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1

Comparison between fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of breast lesions  

PubMed Central

Aim To compare the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in patients with US-detected breast lesions. Patients and methods Between September 2011 and May 2013, 3469 consecutive breast US examinations were performed. 400 breast nodules were detected in 398 patients. 210 FNACs and 190 CNBs were performed. 183 out of 400 (46%) lesions were surgically removed within 30 days form diagnosis; in the remaining cases, a six month follow up US examination was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values were calculated for FNAC and CNB. Results 174 out of 400 (43%) malignant lesions were found while the remaining 226 resulted to be benign lesions. 166 out of 210 (79%) FNACs and 154 out of 190 (81%) CNBs provided diagnostic specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 97%, 94%, 95%, 91% and 98% were found for FNAC, and values of 92%, 82%, 89%, 92% and 82% were obtained for CNB. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 97%, 96%, 96%, 97% and 96% were found for FNAC, and values of 97%, 96%, 96%, 97% and 96% were obtained for CNB. Conclusion FNAC and CNB provide similar values of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25174291

MOSCHETTA, M.; TELEGRAFO, M.; CARLUCCIO, D.A.; JABLONSKA, J.P.; RELLA, L.; SERIO, G.; CARROZZO, M.; IANORA, A.A. STABILE; ANGELELLI, G.

2014-01-01

2

Emergency Diagnosis of Giant Cell Tumour (GCT) of Spine by Image Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC)  

PubMed Central

Giant cell tumour (GCT) of spine is an extremely rare neoplasm accounting 0.5% to 1.5% of all cases. The patient usually presents with weakness of lower limbs. We describe a case of 25-year-old male who presented with sudden onset of paraplegia. On plain radiograph there was an osteolytic lesion in T9 vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed expansile lytic lesion in T9 vertebral body with involvement of posterior elements on right side with associated soft tissue mass in the extradural location extending into the spinal cord. Further Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan (T1 contrast) showed the enhancing extradural mass involving spinal cord from D 8-10 levels. A provisional radiological diagnosis of GCT was made. A CT guided FNAC of the mass was performed which revealed typical cytological features of Giant cell tumour. Role of image guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of vertebral mass and its role in emergency situations with clear emphasis on differential diagnosis is highlighted. PMID:25177571

Chaudhry, Manish; Singh, Amitoj

2014-01-01

3

Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma to the orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report a case of metastatic tumor to the left orbit from a sacrococcygeal chordoma.METHODS: A 48-year-old man with a sacrococcygeal chordoma developed left orbit swelling, left eye proptosis with deteriorating vision, and the inability to walk. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the orbital tumor and sacrococcygeal tumor was performed.RESULTS: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed features of

D’Sa Bouvier; Coimbatore V. Raghuveer

2001-01-01

4

Fine needle aspiration cytology: a survey of current European practice.  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is practised widely throughout Europe. The majority of countries have dedicated cytopathologists as well as histopathologists practicing cytology. Despite this, FNAC is performed mostly by clinicians and radiologists except in the larger centres with dedicated staff with a special interest in cytopathology. The advent of One-Stop diagnostic services and image-guided procedures are prompting further development of FNAC clinics where cytopathologists take their own samples, issue reports in the same clinical session and take extra material for ancillary tests to complete the diagnosis. The volume of FNAC work varies accordingly; in dedicated centres FNAC represents up to 80% of the workload whilst, in the majority of countries, it represents one quarter or less. Hence, the rate of inadequate FNAC varies widely, depending on the local sampling policies and the organ, but does not exceed 25% in any of the countries. The most sampled organs are breast and thyroid, followed by lymph nodes. Most countries have dedicated training in cytopathology for pathology trainees, the duration varying between 6 months and 2 years of the total training time. This discussion, focusing on European practices, highlights the heterogeneity of FNAC activity but also its success in many centres where it is practiced to a high standard, particularly in breast, thyroid and lymph node pathology. The relatively high rate of inadequate material in some centres reflects local policies and calls for greater uniformity of FNAC practice, particularly specimen sampling. To achieve this, the future direction should concentrate on specialist training, to include performing as well as interpreting FNAC, as part of the curriculum. Current emphasis on web-based training may not provide first hand experience of the FNAC procedure and should be supplemented by attending FNAC clinics and developing the technique to its full potential. PMID:16961648

Kocjan, G; Feichter, G; Hagmar, B; Kapila, K; Kardum-Skelin, I; Kloboves, V; Kobayashi, T K; Koutselini, H; Majak, B; Schenck, U; Schmitt, F; Tani, E; Totch, M; Onal, B; Vass, L; Vielh, P; Weynand, B; Herbert, A

2006-10-01

5

Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma.  

PubMed

In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case. PMID:25745290

Gupta, Parikshaa; Dey, Pranab; Bal, Amanjit

2014-01-01

6

Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology in testicular disorders of red deer (Cervus elaphus): a case report.  

PubMed

We used fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to diagnose Sertoli cell-only pattern and hypospermatogenesis in an Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Cytologic diagnosis was confirmed by histology and epididymal sperm analysis. We conclude that FNAC can be an important diagnostic tool in testicular diseases of wildlife. PMID:25248117

Pintus, Eliana; Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Garde, José Julián

2014-10-01

7

Role of Fine needle aspiration cytology of spleen.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of spleen in a tertiary care referral centre. FNAC of spleen was done in a total of 130 cases under ultrasonological guidance over a period of 5 years in a tertiary care centre. There were 76 male and 54 female including nine paediatric patients and the age range of the patients was from 2 to 70 years. All patients were evaluated for HIV, Hepatitis B antigen and coagulation profile before the procedure. Of 130 FNAC cases, 26 were inadequate, while 16 were normal splenic aspirate. A definite diagnostic opinion was possible in 88 cases. In this study, there were 13 cases of tuberculosis, 25 cases of granulomatous inflammation, 10 cases of acute suppurative inflammation, and one case each of leishmaniasis, aspergillosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In the neoplastic group, we had 26 cases of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, one case of Hodgkin lymphoma and 10 cases of metastatic malignancies. No complications were encountered during FNAC in any of the cases. With proper patient evaluation and emergency backup, USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology of spleen is a safe, easy and rapid procedure for definite diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic splenic pathology. PMID:25469450

Gochhait, Debasis; Dey, Pranab; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Nijhawan, Raje; Gupta, Nalini; Radhika, Srinivasan; Lal, Anupam

2015-03-01

8

Diagnostic Accuracy of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pancreatic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: Endoscopic ultrasound–guided fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) is currently the most commonly used procedure for obtaining cytologic specimens of the pancreas. It is accurate, minimally invasive, safe and cost-effective. However, there is discrepancy between cytological and surgical diagnoses. This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNAC of the pancreas. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 191 cases of pancreatic lesions initially diagnosed by EUS-FNAC with subsequent histological diagnosis between 2010 and 2012 in the Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital. Cytologic and surgical diagnoses were categorized into five groups: negative, benign, atypical, malignant, and insufficient for diagnosis. Subsequently, 167 cases with satisfactory yield in both surgical and cytology specimens were statistically analyzed to determine correlations with diagnosis. Results: In comparison to surgical diagnoses, cytologic diagnoses were true-positive in 103 cases (61.7%), true-negative in 28 cases (16.8%), false-positive in 9 cases (5.4%), and false-negative in 27 cases (16.1%). The diagnostic accuracy was 78.4%, sensitivity was 79.2%, and specificity was 75.7%. The positive predictive value was 92.0%, and negative predictive value was 50.9%. Conclusions: EUS-FNAC has high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. Overcoming the limitations of EUS-FNAC will make it a useful and reliable diagnostic tool for accurate evaluation of pancreatic lesions.

Baek, Hae Woon; Park, Min Jee; Rhee, Ye-Young; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Kim, Min A; Park, In Ae

2015-01-01

9

Role of testicular fine-needle aspiration cytology in infertile men with clinically obstructive azoospermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Azoospermia due to obstruction of the vaso- epididymal junction is one of the few surgically correctable causes of male infertility. In patients where all clinical and laboratory parameters suggest a vaso-epididymal junction block amenable to surgery, failure to find normal spermatogenesis on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the testis may necessitate a change in treatment modality to the more

RAJEEV KUMAR; GAGAN GAUTAM; N. P. GUPTA; MANJU ARON; RIMA DADA; KIRAN KUCHERIA; SATISH KUMAR GUPTA; ANURAG MITRA

10

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of pilomatrixoma: A short series of three cases  

PubMed Central

Pilomatrixoma (PMX) (pilomatricoma, calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe) is a benign tumor with differentiation toward the hair matrix cells and is common in head and neck region. It is most commonly seen in the first two decades of life and presents as a subcutaneous, small, asymptomatic firm solitary nodule. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been described as an important preoperative diagnostic investigation though on cytology the diagnosis of PMX is sometimes difficult and misdiagnosed. We describe two patients with gradually increasing asymptomatic swelling on pinna and middle finger. FNAC was done and a diagnosis of PMX was given, further confirmed by histopathological examination. The present cases highlight the importance of FNAC in considering PMX as differential diagnosis of dermal or subcutaneous nodules in locations other than head and neck. Cytopathologists who play an important role in the preliminary diagnosis should keep in mind the variability of the cellular composition of these types of lesions to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25506386

Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri

2014-01-01

11

Image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of ovarian tumors: An assessment of diagnostic efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background: Image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of ovarian lumps is being increasingly used for the successful diagnosis of ovarian tumors, although borderline cases may be difficult to diagnose by this method. Aim: To demonstrate the efficacy of image-guided FNAC in diagnosing ovarian tumors (benign and malignant) and to evaluate the usefulness of cytology as a mode of easy and rapid diagnosis of ovarian lumps. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 42 female patients. Clinical evaluation and relevant investigations were carried out. Diagnosis was established by FNAC performed under image guidance (ultrasonography/computed tomography). The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. Results: Cytological diagnosis was rendered on all the 42 ovarian lesions, with a correct diagnosis in 34 cases, resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 80.9%. Most of the cases with discordant diagnoses were surface epithelial tumors of low malignant potential and required histopathological examination for a final diagnosis. Conclusions: Image-guided FNAC is an inexpensive, rapid and fairly accurate procedure for the diagnosis of ovarian lesions. It provides a safe alternative to the more expensive, time consuming and cumbersome surgical route to diagnosis. PMID:21187883

Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Afzal, Sheerin; Ansari, Hena A; Ansari, Maryem

2010-01-01

12

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and biopsy in the evaluation of lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis and subtyping of lymphoma have important prognostic implications and are generally required for treatment planning. Histological assessment, immunophenotyping, and genetic studies are usually necessary. Endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) is a minimally invasive technique widely used for the evaluation of deep-seated benign and malignant lesions. However, the value of cytological samples in lymphoma diagnosis is still a matter of debate. Endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNAB) can provide tissue core samples that may help overcome the limitations of cytology. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature regarding EUS-FNAC and EUS-FNAB for the diagnosis and subtyping of lymphoma. In addition, we discuss its usefulness in the management of primary extra-nodal lymphomas, as well as technical issues that may influence sample quality. PMID:24949331

Gimeno-García, Antonio Z.; Elwassief, Ahmed; Paquin, Sarto C.; Sahai, Anand V.

2012-01-01

13

Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Evaluation of Breast Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a simple, minimally invasive, cost effective, outpatient based and a rapid diagnostic method for breast lesions. The aim of the present study was to correlate cytological findings with histopathological findings and to determine the accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Material and Methods: A total of 222 breast aspirates were studied. Histo-cytopathological correlations were obtained in 91 cases. All the aspirates were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H andE) stain. Results: Among 222 patients, 217 were females and 5 were males. Benign breast lesions were found in 144 cases (64.87%); among which fibroadenoma (30.18%) was the commonest lesion which was observed. Malignancy was observed in 69 cases (31.08%); among them, ductal carcinoma was the predominant lesion (29.28%) which was seen. Histopathological confirmations were obtained in 90 cases out of 91 cases in which histo-cytopathological corrections were possible. All 45 malignant aspirates were confirmed by histopathology. Benign reports were confirmed in 45 out of 46 cases by doing histological examinations; except one case which was diagnosed as malignant by studying its histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in breast lesions were reported to be 97.82% and 100% respectively, with 100% positive predictive value and 97.85% negative predictive value. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in the present study was found to be 98.90%. Conclusion: It is important to remember that a negative FNAC of a breast lesion does not preclude the diagnosis of a carcinoma, particularly in presence of a clinical suspicion of malignancy and/or an abnormal mammogram. PMID:24551635

Panjvani, Sahil I.; Parikh, Biren J.; Parikh, Swati B.; Chaudhari, Bhawana R.; Patel, Kazoomi K.; Gupta, Garima S.; Kodnani, Ashka H.; Anandani, Garima M.

2013-01-01

14

Fine needle aspiration cytology of unilesional mycosis fungoides d’emblee  

PubMed Central

Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for 2% of all lymphomas. Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a rare, albeit commonest form of primary cutaneous T cell lymphoma. MF d’emblee is an uncommon variant which is easily mistaken clinically for epithelial malignancy. Diagnosis at cytology is challenging due to low degree of suspicion, rare occurrence and diverse morphology. We report a case of 51-year-old male presenting with a solitary nodulo-ulcerative lesion over right thigh. Smear showed atypical lymphocytes with hyper-convoluted cerebriform nuclei along with few mature lymphocytes consistent with MF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of unilesional MF d’emblee diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our case emphasizes that FNAC is an accurate method for early diagnosis and clinical staging of patients with MF. PMID:22438619

Amita, K; Shankar, S Vijay; Hazarika, Abinash; Roopa, AN

2012-01-01

15

Correlation of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Findings with Thyroid Function Test in Cases of Lymphocytic Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is the second most common thyroid lesion diagnosed on FNAC after goiter. FNAC is reliable tool in the diagnosis of thyroid lesion. Objective. To correlate FNAC cytologic findings with TFT in the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Methods. 175 patients with thyroid swellings were referred for FNAC as well as TFT during 2011–2013. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed using non-aspiration or aspiration techniques and TFT performed on Beckman culter access 2. Results. Lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 55 cases. The commonest age group of lymphocytic thyroiditis was 21–30 years with male?:?female ratio being 1?:?10. Anti-TPO and TSH were elevated in 96.16% (25/26) of cases with grade 3 lymphoid infiltrate, 94.12% (16/17) of cases with grade 2, and 91.67% (11/12) of cases with 1 grade. Increased anti-TPO with raised TSH without any lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 5 cases and 5 cases showed only raised TSH without raised anti-TPO and without any lymphoid infiltrate. We observed that grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. We also observed that anti-TPO and TSH together are significant even if no lymphocytic infiltration is present. Conclusion. Grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has statistical correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. Anti TPO was adjunct to TSH in grade 3. The presence of Hurthle cell change, giant cells, and granulomas has no statistical correlation with lymphocytic thyroiditis. PMID:24808970

Sood, Neelam; Nigam, Jitendra Singh

2014-01-01

16

Needle aspiration cytology of pancreatic cystic lesions.  

PubMed

Forty-two histologically confirmed cases of pancreatic cystic lesions with cytologic evaluation by needle aspiration biopsy (NAB) were reviewed. There were 21 inflammatory pseudocysts (IPC), nine mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN), six microcystic serous adenomas (MSA), one macrocystic serous adenoma, and five papillary solid and cystic neoplasms (PSCN). Correct cytodiagnosis was made in all cases of IPC and MCN. The contents of IPCs were characterized by turbid or blood-tinged fluid containing cellular debris, numerous foamy macrophages, and other inflammatory cells. There were few or no epithelial lining cells. The aspirates from MCNs showed gelatinous mucoid material containing mucus-secreting cells that were present singly, in clusters, or in sheets. Depending on the individual case, benign or malignant columnar cells, or an admixture of these cells, were present in a mucinous background. The preoperative needle aspirates of five MSAs were acellular. In one case of MSA and in one example of macrocystic serous adenoma, small monolayered sheets of benign cubic epithelial cells were seen in the needle aspirates. Similar cytologic findings were noted in the materials obtained by intraoperative NAB performed under direct vision of the aforementioned five MSAs. Difficulties were encountered in typing three PSCNs that yielded in NAB cells resembling those of an islet cell tumor. They were diagnosed as low-grade neoplasms (PSCN vs. islet cell tumor). In two other patients, a cytodiagnosis of PSCN was correctly made as the NAB revealed monomorphic tumor cells wrapping around small capillary blood vessels. PMID:9285188

Nguyen, G K; Suen, K C; Villanueva, R R

1997-09-01

17

Fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic modality for cysticercosis: A clinicocytological study of 137 cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection caused by the larva of Taenia solium, is quite a common disease in our part of the world, but its incidence is often underestimated. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays an important role in early detection of this disease, especially when the lesion is located in anatomically approachable superficial locations. Aims: The aim was to study role of FNAC in the diagnosis of cysticercosis. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the data of 137 patients with palpable nodules, who were diagnosed as having or suspicious of cysticercosis on FNAC, were retrieved and analyzed. Results: In 129 (94.2%) cases, a definitive diagnosis of cysticercosis was obtained in the form of parts of parasite tegument, hooklets, parenchymatous portion and calcareous corpuscles. In the background, giant cells, mixed inflammatory cells, and epithelioid cells were present. In remaining 8 (5.8%) cases, larval fragments could not be identified on the aspirates, and the diagnosis of parasitic inflammation was suggested on the basis of other cytological findings such as clear fluid aspirate, presence of eosinophils, histiocytes, foreign body giant cells, a typical granular dirty background, etc. Follow-up biopsy in these 8 cases confirmed the diagnosis of cysticercosis in 7 (87.5%) while in 1 (12.5%) case, histopathology was suggestive of parasitic cyst. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same. PMID:25210232

Kala, Pooja; Khare, Pratima

2014-01-01

18

Intraparietal esophageal leiomyomas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: Cytological and immunocytochemical features in two cases  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) has proven to be of significant value as a diagnostic method for the evaluation of esophageal mesenchymal tumors, such as true leiomyomas. Utilizing the cell block procedure, the present study reports the diagnostic approach of EUS-FNAC in two patients affected by this lesion, describing the cytological and immunocytochemical findings. Spindle-shaped elements with elongated nuclei were appreciable; moreover, the cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical positivity for smooth muscle actin and desmin strongly supported the diagnosis of leiomyoma when also taking into account the constant negativity for CD34, CD117 and S100. The differential diagnosis between spindle cell mesenchymal tumors and leiomyomas, and the clinico-therapeutic management of the latter are also discussed in the study. PMID:24959231

TODARO, P.; CRINÒ, S.F.; IENI, A.; PALLIO, S.; CONSOLO, P.; TUCCARI, G.

2014-01-01

19

Artificial neural network in breast lesions from fine-needle aspiration cytology smear.  

PubMed

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied in engineering and certain medical fields. ANN has immense potential and is rarely been used in breast lesions. In this present study, we attempted to build up a complete robust back propagation ANN model based on cytomorphological data, morphometric data, nuclear densitometric data, and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of ductal carcinoma and fibroadenomas of breast cases diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We selected 52 cases of fibroadenomas and 60 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast diagnosed on FNAC by two cytologists. Essential cytological data was quantitated by two independent cytologists (SRM, PD). With the help of Image J software, nuclear morphomeric, densitometric, and GLCM features were measured in all the cases on hematoxylin and eosin-stained smears. With the available data, an ANN model was built up with the help of Neurointelligence software. The network was designed as 41-20-1 (41 input nodes, 20 hidden nodes, 1 output node). The network was trained by the online back propagation algorithm and 500 iterations were done. Learning was adjusted after every iteration. ANN model correctly identified all cases of fibroadenomas and infiltrating carcinomas in the test set. This is one of the first successful composite ANN models of breast carcinomas. This basic model can be used to diagnose the gray zone area of the breast lesions on FNAC. We assume that this model may have far-reaching implications in future. PMID:23908018

Subbaiah, R M; Dey, Pranab; Nijhawan, Raje

2014-03-01

20

Transbronchial needle aspiration for cytology specimens.  

PubMed

Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) for diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma has evolved in the USA since the late 1970's. Initial reports advised that aspirated specimens be flushed into a container by normal saline or Hank's solution and processed in a cytology laboratory usually by Millipore filter and other techniques. A highly sophisticated cytology laboratory is the key to the success of this procedure. This study was designed to assess a simpler alternative method of processing the specimen by a direct smear technique. From June 1990 to September 1990, 40 procedures were performed on 34 consecutive patients. Seventy two paired direct smear and fluid specimens for cytology examination were collected. Fifty specimens were found to be negative in both types of specimen preparation. Fifteen were found to be positive in both types of specimens preparation, and six specimens were found to be positive only in the direct smear preparation. One of the 72 specimens was found to be positive in the Millipore and other preparation techniques. Based on our data, we conclude that the use of the direct smear for TBNA specimen preparation is an effective, simpler, and improved method. Proper use of it may increase the diagnostic yield and result in better acceptance of this new procedure. PMID:8087128

Wang, K P; Selcuk, Z T; Erozan, Y

1994-06-01

21

Fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid lesions and its correlation with histopathology in a series of 248 patients.  

PubMed

Thyroid swellings are a significant clinical problem in the general population but majority of them are nonneoplastic and do not require surgery. The initial screening procedures include ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and radionucleotide scan. An initial screening test which will diagnose thyroid lesions accurately will help to avoid surgery in nonneoplastic conditions. The aim of the present study is to correlate the cytology findings with final histopathology. Two hundred and forty-eight cases of thyroid nodules which underwent FNAC followed by surgery were included in this study. The cytology diagnoses were classified into nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory, benign, atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy and malignant. The fine needle aspiration diagnosis was compared with the histopathology diagnosis. In majority of cases the FNA diagnosis was in concordance with final histopathology. A high incidence of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid was detected in this study. The awareness of this entity and the search for fine nuclear details of papillary carcinoma can lead to proper identification of this category of tumors and thus help to avoid false negative and equivocal results. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, cost effective, rapid to perform procedure with high degree of accuracy and is recommended as the first line investigation for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. PMID:25419075

Sukumaran, Renu; Kattoor, Jayasree; Pillai, K Raveendran; Ramadas, Preethi T; Nayak, Nileena; Somanathan, Thara; George, Nebu Abraham; Sebastian, Paul

2014-09-01

22

Ultrasound-guided vacuum assisted breast biopsy in the assessment of C3 breast lesions by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology: Results and costs in comparison with surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast lesions defined C3 at ultrasound (US)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are probably benign, but exhibit atypias. We evaluate the results of US-guided vacuum assisted breast biopsy (VABB) of these lesions. Patients diagnosed C3 by US-FNAC, submitted to US-VABB and with a minimum follow-up of 36months or surgery were enrolled. Cost outcome of this diagnostic protocol was evaluated. We

Francesca Abbate; Lorenzo Bacigalupo; Antuono Latronico; Chiara Trentin; Silvia Penco; Simona Menna; Giuseppe Viale; Enrico Cassano; Massimo Bellomi

2009-01-01

23

Cytological grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspirates and its relation with histological grading  

PubMed Central

Background: Grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is beneficial for selecting patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Aims: To grade the breast carcinoma on FNAC using Robinson grading system and to assess the concordance of cytological grading (CG) with histological grading (HG) using Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 1-year, comprising of 50 female patients attending outpatient departments (OPD) as well as admitted in various surgical wards of a teaching hospital, diagnosed as breast carcinoma. FNAC smears were stained with May–Grunwald–Giemsa and Papanicolaou (Pap) stains and CG was done using Robinson system on Pap stained smears. The results were compared with HG system after resection of tumors. Results: Of 50 cases, 14 (28%) cases were graded as grade I, 24 (48%) grade II, and 12 (24%) grade III by CG, whereas 9 (18%), 28 (56%) and 13 (26%) cases were graded as grade I, II and III by HG. The result showed overall 72% concordance of CG with HG, with grade II and grade III showing highest degree of concordance (83.33%), which is comparable to previous studies. Kappa measurement showed a higher degree of agreement in high-grade tumors compared with low-grade tumors (0.73 in grade III, 0.53 in grade II and 0.39 in grade I). Conclusion: Cytological grading is comparable to HG in majority of cases. Because neoadjuvant chemotherapy is becoming increasingly popular as primary treatment modality of breast cancer, CG could be a useful parameter in selecting the mode of therapy and predicting tumor behavior.

Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Deka, Jatindra Prasad

2015-01-01

24

Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of orbital masses: A study of 41 cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Complexity in the anatomy of orbit and the fear of globe rupture are the main challenges faced in the diagnosis and typing of orbital masses. Fine needle aspiration cytology can be used as an initial investigative procedure in the evaluation of orbital masses, which in turn can aid the clinician to plan the treatment modalities. A close cooperation between ophthalmologist and pathologist adds to the success of the procedure. Aim: The study was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of orbital lesions as a cost-effective diagnostic technique, and to assess its diagnostic efficacy by comparing it with histopathological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 patients, over a period of 3 years, who had presented with anterior orbital mass lesions with or without proptosis, and with those having accessible mass lesions. Patients with proptosis without anterior orbital masses, proptosis due to dysthyroid ophthalmopathy, arteriovenous fistulas, hamartomas and choristomas were excluded from the study. FNAC procedure was done after explaining about the procedure to the patient, and in the presence of an ophthalmologist. Results: Majority of patients belonged to the age group 50-59 years. Male: female ratio was 1.05: 1. The most common lesion on FNAC was non-Hodgkins lymphoma, [13 cases (31.7%)]. 11 (26.8%) cases out of this were confirmed to be non-Hodgkins lymphoma on histopathologic examination. Two cases turned out to be inflammatory pseudotumor. Conclusions: FNAC can be done in all palpable orbital mass lesions with minimal risk and complications, with close cooperation between ophthalmologist and pathologist. A good degree of correlation was obtained between FNAC and histopathology, which was assessed by kappa statistics. PMID:25210236

Nair, Lekha Krishnan; Sankar, S.

2014-01-01

25

Spectrum of male breast lesions diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a 5-year experience at a tertiary care rural hospital in central India.  

PubMed

This study examines the spectrum of lesions in the male breast at a tertiary care rural hospital in central India and explores the role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of these lesions. Male breast lesions formed 5.89% (119 cases) of the 2017 breast lesions which were sent for FNA in the cytology section over a period of 5 years (January 2005-December 2009). Of these, biopsy had been performed only on 37 (31.1%) patients. Benign lesions comprised 102 (85.7%) cases, malignant lesions comprised 14 (11.8%) cases and inflammation/abscess was found in 3 (2.5%) cases. Gynecomastia was the commonest benign lesion in 86 (84.3%) cases. The cytologic features of gynecomastia included mild to moderate cellularity, cohesive sheets of bland cells, bipolar bare nuclei. Mild nuclear atypia was found in 19 cases. The cytologic features of malignancy comprised of dyshesive groups of ductular cells with moderate to severe degree of nuclear atypia and absence of bare nuclei. Histology was done in 37 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for gynecomastia was 100% and for malignancy 85.7%. This study showed that FNAC is a reliable tool for diagnosing male breast lesions. We conclude that FNAC should be performed as a standard procedure in the clinical evaluation of male breast masses. Many unnecessary surgical biopsies for histopathologic diagnosis can thus be avoided. PMID:22246926

Singh, Ranbeer; Anshu; Sharma, Satish M; Gangane, Nitin

2012-02-01

26

Extramedullary plasmacytoma of thyroid – a mimicker of medullary carcinoma at fine needle aspiration cytology: A case report  

PubMed Central

A rare case of extra medullary plasmacytoma (EMP) of thyroid gland in a 60 year old male, occurring against a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is reported. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) initially done as an outpatient procedure, showed atypical epithelial cells on a background of amyloid. Considering these findings we gave a diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. Histology of the total thyroidectomy specimen showed an extensive infiltration of neoplastic plasma cells against a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, with a bizarre Hurthle cell change. Immunohistochemistry on the histology sections confirmed the diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma of thyroid against a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:25190987

Bhat, Vidya; Shariff, Shameem; Reddy, Roopa A Narayana

2014-01-01

27

Diagnosis of carcinomas of extrathyroidal origin with fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: An experience from a tertiary care center in South India  

PubMed Central

Intrathyroidal metastasis and direct extension of extrathyroidal malignancies can present with palpable thyroid nodules or may be detected as suspicious nodules in a thyroid scan. They can lead to diagnostic difficulty in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid, especially in the absence of any previous history of such malignancies. Here we report an interesting case of intrathyroidal metastasis, which was initially suspected as a primary carcinoma of the thyroid; along with a short summary of a series of 11 cases of carcinomas of extrathyroidal origin, diagnosed in the FNACs of thyroid over the past three years in our institute. Knowledge of the potential diagnostic pitfalls in thyroid FNAC, a proper clinical evaluation, and judicious use of the ancillary techniques will help to attain a proper diagnosis. PMID:25210243

Sreedharanunni, Sreejesh; Vidyadharan, Geeta; Jojo, Annie

2014-01-01

28

Fine needle aspiration cytology in the work-up of mammographic and ultrasonographic findings in breast cancer screening: an attempt at differentiating in situ and invasive carcinoma.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the results of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the first four years of organized mammography screening for breast cancer in Oslo, particularly our policy in differentiating in situ and invasive carcinoma. Lesions were aspirated directly, ultrasound guided, by stereotaxic device or biopsy localization plate. All lesions were aspirated by cytopathologists working with the radiologists at the breast diagnostic centre. Smears were evaluated immediately for assessment of adequacy and a preliminary diagnosis was given to the surgeon. When FNAC revealed malignancy, diagnostic terms were as follows: (1) invasive carcinoma; (2) ductal carcinoma in situ of comedo type (high nuclear grade), cannot evaluate infiltration; (3) ductal carcinoma in situ of low nuclear grade and (4) papillary tumour, cannot evaluate infiltration. There were 953 cases, 70% of which were nonpalpable. Insufficient material was obtained in 5.8%. Absolute and complete sensitivity were 81% and 91%, respectively. Specificity was 85%. There were 448 histologically proven carcinomas. 383 of these were invasive. 362 carcinomas (in situ and invasive) (80.8%) were diagnosed directly on FNAC. Distinction between invasive and in situ carcinoma was possible in 294 of 320 directly diagnosed invasive carcinomas (91.8%). PPV of a diagnosis of invasive carcinoma was 97%. Our data showed that definitive cytological diagnosis of invasive carcinoma was possible in more than 90% of fully diagnostic smears and allowed definitive primary surgery in these women. PMID:11952748

Sauer, Torill; Young, Kari; Thoresen, Steinar Østerbø

2002-04-01

29

[The role of aspiration cytology in tumor diagnostics].  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of focal lesions is a quick, relatively simple and cost-effective diagnostic method. However, performing aspirations and interpreting smears require skill and experience. Before initiating an aspiration the doctor needs to be aware of the limits of cytology as it is vital to know what kind of diagnostic issues can be answered upon a smear and what kind of questions cannot. Traditionally FNAB was performed without radiologic guidance, and therefore almost only palpable lesions were aspirated. Since ultrasound (US) has become widely used in medicine, it is axiomatical that FNAB is ideally performed with US guidance not only for the protection of the patients but also for targeting the lesion more safely. Several cytologists find US guidance unnecessary as a routinely used examination, which may lead to unsatisfactory smears and false negative results. This means not only a loss for the patient, but leads to a negative judgement of this diagnostic method. Our interventional cytology diagnostic team developed a working method resulting in excellent statistical results. In the followings we would like to share our experience refined the past two decades to restore the reputation of this diagnostic method. PMID:25517449

Székely, Eszter; Istók, Roland; Székely, Tamás; Kovács, István; Somorácz, Áron; Járay, Balázs

2014-12-01

30

Role of FNAC in Hepatic lesions: Risk of track metastases  

PubMed Central

Background: Liver is one of the most common site of metastases in patients with malignancy and the evaluation of space occupying lesions (SOL) of liver in patients with malignancy is important. Its important to differentiate benign from malignant to take necessary decisions. Materials and Methods: We have performed a retrospective analysis of liver SOLs for which fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done in the year 2011. Risks and benefits associated with FNAC were evaluated. Results: We analyzed 755 patients who underwent FNAC of which 524 patients had secondary metastases to liver, 148 patients had primary hepatocellular carcinoma, 14 cases were benign neoplasms and 53 were nonneoplastic conditions. Histological correlation with FNAC was available in 112 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 93%, 90.9%, 98.9%, 58.8%, and 92.8%, respectively. Though there were no incidence of bleeding, two patients developed track metastases following FNAC. One was a case of Hepatocellular carcinoma and the other a case of metastatic breast cancer. Conclusion: FNAC was very much useful in our setup where most of the patients could not afford for Computer tomography (CT) scan and was useful in counseling them especially in patients with advanced malignancy where no active cancer directed therapy is required.

Reddy, Challa Vasu; Goud, Y. G. Basavana; Poornima, R.; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Madhusudhana, B.A.; Gayathridevi, M

2015-01-01

31

Fine needle aspiration cytology of nodular fasciitis of the breast.  

PubMed

We report a case of nodular fasciitis (NF) of the breast, which was cytologically diagnosed as a spindle cell proliferation with undetermined malignant potential. Owing to small size of the lesion (5.9 × 3.7 × 4.1 mm), only fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed under ultrasound guidance. The FNA smears were cellular, rich in single/clustered spindle cells but mammary ductal epithelial/myoepithelial cells were absent. These cytologic findings suggested spindle cell growth of mesenchymal origin. Pattern-less arrangement of spindle cells, heterogeneous composition of the stromal matrix, lack of nuclear/cellular atypia, occasional mitosis but no aberrant mitotic figures, and lymphocyte infiltration indicated reactive rather than neoplastic nature of the lesion. Nonetheless, lumpectomy was conducted because the possibility of neoplasm was not completely ruled out. The histologic diagnosis of the resected nodule was NF. FNA specimens were reviewed thoroughly in an attempt to define the key cytomorphologic features of NF that are important for the correct diagnosis. Differential diagnoses from the lesions that show similar cytologic pictures are discussed in detail. Although NF arising from the breast is rare, cytopathologists should be aware of its clinical and cytopathologic characteristics. Knowledge of the possibility of NF in the breast and its cytologic findings may help cytopathologists to discern its reactive, not neoplastic, characteristics of the lesion. If the referring surgeon is alerted NF as a possibility along with other differential diagnoses, close observation would become a management option. In-depth discussion of cytologic features and a review of the pertinent literature are also included. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:222-229. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24862506

Sakuma, Takahiko; Matsuo, Koji; Koike, Shinya; Tagami, Kouichiro

2015-03-01

32

Spectrum of orbital and ocular adnexal lesions: an analysis of 389 cases diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scope and the limitations of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in orbital and ocular adnexal lesions. This study was a retrospective audit of 389 cases of orbital and ocular adnexal lesions subjected to FNAC over a period of 12 years (1998-2009). The cyto-smears were reviewed and the lesions were categorized under different diagnostic categories in adult and pediatric population. Three hundred and one adult patients (age ?15 years) and 88 pediatric patients (age ?14 years) constituted the study group. In the adult population, there were 23.3% cases of infectious and lymphoproliferative lesions and 12.6% of benign cysts. In the pediatric population, 18.2% cases had infectious and lymphoproliferative lesions and 8% had benign cysts. Various benign tumors (9.6% in adults) included pleomorphic adenoma, meningioma, and schwannoma. Benign vascular tumors predominated in the pediatric population. A majority of malignant tumors in adults were lymphoreticular malignancies (12.6%); non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being the most common followed by malignant epithelial tumors (10.3%). Nearly 3.6% cases of soft tissue/bone sarcomas and 6.3% of metastatic tumors were seen in adult population. However, most of the orbital tumors in the pediatric population were malignant small blue round cell tumors (33%). FNAC is a cost-effective technique with good diagnostic value in the assessment of ophthalmic lesions, especially when sampling and interpretation are performed by experienced personnel in the light of clinico-radiological information. PMID:21309008

Gupta, Nalini; Kaur, Jasleen; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Nijhawan, Raje; Srinivasan, Radhika; Dey, Pranab; Singh, Usha; Gupta, Pankaj

2012-07-01

33

Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?  

PubMed

Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

2015-01-01

34

Subcutaneous Rhinosporidiosis Masquerading as Soft Tissue Tumor: Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology  

PubMed Central

Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous lesion caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It frequently involves nasopharynx and ocular region. Presenting as cutaneous and subcutaneous mass is extremely rare. This report describes the FNA cytology of rhinosporidiosis occurring as a soft tissue mass in the right mid thigh region. We present a rare case of a 71-year-old male, who presented with multiple subcutaneous soft tissue mass lesions in the posteromedial aspect of mid right thigh region since 2 weeks. Local examination revealed multiple firm to hard mass with skin over the swelling was unremarkable. CT of the right thigh showed a heterogeneous lesion with infiltrative margins in the thigh. Clinically soft tissue sarcoma was considered. Diagnostic FNAC was performed showing numerous mature and immature sporangias with giant cell reaction. Hence, an excision biopsy confirmed the rhinosporidiosis. To conclude, the FNAC diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis is specific. Preoperative diagnosis is possible even in cases with unusual clinical presentations.

Kishan Prasad, HL; Rao, Chandrika; Girisha, BS; Shetty, Vikram; Permi, Harish S; Jayakumar, Meera; Kiran, HS

2015-01-01

35

Image-Guided Fine Needle Cytology with Aspiration Versus Non-Aspiration in Retroperitoneal Masses: Is Aspiration Necessary?  

PubMed Central

Background: Although using fine needle cytology with aspiration (FNC-A) for establishing diagnoses in the retroperitoneal region has shown promise, there is scant literature supporting a role of non-aspiration cytology (FNC-NA) for this region. We assessed the accuracy and reliability of FNC-A and FNC-NA as tools for preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses and compared the results of both techniques with each other and with histopathology. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with retroperitoneal masses were subjected to FNC-A and FNC-NA. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and hematoxylin and eosin stain. An individual slide was objectively analysed using a point scoring system to enable comparison between FNC-A and FNC-NA. Results: By FNC-A, 91.7% accuracy was obtained in cases of retroperitoneal lymph node lesions followed by renal masses (83.3%). The diagnostic accuracy of other sites by FNC-A varied from 75.0%–81.9%. By FNC-NA, 93.4% diagnostically accurate results were obtained in the kidney, followed by 75.0% in adrenal masses. The diagnostic accuracy of other sites by FNC-NA varied from 66.7%–72.8%. Conclusions: Although both techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages, FNC-NA may be a more efficient adjuvant method of sampling in retroperitoneal lesions.

Misra, Rajiv Kumar; Mitra, Shaila; Jain, Rishav Kumar; Vahikar, Shilpa; Bundela, Archana; Misra, Purak

2015-01-01

36

Aspiration cytology of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an endemic area.  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) plays a significant role in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions due to its simplicity and low cost. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the second most common thyroid lesion next to endemic goitre diagnosed on FNA in iodine (I2) deficient areas. Data on its incidence, prevalence and clinicopathological features in I2 deficient areas is scanty compared to I2 sufficient areas. In the present study the patients presented with HT a decade earlier than reported in I2 sufficient areas. Presentation as a nodular thyroid is common. Diagnosis of HT is likely to be missed in smears showing cytological evidence of hyperplasia or abundant colloid. HT was concurrent in 20 cases of endemic goitre. Careful screening for Hurthle cell change and lymphocytic infiltration into follicular cells should be carried out. In equivocal cases multiple punctures and immunological investigations are helpful. In antibody-negative cases repeat FNA at follow-up is useful. Marked lymphocytic infiltration and Hurthle cell change may indicate a hypothyroid state but hormonal levels are required for clinical management. PMID:11985566

Kumar, Neeta; Ray, Chetan; Jain, Shyama

2002-02-01

37

An unusual large abdominal malakoplakia following trauma: Diagnosed on FNAC.  

PubMed

Malakoplakia is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease, related to immune deficiency and impaired bactericidal macrophage activity. Common sites of involvement include urinary bladder and kidney followed by gastrointestinal tract. We present an unusual case of abdominal malakoplakia diagnosed preoperatively on ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). It presented as a large locally aggressive mass with extensive involvement of multiple bowel loops in an 18-year-old boy following blunt trauma to the abdomen. The demonstration of calcified laminated intracytoplasmic Michaelis-Gutman bodies in histiocytes is a reliable diagnostic feature of malakoplakia on FNAC smears, which can guide an appropriate medical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:490-494. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25694063

Goyal, Surbhi; Parihar, Asmita; Puri, Vandana; Sharma, Naveen; Goyal, Ankur; Arora, Vinod Kumar

2015-06-01

38

Transplant Aspiration Cytology for Monitoring of Kidney Xenograft (Wolf-Dog) under Cyclosporin A Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mongrel dogs receiving wolf kidney grafts were treated with Cyclosporin A. The kinetics of the inflammatory response and the display of major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens on graft tubular cells were analyzed by transplant aspiration cytology. Tubular cells aspirated from grafts that underwent repeated rejection episodes showed a higher degree of MHC antigen expression than cells obtained from a well-functioning graft.Copyright

I. Danko; C. Gebhard; S. Scholz; J. Gokel; C. Hammer

1983-01-01

39

Development of a teaching laboratory aid for instruction of fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology technique.  

PubMed

Specialized training is required to obtain adequate cytology smears by needle aspiration biopsy. An educational method that would provide opportunity for numerous trainees to acquire needle aspiration biopsy and cytodiagnostic skills, and which would not result in the interruption of teaching hospital patient care nor result in the use or sacrifice of animals from laboratory animal resources was sought. An aspiration biopsy cytology teaching aid was developed by placing portions of fresh organ tissue from routine submissions to the necropsy laboratory into a specimen container partially filled with chilled normal saline solution. Specimens were stored immersed in saline at 4 degrees C for up to 48 hours. Prior to the cytopathology teaching laboratory period, the specimen container was removed from storage and covered with a latex diaphragm. Instructors responsible for teaching cytodiagnostic techniques used this ex vivo aspiration biopsy cytology device for instruction of fine needle aspiration biopsy, specimen processing, and microscopy. In the teaching laboratory, puncture of the diaphragm and aspiration of a tissue sample with hypodermic needle and syringe was instructed to, and practiced by, numerous trainees simultaneously using clinical operative technique without the need for live animals. Trainees prepared and stained cytology smears as well as evaluated and interpreted specimens in a single, realistic exercise. Such training experience may improve ability of trainees to procure diagnostic-quality biopsy specimens for cytodiagnosis of lesions from clinic patients. PMID:12671799

Simpson, R. Mark; Meuten, Donald J.

