is discussed. PMID:24959054
Gayathri, Bn; Kalyani, R; Harendra Kumar, Ml; Azeem Mohiyuddin, Sm
The cytological features of myoepithelioma of the parotid gland are documented in only a few case reports. We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytological findings in a case of epithelioid myoepithelioma of the parotid gland in a 43-year-old male. The differential diagnosis with other salivary gland neoplasms is discussed.
Gayathri, BN; Kalyani, R; Harendra Kumar, ML; Azeem Mohiyuddin, SM
The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) website provides free access to 22 interactive science labs with downloadable simulations for use in grades 4-9. Half of the simulations are related to Astronomy and half pertain to general topics such as simple machines, force and motion, momentum, and kinetic energy. Each interactive lab is designed to be visually attractive and fun, yet mentally challenging for students in the middle grades. Materials include complete lesson plans which were authored collaboratively by teachers and research scientists.
A retrospective study is reported of all Franzen fine-needle aspiration cytology undertaken at Southmead Hospital between January 1978 and December 1981. A total of 1043 aspirates were examined from 753 patients. The diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate was missed in 2 patients. Twenty-one patients with cytologically-proven carcinoma in histologically-benign prostates were detected, and the role of the Franzen needle in the diagnosis of early prostatic cancer is discussed. Of the 218 patients proceeding to prostatectomy, there were 91 patients with carcinoma and in 65 (72%) the cytological and histological grading was identical. A significant disparity occurred in 8 cases and the reasons are discussed.
Anandan, N; Rowell, M J; MacKenzie, E; Johnson, D H; Gingell, J C
Background. Fine-needle aspiration cytology plays a major role in the primary diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Cytological grading of the smears can provide valuable prognostic information and aid in planning the management options. Aim. To evaluate various 3-tier cytological grading systems and to determine the best possible system which is reliable and objective for use in routine practice. Materials & Methods. 72 fine-needle aspiration smears of breast carcinomas were graded by two pathologists and compared with the histologic grading by Nottingham modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson method. Concordance and correlation studies were done. Kappa measurement of interobserver agreement was also done. Results. Robinson's method showed a better correlation (77.7%) and substantial Kappa value of agreement (? = 0.61) with Bloom Richardson's histological grading method in comparison to the other methods, closely followed by Fisher's method. Fisher's method showed better interobserver agreement (84.7%, ? = 0.616) compared to the other systems. Conclusions. Robinson's method of cytological grading in fine-needle aspiration smears of breast carcinoma is simpler, multifactorial, and feasible, hence being preferable for routine use according to our study.
Einstien, Dinisha; Omprakash, B. O. Parijatham; Ganapathy, Hemalatha; Rahman, Sadaf
Background The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. Methods The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4 mm diameter needle attached to a 8 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4 ?m thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Results Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage localized in the different regions, local invasiveness and enlarged nuclei were observed. The samples included 3 tumors of mammary glands mammary tumors were complex carcinomas (n?=?2) and adenocarcinoma (n?=?1). The histological grades of the 3 cases were as follows: grade II, (1/3); grade III, (2/3) with high mitotic index. The preferential localization of mammary neoplasms was in the inguinal lobe (1/3 case) and abdominal lobes (2/3 cases). Furthermore, 1case of the inguinal mass affected the left caudo-inguinal lobe and 2cases right cranio and caudo abdominal lobes. Conclusion The study concluded that cytology could be used as a quick, rapid, field diagnostic technique in combination with histopathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary tumors (FMTs). Our findings in feline MTs indicate that FMTs could be useful as an animal model of human breast cancer. Moreover, because of the similarity of the cytohistopathological findings in the human and feline mammary gland tumours, it is possible to use the same cytopathological criteria applied in human pathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary gland tumours. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2047361423103295
Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in adolescent girls and young women with a peak incidence in the second and third decades of life. Carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is rare and is usually discovered incidentally. We describe a case of clinging type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising within a fibroadenoma. Clinging carcinoma, a variant of DCIS is an under recognized entity. Diagnosis of DCIS is made based on architecture and cytology. This case report highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of this entity coexisting in a fibroadenoma. PMID:23661951
Swetha, N; Geetha, Ch; Prayaga, Aruna K
Abstract In our study, we evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy of transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of benign ovarian cysts in selected patients. A total of 46 women with benign ovarian cysts were referred to our outpatient clinic. The aspirated fluid was collected and sent for cytological analysis. All women were re-evaluated at 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure. The cytological analysis was negative for malignancy in all cases. Our study showed an overall recurrence rate for ovarian cysts of 39.1%. Women with endometriotic ovarian cysts have an increased incidence of recurrence, 62.5% (n = 5), in comparison with serous cysts, 35.2% (n = 12) and serous-haemorrhagic cysts, 15% (n = 1), ?(2) = 9.913, df = 2, p = 0.007. The results of our study reveal that transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of benign ovarian cysts is a simple, safe and effective procedure. PMID:24483623
Nikolaou, M; Adonakis, G; Zyli, P; Androutsopoulos, G; Saltamavros, A; Psachoulia, C; Tsapanos, V; Decavalas, G
Background: Endoscopic evaluation is critical in assessing the cause of obstructive jaundice. Cytological techniques including bile aspiration and biliary brushings have become the initial diagnostic modality. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of endoscopic biliary tract cytology as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 biliary tract specimens including 34 bile aspirations and 22 biliary brushings from 41 consecutive patients who had presented with obstructive jaundice and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed by cytological examination. The smears prepared were analyzed for standard cytological features. Results: Cytologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 13 (31.7%) cases, atypical in 2 (4.9%), reactive in 3 (7.3%) and benign changes in 19 (46.3%) cases. 4 (9.8%) cases were non-diagnostic. Serum bilirubin was significantly elevated in the malignant group. Biliary stricture was the most common finding on ERCP (68.3%). On cytological examination, presence of solitary, intact atypical cells, enlarged nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse chromatin and nucleoli were important cytologic criteria for differentiating malignant from benign biliary specimens. Conclusions: Regular use of bile cytology and brushings during ERCP evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice is invaluable in obtaining a morphologic diagnosis. A systematic approach, use of strict cytomorphologic criteria and inclusion of significant atypia as malignant diagnosis may improve the sensitivity.
Gupta, Mamta; Pai, Radha R.; Dileep, Devi; Gopal, Sandeep; Shenoy, Suresh
A 44-yr-old man with a preoperative diagnosis of malignant mediastinal goiter underwent a preoperative fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed enlarged uniform nuclei, prominent nucleoli, few mitotic figures, karyolysis, anuclear cells, hyalinized nonepithelial cell clusters with hemosiderin deposits, and a perivascular pseudorosette pattern. This study reviewed the current literature dealing with this cytologic feature of parathyroid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oxyphilic cell type of parathyroid carcinoma detected by FNA in the English-language literature. PMID:9523137
Hara, H; Oyama, T; Kimura, M; Ishii, E; Chiba, S; Takasou, K; Miwa, I; Obara, T; Suda, K
Introduction. Multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR TB), the combined resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RFM) is a major public health problem in India as it ranks second among the MDR-TB high burden countries worldwide. WHO recommends RFM resistance as a “surrogate marker” for detecting MDR. FNAC is the most widely used noninvasive investigative technique for TB lymphadenitis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, an extremely versatile technique can be used for the timely detection and treatment of MDR TB by assessing RFM resistance status in the FNAC samples of TB lymphadenitis. Aim. To assess the status of rpoB gene by real-time PCR in FNAC samples of TB lymphadenitis. Materials and Methods. Thirty FNAC samples from patients with persistent LAP or appearance of new LAP after 5 months or more of Anti Tubercular Treatment were assessed for status of rpoB gene by Real-Time PCR using probe covering the “hot spot resistance” region of the rpoB gene. Result. By using probe covering codons 531 and 526 of rpoB gene, we could detect 17 of 30 (56.7%) rifampin resistant isolate. The PCR could detect Mtb DNA in 100% of cases. Conclusion. Use of molecular methods like Real-Time PCR for detection of MDR-TB in FNAC samples is time saving, logical and economical approach over the culture based method.
Raoot, Amita; Dev, Geeta
Introduction. Multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR TB), the combined resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RFM) is a major public health problem in India as it ranks second among the MDR-TB high burden countries worldwide. WHO recommends RFM resistance as a "surrogate marker" for detecting MDR. FNAC is the most widely used noninvasive investigative technique for TB lymphadenitis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, an extremely versatile technique can be used for the timely detection and treatment of MDR TB by assessing RFM resistance status in the FNAC samples of TB lymphadenitis. Aim. To assess the status of rpoB gene by real-time PCR in FNAC samples of TB lymphadenitis. Materials and Methods. Thirty FNAC samples from patients with persistent LAP or appearance of new LAP after 5 months or more of Anti Tubercular Treatment were assessed for status of rpoB gene by Real-Time PCR using probe covering the "hot spot resistance" region of the rpoB gene. Result. By using probe covering codons 531 and 526 of rpoB gene, we could detect 17 of 30 (56.7%) rifampin resistant isolate. The PCR could detect Mtb DNA in 100% of cases. Conclusion. Use of molecular methods like Real-Time PCR for detection of MDR-TB in FNAC samples is time saving, logical and economical approach over the culture based method. PMID:22973508
Raoot, Amita; Dev, Geeta
Castleman's disease (CD), a rare benign disease is characterized by lymphoid hyperplasia of uncertain etiology that may present as a nodal or extranodal mass. We describe herein a rare case of CD occurring in the soft-tissue of right arm in a 55-year-old woman. The present case is instructive in the differential diagnosis of primary soft-tissue tumors, for which the possibility of CD should be considered. On clinical examination as well as gross examination, this disease mimics lymphomas and tuberculosis. Since cytological appearances vary depending on the type and extent of hyperplasia, fine needle aspiration cytology findings may not always be conclusive in all cases. We studied aspirates which revealed reactive hyperplasia with increased vascularity. Excision confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:24130419
Gill, Manmeet Kaur; Suri, Vijay; Dubey, Vijay K; Makkar, Manisha
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined cyst aspiration and ultrasound-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on recurrence rate and the volume of benign cystic thyroid nodules. 10 euthyroid outpatients with a solitary and cytologically benign partially cystic thyroid nodule causing local discomfort were assigned to cyst aspiration followed by ultrasound-guided ILP and followed for 12
H Dossing; F N Bennedbaek; L Hegedus
With increasing emphasis on public awareness of breast cancer and screening mammography, more women seek consultation for breast symptoms, including nipple discharge. The presence of nipple discharge is distressing for the patient; however, its origin is fortunately most often benign. Nipple discharge associated with a recognizable mass requires sampling and surgical excision. Currently, clinical breast examination, cytology, ductography, mammogram, and ultrasound are commonly used to evaluate patients who have nipple discharge. Ductal lavage and ductoscopy, in association with emerging new technology, may be of help in increasing the sensitivity of nipple fluid cytology. In addition, nipple fluid cytology may offer a new way to study the spectrum of premalignant breast lesions, and to identify women at risk for breast cancer. PMID:16308092
Masood, Shahla; Khalbuss, Walid E
A majority of intraocular tumors can be diagnosed based on clinical examination and ocular imaging studies, which obviate the need for diagnostic ophthalmic fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Overall, diagnostic accuracy of ophthalmic FNAB is high but limited cellularity can compromise the diagnostic potential of ophthalmic aspirate samples. The role of ophthalmic FNAB is limited in retinal tumors. Orbital FNAB should be considered in the evaluation of lacrimal gland tumors, orbital metastasis, and lymphoproliferative lesions. Negative cytologic diagnosis of malignancy should not be considered unequivocal proof that an intraocular malignancy does not exist. With improved understanding of genetic prognostic factors of uveal melanoma, ophthalmic FNAB is gaining popularity for prognostic purposes in combination with eye conserving treatment of the primary tumor. In special clinical indications, ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and FISH can be performed on ophthalmic FNAB samples. Assistance of an experienced cytopathologist cannot be overemphasized.
Singh, Arun D.; Biscotti, Charles V.
A simplified method of processing of fine needle aspirates for paraffin miniblocks suitable for both morphologic and immunocytochemical evaluation is described. Aspirates were fixed in ethanol at 4 degrees C, dehydrated in acetone and xylene and embedded in paraffin (58 degrees C). All steps were carried out in a single Eppendorf centrifuge tube; the total process took less than four hours. Deparaffinized sections were stained using the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase technique with monoclonal and conventional antibodies helpful in the differential cytologic diagnosis of alcohol-fixed aspiration biopsy specimens. Antibodies to keratin, vimentin, desmin, neurofilaments, glial fibrillary acidic protein, leukocyte-common antigen, synaptophysin and immunoglobulin kappa and lambda light chains reacted positively on the miniblock material. Since the paraffin miniblocks combine the histologic pattern of the tumor with the differentiation-specific information provided by immunocytochemistry, their use can improve the accuracy of tumor typing in aspirates. PMID:2140487
Domagala, W M; Markiewski, M; Tuziak, T; Kram, A; Weber, K; Osborn, M
Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA). Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.
Granja, Nara M; Begnami, Maria D; Bortolan, Jeni; Filho, Adhemar Longatto; Schmitt, Fernando C
Background\\/Purpose: Thyroid nodules are rare in children. The need to uncover malignancy is the most challenging dilemma in management. The aim of this report was to determine whether management of pediatric thyroid nodules has changed in the era of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology.Methods: Twenty-four children with thyroid nodules comprised the study group. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, imaging results, FNA cytology
Humberto Lugo-Vicente; Victor N Ortíz; Hilda Irizarry; Juan I Camps; Vannessa Pagán
Fine-needle aspiration cytology, which is well established to be accurate for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, may be inconclusive for the follicular thyroid neoplasms. As galectin-3 was suggested to be a marker of malignant thyrocytes, we investigated whether this protein might be helpful in the diagnosis of aspirates classified as undeterminate by cytology. After establishing an easy processing of aspirates for galectin-3 immunodetection, a series of aspirates categorised as benign (n=63), malignant (n=17) or undeterminate (n=34) was prospectively analysed for galectin-3. Only the patients with malignant or undeterminate lesions underwent surgery. Most lesions (86%) diagnosed as malignant by cytology or after surgery were positive for galectin-3. The majority of lesions (94%) classified as benign by cytology or after surgery was negative for galectin-3. The positive and negative predictive values were 83 and 95%, respectively. When focusing on the undeterminate lesions, the sensitivity and specificity were 75 and 90%, respectively, while the positive and negative predictive values were 82 and 87%, respectively. The specificity and the positive predictive value were higher (100%) when considering the percentage of stained cells. Altogether these results show that galectin-3 constitutes a useful marker in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions classified as undeterminate by conventional cytology.
Collet, J F; Hurbain, I; Prengel, C; Utzmann, O; Scetbon, F; Bernaudin, J F; Fajac, A
Mesenteric cysts are heterogeneous groups of lesions. Most of them are developmental cysts of lymphatic and enteric origin or cystic neoplasm such as mesothelioma or cystic teratoma. Urogenital cysts are a subcategory of developmental cysts of the mesentery. They are thought to arise from vestigial remnants of urogenital apparatus. These cysts may show evidence of mesonephric or metanephric differentiation. An 11 -year -old boy was presented with undescended testis. During preoperative work- up, an incidental cystic lesion was discovered which was attached to the ileum. Aspiration cytology of the cyst content revealed cuboidal to columnar cells; some of them were ciliated. Histologic examination showed a cyst with fibromuscular wall, lined by Mullerian type ciliated epithelium; so the diagnosis of urogenital mesenteric cyst of Mullerian type was made. Urogenital cysts are rare lesions, but they should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic lesion of the mesentery. Cytology could be a useful method for evaluation and revealing the nature of these cysts. PMID:23808784
Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour formerly also known as inflammatory pseudotumour, was recognized initially in the lung and has been described in other visceral organs. It's occurrence in the subcutis is not well documented and its cytological appearance may be misinterpreted as malignant. This is the first case report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the subcutis in pediatric age group. A 12 year old female child presented with a subcutaneous swelling in the left anterior chest wall. FNA was performed and the cytological appearances were interpreted as malignant. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the subcutis. FNA cytology is not very helpful in distinguishing inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour from malignant lesions especially soft tissue sarcomas. Awareness of it's occurrence in the subcutis is of importance for it's proper identification and treatment. PMID:18306595
Shukla, Shailaja; Sharma, Siddhartha; Langer, Sabina; Sinha, Madhu
This resource is a laboratory exercise in plant patholgy. Students become familiar with the cytological events involved in the establishment of infection by a fungal pathogen. Upon completion of this laboratory students should understand the effect of various management practices on particular infection events, and the significance of this to disease management.Instructors and students notes are included, as well as data record sheets and discussion questions.
Paul Vincelli. (University of Kentucky;)
A central tenet in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is the increased use of information technology to improve patient care. However, areas for improvement in cytology are not well defined. Improvements in information technology could improve quality assessment in gynecologic cytology, but the cytology community must identify and ask for changes in information technology that can improve the care of patients. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2014;122:87-91. © 2013 American Cancer Society. PMID:24039189
Renshaw, Andrew A; Birdsong, George G
The feasibility and reliability of peroperative fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung tumors were studied in a series of 54 patients. The postoperative histologic examination confirmed that 47 of the lesions were malignant. The cytologic examination also showed malignancy in 45 of these cases. The accuracy of fine needle cytology thus was 96%. In the two false negative reports the classification was Papanicolaou grades II and III. The cytologic classification of the histologically benign lesions was only grades I or II. Thus there were no false positive cytologic results. No complications arose from the needle biopsies. Peroperative fine needle aspiration biopsy at thoracotomy is rapid, simple and safe, and has a high degree of accuracy. It is diagnostically useful in cases without preoperative confirmation of suspected lung tumor if excisional biopsy is judged to be hazardous or unlikely to yield a definite diagnosis. The method permits the surgeon to assess the extent of a malignancy and can specify the cell type of the tumor. PMID:6867642
Pantzar, P; Meurala, H; Koivuniemi, A; Laustela, E
Of 883 Iowa high school seniors, 60% lived in towns, 40% on farms. Both groups had a high level of congruence between educational and occupational aspirations and perceived minimal barriers to goal achievement. Farm and town students had equally diverse aspirations. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Bajema, Duane H.; Miller, W. Wade; Williams, David L.
The article accounts for the phenomenon of aspiration in Jaffna Tamil, a dialect distinct form South Indian dialects of Tamil. Not being distinctive orphonologically determined, aspiration is dealt with as a prosodic feature affecting voiceless stops in various positions. Distribution and symbolic representation are handled; kymographic evidence…
A two-year experience with intraoperative cytology was evaluated, and the pertinent literature was reviewed. During that period, cytology smears (imprints, scrapings or aspirates, depending on the sample) were prepared from 215 consecutive specimens submitted for diagnosis. A discrepancy between the cytologic, the frozen section and the final diagnoses was noted in only two instances; in both cases, the frozen section interpretation was also difficult. This series and previous studies demonstrate the high accuracy of intraoperative cytology and emphasize its advantages as a rapid and reliable diagnostic method in the frozen section room. The technique may be used to augment or, in some instances, supplant the standard frozen section analysis. In addition to the routine stains used for cytomorphologic evaluation, the smears prepared can be used for special histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. PMID:1851355
Kontozoglou, T E; Cramer, H M
Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.
Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.
Intraoperative fine needle aspiration biopsies were performed in 69 patients with clinical suspicion of pancreatic carcinoma. The biopsies were positive in 20 to 25 patients with proven pancreatic carcinoma. The cytologic appearances and the cellular components of pancreatic carcinoma and pancreatitis are presented and illustrated. PMID:398015
Fladerer, H P
Multisurface pattern separation is a mathematical method for distinguishing between elements of two pattern sets. Each element of the pattern sets is comprised of various scalar observations. In this paper, we use the diagnosis of breast cytology to demonstrate the applicability of this method to medical diagnosis and decision making. Each of 11 cytological characteristics of breast fine-needle aspirates reported to differ between benign and malignant samples was graded 1 to 10 at the time of sample collection. Nine characteristics were found to differ significantly between benign and malignant samples. Mathematically, these values for each sample were represented by a point in a nine-dimensional space of real variables. Benign points were separated from malignant ones by planes determined by linear programming. Correct separation was accomplished in 369 of 370 samples (201 benign and 169 malignant). In the one misclassified malignant case, the fine-needle aspirate cytology was so definitely benign and the cytology of the excised cancer so definitely malignant that we believe the tumor was missed on aspiration. Our mathematical method is applicable to other medical diagnostic and decision-making problems.
Wolberg, William H.; Mangasarian, Olvi L.
Background Cytologists are often under time pressure due to a constant need and a demand for quick despatch of reports, which calls for an early assessment of sample adequacy. Objective To study whether unstained smears are effective in evaluation of sample adequacy of cytology aspirates. Materials and Methods The study had 3 groups. Assessment of sample adequacy of cytology aspirates was done on unstained smears in Group I (200 cases), Group II (100 cases out of Group I) and Group III ( 80 cases out of Group II ) by a Professor, Assistant Professor and a junior resident respectively. The results were compared with assessment of adequacy on stained smears and statistical analysis was done. Results Evaluation of adequacy of cytology aspirates by examination of unstained and stained smears by 3 observers of varied experience revealed no significant difference between the observers and between the stained and unstained smears (p<0.001). Conclusion Unstained smear study offered advantages over the stained smears in the evaluation of sample adequacy. Hence, it maybe recommended as a routine practice in cytology clinics.
A.L., Hemalatha; M.K., Umarani; U., Asha; M.N., Gayathri
A clinical, angiographic, pathologic-anatomic, and cytologic study of 12 cases of malignant giant cell tumor of soft tissues is presented. Preoperative angiography was performed in five cases, one of which was also studied by microangiography. Aspiration cytologic examination was performed in five cases and electron microscopy in one case. In nine cases the tumors were deeply situated and in three they were subcutaneous. In six cases the tumors were located within the lower extremity, in four cases in the upper extremity and shoulder, in one case retroperitoneally and in one case in the neck. Except for one case, the follow-up period was 1--14 years. Seven of the patients had died from metastasizing tumor disease at the time of follow-up. High vascularity and rapid circulation characterized the tumors at preoperative angiography. Conventional histology, aspiration cytology, and electron microscopy disclosed histiocyte-like cells, fibroblast-like cells, and multinucleated giant cells of both osteoclast-like benign and pleomorphic malignant type, in varying proportions. The histiocyte-like cells and the giant cells exhibited phagocytic activity at these examinations. The finding of phagocytosing pleomorphic malignant cells and giant cells of osteoclast type in aspiration cytologic material strongly favors the diagnosis of malignant giant cell tumor of soft tissues. PMID:7226022
Angervall, L; Hagmar, B; Kindblom, L G; Merck, C
One hundred aspirations using a fine needle have been performed on 94 patients with a suspected diagnosis of malignant tumour, 31 of which were in patients with recurrent tumour. In 90 aspirates where histology was also available there was agreement between histological and cytological diagnosis in 81 (90%). This percentage was identical when only previously undiagnosed tumours were considered (60). In 4 aspirates no cells were obtained from tumours in which a diagnosis was made histologically and in 5 there was disagreement with histology, either regarding the presence of malignancy, or tumour type. The technique of fine needle aspiration is simple, rapid, safe and reliable. It is particularly valuable when emergency treatment is required, necessitating a very rapid diagnosis, or when the tumour is entirely intra-abdominal and the patient is unfit for laparotomy. Repeat aspirates may be performed to assess progress following treatment, or multiple suspected tumour sites may be aspirated to assist staging. The technique may be used to confirm the presence of relapsing tumour. Aspiration cytology may prove valuable as a further dimension in the interpretation of histological sections in a variety of childhood tumours, and in some circumstances may be sufficient in itself to establish a diagnosis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8
Magrath, I. T.
... arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is diagnostic but it also can ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Living With Lupus Bones, ...
Sclerosing hemangioma (pneumocytoma) is a rare benign lung tumor with uncertain histogenesis but characteristic histology. Reports of the cytopathology of this tumor are even rarer with only a handful of cases in the literature--many of these incorrectly diagnosed by cytology initially. Herein, we describe a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed prima facie by fine-needle aspiration cytology. A cell block preparation with accompanying immunohistochemistry was instrumental in making the diagnosis. A review of the literature is also presented. PMID:22645055
Dettrick, Andrew; Meikle, Anne; Fong, Kwun M
Background Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm. Although this tumor has been well characterized histologically, the morphological patterns in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology have not been well defined. Unlike ductal adenocarcinomas, endocrine tumors, and solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas with their characteristic FNA cytological features, acinar cell carcinomas pose a particular diagnostic challenge by sharing many cytomorphologic features with endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Case presentation A 37-year-old man presented with lower chest and left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a 7.8 × 7.3 cm irregular, partially cystic mass in the body and tail of the pancreas, and two lesions in the liver compatible with metastases. Subsequently, the patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration on one of the two metastatic liver masses. FNA cytology revealed abundant, loosely cohesive clusters of malignant epithelial cells with vaguely acinar and trabecular formations. The pleomorphic nuclei had fine granular chromatin and occasionally small nucleoli. There were scant to moderate amounts of cytoplasm. Scattered, strikingly large tumor cells with giant nuclei, prominent mitoses and associated necrosis were evident. A pancreatic endocrine tumor was suspected initially, but acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. Conclusion We describe a case of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with unusual cytomorphologic features mimicking an endocrine tumor of pancreas, encountered in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a metastatic liver mass and discuss the diagnostic approach for this unusual pancreatic tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology.
Peng, Hong Q; Darwin, Peter; Papadimitriou, John C; Drachenberg, Cinthia B
Littoral cell angiomas are uncommon primary vascular neoplasms that arise from the sinusoidal lining or littoral cells of the splenic red pulp, and hence are unique to the spleen. We report a case of littoral cell angioma in 34-year-old woman, which was diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB). The cytologic features of littoral cell angiomas have been described only in three previous case reports, one of which was a bench-top aspirate. In our case, we have utilized the fine-needle aspiration samples obtained by a linear endoscopic ultrasound examination for establishing the diagnosis. The characteristic cytologic features identified on the smears along with immunohistochemical analysis performed on the compact cellblock prepared from the aspirate aided in the confirmation of the diagnosis. We suggest that EUS-FNAB is a safe and reliable method in the diagnosis of vascular lesions of the spleen. PMID:21488173
Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Cai, Gouping; Padda, Manmeet S; Selbst, Megan; Kowalski, Diane; Proctor, Deborah D; Chhieng, David; Aslanian, Harry R; Harigopal, Malini
Cytologic features of bone marrow, tissue, and abdominal fluid in seven cases of malignant histiocytosis in dogs are described, and histopathology, hematology, and serum biochemistry of the cases are reviewed. Diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis was confirmed by tissue morphology and immunohistochemistry; neoplastic cells in all cases had positive immunoreactivity to lysozyme. This stain can be used to definitively establish the diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis on cytology specimens as well as tissue sections. Cytologic findings included numerous pleomorphic, large, discrete mononuclear cells with abundant, lightly basophilic, vacuolated, granular cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval to reniform with marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis; nucleoli were prominent. Mitotic figures, often bizarre, were occasionally seen. Multinucleated giant cells and phagocytosis of erythrocytes and leukocytes were prominent features in cytologic preparations in four cases. Four dogs were anemic, five dogs were thrombocytopenic, and three dogs were hypercalcemic. Breeds affected included Doberman Pinscher (1), Golden Retriever (2), Flat Coated Retriever (3), and mixed-breed dog (1). PMID:12666013
Brown, Diane E.; Thrall, Mary Anna; Getzy, David M.; Weiser, M. Glade; Ogilvie, Gregory K.
Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon skin adnexal tumor arising from eccrine glands. Although several kind of skin adnexal tumors arise in the breast tissue, CCH of the breast is an extremely rare entity. Failure to identify its cytomorphologic features and rarity of this tumor may lead to misdiagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology. Hereby we report a case of 30-year-old female who presented with painless lump in left breast since 10 months. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lump yielded fluid material. On May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained smears, a possibility of atypical breast lesion was considered and patient was advised a biopsy examination. Final diagnosis of CCH was made on histopathologic examination. Awareness of cytomorphologic features of breast CCH will prevent misdiagnosis as malignant or atypical breast lesions and will allow for correct management of the patients.
Sehgal, Shelly; Goyal, Prashant; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Mittal, Deepti; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal
Aim To report on the diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma by aqueous cytology. Methods Four patients suspected of having intraocular lymphoma were evaluated by anterior chamber (AC) paracentesis with cytology (cytospin technique). All had a history of non?ocular lymphoma and presented with at least one plus anterior chamber cells despite intensive glucocorticoid therapy. A 25 gauge needle was inserted through clear cornea (bevel up), over the iris stroma, so as to drain the AC. The aqueous humour was sent for cytopathology (cytospin technique), culture, and sensitivity tests. Results All procedures were diagnostic. Three were lymphoma and the fourth was culture positive for Propionibacterium endophthalmitis. No secondary glaucoma, hyphaema, cataract or infections were related to AC paracentesis. Conclusions In this series, AC aspiration cytology enhanced by the cytospin technique was an effective, minimally invasive alternative to vitrectomy based biopsy. This technique should be considered to rule in the diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma in selected cases with cells in the anterior chamber.
Finger, P T; Papp, C; Latkany, P; Kurli, M; Iacob, C E
The design and test of a two-stage, vaneless, aspirated counter- rotating fan is presented in this paper. The fan nominal design objectives were a pressure ratio of 3:1 and adiabatic efficiency of 87%. A pressure ratio of 2.9 at 89% efficiency was measure...
A. A. Merchant A. H. Epstein G. R. Guenette J. L. Kerrebrock R. C. Maclaurin
In the past several years, "Science and Children" has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations.…
Plummer, Donna M.
Biopsy by fine needle aspiration together with microbiological examination and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated in diagnosis of clinical bovine mastitis in a Prototheca zopfii outbreak. Fine needle aspiration was performed in 21 mammary quarters from ten Holstein cows presenting clinical mastitis caused by P. zopfii. The algae were previously identified in the microbiological examination of milk collected from these cows. Material aspirated from these 21 mammary glands was submitted to cytological staining (Gram, Giemsa and/or Shor staining). Fine needle aspiration enabled cytological identification of the algae in these 21 mammary glands, from which P. zopfii was isolated in the milk. Simultaneously, five mammary fragments collected by fine needle aspiration from these 21 mammary glands presenting clinical mastitis were also submitted to microbiological examination. P. zopfii was also isolated from these five fragments. Scanning electron microscopy technique also identified three of these five P zopfii strains isolated from mammary fragments collected by cytological aspiration. These results suggest that fine needle aspiration may be an alternative method for the diagnosis of clinical mastitis. PMID:15487325
da Costa, Elizabeth Oliveira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Ribeiro, Andréa Rentz; Rocha, Noeme Sousa; de Nardi Júnior, Geraldo
This interactive tutorial features an inquiry-based approach to promote understanding of moon phases. Part of the Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE), the tutorial opens with a diagram of the Earth-Moon system. The user "spins" the Earth, then determines which sections of Earth and Moon are receiving sunlight. In Part 2, users investigate how sunlight reflecting off the Earth is related to moon phases. The animation divides Earth into 8 sections and places the direction of incoming sunlight. Using only the images in the diagram, students must correctly label the moon phases. Part 3 puts everything together as Moon orbits around Earth. This resource is part of ASPIRE, an interactive lab project designed to be visually attractive and fun, yet mentally challenging for students in the middle grades. Materials include complete lesson plans authored collaboratively by teachers and research scientists.
In the past several years, Science and Children has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations. Your participation in this survey will provide you with an understanding of how your students perceive potential careers.
Plummer, Donna M.
With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800
Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott
With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections.
Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott
Biliary brush cytology is an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of biliary strictures. Here, we evaluated 64 patients with biliary strictures who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with bile duct brushings. We assessed the utility of combining routine Papanicolaou-stained cytologic evaluation with immunocytochemical expression of insulin-like growth factor mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3). Definitive diagnoses were obtained via tissue resection/autopsy, biopsy, fine needle aspiration, or clinical progression of disease. Thirty-nine of the 64 patients were ultimately diagnosed with malignancy. The sensitivity of routine cytology for the detection of malignancy was 33.3%, immunocytochemical-IMP3 expression was 64.1%, and the combined sensitivity was 71.8%. The specificity of each method was 100%. The sensitivity of IMP3 immunocytochemical staining in the detection of malignancy in biliary brushings was superior to routine PAP-stained cytologic evaluation. Moreover, the combined use of biliary brushing cytology and IMP3 immunohistochemistry proved superior to the use of either method alone. PMID:22431320
Hart, Jesse; Parab, Meena; Mandich, Daniza; Cartun, Richard W; Ligato, Saverio
Objective To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Calretinin and Carcinoembryonic antigen as immunocytochemical markers in distinguishing mesothelial cells from metastatic adenocarcinoma cells in effusion cytology. Methods This study included 50 patients who presented with effusions (26 pleural and 24 peritoneal), at Al-Kadhimya Teaching Hospital who were selected according to their preliminary diagnosis from 1st December 2010 to 30th June 2011. Effusion fluids were aspirated and processed for both conventional cytological methods using Papanicolaou-stain and immunocytochemical staining with anti Calretinin and Carcinoembryonic antigen. Results The sensitivity of cytology for detection of malignant cells was 77%, with 100% specificity and 86% accuracy. Calretinin was observed to be a specific (100%) and sensitive (90%) marker for mesothelial cells (of benign etiology). Carcinoembryonic antigen exhibited 70% sensitivity and 100% specificity for adenocarcinoma cells. When the results of both cytology and immunocytochemistry were considered in conjunction, the sensitivity for the detection of malignancy increased to 97%, with 100% specificity and 98% accuracy. Conclusion Calretinin and Carcinoembryonic antigen were found to be useful markers for differentiating reactive mesothelial cells from metastatic adenocarcinoma cells in smears prepared from body fluids. Also, the combination of both cytology and immunocytochemical studies using the two markers can greatly enhance the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in malignant effusions.
Yahya, Zahraa Mohammed; Ali, Hussam Hasson; Hussein, Haider Ghazi
Literature on fine-needle aspiration of ovarian transitional cell tumor or Brenner tumors is sparse and mostly confined to isolated case reports of metastatic transitional cell tumors. ?We undertook a retrospective study of intraoperative imprint cytology of ovarian transitional cell tumors to better define the cytologic features of this uncommon ovarian tumor. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 19 ovarian transitional cell tumors were recorded in our surgical pathology files, 10 of which had concomitant imprint cytologic material available for review. ?The 10 patients included in this study ranged in age between 43 and 73 years (mean age: 54 years). Nine neoplasms were histologically benign and one was borderline. Nine cases had satisfactory cytologic material for review. The cytologic features can be summarized as follows: the eight benign tumors showed abundant naked nuclei in the background, small and large clusters of tumor cells, abundant cytoplasm, smooth nuclear membranes, and lack of nuclear pleomorphism and mitoses. Single plasmacytoid cells with dense blue abundant cytoplasm, perinuclear vacuoles, nucleoli, microfollicle formation, nuclear grooves, binucleation/multinucleation, and extracellular eosinophilic material were some of the other features that were appreciated. The cytologic features of the one case of borderline transitional cell tumor were similar to those of the benign tumors except for the presence of rare mitoses, easily identifiable nuclear pleomorphism and irregular nuclear membranes. ?This study highlights some characteristic cytologic features of benign/borderline transitional cell tumors of the ovary which can be of help in recognizing this uncommon neoplasm. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:660-663. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24550075
Singh, Rohit Inder; Rosen, Lauren; Reddy, Vijaya B; Bitterman, Pincas; Stemm, Matthew H; Gattuso, Paolo
BACKGROUND: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) cytology enables sample quality assessment in the procedure room and facilitates the process of examination. While its use for mammary lesions in one-stop breast clinics has been reported, its usefulness as a cytologic diagnostic tool has not been fully explored. METHODS: A total of 1500 examinations of core-needle biopsy imprint/fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed for outpatients with breast lesions. The slides were immediately processed with modified Shorr's stain, which can be completed within a few minutes yet produces specimens of similar staining quality as the Papanicolaou (Pap) stain. The adequacy of sampling was evaluated on site, and a cytologic diagnosis was also made. ROSE cytologic findings were classified into five grades: class 1, inadequate; class 2, benign; class 3, indeterminate; class 4, suspicious for malignancy; class 5, malignant. If enough epithelial cells could not be obtained despite repeated examinations, the sample was scored as ineligible. These scores were utilized for patient management. Final cytologic diagnoses were made with conventional Pap stains. RESULTS: Reproducibility of scores between both staining methods was excellent (weighted ? statistic = 0.985). When compared class by class, concordance of cytologic diagnoses was particularly high in class 2 and 5 Shorr scores, in which the agreement with Pap diagnoses was 92.8 and 93.6 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our modified Shorr's staining protocol was useful to reduce the time for the diagnosis and treatment planning of breast lesions suspected of being breast cancer. It is beneficial for both the patients and clinicians. PMID:23733595
Sakuma, Takahiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Morishima, Hirotaka; Matsunami, Nobuki
A female presented to the physician with a history of right upper quadrant pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan dem-onstrated a multi-loculated solid lesion in the head of the pancreas concerning for a primary malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the lesion was performed and cytology revealed no evidence of malignancy. The acid-fast bacilli culture was found to be positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and pancreatic tuberculosis was diagnosed.
Patel, Devi; Loren, David; Kowalski, Thomas; Siddiqui, Ali A.
Aspiration of uncontaminated amniotic fluid as a cause of neonatal respiratory distress is scarcely documented. A term neonate who presented with early onset respiratory distress with a radiographic appearance of an aspiration syndrome is therefore reported. Differential diagnosis and implication of this diagnosis in the management of neonatal respiratory distress are discussed. This case highlights amniotic fluid aspiration as a possible cause of severe respiratory distress even in the absence of meconium stained fluid. PMID:24441094
De Cunto, A; Paviotti, G; Demarini, S
The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings, and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions.?Currently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapilary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the preoperative classification of pancreatic cysts. Many gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, VHL, RNF43, and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:24639398
Layfield, Lester J; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C; Hruban, Ralph H; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B
In Steiermark out of 150 000 smears per annum 1 percent concern gastrointestinal cytology. The material consists in brush smears of stomach and rectum, aspiration biopsy of pancreas and secretions from ERCP. In 80% of gastric brush smears a histologic diagnosis was available for comparison. 17% of gastric smears could not be evaluated, 3.5% were false positive and 4% false negative. Percentage of carcinomas amounted 25%. Age of cancer patients was 30--88 years with a peak between 60 and 65 years. 55% of cancers were inoperable. Only 4% were early cancers. 10% of brush biopsies from rectum and colon were normal, 25% were chronic ulcerative nonspecific proctitis, 15% papillous polyps and 35% carcinoma. Fine needle biopsies of pancreas were performed during operation and evaluated as urgent intraoperative diagnostic. 7 of 25 cases were carcinoma. ERCP is performed mainly in cholostatic icterus. Proportion of carcinoma was 9.1%. PMID:655780
This paper reviews the history, technique, applications, advantages, disadvantages and complications of percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy. This technique, particularly when performed with a time needle (21-gauge or less), is a relatively painless, inexpensive and safe method of obtaining a pathologic diagnosis, and it can often be carried out at the bedside or in the outpatient department. It complements other methods and may obviate, but never precludes, subsequent excisional biopsy. Its advantages are insufficiently recognized. Considerable expertise of the cytopathologist and close cooperation with the clinician are necessary for consistent results. Images FIG. 1
McLoughlin, M. J.; Ho, C. S.; Tao, L. C.
A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage. PMID:20872354
Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim
... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ... crest) is used. Why It's Done Doctors perform bone marrow aspirations and biopsies when they're concerned about a problem in ...
... Child If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ... crest) is used. Why It's Done Doctors perform bone marrow aspirations and biopsies when they're concerned about a problem in ...
The bone marrow cytological storage phenomena in generalized lysosomal lipid storage disorders (Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, GM1-gangliosidosis, cholesterol ester storage diseases) are reviewed. The value of bone marrow cytology as a pre-screening method in the diagnostic strategy for the different diseases depends on the disease type suspected and the availability of biochemical screening methods. While cytological screening is not necessary
Sargon Ziyeh; Klaus Harzer
A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211
Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan
Our objective was to determine whether the Toyota Production System process redesign resulted in diagnostic error reduction for patients who underwent cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. In this longitudinal, nonconcurrent cohort study, we compared the diagnostic error frequency of a thyroid aspiration service before and after implementation of error reduction initiatives consisting of adoption of a standardized diagnostic terminology scheme and an immediate interpretation service. A total of 2,424 patients underwent aspiration. Following terminology standardization, the false-negative rate decreased from 41.8% to 19.1% (P = .006), the specimen nondiagnostic rate increased from 5.8% to 19.8% (P < .001), and the sensitivity increased from 70.2% to 90.6% (P < .001). Cases with an immediate interpretation had a lower noninterpretable specimen rate than those without immediate interpretation (P < .001). Toyota process change led to significantly fewer diagnostic errors for patients who underwent thyroid fine-needle aspiration. PMID:16938657
Raab, Stephen S; Grzybicki, Dana Marie; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Balassanian, Ronald; Janosky, Janine E; Vrbin, Colleen M
Thirty-two cases of tumour in the region of papilla of Vater are reported including five benign lesions (papillitis, polyp, duodenitis) and 27 periampullary carcinomas. Duodenoscopy has a key position in the diagnosis of these lesions, since by judging the endoscopic appearance of the papilla a forceps biopsy and brush cytology can be performed. Accuracy of forceps biopsy is up to 66%, whereas diagnostic accuracy of brush cytology only reaches about 44%. Because of the possible false positive results, brush cytology should be regarded with reserve in the diagnosis of periampullary carcinomas. Retrograde filling of contrast medium of bile and/or pancreatic ducts mainly serves for delineation of tumour size and allows fine needle aspiration under fluoroscopy. Success rate of retrograde cannulation is rather low. CT-scans are of great importance in detecting metastases of liver and/or regional lymphnodes but are of little value in diagnosing the primary lesion. PMID:7346276
Gmelin, E; Weiss, H D
Background: One possible result of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with thyroid nodules is "follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (FLUS) or "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS). The risk of malignancy is relevant information to define appropriate management, and knowledge of predictors of malignancy in these nodules is therefore important. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic, and cytological predictors of malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules and FLUS/AUS cytology. Methods: The sample consisted of 150 patients with thyroid nodules and an indication for FNA whose cytology was classified as FLUS/AUS according to the Bethesda classification criteria. Results: In the second FNA, cytology was nondiagnostic in 2 (1.3%) nodules and benign in 54 (36%), FLUS/AUS cytology persisted in 73 (48.6%), and cytology was suspicious for follicular neoplasm in 11 (7.3%) and for malignancy in 10 (6.6%). The rate of malignancy was 22.6%. Clinical and laboratory data or nodule size were not predictors of malignancy. The rate of malignancy was lower in nodules initially classified as FLUS (10.8% versus 41.3% with AUS). Ultrasonography (US) was also useful for predicting malignancy, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 79.4%, 90.5%, 71%, and 93.75%, respectively. Different malignancy rates were obtained when the two parameters, cytological subcategory and US, were combined: (i) 3.9% for nodules nonsuspicious on US and FLUS, (ii) 11.4% for nonsuspicious nodules with AUS, (iii) 46.6% for suspicious nodules with FLUS, and (iv) 87% for suspicious nodules with AUS. Conclusions: The combination of cytological subcategory (FLUS or AUS) and US provides different risks of malignancy for nodules initially classified as Bethesda category III. PMID:24684285
Rosario, Pedro Weslley
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy represents the most reliable test for cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. However, inadequate samples may occur leading to a repetition of the procedure with the consequence of patients' discomfort and poor compliance. In this paper, we present results from biopsy of thyroid nodules obtained by combining: (1) ultrasound (US) guidance, (2) no-aspiration technique, and (3) on-site review of specimens. A total of 465 nodules were biopsied in 307 patients. Solitary nodules and multinodular goiter were present in 36.8% and 63.1% of patients, respectively. After collection, each sample was smeared in duplicates, one of which was stained with hematoxylin and checked on-site by a cytopathologist. In cases of inadequate smears, biopsies were immediately repeated. All slides were then processed for final cytologic results, which were reported as benign in 427 nodules (91.8%), malignant in 12 nodules (2.5%), with follicular proliferation or suspicious for malignancy in 23 nodules (4.9%). Inadequate final cytology was reported in 3 nodules (0.6%). No statistically significant relationship was found between nodule size and adequacy of specimens. We conclude that the combination of US guidance, capillary collection with no-aspiration technique, and on-site review of slides, characterizes an advantageous method for thyroid nodule fine-needle biopsy. PMID:15186617
Ceresini, G; Corcione, L; Morganti, S; Milli, B; Bertone, L; Prampolini, R; Petrazzoli, S; Saccani, M; Ceda, G P; Valenti, G
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the utility of Thin-Prep (TP) cytologic preparation with that of Cell Block (CB) preparation in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, mainly follicular epithelial lesions, by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Feasibility of using the TP slides for immunocytochemical stains is also discussed. METHODS: A total of 126 consecutive cases of thyroid
Husain A Saleh; Jamal Hammoud; Richard Zakaria; Aurang Khan
...2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests Â§ 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493...Specialty and Subspecialty Â§ 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic examinations. (a...gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test...
...2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing Â§ 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493...Specialty and Subspecialty Â§ 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic examinations. (a...gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493...Specialty and Subspecialty Â§ 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic examinations. (a...gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing Â§ 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing Â§ 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...
...2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing Â§ 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...
...2013-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests Â§ 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing Â§ 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...
...2009-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing Â§ 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...
...2009-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests Â§ 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...
Background: The differential diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis on fine needle aspiration material is very challenging in tubercular endemic regions. We carried out a pilot study to explore cytomorphologic features of granulomas which could help in differentiation between sarcoidosis and TB. Final diagnoses in these patients were based on clinical, microbiologic and follow-up studies. Materials and Methods: Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration smears of 49 consecutive patients with a final cytologic diagnosis of granulomatous lymphadenitis were reviewed. Based on cytologic features two cytologic categories were enunciated and the results were correlated with microbiologic studies and/follow-up of minimum of 6 months. Results: The cytologic categories did not correlate with the final clinical outcome of patients. Conclusions: Different patterns of granulomas observed in cytology smears do not help distinguish TB from sarcoidosis. The novel non-invasive techniques of mediastinal sampling though help in confirming granulomatous pathology, distinction between these entities and treatment decisions still depend upon correlating cytologic, microbiologic, clinical and radiological data in a large number of cases in tubercular endemic regions.
Kaur, Gagandeep; Dhamija, Amit; Augustine, Jolsana; Bakshi, Pooja; Verma, Kusum
Pancreatic tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary disease. The diagnosis preoperatively is difficult because clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings are nonspecific. Published data indicate that these lesions mimic cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and the confirmation of clinical suspicion could only be obtained by an open surgical biopsy. Recently, fine needle aspiration cytology has been shown to be a safe, reliable and cost-effective alternative. We report a new case of a peripancreatic tuberculosis in a 52 year old woman and review the relevant literature, paying special attention to the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis.
