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Sample records for aspiration cytology fnac

  1. Malignancy Risk Analysis in Patients with Inadequate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Al Maqbali, Talib; Tedla, Miroslav; Weickert, Martin O.; Mehanna, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    Background Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the standard diagnostic modality for thyroid nodules. However, it has limitations among which is the incidence of non-diagnostic results (Thy1). Management of cases with repeatedly non-diagnostic FNAC ranges from simple observation to surgical intervention. We aim to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in non-diagnostic FNAC, and the success rate of repeated FNAC. We also aim to evaluate risk factors for malignancy in patients with non-diagnostic FNAC. Materials and Methods Retrospective analyses of consecutive cases with thyroid non diagnostic FNAC results were included. Results Out of total 1657 thyroid FNAC done during the study period, there were 264 (15.9%) non-diagnostic FNAC on the first attempt. On repeating those, the rate of a non-diagnostic result on second FNAC was 61.8% and on third FNAC was 47.2%. The overall malignancy rate in Thy1 FNAC was 4.5% (42% papillary, 42% follicular and 8% anaplastic), and the yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. Ultrasound guidance by an experienced head neck radiologist produced the lowest non-diagnostic rate (38%) on repetition compared to US guidance by a generalist radiologist (65%) and by non US guidance (90%). Conclusions There is a low risk of malignancy in patients with a non-diagnostic FNAC result, commensurate to the risk of any nodule. The yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. PMID:23185295

  2. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) as a Diagnostic Tool in Paediatric Head and Neck Lymphodenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Silas, OA; Ige, OO; Adoga, AA; Nimkur, LT; Ajetunmobi, OI

    2015-01-01

    A neck mass that is present for longer than a week might be pathological requiring rapid and thorough evaluation. This study aims to evaluate the positive role Fine needle aspiration cytology plays in the diagnosis of pediatric patients with lymphadenopathy in the head and neck region. Fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes was carried out, fixed and stained by cytopathologists for 56 patients at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, 43 (76.8%) were inflammatory and 13 (23.2%) malignant. Reactive hyperplasia (72.1%), acute suppurative (18.6%) and tuberculosis (9.3%) constituted the inflammatory lesions. Non Hodgkins lymphoma was the commonest malignant lesion (76.9%) followed by Hodgkins lymphoma (15.4%), the least being Rhabdomyosarcoma (7.7%). Age range 10-14 years had the highest number of cases (46.4%). Males were 36 (64.3%) while females were 20 (35.7%). All malignant cases diagnosed by FNAC had to undergo confirmation/characterization by histology and had 100% concordance. Thus there were no false positives and specificity was 100%, sensitivity 100%. Of the 43 diagnosed as inflammatory by FNAC, 12 cases which did not resolve after treatment or where patients condition worsened had to undergo surgical biopsy. Out of these only 1 (8.3%) case of fungal infection was misdiagnosed by FNAC. The lymph nodes were generalized 4 (7.1%) and localized in 52 (92.9%). Maximum number of cases 53 (94.6%) had Cervical Lymphadenopathy followed by axillary 2 (3.6%) and inguinal 1 (1.8%). Out of the cervical group of nodes, the upper anterior and upper posterior deep cervical nodes were involved in majority of cases (95%). PMID:26306308

  3. The diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the assessment of palpable supraclavicular lymph nodes: a study of 218 cases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Naran, S; Lallu, S; Fauck, R

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the assessment of palpable supraclavicular lymph nodes. The material was analysed in 218 cases with enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes in which FNAC was performed by the conventional method. In all cases cytological examination was performed on-site after staining the smears by the Papanicolaou method. In addition, air-dried smears, fixed smears, filter preparations from needle washings and cell blocks were studied. The FNAC diagnosis was supported by examining cell blocks which added the reliability of histological architecture; further support was obtained by tissue biopsy and/or comparison with the primary tumour in some of the cases. Eleven cases were diagnosed as inflammatory lesions and 41 cases were unsatisfactory because of scanty/acellular samples (despite two to three repeat samplings). However, in five of these, malignant tumours were later found on biopsy, which was done for persistent enlargement of the supraclavicular lymph node(s). Fifty-three cases were diagnosed as negative for malignancy (normal cellular elements, n=15; reactive elements, n=38) and 12 cases were suspicious of malignancy. In 11 cases a diagnosis of lymphoma was made on histology and in 90 cases metastatic tumours were diagnosed. The overall sensitivity was 92.7%, specificity 98.5%, positive predictive value 97.3% and the negative predictive value was 94.8%. Based on our study we feel that FNAC of palpable supraclavicular lymph nodes as a first line of investigation is a cost-effective procedure and is not only useful in the diagnosis of various lesions but can also help in deciding on appropriate management. Furthermore, the histological architecture from cell blocks can be correlated with cytology, and such material can be used for appropriate histochemical and immunomarker studies, which can be useful in enhancing the diagnosis. PMID:12873313

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parapharyngeal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Palash; Basu, Nandita; Gupta, Sanjay Sen; Bhattacharya, Nirmal; Mallick, Mamata Guha

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties due to their location and plethora of presentations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the occurrence in the population and to evaluate the exact nature by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Materials and Methods: A total of five hundred and six cases of lateral neck lesions were studied over three and half years. Of these 56 suspected parapharyngeal masses were selected by clinical and radiological methods. Cytopathology evaluation was done by fine needle aspiration cytology with computed tomography and ultrasonography guidance wherever necessary. Histopathology confirmation was available in all the cases. Results: On FNAC diagnosis could be established in 54 cases while in two cases the material was insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The tumors encountered were, pleomorphic adenoma (33), schwannoma (3), neurofibroma (11), paraganglioma (5), angiofibroma (1) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (1). Four false positives and two false negative cases were encountered. Overall sensitivity was 96%, with specificity of 99% and accuracy being 98.8%. Conclusions: With proper clinical and radiological assessment, FNAC can be extremely useful in diagnosing most of these lesions except a few which need histopathological and even immunohistochemical confirmation. PMID:21938166

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Parikshaa; Dey, Pranab; Bal, Amanjit

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case. PMID:25745290

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  7. Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology in testicular disorders of red deer (Cervus elaphus): a case report.

    PubMed

    Pintus, Eliana; Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Garde, José Julián

    2014-10-01

    We used fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to diagnose Sertoli cell-only pattern and hypospermatogenesis in an Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Cytologic diagnosis was confirmed by histology and epididymal sperm analysis. We conclude that FNAC can be an important diagnostic tool in testicular diseases of wildlife. PMID:25248117

  8. Comparative analysis of detecting cervical lymph node metastasis with fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Mohammed Kamran; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramaniam Vasudevan; Koliyan, Ramadoss; Kumar, Jimsha Vannathan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We correlated the results of cervical lymph node (LN) status by T-tumor size, N-nodal metastasis, M-distant metastasis (TNM) staging, and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in oral cancer patients to assess the discrepancy index (DI) between nodal metastasis (N) and FNAC results of cervicofacial LNs. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 patients (29 females and 34 males) aged from 30 to 85 years were included in our study. Cervical LN status through TNM staging and FNAC results were matched and DI was calculated. Results: DI in case of nodal status was 64.10% and 43.47% for TNMN1 and N2, respectively, indicating that tendency for observation of positive result on FNAC increased from N1 to N2. Conclusion: Hence, we suggest that relying solely on clinical examination and routine diagnostic tests like FNAC may not be appropriate and additional diagnostic imaging modalities should be considered. PMID:26604624

  9. Spermiophages on testicular fine needle aspiration cytology: A rare finding.

    PubMed

    Jashnani, Kusum; Desai, Heena; Shetty, Jyothi

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages usually reside in the testicular interstitial tissues and are normally not found within the seminiferous tubules. However, in certain cases of male infertility, the macrophages are activated and can then be found within the tubules where they can ingest spermatozoa and are labeled as "spermiophages." FNAC was performed in a 36 year male with history of primary infertility. On microscopy, smears made from right testis were indicative of hypospermatogenesis. On the contrary, smears made from the left testis were very cellular showing Sertoli cells and the entire spectrum of normal spermatogenesis. Also seen were many isolated spermiophages. The cytological impression given for the left testis was normal spermatogenesis with numerous spermiophages. Thus the patient fell in the category of obstructive azoospermia (OA). According to currently adopted hypothesis, macrophages carry ingested sperm heads with some antigenic components to the basal capillaries which may result in the formation of autoantibodies against the spermatozoa. This situation may further diminish the chances of fertility in men. The origin of these spermiophage cells is unknown. Although commonly reported in semen and epididymal biopsies, they have not been reported to occur on testicular fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In our case, no sperms were found on semen examination which were easily picked up on testicular FNAC indicating usefulness of the latter in the diagnosis of cases of male infertility and eliminating the need for a testicular biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:232-234. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875595

  10. Fibroma of the tendon sheath: A diagnostic dilemma on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra G; Dhruva, Gauravi

    2015-01-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor (STS) of the tendon sheath. Clinical and radiological features are not distinctive enough to clinch the diagnosis preoperatively. Although histological features are well described, diagnostic cytological features of FTS are still lacking. Till date only two reports describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings of FTS. The present case is a 50-year-old female who presented with a slow growing nodule on the right thigh over a period of 2 years. FNAC revealed low cell yield with loose clusters of fibrotic spindle cells and stellate cells intermingled with fibro-collagenous and myxoid matrix. Few cells showed mild degree of nuclear atypia. Necrosis and atypical mitoses were not seen. Cytology findings were suggestive of benign/low-grade fibroblastic or fibromyxoid lesion. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of FTS. This article discusses the diagnostic role of FNAC in FTS with its differential diagnosis PMID:26729987

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, SN; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lesions of liver and gallbladder: An analysis of 400 consecutive aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Barbhuiya, Mustafa; Bhunia, Shushruta; Kakkar, Manisha; Shrivastava, Braj; Tiwari, Pramod K; Gupta, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients presenting with mass lesions of liver and gallbladder are a common occurrence in a cancer hospital in north central part of India. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) serves as first line of pathological investigations, but there are pros and cons involved. Aim: The main objective of the present study was to establish adequacy of the procedure and to find out diagnostic pitfalls. An attempt was made to analyze inconclusive and inadequate aspirations. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 consecutive fine-needle aspirates of liver, belonging to 328 cases over a period of 2 years, were analyzed. Hematoxylin and eosin and May-Gr?nwald-Giemsa stains were used. Chi-square test was carried out to compare significant degree of difference in different kind of diagnosis. Results: Out of 400 aspirations, 289 (72.2%) were adequate, 75 (18.7%), inconclusive and 36 (9%), inadequate. Among positive aspirations the most common was metastatic adenocarcinoma, 128 (44.2%). The positive diagnosis and adequate aspirations were significantly high (P < 0.0001). Major differential diagnostic problems were: Distinguishing the poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from the metastatic adenocarcinoma; and leukemia/lymphoma from other malignant round cell tumors. Common diagnostic pitfalls were repeated aspirations from the necrotic area and aspiration of atypical, disorganized and reactive hepatocytes, adjacent to a metastasis. No complications were observed. Conclusion: FNAC can be used successfully for the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder lesions, thus avoiding open biopsy. Study indicates the potential of using FNAC in clinical intervention where the incidence of gall-bladder and liver cancer is very high and open biopsy and surgery are not an option. PMID:25190979

  13. Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis – Diagnosis on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Makhdoomi, Rumana; Mustafa, Farhat; Malik, Rais; Bhat, Salma; Alam, Khurshid; Bashir, Humaira; Samoon, Nuzhat; Rasool, Mohsin; Baba, Khalil Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is associated with an increased risk of developing papillary carcinoma of thyroid. We hereby report a case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with papillary carcinoma in a 45-year-old ear old female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) which was later confirmed on histopathological examination .Such an occurrence, when both lesions are picked up on FNAC in a patient with no palpable thyroid nodule is rare. The case is presented here for its rarity. PMID:24348592

  14. Nodular fasciitis initially diagnosed by aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Azúa, J; Arraiza, A; Delgado, B; Romeo, C

    1985-01-01

    A case of nodular fasciitis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology is described. The cytologic findings included fusiform cells, mitoses, macrophages, multinucleated giant cells and mesenchymal elements in a characteristic granular background substance. The cytopathologic diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by the histopathologic study of the tumor and by electron microscopy. PMID:3861046

  15. Rosai Dorfman disease diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology in a young man with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sall, Abibatou; Touré, Awa Oumar; Ndiaye, Fatou Samba; Sène, Abdoulaye; Sall, Fatimata Bintou; Faye, Blaise Félix; Seck, Moussa; Diop, Saliou

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message RDD (Rosai Dorfman disease) is a rare and benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. FNAC (Fine-needle aspiration cytology) is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of RDD, and as such, biopsy is avoidable. PMID:26509029

  16. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in diagnosing musculoskeletal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ivreet; Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Garg, Sudhir Kumar; Mohan, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of musculoskeletal neoplasms requires an accurate diagnosis, histologic type, and degree of tumor differentiation. Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors and further to compare the results with histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Grading of malignant tumors was also compared on these techniques. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients with musculoskeletal neoplasms. Detailed history, clinical examination, and radiological investigations were undertaken. FNAC followed by CNB were performed in each case. The tumors were categorized as benign and malignant with a definitive histotype diagnosis. For malignant neoplasms, cytologic and histologic gradings were done into three grades. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC and CNB were compared. Results: Of the 50 cases with musculoskeletal neoplasms, 32 (64%) were bone tumors and 18 (36%) were soft tissue tumors. The sensitivity of FNAC and CNB for categorizing bone tumors into benign and malignant was 94.7%. For soft tissue tumors, FNAC had a sensitivity of 90.9% and CNB had a sensitivity of 100%. The specificity of both the techniques, FNA and CNB for bone and soft tissue tumors was 100%. For malignant bone tumors, cytologic grade was concordant with CNB grade in 72.2% of the cases. Cytologic grade was concordant with the grade on CNB in 81.8% cases for malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Conclusion: FNAC and CNB alleviate the need for an open biopsy in diagnosing and grading musculoskeletal neoplasms, thus facilitating appropriate therapeutic intervention.

  17. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Meenal V.; Phatke, Anjali S.; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Rane, Sharda R.; Kulkarni, Kalpana K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality. PMID:27011435

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology of non-hematological neoplasms in pediatric age group: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Chakrabarti, Indranil; Ghosh, Piyali; Ghosh, Nilanjana; Sinha, Mamata Guha Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of aspiration cytology has largely been ignored in pediatric population. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in non-hematological neoplasms in children in our institution, which is a rural tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: A total of 88 cases of non-hematological pediatric mass lesions were studied in which cytopathological diagnosis could be corroborated with histopathology. Results: Out of all the cases, 70 (80%) cases were benign tumors and 18 (20%) were malignant tumors. Fibroadenoma (37.9%) comprised the majority of cases in the benign category while small round cell tumors (SRCTs) (44.4%) comprised the majority of cases in the malignant category. Definite diagnosis could be offered based on the cytomorphology in 79.5% cases, while in 20.5% of cases only a broad cytological classification could be offered. Among the malignant lesions, FNAC showed 100% sensitivity while a specific diagnosis was made in 90% of cases. Conclusion: FNAC proved to be a rapid and fairly accurate tool in diagnosing non-hematological tumors in the pediatric age group.

  19. Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Fine Needle Nonaspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongming; Wei, Chuankui; Li, Dengfeng; Hua, Kaiyao; Song, Jialu; Maskey, Niraj; Fang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and fine needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC) are useful cost-effective techniques for preoperatively assessing thyroid lesions. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and there is controversy over which method is superior. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between FNAC and FNNAC for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods. Primary publications were independently collected by two reviewers from PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, OALib, and the Cochrane Library databases. The following search terms were used: fine needle, aspiration, capillary, nonaspiration, sampling without aspiration, thyroid, and cytology. The last search was performed on February 1, 2015. Results. Sixteen studies comprising 1,842 patients and 2,221 samples were included in this study. No statistically significant difference was observed between FNAC and FNNAC groups with respect to diagnostically inadequate smears, diagnostically superior smears, diagnostic performance (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, average score of each parameter (background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture), and total score of five parameters. Conclusion. FNAC and FNNAC are equally useful in assessing thyroid nodules. PMID:26491689

  20. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammary hamartoma: a review of nine cases with histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aracil, V; Mayayo, E; Azua, J; Mayayo, R; Azua-Romeo, J; Arraiza, A

    2003-08-01

    Mammary hamartoma is a breast lesion rarely reported by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We report on our experience of FNAC in nine cases confirmed by biopsy. We searched hospital case files for mammary hamartoma or similar lesions (fibrolipomas, lipomas, fibromas, etc.), and cases included were only those in which both FNAC and a histopathological study had been performed. The cytological features that were analysed included epithelial components, mesenchymal fragments and isolated cells dispersed in the background. The patients ranged in age from 25 to 58 years (mean 40 years), and the lesions were predominantly in the right breast and upper outer quadrant. The duration varied from 1 to 20 years. Mammographic features were characteristic revealing well-circumscribed masses of heterogeneous radiodensity and by ultrasonography were hypoechoic without calcification. Grossly, these lesions were oval to round, well-demarcated masses, ranging in diameter from 10 to 80 mm. The tumours were firm, rubbery and white, consisting largely of dense fibroconnective tissue with variable amounts of adipose tissue and glandular elements. Cytological samples showed two components, epithelial and mesenchymal. The cellularity was variable and was composed of lobular cells forming acini, ductal cells, occasional apocrine and foamy cells; myoepithelial cells and isolated naked nuclei were also observed. Adipose tissue and dense fibrous tissue were observed, occasionally with epithelial cells attached, and this finding was an important feature for diagnosis. We considered that the cytological findings could help to diagnose mammary hamartoma, FNAC making a rapid and very important technique for the diagnosis of this pathology. PMID:12873312

  1. Towards high performance cell segmentation in multispectral fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Edgar; Venkatesan, Vishwanath; Shah, Shishir

    2010-06-01

    Thyroid nodule is a common cancer of the thyroid gland that affects up to 20% of the world population and approximately 50% of 60-year-old persons. Early detection and screening of the disease, especially analysis by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), has led to improved diagnosis and management of the disease. Simultaneously, advances in imaging technology has enabled the rapid digitization of large volumes of FNAC specimen leading to increased interest in computer assisted diagnosis (CAD). This has led to development of a variety of algorithms for automated analysis of FNAC images, but due to the large scale memory and computing resource requirements, has had limited success in clinical use. In this paper, we present our experiences with two parallel versions of a code used for texture-based segmentation of thyroid FNAC images, a critical first step in realizing a fully automated CAD solution. An MPI version of the code is developed to exploit distributed memory compute resources such as PC clusters. An OpenMP version is developed for the currently emerging multi-core CPU architectures, which allow for parallel execution on every desktop system. Experiments are performed with image sizes ranging from 1024 x 1024 pixels up to 12288 x 12288 pixels with 21 spectral channels. Both versions are evaluated for performance and scalability. PMID:19720425

  2. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Zarami, A. B.; Satumari, N. A.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries. PMID:26664783

  3. Ultrasound-guided aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses with histopathological corroboration: A study of 71 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Indranil; Bhowmik, Sourav; Sinha, Mamata Guha Mallick; Bera, Pranati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions is one of the most difficult areas in surgical pathology. Both primary and metastatic tumors can grow silently in retroperitoneum before the appearance of clinical signs and symptoms. Guided aspiration cytology has shown a promising role in diagnosis of lesions in this region. Aims: This study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses and to study the spectrum of retroperitoneal lesions in a rural tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 71 patients presenting with retroperitoneal masses over a period of 20 months in a tertiary care hospital. Ultrasound-guided FNAC was done and the smears were stained by MGG and H and E stains. Histopathological corroboration could be done on all neoplastic lesions along with some non-neoplastic lesions. Results: Out of 71 cases, 48 cases (67.6%) were found to be neoplastic. Malignant tumors (35 cases) were more common than benign ones (13 cases). Malignant lesions were predominantly composed of lesions of lymph node (17 cases i.e. 48.57%) followed by sarcomas (5 cases) and germ cell tumors. Some uncommon retroperitoneal lesions like adrenal myelolipoma, renal angiomyolipoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and adrenocortical carcinoma were found in our study. Guided FNAC could diagnose all the malignant lesions with 100% accuracy except in 2 cases of poorly differentiated carcinoma which came out to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma on subsequent biopsies. Conclusion: Guided FNAC is an inexpensive, rapid and reliable method for diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses. PMID:25190978