1992-01-01

40

Wide needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Zambia.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To study the value of wide needle (19 gauge) aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymph node disease in Zambia in the absence of a trained cytologist. METHODS--Patients (n = 304) referred for surgical biopsy of an enlarged peripheral lymph node were studied prospectively. Surgical biopsy was routinely preceded by 19 gauge needle aspiration of the same node; aspirates were stained by haematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl Neelsen stains. RESULTS--Of 232 aspirates, 182 contained sufficient material for cytological characterisation. Tuberculosis was diagnosed or suspected in 122 of 126 aspirates with histologically confirmed tuberculous lymphadenitis; reactive follicular hyperplasia in 31 of 38 patients with primary HIV lymphadenopathy; malignancy in all five patients with malignant nodes; and Kaposi's disease in four of nine patients with this. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was falsely suspected in four patients, as was reactive follicular hyperplasia in four, and Kaposi's disease in four. CONCLUSIONS--Wide needle aspiration cytology is useful in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Central Africa, with the exception of lymphadenopathic Kaposi's disease. PMID:8227428

Patil, P S; Bem, C

1993-01-01

41

Testicular fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic tool in non-obstructive azoospermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To report the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the testes used as a diagnostic tool in non-obstructive azoospermic patients.Methods:One hundred and twenty-five non-obstructive azoospermic male candidates to intracytoplasmic sperm injetion (ICSI) were analysed for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and inhibin B plasma levels. They were classified into three groups on the basis of FNAC: 1)

A. Bettella; A. Ferlin; M. Menegazzo; M. Ferigo; I. M. Tavolini; P. F. Bassi; C. Foresta

2005-01-01

42

Neoplastic and nonneoplastic ovarian masses: Diagnosis on cytology  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the distinction between neoplastic and nonneoplastic ovarian masses. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with ovarian masses were studied. After detailed history and clinical examination, ultrasound (USG)-guided FNAC was performed in 92 clinical benign cases while FNAC and/or imprints of surgically resected ovarian masses was performed in 28 clinically suspected malignant cases. The smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and histopathological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain with inclusion of special stain whenever required. Serum ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin and ?-fetoprotein estimations were carried out in cytologically diagnosed germ cell tumors. Results: The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing various ovarian masses were 79.2%, 90.6% and 89.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The clinical examination, pelvic ultrasound and FNAC were complementary and none of the methods was, in itself, diagnostic. However, USG-guided FNAC was found to be a fairly specific and accurate technique and should be employed as a routine, especially in young females with clinically benign ovarian lesions. The reasons for false diagnosis and limitations of USG and FNAC have been analyzed. PMID:21938175

Khan, Nazoora; Afroz, Nishat; Aqil, Barina; Khan, Tamkin; Ahmad, Ibne

2009-01-01

43

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Lesions of the Nose, Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the spectrum of lesions in the sinonasal region diagnosed on FNAC. Study Design: This is a retrospective audit of sinonasal lesions diagnosed on FNAC over a period of 12 years (1998–2009). Results: Out of a total of 79,851 FNACs, 158 (0.2%) were from the sinonasal region. FNAC was non-diagnostic in 20 (12.6%) cases. Infective\\/inflammatory lesions comprised of

Nalini Gupta; Jasleen Kaur; Radhika Srinivasan; Ashim Das; Satyawati Mohindra; Arvind Rajwanshi; Raje Nijhawan

2011-01-01

44

Cytologic diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD) by fine-needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is usually a benign, self-limited lymphadenitis, characterized by suppurative granulomas. It can, however, produce a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms and cytologic changes and be the source of diagnostic dilemmas. Identification of pleomorphic bacilli (PB) with silver impregnation stains aids in the diagnosis, but this has not been well documented in cytologic preparations or in cases without the classic morphologic changes. We reviewed 13 aspirations from eight patients (aged 13-36 yr) occurring over a 15 mo time period, all clinically or cytologically suspicious for CSD. Sites included: axilla (6), parotid (3), epitrochlear (1), neck (1), submental (1), and intraclavicular (1) nodes. Neoplasia was initially suspected clinically in 38% of the cases. All but two patients had cat exposure on subsequent interview. The cytologic differential included bacterial abscess and lymphoproliferative disorders in 31%. Neither granulomas nor suppurative inflammation were seen in all cases. Changes included: granulomas (77%), PMNs (62%), dispersed epithelioid histiocytes (46%), and suppurative granulomas (38%). A modified silver stain (Modified Steiner, Sigma Diagnostics, St. Louis, MO) was performed on all specimens. Silver positive organisms were seen in 69% of cases and were not limited to those preparations with suppurative granulomas. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an effective method for diagnosing CSD despite its heterogeneous appearance; and, when combined with clinical information and silver staining, may obviate the need for excision. PMID:8542787

Donnelly, A; Hendricks, G; Martens, S; Strovers, C; Wiemerslage, S; Thomas, P A

1995-08-01

45

Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected.

Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

2015-01-01

46

Toward improving fine needle aspiration cytology by applying Raman microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.

Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

2013-04-01

47

Mediastinal Schwannoma Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology  

PubMed Central

Schwannoma is the most common neurogenic tumor that is derived from the peripheral nerve sheath. There are no specific serologic markers or characteristic imaging abnormalities associated with schwannoma. Tissue diagnosis and immunohistochemistry are required to diagnose this lesion. We describe a 65-year-old male with a finding of three mass lesions in the superior and middle mediastinum on computed tomography of the chest. The largest lesion measured 4.6 × 5 cm. The patient subsequently underwent endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the lesion and cytology was consistent with spindle cell neoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining of the cytologic specimen was positive for S-100 and negative for pan-cytokeratin, CD34, CD117, calcitonin, smooth muscle actin and desmin. These findings were consistent with schwannoma. This is the second reported case of a mediastinal schwannoma diagnosed by EUS-FNA. PMID:21829397

Pakseresht, Kavous; Reddymasu, Savio C.; Oropeza-Vail, Melissa M.; Fan, Fang; Olyaee, Mojtaba

2011-01-01

48

Juvenile ossifying fibroma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology: a diagnostic challenge.  

PubMed

Preoperative diagnosis of jaw lesions is not always possible on the basis of clinico-radiological findings alone and needs to be confirmed before attempting any surgical intervention. Fibro-osseous lesions of the jaw comprise a spectrum of diseases which include cement-osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia, and ossifying fibroma. The cytomorphological distinction between these individual entities is difficult. We present a case of maxillary fibro-osseous lesion in an adolescent girl diagnosed and categorized as juvenile ossifying fibroma preoperatively on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Although aspirates are usually paucicellular in fibro-osseous lesions, certain cytological features if present in cellular cytosmears can offer further categorization and a definitive diagnosis may be possible in light of clinico-radiological correlation. PMID:24591292

Goyal, Surbhi; Sharma, Sonal; Arora, Vipin

2015-01-01

49

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft tissue tumor arising in extremities. We report a typical case of EMC in left inguinal region of a 71-year-old man, which was first approached by fine-needle aspiration, followed by surgical excision and subsequently diagnosed by microscopic examination and immunohistochemical study. We discuss briefly the differential diagnosis. It is important to separate EMC from other myxoid soft tissue tumors. We point out that although cytologic features may be orientating to a myxoid tumor, may not be completely distinctive. PMID:19894252

Laforga, Juan B; Gasent, Joan M

2010-04-01

50

Ultrasound-guided vacuum assisted breast biopsy in the assessment of C3 breast lesions by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology: results and costs in comparison with surgery.  

PubMed

Breast lesions defined C3 at ultrasound (US)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are probably benign, but exhibit atypias. We evaluate the results of US-guided vacuum assisted breast biopsy (VABB) of these lesions. Patients diagnosed C3 by US-FNAC, submitted to US-VABB and with a minimum follow-up of 36 months or surgery were enrolled. Cost outcome of this diagnostic protocol was evaluated. We evaluated 138 patients with non-palpable C3 lesions. In 2/138 (1.4%) cases VABB results were inadequate. VABB diagnosed: 17/138 (12.3%) malignant and 119/138 (86.2%) benign lesions. In 28/138 cases (20.3%) surgery retrieved 18/28 (64.3%) malignant lesions. One false negative result of VABB was observed. Sensitivity and specificity of VABB resulted 94.4% and 100%. Our diagnostic algorithm estimated a 45% mean decrease of costs using VABB when compared with surgical biopsy of all C3 lesions. PMID:19342236

Abbate, Francesca; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Latronico, Antuono; Trentin, Chiara; Penco, Silvia; Menna, Simona; Viale, Giuseppe; Cassano, Enrico; Bellomi, Massimo

2009-04-01

51

Multinucleate Giant Cells in FNAC of Benign Breast Lesions: Its Significance  

PubMed Central

Background: Multinucleate giant cells are described in breast aspirates. However, due to its rarity very few cases have been described cytologically. Hence recognition and correct interpretation of their presence is difficult, yet crucial for accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The prospective study of FNAC (fine needle aspirate cytology) of breast lumps was conducted for a period of six months. Direct smears were prepared from the material aspirated. In case of fluid aspirates, centrifuge done and cell sediment was used for making smears. Smears were alcohol fixed and stained with PAP/H&E or air dried smears were stained with Leishman stain. Further smears were subjected to immunocytochemistry using vimentin and CD34 markers to know the origin of multinucleate giant cells. Results: We have reported 11 cases of breast lesions, which showed multinucleate giant cells on FNAC. Out of the 11 cases, Cytologically six cases showed granuloma debris with relative proportion of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleate giant cells. Two cases were diagnosed as acute suppurative granulomatous mastitis. Two cases of fibroadenoma and one case of fat necrosis showed multinucleate giant cells. Immunocytochemistry showed vimentin positivity in both stromal and histiocytic type of multinucleate giant cells and in isolated histiocytes. CD34 was focally positive in histiocytic type of giant cells. Conclusion: An effort is made to distinguish between the stromal and histiocytic type giant cells in non-neoplastic breast lesions. Further molecular studies have to be done to know the exact histogenesis and role of these multinucleate giant cells in benign lesions. PMID:25653953

R, Kalyani; Murthy V, Srinivasa

2014-01-01

52

Cyto-morphological features of extramedullary acute megakaryoblastic leukemia on fine needle aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid cytology: A case report  

PubMed Central

Extramedullary deposits may be the presenting feature of acute myeloid leukemia. An early and accurate diagnosis on cytology will aid in correct patient management. This is especially true for patients with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML M7), where bone marrow aspiration may yield only a dry tap. While cytomorphological features of myeloid sarcoma of other types are well recognized due to its rarity, there are only two case reports discussing the morphological details of megakaryoblastic differentiation on aspiration cytology. We present the case of a 25-year-old patient with extramedullary involvement of lymph node and cerebrospinal fluid by AML M7, describing in detail, the morphological features on aspiration as well as exfoliative cytology. PMID:22022337

Chitragar, Sanjeev; Agarwal, Shipra; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Karak, Asis K.; Chharchhodawala, Taher; Sharma, Atul; Bakhshi, Sameer

2011-01-01

53

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of Merkel cell carcinoma-a review of 69 cases.  

PubMed

This study reviewed the clinical presentation, cytologic findings, and the immunophenotype of 69 Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cases sampled by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). ?Demographic and clinical data, the cytology findings, and results of ancillary testing were reviewed. ?Median patient age was 78 years (37-104) with a 1:1.8 female to male ratio. The most common FNA sites sampled included lymph nodes in the neck, the axillary region, the inguinal region and the parotid gland. Most patients had a history of MCC (68%) and/or non-MCC malignancy (70%). ?The common cytologic pattern was a cellular smear with malignant cells arranged in a dispersed pattern with variable numbers of disorganized groups of cells. Cytoplasm was scant or absent and nuclei showed mild to moderate anisokaryosis, stippled chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and nuclear molding. Numerous apoptotic bodies were often present. ?Cell block samples (28 cases) were usually positive for cytokeratins in a perinuclear dot pattern, including 88% of cases with CK20 positivity. CD56 was the most sensitive (95%) neuroendocrine marker on cell blocks and was also positive with flow cytometry in nine cases tested. ?MCC is most commonly seen in FNA specimens from the head and neck of elderly patients, often with a history of previous skin lesions. Occasional cases present in younger patients and some may be mistaken for other round blue cell tumors, such as lymphoma. CD 56 may be a useful marker in cell block preparations and in flow cytometric analysis of MCC. PMID:24678011

Shield, Paul W; Crous, Heinrich

2014-11-01

54

Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Benefits and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Examine the benefits and limitations of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) used as the definitive diagnostic method before treatment. Method. Review of the 25 year experience at a multidisciplinary musculo-skeletal centre where FNA is the primary diagnostic approach to soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities and trunk wall and the experience of various experts in the field. Results. FNA has several benefits compared with coarse needle or open surgical biopsy. The most important are rapid preliminary diagnosis, no need for hospitalization and anaesthesia, negligible complications and fear for tumour cell spread. With the collected experience gained during the years a reliable diagnosis of sarcoma is the rule in general and specific-type diagnoses are possible in many histotypes, especially when the cytologic examination is supplemented with ancillary diagnostics. The most important limitations are inability to hit small deep-seated sarcoma and some diagnostic pitfalls such as the correct diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms, variants of benign lipomatous tumours and ‘new soft tissue tumour entities’. Discussion. Optimal use of FNA calls for certain requirements such as centralization, experience in soft tissue tumour cytology–histopathology, the FNA technique and close co-operation between the orthopaedic surgeon and cytopathologist. PMID:18521248

1998-01-01

55

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of type A thymoma with adenoid cystic pattern: A case report with emphasis on peculiar hyaline globules in cytologic smear.  

PubMed

Here we report a case of type A thymoma with adenoid cystic pattern, which extended to the lower anterior neck and clinically mimicked a nontoxic thyroid goiter. The cytologic smears of fine-needle aspiration showed cohesive fragments of short spindle cells with finely granular chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Scant interspersed lymphocytes were present. On air-dried Liu stained preparation, there were many magenta-colored hyaline globules wrapped by spindle tumor cells. The cytomorphologic findings correlated with the adenoid cystic pattern in histology. The cytologic differential diagnosis and the prognostic aspects of type A thymoma were briefly discussed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:247-250. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962366

Hang, Jen-Fan; Hsu, Chih-Yi; Lai, Chung-Ru

2015-03-01

56

Fibromatosis Colli - A Rare Cytological Diagnosis In Infantile Neck Swellings  

PubMed Central

Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

2014-01-01

57

Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

2014-08-01

58

Primary Subcutaneous Inguinal Hydatid Cyst: Diagnosis by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

2014-01-01

59

Fine needle aspiration cytology of a myoepithelioma presenting as a thyroid nodule.  

PubMed

Myoepitheliomas are rare neoplasms that are typically found in the major and minor salivary glands and represent approximately 1.5% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We present a patient with an exophytic anterior midline neck mass, which was initially believed to be a thyroid isthmus nodule that underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. FNA cytologic evaluation reveals numerous plump spindle cells and a myxoid background, thus raising the possibility of rare benign mixed tumor of the thyroid. However, the resected specimen consists of predominately spindle cells with a minor component of chondromyxoid matrix, and no ductal epithelial cells, favoring a diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Although this lesion clinically and radiologically appeared to arise from the thyroid gland, at the time of resection, it was found to be adjacent to the thyroid isthmus and was ultimately diagnosed as a soft tissue myoepithelioma of the midneck. PMID:24700639

Narick, Christina; Velosa, Claudia; Pollice, Philip; Silverman, Jan

2015-02-01

60

Huge pelvic parachordoma: fine needle aspiration cytology and histological differential diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Parachordoma is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor of unknown lineage. Parachordoma develops most often on the extremities. Only 2 cases have been reported as pelvic parachordoma. A 46-year old Egyptian woman with a huge painful pelvic mass was found to have a parachordoma with ectopic pelvic right kidney. There is only one report in the literature of fine needle aspiration cytology in this setting. The microscopic picture of parachordoma is not new to pathologists but the gross picture of this rare tumor has not previously been published; not even in the World Health Organization classification of soft tissues tumors. Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient is in good clinical condition without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 84 months of follow up. PMID:23372917

Samaka, Rehab M.; Kandil, Mona A.

2012-01-01

61

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of a liver metastasis of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma.  

PubMed

Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an uncommon neoplasm derived from FDCs in lymphoid tissue. Metastatic FDCS to the liver is rare. We present a case of a 65-yr-old woman who was referred to our institution 1 mo after splenectomy for FDCS of the spleen. An abdominal CT scan revealed a 2.0-cm liver lesion, which led to fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Smears of the aspiration obtained were hypercellular showing a pleomorphic population of large oval to spindle-shaped tumor cells against a background of small mature lymphocytes, plasma cells, and necrotic debris. Tumor cells were arranged singly, in syncytial or fascicular patterns, and had a moderate amount of cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. Nuclei had irregular nuclear membranes, finely granular to vesicular chromatin, and prominent nucleoli. Multinucleated and binucleated cells resembling Reed-Sternberg cells were noted occasionally. Mitotic figures, including atypical forms, were frequently identified. The diagnosis of "pleomorphic malignant spindle-cell neoplasm consistent with metastatic FDCS" was rendered and later confirmed by histological review and immunohistochemical staining of the subsequent liver resection specimen. Although cytological features of FDCS are characteristic, they are overlapping with those of many other tumors. We review the literature on this entity with emphasis on FNA cytomorphology, differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:15584048

Ren, Rulong; Sun, Xiaoping; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour; Gong, Yun

2005-01-01

62

[The value of the triad: clinical examination, mammography and needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Our experience].  

PubMed

Based on the authors' personal experience of the use of the triad, clinical examination, mammography and needle-aspiration cytology, in the strategic diagnosis of breast cancer, the paper emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as the sole means of obtaining an improved outcome. Using this integrated methodology the authors have obtained a specificity of 99%, sensitivity of 97.8%, and a diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value for positive tests of 98%. In conclusion, the authors affirm that the comparative interpretation of clinical examination, mammography and cytology appears to be an extremely efficacious and reliable method for the diagnosis of the nature of breast nodules. PMID:2097562

Cipolla, C; Amato, C; Di Lisi, G; Graceffa, G; Cassano, T; Salanitro, L; Bajardi, G; De Simone, G F; Barberi, G; Tomasino, R M

1990-11-01

63

The Management of Thyroid Nodules with Atypical Cytology on Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background Fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of the thyroid categorized as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a newly defined category per the recent Bethesda guidelines. In this study, we sought to assess the characteristics and treatment of patients with an AUS/FLUS FNAB at our institution. Additionally, we evaluated the utility of the recommended three-month timing of repeat FNAB. Methods A retrospective study of all patients with an FNAB categorized as AUS/FLUS between 1/2005–12/2007 at an academic, tertiary care center. Clinical, cytological and ultrasound variables were compared among management groups. Differences in patients receiving repeat FNAB before or after a three-month interval were also compared. Results 203 patients of the 5,391 FNAB’s performed at our institution met the Bethesda criteria for AUS/FLUS. 62% were triaged directly to surgery (group I), 25% had a repeat FNAB (group II) and 13% were observed (group III). Younger (p = 0.006), male patients (p = 0.04) were more likely to go directly to surgery. 2.4% of males were observed vs. 16% of the women (p = 0.04); Timing of repeat FNAB (< or ? 3 months) did not alter the results of the second FNAB (p = 0.73). The overall rate of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery was 15.7%. Conclusion(s) Current practice relies mainly on established prognostic factors such as gender, and age. Timing of repeat biopsy did not alter management, repeat FNAB diagnosis, or rate of malignancy in our cohort. PMID:22941160

Nagarkatti, Sushruta S.; Faquin, William C.; Lubitz, Carrie C.; Garcia, Dieter Morales; Barbesino, Giuseppe; Ross, Douglas S.; Hodin, Richard A.; Daniels, Gilbert H.; Parangi, Sareh

2013-01-01

64

Inconclusive or erroneous fine-needle aspirates of breast with adequate and representative material: a cytologic/histologic study.  

PubMed

Adequately cellular and representative fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of breast have a high diagnostic accuracy. There is, however, a recognized category designated as "gray zone" where a definitive diagnosis cannot be reached. We reviewed our experience in this category to identify useful diagnostic parameters. Twenty-four such FNAs with surgical follow-up were retrieved from AUBMC files (2003-2009). Cytology slides were reviewed blindly. All cases were females, 29-73 years. There were three erroneous and 21 inconclusive diagnoses. The majority (15) was invasive adenocarcinomas: two cribriform, four tubular, one lobular, and eight not otherwise specified. The remaining cases were papillary and fibroepithelial tumors (three each), ductal carcinoma in situ, cribriform (two), and one adenomyoepithelioma (AME). Useful diagnostic features included: (1) Biphasic cell population with focal nuclear atypia and intranuclear and cytoplasmic vacuolar inclusions (AME). (2) Complex clusters of epithelial cells with cribriform architecture (cribriform carcinoma). (3) Rigid tubular epithelial structures with abrupt change in diameter, ending in pointed tips with abnormal branching (tubular carcinoma). (4) Cellular stromal fragments (fibroepithelial tumors). (5) Papillary fibrovascular cores, columnar cells, and three-dimensional papillary epithelial fragments (papillary tumors). Myoepithelial cells classically described in benign aspirates were not always a discriminatory factor. The "gray zone" in breast FNA is usually due to overlapping cytologic features of some benign and malignant lesions. Useful distinguishing cytologic features are described. PMID:24167007

Shabb, Nina S; Boulos, Fouad I; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Abbas, Jaber; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W

2014-05-01

65

Papillary carcinoma thyroid: FNAC diagnosis.  

PubMed

Thyroid carcinoma in children is currently assuming greater importance due to increase incidence in the recent times. In carcinoma thyroid, the age at the time of diagnosis is an important prognostic factor and children in particular are considered to have an excellent prognosis. We came across 3 cases of papillary carcinoma thyroid involving both the lobes and having lymph node metastasis in children, the youngest being 4 years of age at the time of diagnosis. All these cases were diagnosed on aspiration cytology. PMID:15630334

Kumar, Sanjay; Arora, B; Rattan, K N; Rattan, Simmi

2004-12-01

66

Should We Apply Suction During Fine Needle Cytology of Thyroid Lesions? A Prospective Study of 200 Cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established first line diagnostic tool in evaluating palpable thyroid lesions. However, the technique depends on suction and thus is at times painful, sometimes traumatic and yield haemorrhagic material for cytological study. In more recent times, a modified technique called fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) has come into vogue which obviates the use of suction and therefore is more patient friendly. Aims/Objectives: To investigate whether fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) gives quantitatively and qualitatively superior cytologic material as compared to the conventional technique of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) in thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study of 200 cases carried out in the Department of Pathology during two years period. Both techniques were executed on the same thyroid swelling / nodule in the same clinical session beginning with FNS followed by FNAC. The observation recorded by two pathologists were based on the scoring system proposed by Mair et al., Statistical analysis was done by Student’s paired t-test using SPSS 13 software. Observation/Results: A total of 200 cases were studied. The non-aspiration technique yielded less diagnostically adequate but more diagnostically superior smears when compared with aspiration technique. The average score per case was 5.31 by aspiration technique and 6.35 by non-aspiration technique. Conclusion: Both the techniques have their own merits and demerits and neither is absolutely superior to the other. A combination of both the technique gives better result. PMID:25478349

Babu, K V Sreedhar; Sachan, Alok; Rukmangdha, N; Patnayak, Rashmi; Radhika, K; Phaneendra, B V; Reddy, M Kumaraswamy

2014-01-01

67

Preoperative Assessment of the Axilla by Surgeon Performed Ultrasound and Cytology in Patients With Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Preoperative evaluation of the axilla, an important prognostic determinant for patients with invasive breast cancer, is achieved by non- or minimally invasive methods to avoid the potential hazards of operative intervention. The aim of this study was to determine statistical power of axillary ultrasound (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluating axillary status. Methods Axillary lymph nodes were imaged for malignant involvement by high resolution US in 93 breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla. Cytological samples were obtained by US-guided FNAC from image-suspicious lymph nodes. Cytology-positive patients directly underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Patients with US and/or cytology-negative axilla underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Using statistical analysis, US findings and US combined with FNAC were compared with SLNB and final pathology to measure performance. Results US was suspicious for metastasis in 38 patients (41%), of whom 16 (42%) were cytology-positive. Axilla was positive in 36/93 patients (38.7%). Sixteen patients with positive FNAC directly underwent ALND. SLNB and/or final pathology was positive in 13/55 patients (23.7%) with negative US (false negative of US) and in 7/22 patients (31.8%) with positive US but negative cytology (false negative of FNAC). SLNB and/or final pathology was negative in 15/38 patients (39.5%) with positive US (false positive of US). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of US alone were 63.8%, 73.6%, 69.8%, 60.5% and 76.3%, respectively, and 69.6%,100%, 81.6%, 100% and 68.1%, respectively, for US combined with FNAC. Conclusion Statistical measures of the US alone did not achieve a satisfactory value for excluding operative biopsy. US-negative and US-positive but cytology-negative cases still require SLNB for accurate evaluation of axillary status. On the other hand, US-guided positive cytology can obviate SLNB proceeding directly to ALND and avoiding frozen section of sentinel node(s).

Gurleyik, Gunay; Gurleyik, Emin; Aktekin, Ali; Aker, Fugen

2015-01-01

68

Significance of the Presence of Lymphocytes in the Cytological Analysis of Transbronchial Needle Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo evaluate the clinical relevance of the presence of lymphocytes in transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) samples from pathological mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with suspected lung cancer.

Carmen M. Lucena; Carles Agustí; Pilar Martínez-Olondris; Esteban Cano-Jiménez; Ramón M. Marrades; Josep Ramírez; Marcelo Sánchez; Pedro Arguis; Antoni Xaubet

2011-01-01

69

Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far. The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative

E Saggiorato; R De Pompa; M Volante; S Cappia; F Arecco; A P Dei Tos; F Orlandi; M Papotti

2005-01-01

70

Cytological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland: fine-needle aspiration of seven cases.  

PubMed

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland neoplasm that is defined by ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. There have been few case reports on the cytopathologic features of MASC to date. We examined the clinicopathological and cytological features of seven cases of MASC defined by RT-PCR analysis of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. The cases occurred in three men and four women aged between 39 and 68 years, with a mean of 51.6 years. In five of these seven cases, the tumor involved the parotid gland. Histologically, all cases displayed predominantly microcystic patterns, often a mixture of follicular and papillary-cystic structures. All tumors were immunoreactive for mammaglobin, S-100 protein, and vimentin. Available fine-needle aspiration cytology smears were cellular and exhibited many loosely cohesive syncytial clusters or isolated cells. Many histiocytes, some of which contained hemosiderin pigments, and variously shaped mucinous material were evident in the background or within the epithelial clusters. The majority of cases showed small to medium-sized follicular structures with secreted materials. Papillary clusters were occasionally found. Tumor cells exhibited small to medium-sized round to oval nuclei, with a smooth contour and indistinct or small nucleoli, and vacuolated cytoplasm. No tumor cells had obvious intracytoplasmic zymogen granules. It appeared that clusters of small to medium-sized follicular and papillary configurations consisting of bland tumor cells with vacuolated cytoplasm, but lack of intracytoplasmic zymogen granules, in a mucinous or hemosiderin-laden histiocyte-rich background, were a characteristic cytological feature highly suggestive of MASC. PMID:24585770

Higuchi, Kayoko; Urano, Makoto; Takahashi, Reisuke H; Oshiro, Hisashi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagai, Takeshi; Obikane, Hiyo; Shimojo, Hisashi; Nagao, Toshitaka

2014-10-01

71

Penile neurilemmoma: Utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of a rare entity  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous lesions in the penis are of rare occurrence and encompass benign as well as malignant tumors. These include lipomas, leiomyomas, neurilemmomas and their malignant counterparts. A surgical excision at this site carries the risk of postoperative penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. We report a rare case of penile neurilemmoma which presented as a subcutaneous nodule on the dorsal surface of the penis. A fine-needle aspiration was performed which aided in the preoperative diagnosis and guided the extent of excision. We report this case to highlight the importance of needle aspiration as a simple outdoor procedure for penile lesions which can aid surgical approach and postoperative outcome. PMID:25538392

Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Shukla, Saumya; Gupta, Anurag; Awasthi, Namrata Punit; Husain, Nuzhat; Dhayal, lshwar Ram

2014-01-01

72

Amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlations.  

PubMed

Amyloid deposits are unexpected in salivary gland tumors. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1.8 cm, slow-growing parotid mass. Both fine-needle aspiration and frozen section were misinterpreted as pleomorphic adenoma. The final pathology was amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The aspirates consisted of three components: mucin, amyloid, and tumor cells. The mucin was unusually thick, stringy, and metachromatic. The amyloid presented as innumerable concretions scattered solitarily or in small jigsaw puzzle-like aggregates, individually wrapped by tumor cells. The tumor cells had bland oval nuclei and scant-to-abundant cytoplasm, arranged in loosely cohesive small sheets. On histology, the tumor cells were arranged in interconnecting monolayered glands of a wide range of size with small patches of cellular regions composed of plump tumor cells. As the luminal mucin and amyloid deposits enlarged, the lining tumor cells became thin and flat. The glandular lumen molded amyloid concretions into different shapes and sizes. Atrophic or pyknotic tumor cells outlined the amyloid concretions with concentric laminations, reminiscent of corpora amylacea. Alcian blue positive luminal mucin, associated with newly formed amyloid, was present in mucinous regions of the tumor. This is the first description of cytologic features of amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid and the second case in the pathology literature. The literature of amyloid-rich tumors was reviewed and the implication of the presence of abundant amyloid on the death of tumor cells suggested. PMID:24550230

Yang, Grace C H; Kuhel, William I; Scognamiglio, Theresa

2014-09-01

73

Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy processed by cytologic smear and cell block techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors: a study of 48 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) processed by smear cytology and cell block (CB) techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors (LGTs). Study Design: In a prospective study, we enrolled 48 consecutive patients with LGTs. Immediately after excision of LGTs, the tissues were underwent FNAB with 23-gauge needles. The FNAB samples were processed to produce cytologic smears and CB from which slides were cut for immunohistochemical staining. The remainders were submitted for routine histopathologic processing. The diagnostic value of FNAB was assessed by comparing the FNAB diagnoses to those made by routine histopathology. Results: Cytopathologic evaluations based on smear cytology and CB with sections stained immunohistochemically can distinguish non-epithelial lesions from epithelial ones in all cases. The diagnostic sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions were: cytologic smears--76%, 68%, and 71%, respectively; CB with immunohistochemical staining--88%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. The accuracy of the tissue diagnosis compared to routine histopathology was less for cytologic smears (58%) than for CB with immunohistochemistry (81%; P < 0.05). Conclusions: FNAB of LGT processed using a CB technique capable of producing immunohistochemically stained slides results in a greater percentage of accurate tissue diagnoses than do cytologic smears, when compared to routine histopathology. PMID:25120744

Wang, Xiangning; Qian, Jiang; Yuan, Yifei; Ping, Bo; Feng, Liqing; Bi, Yingwen; Li, Xiaping

2014-01-01

74

Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as a pancreatic mass by computed tomography scan and mimicking a primary neuroendocrine tumor: a potential pitfall in aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant neoplasm, often presenting at late stage and portending a poor prognosis for the patient. The peripancreatic fat is a rare site of extrahepatic metastasis, and metastatic HCC can mimic primary pancreatic neoplasms, even in this location. It is crucial to be aware of this pitfall in the evaluation of aspiration cytology of pancreatic neoplasms and to develop a strategy to reach the correct diagnosis. We present an endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic HCC presenting as a pancreatic mass radiologically that had neuroendocrine features on various cytological and histological preparations. The metastatic lesions were located surgically in the peripancreatic adipose tissue with involvement of one peripancreatic lymph node. This case illustrates the utility of FNA for diagnosing uncommon presentations of HCC and the importance of clinical history, cell block, and an immunocytochemical panel in determining the origin of the tumor. PMID:19582809

Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Kim, Stacey A; Borcich, Anthony; Zhu, Hongfa; Wu, Maoxin; Szporn, Arnold H; Chen, Hua

2009-12-01

75

Predictors of non-diagnostic cytology in surgeon-performed ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

BackgroundFine needle aspiration (FNA) is the standard of care for the diagnostic work-up of thyroid nodules but despite its proven utility, the non-diagnostic rate for thyroid FNA ranges from 6-36%. A non-diagnostic FNA is problematic for the clinician and patient because it can result in repeated procedures, multiple physician visits, and a delay in definitive treatment. Surgeon-performed FNA has been shown to be safe, cost-effective, as accurate as those performed by other clinicians, and has the added benefit of decreasing wait times to surgery. Several studies have examined rates and factors that may be predictive of a non-diagnostic cytology in non-surgeon FNA, but none have evaluated this in surgeon-performed thyroid FNA. If these factors are unique in surgeon-performed vs. non-surgeon performed thyroid FNA, then patients may be more appropriately triaged to FNA by alternate clinicians.ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to determine the rate and factors predictive of a non-diagnostic FNA in surgeon performed ultrasound-guided FNA of thyroid nodules.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective review of all adult patients who underwent thyroid FNA by a staff, fellow, or resident Otolaryngologist at the University of Alberta between January 2011 and June 2013. Factors analyzed included patient factors, thyroid characteristics, nodule characteristics, and surgeon level of training and experience. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis were performed.Results131 patients (180 nodules) were reviewed. The non-diagnostic rate was 23%. Nodules with predominant cystic component, those less than 1cm, and resident-performed FNA were associated with non-diagnostic cytology (p¿=¿0.001, p¿=¿0.02, p¿=¿0.04 respectively). A cystic nodule was the only independent predictor of non-diagnostic FNA on multivariate analysis OR¿=¿4.441, 95% CI [1.785-11.045], p¿=¿0.001).ConclusionsThe rate of non-diagnostic thyroid FNA performed by a surgeon with ultrasound guidance is similar to other clinicians. A cystic nodule is a strong independent predictor of non-diagnostic cytology. Non-cystic nodules may particularly benefit from surgeon-performed thyroid FNA due to the high diagnostic rate and potential for earlier definitive management. PMID:25466726

Isaac, Andre; Jeffery, Caroline C; Seikaly, Hadi; Al-Marzouki, Hani; Harris, Jeffery R; O Connell, Daniel A

2014-12-01

76

A Case of Adenomatous Goiter Involving Diffuse, Acute, and Painful Thyroid Enlargement after Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology  

PubMed Central

The patient was a 44-year-old woman who exhibited a diffuse goiter during health screening. Her medical history did not include any significant medication-based treatment. An echographic examination detected a solid cystic tumor, which measured 21 × 14 × 10?mm, in her right thyroid lobe; however, she displayed normal thyroid function. After fine-needle aspiration cytology had been performed with a 22?G injection needle, the patient immediately complained of compression and pain extending from the front of her neck to her lower chin, which was not accompanied by dyspnea. A second echographic examination revealed diffuse and edematous enlargement and increased internal blood flow in the bilateral thyroid lobes as well as a thyroid nodule. We immediately iced the patient's neck and administered 125?mg methylprednisolone via an intravenous infusion. Within one hour, her symptoms had markedly improved, but acute pain remained. Thus, we continued the steroid (prednisone) treatment, but the dose was gradually reduced from 10?mg/day to 5?mg/day at 1 week after the patient's symptoms disappeared. The mechanism responsible for the patient's condition remains unclear. PMID:25276443

Ogata, Ryohei; Saito, Wataru; Ohta, Yusuke; Koike, Yoshikazu; Yamashita, Tetsumasa; Yamamoto, Yutaka

2014-01-01

77

Cytologically diagnosed metastatic small cell lung carcinoma in the mandibular soft tissue.  

PubMed

Metastatic tumors to the oral and maxillofacial region are relatively rare, they constitute 1% of all malignant tumors of the oral cavity. The purpose of this case report is to evaluate the efficiency of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of metastatic small cell lung carcinoma. A 50-year-old female patient presenting with a 4x5 cm firm, hemorrhagic, tender swelling on the left mandibular bicuspid gingiva was evaluated. Her past medical history revealed a mass measuring 8x5 cm in the left pulmonary hilar area with pleural effusion, which was diagnosed as small cell lung carcinoma. A FNAC was performed to the oral mucosal swelling, and cytological examination revealed metastatic small cell lung carcinoma. The duration between diagnosis of the primary lung and development of metastasis was 6 months. The FNAC is a rapid, non-invasive, and safe diagnostic method when carried out with a proper technique, and proved to be a valuable adjunct to a careful physical and radiological examination of the oro-maxillofacial lesions. PMID:23677273

Pektas, Zafer O; Gunhan, Omer

2013-05-01

78

Cytological diagnosis of parasites presenting as superficial nodular swelling: report of 35 cases.  

PubMed

Parasitic infestation often present with superficial nodular swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays an important role in prompt diagnosis of the disease. To study the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of parasites presenting as skin or subcutaneous nodules. Total 361 cases of superficial swellings at various sites were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Out of the 361 cases, 35 cases were diagnosed as suggestive of parasitic infestation. These 35 cases form the study group. In 14 cases out of 35 cases, a definitive diagnosis of parasitic infestation was made as parasite or fragments of parasite were seen in the aspirate. In 21 cases, neither parasite nor fragments could be identified on the aspirates and a diagnosis of parasitic inflammation was suggested on the basis of other cytomorphological findings. In 17 of these cases, a biopsy correlation was available, which revealed definitive parasite in 8 cases and the remaining 9 were reported as suggestive of parasitic cyst. The cytological diagnosis was confirmatory in cases where the parasite fragment were identified in the smears. However, in other cases, clear aspirate, presence of eosinophils, macrophages and typical granular dirty background are the features which should prompt the cytologist to the possibility of parasitic infestation. PMID:23542395

Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Gupta, Oneal; Aggarwal, Roopak

2012-04-01

79

Pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology of parotid membranous basal cell adenoma-A review of pitfalls in FNA cytology of salivary gland neoplasms with basaloid cell features.  

PubMed

Membranous basal cell adenoma (MBCA) is a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm. It is difficult to diagnose MBCA based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology due to rare reporting of its FNA cytology and overlapping of its FNA cytologic features with some benign and malignant entities. We present a case of MBCA in a 67-year-old female that was originally misinterpreted as adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) on FNA cytology. The FNA smears showed numerous uniform small basaloid epithelial cells with round or oval nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. The basaloid cells surround acellular, dense, homogenous material or are surrounded by acellular or paucicellular dense homogeneous material possibly containing bland spindle cells. The basaloid cells are present in variably sized three-dimensional clusters, acini, or sheets with variable cohesion. The dense homogenous material surrounded by basaloid cells may be interconnected. High power magnification reveals the homogeneous material to have a fibrillar texture. The edges of dense homogenous materials were well-demarcated. We describe the diagnostic pitfalls of FNA for MBCA, particularly versus ACC, basal cell adenoma, cellular pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in hope of improving clinical management and patient treatment. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014; © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25431027

Jurczyk, Matthew; Peevey, Joseph F; Vande Haar, Mark A; Lin, Xiaoqi

2014-11-27

80

Scope of FNAC in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors-A study from a tertiary cancer referral center in India  

PubMed Central

Background Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) forms one of the first diagnostic tools in the evaluation of tumors. Its role in diagnosing soft tissue tumors (STT) has been fairly documented, as well as debated. Present study was aimed at evaluating its scope in diagnosing 127 cases of soft tissue tumors. Methods Conventional Pap and MGG staining was available in all the cases. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed in 15 cases. Histopathological details were available in 115 cases. Results 50% cases were referred for a primary diagnosis, while 26.8% & 22.8% cases were evaluated for recurrent and metastatic lesions, respectively. Extremities were the commonest sites. On FNAC, 101 cases (79.5%) were labeled as malignant, whereas 10 cases (7.9%) were labeled as benign. The remaining 16 cases (11%) were not categorized and were labeled as 'unsure/not specified'. Histopathological confirmation in 115 cases, gave a diagnostic accuracy of 98%, with a positive predictive value of 98% in malignant cases and a negative predictive value of 100% in benign cases. Two cases were false positive. Among the various cytological categories, 60 cases (47.2%) were of spindle cell type, followed by 32 (25.2%) of round cell type and 14 cases (11%) of lipomatous type. Other 12 cases (9.4%) were of pleomorphic type; 7 (5.5%) cases of epithelioid type and remaining 2 cases were of myxoid type. All the round cell, pleomorphic and myxoid type of tumors were sarcomas, whereas 73.3% cases of spindle cell type were labeled as 'malignant'. Exact cytological sub typing was offered in 58 cases, with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as the most frequently sub typed tumor. The two false positive malignant cases were of fibromatosis and a pigmented schwannoma, on biopsy. Out of 28 metastatic lesions, lymph nodes were the commonest site for metastasis, with epithelioid tumors that formed highest percentage of metastatic cases. Conclusion FNAC is fairly specific and sensitive in STT diagnoses for primary, recurrent and metastatic lesions. The cytological types, especially round cell and pleomorphic sarcomas, can be quickly identified. Clinicopathological correlation with ICC as an adjunct, are valuable in exact sub typing. PMID:17973999

Rekhi, Bharat; Gorad, Biru D; Kakade, Anagha C; Chinoy, RF

2007-01-01

81

Clinical evaluation, imaging studies, indications for cytologic study and preprocedural requirements for duct brushing studies and pancreatic fine-needle aspiration: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques for EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature to be used for pancreaticobiliary disease, ancillary testing and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on expertise of the authors, literature review, discussions of the draft document at national and international meetings and synthesis of online comments of the draft document. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. This document summarizes recommendations for the clinical and imaging work-up of pancreatic and biliary tract lesions along with indications for cytologic study of these lesions. Prebrushing and FNA requirements are also discussed. PMID:25191515

Adler, Douglas; Schmidt, C. Max; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Barthel, James S.; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Merchant, Nipun B.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Shaaban, Akram M.; Simeone, Diane; Pitman, Martha Bishop; Layfield, Lester J.