Boujaoude, Joseph D; Honein, Khalil; Yaghi, Cesar; Ghora, Claude; Abadjian, Gerard; Sayegh, Raymond
Objective: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by cytoreduction has now become a part of standard care for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Cytologic changes of the cancer cells induced by NACT, however, sometimes may cause confusion in terms of pathologic diagnosis and therefore inappropriate management. The objective of this study was to characterize the histologic or cytologic features of the ovarian cancers from those patients who received NACT in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and reduce unnecessary clinical workup. Methods: Specimens from 120 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who received NACT were studied. All 120 cases had either cytologic samples from ascites (n=108) or fine needle aspiration (n=12) and the diagnosis of consistent with cancers of ovarian origin was made prior to NACT. There were 70 (58.3%) patients received subsequent tumor debulking surgery after NACT. The time frame between NACT and debulking surgery ranged from 28 to 65 with an average of 45 days. Among the 70 cases with cytoreductive surgery, 48 cases containing both pre-NACT cytology/histology and subsequent debulking specimens were suitable for the study. All 48 post-NACT ovarian cancers were reviewed and the characteristic pathologic features in gross were summarized. Microscopic evaluation and immunohistochemical stainings with antibodies against ER, PR, p53, WT1, PAX8, CK7, CK20, and CDX2 were performed to confirm the primary site and histologic type of the cancers. Results: Grossly, tumor size within the ovaries from those debulking specimens ranged from 2.3 to 6.5 cm in greatest dimension. The cancers were mainly solid (average of 65%) and cystic areas had more or less hemorrhagic appearance. Extensive tumor necrosis and some with fibrosis were present. Microscopically, the non-necrotic cancer cells were arranged in cords, islands and sometimes as scattered single large cells with large amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm with vacuoles. The viable cancer cells contained more or less vacuolated cytoplasm in almost all post chemotherapy cases. Multinucleated tumor giant cells were noted in close to half of the cases. The cancer cells commonly had large hyperchromatic bizarre nuclei with coarse chromatin clumping and sometimes prominent nucleoli. Due to the unusual cytologic changes after NACT, there was a concern of non-ovarian origin or the different histologic type of the cancers. Therefore, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with the antibodies against ER, PR, PAX8, WT1, CK7, CK20, and CDX2 was performed in all 48 pairs of the cases. The 48 paired samples showed identical immunophenotype in pre- and post-NACT cancers, confirming there was no metastatic or new primary cancer involved in the study. Conclusions NACT can apparently induce significant cytologic/histologic changes in ovarian cancer. Aware of such NACT induced changes will be useful to make correct diagnosis for those patients who have received NACT. IHC with appropriate panels of the antibodies will be helpful to aid the diagnosis, particularly when nuclear change is dramatic and the clinical history of ovarian cancer is not available.
Wang, Yiying; Wang, Yue; Zheng, Wenxin
Although clinically evident aspiration is common in subjects with dysphagia, a significant proportion may aspirate silently,\\u000a i.e., without any outward signs of swallowing difficulty. This article reviews the literature on the prevalence, etiology,\\u000a and prognostic significance of silent aspiration. An electronic database search was performed using silent aspiration, aspiration,\\u000a dysphagia, and stroke as search terms, together with hand-searching of articles.
Deborah Ramsey; David Smithard; Lalit Kalra
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) features of elastofibroma dorsi (EFD) in a 56-year-old woman were evaluated. The patient presented with 5 cm soft tissue mass located between the inferior part of scapula and the chest wall. FNA smears were hypercellular, characterized by a mixture of uniform spindle cells, mature adipocytes, and collagen tissue fragments in varying proportions. The cytological findings included abundant degenerated elastic fibers presented as linear ("braid-like") and globular bodies with shell-like and stellate appearances with serrate borders, permitting a diagnosis of EFD. Occurrence of degenerated elastic fibers in FNA smears of elastofibroma is a highly diagnostic sign in the typical clinical setting and eliminates the need for preoperative histological examination. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:609-611. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23554149
Domanski, Henryk A
We report the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy diagnosis of two rare cases of primary vascular neoplasms unique to the spleen: a littoral cell angioma from a 31-yr-old Caucasian woman and a splenic hamartoma from a 46-yr-old black man. The cytologic features of splenic hamartoma and of littoral cell angioma of the spleen were described three times in cytologic literature: two were bench-top aspirates and one was FNA biopsy thought to be metastatic carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, the current two cases were the first diagnosed by FNA biopsy. Our approach to the FNA biopsy diagnosis of these rare vascular neoplasms via compact cell block and immunohistochemistry is described. The differential diagnosis with other primary vascular splenic neoplasms is also discussed. PMID:17304535
Ramdall, Risha B; Alasio, Teresa M; Cai, Guoping; Yang, Grace C H
In recent years, endoscopic ultrasound techniques with Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) have become an increasingly used diagnostic aid in the differentiation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and endoesophageal ultrasound (EUS) are now available for clinicians to reach mediastinal and paramediastinal masses using a minimally invasive approach. These techniques are an established component for diagnosing and staging lung cancer and their benefit in the diagnosis of lymphoma's has been highlighted in a number of case studies. However, the lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological FNA specimens decreases the diagnostic accuracy for benign causes of thoracic lymphadenopathies, lymphomas, and histopathological subtyping of lung cancer. Accordingly, our study group have adapted the FNA sampling technique, resulting in tissue fragments that can be used for histopathological examinations. As an illustration, we report a case of follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by adjusted EUS FNA. We believe that this relatively simple adjustment to routine FNA sampling can help to overcome the diagnostic limitations inherent in cytology obtained by routine FNA.
Creemers, Koen; van der Heiden, Olaf; Los, Jan; van Esser, Joost; Newhall, David; Djamin, Remco S.; Aerts, Joachim G.
Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions that can appear as a complex cyst or a mass in the pancreas. Cytology from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be helpful in making a diagnosis with the aim of avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. A case involving a 51-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain who was found to have a multiloculated cystic lesion at the junction of the pancreatic body and tail is described. Cytology from EUS-FNA was consistent with a pancreatic LEC. The lesion was managed conservatively and follow-up imaging of the cyst over the following two years was unchanged. The patient remains clinically well. Cytology from EUS-FNA can help distinguish LECs from cystic neoplasms, thus preventing radical surgical resection of this benign pancreatic cyst.
Karim, Zamil; Walker, Blair; Lam, Eric C
Cervical cancer is theoretically completely preventable by effective screening using cervical cytology methods (the Pap test). The process of preparing and interpreting Pap tests remains one of the last high-volume manual processes in the clinical laborat...
D. C. Wilbur
This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet. The project is in 3 phases: 1) hardware/software a...
B. A. Crothers D. C. Wilbur J. A. Gelfand J. H. Eichhorn M. S. Ro
Numerous cytologic techniques aimed at effectively acquiring patient material for molecular testing have been proposed. Such techniques are becoming ever more important in an age of personalized medicine. In this commentary, the authors explored some more commonly proposed techniques to aid in the molecular testing of cytologic specimens. These techniques include the use of cell blocks, direct cytologic smears, filter paper storage, frozen samples, and enriched cellular techniques such as ThinPrep and cytospin preparations. Direct-smeared slides demonstrate excellent preservation of DNA, are easy to prepare, and are amenable to immediate adequacy at the time of the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedure as well as effective subsequent tumor purity estimation. Cell block methods cannot be assessed at the time of FNA and often demonstrate insufficiency, whereas filter paper and frozen techniques do not allow for the direct assessment of the presence and purity of tumor cells in the sample. Direct-smeared slides are emerging as the most effective preparation and storage medium of cytologic material to be used for molecular testing. Their cost-effectiveness, ease of use, and reliability have cemented them as the optimal solution for cytopathologists to fulfill the role of providing advanced molecular testing on patient samples. PMID:22786714
Knoepp, Stewart M; Roh, Michael H
Background/Aims We evaluated the performance, clinical role, and diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in gastrointestinal intramural lesions. Methods Procedural and pathologic data were reviewed from consecutive patients undergoing EUS-FNA for intramural lesions. Final diagnoses were determined by surgical histopathologic conformation and the diagnosis of malignancy, including clinical follow-up with repeat imaging. Results Forty-six patients (mean age, 47 years; 24 males) underwent EUS-FNA. Lesions were located in the stomach (n=31), esophagus (n=5), and duodenum (n=10). The median lesion size was 2 cm (range, 1 to 20.6). Final diagnoses were obtained in 22 patients (48%). EUS-FNA was diagnostic in 40 patients (87%). The diagnostic accuracy of cytology for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions was 82%; diagnostic error occurred in three patients (6%). The cytologic results influenced clinical judgment in 78% cases. The primary reasons for negative or no clinical impact were false-negative results, misdirected patient management, and inconclusive cytology. Conclusions EUS-FNA exhibited an 87% diagnostic yield for gastrointestinal intramural lesions; the accuracy of cytology for differentiating malignancy was 82%. The limitations of EUS-FNA were primarily because of nondiagnostic sampling (9%) and probable diagnostic error (6%); these factors may influence the clinical role of EUS-FNA.
Sung, Hea Jung; Park, Eun Young; Moon, Sung Jin; Lim, Chul Hyun; Kim, Jin Su; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Choi, Kyu Yong
Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:535-543. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24554514
Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed
Decoration of the nuclear membrane by emerin staining enhances detection of nuclear irregularities typical of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Our study aims to verify whether staining with emerin is a helpful diagnostic marker in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. We first designed a prospective study on smears, Thin Prep, and cell block specimens to prove the feasibility of the procedure; subsequently, we designed a retrospective study of 78 FNA cell blocks from cases that, after surgery, turned out to be either benign (34 cases) or malignant lesions (44, of which 31 PTC). From each sample, we obtained two slides, one stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and the other with emerin. In cases classified as Thy3, HBME-1 and galectin 3 (Gal3) stains had also been performed. Two blinded observers made the judgment concerning Thy categories (as proposed by the British Thyroid Association), first on H&E, then on emerin, HBME-1, and Gal3 stained slides. On cytological preparation, emerin staining represents an effective tool for the detection of nuclear irregularities, allowing for the identification of cases of PTC. In Thy3 cases, emerin staining's sensitivity and specificity (64% and 96%) proved higher than HBME-1's (60% and 88%) and Gal3's (61% and 68%). In conclusion, the immunohistochemical definition of the nuclear membrane, as determined by emerin stain, is a useful tool in the cytological diagnosis of thyroid lesions and can help to solve inconclusive cases by highlighting nuclear irregularities typical of PTC. PMID:20502915
Asioli, Sofia; Maletta, Francesca; Pacchioni, Donatella; Lupo, Rosanna; Bussolati, Gianni
Clinical swallow protocols cannot detect silent aspiration due to absence of overt behavioral signs, but screening with a\\u000a much larger bolus volume, i.e., 90 cc vs. 1–10 cc, may elicit a reflexive cough in individuals who might otherwise exhibit\\u000a silent aspiration. A swallow screen that maintains high sensitivity to identify aspiration risk while simultaneously reducing\\u000a the false-negative rate for silent aspiration would
Steven B. LederDebra; Debra M. Suiter; Barry G. Green
An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder;
The performance of an aspiration filter is governed by the choice of material for the filter sleeves. As a rule, it should have good dust-trapping, regeneration capacity, and strength, together with reasonably high gas permeability and relatively low hydraulic resistance, while withstanding the temperature of the input gas and being resistant to corrosion by the dust and gas. Tensile and
I. K. Goryachev
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy have a central place in the diagnosis of haematological disorders. Marrow procedures have a reputation for being unpleasant and painful but when performed carefully, with appropriate use of local anaesthetic and intravenous sedation, they should hold no fears for the patient. PMID:1958933
Williamson, P J; Smith, A G
Fear of developing breast cancer is well-founded among women. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women ages\\u000a 20–59 years of age, and the second-leading cause of death in women over 50 years of age (Jemal et al., 2005). Approximately 40,000 women will die of this disease in the United States this year. Refining the science of breast
Kimberly Baltzell; Dixie Mills; Britt-Marie Ljung; Susan Love; Margaret Wrensch
The practice of clinical cytopathology is characterized by the daily challenges of trying to establish pathological diagnoses on the basis of microscopic evaluation of small cellular samples, from both deep-seated and superficial anatomic sites. The diagnostic work-up of mass lesions involves a collaborative effort between clinicians and pathologists, and relies on the pathologist's ability to establish a reliable diagnosis; that
Rhinosporidiosis is a disease endemic to South India, Sri Lanka and some areas of the African continent. The nasal lesions can sometimes be confused with nasopharyngeal malignancy. We report here a clinically unsuspected case of rhinosporidiosis, diagnosed correctly by intraoperative FNAC, and later confirmed by histopathological examination. PMID:23097732
Bhargava, Shruti; Grover, Mohnish; Maheshwari, Veena
Rhinosporidiosis is a disease endemic to South India, Sri Lanka and some areas of the African continent. The nasal lesions can sometimes be confused with nasopharyngeal malignancy. We report here a clinically unsuspected case of rhinosporidiosis, diagnosed correctly by intraoperative FNAC, and later confirmed by histopathological examination.
Bhargava, Shruti; Grover, Mohnish; Maheshwari, Veena
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration has emerged as the procedure of choice to obtain samples to reach a definitive diagnosis of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. The obtainment of a tissue core biopsy presents several advantages that can substantially contribute to the widespread diffusion of EUS utilization in the community and in countries where cytology expertise may be difficult to be achieved. This article will review the EUS-guided fine needle biopsy techniques developed so far, the clinical results, their limitations as well as their future perspective.
Fuccio, Lorenzo; Larghi, Alberto
Subepithelial lesions are frequently encountered and remain a diagnostic challenge. Imaging of subepithelial lesions using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis of the lesion; however, definitive diagnosis typically requires tissue. Many methods for acquiring tissue exist including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration, Trucut biopsy, and fine needle biopsy. Obtaining adequate tissue is important for cytologic and histologic exams including immunohistochemical stains, thus a great deal of effort has been made to increase tissue acquisition in order to improve diagnostic yield in subepithelial lesions.
Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…
Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.
Due to the medical fragility of patients in the ICU, accurate identification of those at risk for prandial aspiration due to dysphagia is necessary to prevent pulmonary complications. Patients are under-referred for bedside swallow evaluations (by SLP and OT). Studies estimate silent aspiration in patients with dsyphagia is between 28-49%. 82% of aspiration incidents in tracheotomy patients are silent. FEES
The psychological meaning and predictive value of a person's vocational aspirations were examined by applying Holland's typology to the vocational aspirations of high school juniors (N=1,005), college juniors (N=692), employed adults (N=140), and a second sample of college students studied over a 1 year interval (N=624). The aspirational data were…
Holland, John L.; Gottfredson, Gary D.
During the last years, HER-2 status kits and protocols for chromogen visualization of hybridization signals have come on the market. The first generation using chromogen visualization used single color probes. The second generation, now emerging on the market, uses dual chromogen visualization. The aim of this study has been to test a new dual color chromogen kit (Ventana INFORM HER2 Dual Colour ISH Roche®) and compare the results with our in-house method(s). The material consisted primarily of cytological material from invasive breast carcinomas in 49 women. Dual SISH was done on all 49 cytological and histological specimens. The histological specimens were treated according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. The procedure was modified in several steps in order to adapt it to the cytological material. Hybridization failed in two cytological specimens. Dual SISH showed concordant results on cytological and histological material as to amplified/not amplified. The included cases had the same HER-2 expression in the invasive and the in situ components on histology. Four IDC showed HER-2 amplification (8.5%). Polysomy was found in two cases. All dual SISH results except for one concurred with the results of the in-house method(s) (1/47=2.1%). The dual SISH is suitable for cytological examination of HER-2 status. The protocol must be optimized for cytological material.
Beraki, Elsa; Sauer, Torill
We discuss the interpretation of thyroid aspiration cytology in the light of our experience and review the circumstances in which false positives and false negatives may occur. The technique is reliable but by no means infallible and it should not be regarded as a final diagnostic work-up. Its value lies in selecting patients with thyroid nodules for surgery. In the present series of 304 patients, 79 underwent operation and 37 malignancies were found. The incidence of malignancy among the surgically excised nodules was 47%, in contrast to 14% in the past. We estimated that 268 operations would be required to salvage the same number of malignancies without the use of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Images
Suen, K C; Quenville, N F
Chordomas are rare, slow-growing malignant bone tumours arising from cellular remnants of the notochord. These tumours are locally invasive but have also a metastastic potential. Chordomas are characterized by the presence of physaliferous cells in a myxofibrillary stromal background. In cytological aspirates, these characteristic cells are usually absent, revealing only clusters of cells with varying degrees of vacuolation. This makes definitive diagnosis of chordoma difficult as the tumor can mimic other myxoid neoplasms including renal cell carcinomas and well-differentiated chondrosarcomas. In such situations, a confident diagnosis of chordoma requires comparison with histology of the primary tumor. We describe the first case of metastatic chordoma diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA).
Fearon, Conor; Fabre, Aurelie; Heffernan, Eric J.; Skehan, Stephen J.; Swan, Niall; Keane, Michael P.
We report a 54-year-old woman who presented with a well-defined, homogeneous, and non-enhancing mass in the retrobronchial region of the bronchus intermedius. The patient underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for histological confirmation. Serous fluid was aspirated by EBUS-TBNA. Cytological examination identified an acellular smear with negative microbiological cultures. The patient was finally diagnosed with bronchogenic cysts by chest computed tomography (CT) and EBUS-TBNA findings. However, 1 week after EBUS-TBNA, the patient developed bronchogenic cyst rupture and pneumonia. Empirical antibiotics were administered, and pneumonia from the bronchogenic cyst rupture had resolved on follow-up chest CT. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pneumonia from bronchogenic cyst rupture after EBUS-TBNA.
Hong, Goohyeon; Song, Junwhi; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Jeon, Kyeongman; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung
Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations.
Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.
Measurement of gene expression levels in thyroid tumor cells in aspirates was difficult because it is interfered with peripheral blood cells or infiltrating lymphocytes. In this study, we established a novel method to separate thyroid tumor cells from blood cells efficiently with mesh filtration. The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA was estimated using LGALS3 mRNA as an internal control (T/G ratio) in 148 preoperative thyroid aspirates. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of T/G ratio for high, moderate, and low samples were 6.5%, 2.5%, and 9.7%, respectively, and inter-assay CV for high, moderate, and low samples were 27.7%, 21.9%, and 38.2%, respectively. Nondiagnostic samples in terms of T/G ratio and cytology were 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. We observed no interference with the data by contaminating blood cells. Among these patients, 12 patients received more than two repeated aspirations. We did not observe a marked day-to-day variation except in two cases. All 13 preoperative aspirates diagnosed as malignant by cytology showed an extremely low T/G ratio, whereas 93 aspirates diagnosed as benign by cytology showed extremely varied T/G ratios and 21.5% of them showed a T/G ratio below the cut-off value. Eleven cases underwent surgery. All nodules showing a low T/G ratio were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma by pathological diagnosis. However, one nodule diagnosed as follicular adenoma after surgery showed a high T/G ratio. Our present method may be a promising preoperative test for measuring mRNAs in thyroid aspirates. PMID:22572548
Yamada, Hiroya; Takano, Toru; Kihara, Minoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hidaka, Yoh; Miyauchi, Akira
We have combined environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and immunogold labelling (IGL) for the analysis of cell morphology and surface protein detection on human fine needle aspiration, which is processed in thin uniform monolayer (a single layer of cells) on a glass slide by Thin Prep technology. Among scanning electron microscopy techniques, we choose the environmental modality (ESEM) because it allows a slight manipulation of biological samples and an operational time comparable with cytological techniques. Moreover, the Thin Prep technology confirmed a reproducible cell monolayer on glass smear, minimizing problems for the determination of appropriate amount of material per slide. The first experimental data in ESEM-IGL on biological samples with fine needle aspiration Thin Prep, in human thyroid nodules, showed that cells retained their morphology and provided a clear IGL. The optimization of conditions (i.e. vacuum pressure, temperature and relative humidity) confirmed the possibility to observe an immunolabelled biological sample and morphological signal, joined with compositional informations, due to peculiar characteristics of gaseous secondary electron detector in ESEM. The ESEM-IGL and fine needle aspiration Thin Prep could be used in combination for the interpretation of cell morphology and cell surface immunolabelling. Our paper suggests this use as a powerful diagnostic tool in a pre-surgical evaluations, opening a new applicative window for electron microscopy. PMID:21118204
Cafiero, G; Papale, F; Grimaldi, A; Rosso, F; Barbarisi, M; Tortora, C; Marino, G; Barbarisi, A
Established centers find that cytological study of gastric washings with saline or chymotrypsin, adequately performed, is a valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of early and curable gastric carcinoma. Our experience with a small series of 150 patients, studied by saline gastric washing, has emphasized the difficulties of collection and the particular importance of obtaining, by repeated washings if necessary, an adequate specimen of gastric epithelial cells for diagnosis, before an opinion is given. It seems likely that the cytological method will be of future value in study of the natural history of gastric malignant disease and in detection of its surface lesions in their earliest form in asymptomatic, known-susceptible persons. Further, it should become a complementary part of the “stomach profile” in gastric diagnostic problems, where roentgenologic and gastroscopic studies may be expected to reveal the older, necrotic, or infiltrative lesions; cytological study, the earlier and more superficial stages of disease.
Armstrong, Charles D.; Johnson, William D.; Wilbur, Richard S.; Lack, Arthur J.
The definitive diagnosis of several hematological diseases, as for instance leukaemias, unexplained pancytopenias and other bone marrow disorders, requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Not only haematologists, but also internists, need to master this rather invasive procedure. The knowledge of indications, contra-indications, potential complications and their prevention of its complications is of utmost importance. This article reviews these topics about bone marrow biopsy, giving some practical advices on this procedure. PMID:19055151
Moix, Paul-André; Favre, Lucie; Rosselet, Anne; Monti, Matteo
Cervical and vaginal smears were obtained from 160 women who had delivered one to eight days prior to cytologic examination. Preparations were examined for general morphology and graded for malignancy. The degree of cytologic abnormality was found to corr...
H. B. Soloway
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. PMID:22807408
Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M
Two hundred asymptomatic women in a general practice were screened both cytologically and colposcopically for evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The prevalence detected by cytology alone was 5%, but the prevalence detected by cytology and colposcopy together was 11%. None of the larger lesions of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (affecting more than two quadrants of the cervix) was associated with negative
John A Giles; Elizabeth Hudson; Julie Crow; Denis Williams; Patrick Walker
This article focuses on neoplastic diseases because they may be the most frequent disease processes in captive hedgehogs according to the literature and authors' case files and the most common cases submitted for cytologic diagnosis in these species, particularly the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). PMID:17198959
Juan-Sallés, Carles; Garner, Michael M
Previously, we reported that the accuracy of cytological diagnosis of breast lesions could be augmented through the quantitative\\u000a assessment of DNA methylation of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) washings. Herein, we aimed at the evaluation of the prognostic\\u000a value of quantitative promoter methylation at three gene loci (APC, CCND2, and RASSF1A) in a large series of FNA washings from breast lesions. Methylation
Ana Teresa Martins; Paula Monteiro; João Ramalho-Carvalho; Vera L. Costa; Mário Dinis-Ribeiro; Conceição Leal; Rui Henrique; Carmen Jerónimo
Urinary cytology is of great clinical use in unclear cases of haematocyturia, as a screening method for patients with high risk, as a follow-up control after transurethral resection and local cytostatic therapy, as well as for the grading of a transitional cell carcinoma. Primary urothelial tumors of the bladder can be distinguished cytologically up to six months earlier than with the cytoscope, especially in carcinoma in situ. A positive finding during therapy with cytostatic agents indicates a recurrence. PMID:6479823
Fladerer, H P
We report microscopically collected infrared spectra of cells found in human urine in an effort to develop automatic methods for bladder cancer screening. Unsupervised multivariate analysis of the observed spectral patterns reveals distinct spectral classes, which correlated very well with visual cytology. Therefore, we believe that spectral analysis of individual cells can aid cytology in rendering reliable diagnoses based on objective measurements and discriminant algorithms.