  4. Pulmonary nocardiosis in fine-needle aspiration cytology smears: Report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudha; Singh, Priya; Garg, Rashi; Dey, Pranab

    2016-04-01

    Nocardia has been recognized as a significant opportunistic pathogen in organ transplant patients; however, it is an uncommon pathogen in immunocompetent patients. It may mimic other infectious diseases both clinically and radiologically. We report four cases of pulmonary nocardiosis in three immunocompromised and one immunocompetent patients on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Two patients presented with lung consolidation while two had cavitatory lesions. FNAC smears showed inflammatory cells composed of polymorphs and histiocytes along with necrosis. Occasional epithelioid cell granuloma was seen in one case. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain was performed which highlighted long slender filamentous branching organisms conforming to the morphology of Nocardia. Thus, a suspicion for nocardiosis should be kept while assessing cytologic material especially in immunocompromised individuals. The diagnosis can be confirmed by special stains and culture studies; however, a high index of clinical suspicion is required so that appropriate culture media can be used for high diagnostic yield. FNAC is of help in providing immediate and accurate diagnosis of nocardiosis, thus helping in appropriate medical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:347-350. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26764039

  5. Utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the identification of parathyroid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Niraj; Mishra, Deepti; Pradhan, Roma; Agarwal, Amit; Krishnani, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a first-line investigation in the evaluation of neck nodules. In an attempt to search for reliable cytomorphological criteria for parathyroid lesions, we systematically evaluated cytomorphology of FNAC of parathyroid lesions. Study Design: FNAC of 15 parathyroid and 15 hyperplastic thyroid nodules with histological confirmation were reviewed for following features: Cellularity, follicles, bare nuclei, cohesiveness, vascular profiles, cytoplasmic granularity, intracytoplasmic vacuolation, mitosis, macrophages, and colloid. Results: Vascular proliferation, bare nuclei, intracytoplasmic fat vacuolation, absence of colloid, and high cellularity showed significant association with parathyroid lesions (P ≤ 0.05). Intracytoplasmic fat vacuolation was 53.3% sensitive and 100% specific for parathyroid. Follicular pattern and papillaroid clusters were also important; however, they achieved nearly significant statistical difference (P = 0.05 and P = 0.06, respectively). The combination of vascular proliferation and intracytoplasmic fat vacuolation were significantly associated with parathyroid (P = 0.006) whereas the absence of bare nuclei and the presence of background colloid were associated with thyroid cytomorphology (P = 0.03). Conclusion: No single cytological feature is helpful in differentiating parathyroid from thyroid lesion. Vascular proliferation, bare nuclei, intracytoplasmic fat vacuolation, high cellularity, and the absence of colloid were significantly associated with the parathyroid origin. The combination of at least two features — vascular proliferation and intracytoplasmic fat vacuoles — were highly suggestive of parathyroid origin.

  6. Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Its Histopathological Correlation in A Tertiary Care Center of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    C, Akshatha; Masilamani, Suresh; Jonathan, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Background Salivary glands may enlarge either due to inflammation or neoplastic conditions and the diagnosis is possible by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Aim The present study was undertaken to determine utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 186 FNACs of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Of these, 146 cases had follow-up histopathological diagnosis. FNAC diagnoses were compared to histopathological diagnoses. Results The parotid glands were more commonly involved than others. Among the various diagnostic categories used in FNAC reports, Non neoplastic category was seen in 24 (16.4%), benign category in 86 (58.9%) and malignant category in 30 (20.6%) and unsatisfactory category in 6 (4.1%) of 146 cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions were 86.6%, 94.6%, 93.6%, 88.3%, and 94.6% respectively. Conclusion The present study concluded that FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions is highly sensitive, specific and accurate method. Hence, FNAC is a useful, quick and reliable diagnostic tool. It also appears to be a safe, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure, which provides information for management of salivary gland lesions. PMID:26266126

  7. Primary ovarian non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Diagnosis of two cases on fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajni; Balasundaram, Partheeban; Mridha, Asit R.; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Mathur, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the female genital tract is a rare condition. Involvement of the ovary by non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is usually secondary to systemic disease and primary ovarian lymphomas are unusual. In most cases, the diagnosis is not suspected initially and is confirmed only after detailed histopathological evaluation. We describe two cases of primary ovarian NHL which were diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). One of the patients was a 40 years old female who presented with abdominal distension and lump. She was found to have bilateral adnexal masses on ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan. A USG guided fine needle aspiration of the ovarian masses was performed, following which a diagnosis of primary ovarian diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was established. The second patient was a 14 years old female who presented with pelvic lump, which was lobulated and mildly enhancing on contrast enhanced CT. A diagnosis of high grade NHL of ovaries was made on cytology. Subsequently, the lymphoma was characterized as Burkitt's on histopathological examination. Both the patients were started on R-CHOP chemotherapy regimen. FNAC serves as an extremely useful minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis of ovarian lymphomas and early institution of appropriate chemotherapeutic regimens.

  8. Benign Pairs: A Significant Entity in Aspiration Cytology Smears From Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Monika; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Atul; Budania, Satish Kumar; Ahuja, Harshkiran

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a reliable diagnostic tool used to diagnose breast lesions preoperatively. However, FNAC is also associated with diagnostic pitfalls. Further studies are needed to improve its diagnostic efficacy. We noticed ovoid, bare nuclei arranged in closely touching diads (benign pairs) in a significant number of cytology smears. This prompted us to assess their diagnostic utility. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective study conducted in Sarojini NaiduMedical College, Agra, India. Quantitative estimation of benign pairs per 1000 ductal cells in at least 20 high power field was attempted in cytology smears of 128 cases. RESULTS The average number of pairs in benign and malignant lesions was calculated as 7.07 + 5.96 and 0.28 + 0.78, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the number of pairs in benign and malignant cases (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS Quantitative estimation of benign pairs is helpful in distinguishing benign from malignant cases. PMID:24324356

  9. A case of matrix-producing metaplastic carcinoma of the breast exhibiting similarities to pleomorphic adenoma on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji; Ishii, Yumie; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Hidetarou

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between matrix-producing metaplastic carcinoma (MPMC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is sometimes unclear in breast pathology, especially on core needle biopsy. Herein, we presented a 66-year-old woman with MPMC of the breast that looked like PA on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). On FNAC, the appearance of abundant myxoid matrix along with cellular clusters composed of monotonous cellular populations looked like salivary PA, which we were familiar with owing to the frequency in routine pathological practice. Thus, the possibility of breast PA, the counterpart of salivary PA, was considered. However, the tumor location was different from where breast PA frequently occurs, i.e. the retroareolar region. Therefore, we eliminated the possibility of breast PA and avoided the erroneous cytological diagnosis. It is should be kept in mind that MPMC can look like PA on FNAC.

  10. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  11. Assessment of Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Breast Carcinoma Using Thin-Prep Cytology Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology FISH Experience From China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Yuan, Peng; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Linlin; Ying, Jianming; Wang, Mingrong; Zhao, Huan; Pan, Qinjing; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) overexpression can be used to predict patient prognosis in breast cancer (BC). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a reliable predictive marker in invasive breast cancer (IBC). Thin-Prep (TP) specimens are commonly utilized for immunocytochemistry (ICC) in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thus, we sought to investigate if the incorporation of molecular diagnosis performed on TP-processed specimens is applicable in clinical practice. Hormone receptors (HRs) and HER2 immunocytochemistry was performed on 542 primary breast cancer FNAC specimens using the TP method. One hundred fourteen HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on HER2 ICC 2+ FNAC specimens and the corresponding tissue samples. HRs results of TP slides and those of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slides were correlated well for ER (concordance rate?=?93.3%, kappa value?=?0.85) and PR (concordance rate?=?88.6%, kappa value?=?0.75). HER2 results for the TP slides and those of the matched FFPE slides also correlated well (concordance rate?=?80.0%, kappa value?=?0.62). The specificity of HER2 was 97.3%; however, the sensitivity was only 67.1%. Cytological specimens and histological samples showed a strong correlation (concordance rate?=?99.1%, kappa value?=?0.98) while being used to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. FNAC is a minimally invasive technique that can be used as an alternative method to collect tissue especially in cases where an excisional or core biopsy is difficult to obtain, or when recurrence is present. The results of ICC HRs in FNAC TP specimens may be used instead, but HER2 assessment may not be reliable enough for clinical use. FISH testing is necessary in this setting. PMID:26091472

  12. Assessment of Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Breast Carcinoma Using Thin-Prep Cytology Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology FISH Experience From China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihui; Yuan, Peng; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Linlin; Ying, Jianming; Wang, Mingrong; Zhao, Huan; Pan, Qinjing; Xu, Binghe

    2015-06-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) overexpression can be used to predict patient prognosis in breast cancer (BC). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a reliable predictive marker in invasive breast cancer (IBC). Thin-Prep (TP) specimens are commonly utilized for immunocytochemistry (ICC) in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thus, we sought to investigate if the incorporation of molecular diagnosis performed on TP-processed specimens is applicable in clinical practice. Hormone receptors (HRs) and HER2 immunocytochemistry was performed on 542 primary breast cancer FNAC specimens using the TP method. One hundred fourteen HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on HER2 ICC 2+ FNAC specimens and the corresponding tissue samples. HRs results of TP slides and those of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slides were correlated well for ER (concordance rate =? 3.3%, kappa value = 0.85) and PR (concordance rate = 88.6%, kappa value = 0.75). HER2 results for the TP slides and those of the matched FFPE slides also correlated well (concordance rate = 80.0%, kappa value = 0.62). The specificity of HER2 was 97.3%; however, the sensitivity was only 67.1%. Cytological specimens and histological samples showed a strong correlation (concordance rate = 99.1%, kappa value = 0.98) while being used to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. FNAC is a minimally invasive technique that can be used as an alternative method to collect tissue especially in cases where an excisional or core biopsy is difficult to obtain, or when recurrence is present. The results of ICC HRs in FNAC TP specimens may be used instead, but HER2 assessment may not be reliable enough for clinical use. FISH testing is necessary in this setting. PMID:26091472

  13. Bilaterally enlarged parotids and sicca symptoms as a presentation of sarcoidosis: Pivotal role of aspiration cytology in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Tanya; Joshi, Deepti; Khurana, Alkesh; Gupta, Vikas; Kapoor, Neelkamal

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by widespread noncaseating granulomas in various organs. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is based on cytological, clinicolaboratory, and radiological findings, and requires careful exclusion of other granulomatous diseases especially tuberculosis. Involvement of parotid glands is uncommon. Presentation of sarcoidosis with sicca symptoms that include dryness of eyes and mouth is an even rarer phenomenon. We present a case of multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with dryness of eyes and mouth along with bilateral enlargement of parotid glands. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears showed epithelioid cell granulomas and multinucleate giant cells. Stain for acid-fast bacilli was negative. Careful cytological examination revealed crystalline structures inside the giant cells, which prompted us to evaluate the patient for sarcoidosis. This case report highlights the cytological features that can be useful in clinching the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in conjunction with clinicoradiological and laboratory findings in a clinically unusual case. PMID:26811581

  14. Hydronephrotic Kidney Previously Treated for Tuberculosis: Rare Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Renal Pelvis Diagnosed by Fine-needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Obad-Kova?evi?, Dragica; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Kai?, Gordana; Jeli?-Puškari?, Biljana; Kova?evi?, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis is a very rare tumor often associated with renal calculi and chronic infections. There are only a few articles in literature which report renal pelvis SCC in kidneys treated for renal tuberculosis, diagnosed after nephrectomy. We report the case of SCC in a hydronephrotic kidney previously treated for tuberculosis, diagnosed by ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), prior to core biopsy and nephrectomy. Our report highlights the utility of FNAC and the need for a careful search for renal collecting system tumors, in patients previously treated for renal tuberculosis.

  15. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the prompt diagnosis of recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis presented as isolated cervical leishmanial lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bipin; Verma, Pragya

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of isolated cervical leishmanial lymphadenopathy diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in apparently cured case of visceral leishmaniasis. A 28-year-old female presented with cervical lymphnode enlargement to surgery outpatient department and was subjected for FNAC. Smear showed numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of macrophages and giant cells, and extracellular spaces. She was treated by Amphotericin B for alternate 14 days and the size of the lymphnode regressed. She was found asymptomatic for 1 year of follow-up. PMID:21671412

  16. [The utility of aspiration cytology for the distinction of aggressive and non-aggressive papillary carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Caprara, G; Collina, G

    2007-06-01

    Preoperative identification of the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by fine needle aspiration (FNAC) has been suggested and different systems for distinguishing them from classical variant of PTC have been employed, including a point-based cytology grading system as suggested by Damiani et al., that we currently use in our Institution. The aim of this paper is to verify if distinction of PTC in aggressive or nonaggressive variants impacts on surgical treatment. In 7 years, from 1998 to 2005, 13586 cases of FNAC of thyroid have been performed; among them 156 PTC. The cytological material of thirty complete thyroidectomies with histology proven papillary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. 11/30 cases were correctly stratified into the appropriate low or high-grade category. The cytological grading system was discordant with the final histopathological diagnosis in 9/30 cases while in 10 cases the grade was not assessed. Eight cases were downgraded and therefore the low grade papillary carcinoma diagnosed at cytological level turned to be high grade at histology. When those cases were reviewed, the histology of seven cases diagnosed as tall cell variant of PTC failed to show a percentage of tumour cells higher than 50% and therefore it would be better to diagnose them as classical variant of PTC. One case was under-graded at FNAC. The case that was cytologically upgraded was a follicular variant of PTC in Hashimoto thyroiditis with a focus of tall cells. All patients underwent thyroidectomy or thyroidectomy plus lymphadenectomy and from our results the pre-operative diagnosis did not effect the surgical treatment. No patient died of the disease. PMID:17987724

  17. Aggressive Lymphoma in a 14 Year Old Indian Boy, Diagnosed on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kurpad, Ramkumar; Narayanan, Manoj; Sasikumar, V K; Jadhav, S S

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma(BL) is a highly aggressive B -cell Lymphoma of childhood with a doubling time of 24 to 48 h. Depending upon the clinical and epidemiological factors it is classified as Epidemic, Sporadic and Immunodeficiency associated Burkitt’s lymphoma. Sporadic Burkitt’s lymphoma has its own characteristics with few differences pertaining to specific geographical location. Here, we present a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with advanced stage disease. On examination he had cervical lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement in the form of nerve palsy.USG revealed multiple well defined solid lesions in liver, both kidneys and pancreas. However, PBS did not show the presence of lymphomatous cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph node and liver lesion showed features suggestive of Burkitt’s lymphoma, which was further confirmed on Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. PMID:25478352

  18. Aggressive lymphoma in a 14 year old Indian boy, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Pathade, Smita C; Kurpad, Ramkumar; Narayanan, Manoj; Sasikumar, V K; Jadhav, S S

    2014-10-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma(BL) is a highly aggressive B -cell Lymphoma of childhood with a doubling time of 24 to 48 h. Depending upon the clinical and epidemiological factors it is classified as Epidemic, Sporadic and Immunodeficiency associated Burkitt's lymphoma. Sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma has its own characteristics with few differences pertaining to specific geographical location. Here, we present a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with advanced stage disease. On examination he had cervical lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement in the form of nerve palsy.USG revealed multiple well defined solid lesions in liver, both kidneys and pancreas. However, PBS did not show the presence of lymphomatous cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph node and liver lesion showed features suggestive of Burkitt's lymphoma, which was further confirmed on Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. PMID:25478352

  19. The Role of CD56 in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Pilot Study Performed on Liquid Based Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Marrocco, Carla; D’Amato, Donato; Traini, Emanuela; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Fadda, Guido; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Rossi, Esther Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration Cytology (FNAC) fulfills a reliable role in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Although the majority of nodules are quite easily diagnosed as benign or malignant, 30% of them represent an indeterminate category whereby the application of ancillary techniques (i.e. immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing) has been encouraged. The search for a specific immunomarker of malignancy sheds light on a huge number of ICC stains although none of them attempt to yield 100% conclusive results. Our aim was to define in a pilot study on thyroid FNAC whether CD56 might be a valid marker also in comparison with HBME-1 and Galectin-3. Materials and Methods Inasmuch as this is the largest pilot study using only liquid based cytology (LBC), we selected all the cases only in the categories of benign nodules (BN) and positive for malignancy (PM) for validation purposes. Eighty-five consecutive (including 50 PM and 35 BN) out of 950 thyroid FNACs had surgical follow-up. The ICC panel (HBME-1, Galectin-3 and CD56) was carried out on LBC and histology. Results All BNs and PMs were histological confirmed. CD56 was negative in 96% of the PM while 68.5% of the BNs showed cytoplasmic positivity for this marker, with an overall high sensitivity (96%) but lower specificity (69%). In specific, our 96% of the PMs did not show any follicular cell with CD56 expression. Different ICC combinations were evaluated showing that the panel made up of CD56 plus HBME-1 and Galectin-3 had the highest sensitivity (98%) and specificity (86%). Conclusions Our pilot study suggests that CD56 may be a good marker for ruling out PTC and its variants. The low specificity suggests that an immunopanel including also HBME-1 and Galectin-3 could obtain the highest diagnostic accuracy in thyroid lesions. Our results suggest that CD56 may be a feasible additional marker for identifying malignancies also in the FNs and SMs. PMID:26186733

  20. Orbital aspergillus infection diagnosed by FNAC.

    PubMed

    Kuruba, Sree Lakshmi; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Nagarajappa, A H; Biligi, Dayanand S

    2011-07-01

    Fungal infections of the orbit represent a small minority of orbital infections. However, due to the virulent nature of some of the fungal species, they can have a devastating effect on ocular functions. Most of these fungi are saprophytes, which cause opportunistic infections. Aspergillus is one such fungus that can cause infection at various sites in an immunosuppressed individual. Sinonasal aspergillus infection with orbital extension and orbital aspergillus infection progress relentlessly. They can have a precipitous clinical course resulting in total loss of vision. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is rarely used as a preoperative diagnostic tool in the investigation of orbital mass lesions. Further, fungal infections of orbit are seldom diagnosed on FNAC. Two cases of fungal infection of the orbital and periorbital tissue diagnosed on FNAC are presented. A 50-year-old diabetic male presented with diminishing vision, pain, and forward protrusion of the left eye. On examination, he had upper eye lid fullness. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with a swelling on the right upper eye lid. The patients were evaluated radiologically and then subjected to FNAC. The smears showed giant cells, histiocytes, epithelioid granulomas, and fungal hyphae. A diagnosis of fungal infection was arrived at which was subsequently confirmed by culture and biopsy. Orbital aspergillus infection can have a precipitous course. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit provide crucial information. However, FNAC can help in making an early definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and thus obviate the need for a biopsy. PMID:21695805

  1. Immediate assessment of fine needle aspiration cytology of lung.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C J; Stewart, I S