2014-01-01

82

Atypical presentation of calvarial metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in an adolescent: A rare case diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with literature review.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a complex and challenging neoplasm both in terms of treatment as well as diagnosis. Its unpredictable biological behavior and many deceptive appearances can sometimes bewilder the pathologist. We hereby report a rare case of a 17 year old girl presenting with an occipital swelling and importantly no prior documents at the time of aspiration. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed features of metastatic carcinoma with the following possibilities; metastatic RCC, melanoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further detailed history of the patient and investigations were advised. Intraoperative squash smears also showed similar features. Histopathology of the lesion showed features of metastatic RCC. This case highlights the fact that a skull lesion in rare cases may be the presenting sign of an underlying malignancy. In the absence of key documents, providing the correct diagnosis may become very challenging and cytomorphology alone can be extremely helpful. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:412-415. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25605524

Gaur, Kavita; Mandal, Shramana; Gondal, Ranjana; Singh, Daljit

2015-05-01

83

Diagnostic Efficacy of Cell Block Immunohistochemistry, Smear Cytology, and Liquid-Based Cytology in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Lesions: A Single-Institution Experience  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnostic efficiency of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology varies widely depending on the treatment method of the specimens. The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of cell block (CB) immunohistochemistry, smear cytology (SC), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in patients with pancreatic lesions without consulting an on-site cytopathologist. Methods This study prospectively enrolled 72 patients with pancreatic lesions. The EUS-FNA specimens were examined by SC, LBC, and CB immunohistochemistry. The diagnostic efficacy of the 3 methods was then compared. Patients’ final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical resection specimens, diagnostic imaging, and clinical follow-up. Results Our results included 60 malignant and 12 benign pancreatic lesions. The diagnostic sensitivity (90%), negative predictive value (66.7%), and accuracy (91.7%) of CB immunohistochemistry were significantly higher than those of SC (70.0%, 30.0%, and 75.0%, respectively) and LBC (73.3%, 31.6%, and 77.8%, respectively) (all P<0.05). The combination of CB and SC, or CB and LBC, did not significantly increase the efficacy compared to CB immunohistochemistry alone. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in the absence of an on-site cytopathologist, CB immunohistochemistry on EUS-FNA specimens offers a higher diagnostic efficacy in patients with pancreatic lesions than does SC and LBC. PMID:25259861

Qin, Shan-yu; Zhou, You; Li, Ping; Jiang, Hai-xing

2014-01-01

84

Diagnostic pitfalls in cytological diagnosis of subcutaneous fungal infection in renal transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at increased risk of the development of a variety of skin infections that can result from graft-preserving immuno-suppressive therapy. In this study, we aimed to determine cytomorphological findings of fungal subcutaneous swelling in seven RTRs and to analyze diagnostic pitfalls in fungal cytology. A retrospective review of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears of subcutaneous swelling with positive fungal elements in RTRs from 2008 to 2010 was performed. We had seven cases (all males; age range, 34-58 years, mean, 46.3 years). The time interval between the renal transplantation and appearance of swelling ranged from 8 to 19 months (mean, 13.4 months). The swelling was located on lower limb (six cases) and arm (one case). The lesion was solitary (six cases) and multiple (one case). The cytology of aspirated material showed branched septate fungal hyphae in six cases. These were well delineated on Periodic acid schiffs (PAS) and chromic silver methenamine (CSM) stains. One case showed presence of faint, thin walled, broad ribbon like hyphae. Culture of aspirated material was performed in four cases which grew phaeohyphomycosis in all. Histology of excised tissue showed numerous septate, branched, pigmented fungal elements suggestive of pheohyphomycosis in four cases and broad ribbon hyphae suggestive of zygomycosis in one case. All of our cases responded well with anti-fungal treatment. Fungal infection can manifest as subcutaneous swelling in RTRs. It is often severe, rapidly progressive and difficult to diagnose. FNAC is an important diagnostic tool which is simple, cost effective and rapid method. PMID:21381226

Jaiswal, Sushila; Vij, Mukul; Prasad, Narayan; Kaul, Anupama; Marak, Rungmei S K; Pandey, Rakesh

2012-03-01

85

FNAC diagnosis of medullary carcinoma thyroid: A report of three cases with review of literature.  

PubMed

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is an unusual neoplasm, which is associated with specific supportive diagnostic markers. Despite this, its cytological diagnosis is often difficult. We report herewith three cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis was established on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Plasmacytoid cell pattern was observed in two cases and spindle cell pattern in the third case. PMID:21157553

Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Ansari, Hena A; Sadaf, Lubna; Khan, Mohammad Amanullah

2010-04-01

86

FNAC diagnosis of medullary carcinoma thyroid: A report of three cases with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is an unusual neoplasm, which is associated with specific supportive diagnostic markers. Despite this, its cytological diagnosis is often difficult. We report herewith three cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis was established on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Plasmacytoid cell pattern was observed in two cases and spindle cell pattern in the third case. PMID:21157553

Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Ansari, Hena A; Sadaf, Lubna; Khan, Mohammad Amanullah

2010-01-01

87

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease): A case report and review of 49 cases with fine needle aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD), a rare, benign, self-limiting histiocytic proliferative disorder, can be encountered in both nodal and extranodal locations, and fine needle aspiration (FNA), a simple, accurate and economic tool, has been widely used for the diagnosis of superficial and deep-seated lesions. Familiarity with the cytomorphologic features of RDD is important as prognosis and treatment are quite different from other benign or malignant diseases for which it may clinically masquerade. Although large numbers of RDD cases have been reported, review of the literature has revealed 49 reported cases of RDD diagnosed by FNA. Here, we report a case of RDD with nasal and sinus involvement. The patient was seen at our institution, carrying a diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor rendered by an outside institution, based on material obtained by nasal and sinus surgical biopsies. Cervical lymph node FNA performed at our institution revealed typical features of RDD. The case, as well as a brief review of the literature and 49 RDD cases with FNA cytology, will be discussed. PMID:21383958

Shi, Yuquan; Griffin, Adrienne Carruth; Zhang, Paul JL; Palmer, James N; Gupta, Prabodh

2011-01-01

88

B cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical hodgkin lymphoma: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

A 58-year-old lady presented with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A thoracoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration showed large atypical epithelioid cells arranged in cohesive sheets and dispersed as single cells with intact cytoplasm amid a background of lymphocytes and histiocytes. A cytological diagnosis of "a malignant neoplasm" was made, raising a broad list of differential diagnoses. A broad panel of immunocytochemical stains performed on the cell block was indicative of a lymphoproliferative disorder, but the immunophenotype was intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Diffuse and strong reactivity to CD20, CD79a, and PAX-5, and weak reactivity to CD30, was in favor of a DLBCL, or more precisely mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphoma (MLBL). However, there were negative staining for LCA, OCT-2, and BOB-1 as well as positive staining for EBV-encoded RNA, which were against a diagnosis of MLBL and raised the possibility of cHL. The absence of RS cells and the typical mileu, the negativity for CD15 and the strong positivity of CD20 and PAX-5 were against a diagnosis of cHL. On this basis, the diagnosis of "B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with features intermediate between DLBCL and cHL" was rendered. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed on excisional biopsy. This case report demonstrates broad differential diagnoses raised by this diagnostic entity and the importance of an adequate cell block for accurate designation. PMID:23630122

Lynnhtun, Kyaw; Varikatt, Winny; Pathmanathan, Nirmala

2014-08-01

89

Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Assessment of Cervical Metastasis in Patients Undergoing Elective Neck Dissection  

PubMed Central

Background: In head and neck cancer patients, diagnosis of metastatic cervical adenopathy is essential for treatment planning and prognosis assessment. Treatment of patients with head and neck cancer with clinically negative cervical lymph node (N0) remains controversial. While routine neck treatment would result in overtreatment in many patients, observation may delay the diagnosis and decrease the patients’ survival. Objectives: To gain insights into the unclear questions regarding the value of diagnostic modalities in patients with N0 neck, this study was designed to compare the diagnostic efficacy of palpation, ultrasonography (US) and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USGFNA) in detecting cervical lymph node metastasis. Patients and Methods: Forty-two patients with head and neck cancer who underwent US and USGFNA prior to elective neck dissection were studied. Histopathologic findings of the neck specimens were compared with each diagnostic technique. Results: Of the 53 neck dissection specimens, histopathology showed metastases in 16 cases. The overall accuracy of USGFNA, US and palpation was 96%, 68% and 70%, respectively. The specificity of USGFNA was superior to palpation and US alone. USGFNA had the highest sensitivity, predictive value and accuracy in detecting cervical metastases compared with other performed tests. Conclusions: In our study, USGFNA was superior to palpation and US in detecting metastasis in clinically negative necks. This method can be recommended as a diagnostic tool in preoperative assessment of patients without palpable metastasis, but further investigations are needed before this modality could be considered as an alternative to elective neck dissection.

Dabirmoghaddam, Payman; Sharifkashany, Shervin; Mashali, Leila

2014-01-01

90

Tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease: a rare diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD) is a well-recognized inflammatory joint disorder characterized by presence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in intraarticular and periarticular tissue. We report here a case of a 48-year-old male who presented with painless right hand swelling. Clinical suspicion was that of malignant soft tissue tumor. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) yielded chalky white gritty material. Microscopic examination showed large areas of basophilic calcified material, histiocytes, giant cells and characteristic rhomboid shaped crystals. At places, chondroid material was also identified, hence, diagnosis of CPPD was made. This was confirmed on histopathological examination. Tophaceous/ tumoral pseudogout is a rare form of CPPD and it is important to recognize that this form can be diagnosed in FNA cytology (FNAC) and misdiagnosis of benign or malignant cartilaginous lesions can be avoided. PMID:19688761

Kishore, B; Khare, P; Gupta, R Jain; Gupta, C; Khare, V

2010-01-01

91

Chromogenic in situ hybridization to detect EGFR gene copy number in cell blocks from fine-needle aspirates of non small cell lung carcinomas and lung metastases from colo-rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates to the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the presence of lung nodules, cytology is often the only possible diagnostic approach. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is an alternative technique to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but its feasibility in detecting EGFR GCN in cell blocks from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung nodules has not yet been established. Methods We evaluated the feasibility of CISH on 33 FNAC from 20 primary NSCLC (5 squamous carcinomas, 8 large cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas) and 13 lung metastases from CRC. Results Of the 33 FNAC analyzed by CISH, 27 (82%) presented a balanced increase in EGFR gene and chromosome 7 number: 10 cases (30%) showed a low polysomy, 15 (45%) a high polysomy and 2 (6%) NSCLC were amplified. No significant differences between NSCLC and CRC lung metastases were found in relation to disomic or polysomic status. In addition, no correlation between EGFR GCN and EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression was found. Furthermore, we compared CISH results with those obtained by FISH on the same samples and we found 97% overall agreement between the two assays (k = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Two cases were amplified with both assays, whereas 1 case of NSCLC was amplified by FISH only. CISH sensitivity was 67%, the specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. Conclusions Our study shows that CISH is a valid method to detect EGFR GCN in cell blocks from FNAC of primary NSCLC or metastatic CRC to the lung. PMID:20843314

2010-01-01

92

[Fine-needle cyto-puncture. Apropos of 138 liver cytologies and 66 pancreas cytologies].  

PubMed

In this report, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of 138 hepatic and 66 pancreatic fine needle aspiration cytology. Aspiration cytodiagnosis was performed using a fine needle, percutaneously, with ultrasonic or tomodensitometric guidance. Sensitivity of hepatic and pancreatic aspiration cytodiagnosis was 86.73% et 83.3%; specificity was respectively 97.72% an 100%. These results are compared with literature review and confirm the interest of fine needle aspiration cytology in tumoral pathology. PMID:2829934

Payan, M J; Choux, R; Raphael, M; Tachon, C; Agostini, S; Sahel, J

1987-01-01

93

Core-needle biopsy under CT fluoroscopy guidance and fine-needle aspiration cytology: Comparison of diagnostic yield in the diagnosis of lung and mediastinum tumors. Analysis of frequency and types of complications  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Patients with pathological tissue mass in thoracic cage found with imaging require histopathological or cytological confirmation of malignancy before treatment. The tissue material essential for patomorphological evaluation can be acquired with fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) controlled with CT and core-needle biopsy (CNB) under real-time CT fluoroscopy guidance. The purpose of this work is to carry out a retrospective analysis of the two methods with regards to their informativity, frequency and the kind of complications. Material/Methods From January, 2012 to May 2013, 76 core-needle biopsies of lung and mediastinum tumors were conducted and compared with 86 fine-needle aspiration biopsies(FNAB) of lung and mediastinum tumors, including 30 patients who underwent FNAB and were referred to CNB in order to specify the diagnosis. Results Complete histopathological diagnosis was made in 91% with the use of CNB and in 37% when FNAB was the chosen method. Early complications were observed in 32% patients who underwent BG and in group of 11% who underwent FNAB. Late complications, however, appeared in 29% patients after CNB and 13% after FNAB. In 24 cases CNB specified the complete diagnosis. Conclusions Core-needle biopsy in comparison to fine-needle aspiration biopsy has more frequent rate of negligible complications, however, it offers higher diagnostic yield for diagnostic of lung and mediastinum neoplastic disease and allows for more precise diagnosis of focal lesions. PMID:25006355

Szl?zak, Przemys?aw; ?rutek, Ewa; Gorycki, Tomasz; Kowalewski, Janusz; Studniarek, Micha?

2014-01-01

94

Thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology: Performance data of neoplastic and malignant cases as identified from 1558 responses in the ASCP Non-GYN Assessment program thyroid fine-needle performance data  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid is a common procedure, with an established role in reducing unnecessary thyroid surgery and identifying neoplasms and malignancies. METHODS The study evaluated 1558 responses in the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Non-GYN Assessment program of aspirates of thyroid neoplasms and malignancies and placed them into the following groups: group A (target or correct interpretation), group B (incorrect interpretation as a benign thyroid nodule), group C (incorrect interpretation malignant aspirate as thyroid neoplasm), and group D (malignant diagnosis with incorrect interpretation). In clinical practice, responses in groups A, C, and D would lead to surgical excision, whereas responses in group B would not. RESULTS Of a total of 1558 responses, 78.5% of the responses were in group A, 8.5% in group B, 3.75% in group C, and 9.25% in group D. By individual diagnosis, the group rates were 86.5%, 0%, 11%, and 2.5% for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; 83%, 5.5%, 4.25%, and 7.25% for papillary thyroid carcinoma; 79%, 7%, 6%, and 8% for medullary thyroid carcinoma; 83.5% 6.75%, 0%, and 9.75% for Hürthle cell neoplasm; and 61%, 22%, 0%, and 17% for follicular neoplasm in groups A, B, C, and D respectively. CONCLUSIONS Fine-needle aspiration was effective in diagnosing thyroid neoplasms and malignancies and in separating thyroid nodules into surgical and nonsurgical categories. Data from a large group of cytology professionals showed good performance; however, there is room for improvement, especially in making specific diagnoses. In particular, follicular neoplasm and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma were challenging diagnoses for participants. PMID:24913410

Eilers, Stan G; LaPolice, Paula; Mukunyadzi, Perkins; Kapur, Umesh; Wendel Spiczka, Amy; Shah, Ajay; Saleh, Husain; Adeniran, Adebowale; Nunez, Amberly; Balachandran, Indra; Clark, Jennifer J; Lemon, Larry

2014-01-01

95

Incidental Detection Microfilaria in Subcutaneous Breast Nodule of Lactating Female Fnac: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Filariasis is a major public health problem which is faced in tropical countries like India. Its diagnosis is made by using peripheral blood smears. However, microfilaria has been detected incidentally during FNACs of various lesions, which were done in clinically unsuspected cases. We are reporting here, an uncommon case of filariasis, which caused a nodular, subcutaneous swelling in left breast of a 30 year old lactating female. A nodular subcutaneous swelling can be caused in breast of a lactating female by lactational associated mastitis, but filaria causing a nodular swelling in a lactating breast is a rare presentation. Aspiration of the swelling demonstrated enormous pathogen presence caused by Woucheria bancrofti and the patient responded well to six weeks of daily anti-filarial treatment with diethylcarbamazine citrate. PMID:25120989

Gupta, Prashant; Yadav, Soma; Pahawa, H.S

2014-01-01

96

Pre-analytic steps for molecular testing on thyroid fine-needle aspirations: The goal of good results.  

PubMed

Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) represents a valid alternative to biopsy in a variety of clinical settings mainly based on its simplicity and less invasive clinical approach. In some cases, morphology evaluation alone is not sufficient to manage the patients, so that the application of ancillary techniques can contribute to diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of tumor behavior. These techniques include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in situ PCR, direct Sequencing, microarrays and proteomic methodologies. Although several recent experiences underline the superior value of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) quality mainly for advanced genomic high throughput platforms, very scant literature studied the role of the pre-analytical or analytical phases. Despite the high specificity of molecular techniques as a support for diagnosis, there is a need for an increased standardization of pre-analytical/analytical steps such as providing appropriate clinical history, proper collection of laboratory specimens and proper preparation of samples, adequate fixative/reagent concentrations and technical equipments. All these requirements are crucial according to the results from 42 American laboratories, which reported 0.33% of significant molecular errors with 60% of them in the pre-analytical phase. The most common error is to forget that cytological preparation requires specific molecular variables, which are different from histological specimens. Cytological samples offer the advantage of a well preserved DNA, readily extractable and reasonably stable (from 6 months to 5 years) avoiding pitfalls due to formalin-fixation. Freshly prepared, unstained direct, alcohol-fixed papanicolaou, air-dried diff-quick smears are all suitable for DNA extraction and preservation. In the specific field of thyroid FNAC, molecular analysis has been supported by the growing evidence that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer, frequently is a diploid lesion and can display non-overlapping mutations of the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) in 46% to 70%, cases, ret proto-oncogene (RET) in 3 to 85% and Rat Sarcoma oncogene (RAS) in 0-21% cases. Recently, several cytological papers demonstrated that the combination of morphology and molecular analysis can increase the diagnostic accuracy allowing more precise prediction of malignancy regardless of the diagnostic categories. In conclusion, the correct use of the pre-analytical-analytical steps might lead to optimal results on cytology and empower the prognostic value of molecular techniques as strong indicators of cancer for their high specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:24403951

Rossi, Esther Diana; Schmitt, Fernando

2013-01-01

97

Cytologic-Radiologic Correlation Using Transthoracic CT-Guided FNA for Lung and Mediastinal Masses: Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives. Thoracic lesions account for various benign and malignant conditions. Of these lung carcinoma (mainly primary) is the most common carcinoma in the world. The present study was undertaken to know the pathological spectrum of thoracic lesions and to correlate cytoradiological findings. Materials and Methods. The present study was conducted in a tertiary care center of North India on 74 patients over an 18-month period. CT guided transthoracic FNAC (TTFNA) was carried out, and aspirates were drawn, examined, and compared with radiological diagnoses. Results. The diagnostic accuracy for FNA in the present study was calculated to be 95.94% (using cytology as the gold standard). The predominant lesion was malignancy (85.1%), followed by suspicions of malignancy and inflammatory pathology (5.40% each). By cytology, the most common malignant lesion was adenocarcinoma (48%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (40%), small cell carcinoma (8%), and undifferentiated carcinoma (4%). Cytoradiological correlation was found to be 89.2% in the present study. Conclusion. Present study thus concludes that TT FNA of thoracic lesions is a simple, safe, economically prudent technique associated with low morbidity and leading to quick and early diagnosis. PMID:25763320

Piplani, Sanjay; Mannan, Rahul; Lalit, Monika; Manjari, Mridu; Bhasin, Tejinder S.; Bawa, Jasmin

2014-01-01

98

The presence of a cytopathologist increases the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective A meta-analysis has not been previously performed to evaluate critically the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of solely pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and address factors that have an impact on variability of accuracy. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of a cytopathologist, variability of the reference standard and other sources of heterogeneity significantly impacts diagnostic accuracy. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search to identify studies, in which the pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios for a positive or negative test (LR+, LR?) and summary receiver-operating curves (SROC) could be determined for EUS-FNA of the pancreas for ductal adenocarcinoma using clinical follow-up, and/or surgical biopsy or excision as the reference standard. Results We included 34 distinct studies (3644 patients) in which EUS-FNA for a solid pancreatic mass was evaluated. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for EUS-FNA for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was 88.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.2–89.9] and 99.3% (95% CI: 98.7–99.7), respectively. The LR+ and LR? were 33.46 (95% CI: 20.76–53.91) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.08–0.16), respectively. The meta-regression model showed rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) (P = 0.001) remained a significant determinant of EUS-FNA accuracy after correcting for study population number and reference standard. Conclusion EUS-FNA is an effective modality for diagnosing pancreatic ductal adencarcinoma in solid pancreatic lesions, with an increased diagnostic accuracy when using on-site cytopathology evaluation. PMID:23711182

Hébert-Magee, S.; Bae, S.; Varadarajulu, S.; Ramesh, J.; Frost, A. R.; Eloubeidi, M. A.; Eltoum, I. A.

2014-01-01

99

The usefulness of S100P, mesothelin, fascin, prostate stem cell antigen, and 14-3-3 sigma in diagnosing pancreatic adenocarcinoma in cytological specimens obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas is an efficient and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Because of some limitations of EUS-FNA in diagnosis of well-differentiated or early stage cancers, the purpose of this study is to assess the added benefit of immunohistochemistry. We studied five proteins overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, namely, prostate stem cell antigen, fascin, 14-3-3 sigma, mesothelin and S100P utilizing immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections from cellblocks obtained by EUS-FNA. Sixty-two cases of EUS-FNA of the pancreas that had follow-up histological and/or clinical diagnosis and sufficient material in cell blocks were included. Using histological diagnosis and/or clinical outcome as the reference standard, EUS-FNA shows the highest sensitivity (95%) and specificity (91%) and is superior to any marker in this study. Among five antibodies, S100P reveals the best diagnostic characters showing 90% of sensitivity and 67% of specificity. Fascin shows high specificity (92%) but low sensitivity (38%). Mesothelin has a moderate sensitivity (74%) and low specificity (33%), PSCA and 14-3-3 show high sensitivity but zero specificity. S100P and mesothelin were useful in nine indeterminate cases. S100P correctly predicted six of seven cancers and one of one without cancer and mesothelin correctly diagnosed five of seven cancers and one of two noncancers in this group. EUS-FNA cytomorphology is superior to any of the immunohistochemical markers used in this study. Use of S100P and mesothelin in cytologically borderline cases can increase the diagnostic accuracy in this group. PMID:21538952

Dim, Daniel C; Jiang, Feng; Qiu, Qi; Li, Ting; Darwin, Peter; Rodgers, William H; Peng, Hong Qi

2014-03-01

100

Aspiration pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

101

The value of cytologic examination for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Cytologic examination is useful in the diagnosis of NPC. The actual yield in exfoliative cytologic diagnosis can be improved by a better designed applicator. Metastatic NPC in lymph node FNA shows certain features that are diagnostic. Detection of EBNA can be done with smears from fine-needle aspirates and may help to exclude NPC from the diagnosis if they are negative. PMID:2161733

Chan, M K; Huang, D P

1990-04-01

102

Multicentric Aggressive Mammary Fibromatosis with Cytological Features and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Fibromatosis is a fibroblastic lesion composed of uniform fibroblasts and collagen with an infiltrative growth pattern but lacking malignant cytological features. It is a rare entity and is even more unusual when found in the breast. Multicentricity in fibromatosis has been reported in 10% cases. Multicentricity in breast cancer has been defined as the presence of two or more tumor foci within different quadrants of the same breast. Considering this definition of multicentricity for fibromatosis, we herein report a case of recurrent multicentric aggressive mammary fibromatosis and its cytological features with review of literature because of limited literature of (FNAC) in mammary fibromatosis. PMID:24995189

Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Gupta, Nilakshi; Pant, Prabhat; Thapliyal, Naveen Chandra

2014-01-01

103

[Needle aspiration of ovarian cysts. Our experience].  

PubMed

80 patients underwent ultrasound guided cyst puncture of ovarian cysts. Six patients were pregnant and in four of them needle aspiration was executed through the transvaginal tract. The sediment aspirated was examined by a cytologic method and when possible it was also correlated to a histological test. Technique and results have been dealt with. No relevant complication was found. Finally, the echoguided (induced) needle aspiration is a simple and safe method to treat benign ovarian cysts in fertile women. It is particularly advisable in pregnancy and in patients for whom both laparascopy and traditional surgery are not practicable. PMID:7885611

De Rosa, G; Dell'Isola, A; Cerrone, M; Lippiello, A; Catalano, D

1994-12-01

104

The cytology of molluscum contagiosum mimicking skin adnexal tumor  

PubMed Central

Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection presenting as multiple, umbilicated papules and vesicles. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum in an 11-year-old boy, which presented atypically as a solitary nodule over the right cheek, mimicking a skin adnexal tumor is reported here. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays a vital role in establishing the correct diagnosis of clinically unsuspected cases, and hence, the proper management of such lesions. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the presence of numerous large intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies that push the host nucleus to the periphery, giving a signet ring appearance to the superficial epidermal cells. PMID:21157556

Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Nagappa, Divya Kota

2010-01-01

105

Detection of telomerase expression in fine-needle aspirations and fluids.  

PubMed

The cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates and fluid specimens is plagued by a persistent false negative rate. The rate of false negative results will be decreased if sensitive molecular assays can be developed to detect cytologically malignant cells. The current study investigated telomerase expression as a potential marker of malignancy, using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) in fine-needle aspirates and fluid specimens. TRAP was performed on 24 fine-needle aspirate and 24 fluid specimens from different body sites and of different histological diagnoses. We found that 6 of 12 fine-needle aspirate specimens that were cytologically positive for malignant cells expressed telomerase activity, while no specimens that were cytologically suspicious for malignancy, atypical, or negative tested positive for telomerase activity. Of the fluid specimens, 4 of 6 cytologically positive cases and 1 of 18 cytologically negative cases expressed telomerase. Seven of eight telomerase negative, cytologically positive specimens contained only rare malignant cells in a very bloody background. Peripheral blood contamination is a possible pitfall in the TRAP assay, as applied in the current study, because the assay is standardized to protein concentration that may be derived from lysed red blood cells. We conclude that with further technical refinement, the TRAP assay could become a useful adjunct in the cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates and fluid samples. PMID:9626516

Cunningham, V J; Markham, N; Shroyer, A L; Shroyer, K R

1998-06-01

106

Pancreatobiliary cytology in the multidisciplinary setting.  

PubMed

This review article discusses the role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS FNA) cytology in the clinical management of patients with pancreatic tumours in the setting of a multidisciplinary team (MDT). The commonest diagnosis encountered is pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which is seldom diagnosed early enough for surgical resection. Thus, cytology is likely to be the only form of diagnosis in the majority of cases. Nevertheless, about half the lesions discussed at the MDT meeting are lesions other than primary adenocarcinoma and a wide differential diagnosis must be considered in order to identify tumours, including neuroendocrine tumours, that are amenable to surgical resection. Cytology is not always definitive and the diagnosis may be helped by categorizing results according to whether they are malignant, suspicious, atypical/indeterminate, benign or inadequate. Discussion at MDT meetings and correlation with clinical and imaging findings along with review of cytology slides may allow equivocal results to be clarified before treatment is decided. Inadequate cytology results are avoided by rapid on-site evaluation of slides; although this is cost-effective in terms of overall patient care, attendance of cytopathologists on-site may not be feasible. At Imperial College NHS Trust, specially trained biomedical scientists successfully carry out rapid on-site evaluation. PMID:23711181

Dina, R; Tran-Dang, M-A; Mauri, F; Gudi, M; Cohen, P; Ahmad, R; Batav, L; Vlavianos, P; Spalding, D

2013-06-01

107

Effectiveness of histology and cytology on musculoskeletal tumor diagnosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare cytology and histology on the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. METHOD: Fifty eight cases available to evaluation were analyzed both by cytology and histology. The results of the biopsies studied by histology and cytology were compared to the results obtained on the surgical specimen or immunohistochemistry. We determined the percentage of correct results, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of each method. RESULTS: Twelve per cent of biopsies were inconclusive by cytology. The percentage of correct diagnosis was 70.7% and 81% (p=.179), the ability to differentiate benign lesions from malignant ones was 84.5% and 93.1% (p=0.18) respectively, for cytology and histology. Cytology showed sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 76.5%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 72% and accuracy 84.5%. Histology showed sensitivity of 90.2%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 81% and accuracy of 93.1%. The Youden index for cytology was 64.3% and for histology it was 90.2%. CONCLUSION: Despite promising, cytology obtained by thin needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than the histological evaluation on musculoskeletal tumors diagnosis. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Studies. PMID:25061418

Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Ferreira, George Rocha; Lima, Túlio Paes de Medeiros; Lima, Jairo de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

2014-01-01

108

Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration (USFNA) of Thyroid Nodules; Does Aspiration Site Matter?  

PubMed Central

Background: The goal of ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (USFNA) is to obtain most cellular specimen that represents the nodule. However, there is substantial variability in specimen cellularity depending on the obtaining techniques. While performing USFNA, it is not clear whether the needle tip should be placed at hypovascular or hypervascular site of the nodule to obtain more cells for cytological analysis. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess whether USFNA of the hypovascular or hypervascular site of a thyroid nodule would reveal more cells for cytological analysis. Patients and Methods: Twenty-three consecutive patients with solid thyroid nodules larger than 2 cm were aspirated under color Doppler sonography guidance. First pass was from the hypovascular site and the second pass from the hypervascular site. The aspirates were scored from 1-3 by cytologist according to number of cell groups. Results: When only hypervascular site was used, adequate sampling was limited to 65% of the cases. When both sites were evaluated together, overall adequate sampling was 91%. Adding a sample from the hypervascular site to hypovascular aspirate increased the adequate sampling by 8%. The highest pathological score was achieved when both hypo- and hypervascular site aspirates were evaluated together. Conclusions: The aspirates from the hypovascular and hypervascular sites of solid nodules are complementary and should be performed consecutively. PMID:25901267

Ozcan, Umit Aksoy; Atahan, Safak

2015-01-01

109

Diagnosis of hepatic cavernous hemangioma by fine needle aspiration biopsy under ultrasonic guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous aspiration biopsy of the liver using a heparinized 22-gauge needle was performed under ultrasonic guidance in 11 patients with hepatic cavernous hemangioma. Ten (91%) of 11 biopsy specimens obtained were cytologically diagnostic for hemangioma. No indications of malignancy were found. There was no relation between the cytological diagnosis and the location, size, or ultrasonographic findings. No complications were encountered.

Akihiko Nakaizumi; Hiroyasu Iishi; Reiko Yamamoto; Hiroshi Kasugai; Masaharu Tatsuta; Shigeru Okuda; Yoshihiko Kishigami; Tsugio Kitamura

1990-01-01

110

Transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of benign ovarian cysts.  

PubMed

In our study, we evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy of transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of benign ovarian cysts in selected patients. A total of 46 women with benign ovarian cysts were referred to our outpatient clinic. The aspirated fluid was collected and sent for cytological analysis. All women were re-evaluated at 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure. The cytological analysis was negative for malignancy in all cases. Our study showed an overall recurrence rate for ovarian cysts of 39.1%. Women with endometriotic ovarian cysts have an increased incidence of recurrence, 62.5% (n = 5), in comparison with serous cysts, 35.2% (n = 12) and serous-haemorrhagic cysts, 15% (n = 1), ?(2) = 9.913, df = 2, p = 0.007. The results of our study reveal that transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of benign ovarian cysts is a simple, safe and effective procedure. PMID:24483623

Nikolaou, M; Adonakis, G; Zyli, P; Androutsopoulos, G; Saltamavros, A; Psachoulia, C; Tsapanos, V; Decavalas, G

2014-05-01

111

[Ovarian tumefactions: the advantages and limits of echo-guided needle aspiration. Our experience].  

PubMed

One-hundred-seventy-five patients with a probably benign ovarian cyst were submitted to transvaginal ultrasound-guided needle aspiration (TVUSGA) for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose. Recovery was obtained in 68% of serous cysts (130 patients). In 34 endometriotic cysts transvaginal ultrasound guided needle aspiration has been an important diagnostic tool and it made possible a better therapeutic approach. The cytologic examination of aspirated benign and malignant cyst fluid didn't give a satisfactory result every time. In conclusion, the transvaginal ultrasound guided needle aspiration has been a good tool in the treatment of serous cysts and a diagnostic aid for endometriotic pathology. PMID:9026746

Morelli, A; Bottero, A; Bricchi, G

1996-12-01

112

Role of galectin-3 immunodetection in the cytological diagnosis of thyroid cystic papillary carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Cystic thyroid lesions can harbour an occult papillary carcinoma, which fine needle aspir- ation (FNA) biopsy may fail to detect. Recently, new markers such as galectin-3 lectin have been proposed to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid lesions of follicular origin. The aim of this study was to assess the role of galectin-3 immunodetection in a series of FNA cytological

Mauro Papotti; Marco Volante; Enrico Saggiorato; Andrea Veltri; Fabio Orlandi

2002-01-01

113

Aspiration and the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspiration is prevalent in the elderly but its association with impairment of oral intake and gastroesophageal reflux is often\\u000a misunderstood. This paper describes the causes, pathophysiology, and consequences of aspiration and their unique features\\u000a in aged persons. It also explains how videofluoroscopic evaluation can assess current function while limiting factors that\\u000a result in misinformation. The management of aspiration is discussed,

Michael J. Feinberg; Janice Knebl; Joann Tully; Linda Segall

1990-01-01

114

Measurement of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 extracellular domain and cancer antigen 15–3 levels in needle washout fluid: a potential adjunct to the cytological diagnosis of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the measurement of biomarkers in the needle washout fluid after fine needle aspiration cytology could\\u000a strengthen cytological diagnosis, 29 benign lesions, 26 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 95 invasive carcinomas of the\\u000a breast were analyzed. Immediately after the aspiration samples were expelled onto glass slides, the needle was rinsed out\\u000a with 2 ml of saline. Human epidermal

Shu Ichihara; Suzuko Moritani; Masaki Hasegawa; Misaki Shiraiwa; Mikinao Oiwa; Tokiko Endo; Aya Kato; Takako Hayashi; Yasuyuki Sato; Akiko Saito

2011-01-01

115

Informatics applied to cytology  

PubMed Central

Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

2008-01-01

116

Diagnostic accuracy of cytology and biopsy in primary bronchial carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of diagnosis in 656 patients with the four common histopathological types of primary lung cancer has been assessed by comparing the cell type diagnosis made on cytological and histological investigation with that determined by examination of the surgically resected or necroscopy specimen. The accuracy of diagnosis achieved by cytological examination of sputum and bronchial aspirate, and by bronchial biopsy histology was over 85%. The least accurate diagnostic procedure was percutaneous needle biopsy (62%). Squamous and small cell tumours were accurately diagnosed by all four investigations but errors were made in the diagnosis of large cell and adenocarcinomas. Nearly half the number of patients (43%) with large cell carcinoma were later reclassified as having squamous carcinoma and of the patients with adenocarcinoma 32% had been predicted to be squamous and 18% large cell carcinoma. We consider such quality control of pretreatment diagnosis mandatory in management of individual patients and before enrollment in clinical trials. PMID:6267108

Payne, C R; Hadfield, J W; Stovin, P G; Barker, V; Heard, B E; Stark, J E

1981-01-01

117

HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY Biology 215  

E-print Network

1 HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY Biology 215 Mark Nowel, O.P., Ph.D. Lectures: MWF 11:30 Office: Harkins goal in this course is to help you to understand the basics of histology and cell structure about cytological and histological features. This is much better than simple memorization of facts

Arévalo, Elisabeth

118

[Clinical cytology: why and how?].  

PubMed

Clinical cytology is a morphological diagnostic profession, which has not been properly utilized in current medicine, primarily due to inadequate awareness among physicians of its diagnostic possibilities and advantages. The purpose of this historical review of clinical cytology and its diagnostic role is to contribute to higher awareness of the current possibilities offered by cytologic diagnosis and its future development in the era of technological progress and medical striking into profitability, with its negative connotations. The main features of cytologic diagnosis, i.e. non-aggressiveness, simplicity, promptness and accuracy, should be maintained while following new technological possibilities. Standard cytomorphology provides a basis for deciding on using additional technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular analysis and cytogenetics) after thorough microscopic analysis, on cytologic samples or/and cytologic smears. The conditio sine qua non for that purpose is appropriate education of cytologists and cytotechnologists as well as appropriate organization of cytology in the healthcare system. As in the historical development of clinical cytology, enthusiasts are necessary to maintain and even improve all its possibilities to the benefit of our patients. PMID:24979879

Znidarci?, Zeljka

2013-12-01

119

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

The percentage of patients with atypical extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis has been increasing. Among extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases, tuberculosis of the pancreas and peripancreatic lymph nodes is a rare clinical entity. Here, we present a case of peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) both cytologically and microbiologically. A 23-year-old man had a 1-week history of epigastralgia and low-grade fever. Subsequently, he was found to have an abnormality on abdominal ultrasound. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a solitary mass consisting of multiple cystic components with rim enhancement in the peripancreatic portion contiguous to the gall bladder. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The cytological examination revealed epithelioid cells with caseous necrosis, indicating tuberculosis. The aspirated fluid was positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antituberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide was started based on the PCR and cytology results, and a good response to the treatment was noted. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology with PCR analysis is very useful for the diagnosis of peripancreatic tuberculosis. PMID:17322998

Itaba, Soichi; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Takahiro; Honda, Kuniomi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yamada, Kinya

2007-01-01

120

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland: a study of 304 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the interpretation of thyroid aspiration cytology in the light of our experience and review the circumstances in which false positives and false negatives may occur. The technique is reliable but by no means infallible and it should not be regarded as a final diagnostic work-up. Its value lies in selecting patients with thyroid nodules for surgery. In the

K C Suen; N F Quenville

1983-01-01

121

The added value of using mutational profiling in addition to cytology in diagnosing aggressive pancreaticobiliary disease: review of clinical cases at a single center  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to better understand the supporting role that mutational profiling (MP) of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and supernatant specimens may play in the diagnosis of malignancy in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and biliary brushing specimens from patients with pancreaticobiliary masses. Methods Cytology results were examined in a total of 30 patients with associated surgical (10) or clinical (20) outcomes. MP of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and from discarded supernatant fluid was analyzed in 26 patients with atypical, negative or indeterminate cytology. Results Cytology correctly diagnosed aggressive disease in 4 patients. Cytological diagnoses for the remaining 26 were as follows: 16 negative (9 false negative), 9 atypical, 1 indeterminate. MP correctly determined aggressive disease in 1 false negative cytology case and confirmed a negative cytology diagnosis in 7 of 7 cases of non-aggressive disease. Of the 9 atypical cytology cases, MP correctly diagnosed 7 as positive and 1 as negative for aggressive disease. One specimen that was indeterminate by cytology was correctly diagnosed as non-aggressive by MP. When first line malignant (positive) cytology results were combined with positive second line MP results, 12/21 cases of aggressive disease were identified, compared to 4/21 cases identified by positive cytology alone. Conclusions When first line cytology results were uncertain (atypical), questionable (negative), or not possible (non-diagnostic/indeterminate), MP provided additional information regarding the presence of aggressive disease. When used in conjunction with first line cytology, MP increased detection of aggressive disease without compromising specificity in patients that were difficult to diagnose by cytology alone. PMID:25084836

2014-01-01

122

Physicians: Aspiring Docs  

MedlinePLUS

... today Read Aspiring Docs Diaries Ask a Med Student Video Series Students talk about their path to medical school, what ... Pre-Meds Find training opportunities for pre-med students. Search Now Pre-Med Event Request Request a ...

123

Silicone lymphadenopathy: presentation of a further case containing asteroid bodies on fine-needle cytology sample.  

PubMed

Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node. PMID:24995825

Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

2015-01-01

124

Thymomas: a cytological and immunohistochemical study, with emphasis on lymphoid and neuroendocrine markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The current study correlates cytologic morphology with histologic type and describes immunophenotypes with a focus on epithelial, neuroendocrine, and lymphoid characteristics in an institutional series of surgically excised thymomas. METHODS: Fine needle aspirates (FNAs) and surgical specimens were retrospectively analyzed, and immunohistochemical stains were performed for EMA, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, CD57 CD5, bcl-2, calretinin, vimentin, CD3, CD20, CD1a,

Borislav A Alexiev; Cinthia B Drachenberg; Allen P Burke

2007-01-01

125

A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413

Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

2013-06-01

126

Subclassification of Follicular Neoplasms Recommended by the Japan Thyroid Association Reporting System of Thyroid Cytology  

PubMed Central

Background. The Japan Thyroid Association recently published guidelines for clinical practice for the management of thyroid nodules, which include a diagnostic system for reporting thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. It is characterized by the subclassification of follicular neoplasms, which is different from other internationally accepted reporting systems. Materials and Methods. This study examined observer variability in the subclassification of follicular neoplasms among 4 reviewers using Papanicolaou-stained smear samples from 20 surgically treated patients with indeterminate cytology. Results. The favor malignant subcategory had high predictive value of malignancy (risk of malignancy: 60–75%) and good agreement among the 4 reviewers (? = 0.7714). Conclusion. These results clearly confirmed that the risk stratification of follicular neoplasms, which was adapted from cytology practice of high-volume thyroid centers in Japan, can provide clinically helpful information to estimate the risk of malignancy and to triage patients for surgery. PMID:25722720

Kakudo, Kennichi; Kameyama, Kaori; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Katoh, Ryohei; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

2015-01-01

127

Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology, including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of sampling techniques in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:25191516

Brugge, William R.; De Witt, John; Klapman, Jason B.; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

2014-01-01

128

Application of shear wave elastography in fine needle aspiration biopsy for thyroid nodule.  