Bird, Benjamin; Romeo, Melissa J.; Diem, Max; Bedrossian, Kristi; Laver, Nora; Naber, Stephen
Background. “Silent” aspiration was recognized to be a more frequent complication at this hospital in patients who have had coronary artery bypass grafting than in the general surgical population.Methods. A case-control retrospective study covering a 4.5-year period was conducted to determine risk factors for pharyngeal dysfunction resulting in silent aspiration.Results. Significant predictors of silent aspiration were age, history of cerebral
O. Brewster Harrington; John K Duckworth; Carey L Starnes; Patricia White; Lynn Fleming; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Rexann Pickering
Ten of 73 kidney neoplasms (14%) collected from the files of the Hospital de Navarra over a five-year period were urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis (UCRP). In 54 of 73 kidney neoplasms fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed. In seven cases a cytologic diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma was made. The majority of patients presented with pain and hematuria of short duration. In three cases a renal mass was detected by roentgenography. A filling defect in the collector system, with no conclusive roentgenographic diagnosis, was observed in the remaining cases. Computed tomography-guided FNAB was performed in all cases. Voided urine was collected for microscopic study in six cases. The cytologic pattern of all cases was similar to that of bladder urothelial carcinoma. This feature was particularly frequent in well-differentiated papillary carcinomas. The differential diagnosis with other kidney lesions based on cytologic findings was established. FNAB is useful not only in the preoperative diagnosis of UCRP but also in follow-up. PMID:7762330
Santamaría, M; Jauregui, I; Urtasun, F; Bertol, A
ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.
Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.
The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results.
Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni
Students’ interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern.\\u000a In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10–14\\u000a (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire exploring students’ aspirations\\u000a was developed,
Jennifer Dewitt; Louise Archer; Jonathan Osborne; Justin Dillon; Beatrice Willis; Billy Wong
Background The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. DNA integrity index has been reported to be a marker of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid DNA integrity index in the diagnosis of MPE. Methods We studied 75 pleural fluid and matched serum samples from consecutive subjects. Pleural fluid and serum ALU DNA repeats [115bp, 247bp and 247bp/115bp ratio (DNA integrity index)] were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Pleural fluid and serum mesothelin levels were quantified using ELISA. Results Based on clinico-pathological evaluation, 52 subjects had MPE (including 16 mesotheliomas) and 23 had benign effusions. Pleural fluid DNA integrity index was higher in MPE compared with benign effusions (1.2 vs. 0.8; p<0.001). Cytology had a sensitivity of 55% in diagnosing MPE. If cytology and pleural fluid DNA integrity index were considered together, they exhibited 81% sensitivity and 87% specificity in distinguishing benign and malignant effusions. In cytology-negative pleural effusions (35 MPE and 28 benign effusions), elevated pleural fluid DNA integrity index had an 81% positive predictive value in detecting MPEs. In the detection of mesothelioma, at a specificity of 90%, pleural fluid DNA integrity index had similar sensitivity to pleural fluid and serum mesothelin (75% each respectively). Conclusion Pleural fluid DNA integrity index is a promising diagnostic biomarker for identification of MPEs, including mesothelioma. This biomarker may be particularly useful in cases of MPE where pleural aspirate cytology is negative, and could guide the decision to undertake more invasive definitive testing. A prospective validation study is being undertaken to validate our findings and test the clinical utility of this biomarker for altering clinical practice.
Students' interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern. In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10-14 (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire…
DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy
This thesis presents the author's experience with diagnostic intraocular fine needle aspiration biopsy in 18 patients with a suspected metastatic choroidal or ciliary body tumor. The author has reviewed the literature on biopsy of intraocular tumors and has specified what he believes to be valid indications for diagnostic biopsy of posterior uveal tumors. He has evaluated the accuracy, limitations, and complications of diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy in this series and others, and he has suggested methods for improving the recovery of sufficient cells for cytologic diagnosis and lessening the risks of tumor cell seeding during the biopsy. The author has concluded that fine needle aspiration biopsy appears to be a relatively safe, generally reliable means of establishing the pathologic diagnosis of a choroidal or ciliary body tumor in highly selected patients suspected of having metastatic cancer. In spite of its apparent safety and reliability, however, the author has cautioned against the routine use of fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with posterior uveal tumors since its long-term safety has not been established. The author has suggested that diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy of posterior uveal tumors be performed only in medical centers where there can be input from and cooperation among ophthalmologists, ophthalmic pathologists, and cytopathologists who are experienced in the diagnosis of intraocular malignancies. Images FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 8 D FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11
Augsburger, J J
Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma previously known as inflammatory myxohyaline tumour of distal extremities with virocyte or Reed Sternberg like cells is a low grade tumour of the hands and feet. It is a distinctive lesion with features simulating inflammatory conditions, Hodgkin's disease and various sarcomas. It characteristically occurs in the distal extremities and has a propensity to recur locally. We describe cytological appearance of this condition with relevant differential diagnosis. A 51 year old male presented with a swelling over upper 1/3 of medial aspect of left tibia of 4 months duration. Fine needle aspiration smears showed myxoid material, epithelioid cells, spindle cells, vacuolated cells and giant cells along with scattered lymphocytes. Histopathological examination of the excision biopsy specimen was confirmatory. PMID:18603905
Khadilkar, N P; Rao, P S
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become an important tool in the diagnosis and staging of malignant tumors of the lungs and mediastinum. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) denotes a cytomorphological diagnostic procedure that allows assessment of the adequacy and accuracy of the material obtained during bronchoscopy within a few minutes in or near the bronchoscopy suite (on-site) using a quick staining of smears. This results in a significant decrease in the number of repeated bronchoscopy procedures required to recover an adequate biopsy sample and is therefore both time and cost effective. The obtained material can be further assessed as conventional cytological specimens or alternatively using the thin-prep technique for definitive cytopathology diagnosis and/or embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemical or molecular analyses such as DNA sequencing or flow cytometry. PMID:22752354
Wohlschläger, J; Darwiche, K; Ting, S; Hager, T; Freitag, L; Schmid, K W; Kühl, H; Theegarten, D
This study was performed to determine the associations between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cytological changes in the male glans and urethral samples. Two rubbed samples of the glans and distal urethra were collected from 160 patients with urethritis, and the collected cells were placed into preservative solution for liquid-based cytology. DNA was extracted from all samples, and ?-globin gene amplification, HPV-DNA test, and HPV genotyping were performed. After papanicolaou staining of each sample, cytological findings were assessed based on nine non-classic signs, and compared with the results of HPV-DNA test. Among the ?-globin positive samples, HPV (any type) was detected in 33 and 25% of the glans and urethra samples, respectively. High-risk HPV-DNA was detected in 25 and 15% of the glans and urethra samples, respectively. In the glans samples, cytological signs of HPV infection were observed in 17% of low-risk HPV-positive samples and in 58% of high-risk HPV-positive samples. Cytological atypia suspected to indicate penile intraepithelial neoplasia were observed in 17 and 33%, respectively. On the other hand, abnormal cells were observed in 29% of low-risk HPV-positive and 83% of high-risk HPV-positive urethral samples. Cytological atypia suspected to be urethral intraepithelial neoplasia was observed in 29 and 65%, respectively. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of HPV-DNA in the morphologically abnormal cells in 31 and 35% of high-risk HPV-positive glans and urethral samples, respectively. Cytological changes similar to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in females could be detected in the HPV-positive glans and urethral samples. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:491-497. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24376188
Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Namiki, Mikio
This paper describes a program designed to support aspiring educational leaders' leadership competence, autonomy, relatedness, and leadership motivation. It also discusses the New Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards. To assess the extent to which the program achieved its goals, 27 aspiring leaders, all of whom are…
Alao, Solomon; Wright, Henrietta; Newton, Vera
This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils' educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below-average examination results and low rates of continuing in…
Strand, Steve; Winston, Joe
Bronchoscopic transbronchial fine needle aspiration of the mediastinum is generally known as a safe procedure. Complications such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, major bronchial haemorrhage and significant bleeding after a major vessel puncture are rare events. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of life-threatening cardiac tamponade following transbronchial fine needle aspiration in precarinal location.
Andreas Gross; Andreas Henri Diacon
Background and Aims Rapid onsite evaluation (ROSE) has been demonstrated to correlate with final cytologic interpretations and improves the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA, however, its availability is variable across centers. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether remote telecytology can substitute for ROSE. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for diverse indications at a high volume referral center were enrolled All samples were prospectively evaluated by three methods. ROSE was performed by a cytopathologist in the procedure room; simultaneously dynamic telecytology was done by a different cytopathologist in a remote location at our institution. The third method, final cytologic interpretation in the laboratory, was the gold standard. Telecytology was performed using an Olympus microscope system (BX) which broadcasts live images over the internet. Accuracy of telecytology and agreement with other methods were the principle outcome measurements. Results Twenty-five consecutive samples were obtained from participants 40–87 years (median age =63, 48% male). There was 88% agreement between telecytology and final cytology (p < 0.001) and 92% agreement between ROSE and final cytology (p <0.001). There was consistency between telecytology and ROSE (p-value for McNemar’s ?2 = 1.0). Cohen’s kappa for agreement for telecytology and ROSE was 0.80 (SE = 0.11), confirming favorable correlation. Conclusion Dynamic telecytology compares favorably to ROSE in the assessment of EUS acquired fine needle aspirates. If confirmed by larger trials, this system might obviate the need for onsite interpretation of EUS-FNA specimens.
Buxbaum, James L.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Linder, Ami; Crowe, Amanda E.; Jhala, Darshana; Jhala, Nirag C.; Crowe, David R.; Eltoum, Isam A.
Epidermoid cyst and dermoid cysts are developmental pathologies thought to derive from aberrant ectodermal tissue. They are uncommon in the head and neck region. Rarely, they can be found in the oral cavity and buccal mucosa. However, epidermoid cyst is extremely uncommon in the upper lip and is rarely reported. In this study, we report an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst occurring in the upper lip diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We present this case because of its extremely rare site of presentation and also to highlight the role of FNAC to in the pre-operative diagnosis of this benign lesion. PMID:24696565
Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Jalan, Shilpa
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using an ultrasound surgical aspirator has been performed in our department since March 1991. The horn cover was altered in order to be inserted through a trocar 10 mm in diameter. The main purpose of this device is to explore Calot's triangle by fragmentation and aspiration of the fatty tissue without damaging the nerves, vessels, and cystic duct. First the serosa of the Calot's triangle is cut via electrocautery with the sharp-angle hook dissector we designed. Then the cystic duct and cystic artery are efficiently exposed by the ultrasound surgical aspirator. This procedure is perfectly adapted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We obtained favorable results with the ultrasound surgical aspirator in 135 cases including 40 cases with a negative gallbladder, as evaluated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. In conclusion, the ultrasound surgical aspirator is suitable for skeletonizing the cystic duct and cystic artery, and the procedure is perfectly safe. PMID:7725224
Murai, R; Ando, H; Hirohara, S; Okui, S; Kusuyama, A; Sasaki, T; Watanabe, N; Sasaya, K; Komuro, K; Itsubo, K
The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.
Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.
A 73-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of intermittent nausea, vomiting, central abdominal discomfort and a 17-pound weight loss over the past year. Laboratory testing, including a complete blood count with differential, liver function testing, amylase and lipase studies were normal. A CT scan showed a bilobed cystic lesion inferior to the body of the pancreas. An endoscopic ultrasound revealed a 5.3×3.9 cm, anechoic, bilobed cystic lesion, extrinsic to the body of the pancreas with a 1-2 mm septation and a normal pancreas. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a milky-white aspirate with negative cytology. Laboratory assessment of the cystic aspirant revealed carcinoembryonic antigen 1.7 ng/mL, amylase 148 units/L, cholesterol 300 mg/dL, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 3 units/mL. He underwent resection of the mass, with the histopathology confirming a diagnosis of peripancreatic lymphangioma. He did well after the surgery with interval resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24092605
Tanimu, Sabo; Rafiullah; Resnick, Jeffrey; Onitilo, Adedayo A
Background: Retroperitoneal tumors constitute a difficult diagnostic category as they are not easily accessible. The advent of image-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has resolved this problem significantly. Aims: We present a short study based on guided aspiration of retroperitoneal tumors, in which we have tried to assess the role of image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology as a tool for pre-operative diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal masses. FNA was performed under image guidance with the help of ultrasonography and/or computed tomography; smears were prepared and meticulously screened according to a fixed protocol. The results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficacy of cytopathological diagnosis using image-guided FNA techniques. Results: We assessed 38 patients with retroperitoneal masses. In all cases, adequate cellular material was obtained. No major complications were encountered. Statistical analysis was carried out in 35 cases; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100% in these cases. Conclusion: FNA under image guidance should be considered a first-line diagnostic approach for retroperitoneal and other abdominal tumors, although caution should be exercised in case selection. In areas where advanced tests are not available, the cytotechnologist and cytopathologist have a very important role to play in ensuring accurate diagnoses.
Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Afzal, Sheerin; Ansari, Hena A; Ahmad, Ibne
During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in the characterization of molecular abnormalities in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors that are being used as molecular targets and predictive biomarkers for selection of targeted therapy. These recent advances in NSCLC targeted therapy require the analysis of a panel of molecular abnormalities in tumor specimens, including gene mutations (e.g., EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, DDR2), gene amplifications (e.g., MET, FGFR1), and fusions (e.g., EML4-ALK) by applying different methods to tumor tissue (biopsy) and cell (cytology) samples. However, the biopsy and cytology samples available for molecular testing in advanced metastatic NSCLC tumors are likely to be small specimens, including core needle biopsies and/or fine needle aspiration, which may limit the molecular and genomic analysis with currently available methods and technologies. In this process, the role of the pathologist is becoming increasingly important to adequately integrate both routine histopathologic assessment and molecular testing into the clinical pathology for proper tumor diagnosis and subsequent selection of the most appropriate therapy. PMID:24451780
Wistuba, Ignacio I
Primary thyroid tumors with extensive clear cell changes are extremely rare. More than 10,000 ultrasound-guided thyroid fine needle aspirations examined over a period of 17 years by the first author, only one of the 530 (<0.2%) papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and three of the 42 (7.1%) follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) had extensive cytoplasmic clearing. Thyroidectomies were performed for these cases at four different hospitals in New York City. Final pathology was available for review in each of the four cases. Histology showed a 1.5-cm PTC with prominent hobnail features and clear cell change in a 31-year-old woman, a 4.3-cm FTC without angioinvasion in a 31-year-old woman, a 4.5-cm angioinvasive FTC in a 45-year-old man, and a 2-cm FTC with extensive angioinvasion in a 41-year-old woman with McCune-Albright syndrome (previously published). On ultrasound, the FTCs were solid circumscribed nodules and the PTC had an irregular margin. In these cases, the etiology for the cytoplasmic clearing included accumulation of glycogen in the PTC, accumulation of vesicles in two of the FTCs, and accumulation of lipid droplets in a FTC with extensive angioinvasion. Review of the cytologic literature showed 17 cases of follicular-derived thyroid tumors with extensive clear cell change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cytologic report of PTC with hobnail features and extensive clear cell change. PMID:23166112
Yang, Grace C H; Fried, Karen; Scognamiglio, Theresa
The purpose of this study was to evaluate our ultrasonographic classification of thyroid nodules, based on echo structure, echogenicity, calcification, margin and analysis of the surrounding parenchyma. From January 1998 to January 2002, 2,468 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules were referred for thyroid ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (USFNAB) in our Thyroid Unit. Among 1,039 nodules classified as benign on ultrasound, 998 (96.1%) were also benign on cytology, 37 (3.6%) were suspicious and only 4 (0.4%) were malignant. On the other hand, among 153 nodules classified as suspicious on ultrasound, 20 (13.1%) were suspicious and 88 (57,5%) were malignant on cytology. Of the 71 nodules suspicious on ultrasound submitted to surgery, 67 (94.3%) were malignant and 56 (96.6%) of 58 nodules considered benign were benign on pathologic studies. In conclusion, we advocate USFNAB in nodules classified as indeterminate or suspicious. Nodules classified as benign may be followed up at periodic intervals. PMID:15611823
Tomimori, Eduardo K; Bisi, Helio; Medeiros-Neto, Geraldo; Camargo, Rosalinda Y A de
Background: The incidence of breast carcinoma is increasing in developing countries due to adoption of western life-style. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the initial method to evaluate the palpable breast lesions. The neoadjuvant therapy is helpful in treating high grade rather than low grade breast carcinomas. Masood cytologic index (MCI) delineates all the breast lesions into four groups. The carcinoma group is not graded further. Aim: The present study proposes a method for the expansion of carcinoma group into three grades. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 breast carcinoma cases were prospectively studied by comparing expansion of MCI with modified bloom Richardson (MBR) grading over a period of 3 years. Results: Altogether 43/50 cases (86%) had concordance with histopathological grading. The analysis revealed a R2 value of 60%, which was significant. The P value of anisonucleosis, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were 0.001, 0.049 and 0.02 respectively, which were significant. Conclusions: The present study with the expansion of carcinoma category of MCI into three grades similar to MBR will help the treating surgeon to plan the management accordingly. The results obtained in this study need to be subjected to multicentric study with a large number of cases.
Rekha, TS; Nandini, NM; Dhar, Murali
Quantitative ultrasound (US) elastography (Q-USE), able to evaluate tissue stiffness has been indicated as a new diagnostic tool to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Aim of this prospective study, conducted at the Department of Surgical Sciences, of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Q-USE, compared with US parameters, in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (Thy3).The case study included 140 nodules from 140 consecutive patients. Patient's thyroid nodules were evaluated by Q-USE, measuring the strain ratio (SR) of stiffness between nodular and surrounding normal thyroid tissue, and conventional US parameters prior fine-needle aspiration cytology. Those with Thy3 diagnosis were included in the study. Forty of the nodules analyzed harbored a malignant lesion. Q-USE demonstrated that malignant nodules have a significant higher stiffness with respect to benign one and an optimun SR cut-off value of 2.05 was individuated following ROC analysis. Univariate analysis showed that hypoechogenicity, irregular margins and SR >2.05 associated with malignancy, with an accuracy of 67.2%, 81,0% and 89.8%, respectively. Data were unaffected by nodule size or thyroiditis. These findings were confirmed in multivariate analysis demonstrating a significant association of the SR and the irregular margins with thyroid nodule's malignancy. In conclusion, we demonstrated the diagnostic utility of Q-USE in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology that, if confirmed, could be of major clinical utility in patients' presurgical selection. PMID:23209819
Cantisani, Vito; Ulisse, Salvatore; Guaitoli, Eleonora; De Vito, Corrado; Caruso, Riccardo; Mocini, Renzo; D'Andrea, Vito; Ascoli, Valeria; Antonaci, Alfredo; Catalano, Carlo; Nardi, Francesco; Redler, Adriano; Ricci, Paolo; De Antoni, Enrico; Sorrenti, Salvatore
Quantitative ultrasound (US) elastography (Q-USE), able to evaluate tissue stiffness has been indicated as a new diagnostic tool to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Aim of this prospective study, conducted at the Department of Surgical Sciences, of the “Sapienza” University of Rome, was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Q-USE, compared with US parameters, in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (Thy3).The case study included 140 nodules from 140 consecutive patients. Patient’s thyroid nodules were evaluated by Q-USE, measuring the strain ratio (SR) of stiffness between nodular and surrounding normal thyroid tissue, and conventional US parameters prior fine-needle aspiration cytology. Those with Thy3 diagnosis were included in the study. Forty of the nodules analyzed harbored a malignant lesion. Q-USE demonstrated that malignant nodules have a significant higher stiffness with respect to benign one and an optimun SR cut-off value of 2.05 was individuated following ROC analysis. Univariate analysis showed that hypoechogenicity, irregular margins and SR >2.05 associated with malignancy, with an accuracy of 67.2%, 81,0% and 89.8%, respectively. Data were unaffected by nodule size or thyroiditis. These findings were confirmed in multivariate analysis demonstrating a significant association of the SR and the irregular margins with thyroid nodule’s malignancy. In conclusion, we demonstrated the diagnostic utility of Q-USE in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology that, if confirmed, could be of major clinical utility in patients’ presurgical selection.
Guaitoli, Eleonora; De Vito, Corrado; Caruso, Riccardo; Mocini, Renzo; D'Andrea, Vito; Ascoli, Valeria; Antonaci, Alfredo; Catalano, Carlo; Nardi, Francesco; Redler, Adriano; Ricci, Paolo; De Antoni, Enrico; Sorrenti, Salvatore
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is the most sensitive imaging modality for solid pancreatic lesions. The specificity, however, is low (about 75%). It can be increased to 100% with an accuracy of 95% by the addition of fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Cytopathology plays an important role. The final diagnosis is based upon the correlation of clinical, EUS, and cytologic features. A close interaction with the cytopathologist is required in improving the diagnostic yield. In this paper, we present an overview of the role of EUS-guided FNA and importance of close interaction with the cytopathologist. Day to day examples of different solid pancreatic lesions have been presented at the end.
Iqbal, Shahzad; Friedel, David; Gupta, Mala; Ogden, Lorna; Stavropoulos, Stavros N.
Background The purpose of this work was to investigate whether clinical cytology could be useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis. Methods This study involved the prospective collection of samples derived from the endometrium and the uterine cervix, and retrospective data analysis. Nine patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic actinomycosis were enrolled. The clinical and hematological characteristics of patients were recorded, and detection of actinomyces was performed by cytology, pathology, and bacteriological culture of samples and by imprint intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) cytology. Results The detection rate of actinomyces was 77.7% by combined cervical and endometrial cytology, 50.0% by pathology, and 11.1% by bacterial culture. Conclusion The higher detection rate of actinomyces by cytology than by pathology or bacteriology suggests that careful cytological examination may be clinically useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.