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the value of immediate assessment of cytology in percutaneous fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of lung. METHODS: FNA specimens from 75 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary neoplasms were subjected to immediate cytology assessment. Direct smears were prepared in the radiology department and stained using the Diff Quik method. The cellular content was assessed and, if possible, a provisional diagnosis offered. A second FNA was requested if the initial aspirate seemed of doubtful adequacy. The diagnostic accuracy was examined by review of clinical and radiological data in all patients, and by correlation with other histological or cytological material in 25 patients. Complications of the procedure were identified during the clinical review. RESULTS: Two of 75 specimens were inadequate for diagnosis. Satisfactory diagnostic material was obtained in 51 patients on a single aspirate and following a second FNA in 22 patients. Of the 73 satisfactory aspirates, 58 were malignant, one highly suspicious of malignancy and 14 reported as negative for malignancy. All malignant diagnoses were confirmed on clinical or pathological review. FNA accurately distinguished primary small cell and large cell carcinomas in those patients with pathological follow up. There were two false negative reports, one due to sampling error and the other due to misinterpretation of aspirate material. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and sensitivity 96.6%. Complications were recorded in seven (9.3%) patients, five of whom developed pneumothorax; a chest drain was required in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous FNA cytology provides safe and accurate diagnosis in the investigation of pulmonary lesions. Immediate cytology assessment ensures that aspirate material is handled optimally, and those patients requiring further sampling or ancillary investigation identified rapidly. The number of unsatisfactory and false negative lung FNA are therefore reduced. The complication rate is minimised by decreasing the number of pleural punctures. Images PMID:8943753

  2. Ultrasonography Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Preparation of Cell Blocks in the Diagnosis of Intra- Abdominal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Muniyappa, Bharathi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is currently the most favoured and increasingly used pre-operative diagnostic procedure in various deep seated neoplastic and non-neoplastic mass lesions. Cell blocks prepared from residual fine needle aspiration (FNA) material can aid in better morphologic assessment and contribute to establish a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis. Aim To assess the value of ultrasonography guided FNAC in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal (non-pelvic) masses. Objectives To determine the reliability of ultrasonography guided FNAC in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic intra-abdominal mass lesions. To assess the usefulness of cell block as a complimentary diagnostic material in the morphologic evaluation of the lesions. Materials and Methods Aspirate material was collected from 62 patients with clinically and/or radiologically detected abdominal mass under ultrasonographic (USG) guidance. Pelvic masses were excluded from the study. In every case an attempt was made to prepare cell block (CB) from any residual material after preparation of routine smears. The final cytomorphologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical and radiologic findings, histopathologic diagnosis, follow up and response to therapy information. Results The diagnostic yield of USG guided FNAC was 96.77%. The cases included 42 malignant (67.74%), two (3.23%) benign, and 16 (25.8%) non-neoplastic lesions. Two (3.23%) smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation. In 45 out of 62 cases (72.58%) CB preparations were available. There was a good agreement between smear diagnosis and that observed on CB section. Additionally CB yielded better diagnostic material in 15.55% of cases and aided in establishing a more precise final cytopathologic diagnosis. Confirmation of diagnosis in the form of biopsy and/or surgically resected specimen and follow up was available in 56 cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of USG guided FNAC was 96.43% with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 95.35%, 100%, 100% and 86.66% respectively. Conclusion USG guided FNA procedure provides a good diagnostic yield for intra-abdominal masses. Also it has high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating benign from malignant lesions. Cell block preparations facilitate better diagnosis of lesions when reviewed along with cytological smears. PMID:26816896

  3. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in a rare case of recurrent mucinous carcinoma of skin, displaying psammoma bodies on smears.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Bharat; Deodhar, Kedar K; Ghosh Laskar, Sarbani; D'Cruz, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of skin is an uncommonly documented tumor, especially on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. A 58-year-old gentleman presented with a recurrent swelling over his right zygoma. Earlier, he had undergone surgical resection at the same site, on two occasions, 4 years back. FNAC smears from the recurrent nodule displayed clusters and singly scattered relatively monomorphic, polygonal to plasmacytoid cells with mild nuclear atypia and moderate to abundant cytoplasm, including focal intracytoplasmic vacuoles. At places, tumor cells were arranged around psammoma bodies against a background of mucinous material. Histopathological sections from the subsequent tumor resection revealed tumor cells arranged in the form of islands, nests, cribriform, and papillary arrangements amidst mucinous stroma, along with focal psammomatous calcification, consistent with a recurrent mucinous adenocarcinoma. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were diffusely positive for CK 7, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR), while negative for CDX2, CK20, and TTF1. Diagnosis of a recurrent mucinous carcinoma of skin was offered. Patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy for achieving better loco regional clearance and is disease-free, 4 months after. FNAC is a useful diagnostic tool for timely identification of mucinous carcinoma of skin, including recurrent lesions. Psammomatous calcification can be identified within this uncommon tumor, in recurrent lesions. While surgical resection remains the treatment mainstay, immunohistochemical expression of ER and PR in this tumor perhaps could have therapeutic impact, especially in recurrent cases. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:937-940. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26302739

  4. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of cutaneous granular cell tumor: Report of two cases with special emphasis on cytological differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Ujjawal; Handa, Uma; Mohan, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon neoplasms with recently postulated origin from Schwann cell or neural crest. It can appear in different parts of the body and is most commonly found in the tongue. The cutaneous presentation is not that uncommon. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been suggested to be the diagnostic modality of choice. It will help to differentiate benign tumors from malignant ones and to differentiate GCT from frequent misdiagnoses such as granular histiocytic reaction, xanthogranuloma, rhabdomyoma, oncocyte rich lesions, alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), epithelioid sarcoma, and carcinoma. We report two cases of GCT who presented with subcutaneous swellings in the right thigh and the left lumbar region for 24 months and 18 months, respectively. In the first case, a cytodiagnosis of chronic inflammation showing histiocytes was suggested while GCT was found in the second case. Subsequent histologic examination of the first case and immunocytochemistry in the second case gave the confirmatory diagnosis of GCT. PMID:27011439

  5. Aspiration cytology of ameloblastic fibroma: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Jain, Shyama

    2003-08-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma of the jaw is a rare, benign mixed odontogenic tumor, having little tendency for local invasion and a low recurrence rate. Cytologic distinction from ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma, and intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma is necessary, in view of the different biologic behavior. A painful, slow-growing swelling of the jaw in a 5-yr-old child clinicoradiologically considered as a benign cystic lesion was aspirated. Sheets of small monomorphic epithelial cells with peripheral palisading by columnar cells were seen on cytology smears. The striking feature was central hyaline globules in some tubules. A cytologic possibility of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was suggested. Histopathology, however, confirmed it to be an ameloblastic fibroma. PMID:12889050

  6. Is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of adequate value in detecting breast cancer patients with three or more positive axillary lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Kramer, G M; Leenders, M W H; Schijf, L J; Go, H L S; van der Ploeg, T; van den Tol, M P; Schreurs, W H

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the sonographically most suspicious axillary lymph node (US/FNAC) to select early breast cancer patients with three or more tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 2130 patients with histologically proven early breast cancer were evaluated and treated in the Noordwest Clinics Alkmaar. US/FNAC was performed preoperatively in all these patients. We analysed the results of US/FNAC retrospectively. Pathological axillary node status (sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection) was used as reference standard. A total of 634 (29.8 %) of 2130 patients had axillary lymph node metastases on final histology. 248 node positive patients (11.6 %) had three or more positive lymph nodes. The accuracy of US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes was 89.8 %, sensitivity was 44.8 %, specificity was 95.7 %, PPV was 58.1 %, and NPV was 92.9 %. This study shows a more than adequate accuracy of preoperative US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes (89.8 %). However, when US/FNAC was chosen as the only axillary staging method, 6.4 % of all patients (false negative group) would have been undertreated and 3.8 % of all patients (false positive group) would have been overtreated according to the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria. PMID:26995283

  7. Two cases of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of female breast: Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology and cell-block immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Banik, Tarak; Mondal, Krishnendu; Mandal, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon neoplastic condition. Though HIV-infection is a known risk factor for the development of extranodal lymphomas, mammary involvement is still a rarity. Radiologically, PBL appears as well circumscribed, heteroechoic, noncalcifying mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is commonly used to diagnose this neoplasm; however, subcategorization requires immunophenotypic characterization of the neoplastic cells. Herein, we report two cases of PBL, including a HIV-infected lady; in both the cases FNAC expressed features of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Finally, immunohistochemistry on cell-block with CD20 diagnosed both the cases as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:235-240. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875596

  8. “A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine” — cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prashant; Agarwal, Shipra; Singh, Geetika; Xess, Immaculata; Bhowmik, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases. PMID:27011447

  9. Cytological diagnosis of small cell osteosarcoma of the bone

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Uma; Mundi, Irneet; Mohan, Harsh; Garg, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Small cell osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare histological variant of OS that poses unique diagnostic difficulties. We present a case of a 10-year-old child who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from a mass in the right thigh. The cytological findings were those of a malignant small round cell tumor, closest to small cell OS. The FNAC findings were confirmed on histopathology. PMID:26229255

  10. Maxillary cementifying fibroma: a case report with fine-needle aspiration cytology highlighting the expanding role of e-medicine in cytopathologist collaborations.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramaniam, Vanathi; Faduyile, Francis; Zarka, Matthew A; Deery, Alastair; Field, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    Cementifying fibroma is an uncommon fibro-osseous lesion presenting in the oral cavity, which may present in children as an aggressive juvenile subtype of either psammomatoid or trabecular variant. Appropriate management, to achieve local control and prevent destructive expansion, requires early diagnosis, which fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can provide rapidly in a minimally invasive manner. The role of FNAC is even more powerful in situations where medical facilities are limited or where surgical biopsy is contraindicated. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy from Lagos, Nigeria, whose initial diagnosis of cementifying fibroma was made on photographed digital images in jpeg format of FNAC slides, which were then e-mailed as attachments to Sydney, Australia and to Scottsdale, USA. The tumor was subsequently confirmed as a juvenile trabecular variant of cementifying fibroma on histopathology on a surgical excision in London, United Kingdom. The ability to electronically send cytopathology images around the world for a definitive second opinion is a practical example of the power of e-medicine to achieve an accurate FNAC diagnosis. PMID:21472866

  11. CT-guided aspiration cytology of advanced silicosis and confirmation of the deposited zeolite nano particles through X ray diffraction: A novel approach.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Majumdar, Kaushik; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mitra, Partha; Nag, Subhomoy

    2016-03-01

    Silicosis is a common occupational lung disease, resulting in fibrotic nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lung parenchyma. Most of the pneumoconioses are diagnosed on the basis of relevant history and clinico-radiological correlation. Image-guided aspiration cytology appears to be poorly yielding and is not usually considered as a diagnostic modality. However, silicosis may sometimes offer a diagnostic challenge because of its radiological resemblance and clinical overlap with pulmonary tuberculosis and neoplastic lesions. We present a unique situation where image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been advised on the basis of nodular upper lobe opacities. The cytology smears revealed hypocellular granular material, while phase contrast and polarized light microscopy highlighted crystalline particles. History of silica dust exposure long back was available after the cytological evaluation, suggesting the diagnosis of pulmonary silicosis. X ray diffraction (XRD) crystallography was also possible on cytology smears, confirming zeolite nano particles of size as small as 40 - 50 nm as the concerned agent for the first time. Cytological evaluation by phase contrast and polarized light microscopy may be useful for the confirmation of silicosis, supplemented by clinical history and radiological evaluation. XRD on smears may help in determination of chemical nature and particle size. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:246-249. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26748653

  12. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:26066407

  13. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  14. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies. PMID:15754369

  15. Synovial metastasis: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytologic investigation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K S; Reyes, C V; Jensen, J; Gattuso, P; Sacks, R

    1996-11-01

    Synovial metastases are a rare occurrence. Only 28 cases have been reported in the literature, 10 of which were diagnosed by fluid cytologic evaluation. We discuss 2 additional cases in which the diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration cytologic investigation. The first case is of a 47-yr-old man with small-cell carcinoma of the lung metastatic to the right knee joint; the second is of a 71-yr-old man with non-Hodgkin's mixed-cell nodular lymphoma also involving the right knee joint. The clinical features of these cases are similar to previously published instances of secondary synovial tumor, namely in regard to sex distribution (14 male and 16 female patients), age range (13-96 yr, mean 59 yr), and histologic types (adenocarcinoma, 13 cases; squamous-cell carcinoma, 4; lymphoma, 3; renal clear-cell carcinoma, 3; unknown origin, 2; rhabdomyosarcoma, 1; melanoma, 1; chordoma, 1; pulmonary clear-cell carcinoma, 1; and Ewing's sarcoma, 1). The condition usually has poor prognosis, with average patient survival of < 5 mo. PMID:8982591

  16. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of epithelioid leiomyoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K S; Jensen, J; Reyes, C V

    1999-01-01

    Purpose. Epithelioid leiomyoblastomas comprise the majority of gastric sarcomas and are uncommon in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis of this lesion by fine-needle aspiration cytology has been occasionally described in the literature. Two additional cases are herein reported.Subjects . A 66-year old male with an omental mass and a 47-year old male with a perihepatic tumor.Results and Discussion. Cytologic materials in both cases showed predominantly round or epithelioid cells, along with polygonal to spindle cells, occuring singly and in clusters, with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei.The nuclei were monotonous, usually banal, and centrally-located with only focal suggestion of pleomorphism and rare mitosis. Eosinophilic cytoplasm was noted in most of the cells, some demonstrating vacuolation. Electron microscopy supported a primitive smooth cell derivation of the neoplastic cells.Conclusions. The cytomorphology of the tumors of the two cases reported here is not adequately known. More cases need to be collected and studied. PMID:18521258

  17. Role of FNAC, fluid specimens, and cell blocks for cytological diagnosis of lung cancer in the present era

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nalini; Sekar, Aravind; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Cytoblocks prepared from residual tissue fluids and fine-needle aspirations can be useful adjuncts to smears for establishing a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis. These paraffin embedded cytoblocks have been popular since these can be handled like any other histologic specimen. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) can help in attaining adequate material in the cytoblock, which is a major concern to the cytopathologists. Ancillary studies can be done using cytoblocks including IHC and various molecular techniques. The opportunities for cytopathologists to influence therapy, and uncover strategies in the complex field of lung cancer are exciting and limitless especially in the presence of an adequate cytoblock

  18. Subcutaneous Rhinosporidiosis Masquerading as Soft Tissue Tumor: Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kishan Prasad, HL; Rao, Chandrika; Girisha, BS; Shetty, Vikram; Permi, Harish S; Jayakumar, Meera; Kiran, HS

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous lesion caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It frequently involves nasopharynx and ocular region. Presenting as cutaneous and subcutaneous mass is extremely rare. This report describes the FNA cytology of rhinosporidiosis occurring as a soft tissue mass in the right mid thigh region. We present a rare case of a 71-year-old male, who presented with multiple subcutaneous soft tissue mass lesions in the posteromedial aspect of mid right thigh region since 2 weeks. Local examination revealed multiple firm to hard mass with skin over the swelling was unremarkable. CT of the right thigh showed a heterogeneous lesion with infiltrative margins in the thigh. Clinically soft tissue sarcoma was considered. Diagnostic FNAC was performed showing numerous mature and immature sporangias with giant cell reaction. Hence, an excision biopsy confirmed the rhinosporidiosis. To conclude, the FNAC diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis is specific. Preoperative diagnosis is possible even in cases with unusual clinical presentations. PMID:25814750

  19. Role of ancillary techniques in diagnosing and subclassifying non-Hodgkin's lymphomas on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Dey, P

    2006-10-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are tumours of the lymphoid cells. During the process of development of lymphoid cells, neoplasia may evolve at any point. Neoplastic cells usually carry the imprint of cell of origin at the stage of origin. Various types of NHL may have similar morphology with wide variation in origin, immunophenotype and other biological features. Different ancillary laboratory techniques may help to overcome the limitations of morphology in this aspect. The commonly used ancillary techniques in lymphomas are immunocytochemistry (IC), flow cytometry, Southern blot (SB) technique, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, laser scanning cytometry (LSC) and DNA microarray technologies are in the research phase. Various laboratory techniques are used for immunophenotyping, demonstration of monoclonality, identification of chromosomal translocation, assessment of cell kinetics and expression of mRNA in the tumour cells. Flow cytometry helps in rapid immunophenotying of NHL and it has an added advantage over IC in recognizing the co-expression of CD markers. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) combined with flow immunophenotyping may help us to diagnose and subclassify certain NHLs, such as follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, which were previously recognized as pure morphological entities. Loss of morphology is one of the important limitations of flow cytometry. LSC can overcome this limitation by studying morphology along with the immunophenotyping pattern of individual cells. Chromosomal changes in NHL can be identified by SB, PCR and FISH. Molecular diagnosis of NHL helps in diagnosis, subclassification, prognostic assessment and even in planning of therapy. DNA microarray is a relatively newer and promising technology. It gives information about the expression of several thousands of genes in a tumour in a single experiment. In the near future, FNAC combined with ancillary techniques may play a major role in diagnosis, subclassification and management of lymphomas. PMID:16961657

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bakhos, R; Andrey, J; Bhoopalam, N; Jensen, J; Reyes, C V

    1998-02-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a round-cell malignancy that manifests most commonly in the paravertebral and intercostal regions. It occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults, between the ages of 10 and 30 yr, and follows an aggressive course with a high recurrence rate. Distant metastasis is also common. The tumor is often confused with other round, small-cell neoplasms, including primitive neuroectodermal tumor, neuroblastoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and lymphoma. This report pertains to a fine-needle aspiration cytologic diagnosis of EES, supported by clinicopathologic and fine structural correlations in a 56-yr-old man who presented with a rapidly growing, massive, right groin mass. The smears showed a diffuse cellular population of malignant round cells composed of two types: one group of larger cell exhibiting a thin-rim, pale cytoplasm, less hyperchromatic nuclei, nucleoli, and diffusely dispersed chromatinic nuclear details; and the second group of smaller and darker cells with highly hyperchromatic and almost smudged nuclei. These are chief cells and dark cells, respectively. Special studies revealed significant intracytoplasmic glycogen and positive vimentin and HBA-71 immunostaining. Cytogenetic findings of chromosomal 11;22 translocation is also supportive of the diagnosis of EES. PMID:9484643

  1. Cytologic diagnosis of true thymic hyperplasia by combined radiologic imaging and aspiration cytology: a case report including flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoerl, H D; Wojtowycz, M; Gallagher, H A; Kurtycz, D F

    2000-12-01

    True thymic hyperplasia (TH) is an age-dependent increase in size and weight of the thymus gland, which by definition maintains a normal histologic architecture. TH can mimic other important diseases, including lymphofollicular hyperplasia, thymoma, lymphoma, and germ-cell tumors. Traditionally, separating these entities has required a formal surgical biopsy. Given that many of these conditions occur in children, this can be a traumatic experience for both the patient and family members. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy has the distinct advantage of being able to obtain diagnostic material without requiring general anesthesia. We are aware of only one previously reported case of an enlarged thymus being subjected to aspiration cytology. We therefore present a case of thymic hyperplasia in a 5-mo-old child diagnosed by combined radiologic and cytologic parameters, including flow cytometric analysis. PMID:11074650

  2. Optimization of FNAC findings as a preoperative diagnostic aid for odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Garima; Shetty, Pushparaja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not a definitive preoperative diagnostic procedure done for all cases of odontogenic cysts. This is because of the inconsistent results obtained with it. Aims: This study was done to optimize FNAC findings and help in preoperative characterization of odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods: Cystic fluid was collected and centrifuged from 50 odontogenic cysts that were planned for excision. Three smears were prepared from the cell sediment obtained after centrifugation and stained. The stained sections were examined for presence and type of epithelial cells, to formulate a preopererative diagnosis. Results: Epithelial cells were detected in 46% cases in smear 1, 48% cases in smear 2, and 52% cases in smear 3. When all three smears from one case were studied, 86% cases showed epithelial cells for evaluation. Conclusion: Cystic aspirate should be centrifuged and the entire cell sediment should be examined by making multiple smears for evaluation of cystic epithelial lining cells.

  3. Aspiration biopsy cytology of extraabdominal desmoid tumor concurrently occurring in a patient with tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Husain; Kapadia, Rehana

    2008-09-01

    Extraabdominal fibromatosis or desmoid tumor (DT) is a slow growing locally aggressive soft tissue tumor that can occur anywhere in the body. We report the aspiration biopsy cytology features of a case of DT of the right neck area in a 35-year-old man who had a long standing history of tumoral calcinosis. The aspirate was interpreted as "benign spindle cell lesion" and confirmed as DT on histologic examination of the resected mass. We discuss the possible differential diagnoses of other benign or malignant lesions on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy and especially discuss the aspiration cytology features of DT compared with those of tumoral calcinosis. We also discuss the value of immunohistochemical markers that help in differentiating DT from other entities. PMID:18677759

  4. Aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes of normal breast epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Bondeson, L.