PubMed

Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the first-line procedure in diagnosing thyroid nodules. However, emerging studies have reported its unsatisfactory cell sample for cytology evaluation. In this case report, shear wave elastography (SWE) guided FNAB on a thyroid nodule is presented. Biopsies were performed on both hard and soft areas of the same nodule on the SWE image. Cytological results demonstrated the sufficient diagnostic components and typical nuclear features of papillary carcinoma found on the specimen from the hard area. This case study indicates SWE is a useful complementary tool to conventional B-mode ultrasound in guiding thyroid nodule FNAB. PMID:25252527

Ma, Bu Yun; Parajuly, Shyam Sundar; Ying, Shu Xue; Lan, Peng Yu

2014-08-01

129

Assessing Children's Career Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past several years, "Science and Children" has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations.…

Plummer, Donna M.

2008-01-01

130

BOLD ASPIRATIONS ANNUAL REPORT  

E-print Network

that will change the world. KU's vision is to be recognized as a top-tier public international research institution. This past year the KU community moved closer to that vision by implementing Bold Aspirations, our strategic years of implementation, the team I appointed to ensure that transformation will provide annual updates

131

Fine Needle Aspiration  

MedlinePLUS

... press registration and more below. Please direct any interview requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What Is FNA? Fine needle aspiration (FNA), also called fine needle biopsy, is a technique that allows a biopsy of various bumps and ...

132

Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

Drury, J L; Dembo, M

1999-01-01

133

Religious orientation and life aspirations.  

PubMed

The effects of religiosity on well-being appear to depend on religious orientation, with intrinsic orientation being related to positive outcomes and extrinsic orientation being related to neutral or negative outcomes. It is not clear, however, why intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity has the relationships they do. Self-determination theory may provide a useful framework of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations that may help to answer this question. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity would be related to intrinsic and extrinsic life aspirations. We hypothesized that intrinsic religiosity would be positively related to intrinsic life aspirations and negatively related with extrinsic life aspirations, and that extrinsic religiosity would be positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and negatively related to intrinsic aspirations, and that life aspirations would partially mediate the relationships between religious orientation and outcome. To study these hypotheses, a random national sample (total number of 425, average age of 52, 59 % female) completed the measures of religious orientation, life aspirations, affect, and life satisfaction. It was found that intrinsic religiosity was positively related to positive affect, life satisfaction, and intrinsic life aspirations and was negatively related to negative affect and extrinsic life aspirations. Extrinsic religiosity was positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and was not related to the intrinsic life aspirations. When both religious orientation and life aspiration variables were included together in the model predicting outcome, both remained significant indicating that religious orientation and life aspirations are independent predictors of outcome. In conclusion, although religious orientation and life aspirations are significantly related to each other and to outcome, life aspirations did not mediate the effects of religious orientation. Therefore, self-determination theory does not appear to completely account for the effects of religious orientation. PMID:24474550

Steffen, Patrick R; Clayton, Spencer; Swinyard, William

2015-04-01

134

Aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes.  

PubMed

Aspiration of foreign matter into the airways and lungs can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders with various presentations. The type of syndrome resulting from aspiration depends on the quantity and nature of the aspirated material, the chronicity, and the host responses. Aspiration is most likely to occur in subjects with a decreased level of consciousness, compromised airway defense mechanisms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and recurrent vomiting. These aspiration-related syndromes can be categorized into airway disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction, large airway obstruction with a foreign body, bronchiectasis, bronchoconstriction, and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, or parenchymal disorders, including aspiration pneumonitis, aspiration pneumonia, and exogenous lipoid pneumonia. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, aspiration has been implicated in disease progression and acute exacerbation. Aspiration may increase the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in patients who have undergone a lung transplant. Accumulating evidence suggests that a causative role for aspiration is often unsuspected in patients presenting with aspiration-related pulmonary diseases; thus, many cases go undiagnosed. Herein, we discuss the broadening spectrum of these pulmonary syndromes with a focus on presenting features and diagnostic aspects. PMID:25732447

Hu, Xiaowen; Lee, Joyce S; Pianosi, Paolo T; Ryu, Jay H

2015-03-01

135

Correlation between cytological and histopathological examination of the endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common problem for which women seek gynecological consultation. Endometrial aspiration cytology (EAC) is an acceptable and valuable diagnostic procedure for screening the endometrial status. Materials and Methods: Endometrial aspiration using a menstrual regulation (MR) syringe and a 4 mm Karman's cannula was performed just prior to D and C in 100 women presenting with AUB. Smears were reviewed for cytomorphological findings and were correlated with the histopathological findings. These findings were categorized as benign endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, malignancy and inadequate smears. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 19 to 70 years. In our study, the accuracy in diagnosing benign conditions of endometrium, hyperplasia, and malignancy on aspiration cytology were 93.88%, 96.94% and 96.84%, respectively. Conclusions: Endometrial aspiration is an effective, useful and a minimally invasive procedure. With an experienced cytologist, it can be used routinely for the primary investigation of women with AUB, provided all the points of discrepancies are taken care of. PMID:25538383

Kaur, Navjot; Chahal, Jagjit S; Bandlish, Usha; Kaul, Rashmi; Mardi, Kavita; Kaur, Harjit

2014-01-01

136

Cytology exam of pleural fluid  

MedlinePLUS

... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

137

An evaluation of transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of simple adnexal cysts.  

PubMed

We carried out this clinical study to evaluate the benefits the risks of transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration in a group of patients. The study group consisted of 22 premenapausal women who were detected as having benign adnexal cysts, based on ultrasound appearances. Before the procedure, all patients were evaluated thoroughly by pelvic examination, transvaginal ultrasound and serum measurements of CA-125. Oestradiol CA-125, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and progesterone were analysed in aspirated cystic fluids as well as cytological evaluation. It was concluded that measurements of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in cystic fluid had no prognostic significance. But CA-125 levels over 55 iu/ml were likely to predict the recurrence of the cysts. Cytological examination of the aspirated cystic fluids revealed that 21 cysts were benign functional cysts, but one was serous cystadenoma. We observed recurrence following aspiration in five patients (22.7%) who were followed for 6 months. Patients with simple ovarian cysts will benefit from transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration by being saved from surgery and its related complications. However, its use should be limited to those masses that appear to be completely cystic with well-defined borders, because of the risk of the intra-abdominal spillage of the contents of complicated cysts. PMID:15512147

Kocak, I; Uzel, A; Aytaç, R

1998-09-01

138

Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology  

PubMed Central

Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a specimen resulted in saving of time. It added a certain amount of objectivity to the process of arriving at a diagnosis. PMID:24250082

Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

2013-01-01

139

Fine needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been widely used as a diagnostic tool for the past half century. Differing from large bore cutting needle biopsy, FNA utilizes 22- to 27-gauge needles. The cell samples aspirated from a lesion are characteristically smeared on glass slides for immediate microscopic evaluation. An adequacy report and a preliminary diagnostic impression are rendered in approximately 10 to 15 minutes. A final report is generally rendered within 24 hours. The method has been used as one of the most cost-effective, complication-free, and rapid techniques for preoperative investigation of tumors and tumor-like conditions. Its usefulness in the diagnosis and management of oncology patients is emphasized in this article. PMID:15565819

Wu, Maoxin; Burstein, David E

2004-01-01

140

Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

2015-01-01

141

Utilization of ancillary studies in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions: the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology.  

PubMed

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings, and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions.?Currently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapilary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the preoperative classification of pancreatic cysts. Many gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, VHL, RNF43, and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:24639398

Layfield, Lester J; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C; Hruban, Ralph H; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B

2014-04-01

142

Assessment of complications of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) permits both morphologic and cytologic analysis of lesions within or adjacent to the GI tract. Despite increasing use of this technique, the safety and overall complication rates remain poorly defined. Methods: During a period of 20 months, 322 consecutive patients underwent EUS-FNA in 2 centers. All procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia.

Dermot O'Toole; Laurent Palazzo; Ramuntçho Arotçarena; Alain Dancour; Alain Aubert; Pascal Hammel; Juan Amaris; Philippe Ruszniewski

2001-01-01

143

Incidental detection of microfilariae in a lymph node aspirate: A case report  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis is a global health problem endemic in Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears are frequently negative for microfilariae in a significant number of infected patients in whom conventional diagnostic methods may also fail to identify the disease. In such cases, fine needle aspiration cytology may play an important role in disease identification. A 49-year-old South-western male Nigerian farmer, presented with a one-year history of a right groin swelling, which became painful 2 weeks before coming to the hospital. A clinical assessment of lymphogranuloma venereum was made to rule out a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial laboratory investigations only showed mild eosinophilia and haematuria. However, fine needle aspiration cytology performed on the swelling showed microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti for which appropriate treatment was instituted with excellent outcome. This case demonstrates that lymphatic filariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymph node swellings in the groin and that aspiration cytology may play an important role in its diagnosis, especially in an endemic resource poor country. PMID:25298612

Sabageh, Donatus; Oguntola, Adetunji S.; Oguntola, Adebanke M.; Bajowa, Olanrewaju O.

2014-01-01

144

Incidental detection of microfilariae in a lymph node aspirate: A case report.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis is a global health problem endemic in Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears are frequently negative for microfilariae in a significant number of infected patients in whom conventional diagnostic methods may also fail to identify the disease. In such cases, fine needle aspiration cytology may play an important role in disease identification. A 49-year-old South-western male Nigerian farmer, presented with a one-year history of a right groin swelling, which became painful 2 weeks before coming to the hospital. A clinical assessment of lymphogranuloma venereum was made to rule out a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial laboratory investigations only showed mild eosinophilia and haematuria. However, fine needle aspiration cytology performed on the swelling showed microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti for which appropriate treatment was instituted with excellent outcome. This case demonstrates that lymphatic filariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymph node swellings in the groin and that aspiration cytology may play an important role in its diagnosis, especially in an endemic resource poor country. PMID:25298612

Sabageh, Donatus; Oguntola, Adetunji S; Oguntola, Adebanke M; Bajowa, Olanrewaju O

2014-09-01

145

Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.  

PubMed

On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

2013-08-01

146

Cytological investigations on Bulgarian phanerogams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baltisberger, M.: Cytological investigations on Bulgarian phanerogams. - Willdenowia 36 (Special Issue): 205-216. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2006 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.36.36117 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) Chromosome numbers are given for 35 species of angiosperms from Bulgaria, nine of which are the first reports on Bulgarian material; for Geum bulgaricum a new ploidy level is reported. The karyo- types are presented for

MATTHIAS BALTISBERGER

2006-01-01

147

Cytological diagnosis of osteoblastoma of cervical spine: A case report with review of literature.  

PubMed

Osteoblastomas are rare benign but sometimes aggressive primary bone tumors (1%), usually seen in males in the 2nd decade. Osteoblastomas, occurring in the spine, constitute a medical emergency due to impending cord compression. Hence a rapid and simple diagnostic modality, such as fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays an important role in clinical decision making. Cytological diagnosis of osteoblastoma is rare. We report a case of a young female patient presenting with a swelling in the left cervical paravertebral region. The X-ray findings were non-diagnostic and the patient was sent for an FNA. Aspiration yielded moderately cellular hemorrhagic smears with plasmacytoid cells, spindle cells, and osteoclastic giant cells in a background of matrix material. A diagnosis favoring osteoblastoma was made. The CT scan findings were in agreement with the cytological diagnosis and the lesion was excised. Histopathological examination confirmed the same. We describe here, the clinical and cytological features of osteoblastoma with their differential diagnosis, along with review of the literature. FNA can be used as an important tool in the pre-operative diagnosis of osteoblastoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:218-221. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24853790

Venugopal, Suguna Belur; Prasad, Sruthi

2015-03-01

148

Utility of cell block in the cytological preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

In most cases involving jaw lesions, a biopsy and a histopathological analysis are necessary to establish the final diagnosis. However, biopsy may be a complex procedure at some maxillomandibular sites, and some systemic conditions could contraindicate the procedure. Thus, a search for new, less invasive techniques, which could eventually replace biopsy and simplify the diagnostic process, would benefit both professionals and patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cell block technique, prepared from the aspiration of luminal contents, in the preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT). From 135 cases of lesions aspirated and processed by the cell block technique, we selected those containing keratin. In all cases selected, histological diagnosis was based on surgical biopsy. From 20 cases containing keratin in the cytological analyses, 19 were KCOTs and one was an orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC). In all KCOT cases, we observed the presence of parakeratin, even in those with intense inflammation. In the cytological analysis of the OOC, parakeratin was not observed. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that KCOT can be confidently diagnosed preoperatively by cytological analyses of lesions punctured and processed by the cell block technique. PMID:24433974

Rivero, Elena Riet Correa; Grando, Liliane Janete; de Oliveira Ramos, Grasieli; da Silva Belatto, Maria Fernanda; Daniel, Filipe Ivan

2014-04-01

149

Cytomorphologic spectrum in aspirates of extra-adrenal paraganglioma  

PubMed Central

Background: Paraganglioma is a rare tumor arising from clusters of neuroendocrine cells in association with sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. It poses a diagnostic challenge because of its widespread anatomic distribution, subtle clinical manifestations, and a variety of morphologic patterns. Aim: The aim of this study is to have an insight into the diverse morphologic spectrum of extra-adrenal paraganglioma (EAP). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of seven cytologically diagnosed cases of EAP over a period of 10 years was performed. There were five superficial swellings and two deep seated retroperitoneal masses. The superficial swellings were aspirated directly, and the retroperitoneal masses were aspirated under ultrasound guidance using 22-gauge lumbar puncture needle fitted to a 10 mL syringe. Smears were reviewed for cellularity, pattern, cell shape, cytoplasm, nuclear features, and background. Results: The age of patients ranged from 25 to 75 years; four patients were males and three were females. Sites involved were carotid body region (four cases), para-pharyngeal space (one case) and para-aortic region (two cases). All the cases yielded hemorrhagic material on fine-needle aspiration. Smears showed scattered and clusters of cells and loosely cohesive acini of tumor cells. Cells were round to polygonal with pleomorphic nuclei, granular chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and moderate to abundant cytoplasm containing fine pink granules and vacuolations. The cases were confirmed on radiology and histopathology. Conclusion: The cytologic features in EAP along with pertinent clinicoradiologic findings help in making an accurate preoperative diagnosis of an otherwise rare tumor. PMID:25210234

Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Mohan, Harsh

2014-01-01

150

Epidermal growth factor receptor and Kras gene expression: reliability of mutational analysis on cytological samples.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kras gene mutations are crucial for discriminating patients responsive to anti-EGFR drugs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. The majority of NSCLCs come to clinical attention at an advanced stage when surgery is no longer recommended and a considerable number of them are diagnosed by cytology only. A large number of metastatic CRCs are also diagnosed by imaging and minimally invasive techniques such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Here, we report our experience in the mutation analysis of EGFR and Kras on cytological material obtained from superficial and deep lesions of NSCLC and CRC. Our series included 63 cytological specimens from primary or metastatic lesions of 42 NSCLCs and 21 CRCs. The cytological material was adequate for the mutation analysis in 39/42 (93%) NSCLCs and in 20/21(95%) CRCs. EGFR and Kras mutations were found in 9 (23%) and 9 (23%) NSCLC cases, respectively. Kras mutations were found in 9/20 (45%) CRC specimens. Histological samples from the primary tumors were available in 9/42 NSCLCs and in 17/21 CRCs. The agreement of EGFR and Kras mutational status in cytological vs. histological samples was 100% for NSCLC and 88% for CRC. Our results suggest that standard cytology provides adequate material for the assessment of EGFR and Kras mutational status in NSCLC and CRC patients and could be specifically indicated in patients not eligible for surgery but candidate to anti-EGFR therapy. PMID:22833420

Bozzetti, Cecilia; Negri, Francesca V; Azzoni, Cinzia; Naldi, Nadia; Nizzoli, Rita; Bortesi, Beatrice; Zobbi, Valentina; Bottarelli, Lorena; Tiseo, Marcello; Silini, Enrico Maria; Ardizzoni, Andrea

2013-07-01

151

Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus  

PubMed Central

A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

2013-01-01

152

Cytological findings of intrathyroidal epithelial thymoma/carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation: a study of eight cases.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe the cytologic findings of intrathyroidal epithelial thymoma/carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (ITET/CASTLE) in detail and discuss its differential diagnoses. We examined cytologic specimens taken from eight ITET/CASTLE cases, who underwent fine needle aspiration. Cytologic features of ITET/CASTLE include (1) hypercellularity, (2) large cell clusters without papillary or follicular pattern, (3) round or spindle tumor cells with distinct nucleoli and cell border, (4) few keratinized cells and intracytoplasmic lumina (ICL), and (5) lymphocytic background. The differential diagnoses included poorly differentiated carcinoma, metastatic lymphoepithelioma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The presence of individual keratinizing cells and ICL and the location of the tumor may be helpful in indicating ITET/CASTLE. PMID:22619154

Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Kuma, Seiji; Miyauchi, Akira

2012-05-01

153

Cytological Features of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland in a 15-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report with Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized tumor of salivary glands characterized by the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This tumor is very rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of MASC in a 15-year-old girl, the fifth youngest case so far reported. The patient complained of a left infra-auricular mass that gradually enlarged for a year. Fine-needle aspiration cytology/imprint cytology showed individual tumor cells that had faintly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with secretion granules sometimes seen adjacent to the tumor cells. These cytological features overlapped between those of zymogen granule-poor acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and MASC. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the related literature with a focus on the cytological features of MASC. The differential diagnostic clues are also discussed.

Inaba, Takako; Fukumura, Yuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ohba, Shinichi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yao, Takashi

2015-01-01

154

Cytological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland in a 15-year-old girl: a case report with review of the literature.  

PubMed

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized tumor of salivary glands characterized by the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This tumor is very rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of MASC in a 15-year-old girl, the fifth youngest case so far reported. The patient complained of a left infra-auricular mass that gradually enlarged for a year. Fine-needle aspiration cytology/imprint cytology showed individual tumor cells that had faintly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with secretion granules sometimes seen adjacent to the tumor cells. These cytological features overlapped between those of zymogen granule-poor acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and MASC. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the related literature with a focus on the cytological features of MASC. The differential diagnostic clues are also discussed. PMID:25815230

Inaba, Takako; Fukumura, Yuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ohba, Shinichi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yao, Takashi

2015-01-01

155

Effectiveness of Toyota process redesign in reducing thyroid gland fine-needle aspiration error.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine whether the Toyota Production System process redesign resulted in diagnostic error reduction for patients who underwent cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. In this longitudinal, nonconcurrent cohort study, we compared the diagnostic error frequency of a thyroid aspiration service before and after implementation of error reduction initiatives consisting of adoption of a standardized diagnostic terminology scheme and an immediate interpretation service. A total of 2,424 patients underwent aspiration. Following terminology standardization, the false-negative rate decreased from 41.8% to 19.1% (P = .006), the specimen nondiagnostic rate increased from 5.8% to 19.8% (P < .001), and the sensitivity increased from 70.2% to 90.6% (P < .001). Cases with an immediate interpretation had a lower noninterpretable specimen rate than those without immediate interpretation (P < .001). Toyota process change led to significantly fewer diagnostic errors for patients who underwent thyroid fine-needle aspiration. PMID:16938657

Raab, Stephen S; Grzybicki, Dana Marie; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Balassanian, Ronald; Janosky, Janine E; Vrbin, Colleen M

2006-10-01

156

Utilization of Ancillary Studies in the Cytologic Diagnosis of Biliary and Pancreatic Lesions  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings, and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. Currently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapilary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the preoperative classification of pancreatic cysts. Many gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, VHL, RNF43, and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:24639398

Layfield, Lester J.; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B.

2015-01-01

157

Endobronchial ultrasound guided needle aspiration of a paraspinal mass with prior failed multiple diagnostic interventions: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

The increasing frequency of tuberculosis (TB) in both developed and developing countries has continued to make spinal TB an important health problem. The present case report is about a patient who presented to us with progressive back pain and paraspinal mass. We performed endobronchial ultrasound guided needle aspiration from the paraspinal mass. The cytology showed granulomatous inflammation suggestive of TB. PMID:25378853

Sinha, Nishant; Padegal, Vivek; Jermely, Deepthi; Satyanarayana, Satish; Santosh, H K

2014-10-01

158

Diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of tuberculous lymphadenitis involving the peripancreatic lymph nodes: a case report.  

PubMed

Pancreatic tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary disease. The diagnosis preoperatively is difficult because clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings are nonspecific. Published data indicate that these lesions mimic cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and the confirmation of clinical suspicion could only be obtained by an open surgical biopsy. Recently, fine needle aspiration cytology has been shown to be a safe, reliable and cost-effective alternative. We report a new case of a peripancreatic tuberculosis in a 52 year old woman and review the relevant literature, paying special attention to the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:17230623

Boujaoude, Joseph-D; Honein, Khalil; Yaghi, Cesar; Ghora, Claude; Abadjian, Gerard; Sayegh, Raymond

2007-01-21

159

Large-volume barium aspiration.  

PubMed

We present a case of large-volume barium aspiration in a 56-year-old woman with stage IV tongue squamous cell carcinoma and longstanding dysphagia. The patient rapidly developed hypoxemic respiratory failure from the resultant chemical pneumonitis. However, her respiratory status improved with supportive care alone in 48 hours. Barium aspiration is rare and often produces dramatic radiographic findings, but is generally associated with a favorable prognosis. PMID:25829647

Hundemer, Gregory L; Kumar, Varun; Vaduganathan, Muthiah

2015-04-01

160

Large-volume barium aspiration  

PubMed Central

We present a case of large-volume barium aspiration in a 56-year-old woman with stage IV tongue squamous cell carcinoma and longstanding dysphagia. The patient rapidly developed hypoxemic respiratory failure from the resultant chemical pneumonitis. However, her respiratory status improved with supportive care alone in 48 hours. Barium aspiration is rare and often produces dramatic radiographic findings, but is generally associated with a favorable prognosis. PMID:25829647

Hundemer, Gregory L.; Kumar, Varun

2015-01-01

161

Differential cytology of cervical neoplasias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the early recognition of cervical cancer the cytology has to detect tumor positive cases among a bulk of un suspicious specimens. Unfortunately there is a group of cases with a vague diaxosis, the so called PAP-ill-group. There are many reasons for the recent impossibility of a safe conclusion from the PAP-Ill-smears to their histological diagnoses (Pig. 1). Today for an exact statement a cone biopsy and a microscopical investigation of its histological sections for such caseS are necessary. That results in a high medical and economical expense and, last not least, that means a higher risk of complications and of future family planning problems for the women affected.

Koenig, Rainer; Bergander, S.

1990-11-01

162

Accuracy of liquid cytology in the diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic oesophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Oesophagoscopy with biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). Therefore is important to discover less-invasive diagnostic methods. Methods Cytology specimens were obtained in patients with active EoE (AEoE) (?15 eos/hpf) and EoE in remission (EoER) (<15 eos/hpf). The samples were assessed by two independent pathologists and were compared with biopsy samples. EoE cytology specimens were compared with specimens obtained from patients with GERD. Results Specimens of 36 patients (69.4% male, mean age 30.88 years) were included. AEoE (17, 47.2%), EoER (11, 30.5%) and GERD (22.2%). eos/hpf in cytology (AEoE 9.23 vs. EoER 1.54 vs. GERD 2, p?=?0.01). Linear correlation between eos/hpf average biopsy and cytology eos/hpf: r?=?0.57, p?cytology obtained a sensitivity of 70%, specificity 81%, PPV 86% and NPV 60% (AUC?=?0.81, p?=?0.01). For detection of AEoE, ?3 eos/hpf in LBC obtained a sensitivity of 70%, specificity 82%, PPV 81% and NPV 66% (AUC?=?0.87, p?=?0.001). Conclusions LBC in oesophageal aspirate seems to be effective for the diagnosis and monitoring activity in EoE. These results support the usefulness of non-invasive methods for the diagnosis and monitoring of EoE. PMID:25452842

García Rojo, Marcial; López Viedma, Bartolomé; de la Santa Belda, Eva; Palomar, Pilar Olivencia; Torrijos, Elisa Gómez; López, Lucia González; Camacho, José Olmedo

2014-01-01

163

Predictive Success Factors for CT-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Pulmonary Lesions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Computed tomography-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions is a simple, safe and reproducible procedure. Currently, it is widely used to diagnose lung lesions. However, different factors can influence the success rates of this procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of radiological and procedural characteristics in predicting the success rates of computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was developed and involved 340 patients who were submitted to a consecutive series of 362 computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsies of lung lesions, between July 1996 and June 2004, using 22-gauge needles (Chiba). Variables such as the radiological characteristics of the lesions, secondary pulmonary radiological findings, and procedural techniques were studied. RESULTS: For this study, 304 (84%) fine needle aspiration biopsies of lung lesions provided sufficient material for cytological evaluation. The variables that predicted sufficient material for cytological evaluation were lesions larger than 40 mm (p=0.02), lesions on the superior lung lobes (p=0.02), and suspicion of primary lung malignancy (p=0.03). From the multivariate analysis, the only predictive variable for success of the biopsies was localization on the superior lobes (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomography-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions showed greater rates of success in biopsies performed in patients with suspicion of primary lung malignancy, with lesions located in the superior lobes, and that have diameters equal to and larger than 40 mm. PMID:20037700

Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Chojniak, Rubens; Gross, Jefferson L; Bitencourt, Almir G.V.

2009-01-01

164

42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and (vi) Gynecologic cases where any...

2014-10-01

165

42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and (vi) Gynecologic cases where any...

2011-10-01

166

42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and (vi) Gynecologic cases where any...

2013-10-01

167

42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and (vi) Gynecologic cases where any...

2012-10-01

168

Performance and Clinical Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration for Diagnosing Gastrointestinal Intramural Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims We evaluated the performance, clinical role, and diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in gastrointestinal intramural lesions. Methods Procedural and pathologic data were reviewed from consecutive patients undergoing EUS-FNA for intramural lesions. Final diagnoses were determined by surgical histopathologic conformation and the diagnosis of malignancy, including clinical follow-up with repeat imaging. Results Forty-six patients (mean age, 47 years; 24 males) underwent EUS-FNA. Lesions were located in the stomach (n=31), esophagus (n=5), and duodenum (n=10). The median lesion size was 2 cm (range, 1 to 20.6). Final diagnoses were obtained in 22 patients (48%). EUS-FNA was diagnostic in 40 patients (87%). The diagnostic accuracy of cytology for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions was 82%; diagnostic error occurred in three patients (6%). The cytologic results influenced clinical judgment in 78% cases. The primary reasons for negative or no clinical impact were false-negative results, misdirected patient management, and inconclusive cytology. Conclusions EUS-FNA exhibited an 87% diagnostic yield for gastrointestinal intramural lesions; the accuracy of cytology for differentiating malignancy was 82%. The limitations of EUS-FNA were primarily because of nondiagnostic sampling (9%) and probable diagnostic error (6%); these factors may influence the clinical role of EUS-FNA. PMID:24340255

Sung, Hea Jung; Park, Eun Young; Moon, Sung Jin; Lim, Chul Hyun; Kim, Jin Su; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Choi, Kyu Yong

2013-01-01

169

All lesions great and small, part 1: diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice. PMID:24554514

Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

2014-06-01

170

[Serous microcystic adenoma of the pancreas: cytologic and histologic features].  

PubMed

Cytologic and histologic features in a case of serous microcystic adenoma of the pancreas in a 61-year-old female are presented. In fine-needle aspiration materials, epithelial cells arranged singly, in small clusters and in monolayer sheets were found. The neoplastic cells had round to oval nuclei with finely distributed chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Nuclear atypia and mitoses were not seen. The cytoplasm was moderately abundant and finely granular. Histologically, the encapsulated tumor was composed of multiple small cysts lined by a single layer of flat to cuboidal cells. The tumor cells contained clear cytoplasm with glycogen and centrally located round to oval nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli without any atypia. Mitoses were absent. The intervening stromal septa were hypocellular. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells revealed diffuse positivity of cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen. Proliferative antigen Ki-67 was positive only in sporadic cells. No immunoreactivity for vimentin, carcinoembryonal antigen and S-100 protein was found. Chromogranin A and synaptophysin were expressed only in Langerhans' islets in the tumor capsula. In differential diagnosis, it is important to distinguish serous microcystic adenoma mainly from lymphangioma, cavernous hemangioma, serous cystadenocarcinoma, mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma, solid and pseudopapillary epithelial tumour, acinar cell cystadenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and mesothelioma. PMID:14663926

Tomsová, M; Pohn?talová, D

2003-10-01

171

INFORMATION ENCLOSED wanted: ASPIRING ENGINEERS  

E-print Network

Engineering 35 Mechatronic Engineering 36 Mining Engineering 37 Naval Architecture 38 Petroleum Engineering 39INFORMATION ENCLOSED wanted: ASPIRING ENGINEERS Future innovators and entrepreneurs with a passionRe Engineering Undergraduate Guide 2015 Never Stand Still Faculty of Engineering #12;#12;A MESSAGE FROM THE DEAN

New South Wales, University of

172

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If ...

173

OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

JEFFS, GEORGE A.

174

Nonpalpable breast tumors: diagnosis with stereotaxic localization and fine-needle aspiration  

SciTech Connect

Modern mammography is the most effective means of detecting nonpalpable breast cancers, but correct diagnosis for malignancy is made in only 20%-30% of the cases. The conventional method of lesion localization usually results in approximate placement of the hookwire in the breast. The authors report the results of stereotaxic localization, combined with fine-needle aspiration and cytologic study, performed in 528 cases. Clinically occult breast lesions were localized precisely (within 2 mm 96% of the time), sampled by means of a 23-gauge needle, and marked with either methylene blue or a hookwire for subsequent open excisional biopsy. The results indicate a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 91%, and accuracy of 92% for the fine-needle aspiration procedure. This technique offers a significantly improved preoperative method of diagnosing small breast lesions with minimal pain, no complications, reduced cost, and no disfigurement or scar interfering with subsequent mammographic follow-up.

Dowlatshahi, K.; Gent, H.J.; Schmidt, R.; Jokich, P.M.; Bibbo, M.; Sprenger, E.

1989-02-01

175

Applying a Typology to Vocational Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychological meaning and predictive value of a person's vocational aspirations were examined by applying Holland's typology to the vocational aspirations of high school juniors (N=1,005), college juniors (N=692), employed adults (N=140), and a second sample of college students studied over a 1 year interval (N=624). The aspirational data were…

Holland, John L.; Gottfredson, Gary D.

176

Utilization of ancillary studies in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. Currently, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the pre-operative classification of pancreatic cysts. A number of gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, von Hippel-Lindau, RNF43 and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:25191518

Layfield, Lester J.; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B.

2014-01-01

177

Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the “neoplastic” category separated into “benign” (serous cystadenoma) or “other” (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility for patient management, which has become increasingly conservative for some neoplasms. PMID:25191517

Pitman, Martha B.; Centeno, Barbara A.; Ali, Syed Z.; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-del; Schmidt, C. Max; Brugge, William R.; Layfield, Lester J.

2014-01-01

178

Cell block preparation from cytology specimen with predominance of individually scattered cells.  

PubMed

This video demonstrates Shidham's method for preparation of cell blocks from liquid based cervicovaginal cytology specimens containing individually scattered cells and small cell groups. This technique uses HistoGel (Thermo Scientific) with conventional laboratory equipment. The use of cell block sections is a valuable ancillary tool for evaluation of non-gynecologic cytology. They enable the cytopathologist to study additional morphologic specimen detail including the architecture of the lesion. Most importantly, they allow for the evaluation of ancillary studies such as immunocytochemistry, in-situ hybridization tests (FISH/CISH) and in-situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traditional cell block preparation techniques have mostly been applied to non-gynecologic cytology specimens, typically for body fluid effusions and fine needle aspiration biopsies. Liquid based cervicovaginal specimens are relatively less cellular than their non-gynecologic counterparts with many individual scattered cells. Because of this, adequate cellularity within the cell block sections is difficult to achieve. In addition, the histotechnologist sectioning the block cannot visualize the level at which the cells are at the highest concentration. Therefore, it is difficult to monitor the appropriate level at which sections can be selected to be transferred to the glass slides for testing. As a result, the area of the cell block with the cells of interest may be missed, either by cutting past or not cutting deep enough. Current protocol for Shidham's method addresses these issues. Although this protocol is standardized and reported for gynecologic liquid based cytology specimens, it can also be applied to non-gynecologic specimens such as effusion fluids, FNA, brushings, cyst contents etc for improved quality of diagnostic material in cell block sections. PMID:19623160

Varsegi, George M; Shidham, Vinod

2009-01-01

179

Primary chondrosarcoma of breast--cytology with histopathological correlation: a rare case report with review of literature.  

PubMed

Malignant mesenchymal tumors of the breast other than angiosarcoma are extremely rare and comprise <0.5% of breast tumors. Primary chondrosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare entity and only 10 cases are reported as single case reports in literature until date. A diagnosis of primary mammary sarcoma can be established only after excluding metaplastic carcinomas and malignant phyllodes by extensive sampling for evidence of in situ or invasive carcinoma. Here, we report a primary chondrosarcoma of breast in a 55-year-old lady diagnosed precisely on fine-needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathological examination after total mastectomy. We emphasize on diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology smears and discuss differential diagnoses. PMID:24943775

Sinhasan, Sankappa P; Bharathi, K V; Bhat, Ramachandra V; Dasiah, Simon David

2014-01-01

180

[Exfoliative cytology of nipple discharge (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Due to the exfoliative cytology of the nipple discharge, intracanalicular proliferations within the millimeter range can be detected. Accordingly, this diagnostic method is firmly integrated in the mammary early diagnostics. Within the period reported on so far 3420 women with a pathological secretion could be examined. In 1669 cases there was a bilateral secretion. Thus, altogether 5089 mammae could be cytologically explored. Mammary cytodiagnostics was centered on the bleeding mamma, the myotheliae and galactophoritis. In addition exfoliative cytology can also yield some other diagnostic results, such as the detection of fungiproved in respective cultures. Galactography which was performed in 1053 cases, may be considered to be the only diagnostic consequence resulting from a pathological cytotest. Every 6th galactogram had to be judged as being pathological, and every 5th galactogram histologically clarified revealed a malignant or premalignant proliferation. Accordingly, women manifesting a pathological secretion should be regarded as risk-patients. PMID:564679

Wunderlich, M

1977-01-01

181

Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters  

PubMed Central

Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

2013-01-01

182

Cytologic diagnosis of adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma in a lung cancer patient: Report of a case and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare type of pheochromocytoma. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first cytological diagnosis of this variant via fine-needle aspiration in an 81-year-old male patient who was found to have an adrenal mass while undergoing workup of the recently diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma. We describe the cytomorphologic findings in our case and provide a review of the reported cases of adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma – all of which appear to be benign, nonfunctional, occur in adults, and have similar morphologic features. The pathologist should be aware of this uncommon diagnostic entity and its potential diagnostic pitfalls.

Nam, Anna S.; Koizumi, June H.; Giorgadze, Tamar

2015-01-01

183

Diagnostic performance of elastography in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

Cytological examination of material from fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the mainstay of diagnosis of thyroid nodules, thanks to its remarkable accuracy and scarcity of complications. However, follicular lesions (also called indeterminate lesions or Thy3 in the current classification), a heterogeneous group of lesions in which cytology is unable to give a definitive diagnosis to, represent its main limit. Elastography has been proposed as a potential diagnostic tool to define the risk of malignancy in the aforementioned nodules, but at present there is no conclusive data due to the small number of specifically addressed studies and the lack of concordance among them. The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of real-time elastography (RTE) for refining diagnosis of Thy3 nodules, by integrating diagnostic information provided by traditional ultrasound (US). The study included 108 patients with Thy3 nodules awaiting for surgery, which were evaluated by US (considering hypoecogenicity, irregular margins, microcalcifications, halo sign, and intranodular vascularization) and RTE. Nodules were classified at RTE using a four-class color scale. At histologic examination, 75 nodules were benign and 33 malignant. As expected, none of the ultrasound parameters alone was adequate in predicting malignancy or benignity of the nodules; in the presence of at least two US risk factors, we obtained 61 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity, and 77 % accuracy with 6.8 OR (95 % CI 2.4-20.4). RTE scores 3 and 4 showed 76 % sensitivity, 88 % specificity, 74 % PPV, and 89 % NPV with diagnostic accuracy of 84 %; the data are statistically significant (p < 0.0001) with a OR of 21.9 (95 % CI 7.1-76). By combining RTE with US parameters, the presence of at least 2 characters of suspicion had 88 % sensitivity and 94 % NPV with 23.8 OR (95 % CI 7-106.3). The use of combined RTE and US leads to the identification of two patients subpopulations which have a significantly different malignancy risk (6 vs. 63 %); further studies are needed to verify if it is possible to send only the first group to thyroidectomy and the other to follow-up. PMID:25273318

Garino, Francesca; Deandrea, Maurilio; Motta, Manuela; Mormile, Alberto; Ragazzoni, Federico; Palestini, Nicola; Freddi, Milena; Gasparri, Guido; Sgotto, Enrico; Pacchioni, Donatella; Limone, Paolo Piero

2014-10-01

184

Post-brushing and fine-needle aspiration biopsy follow-up and treatment options for patients with pancreatobiliary lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology, ancillary testing and post-procedure management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature and discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the PSC web site (www.papsociety.org). This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on the follow-up and treatment options for patients after procedures performed for obtaining cytology samples for the evaluation of biliary strictures and solid and cystic masses in the pancreas. These recommendations follow the six-tiered terminology and nomenclature scheme proposed by committee III. PMID:25191519

Kurtycz, Daniel F. I.; Field, Andrew; Tabatabai, Laura; Michaels, Claire; Young, Nancy; Schmidt, C. Max; Farrell, James; Gopal, Deepak; Simeone, Diane; Merchant, Nipun B.; Pitman, Martha Bishop

2014-01-01

185

Diagnosis of metastatic fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration  

PubMed Central

The fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is distinguished from other hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) by its unique clinical and pathologic features. Cytological features for this tumor on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of primary tumors have been described earlier. We present here a unique case of metastatic FL-HCC diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of mediastinal adenopathy. A 32-year-old woman with a history of oral contraceptive use presented with nausea and severe abdominal pain but no ascites or stigmata of cirrhosis. She had a past history of resection of a liver lesion. Serial computed tomography scans revealed mediastinal lymphadenopathy and the patient was referred for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). A transesophageal EUS-FNA was performed and tissue was collected for cytological evaluation by an on-site pathologist with no knowledge of prior history. Based on morphology correlated with prior history received later, a final diagnosis of metastatic FL-HCC in the retrocardiac lymph node was rendered on the EUS-FNA samples. There are very few reports in the literature where a diagnosis of FL-HCC is rendered at unusual sites. This case highlights that EUS-FNA is a relatively non-invasive, rapid, accurate and effective modality in obtaining tissue from otherwise hard-to-reach areas. It also suggests that metastasis of FL-HCC can be observed in mediastinal nodes and that diagnosis based on cytological features can be rendered even when the tumor is identified at unusual locations. PMID:21369523

Crowe, Amanda; Knight, Carrie S.; Jhala, Darshana; Bynon, Steve J.; Jhala, Nirag C.

2011-01-01

186

Aspiration thrombectomy in concert with stent thrombectomy.  

PubMed

In the SWIFT and TREVO 2 trials, aspiration thrombectomy was not able to be performed. Outside these studies, in post-market application, the interventionist can use aspiration thrombectomy in addition to stent device thrombectomy. This technique is described in detail in the present report. Combined aspiration/stentriever thrombectomy may improve recanalization efforts, simplify a second thrombectomy attempt if necessary and may limit distal embolization. PMID:23868216

Dumont, Travis M; Mokin, Maxim; Sorkin, Grant C; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

2014-05-01

187

Aspiration thrombectomy in concert with stent thrombectomy.  

PubMed

In the SWIFT and TREVO 2 trials, aspiration thrombectomy was not able to be performed. Outside these studies, in post-market application, the interventionist can use aspiration thrombectomy in addition to stent device thrombectomy. This technique is described in detail in the present report. Combined aspiration/stentriever thrombectomy may improve recanalization efforts, simplify a second thrombectomy attempt if necessary and may limit distal embolization. PMID:23853010

Dumont, Travis M; Mokin, Maxim; Sorkin, Grant C; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

2013-01-01

188

Aspiration  

MedlinePLUS

... and localized lung disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

189

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspected metastatic cancers to the posterior uvea.  