Matsuda, Katsuya; Nakajima, Hisayoshi; Khan, Khaleque N; Tanigawa, Terumi; Hamaguchi, Daisuke; Kitajima, Michio; Hiraki, Koichi; Moriyama, Shingo; Masuzaki, Hideaki
A case of epithelioid sarcoma in a 39-year-old woman who had metastatic lesions in her lung from a primary arm tumor is presented. A review of the literature and analysis of this case did not identify any specific light microscopic or immunohistochemical way to separate definitively the lung cytologic smear in this case from squamous cell carcinoma. The authors believe cytologic smears from epithelioid sarcoma can closely mimic smears from squamous cell carcinoma. Pathologists should be alert to these similarities. PMID:8356950
Niemann, T H; Bottles, K
Fine needle aspirate (FNA) from 14 cases (age range 17-84 years), with Liesegang rings (LR's) in breast cysts seen over a period of 26 years comprised the material of this study from more than 38,000 FNA's of the breast which had been done for a variety of breast lesions. In six of the 14 cases, the aspirate was obtained under ultrasound guidance whereas in the remaining cases it was collected from a palpable lesion. The aspiration was performed using a 22 gauge needle and the syringe and needle contents were washed in a cytology container with 30% ethyl alcohol in physiologic saline. The cytologic preparations from half of the sample were made on a 5 micron Schleicher and Schuell filter and stained by Papanicolaou method whereas from the remainder of the sample a cell block was made and sections cut, stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and used for immunohistochemical study.Filter preparations and cell blocks revealed cyanophilic, spherical, ring-like structures of various sizes and shape mostly with double walls, and striations with amorphous material in the lumen and under polarized light were nonrefractile. Seen also were several apocrine cells and some macrophages and the LR's were found to be negative on immunostains for EMA and CK, and a panel of other special stains (Table I). Since LR's can be mistaken for ova, larvae, or parasites, it is important to be aware of their potential presence in aspirate samples of breast cysts to avoid a misdiagnosis. The exact mechanism of formation of LR's is not fully understood and certain views as proposed are discussed in this presentation. PMID:18773436
Gupta, Raj K
Background & Aims Two advanced cytologic techniques for detecting aneuploidy, digital image analysis (DIA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have recently been developed to help identify malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of cytology, DIA, and FISH for the identification of malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. Methods Brush cytologic specimens from 233 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP for pancreatobiliary strictures were examined by all three techniques. Strictures were stratified as proximal (n=33) or distal (n=114) based on whether they occurred above or below the cystic duct, respectively. Strictures in patients with PSC (n=86) were analyzed separately. Results Despite the stratification, the performances of the tests were similar. Routine cytology has a low sensitivity (5–20%) but 100% specificity. Because of the high specificity for cytology, we assessed the performance of the other tests when routine cytology was negative. In this clinical context, FISH had an increased sensitivity (35–60%) when assessing for chromosomal gains (polysomy) while preserving the specificity of cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of DIA was intermediate as compared to routine cytology and FISH, but was additive to FISH values demonstrating only trisomy of chromosome 7 or chromosome 3. Conclusions These findings suggest that FISH and DIA increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatobiliary tract strictures over that obtained by conventional cytology while maintaining an acceptable specificity.
Moreno Luna, Laura E.; Kipp, Benjamin; Halling, Kevin C.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Kremers., Walter K.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Barr Fritcher, Emily G.; Levy, Michael J.; Gores, Gregory J.
Cytology of tracheal aspirates, tracheal endoscopic and blood tests were carried out to 86 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting coughs or poor performance which were suspected to have lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) to assess the conditions of the disorders. Racehorses were classified into coughing (66 horses) and non-coughing (20 horses) groups based on clinical symptoms. Nine Thoroughbred racehorses without respiratory abnormality were used as controls. Assessment of grades of airway mucus, cytology of tracheal aspirates and serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen (Fbg) and pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) measurements were performed. Relationships between age, gender and racing careers were also investigated to understand the characteristics of LRTD in racehorses. Mean age was significantly higher in non-coughing group compared to coughing group. Existence of racing career and number of starts were significantly greater in non-coughing group compared to coughing group. On the other hand, grades of airway mucus were significantly higher in coughing group compared to control group. Percentages of neutrophils in tracheal aspirates were significantly higher in coughing group compared to non-coughing and control groups. SAA, Fbg and SP-D were higher in coughing group compared to non-coughing and control groups indicating that condition of coughing group is in the acute phase. Positive rate of inflammatory airway disease was significantly higher in coughing and non-coughing groups compared to control group. It was concluded that carrying out comprehensive evaluation including investigation on SAA, Fbg and SP-D analysis with airway assessment to Thoroughbred racehorses which were suspected to have LRTD are useful procedure to understand the pathological condition which aid to initiate appropriate treatment, prognosis judgment or to advise trainers to consider altering training regimen.
KUSANO, Kanichi; HOBO, Seiji; ODE, Hirotaka; ISHIKAWA, Yuhiro
A 7-year-old spayed female German Wirehaired Pointer was presented with difficulty breathing after being found seizing in a water-filled drainage ditch while out hunting. Aspirates from a tracheal wash contained numerous degenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, some of which contained basophilic debris, low numbers of extracellular diatoms, and a single intracellular short bacterial rod. As the dog continued to clinically decline and could not be weaned from oxygen support, the owners chose euthanasia. The major necropsy finding was a severe granulomatous bronchopneumonia that was likely due to aspiration of foreign material based on the microscopic presence of plant-like material, bi-refringent crystalline material, non-cellular debris, and occasional fungal structures. Diatoms are a class of algae that live primarily in water. Diatom analysis has been used, with some controversy, in human forensics to assist in documenting drowning as the cause of death. In this case, given the clinical history, the presence of diatoms and inflammation in the tracheal wash were interpreted as a likely result of the aspiration of surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of diatoms observed in a cytologic specimen in a nonhuman mammal with aspiration pneumonia. PMID:23647227
Benson, Catherine J; Edlund, Mark B; Gray, Sarah; Powell, Lisa; Paulin-Curlee, Geisa; Armien, Anibal; Overmann, Jed A
...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general...
The role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in evaluating lesions adjacent to the upper gastrointestinal tract wall is well established. However, this tool is underused in evaluating rectal and perirectal lesions, possibly due to insufficient experience and underrecognized value of this procedure. In this study, we report our institutional experience with EUS-FNA as a diagnostic and staging tool for rectal and perirectal lesions. A retrospective chart review was performed and a cohort of 38 patients who underwent rectal EUS-FNA (41 specimens) at our institution between January 2002 and July 2012 was retrieved. The cytology diagnoses were compared with the concurrent or follow-up histologic and clinical diagnoses. Among the total 41 cases, rectal EUS-FNA was performed as a diagnostic procedure in 22 (54%) and a staging procedure in 19 (46%) cases. On cytology examination, 18 cases (44%) were diagnosed as malignant; 1 (2%), as atypical/suspicious for malignancy; 3 (7%), as benign neoplastic; 13 (32%), as nonneoplastic; and 6 (15%), as nondiagnostic cases. Concurrent or follow-up histologic diagnoses were available in 20 cases (48%), 19 of them had concordant cytological/histologic findings (10 benign, 9 malignant). One perirectal lymph node with negative cytology diagnosis was found to be positive on histologic examination, probably due to sampling error on cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS-FNA for detecting malignant rectal/perirectal lesions in this study were 91% and 100%, respectively. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration is a useful diagnostic tool for rectal/perirectal lesions; it confirms or excludes malignancy for lesions with high or low clinical suspicions. It serves as a reliable staging method to identify patients for proper clinical management. PMID:24028888
Amin, Khalid; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Tawfik, Ossama; Fan, Fang
Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.
Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali
The paper deals with the cytological investigation of eight taxa,viz., Hydrolea zeylanica Vahl (2n=24),Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (2n=30, 2n=30+1),Ottelia alismoides Pers. (2n=22 and 33),Monochoria vaginalis Presl ex Kunth (2n=52),Eichhornia crassipes Solms (2n=32),Pistia stratiotes L. (2n=28),Limnophyton obtusifolium Miq. (2n=22) andAmmannia salicifolia Monti (2n=28) which were collected from the suburbs of Mysore. Of these, the chromosome numbers forHydrolea zeylanica andAmmannia salicifolia are newly
D. G. Krishnappa
Summary \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Artificial pollination of the sterile and parthenocarpic Gros Michel banana (somatic chromosome number 33) by a fertileMusa, identified as a variety ofM. malaccensis Ridl. (somatic chromosome number 22), results in formation of occasional seeds, the average seed production being less than\\u000a one per hundred flowers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Of ten plants raised from such seeds and examined cytologically, eight have
E. E. Cheesman
Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic conditions. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the oral cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the oral epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion.
Reginald, Ajay; Sivapathasundharam, B.
The swallowing mechanism after a propyliodone (`dionosil') swallow was studied in 44 infants, aged 6 days to 6 months, who were admitted during a 6-month period to the Paediatric Clinic of Athens University because of choking spells during feedings or persistent vomiting.Twenty-three infants showed aspiration of the opaque material into the tracheobronchial tree.The incidence of aspiration was very high. It
N. Matsaniotis; J. Karpouzas; M. Tzortzatou-Vallianou; E. Tsagournis
According to WHO classification follicular lymphoma (FL) is a neoplasm composed of follicle centre (germinal centre) B-cells, which usually has at least a partially follicular pattern. Bone marrow (BM) infiltration by lymphoma occurs in 40-70% of cases at the time of diagnosis. The characteristic chromosomal translocation of follicular lymphoma is t(14;18)(q32;q21) with transposition of BCL2 oncogene to the regulatory region of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene IgH. Aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PCR detection of IgH/BCL2 in DNA samples isolated from archival cytological slides of lymph node aspirates, bone marrow and/or peripheral blood (PB) obtained from patients with histologically confirmed follicular lymphoma using primers and protocol proposed by BIOMED-2 consortium. We also compared molecular with cytomorphological findings in bone marrow/peripheral blood and tested this method of detection of IgH/BCL2 molecular marker in monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) in routine clinical setting. DNA was successfully isolated from all archival cytological slides obtained by fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes as well as from 75% of smears of bone marrow aspirates from 19 patients. Fusion oncogene was detected in 10 of 19 patients (52%). For patients with PCR IgH/BCL2 positive lymph nodes, molecular test found BM infiltration in 5 cases (83%), while cytomorphology detected infiltration in three of eight cases (37%) available for comparison. May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cytological smears can be used for PCR-based ancillary methods and the rate of detection of IgH/BCL2 rearrangement is similar to results reported for paraffin-embedded tissues. For patients with detectable baseline molecular marker, PCR is a highly suitable method for detection of bone marrow involvement and monitoring MRD. PMID:20698113
Stoos-Vei?, Tajana; Livun, Ana; Ajdukovi?, Radmila; Pejsa, Vlatko; Jaksi?, Ozren; Kusec, Rajko
Since its initial report in 1992, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has now been incorporated into the diagnostic and staging algorithm for the evaluation of benign and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. Its introduction constitutes a major breakthrough in the endoscopic field and has gradually transformed EUS from a pure imaging modality into a more interventional procedure. In addition, the possibility of collecting samples, providing a definitive cytological and/or histological evidence of the presence of malignancy, has strongly contributed to changing EUS from a subjective, highly operator dependant procedure into a more objective one. This article will review the instrumentation, technique and the most important clinical applications of EUS-FNA. PMID:23293723
Tharian, Benjamin; Tsiopoulos, Fotios; George, Nayana; Pietro, Salvatore Di; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto
AThe emerging treatment revolution determined by the advent of new targeted therapies requires accurate tumour subtyping as a mandatory step in the clinical workup of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). As a result of advanced and inoperable disease or poor performance status, in many patients, minimally invasive procedures must be employed to obtain diagnostic material. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a valid and widely employed alternative to either tru-cut or open-sky biopsy. Indeed, cytological specimens are suitable for techniques such as immunocytochemistry, mutation and microRNA analysis, and may present advantages over small biopsies especially if cell blocks are prepared and attention is paid to cytomorphology and pre-analytic management of specimens at the time they are collected. These will allow the adequate stratification of patients into different diagnostic and prognostic classes. PMID:22805511
Fassina, A; Cappellesso, R; Simonato, F; Lanza, C; Marzari, A; Fassan, M
Since its initial report in 1992, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has now been incorporated into the diagnostic and staging algorithm for the evaluation of benign and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. Its introduction constitutes a major breakthrough in the endoscopic field and has gradually transformed EUS from a pure imaging modality into a more interventional procedure. In addition, the possibility of collecting samples, providing a definitive cytological and/or histological evidence of the presence of malignancy, has strongly contributed to changing EUS from a subjective, highly operator dependant procedure into a more objective one. This article will review the instrumentation, technique and the most important clinical applications of EUS-FNA.
Tharian, Benjamin; Tsiopoulos, Fotios; George, Nayana; Pietro, Salvatore Di; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto
We report here a mediastinal infectious complication after endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) that was successfully treated using intravenous antibiotic therapy. EBUS-TBNA was performed for a 59-year old man with mediastinal adenopathy 8 years after left pneumonectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. A single-needle pass produced an adequate cytology and histology sample, and the lesion was diagnosed as small-cell lung cancer. The procedure itself was uneventful, but the patient developed a nightly fever after the biopsy. Finally, he was readmitted, and intravenous antibiotic therapy was required for 4 weeks to treat a mediastinal infection after EBUS-TBNA before chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer. PMID:23814134
Gochi, Fumiaki; Chen, Fengshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Date, Hiroshi
Details of cytology work in 103 US histology laboratories (histolabs) and in 200 from 18 other countries are presented. Data from 1345 additional US cytology practices surveyed from 1985 to 2004 are also included. The average annual workload in 130 histolabs from the United States and 12 other countries combined is 32?200 cases. The average annual workload in 173 histolabs
René J. Buesa
Human intestinal spirochetosis is a colorectal infectious disease caused by 2 Brachyspira species. Its diagnosis is established by histology, culture, and polymerase chain reaction, but the value of cytologic examination in routine practice remains unclear. In this study, imprint cytology of biopsy specimens was examined for cytologic features specific to human intestinal spirochetosis. Specimens were obtained from 65 colorectal regions (1-3 regions from each case) in 25 ultrastructurally and/or genetically confirmed human intestinal spirochetosis cases (20 with Brachyspira aalborgi, 3 with B pilosicoli, 2 with both genotypes). In cytologic specimens, spirochetes tended to be floating freely within the mucus and intestinal fluid, whereas the "fringe formation" of spirochetes typically observed in histologic specimens was indistinct in cytologic specimens. Spirochetes were identified in 58 regions (89.2%) and 23 cases (92.0%) by cytology, against in 50 regions (76.9%) and 22 cases (88.0%) by histology (no significant differences). In 6 of 8 regions exhibiting positive cytology and negative histology, B pilosicoli was present within the mucus. Hence, B pilosicoli may tend to float in the mucus. In conclusion, cytologic examination would be useful for the routine identification of human intestinal spirochetosis, especially if B pilosicoli is involved. Further, we suggest the existence of differences in biological behavior between these spirochetes. PMID:19836054
Ogata, Sho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Adachi, Yoshikazu; Ohara, Ichiyo; Nishiyama, Junichiro; Okusa, Yasushi; Takeo, Hiroaki; Sato, Kimiya; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Kawai, Toshiaki
Follicular lesions account for 4-6% of all thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytologies. To date, no cytological criteria exist to distinguish follicular adenoma from carcinoma. For this purpose, histological evaluation after surgical exeresis is required. From 1993 to 2000 we performed 1,238 US-assisted FNA biopsies in patients admitted to our unit for uni- or multi-nodular goiters. In the latter goiters, FNA was performed in the dominant nodule. Cytological examination revealed a follicular lesion in 71 patients (5.7%). All patients came from regions of Northern Italy with moderate iodine deficiency. In 48%, the lesion presented as a solitary nodule, while in the other 52% it occurred in the context of a multinodular goiter. Surgical exeresis of the neoplasm was recommended in all cases. Sixty-three patients (89%) underwent surgery (Group 1) while the other 8 patients (11%) opted for follow-up (Group 2). In Group 2, the mean nodule volume (3.2 +/- 0.5 ml) at baseline was slightly smaller (p = 0.08) than that found in Group 1 (5.4 +/- 0.7 ml). In Group 1, histological examination after surgery showed a follicular adenoma in 52 patients (83%) and a colloid goiter in the others (17%). No malignancy was detected. Group 2 underwent a median follow-up of 46 months (range 24-96 months) on L-thyroxine suppressive regimen (dose range 75-125 pg/day), with TSH levels ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 mlU/l. Throughout the follow-up, no patient developed clinical or ultrasonographic features that could be considered worrisome for malignancy; thus, no further biopsy was performed. However, an overall slight increase (median +5.2%) in nodular volume in respect to baseline was observed. Although institutional and cytological bias cannot be ruled out, our data do not confirm the reported incidence of malignancy in histological specimens of follicular lesions diagnosed on FNA cytology, and prompt us to suggest a less aggressive first-step approach (i.e. careful clinical and instrumental evaluation, and suppressive L-T4 therapy) for these lesions, unless anamnestic reports or clinical and ultrasonographic features of the nodules suggest malignancy. PMID:12602531
Foppiani, L; Tancredi, M; Ansaldo, G L; Ceppa, P; Auriati, L; Torre, G C; Minuto, F; Giusti, M
OBJECTIVES--To assess the significance of inflammatory changes as a marker of sexually transmitted diseases and their use as a diagnostic aid. METHODS--363 patients attending a department of genito urinary medicine were examined prospectively. All underwent cervical cytology and full STD screening. Cervical cytology was assessed for evidence of the presence or absence of inflammatory changes. RESULTS--There was no significant association between inflammatory cytology and cervical ectropion or dyskaryosis. Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis were significantly associated with inflammatory changes but there was no significant association with chlamydia alone, and 91.1% of T. vaginalis infections were detected on cytology. CONCLUSION--The presence of inflammatory changes on cervical cytology seems a poor indicator of sexually transmitted diseases.
Dimian, C; Nayagam, M; Bradbeer, C
Rationale and Objectives. To compare the sensitivities of ultrasound guided core biopsy and fine needle aspiration (FNA) for detection of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with a current diagnosis of ipsilateral breast cancer. Materials and Methods. From December 2008 to December 2010, 105 patients with breast cancer and abnormal appearing lymph nodes in the ipsilateral axilla consented to undergo FNA of an axillary node immediately followed by core biopsy of the same node, both with ultrasound guidance. Experienced pathologists evaluated the aspirate cytology without knowledge of the core histology. Cytology and core biopsy results were compared to sentinel node excision or axillary dissection pathology. Sensitivities were compared using McNemar's test. Results. Of 70 patients with axillary node metastases, FNA was positive in 55/70 (78.6%) and core was positive in 61/70 (87.1%) (P = 0.18). The FNA and core results were discordant in 14/70 (20%) patients. Ten cases were FNA negative/core positive. Four cases were FNA positive/core negative. Conclusion. Core biopsy detected six (8.6%) more cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy than FNA but the difference in sensitivities was not statistically significant. Core biopsy should be considered if the node is clearly imaged and readily accessible. FNA is a good alternative when a smaller needle is desired due to node location or other patient factors. This trial is registered with NCT01920139.
Ganott, Marie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Abrams, Gordon S.; Lu, Amy H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Austin, R. Marshall; Bandos, Andriy I.
Increasing use of fine needle aspiration for oncological diagnosis, while minimally invasive, poses a challenge for molecular testing by traditional sequencing platforms due to high sample requirements. The advent of affordable benchtop next-generation sequencing platforms such as the semiconductor-based Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) Sequencer has facilitated multi-gene mutational profiling using only nanograms of DNA. We describe successful next-generation sequencing-based testing of fine needle aspiration cytological specimens in a clinical laboratory setting. We selected 61 tumor specimens, obtained by fine needle aspiration, with known mutational status for clinically relevant genes; of these, 31 specimens yielded sufficient DNA for next-generation sequencing testing. Ten nanograms of DNA from each sample was tested for mutations in the hotspot regions of 46 cancer-related genes using a 318-chip on Ion PGM Sequencer. All tested samples underwent successful targeted sequencing of 46 genes. We showed 100% concordance of results between next-generation sequencing and conventional test platforms for all previously known point mutations that included BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, RET and TP53, deletions of EGFR and wild-type calls. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing detected variants in 19 of the 31 (61%) patient samples that were not detected by traditional platforms, thus increasing the utility of mutation analysis; these variants involved the APC, ATM, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, FGFR2, FLT3, KDR, KIT, KRAS, MLH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, SMAD4, STK11 and TP53 genes. The results of this study show that next-generation sequencing-based mutational profiling can be performed on fine needle aspiration cytological smears and cell blocks. Next-generation sequencing can be performed with only nanograms of DNA and has better sensitivity than traditional sequencing platforms. Use of next-generation sequencing also enhances the power of fine needle aspiration by providing gene mutation results that can direct personalized cancer therapy. PMID:23907151
Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Portier, Bryce P; Singh, Rajesh R; Routbort, Mark J; Aldape, Kenneth D; Handal, Brian A; Rahimi, Hamed; Reddy, Neelima G; Barkoh, Bedia A; Mishra, Bal M; Paladugu, Abhaya V; Manekia, Jawad H; Kalhor, Neda; Chowdhuri, Sinchita Roy; Staerkel, Gregg A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Patel, Keyur P
In many cases, it is difficult or even impossible to distinguish parathyroid lesions from thyroid ones at ultrasound as well as at scintiscan and even at cytology, because they often share common features. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) determination in the aspirates in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid from thyroid lesions in an area of mild iodine deficiency and high prevalence of thyroid nodules. Forty-six consecutive patients were suspected to have one or more nodule(s) of parathyroid origin because of their position in the posterior aspect of thyroid lobes and/or their shape and echo-pattern at ultrasound examination. In 13 cases, there were also laboratory findings suggestive for primary hyperparathyroidism, with clinical evidence in 6 of these patients. A total of 55 lesions suspected to be of parathyroid origin were selected. After obtaining cytological preparations, the needle used to perform the fine-needle aspirate (FNA) was washed using 1 ml of normal saline. Intact PTH determination in the washout was done whereas the evaluation was performed directly in the aspirated fluid in case of cystic lesions. The values of PTH in the aspirates ranged from 6.7 to 16640 pg/ml. Sixteen patients underwent surgical intervention and the histological examination of the 23 operated lesions previously submitted to FNA-PTH showed 11 parathyroid adenomas, 5 hyperplasic parathyroid lesions and 7 benign thyroid nodules. A strong positive correlation between high levels of PTH in the aspirate and the histological findings of parathyroid lesions was found. A value over 245 pg/ml was constantly associated to the parathyroid lesions. Our results confirmed the high accuracy of FNA-PTH determination in differentiating parathyroid lesions from thyroid nodules and this is of special value in an area of mild iodine deficiency with a high prevalence of thyroid nodules. PMID:24397729
Triggiani, Vincenzo; Resta, Francesco; Giagulli, Vito A; Iovino, Michele; Licchelli, Brunella; De Pergola, Giovanni; Tafaro, Angela; Benigno, Marcello; Sabbà, Carlo; Guastamacchia, Edoardo
Purpose This study was performed to analyze the surgical pathology results of the "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS) category from thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to describe the characteristics to distinguish a malignant from a benign nodule. Methods A retrospective analysis was done on 116 patients who underwent thyroid surgery from December 2008 to December 2012, following a diagnosis of AUS from preoperative thyroid FNA. We investigated the age, gender, size and site of the nodules, ultrasonographic criteria, cytological features, the number of atypia results after repeated FNAs, surgical method, and final pathologic results. Results Sixty-five out of 116 patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the rest had partial thyroidectomy. The final pathologic results were 41 malignancies (35.3%) and 75 benign diseases (64.7%). AUS was divided into group 1: 'cannot rule out malignancy' or group 2: 'cannot rule out follicular neoplasm'. After surgery, group 1 revealed papillary thyroid cancer in most cases and group 2 revealed follicular adenoma in most cases. Age over 40 years, ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy, more than 2 results of atypia from repeated FNAs and nodules less than 2 centimeters were risk factors for malignancy on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy was a significant risk factor for malignancy. Conclusion For proper evaluation of the risk for malignancy in thyroid AUS patients, the ultrasonographic criteria should be considered along with other clinicopathological findings such as age, nodule size, number of atypia, cytologic features.