    1987-05-01

    From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue.

  5. The Utilization of Cytologic Fine-Needle Aspirates of Lung Cancer for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    In this era of precision medicine, our understanding and knowledge of the molecular landscape associated with lung cancer pathogenesis continues to evolve. This information is being increasingly exploited to treat advanced stage lung cancer patients with tailored, targeted therapy. During the management of these patients, minimally invasive procedures to obtain samples for tissue diagnoses are desirable. Cytologic fine-needle aspirates are often utilized for this purpose and are important not only for rendering diagnoses to subtype patients’ lung cancers, but also for ascertaining molecular diagnostic information for treatment purposes. Thus, cytologic fine-needle aspirates must be utilized and triaged judiciously to achieve both objectives. In this review, strategies in utilizing fine-needle aspirates will be discussed in the context of our current understanding of the clinically actionable molecular aberrations underlying non-small cell lung cancer and the molecular assays applied to these samples in order to obtain treatment-relevant molecular diagnostic information. PMID:26076721

  6. Grey zone lesions of breast: Potential areas of error in cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Dey, Pranab

    2015-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast is a rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive procedure to diagnose breast lesions, and was widely employed to diagnose breast lesions in the past. However, in recent times, core needle biopsy of the breast is gaining popularity and acceptability, although FNAC still looms large. There are some intrinsic disadvantages to FNAC, of which the most important is probably difficulty in classification of a significant percentage of breast lesions. Such lesions are usually denoted by the rubric “grey zone lesions of the breast.” This article attempts to review these grey zone lesions and highlight the difficulties in diagnosing them. PMID:26729973

  7. Intranuclear Pseudo-inclusions and Grooves in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2016-02-01

    Cytologic findings of pulmonary carcinoid have been well described. We report new cytological findings in a case of carcinoid tumor. The patient is a 36-year-old man presenting with hemoptysis of about six months in duration. Chest CT scans showed a well-defined round polypoid lesion measuring 1 × 1 cm within the right upper lobe of the bronchus with hyperinflation of the right upper lobe. Trans-bronchial fine needle aspiration and biopsy were done. Cytologic smears showed isolated and loose clusters of uniform round to spindle shape cells with round centrally located nuclei, fine granular (salt and pepper) chromatin and pale cytoplasm. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves were seen in some tumor cells. No mitotic figures or necrosis were evident. A cytological diagnosis of carcinoid tumor was made and histopathologic examination and subsequent immunohistochemical study confirmed the diagnosis. Carcinoid tumor may be reliably diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology smears. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves may be evident in tumor cells. PMID:26838088

  8. A Comparative Study between FNAC and Histopathology in Diagnosis of Breast Lump.

    PubMed

    Islam, A; Khondker, N S; Rahman, S; Reza, E; Mahamud, M M; Shaon, S A; Mariam, L; Pathan, F H

    2015-07-01

    Worldwide a large number of patients have been suffering from breast lump and this trend is gradually increasing. It is difficult to determine whether a lump is benign or malignant from clinical assessment. Thus the need for microscopic tissue analysis arises. This study was designed to determine the value of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of breast lumps and to compare the result of FNAC with histopathological diagnosis to assess its accuracy. A prospective study in the period of January 2009 to December 2010 was done. One hundred and ten (110) patients who came to the Department of Surgery in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh in two years for their palpable breast masses were chosen for the study. There were 70(63.63%) benign, 33(30.00%) malignant and 07(6.36%) suspicious smears in FNAC. Inadequate samples were repeated. The number of repeats increased the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates which is statistically significant when compared with histopathology. In histopathology Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most commonly reported lesion with maximum incidence in the 4th, 5th, and 6th decades followed by invasive lobular carcinoma and other malignant lesions. FNAC serves as a rapid, economical and reliable tool for the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions and its reliability is influenced by the skillness of the aspirator. So physician should use this tool with clinical experience. PMID:26329944

  9. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology of the pancreas: advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Kocjan, G; Rode, J; Lees, W R

    1989-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration of the pancreas was performed in 62 patients with radiological suspicion of malignancy. All fine needle aspirates were taken under computed tomography or ultrasound guidance. Fine needle aspirates were positive in 31 of 41 patients with histologically or clinically confirmed pancreatic carcinoma. There were no false positive results. The sensitivity of this method for detecting malignant disease was 86%. Cytology was not able to provide conclusive results of benign conditions. Difficulties were encountered in diagnosing well differentiated carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours and distinguishing them from reactive epithelium and islet cell hyperplasia, respectively. This resulted in a 12.1% false negative rate. There were no complications in our series. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration proved a reliable method of diagnosing pancreatic carcinoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2541174

  10. Aspiration cytology of an enlarged thymus presenting as a mediastinal mass. A case report.

    PubMed

    Riazmontazer, N; Bedayat, G

    1993-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was used to evaluate an anterior mediastinal mass in a 12-year-old girl. The smears showed two cellular populations composed of epithelial cells and many lymphocytes, simulating FNA cytologic features of a thymoma. However, histopathologically the mass proved to be an enlarged and microscopically normal thymus. The different shapes and sizes of the epithelial cell nuclei and lymphocytes encircling the individual epithelial cells present in the FNA smears of the enlarged thymus were features that are not seen frequently in FNA smears of thymomas and therefore may be differentiating points. However, studies of FNA smears from more cases of thymoma and thymic hyperplasia are necessary in order to define FNA cytologic criteria to differentiate these two entities. PMID:8498144

  11. Multispectral microscopy and cell segmentation for analysis of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuqing; Thigpen, James; Shah, Shishir K

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs for automated tools to aid in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules based on analysis of fine needle aspiration cytology smears. While conventional practices rely on the analysis of grey scale or RGB color images, we present a multispectral microscopy system that uses thirty-one spectral bands for analysis. Discussed are methods and results for system calibration and cell delineation. PMID:19964406

  12. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  13. Papillary neoplasms of the breast: clues in fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Aracil, V; Mayayo, E; Azua, J; Arraiza, A

    2002-02-01

    Papillary neoplasms of the breast include a wide spectrum of mammary lesions. The differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions can be problematic not only cytologically, but also histopathologically. Aspiration smears can demonstrate that cytological differentiation is feasible. A retrospective study of 30 cases of papillary tumour of the breast, 15 papillary carcinomas and 15 papillomas, was performed to find the cytological differences between the pathologies. Cytological samples of papillary carcinomas were characterized by an abundance of cellular material, three-dimensional papillary clusters without fibrovascular connective tissue cores, small papillae arranged in cell balls, tall columnar cells and isolated naked nuclei. Numerous haemosiderin-laden macrophages were seen. There were no eosinophilic bipolar cytoplasmic granules, bipolar naked nuclei or apocrine metaplasia. In the papillomas there was less material; the papillae had cohesive stalks surrounded by columnar cells in a honeycomb pattern. We also found fewer small papillae and isolated columnar cells. In addition, the presence of apocrine metaplasia and bipolar naked nuclei was noted. We suggest that papillary carcinoma of the breast can be diagnosed by cytology and differentiated from papilloma. PMID:11985565

  14. Toward improving fine needle aspiration cytology by applying Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.

  15. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected. PMID:26148740

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytologic findings in four cases of pilomatrixoma (calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aracil, V; Azua, J; San Pedro, C; Romero, J

    1990-01-01

    Four cases of pilomatrixoma studied by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy prior to resection and histologic diagnosis were reviewed to identify the cytologic features useful in making the FNA cytodiagnosis. Cytopathology had initially correctly diagnosed two cases while misdiagnosing one as a carcinoma and one as a suspected carcinoma. The aspirates from all cases contained either clustered or isolated basaloid cells, with variably sized nuclei and prominent nucleoli. "Ghost cells" were also present in most smears stained with the Giemsa stain and could thus be very helpful for making the FNA diagnosis of pilomatrixoma. The occurrence of either foreign-body giant cells or calcium deposits in the aspirates could also contribute to suggesting the correct diagnosis of pilomatrixoma in some cases. PMID:1701604

  17. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic tool in comparison to ultrasound and MRI for staging in oral- and oropharyngeal squamous cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Souren, Cyriel; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Stadler, Annika; Kross, Kenneth; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Ketelsen, Dominik; Kessler, Peter; Lethaus, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to test the diagnostic performance of ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (USFNAC) in comparison to ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting lymph node metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal region. 143 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. US, USFNAC and MRI were routinely performed prior to neck dissection. The results of the imaging studies were compared to histopathology. The sensitivity of MRI was highest at 83%, followed by USFNAC and US at 81% and 73%, respectively. The specificity was highest for FNAC at 100%, followed by MRI and US at 76% and 45%, respectively. Positive predictive value was highest for USFNAC 100%, US 57%, MRI 75% and negative predictive value was 77%, 69% and 84%, respectively. In our patient group with oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma, MRI had a higher sensitivity than USFNAC and US alone. USFNAC provided additional staging information. Especially in an uncertain lymph node situation it can facilitate and optimize preoperative planning with a specificity of 100% regarding tissue entity of cervical lymph nodes. PMID:26732639

  18. Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain's) thyroiditis: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonographic characteristics of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Çigdem; Paksoy, Nadir; Gök, Nazl? D; Yazal, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT) is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG) and cytological characteristics of SGT. Materials and Methods: The clinical, USG and cytological findings of 21 cases diagnosed with SGT were reviewed. Results: Ultrasonographic data was available in 20 cases. A hypoechoic thyroid nodule with irregular margins was detected in 12 of the 20 total cases. Of these, 9 cases complained about pain in the thyroid lodge and generally had unilateral lesions, heterogeneous and hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins, rather than nodular lesions, which were seen in 7 cases. Cytologically, the multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) found in all cases were accompanied by a dirty background containing varying numbers of granulomatous structures, including isolated epithelioid histiocytes, proliferated/regenerated follicle epithelium cells and inflammatory cells and colloid. Conclusion: Though hypoechoic and heterogeneous areas with irregular margins are strongly associated with thyroiditis, SGT may also appear as painful or painless hypoechoic, solid nodules and generate challenges in differential diagnosis. Although the most remarkable characteristic observed in FNA cytology was the presence of multiple MNGCs with cytoplasm, a dirty background accompanied by mild-moderate cellularity, degenerated-proliferated follicular epithelium cells, rare epithelioid granulomas and mixed type inflammatory cells are characteristic for SGT. The assessment of these radiological and cytological findings in conjunction with clinical findings will assist in the achievement of an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26085833

  19. Cytology in nipple aspirate fluid during a randomized soy food intervention among premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Suzuki, Shana; Pagano, Ian S.; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A.; Ehya, Hormoz

    2013-01-01

    Because soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the presence of epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF). In a randomized, crossover design, 82 premenopausal women completed a high-soy and a low-soy diet for 6 months each, separated by a 1-month washout period. They provided NAF samples at baseline, 6 months, and 13 months during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Papanicolaou-stained cytology slides (for 33 women at baseline, 24 at low-soy, and 36 at high-soy) were evaluated in women with sufficient NAF. Mixed models evaluated the effect of the high-soy diet on epithelial cytology as compared to baseline and the low-soy diet. At the end of the high-soy diet, cytological class had decreased in 8 (24%) and increased in 3 (9%) women as compared to baseline, whereas the respective values were 3 (14%) and 6 (29%) for the low-soy diet samples (p=0.32). Only the change in subclass indicated a trend in lower cytological class (p=0.06). Contrary to an earlier report, the number of NAF samples with hyperplastic epithelial cells did not increase after a soy intervention in amounts consumed by Asians. PMID:24127645

  20. Cyto-morphological features of extramedullary acute megakaryoblastic leukemia on fine needle aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid cytology: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chitragar, Sanjeev; Agarwal, Shipra; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Karak, Asis K.; Chharchhodawala, Taher; Sharma, Atul; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    Extramedullary deposits may be the presenting feature of acute myeloid leukemia. An early and accurate diagnosis on cytology will aid in correct patient management. This is especially true for patients with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML M7), where bone marrow aspiration may yield only a dry tap. While cytomorphological features of myeloid sarcoma of other types are well recognized due to its rarity, there are only two case reports discussing the morphological details of megakaryoblastic differentiation on aspiration cytology. We present the case of a 25-year-old patient with extramedullary involvement of lymph node and cerebrospinal fluid by AML M7, describing in detail, the morphological features on aspiration as well as exfoliative cytology. PMID:22022337

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology, histology and MIB-1 proliferative index in a case of dyshormonogenetic goitre.

    PubMed

    Karak, A K; Sahoo, M; Bhatnagar, D

    2001-04-01

    The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic findings along with histology and MIB-1 proliferative index in a case of dyshormonogenetic goitre is presented. A 12-year old female child from non-endemic zone presented with a isotopically cold solitary thyroid nodule with a history of goitre being present since birth. Past history of any neck irradiation or maternal ingestion of any goitrogen during the antenatal period and family history of goitre were negative. FNA cytology revealed an extremely cellular preparation with predominantly microfollicular pattern without colloid. Nuclei were round to oval, slightly enlarged with evenly distributed chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Larger tissue fragments also showed foci of solid cell groups with nuclear crowding, overlapping and loss of polarity in addition to the prevalent microfollicular pattern. Occasional tissue fragments showed solid groups of trapped follicular epithelial cells in the matrix of fibrocollagenous tissue. Histology showed an intensely hyperplastic follicular cells with nodule formation, irregular fibrosis, pseudo capsular or vascular wall invasion mimicking malignancy. Immunohistochemistry for calcitonin was negative but thyroglobulin was positive. MIB-1 (Ki-67) proliferation index varied from 0.05 to 0.26 (mean 0.13) in the hyperplastic nodules versus 0.9 to 2.1 (mean 1.34) in the hyperplastic solid microfoci scattered amidst the grossly normal appearing thyroid tissue. The possible cytologic diagnostic pitfalls in favor of follicular neoplasm is discussed. PMID:11883139

  2. Use of Fine-Needle Aspiration in the Evaluation of Breast Lumps

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Arshad, Madiha; Jamal, Shahid; Niazi, Shahida; Bashir, Shahid; Bakhshi, Irfan M.; Shaharyar

    2011-01-01

    Background. A study was designed to see the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in palpable breast lumps. Materials and Methods. Four hundred and twenty five (425) patients came to the Department of Pathology King Edward Medical University, Lahore in four years for FNAC of their palpable breast masses from June 2006 to June 2010. FNAC diagnosis was compared with histological diagnosis to see the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology for neoplastic lesions. Results. There were 271/425 benign, 120/425 malignant, and 32/425 suspicious smears. Inadequate samples were repeated twice or thrice, and the degree of success was improved with consecutive repeating approaches. The frequency of inadequacy declined from 86 to 18, and 2 for first, second and third attempts, respectively. The number of repeats increased the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates which is statistically significant (P = .000). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most commonly reported lesion with maximum incidence in the 4th, 5th, and 6th decades followed by invasive lobular carcinoma and other malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and the positive predictive value of FNAC was 98%, 100%, 98%, 100%, and 97%, respectively. Conclusion. FNAC serves as a rapid, economical, and reliable tool for the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions because the cytopathological examination of these lesions before operation or treatment serves as an important diagnostic modality. PMID:21789264

  3. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the breast. A review of the Groote Schuur Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, G M; Hayes, M M; Hacking, A; Gudgeon, A; Dent, D M; Stander, W; Slater, P; Holden, S

    1987-10-17

    The results of the first 1,500 cytological diagnoses of fine-needle breast aspirates performed at Groote Schuur Hospital Breast Clinic are compared with the histological diagnoses of Tru-cut and excision biopsies of the same lesions. A cytological diagnosis of malignant disease was made in 358 cases, 349 of which were confirmed histologically. The 10 false-positive and 1 false-negative diagnoses are discussed. The reliability of diagnosis in the first 500 cases is compared with that in the second and third 500 cases. There were no false-positive diagnoses in the last 500 cases, and only 3 in the second 500 cases compared with 7 in the first 500 cases. Similarly, the 1 false-negative diagnosis was made in the first 500 cases. The results confirm the reliability of fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology as a diagnostic technique. The number of incorrect diagnoses decreases as experience with the technique increases. PMID:3313758

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of vulvar actinomycosis masquerading clinically as malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Rahul Parasram; Patil, Suwarna Bhupendra; Khade, Manjiri Gunvant; Sarate, Dilip S.

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Vulvar actinomycosis presenting as a fixed swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of vulvar actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 60-year-old postmenopausal female presented with a gradually increasing 15 cm × 10 cm vulvar swelling involving the right mons and right labia majora. The swelling was nodular, fixed, and nonulcerated, with multiple healed and few active discharging sinus tracts draining serosanguineous fluid and yellowish sulfur granules. FNA was diagnostic, as it revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. Histopathology of excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. FNA is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis, although, its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the FNA technique.