PubMed Central

This thesis presents the author's experience with diagnostic intraocular fine needle aspiration biopsy in 18 patients with a suspected metastatic choroidal or ciliary body tumor. The author has reviewed the literature on biopsy of intraocular tumors and has specified what he believes to be valid indications for diagnostic biopsy of posterior uveal tumors. He has evaluated the accuracy, limitations, and complications of diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy in this series and others, and he has suggested methods for improving the recovery of sufficient cells for cytologic diagnosis and lessening the risks of tumor cell seeding during the biopsy. The author has concluded that fine needle aspiration biopsy appears to be a relatively safe, generally reliable means of establishing the pathologic diagnosis of a choroidal or ciliary body tumor in highly selected patients suspected of having metastatic cancer. In spite of its apparent safety and reliability, however, the author has cautioned against the routine use of fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with posterior uveal tumors since its long-term safety has not been established. The author has suggested that diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy of posterior uveal tumors be performed only in medical centers where there can be input from and cooperation among ophthalmologists, ophthalmic pathologists, and cytopathologists who are experienced in the diagnosis of intraocular malignancies. Images FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 8 D FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 PMID:2979028

Augsburger, J J

1988-01-01

190

High Aspirations but Low Progression: The Science Aspirations-Careers Paradox amongst Minority Ethnic Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern. In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10-14 (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire…

DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

2011-01-01

191

Severe meconium aspiration syndrome is not caused by aspiration of meconium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meconium aspiration syndrome can present clinically with different degrees of severity, ranging from a mild form of respiratory compromise to severe forms that may result in perinatal death despite mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. However, advances in our knowledge concerning meconium aspiration syndrome have revealed that most cases of severe meconium aspiration syndrome are not in fact causally related

Alessandro Ghidini; Catherine Y. Spong

2001-01-01

192

Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) with Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Syndrome, Cardiac Tamponade and Pleural Effusion: An Unusual Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome and cardiac tamponade are potentially life-threatening conditions that are not uncommon in the oncological setting but their occurrence together in a patient is infrequent. Herein, we present a case of 50-year-old male who presented with SVC syndrome and pleural effusion; developed recurrent cardiac tamponade in the hospital. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of left supraclavicular lymph node which appeared during hospital stay revealed high grade carcinoma and diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was established by FNAC of thyroid nodule. Despite rarity, clinicians must be aware of such presentation of thyroid malignancy.

Nayak, Hemant Kumar; Daga, Mradul Kumar; Jain, Shyama; Kumar, Mukesh

2015-01-01

193

Cytodiagnosis of Epidermoid Cyst of the Upper Lip: A Common Lesion in an Uncommon Site  

PubMed Central

Epidermoid cyst and dermoid cysts are developmental pathologies thought to derive from aberrant ectodermal tissue. They are uncommon in the head and neck region. Rarely, they can be found in the oral cavity and buccal mucosa. However, epidermoid cyst is extremely uncommon in the upper lip and is rarely reported. In this study, we report an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst occurring in the upper lip diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We present this case because of its extremely rare site of presentation and also to highlight the role of FNAC to in the pre-operative diagnosis of this benign lesion. PMID:24696565

Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Jalan, Shilpa

2014-01-01

194

Post-aural Nodular Fasciitis  

PubMed Central

Nodular fasciitis is a rare benign lesion. Here we report a case of post-auricular nodular fasciitis, which was misdiagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as pleomorphic adenoma. An 18-year-old male presented at Al-Nahdha Hospital, physical examination revealed a right post aural firm immobile mass. Radiology suggested the presence of a hypo-dense to iso-dense subcutaneous mass. The swelling was excised and sent for histopathological examination which suggested the diagnosis of nodular fasciitis. FNAC reported pleomorphic adenoma of unusual location should raise the suspicion of nodular fasciitis.

Al Rahbi, Mohammed; Al-Kindi, Hunaina; Al-Sheibani, Salma

2015-01-01

195

A morphometric approach in breast cytology--geometrical descriptors in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the analysis of geometric descriptors that can be applied in breast cytology, and their correlation with the qualitative features, with the aim to underline the differences between the benign and malignant cell profile. The morphometric investigation was performed on smears obtained by fine needle aspiration, 10 cases (group 1) diagnosed as benign and 10 cases (group 2) as malignant. For group 2, the malignancy was histopathologically confirmed on the surgical resection specimen. The sequence of automated operation, previously reported by us, permitted the extraction of the following geometrical descriptors: cytoplasmic area, nuclear area, nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, equivalent diameter and form factor. We analyzed the differences between the benign and malignant morphometric features, and the correlation between the malignant morphometric features and cytological, respectively histological grading. Statistically significant difference in cytoplasmic areas, nuclear areas, value of nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio and equivalent diameter was noted between group I and II. For the form factor, we did not register statistically significant differences. For group 2, the correlation between the morphometric features and cytological grading revealed that the nuclear area is the most valuable descriptor, due to the significant differences between the three successive grades of cytological severity, followed by the cytoplasmic area and equivalent diameter, their numerical values presenting significant differences between cytological grade 1 and 3, and 2 and 3, respectively. The statistical analysis between the morphometric features and histological grading showed that nuclear area and equivalent diameter are the most viable indicators, due to the significant differences present between the three successive grades of pathologic severity, followed by cytoplasmic area (significant differences only for grade 2 versus 3) and for nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio (significant differences only for grade 1 versus 2). The form factor does not provide information that could be correlated with the cytological or histological grading. The defined morphometric features enable the characterization of benign and malignant cells and provide objective criteria that could support a differentiation of benign from the malignant pathology in the cytological diagnosis. PMID:24969974

Mihalache, Daniela; Giu?c?, Simona Eliza; Balan, Raluca; Am?linei, Cornelia; Grigora?, Adriana; C?runtu, Irina Draga

2014-01-01

196

[Fine needle aspirate of lymph node as the analytical sample for immunophenotyping].  

PubMed

In modern clinical laboratory routine, cell analysis by flow cytometry means help in setting up the diagnosis by determination of B-lymphocyte clonality and thus separation of benign and malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the value of cytologic diagnosis and adequacy of the material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lymph nodes for flow cytometry analysis in cases of benign lesions and primary malignant lesions of lymph nodes. In addition, the aim was to determine B-lymphocyte clonality in different groups of benign and malignant lymph node lesions. The study was based on medical documentation, cytologic smears of FNA lymph node samples and results of flow cytometry immunophenotyping. A total of 239 patients were included over a one-year period. Patients were classified according to cytologic findings in the groups of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B cell origin (55%), benign lymphoproliferative disease (22%), undefined group of monomorphic population of lymphatic cells (16%), and the rest in the group of non-Hodgkin's non B cell origin. Study results showed FNA to be an appropriate method for obtaining sufficient numbers of cells for analysis by flow cytometry because there was no inadequate samples in our study group. In some cases of monomorphic lymphoid cell population, cytologic diagnosis was limited to small cell lymphomas, so determining the clonality by flow cytometry is crucial in separating malignant from benign lymphoproliferative disease. It is concluded that FNA associated with the flow cytometry method is a simple and safe method in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:23126034

Svencbir, Viktorija; Ani?, Veronika; Siftar, Zoran; Paro, Mirjana Mariana Kardum; Koloni?, Slobodanka Ostoji?; Bolanca, Ines Krivak; Kardum-Skelin, Ika

2011-09-01

197

Aspiration pneumonitis due to povidone-iodine aspiration during a facial bone fracture reduction operation.  

PubMed

Aspiration pneumonitis caused by aspiration of an oral disinfectant such as povidone-iodine during general anesthesia is rare and presents from a simple cough to a potentially fatal reaction. We present the case of a 15-year-old woman who developed aspiration pneumonitis as a complication due to aspiration of povidone-iodine during reduction with a fracture in her left anterior maxillary wall and orbital floor while under general anesthesia. Operators should consider the risks of aspiration pneumonitis during oral cleansing while patients are under general anesthesia. PMID:24621762

Choi, Woo Young; Park, Cheol Woo; Son, Kyung Min; Cheon, Ji Seon

2014-01-01

198

Image-guided fine-needle aspiration of retroperitoneal masses: The role of the cytopathologist  

PubMed Central

Background: Retroperitoneal tumors constitute a difficult diagnostic category as they are not easily accessible. The advent of image-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has resolved this problem significantly. Aims: We present a short study based on guided aspiration of retroperitoneal tumors, in which we have tried to assess the role of image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology as a tool for pre-operative diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal masses. FNA was performed under image guidance with the help of ultrasonography and/or computed tomography; smears were prepared and meticulously screened according to a fixed protocol. The results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficacy of cytopathological diagnosis using image-guided FNA techniques. Results: We assessed 38 patients with retroperitoneal masses. In all cases, adequate cellular material was obtained. No major complications were encountered. Statistical analysis was carried out in 35 cases; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100% in these cases. Conclusion: FNA under image guidance should be considered a first-line diagnostic approach for retroperitoneal and other abdominal tumors, although caution should be exercised in case selection. In areas where advanced tests are not available, the cytotechnologist and cytopathologist have a very important role to play in ensuring accurate diagnoses. PMID:23661939

Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Afzal, Sheerin; Ansari, Hena A; Ahmad, Ibne

2013-01-01

199

MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring  

E-print Network

MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring nature conservation professionals www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/conservation LONDON'S GLOBAL UNIVERSITY #12;Student fieldwork, Norfolk (Picture: Jan Axmacher) Conservation at UCL The UCL MSc Conservation is widely recognised as the leading course for aspiring nature conservation

Jones, Peter JS

200

Two-Year College Students' Degree Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the educational aspirations of college freshmen students in public and private two-year colleges around the nation. Surveying a sample of over 13,000 first-time, full-time students from a national database elicited the following results: about half of students at public and private two year colleges aspired to obtain the…

Laanan, Frankie Santos

201

Money, Happiness, and Aspirations: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has witnessed an explosion of interest in the scientific study of happiness. Economists, in particular, find that happiness increases in income but decreases in income aspirations, and this work prompts examination of how aspirations form and adapt over time. This paper presents results from the first experimental study of how multiple factors -- past payments, social comparisons,

Michael McBride

2007-01-01

202

Meconium aspiration syndrome — prevention and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a common neonatal problem and, sadly, results in acute and chronic respiratory morbidity. Although meconium aspiration can occur prior to delivery even in the absence of labour, in many infants this condition could be prevented by appropriate suctioning at birth. More accurate prediction of high risk patients and greater use of amnioinfusion may further reduce

Anne Greenough

1995-01-01

203

Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid Play Video Clip (00:04:19) Your Radiologist ... Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? ...

204

Utility of PAX8 and PAX2 immunohistochemistry in the identification of renal cell carcinoma in diagnostic cytology.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in cytology specimens may be difficult to confirm on the basis of cytomorphology alone. Often, immunohistochemistry serves as an important adjunct in confirming this diagnosis. Recently, PAX2 was shown to be useful in this regard. In this study, we sought to compare the utility of PAX8 to that of PAX2 immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of RCC in cytology specimens. First, we verified the performance of PAX8 immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray (TMA) composed of 54 cases of RCC; PAX8 immunoreactivity was seen in at least 10% of the tumor cells in all cases. Next, we applied PAX8 immunohistochemistry to cell block sections prepared from 24 cases of RCC, obtained from fine-needle aspirates and effusion specimens. PAX2 immunohistochemistry was performed for comparison. Immunopositivity was defined as the presence of nuclear staining in at least 10% of tumor cell nuclei. Immunoreactivity for PAX8 and PAX2 was seen in 21 (88%) and 20 (83%) of the 24 cases, respectively. The presence of either PAX8 or PAX2 immunostaining was present in 22 of 24 cases, thus showing a total sensitivity of 92%. Overall, the results indicate that PAX8 and PAX2 are diagnostically useful adjuncts in confirming the diagnosis of RCC in cytology specimens. PMID:22807381

Knoepp, Stewart M; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Roh, Michael H

2012-08-01

205

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy using a newly-developed pencil-grip syringe holder.  

PubMed

Until now, commercially available syringe holders for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) were designed to be held in a pistol-grip manner. A newly developed, pencil-grip syringe holder, the Tao Aspirator, was tested. The device is equipped with a release button for automatically drawing back the syringe plunger and a regulating knob for adjusting negative pressure for the aspiration. After direct smears were made for on-site examination, the remaining aspirated material was collected by rinsing the needle and syringe with CytoRich red fixative. Hettich cytocentrifuge preparations were then prepared. The quality of the first 150 FNA specimens procured by this device and prepared with liquid fixation was evaluated in terms of adequacy of specimen, amount of obscuring blood, preservation of cells, and ease of screening and interpretation. These 150 specimens included 32 from thyroids; 34 from breasts; 40 from lymph nodes; 24 from subcutaneous nodules; and 20 from salivary glands. There were no unsatisfactory specimens. In Hettich preparations, red blood cells were lysed, making interpretation easier. All cellular elements and tissue fragments were adequately fixed, showing excellent cellular morphology. Specimens fixed in liquid fixative yielded uniform cell suspensions, resulting in cytocentrifuge preparations with evenly distributed cells, and so the screening was also easier. The aspiration techniques using pistol-grip and pencil-grip FNA syringe holders were also compared in terms of control in tissue sampling, ease of use, and safety. The pencil-grip syringe holder allowed greater tactile sensation of the texture of the lesion, and enabled the operator to use a single hand to place a needle into a target lesion with minimal error. This device placed the hand relatively close to the needle tip while the hand was in a position of natural function, imparting more control in tissue sampling. It was more easily manipulated, and could prevent dripping when cystic fluid was aspirated. Specimen collection using the Tao Aspirator and processing with liquid fixation in addition to direct smear preparations allowed the laboratory to consistently produce adequate cytologic preparations and cell blocks. PMID:9951607

Tao, L C; Smith, J W

1999-02-01

206

Comparative study of intra-operative cytology, frozen sections, and histology of tumor and tumor-like lesions of nose and paranasal sinuses  

PubMed Central

Background: The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses - including the maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses are collectively referred to as the sinonasal tract. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of paranasal sinus lesions for early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions is difficult due to closed architecture, and only one study has been documented in the literature. Aims: To find the efficacy of intra-operative cytology and frozen section for frequently encountered tumor and tumor-like lesions of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Materials and Methods: Thirty cases were included in this study. The material for cytologic examination and frozen sections were taken per-operatively. Cytological smears were prepared by imprint/squash methods from the representative tissue pieces and stained with Leishman-Giemsa and Papanicolaou. Frozen section and paraffin-embedded section were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. A rapid opinion regarding the benign or malignant nature of the lesion and the type of tumor was given. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of imprint cytology, squash cytology, and frozen section were 100%, 100%, and 100%; 100%, 96.15%, and 80.0%; and 100%, 96.15%, and 80.0%, respectively. Overall diagnostic accuracy of imprint smears, squash smears, and frozen section was100%, 96.7%, and 96.7%, respectively. Imprint smears had better specificity as cells morphology could be more accurately appreciated. Conclusions: Intra-operative cytology and frozen section examinations of lesions of nose and paranasal sinuses are useful, quick, and reliable diagnostic technique for rapid diagnosis in the operation theatre and can be used as an adjunct to histopathology for better management of patients. PMID:23661934

Nigam, JS; Misra, V; Dhingra, V; Jain, S; Varma, K; Singh, A

2013-01-01

207

Endometrial Cells in Cervical Cytology: Review of Cytological Features and Clinical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

h Abstract: The 2001 Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology recommends reporting benign exfo- liated endometrial cells in women age 40 and older, and a review of the literature supports this recom- mendation. Stromal cells and histiocytes do not need to be reported. The effect of hormonal therapy on endometrial shedding is reviewed. Clinical information should be provided to the

David L. Greenspan; Marina Cardillo; Diane D. Davey; Debra S. Heller; Ann T. Moriarty

2006-01-01

208

Prolapsed fallopian tube: cytological findings in a ThinPrep liquid based cytology vaginal vault sample.  

PubMed

Fallopian tube prolapse through the vaginal vault after hysterectomy is a rare complication. The clinical diagnosis is difficult and the patient may undergo unnecessary treatment. A cytological diagnosis of tubal prolapse is rare. There are very few descriptions of the cytological appearances of prolapsed fallopian tube and to our knowledge, they have not been described in liquid based cytology preparations. The presence of classic columnar cells with cilia and sheets of cells with small granular uniform nuclei in an orderly arrangement are the diagnostic appearances of cells originating from the fallopian tube. We describe a case in which the cells had undergone squamous metaplasia with nuclear enlargement and increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios corresponding to reactive atypia but with fine and evenly distributed chromatin and smooth nuclear contours, which indicated their benign nature. In addition, in this case intracytoplasmic polymorphs and associated extracellular infiltrates of inflammatory cells are noted. The description of this case may help others to consider a cytological diagnosis of prolapsed fallopian tube, thus preventing repeated cauterisations of vault granulation tissue on one hand, and possibly excessive surgical treatment of a mistaken malignant lesion on the other. PMID:21656703

Nasir, Nyla; Desai, Mina; Marshall, Janet; Gupta, Nalini

2013-02-01

209

Hip arthrography, aspiration, block, and bursography.  

PubMed

Hip arthrography in children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is used to determine the optimal position of the femoral head for immobilization during the process of epiphyseal healing and in developmental dysplasia of the hip as a guide to operative treatment. In adult hips, arthrography and aspiration are useful techniques for demonstration of prosthetic implant loosening and infection. Aspiration of the hip joint and culture of aspirated fluid helps to diagnose septic arthritis. Anesthetic hip arthrography helps to distinguish between pain originating from the hip and radicular pain from the spine. Iliopsoas bursography may be used to diagnose bursal enlargement and its cause. PMID:9673646

Aliabadi, P; Baker, N D; Jaramillo, D

1998-07-01

210

42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general...Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology...

2010-10-01

211

Role of endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration evaluating adrenal gland enlargement or mass  

PubMed Central

AIM: To report the clinical impact of adrenal endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the evaluation of patients with adrenal gland enlargement or mass. METHODS: In a retrospective single-center case-series, patients undergoing EUS-FNA of either adrenal gland from 1997-2011 in our tertiary care center were included. Medical records were reviewed and results of EUS, cytology, adrenal size change on follow-up imaging ? 6 mo after EUS and any repeat EUS or surgery were abstracted. A lesion was considered benign if: (1) EUS-FNA cytology was benign and the lesion remained < 1 cm from its original size on follow-up computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging or repeat EUS ? 6 mo after EUS-FNA; or (2) subsequent adrenalectomy and surgical pathology was benign. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients had left (n = 90) and/or right (n = 5) adrenal EUS-FNA without adverse events. EUS indications included: cancer staging or suspected recurrence (n = 31), pancreatic (n = 20), mediastinal (n = 10), adrenal (n = 7), lung (n = 7) mass or other indication (n = 19). Diagnoses after adrenal EUS-FNA included metastatic lung (n = 10), esophageal (n= 5), colon (n = 2), or other cancer (n = 8); benign primary adrenal mass or benign tissue (n = 60); or was non-diagnostic (n = 9). Available follow-up confirmed a benign lesion in 5/9 non-diagnostic aspirates and 32/60 benign aspirates. Four of the 60 benign aspirates were later confirmed as malignant by repeat biopsy, follow-up CT, or adrenalectomy. Adrenal EUS-FNA diagnosed metastatic cancer in 24, and ruled out metastasis in 10 patients. For the diagnosis of malignancy, EUS-FNA of either adrenal had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 86%, 97%, 96% and 89%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adrenal gland EUS-FNA is safe, minimally invasive and a sensitive technique with significant impact in the management of adrenal gland mass or enlargement. PMID:25332900

Martinez, Melissa; LeBlanc, Julia; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Sherman, Stuart; DeWitt, John

2014-01-01

212

Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25657850

Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

2015-01-01

213

Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

214

Experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the use of aspiration on compressor blade design. The pressure ratio can be significantly increased by controlling the development of the blade and endwall boundary layers. This concept is validated ...

Schuler, Brian Joseph, 1974-

2001-01-01

215

Management of thyroid nodules. II: Scanning techniques, thyroid suppressive therapy, and fine needle aspiration.  

PubMed

For the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroidal disease, ultrasound displays anatomic but not histologic features. Other visualization techniques can be used including isotope scanning (radioiodine, 99m technetium, 241 americium fluorescence, 131 cesium, 67 gallium, 75 selenomethionine, 201 thallium, 32 phosphorus, 99m Tc-bleomycin, 197 mercury, 133 xenon), thermography, x-ray techniques (plain films, computed tomographic scan, xeroradiography, chest x-ray barium swallow, lymphography, angiography), and thyroid hormone suppression. Needle biopsy can be done by core biopsy (Vim-Silverman and drill biopsy), large needle biopsy for histologic processing and fine needle aspiration for cytologic interpretation. The latter is the safest, most reliable, and most cost-effective technique currently available to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroidal disease and has great promise for the future. PMID:6163751

Ashcraft, M W; Van Herle, A J

1981-01-01

216

Fine needle aspiration of non-small cell lung cancer: current state and future perspective.  

PubMed

AThe emerging treatment revolution determined by the advent of new targeted therapies requires accurate tumour subtyping as a mandatory step in the clinical workup of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). As a result of advanced and inoperable disease or poor performance status, in many patients, minimally invasive procedures must be employed to obtain diagnostic material. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a valid and widely employed alternative to either tru-cut or open-sky biopsy. Indeed, cytological specimens are suitable for techniques such as immunocytochemistry, mutation and microRNA analysis, and may present advantages over small biopsies especially if cell blocks are prepared and attention is paid to cytomorphology and pre-analytic management of specimens at the time they are collected. These will allow the adequate stratification of patients into different diagnostic and prognostic classes. PMID:22805511

Fassina, A; Cappellesso, R; Simonato, F; Lanza, C; Marzari, A; Fassan, M

2012-08-01

217

Atypia of undetermined significance on thyroid fine needle aspiration: surgical outcome and risk factors for malignancy  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to analyze the surgical pathology results of the "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS) category from thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to describe the characteristics to distinguish a malignant from a benign nodule. Methods A retrospective analysis was done on 116 patients who underwent thyroid surgery from December 2008 to December 2012, following a diagnosis of AUS from preoperative thyroid FNA. We investigated the age, gender, size and site of the nodules, ultrasonographic criteria, cytological features, the number of atypia results after repeated FNAs, surgical method, and final pathologic results. Results Sixty-five out of 116 patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the rest had partial thyroidectomy. The final pathologic results were 41 malignancies (35.3%) and 75 benign diseases (64.7%). AUS was divided into group 1: 'cannot rule out malignancy' or group 2: 'cannot rule out follicular neoplasm'. After surgery, group 1 revealed papillary thyroid cancer in most cases and group 2 revealed follicular adenoma in most cases. Age over 40 years, ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy, more than 2 results of atypia from repeated FNAs and nodules less than 2 centimeters were risk factors for malignancy on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy was a significant risk factor for malignancy. Conclusion For proper evaluation of the risk for malignancy in thyroid AUS patients, the ultrasonographic criteria should be considered along with other clinicopathological findings such as age, nodule size, number of atypia, cytologic features. PMID:24761418

Ryu, Young Jae; Jung, Youn Seung; Yoon, Hyun Chul; Hwang, Min Jung; Shin, Sun Hyoung; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kang, Ho Cheol; Lim, Hyo Soon; Yoon, Jung Han

2014-01-01

218

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for non-small cell lung cancer staging.  

PubMed

Real-time endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is an established technique for invasive mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Needle-based techniques are now recommended as a first-line diagnostic modality for mediastinal staging. Accurate performance of systematic staging with EBUS-TBNA requires a detailed knowledge of mediastinal anatomy. This examination begins at the N3 lymph nodes, progressing through the N2 and N1 lymph node stations, unless a higher station lymph node is positive for malignant cells by rapid on-site cytologic examination. Objective methods of identifying EBUS-TBNA targets include sampling any lymph node station with a visible lymph node or with a lymph node greater than 5 mm in short axis. Three passes per station or the use of rapid on-site cytologic examination with identification of diagnostic material (tumor or lymphocytes) up to five passes are well-established techniques. Obtaining sufficient tissue for molecular profiling may require performing more than three passes. The operating characteristics of EBUS-TBNA are similar to mediastinoscopy. However, mediastinoscopy should be considered in the setting of a negative EBUS-TBNA and a high posterior probability of N2 or N3 involvement. PMID:24484269

Kinsey, C Matthew; Arenberg, Douglas A

2014-03-15

219

Next-generation sequencing-based multi-gene mutation profiling of solid tumors using fine needle aspiration samples: promises and challenges for routine clinical diagnostics.  

PubMed

Increasing use of fine needle aspiration for oncological diagnosis, while minimally invasive, poses a challenge for molecular testing by traditional sequencing platforms due to high sample requirements. The advent of affordable benchtop next-generation sequencing platforms such as the semiconductor-based Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) Sequencer has facilitated multi-gene mutational profiling using only nanograms of DNA. We describe successful next-generation sequencing-based testing of fine needle aspiration cytological specimens in a clinical laboratory setting. We selected 61 tumor specimens, obtained by fine needle aspiration, with known mutational status for clinically relevant genes; of these, 31 specimens yielded sufficient DNA for next-generation sequencing testing. Ten nanograms of DNA from each sample was tested for mutations in the hotspot regions of 46 cancer-related genes using a 318-chip on Ion PGM Sequencer. All tested samples underwent successful targeted sequencing of 46 genes. We showed 100% concordance of results between next-generation sequencing and conventional test platforms for all previously known point mutations that included BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, RET and TP53, deletions of EGFR and wild-type calls. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing detected variants in 19 of the 31 (61%) patient samples that were not detected by traditional platforms, thus increasing the utility of mutation analysis; these variants involved the APC, ATM, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, FGFR2, FLT3, KDR, KIT, KRAS, MLH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, SMAD4, STK11 and TP53 genes. The results of this study show that next-generation sequencing-based mutational profiling can be performed on fine needle aspiration cytological smears and cell blocks. Next-generation sequencing can be performed with only nanograms of DNA and has better sensitivity than traditional sequencing platforms. Use of next-generation sequencing also enhances the power of fine needle aspiration by providing gene mutation results that can direct personalized cancer therapy. PMID:23907151

Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Portier, Bryce P; Singh, Rajesh R; Routbort, Mark J; Aldape, Kenneth D; Handal, Brian A; Rahimi, Hamed; Reddy, Neelima G; Barkoh, Bedia A; Mishra, Bal M; Paladugu, Abhaya V; Manekia, Jawad H; Kalhor, Neda; Chowdhuri, Sinchita Roy; Staerkel, Gregg A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Patel, Keyur P

2014-02-01

220

Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and useful ancillary methods  

PubMed Central

The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in evaluating pancreatic pathology has been well documented from the beginning of its clinical use. High spatial resolution and the close proximity to the evaluated organs within the mediastinum and abdominal cavity allow detection of small focal lesions and precise tissue acquisition from suspected lesions within the reach of this method. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is considered of additional value to EUS and is performed to obtain tissue diagnosis. Tissue acquisition from suspected lesions for cytological or histological analysis allows, not only the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions, but, in most cases, also the accurate distinction between the various types of malignant lesions. It is well documented that the best results are achieved only if an adequate sample is obtained for further analysis, if the material is processed in an appropriate way, and if adequate ancillary methods are performed. This is a multi-step process and could be quite a challenge in some cases. In this article, we discuss the technical aspects of tissue acquisition by EUS-guided-FNA (EUS-FNA), as well as the role of an on-site cytopathologist, various means of specimen processing, and the selection of the appropriate ancillary method for providing an accurate tissue diagnosis and maximizing the yield of this method. The main goal of this review is to alert endosonographers, not only to the different possibilities of tissue acquisition, namely EUS-FNA, but also to bring to their attention the importance of proper sample processing in the evaluation of various lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and other accessible organs. All aspects of tissue acquisition (needles, suction, use of stylet, complications, etc.) have been well discussed lately. Adequate tissue samples enable comprehensive diagnoses, which answer the main clinical questions, thus enabling targeted therapy. PMID:25339816

Tadic, Mario; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Kusec, Rajko

2014-01-01

221

Urine cytology in patients with calculi.  

PubMed Central

The cytological changes in voided urines were analysed in 154 patients with calculi. No abnormality was seen in 52.6%; 40.9% contained smooth-bordered clusters of transitional cells with essentially normal, centrally placed nuclei. These, when found in routine urines, were reliable in predicting calculi in 62.5% of cases. Of the calculus urines, 6.5% showed features suspicious of differentiated transitional carcinoma. Although their morphological features overlapped with those observed in urines from 40 cases of proved differentiated transitional carcinoma, they contained significantly fewer single and clusters of transitional cells with abnormal nuclear morphology. Histological examination of urothelium adjacent to calculi in eight patients showed no evidence of malignancy although one case showed hyperplasia and severe epithelial atypia. Images PMID:7068927

Highman, W; Wilson, E

1982-01-01

222

Next Generation Sequencing Improves the Accuracy of KRAS Mutation Analysis in Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration Pancreatic Lesions  

PubMed Central

The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

223

Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) in fine-needle aspiration specimens of prostate lesions.  

PubMed

The elevated expression of P504S gene and its product alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) can serve as a molecular marker for prostate cancer. The goal of this study is to investigate P504S/AMACR expression in fine-needle aspiration smears and correlate it with cytological diagnosis. Immunocytochemistry was performed in 35 patients with morphological diagnosis of prostate carcinoma (n = 16), atypia (n = 15), and benign hyperplasia (n = 4). Among 16 malignant cases there were two low-grade, eight intermediate, and six high-grade prostate carcinomas. Cytoplasmic positivity is analyzed qualitatively as predominantly diffuse or focal and quantitatively as <5%, 5-50%, and >50% of cells. Benign cases showed no P504S/AMACR expression. Positive staining was recorded in 75% of malignant cases, but in the majority of them it was weak and focal or diffuse and in a small amount of cells. The most intensive staining was seen in low-grade carcinomas and some atypical cases. This observation indicates a correlation between P504S/AMACR expression and differentiation of cells. P504S/AMACR staining might be of great value in cytodiagnosis of prostate lesions as well as an example of the characterization of cells at the molecular level using fresh tissue obtained by fine-needle aspiration. PMID:19459159

Kai?, Gordana; Tomasovi?-Loncari?, Cedna

2009-11-01

224

The detection of telomerase activity in patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas by fine needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Telomerase activation in differentiated cells is associated with cell immortalization. Detection of telomerase expression in cancer provides a potential biomarker to be evaluated in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. Analysis of telomerase activity in biopsy specimens may serve as a useful marker for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This study was conducted to determine if telomerase could be detected in fine needle aspirates from patients with pancreatic carcinoma. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay was used to determine telomerase activity from pancreatic cancer cell lines, paired tumor/normal human pancreatic tissues and specimens obtained at the time of diagnostic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies. In this report, we demonstrate that: i) telomerase activity is present in pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer specimens, but absent in matched adjacent areas of normal pancreatic tissues; ii) telomerase activity is present in FNA samples obtained at the time of CT-guided FNA of pancreatic adenocarcinomas; and iii) this activity can be detected in material normally discarded during FNA slide preparation. Activation of telomerase can be identified in FNA specimens obtained at the time of routine cytologic diagnosis. These findings may be useful for further diagnostic or therapeutic investigations of telomerase activity in pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:10891550

Pearson, A S; Chiao, P; Zhang, L; Zhang, W; Larry, L; Katz, R L; Evans, D B; Abbruzzese, J L

2000-08-01

225

Endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a must for thoracic surgeons.  

PubMed

A thoracic surgeon facile in endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-FNA) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can accurately sample mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) for histologic assessment of mediastinal adenopathy and for thoracic malignancy staging. Although mediastinoscopy is the gold standard for histologic MLN assessment, EBUS-FNA and EUS-FNA have emerged as useful, less-invasive sampling techniques that offer access to a wider range of MLN stations than mediastinoscopy and can be used to biopsy suspicious lesions within (ie, peribronchial masses) and outside the mediastinum (ie, left adrenal gland masses, liver lesions, and enlarged celiac lymph nodes). The negative predictive value of EBUS-TBNA and EUS-FNA in patients with malignancy is somewhat lower than the negative predictive value of mediastinoscopy. Therefore, we recommend that nonmalignant EBUS or EUS cytologic findings should be confirmed with a surgical MLN biopsy (ie, mediastinoscopy or thoracoscopy) if the pretest probability of malignancy is high. PMID:20493985

Groth, Shawn S; Andrade, Rafael S

2010-06-01

226

Cytological and histological outcome following a borderline cervical smear.  

PubMed

A prospective cytological and histological study was conducted in 627 women with borderline nuclear abnormality to assess its clinical significance in an attempt to reach a sound policy of management. The incidence of dyskaryosis was 10.9% at a 6-month repeat smear after the first borderline smear. The detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) after two borderline smears increased to 21.15% on cytology and 40.75% on histology. Additionally, there were two cases of glandular intraepithelial neoplasia and one case of adenocarcinoma detected on histology after having borderline nuclear changes reported on cytology; 39.7% of these women with initial borderline cervical smear were under the age of 30 years. The high prevalence of borderline nuclear abnormality in younger women and a poor correlation between these abnormalities and severity of CIN suggest that repeat cytology is a less than optimal management for these women. PMID:12881086

Rawal, N; Saridogan, E; Weekes, A W; Haq Khan, N

2003-07-01

227

Urethral and neobladder cytologic survey in patients with total cystectomy.  

PubMed

Fourteen patients with total cystectomy and sigmoidian ureterostomy, 10 with cutaneous ureterostomy and 6 with substitution bladder were studied from the cytologic point of view; from all patients samples of voided urine, urethral and neobladder washing were taken and smears stained with blue polychrom-tanin Dr?gan; the smears which belong to the last group were cytochemically investigated, too. From morphohistochemical point of view biopsies taken from cases with recurrences and one case with substitution bladder which died in the 10th day after surgery were studied. The cytologic study revealed two recurrences: one urethral and one at the pelvis level at 18 and respectively 4 months from total cystectomy, both being transitional cell carcinoma. Cytologic and histochemical aspects of the intestinal wall used as neobladder are described, revealing epithelial modifications and chronic inflammatory infiltrate with marked decrease of mucous synthesis. The importance of urinary cytology in oncologic survey of these patients is discussed. PMID:1295605

Raica, M; Ioiart, I

1992-01-01

228

Glottal insufficiency with aspiration risk in dysphagia.  

PubMed

Glottal closure is an important part of the mechanism that protects the airway during the normal swallow. Glottal insufficiency disrupts glottal closure and therefore puts patients at risk of aspiration. Treatment of glottal insufficiency can be classified as surgical or nonsurgical. The objective of treating glottal insufficiency is to avoid aspiration or penetration of secretions or food into the airway. Nonsurgical treatment consists of swallowing maneuvers and other measures. Surgical treatment of glottal insufficiency includes injection laryngoplasty, medialization thyroplasty with or without arytenoid adduction or with arytenopexy and cricothyroid subluxation, hypopharyngoplasty, cricopharynx muscle dilation, and cricopharynx myotomy. PMID:24262963

Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael

2013-12-01

229

Diagnosis of canine gastric adenocarcinoma using squash preparation cytology.  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma is the most common gastric tumour in dogs. Clinical signs and laboratory results are often non-specific, with histopathological examination of gastric biopsies being required to reach a definitive diagnosis. Use of cytology would potentially shorten the time to diagnosis and allow early interventional measures to be implemented. However, there are relatively few studies of the cytological features of gastric samples. The present study was designed to investigate whether cytology might be useful for diagnosis of canine gastric adenocarcinomas and to evaluate the performance of squash preparation cytology for this purpose. Squash preparations of gastric biopsies from 94 dogs were reviewed to determine the presence or absence of specific cytological features associated with adenocarcinomas and to compare findings with the results of histopathological examination of gastric biopsies. The presence of signet ring cells, microvacuolation, cellular pleomorphism and single cell distribution of epithelial cells were positively associated with a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Combined evaluation (parallel testing) for the presence of signet ring cells and microvacuolation demonstrated excellent results for recognition of adenocarcinomas. Cytological examination of squash preparations from gastric biopsies and identification of signet ring cells and cytoplasmic vacuolation can allow rapid and reliable diagnosis of canine gastric adenocarcinomas. PMID:24923753

Riondato, Fulvio; Miniscalco, Barbara; Berio, Enrica; Lepri, Elvio; Rossi, Silvia; Bottero, Enrico

2014-09-01

230

Frequency of occurrence and characteristics of primary pancreatic lymphoma during endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary pancreatic lymphoma is a rare tumour of the pancreas. Data on the role of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration for its diagnosis are scant. Aim To identify the frequency of occurrence, sonographic characteristics and cytological findings that are predictive of primary pancreatic lymphoma. Methods Pancreatic lymphoma cases were identified by retrospective review of solid pancreatic masses over 10-year period. Results 12/2397 (0.5%) lesions were identified. Patients were predominantly white (92%) and male (58%). Mean largest dimension was 47.5 mm and 83.3% were located in the head. The mass appeared heterogeneous in 75% and peripancreatic lymphadenopathy was noted in 58%. None of the patients showed features of chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic ductal dilation. Rapid onsite analysis revealed atypical lymphocytes in 92%. Flow cytometry confirmed diagnosis in 75% of cases. Conclusions Primary pancreatic lymphoma is encountered in 0.5% of patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration. A large heterogeneous mass, in the absence of chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic duct dilation that reveals atypical lymphocytes on fine needle aspiration is suggestive. PMID:24560534

Ramesh, Jayapal; Hebert-Magee, Shantel; Kim, Hwasoon; Trevino, Jessica; Varadarajulu, Shyam

2014-01-01

231

FNAB cytology of extra-cranial metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme may resemble a lung primary: A diagnostic pitfall  

PubMed Central

Background As extra-cranial metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is rare, it may create a diagnostic dilemma especially during interpretation of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytology. Case presentation We present transbronchial FNAB findings in a 62-year-old smoker with lung mass clinically suspicious for a lung primary. The smears of transbronchial FNAB showed groups of cells with ill-defined cell margins and cytological features overlapping with poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinoma. The tumor cells demonstrated lack of immunoreactivity for cytokeratin, thyroid transcription factor-1, and usual neuroendocrine markers, synaptophysin and chromogranin in formalin-fixed cellblock sections. However, they were immunoreactive for the other neuroendocrine immunomarker, CD56, suggesting neural nature of the cells. Further scrutiny of clinical details revealed a history of GBM, 13 months status-post surgical excision with radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy. The tumor recurred 7 months earlier and was debulked surgically and with intra-cranial chemotherapy. Additional evaluation of tumor cells for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity with clinical details resulted in final interpretation of metastatic GBM. Conclusion Lack of clinical history and immunophenotyping may lead to a diagnostic pitfall with possible misinterpretation of metastatic GBM as poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinoma of lung in a smoker. PMID:15967023

Chivukula, Mamatha; Dincer, HE; Biller, Julie A; Krouwer, Hendrikus G; Simon, Grant; Shidham, Vinod

2005-01-01

232

Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.  

PubMed

An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

2013-06-01

233

Human papillomavirus status of head and neck cancer as determined in cytologic specimens using the hybrid-capture 2 assay  

PubMed Central

Objective A standardized assay to determine the HPV status of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) specimens has not yet been established, particularly for cytologic samples. The goal of this study was to determine whether the hybrid capture-2 (HC-2) assay, already widely used for the detection of high risk HPV in cervical brushings, is applicable to cytologic specimens obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs. Materials and methods Fine needle aspirates (FNA) of cervical lymph nodes were pre-operatively obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs and evaluated for the presence of HPV using the HC-2 assay. HPV analysis was performed on the corresponding resected tissue specimens using p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HR-HPV in situ hybridization (ISH). A cost analysis was performed using the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Results HPV status of the cervical lymph node metastases was correctly classified using the HC-2 assay in 84% (21/25) of cases. Accuracy was improved to 100% when cytologic evaluation confirmed the presence of cancer cells in the test samples. The estimated cost savings to CMS using the HC-2 assay ranged from $113.74 to $364.63 per patient. Conclusions HC-2 is a reliable method for determining the HPV status of HNSCCs. Its application to HNSCCs may reduce costs by helping to localize the primary site during the diagnostic work-up as well as decrease the interval time of determining the HPV status which would be relevant for providing prognostic information to the patient as well as determining eligibility for clinical trials targeting this unique patient population. PMID:24630260

Smith, David F.; Maleki, Zahra; Coughlan, Diarmuid; Gooi, Zhen; Akpeng, Belinda; Ogawa, Takenori; Bishop, Justin A.; Frick, Kevin D.; Agrawal, Nishant; Gourin, Christine G.; Ha, Patrick K.; Koch, Wayne M.; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Westra, William H.; Pai, Sara I.

2015-01-01

234

Deciduoid mesothelioma: cytologic presentation and diagnostic pitfalls.  

PubMed

We report two cases of malignant deciduoid mesothelioma (MDM), a very rare variant of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Case 1: An 18-year-old male with no history of asbestos exposure presented with worsening abdominal pain, anorexia, and vomiting after a motor vehicle accident. A CT scan showed small amount of ascites and abdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed multiple yellow tan, firm nodules on the peritoneum and omentum. He received palliative treatment and died 5 months after the diagnosis. Case 2: A 64-year-old female with history of asbestos exposure initially presented with abdominal distension. CT scan showed abdominal mass with a large amount of ascites. A diagnostic laparoscopy revealed multiple peritoneal nodules. She underwent several regimens of chemotherapy over a period of 69 months and is still alive to date. In both cases, features of mesothelial origin were subtle and the smears showed predominantly single cells with marked nuclear atypia. The second case also contained few two-dimensional loose cell clusters with scalloped or hobnail borders. The clusters often exhibited a pseudoacinar structure surrounding a globular extracellular material. Groups of three to four cells often formed doublets and triplets with cell-to-cell windows. Our results show that MDM may not present with the traditional cytological features described in MM and can manifest with more nuclear pleomorphism resulting in erroneous diagnosis. Recognition of the subtle mesothelial features along with the appropriate ancillary tests is essential for accurate diagnosis. PMID:23008275

Huang, Cheng Cheng; Michael, Claire W

2013-07-01

235

Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

Lin, Meng-Jie

2011-01-01

236

Student Aspiration to Fall, Along with Funding  

E-print Network

to the research funding, to support sub-bachelor and postgraduate places for teaching, nursing and Asian languages January 2014 will result in 80,000 new higher education students, including between 15,000-17,000 students education is as much a financial decision as an education choice. "The aspirations of potential students

Mayer, Wolfgang

237

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2011-04-01

238

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2013-04-01

239

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2012-04-01

240

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2014-04-01

241

The Gap between Aspiration and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

Tuckett, Alan

2013-01-01

242

Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

2008-01-01

243

Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

2012-01-01

244

Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staging for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires accurate assessment of the mediastinal lymph nodes which determines treatment and outcome. As radiological staging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity, it is necessary to sample the mediastinal nodes. Traditionally, mediastinoscopy has been used for evaluation of the mediastinum especially when radical treatment is contemplated, although conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)

A. R. L. Medford; J. A. Bennett; C. M. Free; S. Agrawal

2010-01-01

245

Psychological Predictors of College Women's Leadership Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the influence of psychological variables upon female college students' aspirations for leadership positions in their future careers. Results demonstrated that connectedness needs, gender role, self-esteem, and fears of negative evaluation accounted for a significant amount of the variance in predicting college women's leadership…

Boatwright, Karyn J.; Egidio, Rhonda K.