Ryu, Young Jae; Jung, Youn Seung; Yoon, Hyun Chul; Hwang, Min Jung; Shin, Sun Hyoung; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kang, Ho Cheol; Lim, Hyo Soon; Yoon, Jung Han
Although a malignant pleural effusion is considered a manifestation of an advanced stage disease not amenable to curative resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the same is not true in the case of the presence of malignant cells in the pleural cavity without an accompanying effusion, discovered incidentally during the operation with pleural lavage cytology (PLC). PLC is a diagnostic technique used to detect tumor cells and translate this finding to a prognostic index. Various reports have attempted to utilize the results of PLC and draw inferences regarding the origins of malignant cells in the pleural cavity, the association of these results with various disease characteristics and, most importantly, their impact on disease recurrence and survival. However, due to non-consistent techniques and protocols used to acquire the samples for cytological evaluation and assess their significance, results are inhomogeneous. Nevertheless, the entrance of malignant cells in the pleural cavity follows the rules posed by the natural disease process when discovered before pulmonary resection takes place, while surgical manipulations certainly play an important role in the case malignant cells are checked over after pulmonary resection. In addition, although the prognostic significance of a positive PLC result is indisputable and significantly decreases long-term survival in the majority of studies, this factor has not yet been incorporated into the TNM staging system. Lastly, some authors have advocated the use of some form of adjuvant treatment for those patients found with positive PLC results, based on the assumption that a curative resection followed by multiple pleural washings will not remove the entirety of the population of malignant cells present in the pleural space. PMID:24238496
Toufektzian, Levon; Sepsas, Evangelos; Drossos, Vasileios; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Syrigos, Konstantinos
Currently, in-stent thrombosis is a rare but serious clinical event. The mechanical or pharmacological approach has not totally solved this problem. In this report we describe the treatment of in-stent thrombosis with a new device for mechanical thrombus aspiration. We used the Rescue catheter (Rescue Catheter System, Boston Scientific), a new 4.5F dual lumen monorail catheter that was able to break and aspirate thrombus without evidence of distal embolization. In this case the procedure was quickly performed with good angiographic results after mechanical aspiration and additional traditional coronary angioplasty. Moreover, the excellent clinical outcome confirmed the efficacy of the technique in the percutaneous treatment of this late complication of stent implantation. PMID:10806992
Galli, M; Bonatti, R; Butti, E; Zerboni, S
Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a rare primary pancreatic neoplasm accounting for less than 1% of all pancreatic exocrine neoplasms and 3% of intraductal neoplasms of the pancreas. Data on this entity are still limited. Here, we report a case of ITPN with cytopathologic and histopathologic findings. A 41-year-old woman with a 2.2 cm cyst in the head of the pancreas for five years was referred to our institution. The endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration produced cytospins were moderately cellular with a few fragments of markedly atypical epithelium. The neoplastic cells displayed high-grade nuclear atypia with enlarged, eccentric nuclei, anisonucleosis and prominent nucleoli, irregular nuclear membranes, high nucleus to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios, and a moderate amount of cytoplasm with no intracytoplasmic mucin. Histologically, the lesion was found to be an ITPN with focal high-grade dysplasia. No invasive carcinoma was identified. The neoplastic cells exhibited luminal immunolabeling for MUC-1, but were negative for MUC-2, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and P53. Approximately 5% of the neoplastic cells showed Ki-67 immunoreactivity. ITPN of pancreas may be a source of markedly atypical epithelial cells in pancreatic cystic aspiration. Clinical and radiographic findings, molecular mutational analysis, in combination with cytological features are essential to differentiate it from other disease entities. PMID:22807417
Guan, Hui; Gurda, Grzegorz; Lennon, Anne Marie; Hruban, Ralph H; Erozan, Yener S
Background The pancreas is surrounded by soft tissue known as the peripancreatic space (PPS). Pathologic lesions of the PPS are infrequent and have only rarely been reported in the cytopathology literature. Methods A retrospective review of cytopathology files at two large institutions revealed 42 cases of PPS lesions obtained by transabdominal fine needle aspiration (FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA over a 16-year period. Clinicoradiologic findings and follow-up information were also reviewed. Results Patients ranged in age from 23-83 years (mean, 60 years) with an equal gender distribution. The major clinical presentations included pain, jaundice, nausea/vomiting, and abnormal liver enzymes. Radiographic characteristics included lymphadenopathy and cystic/solid soft tissue masses with a size range of 1.5 to 8 cm. Cytologically, 4 (9.5%) cases were nondiagnostic, 9 (21.5%) were diagnosed as benign, 4 (9.5%) were atypical or suspicious for cancer, and 25 (59.5%) were malignant. Six of 25 (24%) patients had metastasis of a prior known malignancy. Conclusions FNA of PPS masses is a rare occurrence. The majority of lesions are metastatic carcinomas from a variety of primary sites. Flow cytometry and immunoperoxidase studies are useful adjuncts to determine the tumor origin. The sensitivity of PPS aspiration for a malignant diagnosis is 90% with a positive predictive value of 100%.
Bishop, Justin; Zhang, Wei; Ioffe, Olga B.
Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies. Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management. We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry. The cytological diagnoses were: medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman, melanoma in a 26-year-old man, and an exceptional case of ovarian sarcoma originating from a granulosa cell tumor with metastases to both breasts. A metastatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a palpable mass in the breast, especially if there is a history of an extramammary malignant neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice for the management of these cases. Whenever possible the exam of the material obtained should be compared to the previous biopsy, which is usually enough to arrive at a correct diagnosis, thus preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.
Raquel, Garza-Guajardo; Nora, Mendez-Olvera; Pablo, Flores-Gutierrez Juan; Silvia, Hernandez-Martinez; Michelle, Candanosa-Mc Cann; Jesus, Ancer-Rodriguez; Oralia, Barboza-Quintana
Detection of BRAF mutation in cytology specimens has been proposed as a diagnostic adjunctive tool in evaluation of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology findings. Concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), a disease characterized by thyroid lymphocytic infiltration, is a frequent occurrence. A large lymphocytic infiltrate might reduce the sensitivity of methods employed to detect BRAF mutation in thyroid cytology specimens. To determine whether testing for BRAF mutational status in fine needle aspirates (FNA) is reliable also in the presence of HT lymphocytic infiltration, we assessed the BRAF status by direct sequencing and pyrosequencing in a series of FNAs with and without concomitant HT lymphocytic infiltration. We also performed the same assessment by pyrosequencing in the corresponding tissue samples. Pyrosequencing demonstrated to be more sensitive than direct sequencing. The percentage of mutant BRAF(V600E) alleles was higher in FNAs than in the corresponding tissues, probably because of the lower stromal contamination in FNA than in the sections. In the presence of lymphocytic infiltration, the percentage of mutant BRAF(V600E) alleles determined by pyrosequencing was higher in FNAs than in the corresponding tissue samples (P < 0.0001), indicating a minor lymphocytic contamination in FNA. The diagnostic value of BRAF(V600E) in inconclusive FNAs was not hampered by thyroid lymphocytic infiltration. These results indicate that BRAF(V600E) assessment by pyrosequencing is a reliable assay useful to refine inconclusive cytology of thyroid nodules also in the presence of concurrent HT. PMID:23775008
Guerra, Anna; Di Stasi, Vincenza; Zeppa, Pio; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Marotta, Vincenzo; Vitale, Mario
Adult granulosa cell tumor is often a hormonally active stromal cell neoplasm of the ovary with malignant potential. Intra-operative pathological assessment is a valuable tool in guiding optimal surgical treatment in patients. Of the various intra-operative cytological diagnostic modalities, scrape smear cytology is an effective, economical, simple, fast and reliable method with results comparable with frozen section diagnosis. We describe a case of adult granulosa cell tumor in a 30-years-old lady diagnosed on intra-operative scrape cytology, and further reconfirmed on frozen section and histopathology.
Deb, Prabal; Malik, Ajay; Sinha, Kavita K
Background The current study correlates cytologic morphology with histologic type and describes immunophenotypes with a focus on epithelial, neuroendocrine, and lymphoid characteristics in an institutional series of surgically excised thymomas. Methods Fine needle aspirates (FNAs) and surgical specimens were retrospectively analyzed, and immunohistochemical stains were performed for EMA, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, CD57 CD5, bcl-2, calretinin, vimentin, CD3, CD20, CD1a, CD99 and Ki67. Tumors were classified by WHO criteria. Results There were eleven male and six female patients with an age range of 41 to 84 years (mean, 61 years) and a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. Four thymomas (4/17, 23.5%) were associated with neuromuscular disease: myasthenia gravis (n = 3) and limbic encephalitis (n = 1). FNA, under CT guidance, was performed in 7 cases. The positive predictive value for thymoma by FNA cytology was 100% and the sensitivity was 71%. Thymomas associated with neuromuscular disorders were WHO types B2 (n = 1) and B3 (n = 3), and showed a strong expression of CD57 in the majority of neoplastic epithelial cells accompanied by large numbers of CD20+ intratumoral B lymphocytes. Two of seventeen (11.7%) thymomas (all sporadic B3 type) contained numerous neoplastic epithelial cells positive for CD5 and bcl-2. Conclusion Our results suggest that thymomas associated with autoimmune disorders contain a significant population of CD20+ intratumoral B lymphocytes. Strong CD57 positivity in thymomas may suggest a concomitant neuromuscular disorder, notably myasthenia gravis. CD5 expression is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of primary thymic epithelial neoplasms since both thymic carcinomas and thymomas may express CD5.
Alexiev, Borislav A; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Burke, Allen P
Ruling out malignancy in thyroid nodules historically depended on thyroid resection and histopathological evaluation until fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy was introduced into the United States in the 1970's. Thyroid FNA biopsy identified a majority of thyroid nodules as benign, obviating the need for surgery in over half of the patients. However, 15%-30% of thyroid FNAs have indeterminate cytology that still requires operation, even though most of these operated nodules prove to be benign post-operatively. In order to predict which cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules are benign and to potentially avoid surgery on these nodules, a recently described commercially available Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) test (Afirma®, Veracyte, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) has been developed that can be run on the FNA sample. This paper reviews the published literature and technology assessments/guidelines by independent parties and professional groups regarding the clinical utility as well as the analytic and clinical validity of the Afirma GEC.
Ali, Syed Z.; Fish, Stephanie A.; Lanman, Richard; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sosa, Julie Ann
Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare disorder with an indolent clinical course that leads to nonspecific symptoms, dysfunction, and anatomic distortion of the TMJ. We describe a case of SC in an 82-year-old male that presented as an incidental 2 cm cystic tumor of the left TMJ, during diagnostic work-up for unrelated symptoms. A fine needle aspiration of the lesion yielded fragments of abnormal mature cartilage and myxoid fluid. The diagnosis of SC was suggested after correlating the clinical and pathologic findings. Open TMJ surgery was performed for definitive diagnosis and therapy. This manuscript describes the clinical, radiologic, cytologic, and pathologic features of this entity, and relates the differential diagnosis to other cartilaginous lesions and neoplasms of the TMJ. Awareness of this disorder is important to provide adequate care and avoid overtreatment. PMID:23850367
Sink, Jill; Bell, Brian; Mesa, Hector
Background The aim of this prospective study was to assess predictive markers in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and pathologic nipple discharge (PND) collected prior to excisional breast biopsy, as well as clinical factors available prior to biopsy, with histopathologic results in women with a radiographically suspicious and/or palpable breast lesion. Methods 208 NAF samples from 191 women were evaluated for the following candidate predictive proteins and cellular markers: prostate-specific antigen (PSA), human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), S phase fraction (SPF), DNA index, and cytology. Clinical factors included whether or not the lesion was palpable, menopausal status, history of pregnancy, history of birth control or hormone replacement use, and PND. Results Considering all women, bFGF (p=0.005) and SPF (0.031) were associated, and abnormal cytology approached an association (p=0.056) with the presence of breast cancer. Women with PND were less likely to have breast cancer (4 vs. 37%, p<0.001) or palpable lesions (10 vs.43%, p < 0.001), were younger, had lower PSA levels (p=0.046), and were more likely to have atypical NAF cytology (p=0.002). Excluding PND, increased age, postmenopause (both p<0.01), high bFGF (p=0.004) and low PSA (p=0.05) were associated with cancer. The best breast cancer predictive model included cytology, bFGF, and age (88% sensitive and 57% specific). When the data were divided by menopausal status, the optimal models, which included NAF hK2 or PSA and age, were 100% sensitive and 41% specific in pre- vs. 93% sensitive and 12% specific in predicting breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Conclusion NAF and clinical biomarkers are sensitive predictors of whether a breast contains cancer, and may ultimately help guide treatment. Future studies to determine the optimal combination of predictive markers are warranted.
Sauter, Edward R.; Wagner-Mann, Colette; Ehya, Hormoz; Klein-Szanto, Andres
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become a fundamental procedure for gastrointestinal and lung cancer staging. However, there is growing evidence that micrometastases are present in lymph nodes, which cannot be detected with standard pathological methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hypermethylation gene promoter analysis was feasible on samples obtained by EUS-FNA from lymph nodes, as well as to establish the usefulness of this strategy for the detection of micrometastases in patients with gastrointestinal and non-small cell lung cancer. Suspicious lymph nodes based on EUS findings from consecutive patients with esophageal, gastric, rectal, and non-small cell lung cancer were sampled by EUS-FNA. Hypermethylation analysis of the MGMT, p16(INK4a), and p14(ARF) gene promoter CpG islands were performed by methylation-specific PCR. Effectiveness of conventional cytology, methylation analysis, and their combination were established with respect to the definitive diagnosis. Twenty-seven patients were included, thus representing a total of 42 lymph nodes (esophageal cancer, n = 11; rectal cancer, n = 7; gastric cancer, n = 3; and lung cancer, n = 21). According to definitive diagnosis, 21 (50%) corresponded to metastatic lymph nodes. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of conventional cytology were 76%, 100%, and 88%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for the methylation analysis were 81%, 67%, and 74%, respectively. Combination of both techniques increased sensitivity (90%) but decreased specificity (67%) with respect to conventional cytology. In conclusion, it is feasible to detect occult neoplastic cells in EUS-FNA samples by hypermethylation gene promoter analysis. Moreover, addition of methylation analysis to conventional cytology may increase its sensitivity at the expenses of a decrease in its specificity. PMID:15240535
Pellisé, Maria; Castells, Antoni; Ginès, Angels; Agrelo, Rubén; Solé, Manel; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Fernández-Esparrach, Glòria; Llach, Josep; Esteller, Manel; Bordas, Josep M; Piqué, Josep M
Context.-Novel chemotherapy regimens now provide the opportunity for "personalized" care in pancreatic cancer. Little is known about our ability to procure adequate cells for theranostic studies using standard ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirations and cytologic techniques. Objective.-To assess cellularity of cytology material in patients with solid pancreatic lesions. Design.-One hundred sixty-nine endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirations with positive diagnoses of solid epithelial pancreatic neoplasms were evaluated for smear and cell block cellularity. Cellularity was scored on a scale of 1 to 4; scores of 3 or 4 (>100 cells) were deemed adequate for ancillary studies. Clinicopathologic variables were recorded. A 3-month prospective analysis was also performed using a new collection algorithm. Results.-Only 12.4% (21 of 169) of the positive cases had a cell block cellularity score that was adequate for theranostic studies. This score was not associated with on-site evaluation, needle gauge, or number of passes. Adenocarcinoma was the most common diagnosis (88%) but yielded fewer adequate cell blocks, P = .006. Cellularity showed correlation with endoscopists, P = .04. Tumor size and fibrosis score of resected tumors tended to correlate with cellularity, but only larger size in endocrine tumors was significantly associated with adequacy (P = .02). Standardized collection did not improve overall cell block cellularity. Conclusions.-Changes in practice, such as obtaining dedicated passes for ancillary studies, may not be enough to improve the theranostic utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in pancreatic neoplasia. Other methods to improve tumor cell yield, including modified cytologic techniques and new needle designs, need to be further investigated. PMID:24978918
Navina, Sarah; McGrath, Kevin; Chennat, Jennifer; Singh, Vijay; Pal, Timothy; Zeh, Herb; Krasinskas, Alyssa M
Two studies (Ns = 80 and 108) tested hypotheses derived from Kirkpatrick and Ellis's (2001) extension and application of sociometer theory to mating aspirations. Experiences of social rejection-acceptance by attractive opposite-sex confederates were experimentally manipulated, and the impact of these manipulations on self-esteem, mating aspirations, and friendship aspirations was assessed. Results indicated that social rejection-acceptance by members of the opposite sex altered mating aspirations; that the causal link between social rejection-acceptance and mating aspirations was mediated by changes in state self-esteem; and that the impact of social rejection-acceptance by members of opposite sex was specific to mating aspirations and did not generalize to levels of aspiration in approaching potential same-sex friendships. This research supports a conceptualization of a domain-specific mating sociometer, which functions to calibrate mating aspirations in response to experiences of romantic rejection and acceptance. PMID:20565190
Kavanagh, Phillip S; Robins, Sarah C; Ellis, Bruce J
This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…
This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…
Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol
Ingestion of balloons containing illicit substances along with the potential toxic sequelae associated with these ingestions have been described in the literature. This report describes the successful bronchoscopic retrieval of a cocaine balloon after aspiration. A 39-year-old man was witnessed swallowing several balloons that were thought to contain heroin. Shortly after ingestion, the patient became unconscious and required nasotracheal intubation.
Daniel J Cobaugh; Sandra M Schneider; John G Benitez; Michael P Donahoe
Background: The objective of this study is to assess the incidence and long-term results of a rarely discussed medical problem - aspiration pneumonia resulting from the intentional ingestion of acid. Materials and methods: The medical records of 370 patients treated at one tertiary care institution for corrosive acid injury during a 12-year period were reviewed retrospectively. The study subjects included
Yau-Lin Tseng; Ming-Ho Wu; Mu-Yen Lin; Wu-Wei Lai
Background: The objective of this study is to assess the incidence and long-term results of a rarely discussed medical problem – aspiration pneumonia resulting from the intentional ingestion of acid. Materials and methods: The medical records of 370 patients treated at one tertiary care institution for corrosive acid injury during a 12-year period were reviewed retrospectively. The study subjects included
Yau-Lin Tseng; Ming-Ho Wu; Mu-Yen Lin; Wu-Wei Lai
This review on joint aspiration and injection focuses on three common clinical problems: how to deal with 'dry taps', especially when a septic joint is suspected in the differential diagnosis; how to avoid rare complications associated with these techniques; and how to reduce pain in patients who are particularly sensitive. Solutions to these problems are proposed, and although no new
W Neal Roberts
Relations between adolescents' perceptions of school environments and their educational and occupational aspirations in different family environments were examined. Results indicated ethnic group differences in the relationship among the variables which suggest that results from investigations of family-school influences on children's school…
This article is the first attempt to study the empirical link between income aspirations and cooperation in a one shot public good game. By combining experimental with survey data, we find evidence that the more frustrated people are with their income, the lower is their propensity to cooperate with foreigners and compatriots. The quantitative effect is remarkable: participants who are
Patricio S. Dalton
Aspirations and cooperation are central concepts in social sciences. This paper is the …rst attempt to study the link between both concepts. By combining experimental data with a post-experimental survey I …nd evidence that the more frustrated people are with their income, the lower is their propensity to cooperate to provide global (e.g. environmental) and national public goods. I show
Patricio S. Dalton
INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS PRISONERS' VOCATIONAL ASPIRATIONS AND THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK WERE COMPLETED BY 175 INMATES IN NORTH DAKOTA IN THE SPRING OF 1966. UPON RELEASE, 35 PERCENT PLANNED TO GET MORE EDUCATION, 52 PERCENT PLANNED TO GET A JOB, SEVEN PERCENT PLANNED TO WORK AT HOME, AND SIX PERCENT HAD NO DEFINITE PLANS. SATISFACTION WITH…
THE FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE CAREER CHOICES AND ASPIRATIONS OF STUDENTS ATTENDING SELECTED NEGRO COLLEGES IN THE SOUTH WERE STUDIED. OF MAJOR CONCERN WERE THE WAYS WHICH THE STUDENTS' SOCIAL AND FAMILY BACKGROUNDS, MOTIVATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS, INVOLVEMENTS IN CIVIL RIGHTS, AND EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES ENCOURAGE OR CONSTRAIN ALTERNATIVES IN MAKING…
GURIN, PATRICIA; KATZ, DANIEL
Staging for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires accurate assessment of the mediastinal lymph nodes which determines treatment and outcome. As radiological staging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity, it is necessary to sample the mediastinal nodes. Traditionally, mediastinoscopy has been used for evaluation of the mediastinum especially when radical treatment is contemplated, although conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)
A. R. L. Medford; J. A. Bennett; C. M. Free; S. Agrawal
Aspiration for higher education (HE) is no longer a matter solely for students and their families. With OECD nations seeking to position themselves more competitively in the global knowledge economy, the need for more knowledge workers has led to plans to expand their HE systems to near universal levels. In Australia, this has required the…
Sellar, Sam; Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen
This case report is of an immunosuppressed patient in whom a diagnosis of disseminated Strongyloides infestation was made by cytologic examination of sputum, bronchial washing and brushing although a negative bronchial biopsy was reported. For those patients receiving steroids or immunosuppressives, the important role of cytology in the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis is emphasized. The morphologic characteristics of this adult intestinal nematode and the differential diagnosis are also described. PMID:6932151
Chaudhuri, B; Nanos, S; Soco, J N; McGrew, E A
Aspiration of a foreign body by an adult often is not diagnosed until a month or more after the event, because of a lack of presenting symptoms indicative of an aspiration and low reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of plain film radiographs. Instead, the foreign body aspiration typically is diagnosed during the evaluation of other lung-related pathology. PMID:24758970
The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…
Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…
McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki
Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon tumor and is believed to be of schwannian origin. GCT is benign but rare malignant cases are recorded. GCT occurs in almost any part of the body. The common sites are the tongue, skin, and subcutaneous tissue. GCT of hand is an extremely rare. Till date only 17 cases are reported in the literature. Preoperative diagnosis of GCT is important, because GCT mimics dermal adnexal tumor in subcutaneous tissue, other soft tissue tumor or inflammatory lesions. GCT is composed of large polygonal cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and these cells are often immunoreactive for the S-100 protein. Fine-needle aspiration cytology has been suggested to be diagnostic modality of choice and this would undoubtedly aid the correct diagnosis. Excision with wide surgical margins is curative for benign GCT. Recurrence and malignant transformation requires regular follow-up. Here, this communication documents a case of cytological diagnosis of the granular cell tumor of hand in a 21-year-old female, clinically suspected to be a dermal adnexal tumor.