  5. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of a proximal type epithelioid sarcoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pendse, Avani A; Dodd, Leslie G

    2015-10-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm, with an as yet unidentified cell of origin. Two subtypes of epithelioid sarcoma, distal/classic and proximal/large cell type, are recognized in the literature; with the proximal-type having a lower incidence amongst the two. Here, we present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma in a previously healthy young man. Fine-needle-aspiration of a large axillary mass was performed for diagnosis. The cytologic findings included a dispersed population of large epithelioid to polyhedral cells with abundant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining showed coexpression of keratin and vimentin, as well as loss of INI1 staining, consistent with an epithelioid sarcoma, proximal subtype. PMID:26138930

  6. Cytologic features of nipple aspirate fluid using an automated non-invasive collection device: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Kerry AS; Rowe, Leslie R; Bentz, Joel S

    2005-01-01

    Background Detection of cytologic atypia in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) has been shown to be a predictor of risk for development of breast carcinoma. Manual collection of NAF for cytologic evaluation varies widely in terms of efficacy, ease of use, and patient acceptance. We investigated a new automated device for the non-invasive collection of NAF in the office setting. Methods A multi-center prospective observational clinical trial involving asymptomatic women designed to assess fluid production, adequacy, safety and patient acceptance of the HALO NAF Collection System (NeoMatrix, Irvine, CA). Cytologic evaluation of all NAF samples was performed using previously described classification categories. Results 500 healthy women were successfully enrolled. Thirty-eight percent (190/500) produced fluid and 187 were available for cytologic analysis. Cytologic classification of fluid producers showed 50% (93/187) Category 0 (insufficient cellular material), 38% (71/187) Category I (benign non-hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells), 10% (18/187) Category II (benign hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells), 3% (5/187) Category III (atypical ductal epithelial cells) and none were Category IV (unequivocal malignancy). Overall, 19% of the subjects produced NAF with adequate cellularity and 1% were found to have cytologic atypia. Conclusion The HALO system is a simple, safe, rapid, automated method for standardized collection of NAF which is acceptable to patients. Cytologic assessment of HALO-collected NAF showed the ability to detect benign and pre-neoplastic ductal epithelial cells from asymptomatic volunteers. PMID:16078997

  7. Investigation of scanning parameters for thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology specimens: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Maheswari S.; Donnelly, Amber D.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Wedel, Whitney R.; McGaughey, Mary F.; Baker, John J.; Radio, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interest in developing more feasible and affordable applications of virtual microscopy in the field of cytology continues to grow. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the scanning parameters for the thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens. Subjects and Methods: A total of twelve glass slides from thyroid FNA cytology specimens were digitized at ×40 with 1 micron (?) interval using seven focal plane (FP) levels (Group 1), five FP levels (Group 2), and three FP levels (Group 3) using iScan Coreo Au scanner (Ventana, AZ, USA) producing 36 virtual images (VI). With an average wash out period of 2 days, three participants diagnosed the preannotated cells of Groups 1, 2, and 3 using BioImagene's Image Viewer (version 3.1) (Ventana, Inc., Tucson, AZ, USA), and the corresponding 12 glass slides (Group 4) using conventional light microscopy. Results: All three raters correctly identified and showed complete agreement on the glass and VI for: 86% of the cases at FP Level 3, 83% of the cases at both the FP Levels 5 and 7. The intra-observer concordance between the glass slides and VI for all three raters was highest (97%) for Level 3 and glass, same (94%) for Level 5 and glass; and Level 7 and glass. The inter-rater reliability was found to be highest for the glass slides, and three FP levels (77%), followed by five FP levels (69.5%), and seven FP levels (69.1%). Conclusions: This pilot study found that among the three different FP levels, the VI digitized using three FP levels had slightly higher concordance, intra-observer concordance, and inter-rater reliability. Scanning additional levels above three FP levels did not improve concordance. We believe that there is no added benefit of acquiring five FP levels or more especially when considering the file size, and storage costs. Hence, this study reports that FP level three and 1 ? could be the potential scanning parameters for the thyroid FNA cytology specimens. PMID:26284154

  8. Pulmonary hamartoma: Cytological study of a case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Umashankar, T; Devadas, Acharya K; Ravichandra, G; Yaranal, Parasappa J

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common but rare benign tumor-like lesions of the lung arising from the embryonic rest. They are more common in males and in aged. Majority are asymptomatic and seen as coin lesions with popcorn calcification in the chest radiograph. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps to diagnose and distinguish them from the cancerous lesions of the lung. The cytological material is characterized by fibromyxoid stroma, cartilage, bronchial cells, adipose tissue and bone. Bronchial cells with reactive atypia may be a source of false-positive result. Symptomatic cases need surgical intervention such as enucleation or segmental resection. We report a case of a 74-year-old male who had a lung mass that did not progress over 4-year on chest radiograph. The CT-guided FNAC smears showed benign bronchial epithelial cells, fibro-myxoid spindle cell stroma and fat spaces that aided the diagnosis of pulmonary hamartoma avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:23326033

  9. FNAC accuracy in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms considering all diagnostic categories of the Bethesda reporting system: A single-institute experience

    PubMed Central

    Hajmanoochehri, Fatemeh; Rabiee, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a valuable test used for diagnosing diseases of the thyroid gland. Aims: Using all satisfactory categories of the Bethesda system, this study aimed to determine the accuracy with which FNAC diagnoses thyroid neoplasms. We also discuss the factors that affect diagnosis accuracy. Settings and Design: A comparison was drawn between FNAC results and final histological diagnosis using samples collected over a period of 3 years. Materials and Methods: For all patients, age, sex, cytological features, and histological types were determined. All cases of false negative (FN) and false positive (FP) diagnosis were reanalyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: The chi-square test and univariate analysis were performed to examine the relationship between different variables. Results: About 52% of the cases were found malignant, and they were of six different histological types. Papillary carcinoma was the commonest type of malignancy at 76.9%. The rate of malignancy was 63% in males and 49.4% in females. In two of the FN cases, the tumor had a diameter of ?35 mm. Of the 12 FP cases, nine were in the follicular neoplasm or suspicious for follicular neoplasm Bethesda category. FNAC diagnosis had 95.2% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity, 83.3% positive predictive value, 89.6% negative predictive value, and 85.14% accuracy. Conclusions: FNAC was found to have a high level of sensitivity and an acceptable degree of specificity in diagnosing different types of thyroid neoplasms. The presence of microfollicular structures or crowded cellular clusters is a challenge to diagnosis, particularly in low-quality specimens.

  10. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules: cytologic and histopathologic correlation of 1096 patients

    PubMed Central

    Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Dobur, Fatma; Karabagli, Pinar; Celik, Zeliha Esin

    2015-01-01

    Via routinely used thyroid function tests, scintigraphy and ultrasonography (USG), important information is obtained in the clinical and diagnostic practice for thyroid nodules. However, the distinction between benign and malignant lesions cannot precisely be performed with these tests. Thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is considered the most reliable diagnostic method in the differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. It has recently been likely to perform aspiration from deeper nodules via the implemention of FNAB along with USG. Today, in cytopathological examination of thyroid FNAB, standardized Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) system is used. Here, FNAB was performed in 1096 patients with thyroid nodules in the Medical School of Selcuk University between January 2009 and July 2014. Patients consisted of 919 women and 177 men between 12 and 87 years of age. Evaluated via BSRTC, the results were classified as unsatisfactory, benign, atypia (or follicular lesions) of undetermined significance (AUS), follicular neoplasm or lesions suspicious for follicular neoplasm (FN), suspected malignant and malignant. After FNAB, 183 patients were operated and evaluated histopathologically. Histological malignancy rates of the categories were as follows: 16% (5), 15% (6) 14% (1) 60% (9), 72% (18) and 97% (63), respectively. In our study, we aimed to compare FNAB results of thyroid nodules with histopathology results after thyroidectomy and to show the sensitivity and specificity of FNAB technique to be higher in the follow-up and diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Given the malignancy detection rate in the follow-up of patients whose cytology was reported as inadequate, we also consider follow-ups are important in these patients. PMID:26823807

  11. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  12. DNA Extraction from Bronchial Aspirates for Molecular Cytology: Which Method to Take?

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Hans Jürgen; Schmiemann, Viola; Sarbia, Mario; Böcking, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To date, there are only few systematic reports on the quality of DNA extracted from routine diagnostic cytologic specimens. It was the aim of the present study to evaluate the ability of 50% ethanol/2% carbowax (Saccomanno fixative) to preserve bronchial secretions with high quality genomic DNA as well as to compare different DNA extraction methods. Methods: DNA was extracted from 45 bronchial aspirates by four different extraction protocols. Beside DNA yield, DNA quality with regard to purity, integrity, and PCR success rate were investigated. Results: No fragmentation of sample DNA due to the fixative was detected. It was preserved as high molecular weight DNA. DNA yield, purity, and integrity were dependent on the DNA extraction method to some extend. Irrespective of the DNA extraction method the PCR success rate for amplification of ??globin gene fragments (268, 536, and 989 bp) was 100%. Conclusions: A fixative containing 50% ethanol/2% carbowax preserves high quality DNA which is well suited for PCR?based assays regardless of the extraction protocol used. The selection of the DNA extraction protocol has to be adjusted to the circumstances of application. PMID:12632017

  13. Eumycetoma versus actinomycetoma: Diagnosis on cytology

    PubMed Central

    Afroz, Nishat; Khan, Nazoora; Siddiqui, Farhan A; Rizvi, Mehar

    2010-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by various genera of fungi producing specific colored granules known as grains. A 45-year-old farmer presented clinically with a left foot mass with multiple discharging sinuses existing for last 3 years. Clinical and radiological findings suggested a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis with suspicion of tuberculosis. Imprints plus fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears exhibited distinct brown-black colonies of a fungus having branching and septate hyphae embedded in matrix like material against a mixed inflammatory background. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain gave positive staining and subsequent fungal culture confirmed the cytological diagnosis and aided in species identification as Madurella mycetomatis. Thus, eumycetoma can precisely be diagnosed and confidently differentiated from similar conditions such as actinomycetoma by simple and inexpensive cytological techniques such as FNAC and imprint smears, employing routine May-Grünwald-Giemsa, Papanicolaou and simple PAS stains on cytological specimen, thus leading to rapid diagnosis for institution of correct treatment. PMID:21157564

  14. The Management of Thyroid Nodules with Atypical Cytology on Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkatti, Sushruta S.; Faquin, William C.; Lubitz, Carrie C.; Garcia, Dieter Morales; Barbesino, Giuseppe; Ross, Douglas S.; Hodin, Richard A.; Daniels, Gilbert H.; Parangi, Sareh

    2013-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of the thyroid categorized as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a newly defined category per the recent Bethesda guidelines. In this study, we sought to assess the characteristics and treatment of patients with an AUS/FLUS FNAB at our institution. Additionally, we evaluated the utility of the recommended three-month timing of repeat FNAB. Methods A retrospective study of all patients with an FNAB categorized as AUS/FLUS between 1/2005–12/2007 at an academic, tertiary care center. Clinical, cytological and ultrasound variables were compared among management groups. Differences in patients receiving repeat FNAB before or after a three-month interval were also compared. Results 203 patients of the 5,391 FNAB’s performed at our institution met the Bethesda criteria for AUS/FLUS. 62% were triaged directly to surgery (group I), 25% had a repeat FNAB (group II) and 13% were observed (group III). Younger (p = 0.006), male patients (p = 0.04) were more likely to go directly to surgery. 2.4% of males were observed vs. 16% of the women (p = 0.04); Timing of repeat FNAB (< or ? 3 months) did not alter the results of the second FNAB (p = 0.73). The overall rate of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery was 15.7%. Conclusion(s) Current practice relies mainly on established prognostic factors such as gender, and age. Timing of repeat biopsy did not alter management, repeat FNAB diagnosis, or rate of malignancy in our cohort. PMID:22941160

  15. Is fine needle aspiration cytology a useful diagnostic tool for granular cell tumors? A cytohistological review with emphasis on pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Jason; Schnadig, Vicki; Nawgiri, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Granular cell tumors (GCT) formerly known as Abrikossoff tumor or granular cell myoblastoma, are rare neoplasms encountered in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) service. Named because of their highly granular cytoplasm which is invariably positive for the S-100 antibody, the classic GCT is thought to be of neural origin. The cytomorphological features range from highly cellular to scanty cellular smears with dispersed polygonal tumor cells. The cells have abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, eccentric round to oval vesicular nuclei with small inconspicuous nucleoli. The fragility of the cells can result in many stripped nuclei in a granular background. The differential diagnosis occasionally can range from a benign or reactive process to features that are suspicious for malignancy. Some of the concerning cytologic features include necrosis, mitoses and nuclear pleomorphism. Methods: We identified 6 cases of suspected GCT on cytology within the last 10 years and compared them to their final histologic diagnoses. Results: Four had histologic correlation of GCT including one case that was suspicious for GCT on cytology and called atypical with features concerning for a malignant neoplasm. Of the other two cases where GCT was suspected, one showed breast tissue with fibrocystic changes, and the other was a Hurthle cell adenoma of the thyroid. Conclusions: These results imply that FNA has utility in the diagnosis of GCT, and should be included in the differential diagnoses when cells with abundant granular cytoplasm are seen on cytology. Careful attention to cytologic atypia, signs of reactive changes, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical correlation are helpful in arriving at a definite diagnosis on FNA cytology. PMID:25379050

  16. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Low-Grade Cribriform Cystadenocarcinoma with Many Psammoma Bodies of the Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Ahn, Dongbin

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) is a rare salivary gland tumor that was recently defined as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma by the 2005 World Health Orgazniation (WHO) classification system. We report cytologic findings of an unusual case of LGCCC with many psammoma bodies. A 90-year-old man presented a palpable mass on his left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology showed tumor cells that were arranged in clusters and dispersed individually. The tumor cells showed mild atypia and had clear or dense cytoplasm with some vacuoles. Numerous psammoma bodies were noted. After surgical resection, the histologic examination revealed a mixed solid and cystic mass showing intraductal growth with focal stromal invasion. The S-100 protein expressed in the tumor cells, but smooth muscle actin and p63 were positive only in myoepithelial cells. Although LGCCCs resemble other salivary gland tumors, differentiating LGCCC during preoperative FNA is important to avoid unnecessary overtreatment. PMID:24255638

  17. Sample size in fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J; Bondestam, S; Virkkunen, P

    1989-12-01

    The weights of biopsy specimens from bovine liver taken for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) by three groups of physicians, were compared. The groups differed from each other in their extent or degree of experience in FNAC. When the physicians used their normal technique, the mean sample weight increased significantly with experience, from 4.6 mg in the least experienced group to 17.2 mg in the group with the longest experience. Thirty-six per cent of the samples taken by the group with the least experience were in the weight class 0-2 mg, whereas no such samples were encountered for the other groups. When all the physicians were advised to use the same, standard technique there were no statistically significant differences in mean sample weight between the groups or in the proportion of samples in class 0-2 mg. Sample weights correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with cell counts. This study shows that differences in the technique of FNAC are responsible for differences in sample weights and cell counts, including the number of the acellular samples obtained. This could explain in some part the wide variation in the reported accuracy rates of FNAC. PMID:2605470

  18. The final outcome of indeterminate cytology of thyroid nodules in a District General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    DODDI, S.; CHOHDA, E.; MAGHSOUDI, S.; SHEEHAN, L.; SINHA, A.; CHANDAK, P.; SINHA, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnostic thyroid lobectomy is performed to resolve the dilemma of indeterminate (Thy3) cytology of thyroid nodules. But on final histology most nodules are benign thereby subjecting this group of patients to surgery with its associated risks. Aim To determine the proportion of cancers in patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. Patients and methods This is a retrospective observational study of 621 patients who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of their thyroid nodules over a 60 month period in a district general hospital. Patient demographics, cytology and final histology results were extracted from the hospital database. Results On final analysis, 48 patients had an indeterminate cytology (7.7%) and 12 patients had cancer in this group (25%) following diagnostic lobectomy. Conclusion Till an alternative robust technology becomes widely available we need to continue to perform diagnostic lobectomy in patients with indeterminate cytology in view of the high incidence of thyroid cancer in this group of patients. PMID:26188757

  19. Should We Apply Suction During Fine Needle Cytology of Thyroid Lesions? A Prospective Study of 200 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K V Sreedhar; Sachan, Alok; Rukmangdha, N; Patnayak, Rashmi; Radhika, K; Phaneendra, B V; Reddy, M Kumaraswamy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established first line diagnostic tool in evaluating palpable thyroid lesions. However, the technique depends on suction and thus is at times painful, sometimes traumatic and yield haemorrhagic material for cytological study. In more recent times, a modified technique called fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) has come into vogue which obviates the use of suction and therefore is more patient friendly. Aims/Objectives: To investigate whether fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) gives quantitatively and qualitatively superior cytologic material as compared to the conventional technique of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) in thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study of 200 cases carried out in the Department of Pathology during two years period. Both techniques were executed on the same thyroid swelling / nodule in the same clinical session beginning with FNS followed by FNAC. The observation recorded by two pathologists were based on the scoring system proposed by Mair et al., Statistical analysis was done by Student’s paired t-test using SPSS 13 software. Observation/Results: A total of 200 cases were studied. The non-aspiration technique yielded less diagnostically adequate but more diagnostically superior smears when compared with aspiration technique. The average score per case was 5.31 by aspiration technique and 6.35 by non-aspiration technique. Conclusion: Both the techniques have their own merits and demerits and neither is absolutely superior to the other. A combination of both the technique gives better result. PMID:25478349

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor: Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kini, Jyoti R; Kini, Hema

    2009-10-01

    Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare cutaneous neoplasm derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is being increasingly used in the investigation of primary and metastatic cutaneous tumors. However, there are few reports on the cytology of trichilemmal tumors in the literature. We describe the cytological features of this uncommon adnexal tumor presenting as a scalp mass in a 58-year-old woman. In view of its aggressive biological behavior, it is crucial for cytologists to be aware of this rare lesion and distinguish it from primary cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma. The differences on fine-needle aspiration cytology can be subtle and pose problems in diagnosis. PMID:19405112

  1. Aspiration cytology of an ectopic cervical thymoma misinterpreted as a lymphoproliferative lesion of the thyroid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, YI-YING; WANG, WEN-CHING; LI, CHIEN-FENG

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic cervical thymoma is a rare tumor that originates from ectopic thymic tissue trapped during the migration of the embryonic thymus. To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases of ectopic cervical thymoma, which include descriptions of the cytological features based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA), have been reported thus far. The current study describes the case of a 52-year-old male presenting with an enlarging anterior neck mass that been apparent for a number of years and was now accompanied by shortness of breath. FNA cytology revealed large numbers of small lymphocytes admixed with rare groups of large, polygonal cells that were interpreted to be reactive lymphocytes or possible follicular dendritic cells. However, no definite follicular or Hürthle cells were identified. Therefore, the overall cytological features were misinterpreted as a lymphoproliferative lesion. However, subsequent histological analysis of the resected left total lobectomy specimen determined a diagnosis of thymoma, type B1. Thus, awareness of this entity combined with a careful search for thymic epithelial cells may aid in determining a correct diagnosis when FNA is performed for the evaluation of a neck mass. PMID:26622659

  2. Bronchoscopic Diagnosis of Pulmonary Infections—Comparison of Protected-Specimen Brush and Cytology Brush With Lung Aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Eugene C.; Mohr, John A.; Levin, David C.; Flournoy, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    In a recent study the use of a new plugged double-lumen protected-specimen brush with the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope was advocated to isolate pathogens in lower respiratory tract infections while avoiding upper respiratory tract contamination. To compare the efficacy of this brush and a standard single-lumen cytology brush in identifying the etiologic agent in lower respiratory tract infections, we studied 18 patients with lung infections. Transthoracic lung aspiration was done in all but two patients in an attempt to identify the specific etiologic agent. In these two cases, cultures of specimens of blood or postmortem lung tissue yielded the causative organism. In 12 patients anaerobic or aerobic bacteria (or both) were identified, whereas one patient had a mixed bacterial and fungal infection. Using the cytology brush and the protected-specimen brush we identified at least one pathogen in 10 of 12 and 10 of 13 cases, whereas both brushes missed one or more causative organisms in 8 of 12 and 8 of 13 cases, respectively. Nonetiologic organisms were found in 8 of 12 cases by the cytology brush and 8 of 13 cases by the protected-specimen brush. Quantitative culture techniques improved the specificity of the brush results in infections where aerobes predominated. Our data show that bronchoscopic cultures of lower respiratory tract infections do not consistently recover the causative agent and are frequently subject to contamination by nonetiologic organisms. There was no difference between the brushes in avoiding contamination. PMID:6858123

  3. Soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma with rhabdoid-like features and EWSR1 rearrangement: Fine needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isidro; LĂłpez-Soto, MarĂ­a Victoria; Rubio, Luis; Navarro, Lara; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    A new case of soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma (MEC) with rhabdoid-like differentiation is presented including cytologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic features. A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the Hospital with nodular mass involving the lower part of the abdominal wall. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed a round cell tumor with abundant cytoplasm in the myxoid background. The nuclei were uniform, round to ovoid, with finely distributed chromatin, nucleoli, and pale, vacuolated, or eosinophilic cytoplasm with rhabdoid-like appearance resembling a soft tissue malignant rhabdoid tumor. The surgically removed tumor was poorly demarcated, yellow, soft, and myxoid. The histopathology revealed sheets of poorly differentiated round malignant cells with focal myxoid stroma and rhabdoid-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CK (AE1/AE3), EMA, S100, vimentin, CD99, and SMA; however desmin, CD34, and gliofibrilar acid protein (GFAP) were negative. Tumor cells revealed loss of INI1 expression. The EWSR1 gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but molecular biology failed to detect EWSR1/ETS, EWSR1/NR4A3, EWSR1/DDIT3, EWSR1/ATF1, EWSR1-POU5F1, EWSR1/ZNF444, EWSR1-PBX1 gene fusions. The final diagnosis was soft tissue malignant myoepithelioma with rhabdoid changes and EWSR1 gene rearrangement. The differential diagnosis included soft tissue malignant rhabdoid tumor, cellular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, proximal epithelioid sarcoma, and other soft tissue tumor with EWSR1 rearrangement. To our knowledge, this is the first case of MEC with rhabdoid features and description of fine-needle aspiration cytology. PMID:25693574

  4. Diagnostic concordance rate between histologic and cytologic specimens of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in lung cancer: A single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Won; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Yong A; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Park, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Background The aspirates from endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) were examined using the tissue core and cytology. We assessed that the tissue core was a more reliable specimen and attempted to analyze how many discrepancies were found between the two specimens. We investigated diagnostic concordance rate between histology and cytology. Methods From January 2011 to December 2011, a total of 267 consecutive patients with lung cancer, who underwent EBUS-TBNA, were included in this retrospective study. Results Of the 267 lung cancer patients, 207 (77.5%) were men. The median age was 65 years old. The most common pathologic type was adenocarcinoma (120, 44.9%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (79, 29.6%). Among the 267 patients, 579 mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes were punctured. The right lower paratracheal (204, 35.2%) and subcarinal (172, 29.7%) lymph nodes were the most common nodal stations. Among the 579 lymph nodes, malignant cells were observed in 267 (46.1%) nodes, in either the histologic, cytologic or both slides: 209 in both histology and cytology, 37 in histology only, and 21 in cytology only slides. The diagnostic concordance rate between the tissue core and cytology was 90.0% (95% confidence interval CI, 87.1–92.2) (? = 0.79). Conclusions The diagnostic concordance rate between the histology and cytology of EBUS-TBNA in lung cancer was 90.0% (95% CI, 87.1–92.2) (? = 0.79).