2003-01-01

246

Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

2010-01-01

247

Aspirator modification for the removal of mosquitoes from tight spaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An insect aspirator was modified to remove mosquitoes that entered an animal-baited experimental cage-within-a-cage. The modified aspirator is easy to maneuver inside tight spaces, powerful enough to aspirate mosquitoes but not remove scales or fluorescent marking powders, and will run continuously...

248

The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

Somerville, Margaret

2013-01-01

249

Cayenne aspiration: an unusual type of lower airway foreign-body aspiration  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cayenne aspiration is an unusual type of foreign-body aspiration that is usually misdiagnosed. This article analyzes the clinical features of cayenne aspiration in the lower airway. Patients and methods Clinical data on eight adult patients with cayenne aspiration were retrospectively analyzed. Six were elderly patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2010 and August 2014. Results The most common symptoms of cayenne aspiration were cough (eight cases, 100%) and sputum (five cases, 62.5%). Only one patient (12.5%) could supply the history of aspiration on his first visit to doctor and was diagnosed definitely without delay. The other seven cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia and the time to accurate diagnosis was from 1 month to 6 months. The history of aspiration could be recalled after confirmed diagnosis for the other seven cases. The most common presentation shown by chest computed tomography (CT) was pneumonic opacity (eight cases, 100%). The existence of cayenne could not be detected by chest CT in any of the patients. All the patients were diagnosed definitively and managed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. Cayenne was more often lodged in the right bronchus tree (seven cases, 87.5%), especially the right lower bronchus (four cases, 50%). The segment of cayenne was complete in five cases (62.5%) and scattered in three cases (37.5%). Conclusion The clinical features of cayenne aspiration are usually obscure and nonspecific which may lead to delay in diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is safe and useful for early diagnosis and effective management. PMID:25473273

Lin, Lianjun; Wang, Yuchuan; Zha, Xiankui; Tang, Fei; Lv, Liping; Liu, Xinmin

2014-01-01

250

Cytological, histological and ultrastructural nuclear features of monster cells in a canine carotid body carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old female Shih-tzu dog was presented with severe dyspnoea. A large mass was palpated in the left cranial neck. Cytological examination of an aspirate sample revealed cells with marked anisokaryosis, giant elements and many bare nuclei. Scattered intact giant cells showed scant, granular cytoplasm and intranuclear inclusions. Histologically, neoplastic cells were subdivided into lobules by fine collagenous trabeculae. Numerous pleomorphic giant, or 'monster', cells were observed, showing a highly indented nuclear envelope, intranuclear cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions (ICPs) and 'ground-glass' nuclear appearance. Neoplastic emboli were present, but no distant metastases were detected grossly. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed synaptophysin and had variable expression of neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. The cells were negative for pan-cytokeratin, CAM 5.2, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100. Nuclear abnormalities and cytoplasmic neurosecretory granules were noted ultrastructurally. These features were consistent with a diagnosis of carotid body carcinoma (chemodectoma). Monster cells with ICPs have not been documented previously in canine chemodectoma. PMID:24811273

Romanucci, M; Malatesta, D; Berardi, I; Pugliese, G; Fusco, D; Della Salda, L

2014-07-01

251

Cytologic and histologic findings of iron pill-induced injury of the lower respiratory tract.  

PubMed

In the airways, iron pill-induced mucosal injury is uncommon and can lead to necrosis and stricture of the respiratory tracts. The process is characterized by mucosal ulceration with deposition of crystalline iron particles, and the diagnosis is usually made on tissue biopsies. We report a case of iron-sulfate-induced mucosal injury in the bronchial washing and biopsy of a patient receiving therapeutic oral iron supplementation with no known aspiration event. Clinically, the patient presented with hemoptysis, and bronchoscopy detected ulcerated main stem bronchus mucosa clinically suspicious for a neoplastic process. Bronchial washings revealed reactive epithelial cells and numerous histiocytes with both intracellular and extracellular refractile brown crystalline material, which was positive on iron stain. The histologic findings on biopsy showed mucosal ulceration with deposits of extracellular crystalline iron particles. These histologic changes are similar to those seen in iron pill-induced mucosal injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with "iron pill" gastritis. The cytologic and histologic features of iron pill-induced airway injury clinically can mimic cancer. The presence of extracellular and intracellular crystalline iron in the airway lumen and/or mucosa with associated varying degrees of ulceration and inflammation confirms the diagnosis. PMID:22508539

Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Illei, Peter B

2013-10-01

252

Improved detection of amyloid in fat pad aspiration: an evaluation of Congo red stain by fluorescent microscopy.  

PubMed

Amyloid fat pad aspiration specimens for cases with a clinical suspicion of amyloid typically are stained with Congo red and examined by brightfield microscopy. Congophilia with apple-green birefringence by polarization microscopy (PM) is considered diagnostic for amyloid. Examination of Congo red-stained slides by fluorescent microscopy (FM) is considered by some to be a more sensitive detection method. In this study, we assessed the utility of this technique in cytopathology archival slides from abdominal fat pad aspirations previously stained with Congo red dye. Seventy-eight cases of abdominal fat pad aspirations collected during the last 5 yr and stained with the Congo red procedure were obtained from archival files. Additionally, 20 adipose tissue material slides prepared from the surgical pathology specimens were examined as controls. One representative smear was examined in each case using FM equipped with rhodamine excitation/absorption (540/570 nm) filters. Relevant clinical information was obtained in all cases. Twelve cases (15.4%) of the 78 fat pad aspiration cases were reported originally as positive by Congo red stain using polarization and apple-green birefringence as diagnostic criteria. On review, four cases were deemed unsatisfactory. By FM examination 29 of the 74 (39.2%) cases were reclassified as positive for amyloid. The results were confirmed by immunohistochemical stain for amyloid P protein and electron microscopy. A number of similar distinct fluorescence and immunohistochemical patterns were recognized in the positive cases. Minimally weak fluorescence in the adipose tissue was observed in the control cases. The use of FM in Congo red-stained fat pad smears can improve the detection of amyloid in cytology preparations. PMID:15468138

Giorgadze, Tamar A; Shiina, Natsuko; Baloch, Zubair W; Tomaszewski, John E; Gupta, Prabodh K

2004-11-01

253

Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

2012-02-01

254

The sweet lung: Chewing gummi bear aspiration  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of foreign bodies, a leading cause of accidental death, is most common in preschool children. In this article we report our experience with a 5-year-old Greek girl who presented with a 24-hour history of sore throat, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Emergency bronchoscopy was performed and multiple small chewing gummi bear (HARIBO) particles impacted in the orifices of the right main bronchus and right lobar and segmentalinic bronchi were successfully removed and aspirated. Aspiration of gummi bears, which is for the first time reported, may cause a silent choking episode leading to life-threatening bronchi obstruction at multiple sites, even in children older than 4 years. PMID:22919167

Tavladaki, Theonimfi; Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Spanaki, Anna-Maria; Ilia, Staurula; Geromarkaki, Elissabet; Briassoulis, George

2012-01-01

255

Involvement of periodontopathic anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has linked the anaerobic bacteria forming periodontopathic biofilms with aspiration pneumonia in elderly persons. In experiments designed to eliminate the potent respiratory pathogens forming biofilms in the oral cavity, we have shown that the mechanical and chemical oral cleansing using povidone-iodine effectively reduced the detection rates and numbers of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae in patients scheduled to undergo oral surgery requiring endotracheal intubation. We confirmed the pathogenicity of periodontopathic anaerobic bacteria for aspiration pneumonia in an experimental mouse model. Based upon the finding of the coexistence of Porphyromonas gingivalis with Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis lesions, we innoculated a mixed culture of P. gingivalis and T. denticola into the mouse trachea; the resulting infection induced inflammatory cytokine production and caused pneumonia. In another series of investigations, professional oral health care (POHC), mainly cleansing administered by dental hygienists once a week for 24 months to elderly persons requiring daily care, resulted in the reduction of the number of total anaerobes, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus species and in the number of cases of fatal aspiration pneumonia. We also found that the POHC treatment of elderly persons for 6 months in the winter season reduced the salivary levels of protease, trypsin-like activity, and neuraminidase and also decreased the frequency of influenza cases. PMID:16277588

Okuda, Katsuji; Kimizuka, Ryuta; Abe, Shu; Kato, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

2005-11-01

256

A technique for quantitative cytology of nasal secretions.  

PubMed

To quantitatively analyze cellular elements in mucopurulent nasal secretions from patients with chronic paranasal sinusitis, we studied five mucus-liquefying agents--dithiothreitol (DTT), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tetrasodium salt, propylene glycol, serratio peptidase and urea--with Hanks' balanced salt solution used as a control. Agents were compared for the number of cells, the mucus-liquefying effect and the staining characteristic of cells in cytocentrifuge-prepared smears. The results indicated that the treatment of nasal secretions with 10 mM DTT provides more clear and detailed cytological preparations for quantitative cytology of nasal secretions. PMID:1747249

Lee, H S; Majima, Y; Sakakura, Y; Kim, B W

1991-01-01

257

Performance of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare tumors of the pancreas, which are increasingly diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this retrospective study, we assessed the performance of EUS-FNA in diagnosing PNETs. Materials and Methods: We identified 48 cases of surgically resected PNETs in which pre-operative EUS-FNA was performed. The clinical features, cytological diagnoses, and surgical follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of EUS-FNA was analyzed as compared to the diagnosis in the follow-up. The cases with discrepancies between cytological diagnosis and surgical follow-up were analyzed and diagnostic pitfalls in discrepant cases were discussed. Results: The patients were 20 male and 28 female with ages ranging from 15 years to 81 years (mean 57 years). The tumors were solid and cystic in 41 and 7 cases, respectively, with sizes ranging from 0.5 cm to 11 cm (mean 2.7 cm). Based on cytomorphologic features and adjunct immunocytochemistry results, when performed, 38 patients (79%) were diagnosed with PNET, while a diagnosis of suspicious for PNET or a diagnosis of neoplasm with differential diagnosis including PNET was rendered in the 3 patients (6%). One case was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm (2%). The remaining 6 patients (13%) had non-diagnostic, negative or atypical diagnosis. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that EUS-FNA has a relatively high sensitivity for diagnosing PNETs. Lack of additional materials for immunocytochemical studies could lead to a less definite diagnosis. Non-diagnostic or false negative FNA diagnosis can be seen in a limited number of cases, especially in those small sized tumors. PMID:23858320

Bernstein, Jane; Ustun, Berrin; Alomari, Ahmed; Bao, Fang; Aslanian, Harry R.; Siddiqui, Uzma; Chhieng, David; Cai, Guoping

2013-01-01

258

The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors. PMID:16262899

Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, R?dvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet

2005-01-01

259

An unusual case of foreign body aspiration mimicking cavitary tuberculosis in adolescent patient: Thread aspiration  

PubMed Central

Foreign body aspiration continues to be a serious problem in childhood and adolescent period with significant rate of morbidity and rarely mortality. Half of the foreign body aspiration cases have no history of aspiration. The main foreign bodies inhaled are food fragments and different kinds of metallic objects. A 12-year-old girl was referred to the pediatric pulmonology department for chronic cough and hemoptysis. She had persistent infiltration and cavitary lesion mimicking cavitary tuberculosis. There was no contact history with tuberculosis in her family and acid resistant bacillus was not found in the sputum examination. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed for persistent infiltration and hemoptysis and inflamed thread was found in right lower lobe bronchus. This is the first case of thread inhalation mimicking cavitary tuberculosis in an adolescent patient. PMID:22577799

2012-01-01

260

Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J Krasna

2000-01-01

261

Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysis q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J. Krasna

2010-01-01

262

Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysisq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J. Krasna

263

Importance of diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis caused by chronic occult aspiration in the elderly.  

PubMed

Diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis (DAB) is a new term that we proposed to define a clinical entity that is characterized by a chronic inflammation of bronchioles caused by recurrent aspiration of foreign particles. In the present study, a total of 4,880 consecutive autopsies were reviewed and we found 31 patients with DAB (0.64%). To investigate the clinicopathologic features of DAB, the 23 patients with DAB (age, 81.2 +/- 6.2 years [mean +/- SD]), from whom clinical information was available, had their features compared to those of 40 randomly selected patients with aspiration pneumonia (age, 81.9 +/- 8.3 years [mean +/- SD]). Oropharyngeal dysphagia was observed in half of the patients with DAB, and two thirds of patients with DAB were bedridden. The onset of DAB was more insidious than aspiration pneumonia, and in half of the patients with DAB episodes of aspiration were unrecognized. Neurologic disorders (52.2%) and dementia (47.8%) were common associated diseases. Most patients with DAB showed signs of bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, and dyspnea. The macroscopic appearance of the cut surface of DAB lung showed diffusely scattered miliary yellowish nodules that resembled those of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Histologic findings of DAB were characterized by localization of chronic mural inflammation with foreign body reaction in bronchioles. Recurrence of small amounts of aspiration might play a role in the pathogenesis of DAB. In view of possible therapeutic intervention, we emphasized the importance of recognizing this entity and differentiating DAB from pulmonary diseases associated with bronchospasm in the elderly, in particular, late-onset asthma and DPB. PMID:8915236

Matsuse, T; Oka, T; Kida, K; Fukuchi, Y

1996-11-01

264

Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.  

PubMed

Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

2014-09-01

265

Pancreatic Juice Cytology in IPMN of the Pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is a disease ranging from adenoma to borderline (with moderate dysplasia) and further to carcinoma (noninvasive and invasive) and surgical strategy is different by the grades of dysplasia. Methods: Preoperativepancreatic juice cytology in IPMN was reviewed in 71 patients with IPMN who underwent surgical resection. Results: The IPMN was adenoma in 48

Koji Yamaguchi; Masafumi Nakamura; Kengo Shirahane; Masahiko Kawamoto; Hiroyuki Konomi; Masayukii Ohta; Masao Tanaka

2005-01-01

266

CYTOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF NORMAL AND CLONED BULLS’ MEIOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cytological and molecular analysis of meiotic cells from two bull clones and three non-clones was performed in order to detect effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNCT) on the meiotic process. Pachytene cells were analyzed by immunohistology using antibodies against the synaptonemal complex pr...

267

Application of Bethesda System for Cervical Cytology in Unhealthy Cervix  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Women presenting with unhealthy cervix needs to be evaluated with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear for epithelial abnormalities. Aim: To detect epithelial cell abnormalities in unhealthy cervix using the 2001Bethesda system of reporting for cervical cytology and to confirm histopathologicaly the findings of Pap smear. Materials and Methods: In this study, 125 women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix underwent conventional cytology. Cervical biopsies were taken from abnormal areas seen on colposcopy and sent for histopathology. Results: Out of 125 Pap smears, 122 were satisfactory for evaluation (19 normal, 86 negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and 17 with epithelial cell abnormality) and 3 were unsatisfactory (one hemorrhagic and two severe inflammation). Out of 17 (13.60%) cases with epithelial cell abnormality, ASC-US was seen in 6 (4.80%), LSIL in 7 (5.60%), HSIL in 1 (0.80%), squamous cell carcinoma in 1 (0.80%), AGC endocervical in 1 (0.80%) and adenocarcinoma in 1 (0.80%) patients. Cervical biopsy was taken in 67 women. Diagnostic accuracy of Pap smear for preinvasive and invasive disease was 81.15% with overall sensitivity and specificity 78.57% and 88.67% respectively and predictive value of 64.71%. Conclusion: Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. The Bethesda system for cervical cytology reporting should be used universally as it will give a standardized interpretation. PMID:25386491

Jain, Veena; Kaur, Tejinder

2014-01-01

268

Cytology of Postbronchoscopically Collected Sputum Samples and Its Diagnostic Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of the cytology of postbronchoscopically collected sputum (PBS) samples in the diagnosis of neoplastic lung disease has been studied in 113 cases. The overall diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) alone was 77%, 87% in 77 central tumors and 58% in 36 peripheral ones. With the addition of PBS, the positive results increased to 91% in the 113

Joan Castella; Pilar de la Heras; Carmen Puzo; Carmen Martinez; Anselmo Lopez; Raimon Cornudella

1981-01-01

269

Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

270

Effect of Thiobenzoate on Cytology of Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cytological changes in Candida albicans, associated with exposure to the antimicrobial agent thiobenzoate, were investigated with the electron microscope. After incubation of proliferating cells for 2-3 hr with the inhibitor, the nucleus displayed a lessened electron density. Following this, gaps appeared in the nuclear membrane and canaliculi emanated toward the periphery of the cell. Complete loss of cytoplasmic organization

G. R. Gale; HELEN H. McLAIN

1964-01-01

271

Cytology of the Common Male Fern in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a paper which has just come to hand by Döpp1, cytological observations of some importance are given with regard to the genus Dryopteris (= Lastrea = Nephrodium) in Europe. In particular, and among other things, apogamy is reported in ``D. paleacea '' from four localities in Germany and Switzerland and the chromosome number in one of these plants is

I. Manton

1939-01-01

272

Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears  

PubMed Central

Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG)-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s) containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC) from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas). There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin) and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark), and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France). Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC). The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4%) was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post fixation in formalin is necessary for ISH. PMID:22574078

Beraki, Elsa; Olsen, Thale Kristin; Sauer, Torill

2012-01-01

273

Foreign body aspiration: a life-threatening situation.  

PubMed

Foreign body aspiration is a life-threatening event, especially in children. In Pakistan, foreign body aspiration in children with betel nuts is a common emergency in the perioperative area. Health awareness of parents, teachers, caretakers, and health care providers can play a significant role in reducing the risk of this life-threatening event. This article describes a case report of a 2½ year old boy who presented in the perioperative area with a betel nut aspiration. PMID:25616886

Lalani, Sharifa Bashir

2015-02-01

274

Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation  

E-print Network

Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

2011-01-01

275

Concentration of Lymph Node Aspirate Improves the Sensitivity of Acid Fast Smear Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Result Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. Conclusion The concentration of lymph node aspirates for acid fast smear microscopy had significantly higher sensitivity than direct microscopy. PMID:25184279

Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen

2014-01-01

276

Emergent intrathecal baclofen withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration.  

PubMed

Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) infusion has become a common treatment for severe spasticity. Many complications of these drug delivery systems have been reported such as those related to improper dosing, mechanical failure of the implanted pump or catheter, or post-operative wound issues. We report a case of ITB withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration. A 21 year-old male with spastic quadriparesis due to traumatic brian injury (TBI) presented with a pseudomeningocele surrounding an ITB pump (215 mcg/day, continuous) implanted in the abdomen. The pseudomeningocele was percutaneously aspirated and approximately 15 hours later the patient developed signs and symptoms of acute baclofen withdrawal. As a result, the patient underwent an exploration of the ITB infusion system with an intraoperative epidural blood patch. The symptoms of ITB withdrawal improved over the next 18 hours. The subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection partially recurred 48 hours later, but this resolved after a second epidural blood patch. The case illustrates a unique presentation of a serious complication of ITB infusion. This underscores that timely diagnosis and treatment of acute baclofen withdrawal is key to optimal outcomes. PMID:23511686

Smith, Timothy R; Mithal, Divakar S; Park, Anne; Bohnen, Angela; Adel, Joseph; Rosenow, Joshua M

2013-01-01

277

Spectrum of Cytology of Neck Lesions: Comparative Study from Two Centers  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this descriptive study was to observe the frequency of various pathological conditions detected in FNAC of patients presenting with neck swellings coming from two different regions of southern India. Materials and Methods: This study included 100 consecutive patients from each region (Region 1: Wyanad, Region 2: Salem) presenting to the department of Pathology with swelling in the neck region as the chief complaint. All age groups were included. All patients underwent FNAC and results were recorded. Frequency of various pathologies was determined. Results: Thyroid lesions were predominant in both the regions with colloid goiter being the commonest lesion followed by lymphadenitis. Metastasis was more common compared to primary malignancies in Salem due to the elderly population under study. Conclusion: Non-neoplastic lesions were commonly encountered in our study which is in accordance with findings in similar studies conducted in other developing countries. FNAC should be the primary investigation of choice as it is inexpensive, safe and has a high degree of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24783077

Muddegowda, Prakash H; Srinivasan, Shuba; Lingegowda, Jyothi B; Kurpad R, Ramkumar; Murthy, K Sathiya

2014-01-01

278

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Adrenal Glands: Analysis of 21 Patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology of adrenal masses helps in etiological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA of adrenal masses in cases where other imaging methods failed and/or were not feasible. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with adrenal masses, in whom adrenal FNA was performed because conventional imaging modalities failed and/or were not feasible, were prospectively evaluated over a period of 3 years. Results Of the 21 patients (mean age, 56±12.2 years; male:female ratio, 2:1), 12 had pyrexia of unknown origin and the other nine underwent evaluation for metastasis. The median lesion size was 2.4×1.6 cm. Ten patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (shown by the presence of caseating granulomas [n=10] and acid-fast bacilli [n=4]). Two patients had EUS-FNA results suggestive of histoplasmosis. The other patients had metastatic lung carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1), and adrenal lipoma (n=1) and adrenal myelolipoma (n=1). EUS results were not suggestive of any particular etiology. No procedure-related adverse events occurred. Conclusions EUS-FNA is a safe and effective method for evaluating adrenal masses, and it yields diagnosis in cases where tissue diagnosis is impossible or has failed using conventional imaging modalities.

Puri, Rajesh; Choudhary, Narendra S.; Kotecha, Hardik; Misra, Smruti Ranjan; Bhagat, Suraj; Paliwal, Manish; Madan, Kaushal; Saraf, Neeraj; Sarin, Haimanti; Guleria, Mridula; Sud, Randhir

2015-01-01

279

Melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation: Diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration with emphasis on differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive, fast, and accurate diagnostic method for the evaluation of patients with locally recurrent or distant metastases of malignant melanoma. In the vast majority of cases, the diagnosis is straightforward with the characteristic cytologic features well documented in the literature. Divergent differentiation (chondroid, neural, myofibroblastic, and osteocartilagenous) in a melanoma is rare and can potentially create diagnostic challenges if the evaluator is unaware of the same. We report a case of a 46-year-old female with a history of primary anal melanoma who presented with a groin mass. The FNA of the groin mass showed a neoplasm rich in chondroid matrix and raised the possibility of a second primary mesenchymal neoplasm rather than metastasis from the patient's known primary anal melanoma. A review of the histologic features of the anal melanoma showed divergent chondroid differentiation in the anal melanoma with the metastatic deposit in the groin exhibiting extensive chondroid differentiation. The differential diagnostic considerations are discussed. PMID:18973120

Hanley, Krisztina Z; Weiss, Sharon W; Logani, Sanjay

2009-01-01

280

HER2 Expression in Fine Needle Aspirates of Lymph Nodes Detected by Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of HER2 levels in ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNA) aspirates of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in the determination of lymph node metastasis or the characterization of primary breast cancer, and to correlate the HER2 levels in US-FNA aspirates (FNA-HER2s) of metastatic ALNs with the HER2 statuses of corresponding primary breast cancers. An institutional review board approved the study. Between January and October 2010, 164 patients with 167 ALNs examined by US-FNA were included. FNA-HER2s of ALNs were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and they were correlated with cytologic/final diagnoses. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic ability to differentiate benign and metastatic ALNs. Additionally, FNA-HER2s of metastatic ALNs were correlated with HER2 status and other clinicopathologic variables of the primary breast cancers. Among the 167 ALNs, 138 were metastatic and 29 were benign. The mean FNA-HER2 (6.3 ng/ml) of metastatic ALNs was higher than that of benign ALNs. All 29 benign ALNs showed no measurable value of FNA-HER2 (0.0 ng/ml). The area under the ROC curves of FNA-HER2 of ALNs was 0.679 for the diagnosis of ALN metastasis. The FNA-HER2 statuses of 108 metastatic ALNs (79.4%) were concordant with the HER2 statuses of the corresponding primary breast cancers. In a subgroup analysis of HER2-positive cancers with ALN metastasis, distant metastasis was significantly associated with FNA-HER2-negativity of metastatic ALNs (P?=?0.04). Although FNA-HER2 of ALNs did not improve the diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in preoperative diagnosis of ALN metastasis of overall patients, FNA-HER2-positive metastatic ALNs were significantly associated with HER2-positivity of primary breast cancers. Additionally, FNA-HER2 analysis of ALN may help to develop more personalized treatment protocol for breast cancer patients by determining the concordance or discordance of HER2 status between primary cancers and metastatic ALNs. PMID:25393693

Choi, Ji Soo; Kim, Hyun Ok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Suh, Young Joo; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung

2014-01-01

281

Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

1989-01-01

282

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) — Where do we go? Research perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenetic cascade of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in newborn infants is complex and still incompletely studied. The variable clinical presentation of MAS is basically connected with variation of the amount and consistency of aspirated meconium and also its distribution within the affected lungs. The contributing role of other factors, like intrauterine fetal compromises, lung maturity at the time of

Pekka O. Kääpä

2009-01-01

283

Relationships of Teenage Smoking to Educational Aspirations and Parents' Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that teenagers with less educated parents and teenagers with lower academic aspirations are more likely than their peers to smoke. This study was conducted to provide additional descriptive data concerning the relationships of smoking to parents' education and students' educational aspirations and to provide preliminary…

Waldron, Ingrid; Lye, Diane

284

The Relationship between Gender and Aspirations to Senior Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender, work factors, and non-work factors with aspirations to positions in senior management. A process model of senior management aspirations was developed and tested. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via an online survey that resulted in a sample of 368 working…

Litzky, Barrie; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

2007-01-01

285

Aspiration pneumonia. Pathophysiological aspects, prevention and management. A review.  

PubMed

Aspiration pneumonias occur more frequently than reported and, in many cases, the disease is not recognised. In hospitalised and institutionalised patients with predisposing diseases prompt diagnosis of this complication and correct preventive measures can drastically reduce the worsening of clinical conditions and the deaths due to aspiration pneumonia. Normal airway structure, effective defence mechanisms, and preventive measures are decisive in reducing aspiration episodes. An increased aspiration risk for food, fluids, medications, or secretions may lead to the development of pneumonia. Pneumonia is the most common respiratory complication in all stroke deaths and in mechanical ventilation patients. In addition, the increased incidence of aspiration pneumonia with aging may be a consequence of impairment of swallowing and the cough reflex. Dysphagia, compromised consciousness, invasive procedures, anaesthesia, insufficient oral care, sleep disorders, and vomiting are all risk factors. Aspiration pneumonia includes different characteristic syndromes based on the amount (massive, acute, chronic) and physical character of the aspirated material (acid, infected, lipoid), needing a different therapeutic approach. Chronic patients education and correct health care practices are the keys for preventing the events of aspiration. In patients at risk a clinical and instrumental assessment of dysphagia should be evaluated. Management includes the removal of etiologic factors (drugs, tubes, mobilisation, oral hygiene), supportive care, and in bacterial pneumonias a specific antibiotic therapy for community-acquired or nosocomial events. PMID:17215795

Petroianni, A; Ceccarelli, D; Conti, V; Terzano, C

2006-12-01

286

Social and Psychological Antecedents of Black Student Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a critical review of research which deals with various aspects of aspirations, expectations and educational attainment, this study attempts to determine the social psychological antecedents of black educational levels of aspiration. The study is based upon data colledted from black sophomore students at a large, predominantly white…

Nacoste, Rupert W.; Scott, Richard R.

287

Stability of Career Aspirations: A Longitudinal Test of Gottfredson's Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gottfredson's theory of the career compromise process was evaluated using a longitudinal data set of 2,353 female and 321 male students recruited for Zuckerman's "Seven College Study," who reported their career aspirations twice over a 1-year period. Expressed career aspirations were coded on the dimensions of sex type, prestige, and the…

Junk, Kate E.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

2010-01-01

288

Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations are…

Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

2006-01-01

289

Cognitive Correlates of Adolescents' Aspirations to Leadership: A Developmental Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among adolescents (N=130) by measuring overall leadership aspirations, valence-instrumentality expectancies for leadership outcomes, self-efficacy perceptions, and attributions of effective leadership. Found significant gender differences in valence scores and age differences in…

Singer, Ming

1990-01-01

290

Liquid Aspiration and Dispensing Based on an Expanding PDMS Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the development of active liquid aspiration and dispensing units designed for vertical, as well as lateral, liquid aspiration. The devices are based on a single-use thermally expanding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite, which allows altering its surface topography by means of individually addressable integrated heaters. Devices are designed in order to create an enclosed cavity in the

Björn Samel; Niklas Sandström; Patrick Griss; Göran Stemme

2008-01-01

291

A Non-Rule of French: H-Aspire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of research in the history of the "h-aspire" in French. It is suggested that a synchronic rule of h-deletion never existed and a synchronic rule of insertion existed only in Old French. The evolution of liaison is compared to that of "h-aspire." Questions are raised for further study. (AMH)

Klausenburger, Jurgen

1977-01-01

292

Debridement of vaginal radiation ulcers using the surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator  

SciTech Connect

The surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator (USA) is a fairly new surgical instrument used for an increasingly wide range of procedures. This paper introduces a new application: debridement of vulvovaginal necrotic ulcers resulting from intracavitary radiation therapy. The ultrasonic aspirator allowed removal of the soft, necrotic tissue while preserving underlying healthy, firm tissue and blood vessels.

Vanderburgh, E.; Nahhas, W.A. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine, Dayton, OH (USA))

1990-10-01

293

Pre-Hospital Aspiration Is Associated with Increased Pulmonary Complications.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are highest among patients intubated on an emergency basis following trauma. We reported previously a retrospective analysis demonstrating an association between subjective aspiration and VAP after pre-hospital intubation. We hypothesize that by directing paramedics to note features of aspiration at intubation, we will confirm prospectively the association between pre-hospital aspiration and subsequent pneumonia in trauma patients. Methods: Paramedics collected data regarding aspiration at the time of intubation. All intubated patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center intensive care unit (ICU) were included. Data comprised a clinical impression of pre-hospital aspiration, as well as the presence and timing of blood and emesis in the airway. Injury severity, co-morbidities, and outcomes were collected from the trauma registry. Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP) was identified by medical record review of both bronchoalveolar lavage culture results and discharge diagnosis. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis of outcomes by aspiration status, as well as covariable adjustment using propensity scores, were performed. Results: Of the 228 patients, 89 (39%) were determined by paramedics to have aspirated. The majority of those who aspirated (84 [94%]) did so prior to intubation. Patients who aspirated had higher Injury Severity Scores than those who did not aspirate (25.0±1.7 vs. 21.9±1.5 points; p=0.04) and lower preintubation Glasgow Coma Scale scores (8.2±0.50 vs. 9.6±0.40; p=0.02). Of the 89 patients who aspirated around the time of intubation, 14 (16%) developed HAP vs. five (3.6%) of those who did not aspirate (p<0.01). We observed non-significant increases in mortality rate, ICU length of stay (LOS) and duration of mechanical ventilation after aspiration (deaths: 21 [23.6%] vs. 23 [16.6%]; p=0.19; ICU LOS: 5.3±0.9 vs. 4.1±0.5 days; p=0.13; duration of mechanical ventilation: 5.3±1.2 vs. 3.2±0.5 days; p=0.10). Conclusions: Aspiration prior to intubation was reported commonly by paramedics and was associated with a higher risk of HAP. PMID:24896218

Fawcett, Vanessa J; Warner, Keir J; Cuschieri, Joseph; Copass, Michael; Grabinsky, Andreas; Kwok, Heemun; Rea, Thomas; Evans, Heather L

2014-06-01

294

Effects of aspiration on public cooperation in structured populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a deterministic win-stay-lose-shift rule into the spatial public goods game, according to which a player will change its current strategy only if its payoff is below a predefined aspiration level. Simulation results on the square lattice and scale-free network indicate that the aspiration level greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. For small multiplication factors, the frequency of cooperation increases to 0.5 as the aspiration level increases. For large multiplication factors, intermediate levels of aspiration prove optimal for the successful evolution of public cooperation. Some qualitative analyses are provided to explain the above results. Besides, we have found that there exists a ping-pong vibration of cooperation at some specific values of multiplication factors and aspiration levels.

Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Lu, Pei-Min; Zeng, Yong-Zhi

2012-08-01

295

Edge Detection In Cytology Using Local Statistical Properties.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate edge detection is a fundamental problem in the areas of image processing and pattern recognition/classification. The lack of effective edge detection methods has slowed the application of image processing to many areas, in particular diagnostic cytology, and is a major factor in lack of acceptance of image processing in service oriented pathology. In this paper, we present a two step procedure which detects edges. Since most images are corrupted by noise and often contain artifacts, the first step is to cleanup the image. Our approach is to use a median filter to reduce noise and background artifacts. The second operation is to locate image pixels which are "information rich" by using local statistics. This, step locates the regions of the image most likely to contain edges. The application of a threshold can then pinpoint those pixels forming the edge of structures of interest. The procedure has been tested on routine cytologic specimens.

Barba, Joseph; Fenster, Paul; Jeanty, Henrick; Gil, Joan

1988-12-01

296

[Cytological criteria for assessing the evolution of herpetic keratitis].  

PubMed

There were studied 33 patients admitted with clinical diagnosis of superficial herpetic keratitis, typical form of dendritic ulcer. In all these cases there were performed smears from the level of cornea and conjunctiva, that were stained with rapid blue polycrome tanin Dragan staining method. Smears were performed before and during the evolution of the disease, in patients specifically treated with antiviral drugs and also in cases treated unspecifically. There are described some cytological particularities which have a relative specificity for the diagnosis: a high number of lymphocytes with cytoplasmic blebs, giant multinucleated cells, and epithelial cells with degenerative lesions (nucleocytoplasmic inclusions, vacuoles, chromophobe halo around nucleus). Such lesions were not observed in patients with non herpetic keratitis. Modifications noticed in epithelial corneal cells could suggest the diagnosis, which can be associated with clinical examination, in order to administer a specific therapy. Dynamic cytological evolution shows early regression of specific cellular modifications in patients treated by Acyclovir. PMID:9932354

Daniela, R; Magdalena, T; Adriana, H

1998-01-01

297

Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.  

PubMed

As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. PMID:24692343

Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

2014-11-01

298

Cytological analysis of constitutive heterochromatin in two species of birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of birds, the myna (Acridotheres tristis L.) and the jungle babbler (Turdoides malcolmi Sykes), have been studied cytologically. Their modal diploid numbers are 78±2 and 68±2 respectively. In T. malcolmi the heterochromatin is located on the centromeres of all the macros and most of the microchromosomes, heterochromatin comprises predominantly GC-sequences and at least one pair of microchromosomes is

P. Tandon; I. Nanda; R. Raman

1984-01-01

299

Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

1987-08-06

300

Cervical priming with misoprostol before manual vacuum aspiration versus electric vacuum aspiration for first-trimester surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) with electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) and to evaluate whether cervical priming with misoprostol facilitates cervical dilation and reduces complications associated with first-trimester medical abortion performed up to 10weeks of pregnancy.

Suneeta Mittal; Rohini Sehgal; Sagarika Aggarwal; Janaki Aruna; Anupama Bahadur; Guresh Kumar

2011-01-01

301

Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.  

PubMed

An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge. PMID:25518800

Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

2014-11-01

302

The cytologic features of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy of the sinonasal tract. Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is an uncommon neuroectodermal tumor of the superior nasal cavity. Upon examining these lesions, a broad differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated round cell tumors must be considered. The cytologic features of SNUC and ONB have been rarely reported. We searched our cytology files for cases of SNUC and ONB and assessed the following: cellularity, architecture, cytoplasm, cell size, nuclear contours, nucleoli, chromatin, anisonucleosis/anisocytosis, mitotic activity, background, and nuclear crush. Seven cases of SNUC produced hypercellular smears with a single-cell-predominant pattern. Cells were intermediate-sized with irregular nuclear contours and small nucleoli. Nuclear crush and mitotic figures were noted. The background exhibited naked nuclei and karyorrhectic debris. Of 7 cases, 6 (86%) exhibited vacuoles or extracellular lumina. The 10 cases of ONB exhibited cellularity, cellular arrangement, and chromatin similar to SNUC. In contrast, ONBs demonstrated fibrillary cytoplasm and smooth nuclear contours; mitotic figures were generally absent. Homer Wright rosettes were encountered in 9 cases (90%). We believe that in the appropriate clinical context, a specific cytologic diagnosis should be possible. PMID:18285258

Bellizzi, Andrew M; Bourne, T David; Mills, Stacey E; Stelow, Edward B

2008-03-01

303

Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature. PMID:21994199

Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

2011-11-01

304

Variations in Molecular Profile in NSCLC Can Be Analyzed Using Cytological Samples: Development of EGFR Resistance Mutations and Coexistence of ALK-EML4 Translocation in an EGFR-Sensitive Patient.  

PubMed

As a result of therapeutic advances, a revolution is taking place in the lung cancer field with major implications for pathologic diagnosis and tissue management. We report a case of a non-small cell lung carcinoma patient with coexistence of EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 rearrangements that responded to EGFR inhibitors and in which the development of a new resistance mutation in exon 20 of EGFR-determined treatment resistance. All the molecular determinations were performed in cytological samples. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported with these characteristics, and the 11th case described with coexistence of EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 rearrangements. The EGFR L858R mutation in exon 21 was found at diagnosis, and the patient presented a 4-year response to erlotinib. On progression, the T790M resistance mutation in the EGFR exon 20 was also confirmed in cytological samples. At this point, fluorescence in situ hybridization also detected ALK-EML4 translocation. This case emphasizes the usefulness of cytological samples for molecular analysis in lung adenocarcinoma, as well as the relevance of repeating biopsies/fine-needle aspirations in tumor recurrences to assess the mutation profile of the disease. PMID:24942894

Lozano, Maria D; Labiano, Tania; Zudaire, Isabel; Subtil, Jose C; Gúrpide, Alfonso; Echeveste, Jose I; Zulueta, Javier J; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Pérez-Gracia, Jose L

2015-04-01

305

Gynaecological cytology screening in South Australia: a 23-year experience.  

PubMed

The Cytology Laboratory at The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, processed 630,131 gynaecological smears from 347,389 patients between September 1, 1959 and July 31, 1982. The data suggested a lack of compliance with the recommendations of screening frequency, with an average of only 1.8 smear-tests per woman being performed during the 23-year study period. There was a two-fold increase in the incidence of histologically-confirmed cervical dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ from 1977, but no increase in the incidence of invasive carcinoma. The age distributions of the incidence of dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ moved towards younger age-groups during the study period. By the end of the study period (1977-1981), the incidence peaks of dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ were both at ages 25 to 34 years compared with 30 to 39 years of age and 35 to 44 years of age, respectively, in 1962-1966. Invasive carcinoma had a much broader age distribution, with two incidence peaks, and the distribution shifted towards older age groups. The first peak had moved from 40 to 49 years of age (1962-1966) to 50 to 59 years of age (1977-1981) and the second peak moved from 60 to 69 years of age to 75 to 84 years of age. Error rates in cytological assessment were determined by comparing the histological diagnosis with the result of the most recent smear-test. By means of this method the sensitivity was 84.6%. The sensitivity was increased to 91.4% if the estimate were based on the most abnormal result of a smear-test before the histological diagnosis. A poor correlation was found between a mildly-atypical (inflammatory) cytological result (class 2) and a benign histological diagnosis: 48% of class-2 smears were diagnosed histologically as dysplasia or worse. In very few of these cases had an elapsed time of more than five years occurred between the class-2 result of a smear-test and the subsequent diagnosis of neoplasia. Thus, the majority of these cases were either underdiagnosed by cytology or had developed within five years, which indicates the importance of the careful follow-up of women with class-2 smears. Finally, the data illustrate the ability of gynaecological cytology screening to assist in the detection of extracervical gynaecological neoplasms of the uterus, ovary, vagina and vulva, as 132 such cases were diagnosed during the study period after positive results of a smear-test led to further investigations. PMID:3185322

MacCormac, L; Lew, W; King, G; Allen, P W

1988-11-21

306

Informed Cytology for Triaging HPV-Positive Women: Substudy Nested in the NTCC Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)–based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Methods: Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients’ HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status–informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status–informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Conclusions: Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. PMID:25568167

Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

2015-01-01

307

Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women) and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was detected in 91.13%, 78.26% and 47.82% of the samples with cytological abnormalities and in 47.54%, 6.89% and 3.44% of the negative samples, respectively. High-risk HPV infection was significantly more frequent in anal samples with cytological abnormalities than in negative samples (P = 0.0005, Fisher's test), particularly multiple high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.0001) and HPV 16 infection (P = 0.0002). Conclusions: High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infections are significantly associated with anal cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of HPV infection in anal cytological samples suggests that high-risk HPV detection has high sensitivity, but low specificity for detection of anal cytological abnormalities, but multiple high-risk HPV typing and HPV 16 typing have a lower sensitivity and high specificity. Results suggest that HPV typing may be useful as an adjunct to cytology to screen patients for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. PMID:24339460

Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Barbosa, Tânia Wanderley Paes; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; Costa, Patrícia Godoy Garcia; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

2013-01-01

308

Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas by endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the clinical, endoscopic, sonographic, and cytologic features of ectopic pancreas (EP). METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed at an academic referral center including two hospitals. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Patients referred to the University Hospital or Denver Health Medical Center Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Lab for gastroduodenal subepithelial lesions (SEL) with a final diagnosis of EP between January 2009 and December 2013 were identified. Patients in this group were selected for the study if they underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or deep biopsy. A review of the medical record was performed specifically to review the following information: presenting symptoms, endoscopic and EUS findings, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings, pathology results, procedure-related adverse events, and subsequent treatments after EUS-FNA. EUS with FNA or deep submucosal biopsy was performed in all patients on an outpatient basais by one of two physicians (Attwell A, Fukami N). Review of all subsequent clinic notes and operative reports was performed in order to determine follow-up and final diagnoses. RESULTS: Between July 2009 and December 2013, 10 patients [3 males, 7 females, median age 52 (26-64) years] underwent EUS for a gastroduodenal SEL and were diagnosed with EP. One patient was symptomatic. Six (60%) lesions were in the antrum, 3 (30%) in the body, and 1 (10%) in the duodenum. A mucosal dimple was noted in 6 (60%). Mean lesion size was 17 (8-25) mm. Gastrointestinal wall involvement: muscularis mucosae, 10%; submucosa, 70%; muscularis propria, 60%; and serosa, 10%. Nine (90%) lesions were hypoechoic and 5 (50%) were homogenous. A duct was seen in 5 (50%). FNA was attempted in 9 (90%) and successful in 8 (80%) patients after 4 (2-6) passes. Cytology showed acini or ducts in 7 of 8 (88%). Superficial biopsies in 7 patients (70%) showed normal gastric mucosa. Deep endoscopic biopsies were taken in 2 patients and diagnostic in one. One patient (10%) developed pancreatitis after EUS-FNA. Two patients (20%) underwent surgery to relieve symptoms or confirm the diagnosis. The main limitation of the study was the fact that it was retrospective and performed at a single medical center. CONCLUSION: EUS features of EP include antral location, mucosal dimple, location in layers 3-4, and lesional duct, and FNA or biopsy is accurate and effective. PMID:25741143

Attwell, Augustin; Sams, Sharon; Fukami, Norio

2015-01-01

309

Prevention of suicide: aspirations and evidence.  