Nasit, Jitendra G.; Chauhan, Sanjaykumar; Dhruva, Gauravi
Although palpation has proved to be an unreliable staging procedure, the indications for and the implications of more reliable radiologic staging methods for the neck in patients with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck remain controversial. Only a very accurate imaging technique can replace neck dissection in clinical NO disease. This study compares the value of
M. W. M. van den Brekel; J. A. Castelijns; H. V. Stel; R. P. Golding; C. J. L. Meyer; G. B. Snow
Purpose: Aspiration scintigraphy is a procedure of nuclear imaging to evaluate aspiration and of quantifying the amount of aspirate. The ultimate goal of our study is to define the correlation between aspiration and aspiration pneumonia by aspiration scintigraphy, and this is a preliminary report of its trial. Materials and methods: Ten patients with positive findings by videofluoroscopy were selected. The
Minki Yoon; Kyung Hoon Hwang; Wonsick Choe
A practical method of screening for pre-clinical xerophthalmia due to vitamin A deficiency, called conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), is described as it is being used in a training stage in the Philippines. The noninvasive technic consists of touching the conjunctiva with a filter paper disc, and fixing and staining the disc on a slide for histology. Normally goblet cells with mucin spots are seen among sheets of epithelial cells. In abnormal conjunctiva from vitamin A deficient individuals, the epithelial cells are enlarged, and goblet cells are lacking. These specimens may be obtained from areas of the conjunctiva that appear clinically normal. The equipment needed is millipore paper, a hand-held suction pump with 5 feet of tubing, tissue or gauze, screw-top vials, labels, fixative, Papanicolaou stain, and a microscope. Vitamin A supplements can be given to affected children, or to the whole population at risk. With CIC training materials donated by International Center for Epidemiologic and Preventive Ophthalmology (ICEPO) at the Wilmer Institute, and the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, the 1st training class was certified by the Nutrition Center of the Philippines. Twice yearly training of physicians and technologists has been recommended. PMID:12284665
We report two cases of malignant deciduoid mesothelioma (MDM), a very rare variant of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Case 1: An 18-year-old male with no history of asbestos exposure presented with worsening abdominal pain, anorexia, and vomiting after a motor vehicle accident. A CT scan showed small amount of ascites and abdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed multiple yellow tan, firm nodules on the peritoneum and omentum. He received palliative treatment and died 5 months after the diagnosis. Case 2: A 64-year-old female with history of asbestos exposure initially presented with abdominal distension. CT scan showed abdominal mass with a large amount of ascites. A diagnostic laparoscopy revealed multiple peritoneal nodules. She underwent several regimens of chemotherapy over a period of 69 months and is still alive to date. In both cases, features of mesothelial origin were subtle and the smears showed predominantly single cells with marked nuclear atypia. The second case also contained few two-dimensional loose cell clusters with scalloped or hobnail borders. The clusters often exhibited a pseudoacinar structure surrounding a globular extracellular material. Groups of three to four cells often formed doublets and triplets with cell-to-cell windows. Our results show that MDM may not present with the traditional cytological features described in MM and can manifest with more nuclear pleomorphism resulting in erroneous diagnosis. Recognition of the subtle mesothelial features along with the appropriate ancillary tests is essential for accurate diagnosis. PMID:23008275
Huang, Cheng Cheng; Michael, Claire W
Aims Activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Testing for mutations in EGFR is therefore an important step in the treatment-decision pathway. We reviewed reported methods for EGFR mutation testing in patients with lung cancer, initially focusing on studies involving standard tumour tissue samples. We also evaluated data on the use of cytology samples in order to determine their suitability for EGFR mutation analysis. Methods We searched the MEDLINE database for studies reporting on EGFR mutation testing methods in patients with lung cancer. Results Various methods have been investigated as potential alternatives to the historical standard for EGFR mutation testing, direct DNA sequencing. Many of these are targeted methods that specifically detect the most common EGFR mutations. The development of targeted mutation testing methods and commercially available test kits has enabled sensitive, rapid and robust analysis of clinical samples. The use of screening methods, subsequent to sample micro dissection, has also ensured that identification of more rare, uncommon mutations is now feasible. Cytology samples including fine needle aspirate and pleural effusion can be used successfully to determine EGFR mutation status provided that sensitive testing methods are employed. Conclusions Several different testing methods offer a more sensitive alternative to direct sequencing for the detection of common EGFR mutations. Evidence published to date suggests cytology samples are viable alternatives for mutation testing when tumour tissue samples are not available.
Ellison, Gillian; Zhu, Guanshan; Moulis, Alexandros; Dearden, Simon; Speake, Georgina; McCormack, Rose
A 44-year-old woman presented to Emergency Department with sudden onset of severe upper abdominal pain. T2-weighted MRI image showed a large cystic mass with a thickened wall measuring 9.5 × 9.1 × 11.2 cm in the right hepatic lobe. It was radiologically interpreted as a cystic mass with differential diagnosis including echinococcal cyst, biliary cystadenoma, and malignant neoplasm. The cystic mass was intraoperatively aspirated and a liquid-based cytology preparation (ThinPrep) and a cell block were made. The ThinPrep slides showed three dimensional clusters of epithelioid cells with scant delicate cytoplasm and tissue fragments composed of small stromal cells with round to oval shaped nuclei and a small amount of dense cytoplasm lined by the cuboidal epithelial cells. Occasional ciliated cells and abundant hemosiderin laden macrophages were also present. The cell block showed many tissue fragments containing glands and stroma with associated hemorrhage and hemosiderin laden macrophages, typical of endometrial tissue. Although it is uncommon, hepatic endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic liver mass in women, especially those with a history of endometriosis or obstetric/gynecologic surgery. PMID:23341055
Hertel, J D; Guimaraes, M; Yang, J
In the airways, iron pill-induced mucosal injury is uncommon and can lead to necrosis and stricture of the respiratory tracts. The process is characterized by mucosal ulceration with deposition of crystalline iron particles, and the diagnosis is usually made on tissue biopsies. We report a case of iron-sulfate-induced mucosal injury in the bronchial washing and biopsy of a patient receiving therapeutic oral iron supplementation with no known aspiration event. Clinically, the patient presented with hemoptysis, and bronchoscopy detected ulcerated main stem bronchus mucosa clinically suspicious for a neoplastic process. Bronchial washings revealed reactive epithelial cells and numerous histiocytes with both intracellular and extracellular refractile brown crystalline material, which was positive on iron stain. The histologic findings on biopsy showed mucosal ulceration with deposits of extracellular crystalline iron particles. These histologic changes are similar to those seen in iron pill-induced mucosal injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with "iron pill" gastritis. The cytologic and histologic features of iron pill-induced airway injury clinically can mimic cancer. The presence of extracellular and intracellular crystalline iron in the airway lumen and/or mucosa with associated varying degrees of ulceration and inflammation confirms the diagnosis. PMID:22508539
Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Illei, Peter B
Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner’s Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators’ clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.
Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki
Peroperative pancreatic aspiration biopsies were performed on 21 patients with pancreatic lesions using a standard 20-ml disposable syringe and a 21-gauge needle. No complications were recorded which could be attributed to this procedure. A further 10 aspiration biopsies were carried out on postmortem specimens in an attempt to determine the accuracy of this method in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the pancreas. It is concluded that peroperative pancreatic needle biopsy is a safe procedure which is easily performed without special instruments. In can be of enormous value to the surgeon in planning the treatment of patients with pancreatic lesions. In cases where there is an operable mass in the pancreas it offers a simple and quick method of determining the presence of malignant cells and thus definitive surgery may be performed with confidence. For the inoperable cases it offers a method of histological confirmation of the operative findings.
Shorey, B A
Bone marrow aspiration is an old and well-established test procedure, the use of which may rest more on diagnostic tradition than on scientific documentation. Its use was evaluated in a Norwegian regional hospital by registering indication, presence of pathology and clinical "utility" judged from a given definition, in 200 reports on bone marrow aspiration. The result was pathological in 53%, and judged to be clinically useful in 61% of the tests. The diagnostic yield was highest for indications related to bone marrow function, and low for unspecific indications such as fever of unknown origin and elevated SR without M-component. The large number of results with pathological findings that are judged to be clinically useful raise the question of whether use of this test should be increased. PMID:1557761
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model to predict educational aspirations of Canadian adolescents. Participants were a national sample of 4,034 students from grades 8–13 (2,037 males, 1,973 females). Results of a modified structural model included three sets of influences: a) a background factor comprised of parental occupation and education; b) a family involvement factor
Rashmi Garg; Carol Kauppi; John Lewko; Diana Urajnik
Although extensive deep aspiration of sand, gravel, or dirt is a very rare incident, its consequences may be severe ranging\\u000a from the necessity of immediate intensive care to death. Cases reported so far were due to external causes such as cave-ins,\\u000a near drowning, or being buried under sand masses. We report a case of a 2 1\\/2-year-old boy who ingested
M. Kettner; F. Ramsthaler; B. Horlebein; P. H. Schmidt
A 70-year-old woman presented with a fracture and aspiration of her polyvinyl chloride tracheostomy tube. Her chest X-ray showed that a foreign body was lodged in the right main bronchus. She was otherwise asymptomatic. The foreign body was removed under general anaesthesia using a flexible bronchoscope. The patient developed pneumonia after the procedure and was admitted to the intensive care unit. She was discharged home 5 days after the event with no permanent complications. PMID:24554685
Loh, Tze Ling; Chin, Ronald; Flynn, Peter; Jayachandra, Shruti
Secretory carcinoma is a rare form of breast carcinoma which has a predilection for juveniles and young adults (usually less than 30 years of age), becoming progressively less common with advancing age. It is a low grade breast carcinoma which shows distinct features at histology. Diagnosis of this carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is difficult. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman diagnosed to have secretory carcinoma of breast on FNAC. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The recognition of secretory carcinoma is important because the cytological findings can be confused with those of lactating breast. Preoperative diagnosis is essential for appropriate surgical therapy. Secretory carcinoma is reported to have good prognosis, but surgical therapy with an axillary node dissection is recommended, since axillary metastases have been found in approximately 30% of the recorded cases. PMID:22438622
Shanthi, Vissa; Rama Krishna, Baddukonda Appala; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Sujatha, Ciddarla
Background House dust mites (HDMs) are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years) with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations.
Gelardi, Matteo; Peroni, Diego G; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Quaranta, Nicola; De Luca, Concetta; Barberi, Salvatore; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Landi, Massimo; Frati, Franco; de Beaumont, Olivier
Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome. PMID:22043382
Tauro, Leo Francis; Martis, John S; George, Celine; Kamath, Aroon; Lobo, Geover; Hegde, B Rathnakar
Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome.
Tauro, Leo Francis; Martis, John S.; George, Celine; Kamath, Aroon; Lobo, Geover; Hegde, B. Rathnakar
Most cutaneous endometriosis develops at the site of an abdominal surgical scar. Spontaneous cutaneous endometriosis is extremely rare. We report a case of spontaneous cutaneous endometriosis in the mons pubis region. A 41-year-old woman presented with a mass in the right mons pubis, causing cyclic pain associated with menses. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy was performed. The smears contained three cellular components: honeycombed sheets of glandular epithelial cells, fragments of ovoid-to-spindle shaped stromal cells, and background inflammatory cells, including hemosiderin-laden macrophages, histiocytes, and neutrophils. Biphasic clusters of glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells were identified. FNA cytology is a safe and useful adjunctive tool for diagnosing cutaneous endometriosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:615-618. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23444127
Exfoliative cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in Dermatology despite the rapid and reliable results which this procedure can offer in many clinical conditions. This simple procedure may prove advantageous in a wide range of skin diseases, including genodermatoses (Hailey-Hailey disease), infections (mainly herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis), immune disorders (early oral pemphigus) and tumours (basal and squamous cell carcinomas, Paget disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, and others). The specific circumstances where cytological examination provides a very helpful and practical aid to confirmation or exclusion of a clinically suspected diagnosis are briefly reviewed. Cytological patterns, along with some technical hints on how to take and stain Tzanck smears correctly, are described in connection with the diseases considered. PMID:20553359
Ruocco, E; Brunetti, G; Del Vecchio, M; Ruocco, V
A total of 60 vaginal smears from 19 women treated with ionizing radiation for malignancies of the genital tract in the past seven years in the Division of Radiation Therapy of Emory University School of Medicine were studied for the presence of post-radiation dysplasia (PRD) by means of Feulgen cytospectrophotometry and cytological analysis. PRD was diagnosed on the basis of the presence of dysplastic cytological changes, absence of clinically detectable lesions, and presence of aneuploid DNA values in the dysplastic cells. PRD was detected in 21% of the studied cases. Uniform criteria for PRD, describing premalignant and malignant post-radiation lesions, diagnosed on the basis of aneuploid DNA values, as well as cytological observations is suggested. PMID:625772
Olkowski, Z L; Maruszczak, A J; McLaren, J R; Maruszczak, D; Kirchner, A B
The accuracy of cervicovaginal cytology following radiotherapy for cervical cancer is compromised by the anatomical and tissue changes resulting from irradiation. Collection of representative samples may be more difficult, and benign radiation changes, post-irradiation dysplasia, and the frequent occurrence of repair cells and active stromal cells in post-irradiation smears may cause diagnostic problems. Nevertheless, cytology is a valuable tool for the detection of locally recurrent cervical cancer. It is simple and economical to perform at the time of clinical follow-up examination, and may detect occult tumour recurrence. Awareness of the cellular changes resulting from irradiation, and the varied composition of post-irradiation smears may lead to more accurate interpretation of the cytological findings. PMID:1511122
Shield, P W; Daunter, B; Wright, R G
Introduction The optimal suction pressure during endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare suction pressures for performance in collecting sufficient tissue specimens from mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes during EBUS-TBNA. Methods Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy who underwent EBUS-TBNA over a 3-year period. Results from patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA using a dedicated 20-mL VacLoc (Merit Medical Systems, Inc, South Jordan, UT) syringe (conventional method, group C) were compared with results from patients in whom a disposable 30-mL syringe (high pressure group, group H) was used. The yield for sufficient histologic specimen retrieval and amount of tissue obtained were compared between the 2 groups. Results Of 178 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA, 131 had lung cancer confirmed by EBUS-TBNA: 35 in group C and 96 in group H. There were 7 patients in group C and 6 in group H who received final diagnoses by cytology alone. There were 28 in group C and 90 in group H who were diagnosed by both cytology and histology. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the rate of sufficient sampling for histological specimens (p = 0.04). The H group revealed a tissue area approximately twice that of the C group (p = 0.003). There were no major procedure-related complications in either group. Conclusion Higher suction pressures with larger syringe volumes during EBUS-TBNA may be useful for safely collecting sufficient tissue specimens.
Shiroyama, Takayuki; Okamoto, Norio; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tamiya, Motohiro; Yamadori, Tadahiro; Morishita, Naoko; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Morita, Satomu; Kurata, Kanako; Okimura, Akira; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Sasada, Shinji; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kawase, Ichiro
Granulocytic sarcoma is a rare variant of a myeloid malignancy, which shows an extra-medullary tumour mass which is composed of myeloblasts and myeloid precursors with varying degrees of differentiation. It occurs most commonly in bone, periosteum, soft tissue, lymph nodes, and skin; although it can occur anywhere throughout the body. Here, we are reporting two cases of orbital granulocytic sarcoma in children, which presented clinically with proptosis and periorbital swellings, which were first diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC). Later, peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate examinations revealed the evidence of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML). These cases are being documented to demonstrate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in evaluation of this entity, in cases of unsuspected AML. Recognition of this rare entity is important, because giving an early aggressive chemotherapy can cause regression of the tumour and thus improve the patient survival.
Thakur, Brijesh; Varma, Kachnar; Misra, Vatsala; Chauhan, Smita
Background: In the recent years, the advances in digital methods in pathology have resulted in the use of telecytology in the immediate assessment of fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. However, there is a need for organ-based and body site-specific studies on the use of telecytology for the immediate assessment of FNA to evaluate its pitfalls and limitations. We present our experience with the use of telecytology for on-site evaluation of ultrasound-guided FNA (USG-FNA) of axillary lymph nodes in a remote breast care center. Materials and Methods: Real-time images of Diff-Quik-stained cytology smears were obtained with an Olympus digital camera attached to an Olympus CX41 microscope and transmitted via ethernet by a cytotechnologist to a pathologist who rendered preliminary diagnosis while communicating with the on-site cytotechnologist over the Vocera system. The accuracy of the preliminary diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis, retrospectively. Results: A total of 39 female patients (mean age: 50.5 years) seen at the breast care center underwent USG-FNA of 44 axillary nodes. Preliminary diagnoses of benign, suspicious/malignant, and unsatisfactory were 41, 52, and 7%, respectively. Only one of the 23 cases that were initially interpreted as benign was reclassified as suspicious on final cytologic diagnosis. Seventeen of 18 suspicious/malignant cases on initial cytology corresponded with a malignant diagnosis on final cytology. One suspicious case was reclassified as benign on final cytologic diagnosis. All unsatisfactory cases remained inadequate for final cytologic interpretation. The presence of additional material in the cell block and interpretative error were the main reasons for discrepancy, accounting for the two discrepant cases. Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrates that the on-site telecytology evaluation of USG-FNA of axillary lymph nodes in patients at a remote breast care center was highly accurate compared with the final cytologic evaluation. It allows pathologists to use their time more efficiently and makes on-site evaluation at a remote site possible.
Khurana, Kamal K.; Kovalovsky, Andra; Masrani, Deepa
This contains the 465 presentation and poster abstracts for the XVI Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, March 1993. Plenary Sessions included the following: Industrial Cytometry; Clinical Issues (in Cytology); Molecular Pathology; biotechnology; new biology; temporal cytometry.
Mayall, B.H.; Landay, A.L.; Shapiro, H.M.; Visser, J.W.M. [eds.
To quantitatively analyze cellular elements in mucopurulent nasal secretions from patients with chronic paranasal sinusitis, we studied five mucus-liquefying agents--dithiothreitol (DTT), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tetrasodium salt, propylene glycol, serratio peptidase and urea--with Hanks' balanced salt solution used as a control. Agents were compared for the number of cells, the mucus-liquefying effect and the staining characteristic of cells in cytocentrifuge-prepared smears. The results indicated that the treatment of nasal secretions with 10 mM DTT provides more clear and detailed cytological preparations for quantitative cytology of nasal secretions. PMID:1747249
Lee, H S; Majima, Y; Sakakura, Y; Kim, B W
In this letter, we introduce an aspiration-induced reconnection mechanism into the spatial public-goods game. A player will reconnect to a randomly chosen player if its payoff acquired from the group centered on the neighbor does not exceed the aspiration level. We find that an intermediate aspiration level can promote cooperation best. This optimal phenomenon can be explained by a negative feedback effect, namely, intermediate aspiration level is able to result in a weak peak of reconnection, which will effectively change the downfall of cooperators and facilitate the fast spreading of cooperation. While insufficient reconnection and excessive reconnection induced by low and high aspiration levels are not conductive to such an effect. Moreover, we find that the intermediate aspiration level can lead to the heterogeneous distribution of degree, which will be beneficial to the evolution of cooperation.
Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong
A 53-year-old man with small-cell lung carcinoma underwent bone marrow aspirations and biopsies for tumor staging and harvest for autologous bone marrow infusion. Fourteen months after bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, a subcutaneous lesion grew over the posterior iliac crest, and a biopsy specimen disclosed small-cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of tumor seeding associated with bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. PMID:6318678
Citron, M L; Krasnow, S H; Grant, C; Cohen, M H
In this paper, we study an aspiration-induced migration model, in which each individual plays the prisoner’s dilemma game with those being within a circle of radius r centered on himself/herself. An individual will migrate to a randomly chosen place with the velocity v if his/her payoff is below the aspiration level. We report that cooperative behavior is favored when the aspiration level and interaction radius are moderate, and the migration velocity is slow.
Lin, Ying-Ting; Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong
Fire-eater's pneumonia is a distinct type of chemical pneumonitis that results from aspiration of different types of hydrocarbons. This article describes a case of fire-eater's pneumonia due to accidental aspiration of liquid paraffin. The adolescent patient became febrile the day after the accident. The diagnosis of fire-eater's pneumonia was delayed because aspiration history was not divulged by the patient from
Özgür Karacan; Füsun Öner; Öner-Eyübo?lu F. Fire-eater
Pancreatic cyst detection is increasing largely due to increasing use of cross-sectional imaging. The management of pancreatic cysts differs for true cysts, pseudocysts, mucinous cysts, nonmucinous cysts, and malignant lesions. Depending on the setting, diagnostic tests, such as cross-sectional imaging, endoscopic ultrasound, cyst fluid chemistry, and cytology, have moderate accuracy in characterizing the cyst subtype. Molecular analysis of cyst fluid aspirates has shown promise in preliminary studies and may require smaller fluid volumes than is needed for carcinoembryonic antigen level and cytology. This article reviews published studies in which molecular analysis was performed in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts. The molecular studies are compared with the conventional tests. Most studies have had moderate sample sizes (16-124) and have characterized a high proportion of patients with malignant cysts. Evaluation of molecular analysis as a diagnostic tool merits larger prospective trials with long-term follow-up of patients who are not sent to surgery. Larger cysts may meet size criteria for resection, and it is the smaller cysts for which molecular analysis may be of benefit if additional molecular testing results in a change in management. PMID:22376266
Garud, Sagar S; Willingham, Field F
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of ubiquitous location. In addition to its classic presentation as a pleural-based mass, it can be encountered in a variety of other sites. A pleural-based lung lesion can be easily accessed by radiologic guidance for cytologic study. Several reports have described the cytologic findings of SFT at various locations, including the lung. However, diagnostic difficulties can occur due to unusual clinical, radiologic, atypical cytomorphologic, and histologic features. We describe a case of intrapulmonary SFT in which a false-positive malignant diagnosis was rendered on fine-needle aspiration biopsy and concurrent surgical core biopsy prior to radiofrequency ablation. The patient died of procedural complications, and an autopsy was performed. Retrospective study of the case, especially correlation of cytologic, histologic, autopsy findings, and immunohistochemistry results were helpful in correctly diagnosing the case as SFT. We are reporting this case with emphasis on avoiding diagnostic pitfalls by being familiar with the accepted cytohistologic features and appropriate immunohistochemical results. PMID:17351947
Baliga, Mithra; Flowers, Rhyne; Heard, Ken; Siddiqi, Anwer; Akhtar, Israh
Crack cocaine is commonly smoked in a pipe with a metallic filter made from a steel wool scouring pad. We report an unusual complication of smoking crack cocaine: the aspiration and ingestion of a Brillo pad filter. A 34-year-old female presented 7 h after drinking beer and smoking crack. She was concerned that she might have inhaled the "screen" from her crack pipe, a piece of Brillo pad the size of her fingertip. She complained of "burning" in her throat, a foreign body sensation, and change in her voice, but no dyspnea, dysphagia, or abdominal pain. On physical examination, she was afebrile with a pulse of 105 beats/min and respiratory rate of 24 breaths/min. She was tearful and spoke in a whisper. There were no visible oropharyngeal burns and the lungs were clear to auscultation, but she had intermittent inspiratory stridor. The O2 saturation was 96%, and the ethanol concentration was 100 mg/dl. No foreign body or burn was seen on indirect laryngoscopy. A lateral neck x-ray study showed a normal epiglottis and no foreign body. Chest x-ray studies were unremarkable. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy showed left posterior arytenoid edema and swelling. An abdominal x-ray study revealed a foreign body in the right lower quadrant consistent with the Brillo pad filter. The next morning, the patient was asymptomatic and was discharged, recovering without sequellae. While crack pipe screen aspiration is a rarely reported event, physicians should be aware of the potential for foreign body aspiration and ingestion by this mechanism. PMID:9848701
Moettus, A; Tandberg, D
Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:738-743. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24554612
Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour
Blood damage caused by traditional vacuum-operated suction tubes, particularly when air is aspirated along with the blood, usually exceeds damage from all other components. In addition to platelet injury, there is a high degree of hemolysis, which leads to high plasma hemoglobin levels and reduces the number of red blood cells available for reinfusion during cases of blood conservation, such as autologous transfusion and cardiac bypass. This work was undertaken to minimize hemolysis, and the accompanying platelet destruction, during aspiration, with the design of a jet-driven aspirator that separates and removes air from blood immediately within the suction tip. The jet-driven aspirator can suction blood at a range of rates from 100 to at least 700 ml/min, separates and removes 80-100% of aspirated air, operates at any orientation, and generates subatmospheric pressures on the order of only 1 inch H2O. In-vitro hemolysis testing showed a significant reduction in average plasma hemoglobin release, from 19.4 mg/dl to 1.8 mg/dl, when air was removed during blood aspiration. In comparative testing with a conventional vacuum suction tube, the jet-driven aspirator showed significantly less hemolysis than the conventional aspirator at comparable rates of air and blood aspiration. PMID:7496409
Clague, C T; Blackshear, P L
. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the incidence of aspiration in previously aspirating patients with tracheotomy\\u000a after use of a one-way tracheotomy tube speaking valve. Twenty consecutive inpatients from the acute care setting of a large\\u000a urban tertiary care teaching hospital were included. All subjects had objective documentation of aspiration by a fiberoptic\\u000a endoscopic evaluation of
Steven B. Leder
Al-Turki, T. A., Filfilan, S. A. & Mehmood, S. F.: A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia. - Willdenowia 30: 339-358. 2000. - ISSN 000-000. The chromosome numbers of 31 taxa belonging to 14 families of angiosperms collected from dif- ferent regions of Saudi Arabia are reported. These include first chromosome number reports for six species: Anabasis setifera
TURKI A. AL-TURKI; SHAFIK A. FILFILAN; SYED F. MEHMOOD
SUMMARY : Axotobacter chroococcum exists in two cytologically distinct vegetative forms. In one the appearance is that of a typical bacterial resting cell, with a large vesicular nucleus. In the other the cytoplasm appears homogeneously vacuolated and refractive ; this is correlated with a high lipid content. Gonidia of two types are produced from the nucleated cells. The more common
K. A. Bisset; C. M. F. Hale
A computer-assisted system for histological prostate cancer diagnosis can assist pathologists in two stages: (i) to locate cancer regions in a large digitized tissue biopsy, and (ii) to assign Gleason grades to the regions detected in stage 1. Most previous studies on this topic have primarily addressed the second stage by classifying the preselected tissue regions. In this paper, we address the first stage by presenting a cancer detection approach for the whole slide tissue image. We propose a novel method to extract a cytological feature, namely the presence of cancer nuclei (nuclei with prominent nucleoli) in the tissue, and apply this feature to detect the cancer regions. Additionally, conventional image texture features which have been widely used in the literature are also considered. The performance comparison among the proposed cytological textural feature combination method, the texture-based method and the cytological feature-based method demonstrates the robustness of the extracted cytological feature. At a false positive rate of 6%, the proposed method is able to achieve a sensitivity of 78% on a dataset including six training images (each of which has approximately 4,000×7,000 pixels) and 1 1 whole-slide test images (each of which has approximately 5,000×23,000 pixels). All images are at 20X magnification.