  5. Axillary apocrine adenocarcinoma in a young male suspected initially on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ranjan; Garg, Cheena; Agarwal, Arjun; Kumar, Parbodh

    2015-01-01

    Primary apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas are a rare entity, with only a few case reports so far. Many of these carcinomas are slow-growing with a high recurrence rate. A distinct cytological diagnosis can be made, and metastatic adenocarcinomas are always considered as a differential diagnosis on cytology. Our case was a 35-year-old male who presented with a discharging axillary sinus and swelling for the past 1 year. A clinical suspicion of tuberculous sinus was raised that however, remained unsupported by laboratory investigations. There was quite a high suspicion of apocrine adenocarcinoma on cytological examination that was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The patient was successfully treated with total excision and a wide margin. We report this case in view of its rarity and its occurrence in a 35-year-old young male, and emphasize that an initial cytological suspicion should be raised for primary apocrine adenocarcinoma in case of an axillary tumor, especially keeping in consideration the poor prognosis of the same and chances of early metastasis.

  6. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Shahanawaz; Gokden, Murat; Lindberg, Matthew; Ali, Sumera; Jeffus, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    The epithelioid variant of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (eMPNST) is an extremely rare soft tissue neoplasm comprising less than 5% of all MPNSTs. It is distinguished cytomorphologically from a conventional MPNST by the presence of polymorphous round epithelioid cells arranged in loose clusters with or without spindled tumor cells. These features pose a diagnostic challenge because the differential diagnosis involves a variety of mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal tumors including epithelioid sarcoma, sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor, chordoma, metastatic carcinomas, and melanoma. Thus, it may become imperative to perform immunochemical stains on cell blocks of FNA aspirates to arrive at definitive diagnosis. Reports describing the cytologic features of eMPNST are rare. Herein, we report a case of eMPNST with focus on cytomorphologic and cytoimmunochemical features and differential diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:226-231. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26646298

  7. Unusual small bone metastases from epithelial malignancies: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology with histologic confirmation.

    PubMed

    Singh, H K; Silverman, J F; Ballance, W A; Park, H K

    1995-10-01

    Although epithelial malignancies can have bone metastases, involvement of small bones is exceedingly rare, representing either first manifestation of an occult carcinoma or late disseminated disease. Small bone metastases may mimic primary skeletal diseases leading to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. We report three cases of metastatic epithelial malignancies diagnosed by computed tomography (CT)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in two patients with lytic calcaneal lesions and a patellar lesion in a third patient; all with histologic confirmation. Case 1, a 63-year-old female, presented with heel pain. FNA and tissue biopsy of the calcaneus revealed a clear cell malignancy consistent with a renal primary. Follow-up abdominal CT scan revealed a renal lesion consistent with renal cell carcinoma. Case 2, a 37-yr-old male with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, presented with foot pain. FNA and tissue biopsy of the calcaneous revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Case 3, a 52-yr-old male with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of floor of mouth, presented with knee pain and swelling. FNA and tissue biopsy of the patella revealed metastastic squamous cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete FNA cytology report with histologic confirmation of unusual small bone metastases of the feet and patella from epithelial malignancies and shows the value of FNA cytology in establishing a correct diagnosis, and excluding primary skeletal diseases. PMID:8575276

  8. Penile neurilemmoma: Utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Shukla, Saumya; Gupta, Anurag; Awasthi, Namrata Punit; Husain, Nuzhat; Dhayal, lshwar Ram

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous lesions in the penis are of rare occurrence and encompass benign as well as malignant tumors. These include lipomas, leiomyomas, neurilemmomas and their malignant counterparts. A surgical excision at this site carries the risk of postoperative penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. We report a rare case of penile neurilemmoma which presented as a subcutaneous nodule on the dorsal surface of the penis. A fine-needle aspiration was performed which aided in the preoperative diagnosis and guided the extent of excision. We report this case to highlight the importance of needle aspiration as a simple outdoor procedure for penile lesions which can aid surgical approach and postoperative outcome. PMID:25538392

  9. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Chondroid Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Aiad, Hayam; Youssef Asaad, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of tendon sheath is a localized form of tenosynovial GCT, which preferentially affects the joints of hands and feet. Chondroid metaplasia is a rare phenomenon in tenosynovial GCT either in localized or diffuse types. The current case investigates the cytological and histopathological features of chondroid GCT of tendon sheath in a 22-year-old female presenting with wrist swelling. PMID:26266013

  10. Amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Grace C H; Kuhel, William I; Scognamiglio, Theresa

    2014-09-01

    Amyloid deposits are unexpected in salivary gland tumors. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1.8 cm, slow-growing parotid mass. Both fine-needle aspiration and frozen section were misinterpreted as pleomorphic adenoma. The final pathology was amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The aspirates consisted of three components: mucin, amyloid, and tumor cells. The mucin was unusually thick, stringy, and metachromatic. The amyloid presented as innumerable concretions scattered solitarily or in small jigsaw puzzle-like aggregates, individually wrapped by tumor cells. The tumor cells had bland oval nuclei and scant-to-abundant cytoplasm, arranged in loosely cohesive small sheets. On histology, the tumor cells were arranged in interconnecting monolayered glands of a wide range of size with small patches of cellular regions composed of plump tumor cells. As the luminal mucin and amyloid deposits enlarged, the lining tumor cells became thin and flat. The glandular lumen molded amyloid concretions into different shapes and sizes. Atrophic or pyknotic tumor cells outlined the amyloid concretions with concentric laminations, reminiscent of corpora amylacea. Alcian blue positive luminal mucin, associated with newly formed amyloid, was present in mucinous regions of the tumor. This is the first description of cytologic features of amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid and the second case in the pathology literature. The literature of amyloid-rich tumors was reviewed and the implication of the presence of abundant amyloid on the death of tumor cells suggested. PMID:24550230

  11. Cytologic findings and differential diagnoses of primary thyroid MALT lymphoma with striking plasma cell differentiation and amyloid deposition.

    PubMed

    Nobuoka, Yuri; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Kuma, Seiji; Takagi, Nozomi; Higuchi, Miyoko; Masuoka, Hiroo; Miya, Akihiro; Kubota, Sumihisa; Miyauchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with associated amyloid protein deposition. While other primary thyroid neoplasms sush as medullary carcinoma and plasmacytoma with associated amyloid protein are known to occur and have been previously described by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), to our knowledge, the current cases are the first of thyroid MALT lymphoma with amyloid deposition to be detailed in the cytopathology literature. Case 1 was a 73-year-old female with chronic thyroiditis. FNAC suspected MALT lymphoma. The amyloid material was not noticed, nevertheless it existed. Case 2 was a 71-year-old female with a nodule of the thyroid. Malignant lymphoma and medullary carcinoma were suspected by FNAC. The possibility of medullary carcinoma was excluded by a measurement of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. After follow-up for two years, the nodule was diagnosed as MALT lymphoma associated with plasma cell differentiation and amyloidosis by the fourth FNAC. When we encounter small round cell tumors associated with amyloid in thyroid FNAC, we should consider not only medullary carcinoma but also MALT lymphoma. PMID:23636898

  12. The utility of cytology in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma lung: A tertiary care center study

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Saumya; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Husain, Nuzhat; Gupta, Anurag; Anand, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma harbors various molecular abnormalities that include epidermal growth factor mutation, anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene re-arrangement, K-RAS mutations. The availability of targeted therapy against these molecular markers has revolutionized personalized medicine. Accurate cytological diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma will aid in utilising the cytology smears for molecular testing. Objective: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various cytology samples in the diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: The study included a retrospective case series of 50 patients with biopsy proven non small cell lung carcinoma of adenocarcinoma subtype. The corresponding cytology reports of all the 50 cases were analyzed for different samples including broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), bronchial washings, bronchial brush smears, pleural fluid, sputum and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung and metastatic lymph nodes. The overall cyto-diagnosis efficacy as well that of various cytological samples were analyzed. Results: Multiple cytology samples were received in 14 of 50 cases. The overall diagnostic efficacy of the various cytology samples in the diagnosis of malignancy was 78% and 66.6% cases were accurately typed as non small cell lung carcinoma-adenocarcinoma. The best cytological sample for the detection of pulmonary adenocarcinoma was bronchial brush smears which had a detection rate of 70%. In fine needle aspiration cytology samples and bronchial washings the detection rate was 65.5% and 25% respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: In cases where the cytological diagnosis is certain the tissue biopsies can be simultaneously tested for EGRF and ALK gene mutations. Repeat biopsies are often required due to small amount of tumor tissue or necrotic biopsies. Alternate use of cytological specimen for molecular testing can be done when a diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma is established. PMID:26729975

  13. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of ovarian steroid cell tumor: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Vardhan, Harsh; Khokhar, Singh; Rai, Naresh; Saxena, Rajeev; Riyaz, Shahida

    2015-01-01

    Steroid cell tumors (SCTs) of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors that account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, which produces symptoms such as hirsutism, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and male patterned voice. For evaluation of the androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the first laboratory tests to be measured. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although SCTs are generally benign, the risk of malignant transformation is always present. Surgical excision of tumor is the most important and hallmark treatment. The present case signifies the early preoperative diagnosis of a virilizing SCT, based on cytological features and its careful correlation with clinicopathological and radiological findings.

  14. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of intraabdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, Swaminathan; Kapoor, Vibhu; Schoedel, Karen

    2003-07-01

    A 55-yr-old female presented with a mass near the left adrenal gland detected on a CT scan performed for breast cancer staging. A CT-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed and showed scattered ciliated cells, compatible with benign respiratory-type epithelial cells. CT-guided needle biopsy also showed fibrocollagenous and fibroadipose connective tissue with focal respiratory type epithelium with subepithelial mucus glands. A final diagnosis of extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) was rendered after surgical resection. This uncommon benign congenital malformation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FNA of an intraabdominal mass in an adult. PMID:12827711

  15. Grading systems in the cytological diagnosis of breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Cherry; Pujani, Mukta; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Srivastava, A N; Singh, U S

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, diagnosis of breast carcinoma is still made on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). For the resource-poor settings, FNAC is cheaper, less invasive and can sample different areas of the lesion compared with core needle biopsy. The role of breast FNA is usually limited to just categorize the lesion as benign or malignant. Prognostic information from cytomorphology, conveyed to the clinician depends upon the cytopathologist's way of formatting the report. PubMed-based literature search collated the information from articles describing the architectural and cytological features studied on breast aspiration smears. This review focuses on cytomorphological features and the different grading systems with their strengths, short-comings, and practical applicability. Eight worldwide articles proposing new methods of grading the cytological smears from breast cancers were published between 1980 and 2006. All the grading methods were developed for the most common type of breast cancer, that is, infiltrating duct carcinoma (not otherwise specified) type, and most of the workers used Papanicolaou-stained smears for the purpose of grading. Moreover, if interpreted carefully FNAC smears can convey information on most of the histological features. Hence, in developing countries, the focus should be on extracting the maximum information from cytological smears, so that a more precise "surgical pathology" type diagnosis can be given, instead of merely reporting as benign or malignant. Among all the discussed grading systems, we suggest grading system by Howell would be most appropriate and closest to the accepted histologic grading system as it applies Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histological grading system with modifications on FNA smears. We recommend it to be followed by all cytopathologists, in order to bring uniformity in the reporting of breast FNAs for grading the malignant lesions. PMID:25579516

  16. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid fine needle aspirates: A cytologic study with histologic follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Sinha, Simanti; Basak, Bijan; Roy, Dipanwita Nag; Sinha, Swapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology represents a major step towards standardization, reproducibility, improved clinical significance, and greater predictive value of thyroid fine needle aspirates (FNAs). Aims: To elucidate the utility of the Bethesda system in reporting thyroid FNAs. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed thyroid FNAs between April 2009 and March 2012, classified them using the Bethesda system, found out the distribution of cases in each Bethesda category, and calculated the malignancy risk for each category by follow-up histopathology. Results: Of the 1020 FNAs, 1.2% were non-diagnostic, 87.5% were benign, 1% were atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 4.2% were suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 1.4% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 4.7% malignant. Of 69 cases originally interpreted as non-diagnostic, 12 remained non-diagnostic after re-aspiration. In 323 cases, data of follow-up histopathologic examination (HPE) were available. Rates of malignancy reported on follow-up HPE were non-diagnostic 0%, benign 4.5%, AFLUS 20%, SFN 30.6%, SM 75%, and malignant 97.8%. Conclusions: Reviewing the thyroid FNAs with the Bethesda system allowed a more specific cytological diagnosis. In this study, the distribution of cases in the Bethesda categories differed from some studies, with the number of benign cases being higher and the number of non-diagnostic and AFLUS cases being lower. The malignancy risk for each category correlated well with other studies. The Bethesda system thus allows standardization in reporting, improves perceptions of diagnostic terminology between cytopathologists and clinicians, and leads to more consistent management approaches. PMID:23833397

  17. A case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Sheikh, Zafar A; Alansary, Taiba A; Amir, Thasneem; Al-Rabiy, Fatma N; Junaid, Thamradeen A

    2016-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms, the most common being malignant lymphoma, especially Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). In this report, we describe the fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features of a case with concurrent LCH and HL in a lymph node. A 20-year-old man presented with an enlarged left upper cervical lymph node. FNA smears from the swelling revealed numerous CD1a+ and S-100+ Langerhans-type cells (LCs) along with many eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; there were also large atypical cells with enlarged nuclei having prominent nucleoli. The cytodiagnosis was LCH and the possibility of association with or trans-differentiation into a lymphoma was suggested. The histopathological diagnosis of the excised left cervical lymph node was classical HL-nodular sclerosis type (CHL-NS) with LCH. The lacunar type Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells were positive for CD30 and CD15, and the LCs were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein. PET/CT imaging demonstrated hypermetabolic lymph nodes in neck, abdomen, thorax and pelvis as well as pulmonary nodules and a splenic mass. The patient received 13 courses of chemotherapy and two years later, the enhanced CT revealed regressive course of the disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:128-132. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26608102

  18. A Case of Adenomatous Goiter Involving Diffuse, Acute, and Painful Thyroid Enlargement after Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Ryohei; Saito, Wataru; Ohta, Yusuke; Koike, Yoshikazu; Yamashita, Tetsumasa; Yamamoto, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 44-year-old woman who exhibited a diffuse goiter during health screening. Her medical history did not include any significant medication-based treatment. An echographic examination detected a solid cystic tumor, which measured 21 × 14 × 10?mm, in her right thyroid lobe; however, she displayed normal thyroid function. After fine-needle aspiration cytology had been performed with a 22?G injection needle, the patient immediately complained of compression and pain extending from the front of her neck to her lower chin, which was not accompanied by dyspnea. A second echographic examination revealed diffuse and edematous enlargement and increased internal blood flow in the bilateral thyroid lobes as well as a thyroid nodule. We immediately iced the patient's neck and administered 125?mg methylprednisolone via an intravenous infusion. Within one hour, her symptoms had markedly improved, but acute pain remained. Thus, we continued the steroid (prednisone) treatment, but the dose was gradually reduced from 10?mg/day to 5?mg/day at 1 week after the patient's symptoms disappeared. The mechanism responsible for the patient's condition remains unclear. PMID:25276443

  19. Pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology of parotid membranous basal cell adenoma-A review of pitfalls in FNA cytology of salivary gland neoplasms with basaloid cell features.

    PubMed

    Jurczyk, Matthew; Peevey, Joseph F; Vande Haar, Mark A; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2015-05-01

    Membranous basal cell adenoma (MBCA) is a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm. It is difficult to diagnose MBCA based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology due to rare reporting of its FNA cytology and overlapping of its FNA cytologic features with some benign and malignant entities. We present a case of MBCA in a 67-year-old female that was originally misinterpreted as adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) on FNA cytology. The FNA smears showed numerous uniform small basaloid epithelial cells with round or oval nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. The basaloid cells surround acellular, dense, homogenous material or are surrounded by acellular or paucicellular dense homogeneous material possibly containing bland spindle cells. The basaloid cells are present in variably sized three-dimensional clusters, acini, or sheets with variable cohesion. The dense homogenous material surrounded by basaloid cells may be interconnected. High power magnification reveals the homogeneous material to have a fibrillar texture. The edges of dense homogenous materials were well-demarcated. We describe the diagnostic pitfalls of FNA for MBCA, particularly versus ACC, basal cell adenoma, cellular pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in hope of improving clinical management and patient treatment. PMID:25431027

  20. Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washouts vs. cytologic examination for diagnosis of primary or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Maccora, D; Carrozza, C; Canu, G; Fadda, G; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) is able to detect approximately 63% of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The measurement of calcitonin in the needle washout (FNAB-CT) could improve its accuracy. Sixty-two FNAB-C were performed in 38 patients. Serum calcitonin (sCT) was measured before performing FNAB-C. After obtaining a FNAB-C specimen, the needle was washed with 0.5 ml of saline solution to obtain the CT washouts. Receiver operating characteristic (RO C) analysis identified the cut-offs of FNAB-CT and FNAB-CT/sCT. Eighteen MTC were found at final histology. RO C analysis indicated FNAB-CT > 10.4 pg/ml and FNABCT/ sCT > 1.39 as more accurate cut-off values. Overall accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 85%, 100 and 83%, respectively, for FNAB-C, 97%, 100%, 96% for FNAB-CT and 90%, 83% and 93% for FNAB-CT/sCT. The integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT resulted in 98% overall accuracy, 100% PPV and 98% NPV; the integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT/sCT in 90% overall accuracy, 80% PPV and 95% NPV. One of 2 false negative FNAB-CT and one of 3 false negative FNAB CT/sCT were correctly diagnosed by FNAB-C. Eight of 9 non-diagnostic FNAB-C were correctly classified by FNAB-CT and 7 by FNAB CT/sCT. FNAB-CT should integrate but not replace FNAB-C. FNAB-CT is particularly useful in the presence of non-diagnostic FNAB-C. PMID:25762832

  1. Penile metastasis of urothelial carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    de Alvarenga, Marcia Lanzoni; Borlot, Vinicius Freitas; Moutinho, Michel Antonio Kiyota; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano

    2009-01-01

    Penile neoplasms are rare and can be primary or represent metastasis or local recurrence. The most common primary cancer of the penis is squamous cell carcinoma, accounting for 95% of all cancers. In spite of the rich vascularity of the organ, penile metastases are uncommon. Cutaneous metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) is extremely rare and generally accepted as the late manifestation of a systemic spread. By 1998, approximately 500 cases of penile metastasis had been reported worldwide. However, only few case reports and series of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of penile tumors have been documented. We report a case of penile metastasis from UC diagnosed by FNAC and describe the cytomorphological findings with an emphasis on cercariform cells. Although not commonly used, FNA of penile nodules can be effective in diagnosing recurrence or metastasis and avoiding surgical procedures, thus being an excellent initial procedure in the diagnostic approach. PMID:19621093