PubMed Central

The Health of the Nation white paper set a target for 15% reduction in overall suicide rates by the year 2000. If the targets are to be achieved interventions must be identified which are of proved effectiveness. This paper examines the evidence on the available interventions and points of access to the population at risk. No single intervention has been shown in a well conducted randomised controlled trial to reduce suicide. The greatest potential seems to arise from limiting the availability of methods. In particular it is likely that the introduction of the catalytic convertor will lead to reduced lethality of care exhausts and reductions in suicide using this method. General practitioner education programmes, the effectiveness of lithium and maintenance antidepressants, and limits on the quantity of medicines available over the counter or on prescription should all be evaluated. Particular high risk groups include people recently discharged from psychiatric hospitals and those with a history of parasuicide. Many social processes affect suicide rates and these rather than specific interventions may help or hinder the ability to realise the Health of the Nation targets. Well conducted trials are essential to distinguish complex social processes from the effects of specific interventions for suicide prevention. This review of the available evidence offers little support for the aspiration that the posited targets can be achieved on the basis of current knowledge and current policy. Images p1229-a p1233-a PMID:8080520

Gunnell, D.; Frankel, S.

1994-01-01

310

Cognitive correlates of adolescents' aspirations to leadership: a developmental study.  

PubMed

The study examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among teenage adolescents. It was hypothesized that adolescents' valence, self-efficacy and attribution perceptions about leadership would be predictive of their aspirations to leadership. Altogether 52 fourth form and 78 seventh form high school students completed a questionnaire measuring (a) overall leadership aspirations, (b) 13 valence-instrumentality expectancies for 13 leadership outcomes, (c) self-efficacy perceptions, and (d) attributions of effective leadership. The results revealed significant gender differences in valence scores and significant age differences in self-efficacy and attribution measures. Regression analyses indicated that fourth formers' leadership aspirations were significantly predicted from their "ease-of-success" self-efficacy expectation; whereas seventh formers from either valence perceptions (males) or self-efficacy and attribution scores (females). These results were discussed in the context of the valence and self-efficacy models of career decision-making processes and attribution theory. PMID:2387917

Singer, M

1990-06-01

311

Aerodynamic performance measurements in a counter-rotating aspirated compressor  

E-print Network

This thesis is an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic performances of a counter-rotating aspirated compressor. This compressor is implemented in a blow-down facility, which gives rigorous simulation of the ...

Onnée, Jean-François

2005-01-01

312

Use every opportunity to develop your skills, aspiring managers urged.  

PubMed

A FORMER children's nurse who is leading a national NHS initiative to develop models of health and social care has urged aspiring leaders to seize opportunities to develop their nursing management skills. PMID:25759988

2015-03-01

313

21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....

2011-04-01

314

21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....

2012-04-01

315

21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....

2014-04-01

316

21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....

2010-04-01

317

21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....

2013-04-01

318

Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

2011-01-01

319

From Educational Aspirations to College Enrollment: A Road with Many Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational aspiration is one of the most important factors influencing an individual's educational attainment. Although students' aspirations are changeable and the stability of their aspirations is important for their goal reaching, previous studies are rather limited in their ability to capture aspiration changes due to their incomplete…

Liu, Lu

2009-01-01

320

Uterine cervical ectopy during reproductive age: cytological and microbiological findings.  

PubMed

Cervical ectopy is common in adolescents, pregnant women, and those taking high doses of estrogen-containing contraceptives. The majority of cases have spontaneous reversion, but some cases can be persistent. Studies suggested that the adequacy of a Pap smear could be affected and there is an increased risk cervical infections. This study is a cross-sectional study conducted from December 2009 to February 2011 with 457 women with cervical ectopy and 736 without ectopy. Cervical samples were collected in vials for analysis by ThinPrep cytology (Hologic, Marlborough, MA). The Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's exact test (95% CI) were applied. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Federal University of Ceará. The mean ages of the study group and control group were 28.7 (±14.8) and 33.6 (±7.5) years old, respectively (P?cytology, the presence of the shift in the flora suggestive of BV and cytological atypia is evident. PMID:24166971

Junior, José Eleutério; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine Silveira; do Amaral, Rose Luce Gomes; Linhares, Iara Moreno

2014-05-01

321

FEES protocol derived estimates of sensitivity: aspiration in dysphagic patients.  

PubMed

Aspiration is a common phenomenon in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. It can be studied using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). FEES is well known and widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of swallowing disorders. However, various protocols exist, and there is no consensus on the examination protocol. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the FEES protocol derived estimates of sensitivity (Se') to detection of aspiration in dysphagic patients. The study estimated the probability of aspiration as a function of the number of swallow trials in dysphagic patients using FEES. The derived sensitivity was calculated based on presence or absence of aspiration in a ten-swallow trial protocol as arbitrary 'gold standard'. Eighty-four persons were included, comprising two patient populations with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Dysphagia in one group was due to head and neck cancer and possible oncological treatment effects on swallowing; in the other it was a result of neurological disease. All patients underwent a standardized FEES examination using ten swallows of thin liquid followed by ten swallows of thick liquid, all in boluses of 10 cc each. FEES recordings were rated for aspiration by an expert panel blinded to patients' identity and clinical history. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis techniques, and Log Rank/Mantel-Cox tests were used. In both patient populations the aspiration risk was underestimated when using a limited number (three or four) of swallow trials. The oncology and neurology patients differed significantly in the number of swallow trials required to determine aspiration for thin liquids (median values 2 and 7 respectively, P = 0.006). FEES protocols using a limited number of swallow trials can underestimate the aspiration risk in both oncological and neurological patients suffering from oropharyngeal dysphagia, especially when using boluses with a thin liquid consistency. PMID:25007878

Baijens, Laura W J; Speyer, Renée; Pilz, Walmari; Roodenburg, Nel

2014-10-01

322

Review article: Joint aspiration for diagnosis of periprosthetic infection.  

PubMed

Joint aspiration is a reliable tool for diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. There are different indications, techniques, and approaches for joint aspiration. We recommend that it be performed selectively when infection is suspected clinically. The specimens should be interpreted based on the results of the culture as well as the white cell count and differential. Specimen collection, transport, and analysis should be prompt to ensure yield accuracy. PMID:24014792

Yee, Dennis K H; Chiu, K Y; Yan, C H; Ng, F Y

2013-08-01

323

Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations are influenced by factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, race, parents' occupation

Desirae M. Domenico; Karen H. Jones

2006-01-01

324

Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations.  

PubMed

On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics. PMID:24598208

Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M; Wang, Long

2014-05-01

325

Isolation of microRNA from conjunctival impression cytology.  

PubMed

Impression cytology (IC) is an easy and safe technique that has been used in the past for harvesting epithelial cells from the cornea and conjunctiva for various applications including histology, immunohistology and molecular studies. Previous investigations have shown the usage of different types of membranes for the purpose of investigating pathophysiology and staging of diseases. This contributes to a better understanding of ocular surface conditions and helps to provide information for diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis. Recently, there has been a shift of focus in research towards understanding the contribution of microRNAs (miRs) to ocular disease. Thus far, impression cytology has been explored for measuring gene expression but not for quantifying miR expression. This study describes how miRs and mRNA can be isolated from conjunctival epithelial cells obtained by impression cytology and determines the optimum membrane and technique for this purpose. The IC technique was optimized using Biopore, Immobilon-P(SQ) and Millicell Hanging Cell Culture Insert membranes on healthy controls. miRs and mRNAs were isolated from the conjunctival epithelial cells (CEC) obtained and measured. Biopore membrane provided the optimum yield of miRs (38.8 ng/?L ± 10.8) and mRNA (155.3 ng/?L ± 20.1) as well as subjectively found to be best tolerated with minimum discomfort. Appreciable levels of miRs and mRNAs were detected from the CEC from healthy controls, confirming that it is possible to isolate miR and mRNA from CEC. Here, we give a detailed description of the application of conjunctival impression cytology to isolate miRs and the convenience of the technique by using the best membrane available. This method can be readily adopted in both clinical and laboratory settings. This technique will facilitate the measurement of miRs to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular surface conditions as well as potentially identifying novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25584869

Pilson, Qistina; Jefferies, Caroline A; Gabhann, Joan Ní; Murphy, Conor C

2015-03-01

326

A Neural Architecture for Potentially Classifying Cytology Specimens by Machines*  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a general purpose vision system. We have applied the system to classifying cytology specimens. The system uses neural network and conventional processing modules to model biological vision systems. The modules make up a locating channel and a classifying channel. The locating channel finds individual cells in the field-of-view. The classifying channel learns and recognizes the cells. Learning is by example. We tested the classifying channel on 156 cell images from human cervical smears. Results suggest one can drive the false negative and false positive rates below a few percent for initial screening. Training would require several hundred cells of normal and abnormal types. ImagesFigure 3

Harvey, R.L.; DiCaprio, P.N.; Heinemann, K.G.; Silverman, M.L.; Dugan, J.M.

1990-01-01

327

Risk of aspiration in care home residents and associated factors.  

PubMed

Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five experienced speech-language therapists assessed 203 care home residents (115 primarily physically disabled, 88 primarily cognitively impaired) 60 and older in the first week after admission to a care home. In 43 (21.2%) residents, speech-language therapists assessed risk of aspiration and found no significant difference between physically disabled (26.1%) and cognitively impaired (14.8%) residents. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, the final prediction model for risk of aspiration showed Parkinson's disease as a significant factor (odds ratio = 5.11; 95% confidence interval [1.49, 17.52]) . The authors therefore conclude that risk of aspiration is a relevant care problem among Dutch care home residents and requires further assessment. PMID:25154055

van der Maarel-Wierink, Claar D; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; De Visschere, Luc M J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; de Baat, Cees; Schols, Jos M G A

2015-02-01

328

Coevolution of aspirations and cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suboptimal outcomes are often more acceptable than the best ones when the latter are hard or even impossible to find. In order to describe the emergence of cooperation when suboptimal alternatives prevail, an evolutionary game model is established by considering the effects of aspirations. A win-stay-lose-shift like rule for strategy updating is proposed. The rule prescribes that if the payoff of the current strategy is greater than the aspiration, the strategy remains, otherwise the strategy changes. Aspiration updating allows for individuals to adjust their expected payoff levels. It is shown that suboptimal alternatives can promote the emergence and persistence of cooperation over a wide range of the temptation to defect. Furthermore, a nontrivial phenomenon is found that cooperators prevail as the temptation increases when it is small. The aspirations are stabilized at an intermediate level which can most facilitate cooperation. The obtained results also show that the average level of aspirations decreases as the temptation increases. Furthermore, the variance of aspiration levels is minimized for an intermediate level of temptation.

Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

2015-01-01

329

Differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid: a paradigm shift in surgical approach.  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer commonly present with a thyroid nodule, a few with cervical lymphadenopathy or metastases. Total of 1320 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) managed in Surgical department, Government General Hospital, Chennai, India for a period of 11 years (1990-2001) were analyzed and 600 patients followed up for a mean of 5.5 years (range, 1-11 years). Aim was to discuss the advantage of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in increasing the preoperative pick up of DTC, Papillary microcarcinoma, advantages of total thyroidectomy as the initial operation for DTC and management of thyroid remnant by completion thyroidectomy or radioiodine I 131 ablation. McNemer's test used for estimating efficacy of ultra sound guided (USG) FNAC, Kaplan-meier survival analysis to calculate mortality and Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis for disease free survival were used in the study. PMID:18828275

Dorairajan, N; Pandyaraj, R A; Anandhi, A; Kumar, Jai Vinod; Siddharth, D

2008-01-01

330

The efficacy of local anaesthesia for percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm aspiration.  

PubMed

A total of 37 percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and/or testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) procedures were performed under local anaesthesia (LA) on 34 men between June and November 1996. Local anaesthesia was achieved by injecting 10 ml of 1% lignocaine solution along the sides of the vas deferens near the external inguinal ring (spermatic cord block). Sperm retrieval was successful in 92% of the procedures. Of the 37 procedures, in 29 the patients felt either no pain or mild discomfort while in six they experienced moderate but tolerable pain. Analgesia was incomplete in two procedures and was supplemented with i.v. sedation. Vasovagal reflex in two procedures was reversed by i.v. atropine. In 24 procedures patients felt relaxed, whilst in 13 they felt anxious. In 32 procedures the patients expressed overall satisfaction. If the procedure was to be repeated, after 29 procedures the patients requested LA again, while after four procedures they preferred i.v. sedation and after four were undecided. LA is adequate for PESA and TESA in a large proportion of patients. Prior discussion of LA technique with the patient is necessary. Back-up facilities for i.v. sedation and atropine should be available. PMID:9572427

Gorgy, A; Meniru, G I; Naumann, N; Beski, S; Bates, S; Craft, I L

1998-03-01

331

Diagnostic Accuracy of High Resolution Ultrasound to Differentiate Neoplastic and Non Neoplastic Causes of Cervical Lymphadenopathy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Lymph nodes are normal structures distributed throughout the human body and are enlarged in various disease entities. Identifying the relevant lymph nodes is important in treating these patients. High resolution sonography (HRSG) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) play crucial role in planning the treatment. Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRSG differentiate neoplastic and non neoplastic causes of enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: HRSG evaluation of enlarged cervical lymph nodes were performed to differentiate neoplastic from non neoplastic lymph nodes followed by FNAC correlation and the accuracy of HRSG was studied. Results: One hundred and fourteen lymph nodes of 106 patients were analysed to accomplish the study objective. In our study, HRSG had 96% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for differentiating between neoplatic and non-neoplastic cervical lymphadenopathy. Similarly positive and negative predictive values were 88.9% and 96.7% respectively. Overall accuracy of HRSG was 93%. Conclusion: Owing to high sensitivity and negative predictive value, HRSG with Doppler is an excellent first line investigating tool for enlarged lymph nodes and avoids invasive procedures like FNAC in cases of reactive/ inflammatory (non-neoplastic) lymph nodes. However, neoplastic diagnosis of HRSG needs further confirmation by FNAC. PMID:25386501

Shivalli, Siddharudha; Rai, Sheethal; Haris, Arafat; Madhurkar, Rohit; Hemraj, Sandhya

2014-01-01

332

Risk Factors for Abnormal Anal Cytology over Time in HIV-infected Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess incidence of, and risk factors for abnormal anal cytology and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 2–3 in HIV-infected women. Study Design This prospective study assessed 100 HIV-infected women with anal and cervical specimens for cytology and high risk HPV testing over three semi-annual visits. Results Thirty-three women were diagnosed with an anal cytologic abnormality at least once. Anal cytology abnormality was associated with current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, anal HPV infection and history of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Twelve subjects were diagnosed with AIN2-3: four after AIN1 diagnosis and four after ?1 negative anal cytology. AIN2-3 trended towards an association with history of cervical cytologic abnormality and history of STI. Conclusions Repeated annual anal cytology screening for HIV-infected women, particularly for those with increased immunosuppression, anal and/or cervical HPV, history of other STIs, or abnormal cervical cytology, will increase the likelihood of detecting AIN2-3. PMID:22520651

BARANOSKI, Amy S; TANDON, Richa; WEINBERG, Janice; HUANG, Faye; STIER, Elizabeth A

2012-01-01

333

Cytologic evaluation of urine is important in evaluation of chronic prostatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Cytologic examination of the urine has not been a recommended part of the diagnostic workup for patients presenting with chronic prostatitis. We identified 3 patients referred to our tertiary Prostatitis Research Clinic who had carcinoma in situ of the bladder discovered after evaluation of urine cytology.Methods. One hundred fifty consecutive patients referred to the Queen’s University Prostatitis Clinic during

J. Curtis Nickel; Dale Ardern; Joe Downey

2002-01-01

334

Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. METHODS: We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology

Hyo-Sub Shim; Songmi Noh; Ae-Ran Park; Young-Nam Lee; Jong-Kee Kim; Hyun-Jae Chung; Keum-Soon Kang; Nam Hoon Cho

2010-01-01

335

Hurthle cell tumor of the thyroid gland: report of a rare case and review of literature.  

PubMed

This article presents a case of Hurthle cell adenoma (HCA) of the thyroid gland with a review of literature on Hurthle cell tumors. This case presented is that of a 57-year-old woman with a recurrent thyroid swelling. She previously underwent a right hemithyroidectomy for thyroid mass 10 years prior. A left lobectomy was done and microscopic examination revealed a HCA of the thyroid. The patient was discharged on thyroid replacement therapy and has remained healthy after more than 24 months of follow-up. The literature review highlights the criteria for diagnosis, the role of imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in preoperative diagnosis. PMID:24714021

Okere, P C N; Olusina, D B; Enyinnah, M O

2014-01-01

336

A 9 years boy with MEN-2B variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

To highlight a rare disease like multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2B variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma and to optimize the management option in such cases, we present a nine year old boy with thyroid swelling, cervical lymphadenopathy and thick lips. His calcitonin level was raised. Investigation's results of the boy were as following fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was medullary carcinoma of thyroid, preoperative calcitonin was >2000pg/ml, post operative histopathological report was medullary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy with aggressive initial neck surgery may reduce the recurrence and increase better prognosis and survival rate. Calcitonin is used as diagnostic and follow-up marker. PMID:23715371

Sattar, M A; Hadi, H I; Ekramuddoula, F M; Hasanuzzaman, S M

2013-04-01

337

A study of 70 cases of cutaneous metastases from internal carcinoma.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of 70 patients with metastatic cutaneous nodules, was conducted in the department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. The available clinical records and histologic material of these cases were reviewed. In last few years fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was being used as the main diagnostic tool. The commonest primary site of cutaneous metastasis in this study was gastro-intestinal tract (46.7%) in males and breast (32%) in females. Abdomen (including umbilical nodules) was found to be the most frequent site for metastatic cutaneous nodule. PMID:9601183

Bansal, R; Naik, R

1998-01-01

338

Recurrent unilateral vulval elephantiasis: a case report.  

PubMed

Genital elephantiasis is caused by a variety of infective and non infective causes leading to blockage of lymphatic. We are presenting a rare case of recurrent unilateral vulval elephantiasis which has recurred after initial reconstructive surgery. A 38 year old female presented with vulval swelling and on examination there was gross unilateral vulval enlargement. FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology) and biopsy were contributory for diagnosis. Patient was started with antibiotics and daily dressing was done till the infection was subsided and the patient was planned for reconstructive surgery. PMID:24971141

Muralidhar, Lakshmidevi; G, Sampath Kumar; Venkatesh, Shreedhar

2014-06-01

339

Imaging of cystic or cyst-like neck masses.  

PubMed

Cystic or cyst-like neck masses form a unique category within head and neck radiology with unique differential diagnoses. The precise anatomical location and imaging appearances are important for accurate diagnosis and formulating the differential diagnoses of cystic lesions in the neck. In vast majority of cases ultrasound, sometimes supplemented by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), is adequate for pre-treatment assessment. For large, deep-seated lesions assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) often provides useful supplementary information. Radiologists should be aware of imaging findings of common cystic neck masses to help in their appropriate management. PMID:18455551

Wong, K T; Lee, Y Y P; King, A D; Ahuja, A T

2008-06-01

340

Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.  

PubMed

The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility. PMID:25181856

Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

2014-01-01

341

CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FIBER TYPES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

A comparative investigation of the mammalian diaphragm has revealed a correlation between certain cytological aspects of red and white muscle fibers and functional activity. This skeletal muscle presents the advantage of a similar and constant function among the mammals, but its functional activity varies in a quantitative manner. Both the rate of breathing (and hence the rate of contraction of the diaphragm) and metabolic activity are known to be inversely related to body size; and this study has demonstrated a relationship between cytological characteristics of the diaphragm and body size of the animal. Small fibers rich in mitochondria (red fibers) are characteristic of small mammals, which have high metabolic activity and fast breathing rates; and large fibers with relatively low mitochondrial content predominate in large mammals, which have lower metabolic activity and slower breathing rates. In mammals with body size intermediate between these two groups (including the laboratory rat), the diaphragm consists of varying mixtures of fiber types. In general, the mitochondrial content of diaphragm fibers is inversely related to body size. It appears, then, that the red fiber reflects a high degree of metabolic activity or a relatively high rate of contraction within the range exhibited by this muscle. PMID:5950272

Gauthier, Geraldine F.; Padykula, Helen A.

1966-01-01

342

Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation  

PubMed Central

In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

2013-01-01

343

Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.  

PubMed

In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

2013-05-01

344

Cytological and physiological changes in orthodox maize embryos during cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Cytological and physiological changes during cryopreservation were studied in maize embryos at 35 days after pollination (DAP). Both dehydration and freezing caused cytological damage, such as plasmolysis, swelled mitochondria, increased heterochromatin, and nuclear shrinkage. Dehydration alone slightly impaired plasma membrane integrity while a drastic increase in electrolyte leakage was observed after freezing of embryos with moisture content above 23%. Damage to cellular ultrastructure and plasmalemma integrity was negatively related to moisture content in unfrozen embryos and positively related in frozen embryos. The pattern of changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes differed from one another during dehydration and/or freezing-thawing treatment. Dehydration increased activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) but decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR). Freezing further decreased GR and SOD activity and resulted in extremely low DHAR activity. Embryos at intermediate moisture contents had low catalase (CAT) activity before freezing but highest CAT activity after freeze-thaw. Both dehydration and freezing promoted membrane lipid peroxidation which resulted in an approximately threefold increase at most in the malondialdehyde content in postthaw embryos. Changes in viability of postthaw embryos can be closely related to damage in cellular ultrastructure and plasmalemma integrity but directly related neither to antioxidants nor lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:19904484

Wen, Bin; Wang, Ruling; Cheng, Hongyan; Song, Songquan

2010-03-01

345

[Precancerous lesions of the cervix. Biomarkers in cytological diagnosis].  

PubMed

Despite the success of the German screening program for cervical cancer a new discussion has started with the aim to improve its quality. The main reason for this new discussion has been the finding of many international studies that the quality of screening programs could be improved by introducing human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. It is well known that the sensitivity of the HPV test is much better than that of a single Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. On the other hand, it is generally accepted that the specificity of the established HPV tests is significantly lower than that of cytology, i.e. the HPV test produces more false positive diagnoses. The introduction of new biomarkers could solve this problem and one of these biomarkers is p16(INK4a) which is a surrogate marker for the oncogenic transformation of cervical cells. Using this biomarker it is now possible to identify cases which should be sent for colposcopy and possibly biopsy directly, among those cases which have been classified cytologically as unclear (ASC-US) or mild and moderately dysplastic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1/2). Moreover, it is now feasible to identify the vast majority of underlying high-grade CIN disease in women tested Pap negative/HPV positive, while reducing the number of colposcopies to a level of approximately 25%. In addition, the combination of p16 and L1 probably allows a better estimate of the prognosis of cases with mild or moderate dysplasia. PMID:21922253

Schmidt, D

2011-11-01

346

Giant chondroid syringoma with divergent differentiation: Cyto-histo-immuno correlation.  

PubMed

Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It is also called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are very few case reports of chondroid syringoma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We hereby report a case of giant chondroid syringoma occurring over the lower back in a 50-year-old male, diagnosed initially on cytology and confirmed by histopathology. This case is reported for its unusual size and site of occurrence. We describe the clinical features, cytology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnosis of giant chondroid syringoma along with review of literature. PMID:24083150

Narasimha, Aparna; Kalyani, R; Kumar, Harendra Ml; Suresh, Tn; Supreeth, A

2013-07-01

347

Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for solid thyroid nodules larger than 10 mm: correlation between sonographic characteristics at the needle tip and nondiagnostic results.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the ultrasonographic (US) characteristics and ultrasound elastography (UE) patterns on the probability of a nondiagnostic result when performing ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (UG-FNA) cytological sampling of solid thyroid nodules larger than 10 mm, to determine the efficacy of needle tip localization in UG-FNA. We retrospectively reviewed the cytological results of 710 samples from 355 patients. We compared the US characteristics and UE patterns between nodules with nondiagnostic and diagnostic results, using univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the 710 samples, 81 samples (11.4 %) from 41 patients had nondiagnostic results. According to multivariate analysis, the combinations of hypoechogenicity with avascularity [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.37-3.72; p < 0.05], hypoechogenicity with the "hard pattern" (OR = 2.12; 95 % CI 1.58-4.59; p < 0.05), and hypoechogenicity with avascularity and the hard pattern (OR = 2.61; 95 % CI 1.40-5.21; p < 0.05) were risk factors that increased the incidence of nondiagnostic results in UG-FNA. UG-FNA was more likely to yield nondiagnostic results when the needle tip sampling region displayed hypoechogenicity and avascularity in US and the hard pattern in UE. PMID:23990249

Wu, Hongxun; Zhang, Bingjie; Zang, Yaping; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Beilin; Cao, Yuelong; Liu, Qianyun

2014-06-01

348

Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Co-Test Results Preceding Incident High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective High-risk HPV (hrHPV) and cytology co-testing is utilized for primary cervical cancer screening and for enhanced follow-up of women who are hrHPV-positive, cytology negative. However, data are lacking on the utility of this method to detect pre-cancer or cancer in community-based clinical practice. This study describes cytology and hrHPV results preceding high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer (i.e., CIN2+) in an integrated health system employing routine co-testing among women aged 30 years and older. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adult female members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) with incident CIN2+ between July 2008 and June 2009. The primary outcome was the proportions of cytologic diagnoses and hrHPV co-test results preceding a diagnosis of CIN2+. Cervical cytology and hrHPV testing results were abstracted from electronic medical records. Results Of 1283 CIN2+ cases among adult women, 880 (68.5%) were among women aged 30 years and older and 145/880 (16.5%, 95% CI 14.1–19.1) had only normal cytology during the 12 months prior to diagnosis. Furthermore, 133/880 (15.1%, 95% 12.9–17.7) were preceded by only normal cytology and persistent hrHPV infection (at least 2 positive hrHPV tests) during the 6–36 months preceding CIN2+ diagnosis. Conclusions Incident CIN2+ is frequently preceded by normal cytology and persistent hrHPV infection among women aged 30 years and older; screening strategies that employ HPV testing and cytology may improve the detection of CIN2+ compared with cytology alone. PMID:25793987

Park, Ina U.; Wojtal, Nicole; Silverberg, Michael J.; Bauer, Heidi M.; Hurley, Leo B.; Manos, M. Michele

2015-01-01

349

Using Genetic Markers to Identify Lung Cancer in Fine Needle Aspiration Samples  

PubMed Central

Purpose We seek to establish a genetic test to identify lung cancer using cells obtained through CT guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). Experimental Design We selected regions of frequent copy number gains in chromosomes 1q32, 3q26, 5p15, and 8q24 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and tested their ability to determine the neoplastic state of cells obtained by FNA using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Two sets of samples were included. The pilot set included six paraffin-embedded non-cancerous lung tissues and 33 formalin-fixed FNA specimens. These 39 samples were used to establish the optimal fixation and single scoring criteria for the samples. The test set included 40 FNA samples. The results of the genetic test were compared with the cytology, pathology, and clinical follow up for each case to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the genetic test. Results Non-tumor lung tissues had ?4 signals per nuclei for all tested markers while tumor samples had ?5 signals per nucleus in five or more cells for at least one marker. Among the 40 testing cases, 36 of 40 (90%) FNA samples were analyzable. Genetic analysis identified 15 cases as tumor and 21 as non-tumor. Clinical and pathological diagnoses confirmed the genetic test in 15 of 16 lung cancer cases regardless of tumor subtype, stage, or size and in 20 of 20 cases diagnosed as benign lung diseases. Conclusions A set of only four genetic markers can distinguish the neoplastic state of lung lesion using small samples obtained through CT guided FNA. PMID:19010865

Gill, Rajbir K.; Vazquez, Madeline F.; Kramer, Arin; Hames, Megan; Zhang, Lijuan; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin; Ried, Thomas; Shilo, Konstantin; Henschke, Claudia; Yankelevitz, David; Jen, Jin

2008-01-01

350

Cost Impact of Molecular Testing for Indeterminate Thyroid Nodule Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsies  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results helps diagnose thyroid cancer, although the additional cost of this adjunct has not been studied. We hypothesized that FNA molecular testing of two indeterminate categories (follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular/Hürthle cell neoplasm) can be cost saving. Methods: For a hypothetical group of euthyroid patients with a 1-cm or larger solitary thyroid nodule, a decision-tree model was constructed to compare the estimated costs of initial evaluation according to the current American Thyroid Association guidelines, either with molecular testing (MT) or without [standard of care (StC)]. Model endpoints were either benign FNA results or definitive histological diagnosis. Results: Molecular testing added $104 per patient to the overall cost of nodule evaluation (StC $578 vs. MT $682). In this distributed cost model, MT was associated with a decrease in the number of diagnostic lobectomies (9.7% vs. StC 11.6%), whereas initial total thyroidectomy was more frequent (18.2% vs. StC 16.1%). Although MT use added a diagnostic cost of $5031 to each additional indicated total thyroidectomy ($11,383), the cumulative cost was still less than the comparable cost of performing lobectomy ($7684) followed by completion thyroidectomy ($11,954) in the StC pathway, when indicated by histological results. In sensitivity analysis, savings were demonstrated if molecular testing cost was less than $870. Conclusions: Molecular testing of cytologically indeterminate FNA results is cost saving predominantly because of reduction in two-stage thyroidectomy. Appropriate use of emerging molecular testing techniques may thus help optimize patient care, improve resource use, and avoid unnecessary operation. PMID:22419727

Farris, Coreen; Kabaker, Adam S.; Hodak, Steven P.; Nikiforova, Marina N.; McCoy, Kelly L.; Stang, Michael T.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Carty, Sally E.

2012-01-01

351

Complications, Consequences, and Practice Patterns of Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration  

PubMed Central

Background: Few studies of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) have been large enough to identify risk factors for complications. The primary objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of and risk factors for complications in patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA. Methods: Data on prospectively enrolled patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA in the American College of Chest Physicians Quality Improvement Registry, Evaluation, and Education (AQuIRE) database were extracted and analyzed for the incidence, consequences, and predictors of complications. Results: We enrolled 1,317 patients at six hospitals. Complications occurred in 19 patients (1.44%; 95% CI, 0.87%-2.24%). Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBBx) was the only risk factor for complications, which occurred in 3.21% of patients who underwent the procedure and in 1.15% of those who did not (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.07-7.59; P = .04). Pneumothorax occurred in seven patients (0.53%; 95% CI, 0.21%-1.09%). Escalations in level of care occurred in 14 patients (1.06%; 95% CI, 0.58%-1.78%); its risk factors were age > 70 years (OR, 4.06; 95% CI, 1.36-12.12; P = .012), inpatient status (OR, 4.93; 95% CI, 1.30-18.74; P = .019), and undergoing deep sedation or general anesthesia (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.02-21.61; P = .048). TBBx was performed in only 12.6% of patients when rapid onsite cytologic evaluation (ROSE) was used and in 19.1% when it was not used (P = .006). Interhospital variation in TBBx use when ROSE was used was significant (P < .001). Conclusions: TBBx was the only risk factor for complications during EBUS-TBNA procedures. ROSE significantly reduced the use of TBBx. PMID:23117878

Shah, Archan M.; Lei, Xiudong; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Morice, Rodolfo C.; Yarmus, Lonny; Filner, Joshua; Ray, Cynthia; Michaud, Gaetane; Greenhill, Sara R.; Sarkiss, Mona; Casal, Roberto; Rice, David; Ost, David E.

2013-01-01

352

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with an echobronchoscope in undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy: First experience from India  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Several studies have reported the performance of combining endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration with an echobronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA), with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Herein we report our initial experience with this technique. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, we report the outcome of patients who underwent EUS-B-FNA with or without EBUS-TBNA during the same session. Details of the lymph nodes sampled, number of passes, duration of the procedure, results of the cytological examination, and the final diagnosis of all the patients are presented. Results: Eleven patients underwent EUS-B-FNA during the study period. EUS-B-FNA and EBUS-TBNA together yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 72.7 and 100%, respectively. The number of lymph nodes sampled per patient and the number of passes per lymph node were significantly higher with EBUS-TBNA compared to EUS-B-FNA. The mean duration of procedure was also significantly higher in the EBUS-TBNA group. The most common reason (five patients (45.5%)) for resorting to EUS-B-FNA was the patient being unfit for EBUS-TBNA or the inability of the operator to complete the procedure. Sarcoidosis was the most frequent final diagnosis in the study patients (four cases), followed by bronchogenic carcinoma (three cases). Conclusions: EUS-B-FNA is a useful additional tool for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In combination with EBUS-TBNA, it has a fairly good diagnostic yield and is a good alternative in situations where EBUS-TBNA is not feasible. PMID:25624588

Dhooria, Sahajal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Singh, Navneet; Gupta, Dheeraj; Behera, Digamber; Gupta, Nalini; Agarwal, Ritesh

2015-01-01

353

Adenomatoid nodules are the main cause for discrepant histology in 234 thyroid fine-needle aspirates reported as follicular neoplasm.  

PubMed

According to several large studies, the surgical pathologist renders a non-neoplastic diagnosis in ?20-40% of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases reported as follicular neoplasm. This study analyzes the cause of this poor correlation between cytology and histology. Cases consisting of oncocytic (Hurthle) cells were excluded from study. During the study period from January 1996 to April 2010, histologic follow-up was available for 234 of 670 cases (34.9%) reported as follicular neoplasm on ultrasound-guided thyroid FNA. Sonographic and Doppler data were available in all cases and included nodule location, size, echogenicity, and vascularity. Of the 234 aspirates with follow-up, surgical pathology reported 130 cases (55.6%) of follicular adenoma, 15 cases (6.4%) of follicular carcinoma, 14 cases (6.1%) of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, and 75 cases (32.3%) of nodular goiter. Recuts of those index nodules reported as nodular goiter were examined independently by two pathologists using the 2× objective lens. Adenomatoid nodule was defined as an insufficiently encapsulated "blue" nodule of increased nuclear density when compared with the surrounding thyroid. Of the 75 cases reported as nodular goiter, 60 index nodules (80%) fulfilled the described criteria for adenomatoid nodule, while 15 did not. In conclusion, adenomatoid nodules are the main cause of poor histologic correlation with follicular neoplasm reported by FNA. If "increased nuclear density at scanning magnification" were adopted by surgical pathologists as the major diagnostic criterion for follicular adenoma rather than encapsulation, noncorrelated cases would be reduced from 32 to 6.4%. PMID:22508673

Schreiner, Andrew M; Yang, Grace C H

2012-05-01

354

Triaging HPV-positive women with normal cytology by p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology testing: Baseline and longitudinal data.  

PubMed

Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening results in a 2-5% lower specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) compared to Pap cytology. To identify HPV-positive women with CIN2+, we retrospectively evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal performance of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology in HPV-positive women with normal cytology participating in population-based cervical screening. Conventional Pap cytology specimens of 847 of these women derived from the VUSA-Screen study were dual-stained for p16/Ki-67. Cross-sectional clinical performance in detecting CIN3 or worse (CIN3+), and CIN2+ was compared to that of baseline HPV genotyping. Moreover, 5-year cumulative incidence risks (CIR) for CIN3+ (CIN2+) were determined. The sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology for CIN3+ (CIN2+) was 73.3% (68.8%) with a specificity of 70.0% (72.8%). HPV16/18 genotyping showed a sensitivity for CIN3+ (CIN2+) of 46.7% (43.8%), with a specificity of 78.3% (79.4%). The 5-year CIR for CIN3+ in HPV-positive women with normal cytology was 6.9%. Testing these women with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology resulted in a significantly lower CIN3+ 5-year CIR of 3.3% (p?=?0.017) in case of a negative test result. A negative HPV16/18 genotyping test result also led to a lower 5-year CIN3+ CIR of 3.6%. p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology detects more than 70% of underlying CIN3+ lesions in HPV-positive women with normal cytology at baseline and is therefore suitable for triaging these women to colposcopy. Furthermore, the CIN3+ 5-year CIR of 3.3% after a negative dual-stain result is significantly lower compared to the 5-year CIR of 6.9% in women without p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology triage. PMID:25345358

Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Witte, Birgit I; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Balfoort-van der Meij, G A M A; Ridder, Ruediger; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

2015-05-15

355

Prospective evaluation of optimal number of biopsy specimens and brush cytology in the diagnosis of cancer of the colorectum.  

PubMed

We prospectively studied the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and sought to ascertain the optimal number of biopsy specimens that should be taken. Seventy consecutive patients with colorectal masses or polypoid lesions that could not be removed by endoscopic polypectomy and which were referred for surgery were studied. Lesions were first brushed for cytology. A series of 10 biopsies were then obtained from each lesion; the first four were placed into the first container, and two were placed into each of three other containers. Cytology and biopsies were read blindly by one pathologist. Findings were compared with the resection specimen results. Ten lesions were benign; all had negative biopsies and cytology. Sixty lesions were malignant: cytology was positive in 77.2% and biopsies in 78.3%. The yield was increased to 91.7% when both were done (cytology plus six biopsies). Cytology detected seven cancers that were missed by biopsy. Biopsy detected eight cancers not diagnosed by cytology. Five cancers were missed by both. Of the 47 cancers detected by biopsy, the first four biopsies made the diagnosis in 41 cases. Taking two more biopsies (six total) identified six more cancers. No additional cancers were identified by taking more biopsies (eight or 10 total). When six different biopsy-cytology strategies were examined: 1) cytology alone, 2) four biopsies (Bx), 3) six Bx, 4) 10 Bx, 5) cytology + four Bx, and 6) cytology + six Bx, the yield was 77.2%, 68.3%, 78.3%, 78.3%, 90.0%, and 91.7%, respectively. We conclude that biopsy and cytology are complementary in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The combination of cytology and four to six biopsies is recommended. There appears to be little additional yield to taking more than six biopsies. Even combined biopsy and cytology will miss 8-10% of cancers. PMID:8362828

Marshall, J B; Diaz-Arias, A A; Barthel, J S; King, P D; Butt, J H

1993-09-01

356

ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD  

SciTech Connect

Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

Kurzeja, R.

2009-09-09

357

Development of biopsy gun for aspiration and drug injection.  

PubMed

Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24990254

Kang, Hyun Guy; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi

2015-04-01

358

Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15

359

Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

Malloy, Terrence R.

1991-07-01

360

Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

1984-08-01

361

Cerebrospinal fluid cytology of an endolymphatic sac tumor.  

PubMed

Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm which is seldom evaluated by cytopathology. We report the clinicopathologic course and cytologic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in a 58-year-old patient with brainstem lesions who originally presented with vertigo but progressed to having left 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerve palsies, right-sided weakness, and occipital headaches. Cytospin of the CSF revealed large epithelioid cells similar to cells seen in a surgical resection of a brain mass three months previously. Review of the surgical specimen revealed a well-differentiated glandular and papillary neoplasm, most consistent with an endolymphatic sac tumor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:339-342. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25354959

Bynum, Jennifer P; Bishop, Justin; Ali, Syed Z

2015-04-01

362

Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy.

Deutsch, M. (Univ. Health Center of Pittsburgh, PA); Reigel, D.H.

1981-06-01

363

EZH2, a unique marker of malignancy in effusion cytology.  

PubMed

Distinguishing reactive mesothelial cells from metastatic disease, typically adenocarcinoma, in effusion cytology can be challenging at times. We currently use a panel of immunocytochemical markers for select cases including MOC-31 and BerEp4, but difficulties still exist. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) plays important roles in epigenetic silencing and cell cycle regulation and is upregulated in a wide variety of malignancies. Thus, we hypothesized that EZH2 immunocytochemistry, which to our knowledge has not yet been reported on cytology material, might serve as a unique marker of malignancy in morphologically equivocal effusion specimens by highlighting aberrant protein expression in malignant cells. A total of 96 (48 benign and 48 malignant) effusion cases were selected retrospectively from our department archives. All malignant cases were metastatic adenocarcinomas except for three high grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (two lungs and one ovary), one cervical squamous cell carcinoma, and one epithelioid endometrial stromal sarcoma. The 48 benign cases were all negative for EZH2, and 43 of 48 malignant effusions were positive. As a solitary marker, EZH2 exhibited a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100% (P?