Nguyen, Kien; Jain, Anil K.; Sabata, Bikash
Summary Tissue ‘explants’ from mice infected with ‘deep fungi’ revealed that:1.B. dermatitidis andS. schenckii produce giant and bizarre yeast cells several times the diameter ordinarily seen in tissues.2.Cytologic variations inC. neoformans andC. albicans are much less pronounced.
John N. Goldman; Jan Schwarz
Spontaneous esophageal perforation into the pleural cavity (Boerhaave's syndrome) is a rare life-threatening condition, which requires early diagnosis and urgent management. The diagnosis of such critical condition in many cases is delayed because of atypical clinical presentation, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Cytological examination of pleural fluid can provide early, fast and accurate diagnosis of such critical condition and help in better and early management of this disease. We describe a case of an 81-year-old female with esophageal perforation who presented with a left sided pleural effusion. The correct diagnosis was established in this case by observing gastrointestinal-like fluid characteristics of the thoracic drainage upon cytological and chemical analyses and the rupture was confirmed by esophagography. The cytological examination of pleural fluid revealed benign reactive squamous cells, fungal organisms, bacterial colonies, and vegetable material consistent with a ruptured esophagus. Cytological examination of pleural fluid is a rapid and accurate technique that can help in establishing the diagnosis of this challenging entity and guide initiation proper management of this unusual entity.
Khalbuss, Walid E.; Hooda, Shveta; Auger, Manon
Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist) has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis. PMID:20567062
Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Giarnieri, Enrico; Carico, Elisabetta; Giansanti, Daniele
Frozen-section (FS) analysis of mediastinal lymph nodes is commonly used in the staging of lung cancer and the evaluation of diagnostic tissue at mediastinoscopy. This approach facilitates definitive surgical intervention in a single operation and reduces costs. However, FS analysis can be labor intensive for the pathology department and time-consuming while the patient is anesthetized. Imprint cytology is more rapid than the FS procedure (average, 2 minutes versus 11 minutes per node) and allows more extensive sampling of the specimen. In this prospective study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of imprint cytology and permanent sections on 121 mediastinal lymph nodes from 38 patients. There were no false-positive results and one false-negative result, although that patient was correctly classified based on positive cytology from another node. The sensitivity was 96.6%, the specificity was 100%, and the predictive value of a positive result was 100%, as no false-positives results were observed. The predictive value of a negative result was 98.9%, and the overall efficiency was 99.2%. These results compare favorably with those in other studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of imprint cytology with that of FS analysis and with reported accuracy rates of FS technique. Our findings confirm the usefulness of this technique as an adjunct or substitute for FS analysis in the intraoperative pathologic evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. PMID:8179386
Clarke, M R; Landreneau, R J; Borochovitz, D
Although extensive deep aspiration of sand, gravel, or dirt is a very rare incident, its consequences may be severe ranging from the necessity of immediate intensive care to death. Cases reported so far were due to external causes such as cave-ins, near drowning, or being buried under sand masses. We report a case of a 2 1/2-year-old boy who ingested sand while playing in a sandbox with his older brother. Despite early resuscitation and endotracheal intubation efforts, he died subsequently showing clinical signs of asphyxia due to airway obstruction. Autopsy revealed sand masses obstructing the trachea and lobar bronchi of both lungs as well as brain edema, while no signs of blunt trauma, forced sand ingestion, or preexisting medical conditions were found. This case demonstrates that fatal self-administered sand aspiration may occur in early childhood. The pathophysiology of the lethal outcome with regard to the physical properties of sand and implications for the clinical assessment of emergency situations are discussed. PMID:18546004
Kettner, M; Ramsthaler, F; Horlebein, B; Schmidt, P H
Recent advances in therapy for non–small cell lung carcinoma have shown that a personalized approach to treatment has the potential to significantly reduce lung cancer mortality. Concurrently, endoscopic ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration has emerged as an accurate and sensitive tool for the diagnosis and staging of this disease. As knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer progression increases, the amount of information that must be derived from a tumor specimen will also increase. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that small specimens acquired by endoscopic ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration are sufficient for molecular testing if specimen acquisition and processing are done with these needs in mind. Optimum use of this procedure requires a coordinated effort between the bronchoscopist and the cytopathologist to collect and triage specimens for diagnostic testing. When feasible, rapid onsite evaluation should be performed to assess the specimen for both diagnostic quality and quantity and to allocate the specimen for cell-block and possible immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. It is necessary for pulmonologists and bronchoscopists to understand the rationale for histologic and molecular testing of lung cancer diagnostic specimens and to ensure that specimens are acquired and processed in a fashion that provides information from small cytologic specimens that is sufficient to guide treatment in this era of targeted therapy.
Bulman, William; Saqi, Anjali
In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, somatic EGFR and K-ras mutations predict therapeutic effectiveness and resistance, respectively, to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Transesophageal ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a validated technique for diagnosis and staging of NSCLC. In the present study, we compared the feasibility and reliability of EGFR and K-ras gene mutation analysis in fixed and fresh mediastinal lymph nodes and extra-lymph nodal samples obtained by EUS-FNA in patients suspicious for NSCLC. Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the study. For each patient, DNA was extracted from both fresh samples and fixed cytological smears. Exons 18-21 of EGFR and exon 2 of K-ras were amplified by PCR and mutation status was determined by direct sequencing and pyrosequencing. All cases were eligible for analysis. NSCLC was diagnosed in 32 patients (25 adenocarcinomas and 7 squamous cell carcinomas) and 4 patients were free of malignancy. Of the 25 patients with adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations were detected in 2 (8%) fresh tumor samples and in 3 (12%) fixed cytological smears. K-ras mutations were detected in 8 (32%) fresh samples, and in 9 (36%) fixed cytological smears. Fixed and stained cytological samples seem to be more reliable than fresh material for molecular analysis. PMID:22504767
Ulivi, Paola; Romagnoli, Micaela; Chiadini, Elisa; Casoni, Gian-Luca; Capelli, Laura; Gurioli, Carlo; Zoli, Wainer; Saragoni, Luca; Dubini, Alessandra; Tesei, Anna; Amadori, Dino; Poletti, Venerino
The aim of this study was twofold. The first aim was to estimate the diagnostic reliability of urinary cytology for detection and management of urothelial neoplasms by using a specific preserving fluid for sample collection, and the liquid-based thin layer method for specimen preparation, the estimate was based on the correlation between the cytological findings of 10,000 non-hospitalized patients, and their histological diagnoses. A second aim was to compare the reliability of two instruments for thin-layer preparation, i.e., TP2000, TP3000, capable of processing the specimens at very different rates. The preservation of cell structure is ameliorated by the procedure of sample collection and treatment here described. This allows a more accurate reading of LBC slides as shown by: (a) the significant concordance between cytological and histological diagnosis (92%); (b) the significant number of low-grade urothelial carcinomas (20.5%) revealed by urinary cytology and validated by histologic diagnosis; (c) the low rate (8%) of misjudgement of cytological diagnosis reached in this study. The quality of performances of the two instruments tested for thin-layer preparation, i.e., TP2000 and TP3000, is statistically comparable. We recommend the procedure that makes use of preserving fluid for sample collection (cytolyt™) and treatment (preservcyt ™) as here described. We also recommend the use of thin-layer method for specimen preparation since it allows a more uniform distribution of the cells on the support with reduction of overlapping phenomena. Finally, economic considerations suggest the preferential use of Thin Prep 3000. PMID:21548121
Raisi, O; Magnani, C; Bigiani, N; Cianciavicchia, E; D'Amico, R; Muscatello, U; Ghirardini, C
Background Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a new technique to preserve upper extremity lymphatic pathways during axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), thereby preventing lymphedema patients with breast cancer. However, the oncologic safety of sparing the nodes identified by ARM (ARM nodes), some of which are positive, has not been verified. We evaluated the metastatic status of ARM nodes and the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in assessing ARM node metastasis. Methods Sixty patients with breast cancer who underwent ARM during ALND between January 2010 and July 2012 were included in this study. Twenty-five patients were clinically node-positive and underwent ALND without sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Thirty-five patients were clinically node-negative but sentinel node-positive on the SLND. The lymphatic pathway was visualized using fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green. ARM nodes in ALND field, whose status was diagnosed using FNAC, were removed and processed for histology. We evaluated the correlation between the cytological findings of FNAC and the histological analysis of excised ARM nodes. Results The mean number of ARM nodes identified per patient was 1.6 ±0.9 in both groups. In most patients without (88%) and with (79%) SLNB, the ARM nodes were located between the axillary vein and the second intercostobrachial nerve. FNAC was performed for 45 ARM nodes, 10 of which could not be diagnosed. Six of the patients without SLNB (24%) and onewith SLNB (3%) had positive ARM nodes. Of these sevenpatients, four had >3 positive ARM nodes. There was no discordance between the cytological and histological diagnosis of ARM nodes status. Conclusions Positive ARM nodes were observed in the patients not only with extensive nodal metastasis but also in those with a few positive nodes. FNAC for ARM nodes was helpful in assessing ARM nodes metastasis, which can be beneficial in sparing nodes essential for lymphatic drainage, thereby potentially reducing the incidence of lymphedema. However, the success of sampling rates needs to be improved.
Cancer of the cervix is one of the most predictable and preventable types of cancer, however, it is still one of the most common malignancies. Due to a lack of information available to women about the causes of the disease, accessibility of screening programs, and limitations to the existing screening techniques, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Detection and follow-up of pre-cancer stages of the disease are based on the Pap test, which is now well established as a basic method of secondary prevention. Relative low sensitivity of the Pap test has initiated the development of additional technologies and methods towards enhanced screening quality and error elimination not only in the process of sample taking and analysis but also in screening and interpretation. Immunocytochemical methods and liquid based cytology are the new diagnostics possibilities in secondary prevention. In order to decrease morbidity, thus mortality too, it is necessary that the primary prevention (vaccination) be also implemented. PMID:20387719
Bolanca, Ines Krivak; Vranes, Jasmina
Kerosene ingested, intentionally or accidentally, is toxic. Data is scarce on complications and outcomes of hydrocarbon poisoning following kerosene aspiration in adults and there has been no known case of bilateral hemorrhagic effusion occurring due to it in literature. We, hereby, report a case of a bilateral hemorrhagic pleural effusion secondary to hydrocarbon aspiration in a 40-year old adult.
Prasad, Rajendra; Karmakar, Saurabh; Sodhi, Rakhee; Karmakar, Shilpi
Using a nationally representative sample from two waves of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), this research examines the aspiration-attainment gap that exists for Black students (N = 823). This gap is a measure of the difference between the educational level students said they aspired to reach reported in 1988 when attending 8th…
Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio, Jr.
Aspiration pneumonia is a serious problem for the elderly institutionalized person, often requiring transfer to a hospital and a lengthy stay there. It is associated with a high mortality rate and is very costly to the health care system. The current study sought to determine the key predictors of aspiration pneumonia in a nursing home population with the hope that
Susan E. Langmore; Kimberly A. Skarupski; Pil S. Park; Brant E. Fries
Examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among adolescents (N=130) by measuring overall leadership aspirations, valence-instrumentality expectancies for leadership outcomes, self-efficacy perceptions, and attributions of effective leadership. Found significant gender differences in valence scores and age differences in…
The notion of raising the aspirations of socially disadvantaged students is a key policy strategy in for enhancing such students' participation in higher education. However, this strategy runs the risk of being simplistic and ineffective unless it is informed by research on the links between aspirations and such students' changing life experiences…
Kenway, Jane; Hickey-Moody, Anna
Gottfredson's theory of the career compromise process was evaluated using a longitudinal data set of 2,353 female and 321 male students recruited for Zuckerman's "Seven College Study," who reported their career aspirations twice over a 1-year period. Expressed career aspirations were coded on the dimensions of sex type, prestige, and the…
Junk, Kate E.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian
Individuals who are supportive of social justice efforts are not always effective in their anti-oppression efforts. Some who genuinely aspire to act as social justice allies are harmful, ultimately, despite their best intentions, perpetuating the system of oppression they seek to change. Different underlying motivations of those who aspire to be…
Edwards, Keith E.
Commonality analysis was used to examine relationships between global and perceived measures of parents' involvement in learning and the aspirations of 516 16-yr.-old Australians. Analysis indicated that, while adolescents' perceptions of parents' involvement had strong associations with their aspirations, such relationships should be examined within environmental contexts assessed by more global measures of parents' involvement. PMID:7984722
TUpdating cross-cultural research of the past decade on the relationship between life aspirations and wellbeing, we compared Romanian (N?=?69) and US (N?=?64) undergraduates on the contribution of the importance and likelihood of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations to psychological maladjustment and life satisfaction, and on the qualitative meaning they assign to financial success. Similarly to prior studies, we found that
Michael J. Stevens; Petru-Madalin Constantinescu; Andreea Butucescu
Individuals who are supportive of social justice efforts are not always effective in their anti-oppression efforts. Some who genuinely aspire to act as social justice allies are harmful, ultimately, despite their best intentions, perpetu- ating the system of oppression they seek to change. Different underlying motivations of those who aspire to be allies can lead to differences in effectiveness, consistency,
Keith E. Edwards
The surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator (USA) is a fairly new surgical instrument used for an increasingly wide range of procedures. This paper introduces a new application: debridement of vulvovaginal necrotic ulcers resulting from intracavitary radiation therapy. The ultrasonic aspirator allowed removal of the soft, necrotic tissue while preserving underlying healthy, firm tissue and blood vessels.
Vanderburgh, E.; Nahhas, W.A. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine, Dayton, OH (USA))
The authors critique the mechanistic notion of aspirations running through much research and policy-making on educational and vocational outcomes. They present a performative model, with individuals drawing on limited social resources to express aspirations within constrained contexts. This argument is illustrated by discussion of the findings of…
St. Clair, Ralf; Benjamin, Amanda
Bolus manipulation is a primary treatment strategy in the management of oral-pharyngeal dysphagia. The use of thickening agents to alter bolus rheology is particularly commonplace; however, the precise effects of these alterations on swallowing remain uncertain. The purpose of our study, a prospective, double-blind clinical trial (Level 1b), was to investigate the effects of viscosity on aspiration. One hundred patients with dysphagia were prospectively evaluated with fluoroscopic swallow studies performed across three standardized and randomized conditions: thin liquid barium (THIN), liquid barium thickened with a starch-based agent (STARCH), and liquid barium thickened with a gum-based agent (GUM). Outcome measures included the prevalence of aspiration and score on the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. A total of 23 out of 100 patients exhibited 56 episodes of aspiration. Twenty patients aspirated on THIN, 15 on STARCH, and 11 on GUM bolus conditions (P<0.05, thin vs gum). There were 28 instances of aspiration on THIN, 16 on STARCH, and 12 on GUM. Mean Penetration-Aspiration Scale score ± standard deviation was 2.11 ± 2.22 for THIN, 1.76 ± 1.88 for STARCH, and 1.42 ± 1.47 for GUM conditions, respectively (P<0.001, THIN vs GUM). A clinically significant reduction in the incidence of penetration and aspiration was observed for gum-thickened barium compared with thin liquid barium. PMID:24161369
Leonard, Rebecca J; White, Cheryl; McKenzie, Susan; Belafsky, Peter C
Exclusive reports on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytodiagnosis of T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) are scarce in literature. This report reflects the diagnostic difficulties associated with cytodiagnosis of this rare variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The study is based on 11 cases with age ranging from 16 to 63 years and a median of 50 years. Male to female ratio was 6:5. Ten cases presented with lymphadenopathy and one had lymphadenopathy as well as extranodal solid tumor. The initial cytodiagnosis was suggestive of TCRBCL in one case, TCRBCL/Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in three cases, TCRBCL/HL/anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in two cases, TCRBCL/ALCL in one case, and TCRBCL/non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) T-cell/ALCL in one case. There was also a cytologically diagnosed HL case, which on review turned out to be HL/TCRBCL. Histopathological diagnosis was HL in all these nine cases. There were two histologically diagnosed TCRBCL cases during this period, with cytodiagnoses of NHL other than TCRBCL in one and HL in the other. While highlighting the difficulties associated with the cytodiagnosis of TCRBCL, this study conveys a word of caution that adequate immunocytochemical studies should be performed before diagnosing this rare neoplasm with a varied cytomorphology. PMID:21472876
Das, Dilip K; Pathan, Shahed K; Mothaffer, Fatma J; John, Bency; Mallik, Mrinmay K; Sheikh, Zafar A; Haji, Bahiyah E; Amir, Thasneem; Francis, Issam M
Background: Research and publications are critical to advancements in the quality of healthcare delivery. This article attempts to highlight the prospects and challenges of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology as a tool for research in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Data available in local and international bibliographic databases for the period 1986–2005 (20 years) were collated and analyzed. Results: The theme of Nigerian FNA-focused studies correlated with the recognized disease patterns in the country which are tuberculous lymphadenitis, breast tumors and Burkitt's lymphoma. The accuracy of FNA in these situations was high and comparable to the experience in developed countries. It was found that the total number of articles published during two contiguous periods (1986–1995 and 1996–2005) had increased from 5 to 18. Also, in majority of cases, the articles were not published in specialized pathology journals. Conclusions: The utilization of FNA is apparently lagging in Nigeria. Given its potential in resource-constrained settings, we are of the opinion that it should be used more often in clinical and translational research.
Malami, Sani Abubakar; Ochicha, Ochicha
Rationale: The current management of advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires differentiation between squamous and nonsquamous subtypes as well as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is increasingly used for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. However, it is unclear whether cytology specimens obtained with EBUS-TBNA are suitable for the subclassification and genotyping of NSCLC. Objectives: To determine whether cytology specimens obtained from EBUS-TBNA in routine practice are suitable for phenotyping and genotyping of NSCLC. Methods: Cytological diagnoses from EBUS-TBNA were recorded from 774 patients with known or suspected lung cancer across five centers in the United Kingdom between 2009 and 2011. Measurements and Main Results: The proportion of patients with a final diagnosis by EBUS-TBNA in whom subtype was classified was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73–80). The rate of NSCLC not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) was significantly reduced in patients who underwent immunohistochemistry (adjusted odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28–0.82; P = 0.016). EGFR mutation analysis was possible in 107 (90%) of the 119 patients in whom mutation analysis was requested. The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in patients with NSCLC were 88% (95% CI, 86–91), 72% (95% CI, 66–77), and 91% (95% CI, 89–93), respectively. Conclusions: This large, multicenter, pragmatic study demonstrates that cytology samples obtained from EBUS-TBNA in routine practice are suitable for subtyping of NSCLC and EGFR mutation analysis and that the use of immunohistochemistry reduces the rate of NSCLC-NOS.
Brown, James M.; Nankivell, Matthew; Woolhouse, Ian; Harrison, Richard N.; Jeebun, Vandana; Munavvar, Mohammed; Ng, Benjamin J.; Rassl, Doris M.; Falzon, Mary; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Rintoul, Robert C.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Janes, Sam M.
We introduce a deterministic win-stay-lose-shift rule into the spatial public goods game, according to which a player will change its current strategy only if its payoff is below a predefined aspiration level. Simulation results on the square lattice and scale-free network indicate that the aspiration level greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. For small multiplication factors, the frequency of cooperation increases to 0.5 as the aspiration level increases. For large multiplication factors, intermediate levels of aspiration prove optimal for the successful evolution of public cooperation. Some qualitative analyses are provided to explain the above results. Besides, we have found that there exists a ping-pong vibration of cooperation at some specific values of multiplication factors and aspiration levels.
Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Lu, Pei-Min; Zeng, Yong-Zhi
Background The natural course of cytologically benign thyroid nodules remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasonographic (US) changes are associated with changes in nodule volume during follow-up. Methods We retrospectively reviewed over 4 years of clinical records of patients with benign thyroid nodules as confirmed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). In total, 186 patients with 202 benign thyroid nodules were included for study. We assessed for changes in nodule volume and examined the cystic portion of the nodule as well as four US features (echogenicity, margin, calcification pattern, and shape). Results During follow-up (mean, 21.7±10.7 months) and using 50% as a cutoff value, nodule volumes increased in 11.8%, exhibited no change in 79.9%, and decreased in 8.3% of patients. Proportion of nodules demonstrating at least one US change was 20.8% (42/202). The most common US changes (in descending order of frequency) were cystic change, margin change, and calcification pattern change. Nodule shape and echogenicity rarely changed. Increased nodule volume was not significantly associated with any US features or with the number of FNAs but was associated with younger age at time of diagnosis. Conclusion Although a portion of thyroid nodules confirmed as benign showed US changes or volume changes during the follow-up period, these findings may only represent the natural course of benign nodules. Frequent follow-up with US might be needed for only a small number of cases with suspicious US findings.
Lim, Dong Jun; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Woo Chan; Lee, Jong Min; Kang, Moo Il; Cha, Bong Yun
Background: The objective of this descriptive study was to observe the frequency of various pathological conditions detected in FNAC of patients presenting with neck swellings coming from two different regions of southern India. Materials and Methods: This study included 100 consecutive patients from each region (Region 1: Wyanad, Region 2: Salem) presenting to the department of Pathology with swelling in the neck region as the chief complaint. All age groups were included. All patients underwent FNAC and results were recorded. Frequency of various pathologies was determined. Results: Thyroid lesions were predominant in both the regions with colloid goiter being the commonest lesion followed by lymphadenitis. Metastasis was more common compared to primary malignancies in Salem due to the elderly population under study. Conclusion: Non-neoplastic lesions were commonly encountered in our study which is in accordance with findings in similar studies conducted in other developing countries. FNAC should be the primary investigation of choice as it is inexpensive, safe and has a high degree of diagnostic accuracy.
Muddegowda, Prakash H; Srinivasan, Shuba; Lingegowda, Jyothi B; Kurpad R, Ramkumar; Murthy, K Sathiya
Geographical research on education has grown rapidly in both volume and scope during the first decade of the twenty-first century, and one relatively new theme to emerge from this growing literature is that of education and aspiration. Much of the nascent interest in aspiration concerns access to quality schooling and University education. In this paper by contrast we highlight the
Sarah L. Holloway; Helena Pimlott-Wilson