  2. Utility and diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal lesions: Saudi Arabian experience

    PubMed Central

    Raddaoui, Emad; Alhamad, Esam H; Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Al-Habeeb, Fatmah F; Arafah, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TFNA) of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Study Design: Over 3˝ years from inception at King Khalid University Hospital, a retrospective analysis of the cytological diagnoses of all the EBUS-TFNA procedures performed in 80 patients who had mediastinal mass/nodular enlargement. Cytology results were reviewed and correlated with the histologic follow-up. Results: Of the 80 patients who underwent EBUS-TFNA, 15 cases (18.75%) were positive for malignancy, 48 cases (60%) negative for malignancy and 17 cases (21.25%) unsatisfactory. Of the 48 cases, which were negative for malignancy, 24 (50%) cases were of granulomatous inflammation. The overall diagnostic yield of our EBUS-TFNA specimen was 78.75%. Forty-seven cases (58.75%) of 80 cases had histological follow-up biopsies. Among them, 32 cases (68%) had the same cytological and histological diagnosis and 15 cases (31.09%) had discordance between the cytology and the follow-up histological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing granulomas by EBUS-TFNA are 77%, 82%, 83%, and 75% and for diagnosing malignancy are 71%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results show that cytological samples obtained through EBUS-TFNA are accurate and specific in making a diagnosis of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Its optimum use depends on the effective collaboration between the cytotechnologist, pathologist, and the bronchoscopist. PMID:25191512

  3. Application of pattern analysis in fine needle aspiration of solitary nodule of thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Lngegowda, Jyothi B; Muddegowda, Prakash H; Rajesh, Kumar N; Ramkumar, Kurpad R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various methods are used to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis of thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Systemic pattern analysis is one such that can be used to analyze the lesions and divide them into individual categories. Aims: To study the application of pattern analysis in the interpretation of solitary thyroid nodule (STN). Materials and Methods: Two hundred and nineteen cases of fine needle aspiration cytology of STN were reviewed along with histopathological correlation. Smears were classified based on primary and secondary patterns. Predominant pattern (primary) was identified and lesion categorized. This was followed by identifying the next dominant pattern (secondary) and recategorization. Cytological diagnosis based on primary and secondary patterns was correlated with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: Based on pattern analysis, the study had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 98.9%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 88.9% and 96% respectively and the overall diagnostic accuracy was 95.4%. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the feasibility and applicability of pattern analysis in diagnosing thyroid lesions by FNAC, which could be easily reproducible. PMID:21042526

  4. Clinical evaluation, imaging studies, indications for cytologic study and preprocedural requirements for duct brushing studies and pancreatic fine-needle aspiration: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Douglas; Schmidt, C. Max; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Barthel, James S.; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Merchant, Nipun B.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Shaaban, Akram M.; Simeone, Diane; Pitman, Martha Bishop; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques for EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature to be used for pancreaticobiliary disease, ancillary testing and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on expertise of the authors, literature review, discussions of the draft document at national and international meetings and synthesis of online comments of the draft document. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. This document summarizes recommendations for the clinical and imaging work-up of pancreatic and biliary tract lesions along with indications for cytologic study of these lesions. Prebrushing and FNA requirements are also discussed. PMID:25191515

  5. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E.; Lupo, Mark A.; Manganelli, Monique L.; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Setting: Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Design: Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Results: Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73–97%) and 85% (95% CI, 75–92%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 85–98%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Conclusions: Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve the preoperative risk-based management of benign nodules with AUS/FLUS or FN/SFN cytology. PMID:25965083

  6. Putting an eye on cytological specimens: an audit of the clinical impact of thyroid fine-needle aspiration in different health care settings.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bernardo Dias; Gerhard, Renę; Schmitt, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    There is published evidence showing less cost-benefit approaches in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. We performed an institutional audit of the cytologic diagnosis of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in an attempt to perceive the clinical impact of this technique on the management of thyroid nodules and to compare it in two different types of health care: Primary Care Medicine and Endocrinology. We performed a retrospective analysis to the electronic records of patients referred from General Practitioners (GP) and Endocrinologists (E) for thyroid FNA between 2010 and 2012. Request forms for cytological reports where retrieved for analysis of clinical and cytological data. The database search retrieved 1655 patients (female gender: 88.2%; GP references: 51.8%). Preprocedure clinical information was available from 157 out of 2005 nodules (7.8%). Significant differences in cytological diagnosis were seen in "Nondiagnostic" (GP: 11.6%; E: 7.5%, ?(2) ?=?0.002) and "Benign" categories (GP: 75%; E: 81.8%, ?(2) ?cytological diagnostic results. PMID:24678022

  7. Discrepancy of target sites between clinician and cytopathological reports in head neck fine needle aspiration: Did I miss the target or did the clinician mistake the organ site?

    PubMed

    Khanlari, Mahsa; Daneshbod, Yahya; Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Hanieh; Shirian, Sadegh; Negahban, Shahrzad; Aledavood, Azita; Oryan, Ahmad; Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Field, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of head and neck lesions is relatively high, but cytologic interpretation might be confusing if the sample is lacking typical cytologic features according to labeled site by physician. These errors may have an impact on pathology search engines, healthcare costs or even adverse outcomes. The cytology archive database of multiple institutions in southern Iran and Australia covering the period 2001-2011, were searched using keywords: salivary gland, head, neck, FNAC, and cytology. All the extracted reports were reviewed. The reports which showed discordance between the clinician's impression of the organ involved and subsequent fine needle biopsy request, and the eventual cytological diagnosis were selected. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology or cell block, with assistance from imaging, clinical outcome, physical examination, molecular studies, or microbiological culture. The total number of 10,200 head and neck superficial FNAC were included in the study, from which 48 cases showed discordance between the clinicians request and the actual site of pathology. Apart from the histopathology, the imaging, clinical history, physical examination, immunohistochemical study, microbiologic culture and molecular testing helped to finalize the target organ of pathology in 23, 6, 7, 8, 2, and 1 cases respectively. The commonest discrepancies were for FNAC of "salivary gland" [total: 20 with actual final pathology in: bone (7), soft tissue (5), lymph node (3), odontogenic (3) and skin (2)], "lymph node" [total: 12 with final pathology in: soft tissue (3), skin (3), bone (1) and brain (1)], "soft tissue" [total: 11 with final pathology in: bone (5), skin (2), salivary gland (1), and ocular region (1)] and "skin" [total: 5 with final pathology in: lymph node (2), bone (1), soft tissue (1) and salivary gland (1)]. The primary physician requesting FNAC of head and neck lesions are incorrect in their clinical impression of the actual site in nearly 0.5 percent of cases, due to the overlapping clinical and imaging findings or possibly due to inadequate history taking or physical examination. PMID:26108921

  8. Discrepancy of target sites between clinician and cytopathological reports in head neck fine needle aspiration: Did I miss the target or did the clinician mistake the organ site?

    PubMed Central

    Khanlari, Mahsa; Daneshbod, Yahya; Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Hanieh; Shirian, Sadegh; Negahban, Shahrzad; Aledavood, Azita; Oryan, Ahmad; Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Field, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of head and neck lesions is relatively high, but cytologic interpretation might be confusing if the sample is lacking typical cytologic features according to labeled site by physician. These errors may have an impact on pathology search engines, healthcare costs or even adverse outcomes. The cytology archive database of multiple institutions in southern Iran and Australia covering the period 2001–2011, were searched using keywords: salivary gland, head, neck, FNAC, and cytology. All the extracted reports were reviewed. The reports which showed discordance between the clinician's impression of the organ involved and subsequent fine needle biopsy request, and the eventual cytological diagnosis were selected. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology or cell block, with assistance from imaging, clinical outcome, physical examination, molecular studies, or microbiological culture. The total number of 10,200 head and neck superficial FNAC were included in the study, from which 48 cases showed discordance between the clinicians request and the actual site of pathology. Apart from the histopathology, the imaging, clinical history, physical examination, immunohistochemical study, microbiologic culture and molecular testing helped to finalize the target organ of pathology in 23, 6, 7, 8, 2, and 1 cases respectively. The commonest discrepancies were for FNAC of “salivary gland” [total: 20 with actual final pathology in: bone (7), soft tissue (5), lymph node (3), odontogenic (3) and skin (2)], “lymph node” [total: 12 with final pathology in: soft tissue (3), skin (3), bone (1) and brain (1)], “soft tissue” [total: 11 with final pathology in: bone (5), skin (2), salivary gland (1), and ocular region (1)] and “skin” [total: 5 with final pathology in: lymph node (2), bone (1), soft tissue (1) and salivary gland (1)]. The primary physician requesting FNAC of head and neck lesions are incorrect in their clinical impression of the actual site in nearly 0.5 percent of cases, due to the overlapping clinical and imaging findings or possibly due to inadequate history taking or physical examination. PMID:26108921

  9. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis – is cytological grading significant? A correlation of grades with clinical, biochemical, ltrasonographic and radionuclide parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Alka; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Dash, Radharaman J; Mittal, Bhagwant R; saxena, Akshay K

    2007-01-01

    Background Clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic, radionuclide and cytomorphological observations in Lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT), to define the cytological grading criteria on smears and correlation of grades with above parameters. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 76 patients attending the Fine needle aspiration cytology clinic of a tertiary care institute in North India. The various parameters like patients' clinical presentation, thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies, hormonal profiles, radionuclide thyroid scan and thyroid ultrasound were studied. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid gland and grading of thyroiditis was done on smears. The grades were correlated with above parameters and the correlation indices were evaluated statistically. Results Most of the patients were females (70, 92.11%) who presented with a diffuse goiter (68, 89.47%). Hypothyroid features (56, 73.68%) and elevated TSH (75, 98.68%) were common, but radioiodide uptake was low or normal in majority of patients. Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody was elevated in 46/70 (65.71%) patients. Cytomorphology in fine needle aspirates was diagnostic of lymphocytic thyroiditis in 75 (98.68%) patients. Most of them had grade I/II disease by cytology. No correlation was observed between grades of cytomorphology and clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and radionuclide parameters. Conclusion Despite the availability of several tests for diagnosis of LT, FNAC remains the gold standard. The grades of thyroiditis at cytology however do not correlate with clinical, biochemical, radionuclide and ultrasonographic parameters. PMID:17470291

  10. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology. PMID:24987443

  11. Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration cytology of non-invasive, low-grade urothelial carcinoma with lung metastasis: A case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Çi?dem; Yildiz, Kürsat; Çabuk, Devrim; Akgül, Asli

    2015-01-01

    Radiological analyses in a 61-year-old patient being followed since 2005 for low-grade, non-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) (Ta) revealed a 5-cm pleural-based mass in the lower lobe of the right lung for which a subsequent transthoracic fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed. Upon observing the carcinoma cells consistent with UC metastasis, systemic chemotherapy was commenced. The patient underwent a metastatectomy based on the thoracic computerized tomography scan performed on the 4th month of treatment, which revealed notable regression. The resected tumor was morphologically similar to cells seen in the transthoracic fine-needle aspiration and was immunohistochemically positive for p63, uroplakin, thrombomodulin, CK7 and CK20 at varying degrees but was negative for TTF-1. We report a case of metastatic UC of the lung in a patient who had had a low-grade superficial UC of the urinary bladder and we discuss the cytopathological features of this rare entity in light of the literature. PMID:26229254

  12. Cytological findings of odontogenic myxofibroma: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Khare, Akriti; Joshi, Deepti; Majumdar, Kaushik; Gupta, Vikas; Goel, Garima; Kapoor, Neelkamal

    2016-04-01

    Odontogenic myxofibroma represents a rare slow-growing benign neoplasm, which usually occurs in the second and third decades of life and rarely in children or adults over 50 years of age. Myxomas in general represent from 2.3% to 17.7% of all odontogenic tumors, and myxofibromas represent a small number of all myxomas. Limited evidence is present in literature regarding the cytological diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma/myxofibroma. We hereby report the cytomorphological features of a histologically confirmed case of odontogenic myxofibroma and the pitfalls of the cytological diagnosis. A painless jaw swelling in a young boy was aspirated. Scanty mucoid material was obtained. Cytology Smears were moderately cellular and showed a population comprising predominantly of singly scattered plump to fusiform cells with bipolar cytoplasmic processes showing mild to moderate atypia embedded within dense myxoid matrix and another population of cells arranged in clusters. Case was interpreted as low grade mesenchymal tumor. Subsequent biopsy confirmed it as odontogenic myxofibroma arising in a odontogenic keratocyst. Precise interpretation of intraosseous jaw lesions FNAC may not always be possible, but an attempt should be made to broadly classify the lesion as an inflammatory lesion, cystic lesion, giant cell lesion, fibro-osseous lesion or as an odontogenic tumor. If dual population of odontogenic epithelium and mesenchymal cells embedded in myxoid matrix are identified in such aspirates, a possibility of myxoid odontogenic tumor may be suggested. Triple correlation of cytological, clinical and radiological findings can guide the surgeon for taking appropriate therapeutic decisions. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:329-333. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26801006

  13. Liquid-based cytology in the fine needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions: a comparison study with the conventional smear, ThinPrep, and SurePath

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong Sin; Lee, Sung Hak; Jung, So Lyung; Jung, Chan Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been progressively used for evaluating fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. However, limited studies have examined LBC in FNA of parathyroid lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 24 FNA specimens of parathyroid lesions, including 6 specimens prepared by conventional smear, 12 specimens prepared using ThinPrep method, and 6 specimens prepared using SurePath method. The 18 LBC specimens were also used for cell block preparation and immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH). LBC specimens more frequently showed variable cellularity; microfollicular structure; bubbly or vacuolated cytoplasm; and small, round cells with distinct borders compared to specimens prepared by conventional smear. ThinPrep specimens showed a clean background and fewer isolated cells and naked nuclei compared to specimens prepared using the other methods. SurePath specimens showed many white blood cells in the background and more scattered single cells and naked nuclei compared to ThinPrep specimens. Specimens prepared using the 3 methods often showed colloid-like material but did not contain dense globular colloidal structures. White blood cells in the background of LBC specimens serve as useful indicators for estimating cell size. The nuclear size of parathyroid cells was similar to or smaller than that of inflammatory cells in the background. Cell block sections showed definite histological features of the parathyroid tissue and strong positive immunostaining for PTH. Awareness of these cytologic features of parathyroid FNA specimens prepared using ThinPrep and SurePath methods may help in preventing misdiagnosis. Cell block preparation and PTH immunostaining should be performed for the definitive diagnosis of parathyroid lesions. PMID:26722400

  14. Role of FNAC in palpable chest wall lesions in developing country.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Surbhi; Sharma, Sonal; Bahl, Nidhi

    2014-08-01

    Palpable chest wall lesions are unusual manifestation of an underlying thoracic pathology and it is difficult to diagnose them with their diverse spectrum ranging from benign to malignant. Considering the exposure of patient to invasive biopsy/excision and the risk of local complications, FNAC is now being increasingly used in the primary assessment of these lesions. Objectives of this study were to report the spectrum of chest wall lesions in the population of a developing country and evaluating the diagnostic role of FNAC. All the patients who presented with palpable cutaneous or subcutaneous chest wall swelling during a period of January 2003 to August 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. May Grunwald Giemsa and Papanicolaou stained aspirates were examined, along with special stains. Seven hundred seventy-three cases were subjected to chest wall FNAC, of which 726 (93.9%) cases were satisfactory. Age ranged from 1 to 93 years with M:F?=?0.92:1. 358 (49.3%) were diagnosed as inflammatory and 368 (50.7%) were neoplastic lesions. Two-hundred thirty four cases (32.2%) were diagnosed as mycobacterial abscess (likely tuberculous). Of the neoplastic lesions, 153 were malignant with carcinomas being predominant (88.2%). Malignant cases comprised of scar site recurrence in breast carcinoma (73 cases), metastatic carcinomas (62 cases), primary sarcomas (eight cases), hematological neoplasms (six cases), and miscellaneous group (four cases). Overall malignant lesions accounted for 21.1% (153/726) of satisfactory chest wall aspirates. FNAC is very useful and simple investigation for early diagnosis of chest wall abscesses, cutaneous metastases from visceral malignancies, and scar site recurrence in breast carcinoma. PMID:24634363

  15. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of superficial lymph nodes: an alternative to fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bohelay, Gérôme; Battistella, Maxime; Pagčs, Cécile; de Margerie-Mellon, Constance; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Viguier, Manuelle; Kerob, Delphine; Madjlessi, Nika; Baccard, Michel; Archimbaud, Alain; Comte, Christelle; Mourah, Samia; Porcher, Raphael; Bagot, Martine; Janin, Anne; De Kerviler, Eric; Lebbé, Céleste

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) in suspected cases of lymph node metastasis from cutaneous melanoma. All patients with cutaneous melanoma followed in Saint-Louis Hospital between 2006 and 2010 who underwent US-CNB for suspicion of melanoma lymph node metastasis were reviewed retrospectively. Histopathological results of US-CNB samples were classified as melanoma, other malignancy, suspicious, inadequate, or benign. The diagnostic accuracy of US-CNB was assessed by comparison with two reference standards: histopathological examination of the radical lymph node dissection or, when this was not available, clinical and radiological follow-up. The data from 72 US-CNB were analyzed. Forty-four melanomas, 22 benign, three other malignancies, three inadequate samples, and no inconclusive specimens were diagnosed. Seventy-one US-CNB results were confirmed (98.6%). US-CNB achieved high sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (respectively, 97.9, 100, and 100%). No adverse events were reported after the procedure. US-CNB provided a mean tissue volume of 16.7?mm per lymphadenopathy. US-CNB has diagnostic value similar to that of fine-needle aspiration cytology. It represents a reliable alternative method in melanoma lymph node metastasis to avoid surgery in patients who will not benefit from it. US-CNB provides relatively large samples of tissue suitable for comprehensive genomic analyses currently needed for research and personalized care of melanoma patients. PMID:25933210

  16. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Diagnosed as Anaplastic Carcinoma: Failure in Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology?

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Maria A. C.; Sobrinho-Simőes, Manuel; Castilho, Emanuel C.; Carelli, Guareide; Paes, Norberto S.; Mazeto, Glaucia M. F. S.

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid which had been initially diagnosed as an anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) is described: female, 73 years old, with a fast-growing cervical nodule on the left side and hoarseness for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed a 4.5?cm solid nodule. FNA was compatible with poorly differentiated carcinoma with immunoreactivity for AE1/AE3, EMA. Thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed a nonencapsulated tumor. Immunohistochemistry disclosed positivity for AE1/AE3, p53,p63, and Ki67. The diagnosis was ATC. A second opinion reported tumor consisting of squamous cells, with intense inflammatory infiltrate both in tumor and in the adjacent thyroid, with final diagnosis of SCC, associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. No other primary focus of SCC was found. Patient has shown a 48-month survival period. Clinically, primary SCCs of the thyroid and ATCs are similar. The distinction is often difficult particularly when based on the cytological analysis of FNA material. PMID:25295208

  17. Tumour seeding after fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy of the head and neck - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Keval S V; Ethunandan, Madan

    2016-04-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy are essential diagnostic investigations of lumps in the head and neck, seeding along the needle track has long been a concern, and various factors have been implicated. We therefore searched the Medline database for relevant English language papers published between 1970 and 2014, excluding those on the thyroid and parathyroid, and systematically reviewed them to assess the risk. In the 610 articles reviewed we found only 7 reports of seeding (5 after FNAC and 2 after core needle biopsy). Tumours were found between 3 months and 3 years after the procedure in 4 cases, and in 3, tumour cells were found along the needle track between 0 and 33 days after the procedure. The needles varied in size from 18 - 22 gauge (G) and there were 3 to 4 passes. Four cases occurred after investigation of a mass in the salivary glands, and 3 after assessment of a cervical lymph node. Disease was benign in one and malignant in 6. Seeding along the needle track after FNAC or core needle biopsy of a lump in the head and neck is rarely reported, and an accurate estimate of its incidence is difficult to ascertain. Crude estimates suggest 0.00012% and 0.0011% after FNA and core needle biopsy, respectively. A distinction should be made between seeding that is seen shortly after the procedure and the development of tumour along the needle track. PMID:26837638

  18. Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and Ultrasound Elastography: Diagnostic Accuracy as a Tool in Recommending Repeat Fine-Needle Aspiration for Solid Thyroid Nodules with Non-Diagnostic Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-02-01

    The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) has been found to be accurate in the stratification of malignancy risk, and elastography has been found to have a high negative predictive value in non-diagnostic thyroid nodules. Through assessment of 104 solid non-diagnostic thyroid nodules, this study investigated the role of both in recommending repeat ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration for solid thyroid nodules with non-diagnostic cytology. All nodules were classified by TIRADS (categories 4a, 4b, 4c and 5), and elastography scores were assigned according to the Rago and Asteria criteria. The malignancy risks for TIRADS categories 4a, 4b, 4c and 5 were 12.5%, 25.0%, 25.8% and 16.7%, respectively. Elastography revealed the highest diagnostic performance for TIRADS category 4a, with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy of 100%, 85.7%, 100%, 50% and 87.5% for the Asteria criteria. Observation may be considered for non-diagnostic solid nodules that have no other suspicious ultrasonographic features and are also benign on real-time strain elastography using the Asteria criteria. PMID:26614385

  19. Performance Characteristics of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands in Fine-Needle Aspirates: Results From the College of American Pathologists Nongynecologic Cytology Program.