Jiang, Huimiao; Gupta, Raavi; Somma, Jonathan

2014-02-01

364

A cytological-physical map of 22q11  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory is involved in the construction of a cytological-physical map of 22q11 and isolation of expressed sequences from the region involved in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS). One of the goals of the mapping is an understanding of the molecular mechanisms which generate the 22q11 microdeletions observed with high frequency in DGS and VCFS. Our of over 60 deleted patients studied in our laboratory, all but one were deleted for two loci approximately 1-2 Mb apart. There is evidence from patients with balanced and unbalanced translocations that deletion of the whole region is not necessary for determination of the clinical phenotype. Therefore, it is possible that deletion breakpoints occur as a consequence of structural characteristics of the DNA that predispose to rearrangements. A striking characteristic of the 22q11 region is the abundance of low copy repeat sequences. It is reasonable to think that recombination between these repeats may lead to microdeletions. However, a direct demonstration of such mechanism is not available yet. The presence of repeats makes standard physical mapping techniques based on hybridization or STS mapping often difficult to interpret. For example, we have found clones positive for the same STS that are located in different positions within 22q11. For this reason we have used high resolution cytological mapping as a supporting technique for map validation. We present the current status map which includes known polymorphic and non-polymorphic loci, newly isolated clones and chromosomal deletion breakpoints. The map extends from the loci D22S9/D22S24 to TOP1P2. Extended chromatin hybridization experiments visually demonstrate the presence of at least two repeat islands flanking (or at) the region where chromosomal breakpoints of the commonly deleted region occur.

Lindsay, E.A.; Rizzu, P.; Gaddini, L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

365

Minimally invasive image-guided keyhole aspiration of cerebral abscesses  

PubMed Central

Despite the low incidence of brain abscesses in Western nations (1-2%), the incidence in developing countries is as high as 8%. We evaluate a minimally invasive image-guided keyhole aspiration of cerebral abscesses and compare it with a series of cases treated with surgical excision. 23 patients (20 male and 3 female, aged 7-67 years) underwent image-guided burr hole aspiration of single or multiple cerebral abscesses. Patient characteristics, perioperative, and postoperative data were analyzed and compared with a second group of 22 patients (14 male and 8 female, aged 12-72) treated for cerebral abscesses with open surgical excision. In all cases, the surgical procedure was performed successfully without complication. 8 of the 23 aspiration cases were performed with the aid of iMRI. A comparison of patient demographics, duration of hospital stay, duration of antibiotic therapy, postoperative neurological recovery time, intraoperative blood loss, operative duration, length of incision, postoperative fever, repeat surgery, and mortality was performed between the aspiration and excision groups. Intraoperative blood loss, operative duration, length of incision, and postoperative fever were all significantly reduced in the aspiration group. Though, duration of hospital stay and antibiotic therapy and postoperative neurological recovery time were all increased in the aspiration group, and statistical significance was observed in all except the duration of hospital stay. This technique is a feasible and comparable minimally invasive alternative to open surgical excision and may provide reduced intraoperative blood loss, shortened operative duration, improved cosmetic outcomes, and a lessened incidence of postoperative fever.

Meng, Xiang-Hui; Feng, Shi-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Li, Chong; Zhang, Jiashu; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Jinli; Wang, Fuyu; Ma, Xiaodong; Bu, Bo; Yu, Xin-Guang

2015-01-01

366

Misleading presentations of malignant breast diseases--role of clinical cytology.  

PubMed

We described two examples with misleading presentations to draw attention to the role of clinical cytology as apart of multidisciplinary approach to breast lesions. In the first case--Paget's disease of the nipple, there was no obvious clinical and radiological evidence of breast cancer, while the second case--primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the breast imitated advanced breast carcinoma. The question is whether accurate and fast diagnoses can be made without cytological examinations. It must be kept in mind that first-hand clinical information and contact with the patient is necessary in rendering accurate cytological diagnoses. PMID:20432750

Kai?, Gordana; Stoos-Vei?, Tajana; Ostovi?, Karmen Trutin; Vojnovi?, Jovanka; Vidovi?, Ljerka; Lambasa, Smiljka; Harim, Visnja; Ajdukovi?, Radmila; Stanec, Sanda; Budi, Sre?ko

2010-03-01

367

Molecular Detection of HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Brazilian Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology  

PubMed Central

The question of whether Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a cofactor for human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis is still controversial. We conducted a molecular detection study of both infections in 622 Brazilian women, including 252 women with different grades of abnormal cervical cytology and cervical cancer (CC; cases) and 370 women with normal cytology (controls). Although Ct infection did not seem related to CC carcinogenicity, women with abnormal cytology had a significant high rate of Ct infection. Therefore, it is important to adopt protocols for diagnosis and treatment of this bacterium in conjunction with screening for CC in this population. PMID:23128289

de Abreu, André L. P.; Nogara, Paula R. B.; Souza, Raquel P.; da Silva, Mariana C.; Uchimura, Nelson S.; Zanko, Rodrigo L.; Ferreira, Érika C.; Tognim, Maria C. B.; Teixeira, Jorge J. V.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E. L.

2012-01-01

368

Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle in squash cytology smear.  

PubMed

Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) is a recently recognized and extremely rare glioneuronal tumor occurring in the fourth ventricle. It is crucial for the cytopathologist to be aware of this entity as it can be easily mistaken for more common neoplasms occurring at this site. We present here the cytology of such a rare case of RGNT that was misdiagnosed as ependymoma. The varying cytological features of this entity, as well as the common diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology, are highlighted in this report. PMID:25745291

Nair, Amita Radhakrishnan; Gopalakrishnan, Chittoor Viswanathan; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman; Radhakrishnan, Neelima

2014-01-01

369

AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outline above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE mission concepts and their supporting Science Teams are led by Principal Investigator Dr. Scott Sandford of NASA s Ames Research Center, with industry partner Ball Aerospace Technologies Ltd., and managed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA s Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

2006-01-01

370

Rapid on-site evaluation of endoscopic-ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of pancreatic masses  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an essential tool for the study of pancreatic diseases. Specifically, EUS plays a pivotal role evaluating patients with a known or suspected pancreatic mass. In this setting, differential diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fine-needle biopsy (FNB) have been proven to be safe and useful tools in this setting. EUS-guided FNA and FNB, by obtaining cytological and/or histological samples, are able to diagnose pancreatic lesions with high sensitivity and specificity. In this context, several methodological features, trying to increase the diagnostic yield of EUS-guided FNA and FNB, have been evaluated. In this review, we focus on the role of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). From data reported in the literature, ROSE may increase diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA specimens by 10%-30%, and thus, diagnostic accuracy. However, we should point out that many recent studies have reported adequacy rates of > 90% without ROSE, indicating that, perhaps, at high-volume centers, ROSE may not be indispensable to achieve excellent results. The use of ROSE can be considered important during the learning curve of EUS-FNA, and also in hospital with diagnostic accuracy rates < 90%. PMID:25071339

Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Lariño-Noia, Jose; Abdulkader, Ihab; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

2014-01-01

371

Concordance of Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Diagnosis with the Final Diagnosis in Subepithelial Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims In this study we aimed to determine the rate of concordance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis with the final diagnosis obtained by surgery or endoscopic resection and follow-up in upper gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions. Methods We retrospectively studied patients with subepithelial lesions who underwent EUS at our center from 2007 to 2011. Results We had a final diagnosis in 67 patients (mean age±SD, 51.23±12.48 years; 23 [34.3%] female, 44 [65.6%] male). EUS-FNA was performed in all of the patients. On-site pathology was not performed. In nine of the patients, the obtained material which was obtained was insufficient. The cytologic examination was benign in 31 and malignant in 27 of the patients. Based on the final diagnosis, the EUS-FNA had a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 100%, and a diagnostic yield of 85%. Conclusions The diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA, in the absence of the on-site cytopathologist, is feasible for the diagnosis of subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal system. PMID:23964335

Hatemi, ?brahim; Atasoy, Deniz; ?i?man, Gürhan; ?entürk, Hakan

2013-01-01

372

Pilomatrixoma: a diagnostic pitfall in fine-needle aspiration biopsies. A review from a small county hospital.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old Hispanic girl presented with a 3-cm mass over her right parotid region. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed and the preliminary and final diagnoses were "suspicious for carcinoma, possible mucoepidermoid carcinoma." A subsequent computed tomography demonstrated an extra-parotid lesion attached to the skin. The FNA smears were reviewed and the diagnosis of a pilomatrixoma (PMT) was reached. The lesion was excised and the diagnosis of benign PMT confirmed. Pilomatrixomas are uncommon skin adnexal tumors most commonly found in the head and neck area of young adults and children. In 10 years there were 16 PMTs among 60,280 surgical pathology specimens in the pathology files of our 300-bed general county hospital. Pilomatrixoma is recognized as a diagnostic pitfall not only clinically but also on FNA cytology. On the physical examination, the bluish skin discoloration over the lesion so typical of PMT was overlooked. On FNA, the basaloid cells of PMT were mistaken for intermediate cells of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The presence of anucleated squames was not properly recognized. These are usually absent in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and represent a hallmark of PMT. This case illustrates well the risk of misdiagnosing a pre-auricular PMT as a malignant tumor of the parotid gland. PMID:15185259

Lemos, Luciano B; Brauchle, Randall W

2004-06-01

373

Accuracy of intraoperative touch imprint cytologic analysis of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEliminating full axillary dissection (AD) in the face of negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) has become increasingly popular. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative touch imprint cytology in detecting clinically significant metastatic involvement of the SLN.

Tara Karamlou; Nathalie M Johnson; Benjamin Chan; Daisy Franzini; Diana Mahin

2003-01-01

374

Mentorship Programs for Aspiring and New School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anticipating a 50 percent turnover of principals in the next few years, school districts and university training programs are exploring mentoring as one way to help aspiring and beginning principals learn complex administrative tasks and ease into their roles. This monograph highlights some formal administrator mentorship programs in Oregon.…

Pence, L. Jean

1989-01-01

375

Flow Cytometric Immunophenotype of Canine Lymph Node Aspirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing availability of reagents able to distinguish subtypes of lymphocytes and other leukocytes has enabled greater under- standing of lymphocyte biology and pathology in the dog. Lymphocytes in circulation most commonly are subjected to immuno- phenotypic assessment by flow cytometry, but needle aspirates of lymph nodes can be similarly suitable for immunophenotypic examination. In this investigation, the feasibility of immunophenotyping

D. Gibson; I. Aubert; J. P. Woods; A. Abrams-Ogg; S. Kruth; R. D. Wood; D. Bienzle

2004-01-01

376

Adolescent Boys' Science Aspirations: Masculinity, Capital, and Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread international concern about post-16 participation rates in science, with women's under-representation constituting a particular issue. This paper contributes to these debates through a novel, critical examination of the role of masculinity within boys' negotiations of science aspirations. Drawing on a UK longitudinal…

Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Willis, Beatrice

2014-01-01

377

Parents' Roles in Shaping Early Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations among dimensions of parenting and adolescents' occupational aspirations were examined in two specific domains: academics and sports. The sample consisted of 444 seventh graders, with approximately equal numbers of African American and European American males and females, from two-parent nondivorced families. Multiple measures were used as indicators of parents' values and behaviors, youths' values and be- liefs, positive identification

Kathleen M. Jodl; Alice Michael; Oksana Malanchuk; Jacquelynne S. Eccles; Arnold Sameroff

2001-01-01

378

The Role of Parent Expectations on Adolescent Educational Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental expectations have long been studied as a factor in increasing adolescent educational aspirations, often linking these expectations to parental level of education and involvement in academic endeavours. This study further explores this relationship in a statewide Midwestern sample of parents and their adolescent children. Regression…

Kirk, Chris Michael; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.

2011-01-01

379

First-Year Student Aspirations: A Multinodal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the aspirations of first-year university students in a particular socio-geographic context, by juxtaposing this context with those of Western universities in the 1970s. The rhizomatic analysis enables student voices and personal narratives to complement, extend and undercut the words of published researchers and of the…

Grellier, Jane

2014-01-01

380

Explanatory Aspirations and the Scandal of Cognitive Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Explanatory Aspirations and the Scandal of Cognitive Neuroscience Ross W. GAYLERa , Simon D. LEVYb of artificial cognitive systems. Most cognitive neuroscience models fail to provide a basis for implementation architectures by simplifying the design task through vertical modularity. Keywords. cognitive neuroscience

Levy, Simon D.

381

Travel behaviour, experiences and aspirations of disabled people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the findings of a qualitative study commissioned by the Department for Transport (DfT) exploring the travel behaviour, experiences and aspirations of disabled people. The study involved qualitative in-depth interviews with a sample of 45 disabled people. In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) defines a disabled person as someone who has a physical or mental impairment

Clarissa Penfold; Nicky Cleghorn; Chris Creegan; Hayley Neil; Stephen Webster

2008-01-01

382

Aspire Public Schools: Building the Organizational Capacity for Healthy Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two years into an aggressive expansion plan, Aspire Public Schools was on track in terms of school openings, but behind on its goals to add a layer of management. The schools were performing well, but the nonprofit's leaders were stretched paper thin and concerned about the organization's ability to perform in the face of more growth. Determined…

Saxton, Amy; Perigo, Mike

2008-01-01

383

Missed Opportunities: A New Look at Disadvantaged College Aspirants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a comprehensive portrait of educationally disadvantaged college aspirants, focusing on three important factors that hinder access to and success in postsecondary education. These factors--welfare participation, first-generation college student status, and parental divorce--exacerbate the obstacles that continue to confront…

Education Resources Inst., Boston, MA.

384

Trade circles: aspirations and ethnicity in commercial sex in Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contours of commercial sex in Lao PDR are significantly shaped by forces facilitating the entry of women from one ethnic group, the Khmu, into this service industry niche. Agricultural transitions, development policies, changing gender roles, ethnic hierarchies, snowballing recruitment networks and growing capitalist sensibilities collectively prompt poor Khmu women to aspire to material gain via selling beer and sex.

Chris Lyttleton; Sisouvanh Vorabouth

2011-01-01

385

Aspiration Levels and Educational Choices: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The explanation of social inequalities in education is still a debated issue in economics. Recent empirical studies tend to downplay the potential role of credit constraint. This article tests a different potential explanation of social inequalities in education, specifically that social differences in aspiration level result in different…

Page, Lionel; Garboua, Louis Levy; Montmarquette, Claude

2007-01-01

386

Latino Males Degree Aspirations in Community College: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latino males are the least likely to attend, persist, and attain a baccalaureate degree compared to other male groups in higher education. Moreover, they tend to have the lowest degree aspirations of any major race or ethnic group (Saenz & Ponjuan, 2009; Driscoll, 2007; Swail, Cabrera, & Lee, 2004; Laanan, 2000; Kao & Tienda, 1998). To…

Dorame, Francisco

2012-01-01

387

African-American Females: A Theory of Educational Aspiration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although 76% of African-American students graduate from high school, only 25% of these graduates enter institutions of higher education. A systematic analysis of the aspirations among African-American females for post-high-school education was conducted. Initial portions of the study focused on characteristics of support in the areas of familial…

Ponec, Debra L.

388

College Aspirations and Preparation: How AVID Students Beat the Odds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of "at risk" high school youth revealed how student participation in the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) program positively affected student achievement and increased college aspirations and entrance rates. The experiences of the students, teachers, and administrators were examined using a case study approach…

Cronin, Dana

2013-01-01

389

Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

2004-01-01

390

Supporting High School Graduation Aspirations among Latino Middle School Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eighth grade Latino students, particularly female students, are eager and excited to transition to high school, but they perceive challenges from the school social and cultural environment and a disconnect between their home and school lives. Ideas for supporting the aspirations of Latino students transitioning to high school are presented.

Diana B. Lys

2009-01-01

391

Lipoid Pneumonia: A Silent Complication of Mineral Oil Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Chronic constipation is a common symptom in pediatrics, and physicians often use mineral oil to treat chronic constipation in children. Min- eral oil, a hydrocarbon, may not elicit a normal protective cough reflex and may impair mucociliary transport. These effects can increase the likelihood of its aspiration and subsequent impaired clearance from the respiratory tract. We report a

Hari P. R. Bandla; Scott H. Davis; Nancy Eddy Hopkins

392

Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in prostatic abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To review the clinical presentation of prostatic abscess and to assess the usefulness of ultrasound-guided needle aspiration as a treatment option for this condition.Methods. Between October 1984 and November 1997, prostatic abscess was diagnosed in 31 patients. The average age was 60 years (range 29 to 79). Prostate ultrasound was performed using either a hypogastric or transrectal approach. Initial

Argimiro Collado; Juan Palou; Javier García-Penit; José Salvador; Pablo De La Torre; José Vicente

1999-01-01

393

Effects of coda voicing and aspiration on Hindi vowels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reexamines the well-attested coda voicing effect on vowel duration [Chen, Phonetica 22, 125-159 (1970)], in conjunction with the relationship between vowel duration and aspiration of codas. The first step was to replicate the results of Maddieson and Gandour [UCLA Working Papers Phonetics 31, 46-52 (1976)] with a larger, language-specific data set. Four nonsense syllables ending in [open-o] followed by [k, kh, g, gh] were read aloud in ten different carrier sentences by four native speakers of Hindi. Results confirm that longer vowels precede voiced word-final consonants and aspirated word-final consonants. Thus, among the syllables, vowel duration would be longest when preceding the voiced aspirate [gh]. Coda voicing, and thus, vowel duration, have been shown to correlate negatively to vowel F1 in English and Arabic [Wolf, J. Phonetics 6, 299-309 (1978); de Jong and Zawaydeh ibid, 30, 53-75 (2002)]. It is not known whether vowel F1 depends directly on coda voicing, or is determined indirectly via duration. Since voicing and aspiration both increase duration, F1 measurements of this data set (which will be presented) may answer that question.

Lampp, Claire; Reklis, Heidi

2001-05-01

394

Student-as-aspirant: strategic implications for business education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to propose a new metaphor, student-as-aspirant, which captures well the educational role of students, professors, and business schools. Second, to develop the strategic implications of this metaphor for the management of business schools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A thorough review of relevant literature is conducted and the underlying assumptions of previously suggested

Azaddin Salem Khalifa

2009-01-01

395

Women Teachers' Aspirations to School Leadership in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The under-representation of women in the leadership of secondary schooling is a problem common to many developing countries, raising issues of social justice and sustainable development. It has its roots in societal understandings about leadership, the schooling and career aspirations of girls, the organizational characteristics of the…

Sperandio, Jill; Kagoda, Alice Merab

2010-01-01

396

bold aspirations THE STRATEGIC PlAN FoR  

E-print Network

aspirations | 3 a diverse steering committee made up of over 50 faculty, staff, alumni, and community leaders excellence in undergraduate and graduate education and by so doing train the leaders and innovators will truly be recognized among the top tier of public international research universities. a great

397

Aspiration Rate following Nonsurgical Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the aspiration rate following nonsurgical therapy, i.e. chemoradiation or radiation alone for laryngeal cancer. Modified barium swallow was performed in 43 patients who complained of dysphagia following chemoradiation (n = 22) or radiation alone (n = 21) for laryngeal cancer. Patients were selected if they were cancer free at the time of

Nam P. Nguyen; Candace C. Moltz; Cheryl Frank; Paul Vos; Carrie Millar; Herbert J. Smith; Howard Lee; Ulf Karlsson; Phuc D. Nguyen; Tomas Martinez; Ly M. Nguyen; Sabah Sallah

2007-01-01

398

The Career Aspirations of Rural Appalachian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contributions of several social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors in predicting the career aspirations of a group of high school students living in the central part of rural Appalachia. Sixty-three high school students completed measures assessing their vocational/educational…

Ali, Saba Rasheed; Saunders, Jodi L.

2009-01-01

399

Uncovering the relationships between aspirations and luxury brand preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to test the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations on luxury brand preference. The objective is to help luxury marketers better understand and anticipate the psychological needs of their customers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on a thorough review of the literature, a series of hypotheses are derived and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation

Yann Truong; Rod McColl; Philip J. Kitchen

2010-01-01

400

Transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts: our experience over 121 cases.  

PubMed

We performed an evaluation of ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts as a viable alternative to surgery in 104 reproductive and 17 postmenopausal women. One-hundred and twenty-one patients with a simple >4 cm diameter ovarian cyst, with a benign appearance on ultrasound as well as on clinical and blood examination, underwent transvaginal fine needle aspiration of the cyst under ultrasonographic control. One-hundred and four patients were of reproductive age and 12 were postmenopausal. Sixty women who were of reproductive age and in which OCP treatment was not contraindicated followed a six-month therapy with oral contraceptives after the intervention. In the group of patients of reproductive age under OCP treatment the cyst persisted in nine of the 60 women (recurrence rate 15%). In the other group of patients of reproductive age,under no OCP treatment, the recurrence rate was 47% (21 of the 44 women). In the group of postmenopausal patients, the cyst persisted in ten out of 17 cases (recurrence rate 58,9%). Transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts is a reliable alternative to surgery with many advantages such as excellent tolerance, low risk and cost of complications and recurrence. The OCP treatment after aspiration seems to increase the success rate of expectant management. PMID:21082900

Koutlaki, Nikoleta; Nikas, Ioannis; Dimitraki, Marina; Grapsas, Xenofon; Psillaki, Afrodite; Mandratzi, Jeyaver; Liberis, Anastasios; Liberis, Vasilios

2011-05-01

401

Career Aspirations of Undergraduate Mathematics Majors: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been much research attention on ability level, motivation, and self-efficacy of students at schools of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). However, there is scant research on vocational choice, career development and aspirations of these students. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by asking…

Piotrowski, Chris; Hemasinha, Rohan

2012-01-01

402

Amnioinfusion for the Prevention of the Meconium Aspiration Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

background It is uncertain whether amnioinfusion (infusion of saline into the amniotic cavity) in women who have thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid reduces the risk of perinatal death, moderate or severe meconium aspiration syndrome, or both. methods We performed a multicenter trial in which 1998 pregnant women in labor at 36 or more weeks of gestation who had

William D. Fraser; Justus Hofmeyr; Roberto Lede; Giilles Faron; Sophie Alexander; Arne Ohlsson; Lucile Turcot-Lemay; Walter Prendiville; Sylvie Marcoux; Chantal Roy; Stavros Petrou; Hai-Rong Xu; Bin Wei

2005-01-01

403

Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of paragonimiasis involving a 12-year-old Latin American boy. The diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a pulmonary nodule. Identification of the species by morphometric analysis of the eggs indicated that the infection was caused by Paragonimus mexicanus. PMID:18385444

Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Citron, Deborah R.; Stager, Charles E.; Laucirica, Rodolfo

2008-01-01

404

Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kärpänoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

2007-04-01

405

Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland) and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Environics Ltd., Graanintie 5, P.O. Box 349, FI-50101, Mikkeli (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland) and Drug Discovery and Development Technology Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland) and Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland)

2007-04-15

406

Aspirating Seal Development: Analytical Modeling and Seal Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort is to develop large diameter (22 - 36 inch) Aspirating Seals for application in aircraft engines. Stein Seal Co. will be fabricating the 36-inch seal(s) for testing. GE's task is to establish a thorough understanding of the operation of Aspirating Seals through analytical modeling and full-scale testing. The two primary objectives of this project are to develop the analytical models of the aspirating seal system, to upgrade using GE's funds, GE's 50-inch seal test rig for testing the Aspirating Seal (back-to-back with a corresponding brush seal), test the aspirating seal(s) for seal closure, tracking and maneuver transients (tilt) at operating pressures and temperatures, and validate the analytical model. The objective of the analytical model development is to evaluate the transient and steady-state dynamic performance characteristics of the seal designed by Stein. The transient dynamic model uses a multi-body system approach: the Stator, Seal face and the rotor are treated as individual bodies with relative degrees of freedom. Initially, the thirty-six springs are represented as a single one trying to keep open the aspirating face. Stops (Contact elements) are provided between the stator and the seal (to compensate the preload in the fully-open position) and between the rotor face and Seal face (to detect rub). The secondary seal is considered as part of the stator. The film's load, damping and stiffness characteristics as functions of pressure and clearance are evaluated using a separate (NASA) code GFACE. Initially, a laminar flow theory is used. Special two-dimensional interpolation routines are written to establish exact film load and damping values at each integration time step. Additionally, other user-routines are written to read-in actual pressure, rpm, stator-growth and rotor growth data and, later, to transfer these as appropriate loads/motions in the system-dynamic model. The transient dynamic model evaluates the various motions, clearances and forces as the seals are subjected to different aircraft maneuvers: Windmilling restart; start-ground idle; ground idle-takeoff; takeoff-burst chop, etc. Results of this model show that the seal closes appropriately and does not ram into the rotor for all of the conditions analyzed. The rig upgrade design for testing Aspirating Seals has been completed. Long lead-time items (forgings, etc.) have been ordered.

Bagepalli, Bharat

1996-01-01

407

Flow microfluorometric system for screening gynecologic cytology specimens using propidium iodide-fluorescein isothiocyanate.  

PubMed

Seventy cervical cytology specimens have been screened by a xero resolution flow analyzer-sorter using propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate as fluorochromes for nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively. This system shows a 1% sensitivity for detection of abnormal cells using only crude visual data analysis. Screening of clinical specimens was performed on the instrument with a 5.8% false negative rate and a 11.8% false positive rate by comparison with routine visual cytologic evaluation of the same samples. PMID:1254927

Fowlkes, B J; Herman, C J; Cassidy, M

1976-01-01

408

Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL  

PubMed Central

Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor. PMID:24518979

?im?ek, Gülçin Güler; Güre?çi, Servet; O?uz, Ural; Ünsal, Ali

2014-01-01

409

Long-Term Morbidity and Management Strategies of Tracheal Aspiration in Adults with Severe Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feeding skills of 73 adults with severe developmental disabilities who aspirated were examined. Mobility, level of mental retardation, or feeding skill did not discriminate those who aspirated. Mealtime respiratory distress (65%) or chronic lung disease (55%), however, were significantly associated with aspiration. (Author/DB)

Rogers, B.; And Others

1994-01-01

410

Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

2013-01-01

411

Structural and Socio-Psychological Influences on Adolescents' Educational Aspirations and Subsequent Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous literature indicates that educational aspirations are an important predictor of achievement at school and beyond. This paper examines the factors that are associated with high educational aspirations. It also looks at the relationship between aspirations and achievement at the General Certificate of Secondary Education in a deprived area…

Rothon, Catherine; Arephin, Muna; Klineberg, Emily; Cattell, Vicky; Stansfeld, Stephen

2011-01-01

412

Factors Related to Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Adolescent Males From Culturally Deprived Families. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposes of this longitudinal study were: (1) to determine any relationship between self concept, anxiety, family adjustment, parental aspirations, and the level of aspirations of lower class black and white boys; (2) to relate the IQ level to aspiration level; and (3) to determine over a span of three years what significant changes occur for each…

Dales, Ruth J.; Walters, James

413

Self-Efficacy Beliefs as Shapers of Children's Aspirations and Career Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study tested with 272 children a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences that shape children's career aspirations and trajectories. Familial socioeconomic status is linked to children's career trajectories only indirectly through its effects on parents' perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. The impact of parental self-efficacy and aspirations on their children's perceived career efficacy and choice is,

Albert Bandura; Claudio Barbaranelli; Gian Vittorio Caprara; Concetta Pastorelli

2001-01-01

414

The Relationship Between Career Variables and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Australian High School Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveyed 925 Australian high school students enrolled in grades 8 through 12 on measures of occupational aspirations, occupational expectations, career status aspirations, and career status expectations; it tested the association between these variables and career maturity, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy, and career barriers. Adolescents generally aspired to or expected to work within a small range of RIASEC

Wendy Patton; Peter Creed

2007-01-01

415

Explaining Educational Aspirations of Minority Students: The Role of Social Capital and Students' Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous literature predicts disadvantaged groups to develop low aspirations and expectations, and has often explained high aspirations of these groups in terms of irrationality and fantasy. In this paper the educational aspirations of Palestinian students in Israel are examined using data from a representative sample of high school students. The results show that: (1) despite their disadvantage within the Israeli

Nabil Khattab

2003-01-01

416

Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The career aspirations of high-achieving adolescent girls were explored by comparing them to the aspirations of adolescent boys as well as by looking at the influence of grade in school, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. The participants' ideal and real career aspirations, scored in terms of prestige, were investigated via 2 sets of analyses , with coed (n

Cary M. Watson; Teri Quatman; Erik Edler

2002-01-01

417

Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…

Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik

2002-01-01

418

Commercial Testing of Aspire: A Yeast Preparation for the Biological Control of Postharvest Decay of Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspire, a biocontrol product containing the yeastCandida oleophilaas the active ingredient, is registered in the United States and Israel for commercial use. The efficacy of Aspire in controlling postharvest decay of citrus fruit was evaluated in commercial packinghouse tests. The combination of Aspire with 200 ?g\\/ml thiabendazole (TBZ) often reduced the incidence of decay, caused by the green and blue

S Droby; L Cohen; A Daus; B Weiss; B Horev; E Chalutz; H Katz; M Keren-Tzur; A Shachnai

1998-01-01

419

Swiss Adolescents' Career Aspirations: Influence of Context, Age, and Career Adaptability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the content, realism, stability, and coherence of the career aspirations of 262 students in seventh grade in Switzerland (ages 13-15 years). The content analysis revealed that 82% of the participants named at least one realistic career aspiration, and aspirations showed clear resemblance to existing opportunities in the…

Hirschi, Andreas

2010-01-01

420

Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting by the Bethesda System: A Two-Year Prospective Study in an Academic Institution  

PubMed Central

Background. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has attempted to standardize reporting and cytological criteria in aspiration smears. Aims. The objective of this study was to analyze the thyroid cytology smears by TBSRTC, to determine the distribution of diagnostic categories and subcategories, to analyze cytological features, and to correlate the cytopathology with histopathology, wherever surgery was done. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study of 225 fine needle aspirations (FNA) of thyroid nodules. All fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnoses were classified according to the features given in the monograph of TBSRTC into nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory (ND/UNS), benign, atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), follicular neoplasm/suspicious of a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN), suspicious for malignancy (SFM), and malignant. Cytohistological correlation was done, when surgical material was available. Results. The distribution of various categories from 225 evaluated thyroid nodules was as follows: 7.2% ND/UNS, 80.0% benign, 4.9% AUS/FLUS, 2.2% FN, 3.5% SFM, and 2.2% malignant. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Conclusions. TBSRTC is an excellent reporting system for thyroid FNA. It also provides clear management guidelines to clinicians to go for follow-up FNA or surgery and also the extent of surgery. PMID:25688327

Mehra, Payal; Verma, Anand Kumar

2015-01-01

421

Percutaneous aspiration of fluid for management of peritonitis in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: As a medical emergency that can affect even well-screened, healthy individuals, peritonitis developing during a long-duration space exploration mission may dictate deviation from traditional clinical practice due to the absence of otherwise indicated surgical capabilities. Medical management can treat many intra-abdominal processes, but treatment failures are inevitable. In these circumstances, percutaneous aspiration under sonographic guidance could provide a "rescue" strategy. Hypothesis: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid can be performed in microgravity. METHODS: Investigations were conducted in the microgravity environment of NASA's KC-135 research aircraft (0 G). The subjects were anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs weighing 50 kg. The procedures were rehearsed in a terrestrial animal lab (1 G). Colored saline (500 mL) was introduced through an intra-peritoneal catheter during flight. A high-definition ultrasound system (HDI-5000, ATL, Bothell, WA) was used to guide a 16-gauge needle into the peritoneal cavity to aspirate fluid. RESULTS: Intra-peritoneal fluid collections were easily identified, distinct from surrounding viscera, and on occasion became more obvious during weightless conditions. Subjectively, with adequate restraint of the subject and operators, the procedure was no more demanding than during the 1-G rehearsals. CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid collections is feasible in weightlessness. Treatment of intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions in spaceflight might rely on pharmacological options, backed by sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration for the "rescue" of treatment failures. While this risk mitigation strategy cannot guarantee success, it may be the most practical option given severe resource limitations.

Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Nicolaou, S.; Campbell, M. R.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Melton, S.; Beck, G.; Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Hamilton, D. R.

2002-01-01

422

Synovial fluid cytology in experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).  

PubMed

Evidence-based information of a cause-and-effect relationship between Ehrlichia canis infection and polyarthritis in naturally- or experimentally-infected dogs is currently lacking. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether synovial fluid cytological evidence of arthritis could be documented in dogs with acute monocytic ehrlichiosis. Direct synovial fluid cytology smears from eight Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were examined prior to, and on 21, 35 and 63 days post-inoculation. The cytological variables assessed included cellularity, percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, macrophage reactivity and evidence of E. canis morulae. The median cellularity and percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils prior to inoculation did not differ when compared to post-inoculation cytological evaluation. Increased cellularity, E. canis morulae or cytological evidence of arthritis or macrophage reactivity were not observed throughout the course of the study. In the present study, no cytological evidence of arthritis was found in dogs with experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, suggesting that E. canis infection should be considered a rather uncommon cause of arthritis in dogs. PMID:25770893

Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Petanides, Theodoros; Tsafas, Konstantinos; Harrus, Shimon; Mylonakis, Mathios E

2015-05-15

423

Cytological Ki-67 in pancreatic endocrine tumors: a new “must”?  

PubMed Central

In the last decades, the incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has been rising and this might be due to more awareness, improved diagnostic tools and a change in definition. The histopathological type of the tumor, its Ki-67 or MIB-1 proliferation index, size and location, as well as the age of the patient, seems to be the most important factor that affects prognosis and survival. In 2008, in one of our studies, we concluded that the cytological Ki-67 may improve the preoperative assessment of pancreatic NETs (pNETs), helping the clinician choosing the optimal therapeutical approach”. Although the literature reports discordant opinions on the value of tumor proliferation markers in predicting a patient’s prognosis, many studies have then reinforced the idea that Ki-67 expression in histological sections obtained from pNETs is an important predictor of their biological behaviour. The WHO classification of pNETs includes Ki-67 expression in the list of parameters (together with distant metastases, organ infiltration, dimension, angio/neuroinvasion, number of mitosis) determining the patient’s prognosis. In conclusion we think that any study aimed to assess the correct biology and proliferative pattern of NETs contributes to the already known but still unclear attempt to define the correct individualized therapeutic strategy for each patient before surgery or any other therapeutic approach. PMID:25493251

Franchi, Giulia

2014-01-01

424

Tanycytic ependymoma of the spinal cord with anaplastic cytological features.  

PubMed

In a 43-year-old man, an intramedullary spinal cord tumor spreading from the level of the T2 to T5 vertebrae was subtotally resected. The tumor predominantly consisted of a fascicular proliferation of spindle cells having bland nuclei and bipolar, long cytoplasmic processes, and a few perivascular pseudo-rosettes were found. Although there were no true ependymal rosettes, intracytoplasmic dot-like immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) was found in a few cells. In some areas, a dense and diffuse proliferation of anaplastic, short-spindled cells having hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm was noted, and the Ki-67 labeling index was remarkably higher (18.2%) in these areas. Neither microvascular proliferation nor necrosis was observed. In the boundary region, these two areas showed gradual transition from one to the other. The patient has remained free from recurrence for 10 months postoperatively. This is the first documentation of tanycytic ependymoma in which tumor cells showed anaplastic cytological features. PMID:19408091

Shintaku, Masayuki; Nagata, Norikazu; Itoh, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

425

Screening for Cervical Cancer Precursors With p16/Ki-67 Dual-Stained Cytology: Results of the PALMS Study  

PubMed Central

Background Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing. Methods A total of 27349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined. Results The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001). Conclusions The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations. PMID:24096620

2013-01-01

426

Accuracy of concurrent visual and cytology screening in detecting cervical cancer precursors in rural India.  

PubMed

The high burden of cervical cancer and inadequate/suboptimal cytology screening in developing countries led to the evaluation of visual screening tests, like visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI). We describe the performance of VIA, VILI and cytology, carried out in a multinational project called "Screening Technologies to Advance Rapid Testing" in 5,519 women aged 30-49 years, in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). VIA, VILI and cytology were positive in 16.9%, 15.6% and 6.1% women, respectively. We found 57 cases of CIN2, 55 of CIN3 and 12 of cervical cancer; 90% of CIN3 and 43% CIN2 cases were positive for p16 overexpression and high-risk HPV infection, indicating a high validity of histological diagnosis. The sensitivity of VIA, VILI and cytology to detect high-grade CIN were 64.5%, 64.5% and 67.7%, respectively; specificities were 84.2%, 85.5% and 95.4%. A high proportion of p16 positive CIN 3 (93.8%) and 2 (76.9%) were positive on cytology compared with visual tests (68.8% and 53.8%, respectively) indicating a higher sensitivity of cytology to detect p16 positive high-grade CIN. However, the immediate availability of the results from the visual tests permits diagnosis and/or treatment to be performed in the same sitting, which can potentially reduce loss to follow-up when women must be recalled following positive cytology. Organizing visual screening services in low-resource countries may facilitate the gradual building of an infrastructure committed to screening allowing the eventual introduction of more sensitive, highly objective, reproducible and affordable human papillomavirus screening tests in future. PMID:22581670

Deodhar, Kedar; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Jayant, Kasturi; Jeronimo, Jose; Thorat, Ranjit; Hingmire, Sanjay; Muwonge, Richard; Chiwate, Aruna; Deshpande, Rutha; Ajit, Dulhan; Kelkar, Rohini; Rekhi, Bharat; Ruben, Irene; Malvi, Sylla G; Chinoy, Roshni; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Nene, Bhagwan M

2012-09-15

427

Core wash cytology of breast lesions by ultrasonographically guided core needle biopsy.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that core wash cytology by stereotactic needle biopsy was useful for the immediate diagnosis of breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of core wash cytology of breast lesions by ultrasonographically (US) guided core needle biopsy (CNB). US-guided 18-gauge CNB was performed in a series of 458 cases. Each CNB sample was washed in saline solution. Core wash cytology of the washed core material was performed on material obtained by saline solution lavage of the fragments using a cytocentrifuge. The cytological diagnoses were divided into five categories: benign, atypical/indeterminate, suspicious/probably malignant, malignant, and unsatisfactory, which then were compared with the CNB results. The cytological diagnoses of the 458 cases were as follows: 106 lesions (23.1%) were benign, 28 lesions (6.1%) were atypical/indeterminate, 42 lesions (9.2%) were suspicious/probably malignant, 88 lesions (19.2%) were malignant, and 194 lesions (42.4%) were unsatisfactory. The core wash cytology had a sensitivity of 89% (141 of 158), and a specificity of 72% (76 of 106). The CNB showed 143 of 194 unsatisfactory samples (74%) to be benign, three to be high-risk, and 48 (25%) to be malignant. Unsatisfactory samples were obtained from significantly more benign than malignant lesions. In conclusion, the high rate of insufficient samples for core wash cytology of breast lesions by US-guided CNB makes its use impractical in this setting. This technique is not useful for immediate diagnosis of breast lesions by US-guided CNB. PMID:17616804

Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako

2008-05-01

428

Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.  

PubMed

To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance. PMID:25415397

Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

2015-01-01

429

Suicidal Ideation and Migration Aspirations among Youth in Central Mexico  

PubMed Central

Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

Hoffman, Steven

2014-01-01

430

Fine-needle aspiration: Survey of clinical utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The goal was to determine the features of clinical usage of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in this country in terms of utilization, indications, and practice and demographic characteristics of those who use FNA. Study Design: A survey was mailed to otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons (OTO-HNSs) in the United States. The results were totaled and analyzed for indications for FNA performance,

C. Ron Cannon; William H. Replogle

2000-01-01

431

Usefulness of fine-needle aspiration in parotid diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a safe diagnostic technique that is widely employed for lesions of the head and neck. Among\\u000a head and neck sites, the parotid gland is unique in the number, diversity, and peculiarity of its pathological processes.\\u000a This complexity has prompted a great deal of discussion regarding the application of FNA to parotid masses, primarily focusing\\u000a on

Attilio Carlo Salgarelli; Paolo Capparè; Pierantonio Bellini; Marco Collini

2009-01-01

432

Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator  

SciTech Connect

Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

Archuleta, M.M.

1995-12-01

433

Frameless stereotactic aspiration and thrombolysis of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: To test the feasibility and safety of a minimally invasive technique, we report our experience in treating spontaneous intracerebral\\u000a hemorrhage (ICH) patients by using frameless stereotactic clot aspiration-thrombolysis and its effects on their 30-day survival.\\u000a We compared the observed cohort mortality with its predicted 30-day ICH mortality, by using previously validated methods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Selection criteria were diagnosis of hypertensive

Ryan J. Barrett; Rahat Hussain; William M. Coplin; Samera Berry; Penelope M. Keyl; Daniel F. Hanley; Robert R. Johnson; J. Ricardo Carhuapoma

2005-01-01

434

Primary pulmonary botryomycosis: a late complication of foreign body aspiration  

PubMed Central

Primary pulmonary botryomycosis is a rare cause of haemoptysis and can enter the differential diagnosis of a mass on the plain chest radiograph. The case history is presented of a 63 year old man with botryomycosis which was initially thought to be a bronchial carcinoma. When the diagnosis was made several years later it was found to be secondary to persisting vegetable material in the bronchial tree following previous aspiration.?? PMID:11083895

Tuggey, J; Hosker, H; DaCosta, P

2000-01-01

435

Thyroid Nodule with Benign Cytology: Is Clinical Follow-Up Enough?  

PubMed Central

Objective In this multicenter study, we investigated the management algorithm for thyroid nodules with benign cytology using US features from data collected from 7 institutions. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Data on 700 focal thyroid nodules in 673 consecutive patients were c