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, Z Laura; Auger, Manon; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Laser, Alice; Souers, Rhona J; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Barkan, Guliz A; Crothers, Barbara A; Khalbuss, Walid E

    2015-12-01

    Context .- Although the cytomorphology of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) has been well described, the accuracy of this diagnosis in fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of the salivary glands has not been extensively evaluated. Objective .- To assess participants' responses in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Nongynecologic Cytology (NGC) Program to determine the accuracy and false-negative rate of ACC cases in salivary gland FNAs. Design .- A retrospective review of the CAP NGC Program's cumulative data from 2000-2010 was performed for the general and the specific reference diagnosis categories for ACC in salivary gland FNAs according to preparation and participant types. Results .- Of 5156 responses, the overall concordance rates for both the general category of malignancy and the specific category of ACC were 63.6% (3279 of 5156) and 38.6% (1966 of 5088), respectively, with a false-negative rate of 36.4% (1877 of 5156). The most frequent false-negative responses were pleomorphic (1080) and monomorphic (526) adenoma (1614 of 5088, 31.5%), while lymphoma was the most frequent malignant misinterpretation. There was a significant statistical difference in concordance to the reference interpretation between the reader types: 39.9% (1006 of 2521) concordance rate for pathologists compared to 33.8% (503 of 1488) for cytotechnologists. However, there was no significant statistical difference for concordance to the general category or reference interpretation, based on preparation type (Papanicolaou versus modified Giemsa stained). Conclusions .- In this interlaboratory comparison educational program, accurate identification of ACC has shown to be problematic, with ACC representing an important cause of false-negative responses. The most common diagnostic pitfall is distinguishing this entity from pleomorphic and monomorphic adenoma in the benign category and from lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the malignant one. PMID:26619024

  20. Chromogenic in situ hybridization to detect EGFR gene copy number in cell blocks from fine-needle aspirates of non small cell lung carcinomas and lung metastases from colo-rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates to the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the presence of lung nodules, cytology is often the only possible diagnostic approach. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is an alternative technique to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but its feasibility in detecting EGFR GCN in cell blocks from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung nodules has not yet been established. Methods We evaluated the feasibility of CISH on 33 FNAC from 20 primary NSCLC (5 squamous carcinomas, 8 large cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas) and 13 lung metastases from CRC. Results Of the 33 FNAC analyzed by CISH, 27 (82%) presented a balanced increase in EGFR gene and chromosome 7 number: 10 cases (30%) showed a low polysomy, 15 (45%) a high polysomy and 2 (6%) NSCLC were amplified. No significant differences between NSCLC and CRC lung metastases were found in relation to disomic or polysomic status. In addition, no correlation between EGFR GCN and EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression was found. Furthermore, we compared CISH results with those obtained by FISH on the same samples and we found 97% overall agreement between the two assays (k = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Two cases were amplified with both assays, whereas 1 case of NSCLC was amplified by FISH only. CISH sensitivity was 67%, the specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. Conclusions Our study shows that CISH is a valid method to detect EGFR GCN in cell blocks from FNAC of primary NSCLC or metastatic CRC to the lung. PMID:20843314

  1. Primary small cell carcinoma of the parotid: Fine needle aspiration and immunohistochemical features of a neuroendocrine variant

    PubMed Central

    Altinay, Serdar; Firat, Pinar; Yalçin, Şenay; Taşkin, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland small cell carcinoma (SGSmCC) is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of salivary gland tumors. A 42-year-old female patient came to the outpatient clinic due to a mass localized in the left submandibular space and that had been growing since 3-4 months. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) matched with small cell carcinoma (SmCC). As no other focus was detected by computerized tomography (CT), it was accepted as a primary neoplasm of the parotid gland. The histopathological assessment of the excised material and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a neuroendocrine differentiation of SmCC. No recurrence was observed during the 54-month follow-up period. We believe this to be the second case of SmCC with neuroendocrine differantiation of the parotid glands reported in Turkısh medical literature and will be added to the english database as one of the favorable SmCC cases. PMID:27011440

  2. Fusion of FNA-cytology and Gene-expression Data Using Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence to Predict Breast Cancer Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Mansoor; Gondal, Iqbal; Green, David; Coppel, Ross L

    2006-01-01

    Decision-in decision-out fusion architecture can be used to fuse the outputs of multiple classifiers from different diagnostic sources. In this paper, Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) has been used to fuse classification results of breast cancer data from two different sources: gene-expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and Fine-Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAc) data. Classification of individual sources is done by Support Vector Machine (SVM) with linear, polynomial and Radial Base Function (RBF) kernels. Out put belief of classifiers of both data sources are combined to arrive at one final decision. Dynamic uncertainty assessment is based on class differentiation of the breast cancer. Experimental results have shown that the new proposed breast cancer data fusion methodology have outperformed single classification models. PMID:17597882

  3. Efficacy and Pitfalls of FNAC of Thyroid Lesions in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; A.L., Hemalatha; B., Rakhi; S., Githanjali

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fine-needle aspiration has proven safe and efficacious in the evaluation of nodular diseases in the adults. It has been used extensively to select patients for surgical exploration with a high degree of reliability. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of its applicability in thyroid lesions in children and adolescents, as well as to determine distribution of thyroid lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients in whom the prevalence of thyroid nodules and probability of malignancy are different. Methodology: This is a four-year study undertaken between January 2009 and December 2012, during which, 284 fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed for palpable thyroid lesions in children and adolescents and analysed. Out of these 11, 52, 82 and 116 aspirates belonged to the age group between 7-<12 years, 12 -<16 years, 16 -<19 years, 19-21 years respectively. There were 261 (91.9%) satisfactory aspirates and 23 unsatisfactory aspirates (8.1%). These 261 satisfactory aspirates with adequate cellular material were taken up for interpretation and analysed. Thirty one patients underwent thyroidectomy. There were 4 true positives, 24 true negatives, 2 false positives and one false negative case in this study. Sensitivity, Specificity, Accuracy, Positive predictive value and Negative predictive value were calculated. Results: Benign cytology was reported in 89 cases (34.2%) where 11 cases (4.2%) were males. Thyroiditis was observed in 154 cases (59%) and 8 cases (3.1%) were males. Suspicious cytology was reported in 12 cases and comprised of 2 cases with a suspicion of Papillary Carcinoma and 10 cases (3.8%), with a suspicion of a Follicular lesion. Papillary Carcinoma was detected on 6 cases where all were females. The Sensitivity was 96%, Specificity was 66% and the Accuracy was 90%, Positive predictive value was 66%, Negative predictive value was 96%. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of palpable thyroid lesions in children and adolescents is a good screening test because of its high sensitivity. Majority of the nodules in this age-group are benign and fine-needle aspiration cytology helps prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:24596718

  4. Incidental detection microfilaria in subcutaneous breast nodule of lactating female fnac: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay Kr; Gupta, Prashant; Yadav, Soma; Pahawa, H S

    2014-06-01

    Filariasis is a major public health problem which is faced in tropical countries like India. Its diagnosis is made by using peripheral blood smears. However, microfilaria has been detected incidentally during FNACs of various lesions, which were done in clinically unsuspected cases. We are reporting here, an uncommon case of filariasis, which caused a nodular, subcutaneous swelling in left breast of a 30 year old lactating female. A nodular subcutaneous swelling can be caused in breast of a lactating female by lactational associated mastitis, but filaria causing a nodular swelling in a lactating breast is a rare presentation. Aspiration of the swelling demonstrated enormous pathogen presence caused by Woucheria bancrofti and the patient responded well to six weeks of daily anti-filarial treatment with diethylcarbamazine citrate. PMID:25120989

  5. Sialoblastoma. diagnosis by FNAC: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Sant Prakash; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Gajender; Kalra, Rajneesh; Sen, Rajeev; Garg, Nitin

    2015-11-01

    Tumors of salivary gland are very uncommon in children and comprise of <5% of all salivary gland tumors. Most of these neoplasms originate in the parotid gland with 10-15% arising from the submandibular, sublingual, and minor salivary glands. We report a case of sialoblastoma in an 8-year-old male child who presented with a history of slowly progressive swelling of the parotid gland since birth, which was soft to firm in consistency and mobile in all directions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well encapsulated tumor located in the superficial lobe of the left parotid gland. Fine needle aspiration was performed, which revealed a parotid tumor with closest resemblance to sialoblastoma. Superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of sialoblastoma. Sialoblastoma should always be considered when the lesion is known or suspected to be congenital. PMID:26214398

  6. Pre-analytic steps for molecular testing on thyroid fine-needle aspirations: The goal of good results.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Schmitt, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) represents a valid alternative to biopsy in a variety of clinical settings mainly based on its simplicity and less invasive clinical approach. In some cases, morphology evaluation alone is not sufficient to manage the patients, so that the application of ancillary techniques can contribute to diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of tumor behavior. These techniques include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in situ PCR, direct Sequencing, microarrays and proteomic methodologies. Although several recent experiences underline the superior value of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) quality mainly for advanced genomic high throughput platforms, very scant literature studied the role of the pre-analytical or analytical phases. Despite the high specificity of molecular techniques as a support for diagnosis, there is a need for an increased standardization of pre-analytical/analytical steps such as providing appropriate clinical history, proper collection of laboratory specimens and proper preparation of samples, adequate fixative/reagent concentrations and technical equipments. All these requirements are crucial according to the results from 42 American laboratories, which reported 0.33% of significant molecular errors with 60% of them in the pre-analytical phase. The most common error is to forget that cytological preparation requires specific molecular variables, which are different from histological specimens. Cytological samples offer the advantage of a well preserved DNA, readily extractable and reasonably stable (from 6 months to 5 years) avoiding pitfalls due to formalin-fixation. Freshly prepared, unstained direct, alcohol-fixed papanicolaou, air-dried diff-quick smears are all suitable for DNA extraction and preservation. In the specific field of thyroid FNAC, molecular analysis has been supported by the growing evidence that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer, frequently is a diploid lesion and can display non-overlapping mutations of the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) in 46% to 70%, cases, ret proto-oncogene (RET) in 3 to 85% and Rat Sarcoma oncogene (RAS) in 0-21% cases. Recently, several cytological papers demonstrated that the combination of morphology and molecular analysis can increase the diagnostic accuracy allowing more precise prediction of malignancy regardless of the diagnostic categories. In conclusion, the correct use of the pre-analytical-analytical steps might lead to optimal results on cytology and empower the prognostic value of molecular techniques as strong indicators of cancer for their high specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:24403951

  7. Pre-analytic steps for molecular testing on thyroid fine-needle aspirations: The goal of good results

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Schmitt, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) represents a valid alternative to biopsy in a variety of clinical settings mainly based on its simplicity and less invasive clinical approach. In some cases, morphology evaluation alone is not sufficient to manage the patients, so that the application of ancillary techniques can contribute to diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of tumor behavior. These techniques include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in situ PCR, direct Sequencing, microarrays and proteomic methodologies. Although several recent experiences underline the superior value of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) quality mainly for advanced genomic high throughput platforms, very scant literature studied the role of the pre-analytical or analytical phases. Despite the high specificity of molecular techniques as a support for diagnosis, there is a need for an increased standardization of pre-analytical/analytical steps such as providing appropriate clinical history, proper collection of laboratory specimens and proper preparation of samples, adequate fixative/reagent concentrations and technical equipments. All these requirements are crucial according to the results from 42 American laboratories, which reported 0.33% of significant molecular errors with 60% of them in the pre-analytical phase. The most common error is to forget that cytological preparation requires specific molecular variables, which are different from histological specimens. Cytological samples offer the advantage of a well preserved DNA, readily extractable and reasonably stable (from 6 months to 5 years) avoiding pitfalls due to formalin-fixation. Freshly prepared, unstained direct, alcohol-fixed papanicolaou, air-dried diff-quick smears are all suitable for DNA extraction and preservation. In the specific field of thyroid FNAC, molecular analysis has been supported by the growing evidence that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer, frequently is a diploid lesion and can display non-overlapping mutations of the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) in 46% to 70%, cases, ret proto-oncogene (RET) in 3 to 85% and Rat Sarcoma oncogene (RAS) in 0-21% cases. Recently, several cytological papers demonstrated that the combination of morphology and molecular analysis can increase the diagnostic accuracy allowing more precise prediction of malignancy regardless of the diagnostic categories. In conclusion, the correct use of the pre-analytical-analytical steps might lead to optimal results on cytology and empower the prognostic value of molecular techniques as strong indicators of cancer for their high specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:24403951

  8. Diagnostic terminology and morphologic criteria for cytologic diagnosis of thyroid lesions: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Asa, Syl L; Rosai, Juan; Merino, Maria J; Randolph, Gregory; Vielh, Philippe; DeMay, Richard M; Sidawy, Mary K; Frable, William J

    2008-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the NCI Thyroid Fine-needle Aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference on October 22-23, 2007 in Bethesda, MD. The two-day meeting was accompanied by a permanent informational website and several on-line discussion periods between May 1 and December 15, 2007 (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov). This document summarizes matters regarding diagnostic terminology/classification scheme for thyroid FNA interpretation and cytomorphologic criteria for the diagnosis of various benign and malignant thyroid lesions. (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/). PMID:18478609

  9. A standardized cytological and immunochemical method for the analysis of fine-needle spleen aspirates: assessment of leukocyte population changes in canine visceral leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Santos, Silvana Ornelas; Chagas-Júnior, Adenizar Delgado; Paixăo, Mariza; Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; dos-Santos, Washington Luís Conrado; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain

    2006-06-15

    A method for the evaluation of splenic cellularity using samples collected by fine-needle aspirative biopsy was standardized in this work. The procedure includes erythrocyte lysing, preparation of cytospin films and staining by histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. The cellular profiles of spleen preparations were compared with those observed in peripheral blood samples subjected to the same procedure. Two groups were compared, one consisting of 14 healthy uninfected and the other of 15 polysymptomatic Leishmania chagasi/infantum-infected dogs, from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniosis. Cell populations were identified by conventional hematoxilin-eosin and Wright' stainings, and by immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against canine CD45RA and CD45RB, phagocytes and a pan-leukocyte antigen. Larger neutrophil (P < 0.0001) and monocyte/macrophage (P = 0.0036) relative counts and lower lymphocyte relative counts (P < 0.0001) were found in the spleen, and not in the blood, of the animals with leishmaniosis than in those of the healthy animals. The proportions of CD45RB+ cells were higher, and of CD45RA+ cells were lower, both in the spleen and in the blood of animals with leishmaniosis than in those of healthy dogs (P < 0.05). Additionally, hematoxilin-eosin-stained cytospins of spleen aspirates from Leishmania-infected animals permitted the easy visualization of amastigote forms inside phagocytes, under light microscopy. PMID:16546267

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology of histiocytic sarcoma with dendritic cell differentiation: a case of transdifferentiation from low-grade follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Sanjana; Pan, Zenggang

    2015-08-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare malignant tumor, and in extraordinary circumstances it can be transdifferentiated from a low-grade B-cell lymphoma. In our report, a 62-year-old female was initially diagnosed with a low-grade follicular lymphoma, and 2 years later she presented with bilateral lung masses and lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the lung masses revealed solid nests of large pleomorphic epithelioid cells. By immunohistochemical studies, the tumor cells were positive for histiocytic markers (CD68 and CD163) and S100, supporting a diagnosis of HS with dendritic cell differentiation. Further fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses detected IGH@/BCL2 rearrangement in both the previous follicular lymphoma and the current HS, which was highly suggestive of the clonal relationship between these two tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of transformation of follicular lymphoma into HS diagnosed by FNA of lung masses. PMID:25993973

  11. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis diagnosed by conventional cytology and liquid based cytology.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lianqing; Wang, Xinfang; Huang, Zihui; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL; Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) is a rare benign disorder. The diagnosis of HNL is established on recognizing the characteristic histologic findings from biopsy of the enlarged lymph nodes. Though diagnosis of HNL by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was reported, the characteristic fine-needle aspiration cytologic features with conventional cytology and a liquid based cytology test (LCT) have not been well documented. In this study, 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes were subjected to cytology and biopsy diagnosis. The lymph nodes were aspirated using a 10 mL disposable syringe with the percutaneous ultrasound guided. Samples were used for conventional cytology and LCT. Among 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes, 37 of cases were histologically confirmed as HNL; 3 of cases were hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue; 1 case was tuberculosis of lymph node, and 1 case was classical Hodgkin lymphoma (nodular sclerosis type). 31 out of 37 (83.8%) cases of HNL were diagnosed by conventional cytology, 33 out of 37 (89.2%) were diagnosed by LCT. Our results indicate that no significant difference on accuracy rate between conventional cytology and LCT, but LCT has its advantages in the diagnosis of HNL. PMID:25337268

  12. A cytological study of mammary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented of 887 cytological biopsies performed on 610 patients with mammary disease, including 510 fine needle aspirations. Technical details of fine needle biopsy, imprints, and scrape-smears are provided, together with both histological and cytological descriptions. The case material has been classified into 6 series, the most important being a clinicocytological study in which fine needle biopsy achieved a 96.2% accuracy rate in respect of breast cancer. The status of cytology in the clinical management of mammary disease is evaluated. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:803095

  13. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  14. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Divakar Sullery; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Kakoti, Lopa Mudra

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence. PMID:25948945

  15. Cytology of canine and feline cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Amy L

    2011-05-01

    Fine-needle aspirates and impression smears of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and lymph nodes are the most commonly submitted cytology samples from veterinary patients. Diagnostic cytology samples of these lesions are easily collected in patients without anesthesia or analgesia. Cytology can yield immediate results and may prevent the need for additional tests that use more invasive methods of sample collection. This article offers a brief review of how to collect and submit cytology samples and describes cytologic lesions that often are diagnosed in dogs and cats. When applicable, differences between disease progression in dogs and cats are described. PMID:21596346

  16. Lymph Node Thyroglobulin Measurement in Diagnosis of Neck Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Giovanella, Luca; Ceriani, Luca; Suriano, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Aim. Enlarged cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with thyroid cancer are usually assessed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thyroglobulin (Tg) is frequently elevated in malignant FNAC needle wash specimens (FNAC-Tg). The objectives of the study were to (1) determine an appropriate diagnostic cut-off for FNAC-Tg levels (2) compare FNAC and FNAC-Tg results in a group of 108 patients affected by differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. A total of 126 consecutive FNACs were performed on enlarged LNs and the final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical pathology examination or clinical follow-up. The best FNAC-Tg cut-off level was selected by receiver operating curve analysis, and diagnostic performances of FNAC and FNAC-Tg were compared. Results. The rate of FNAC samples adequate for cytological examination was 77% in contrast FNAC-Tg available in 100% of aspirates (P < .01). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNAC were 71%, 80%, 74%, 100%, 80%, and 94%, respectively. The most appropriate cut-off value for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer metastatic LN was 1.1?ng/mL (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%). Conclusions. The diagnostic performance of needle washout FNAC-Tg measurement with a cut-off of 1.1?ng/mL compared favorably with cytology in detecting DTC node metastases. PMID:21687601

  17. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum mimicking skin adnexal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Nagappa, Divya Kota

    2010-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection presenting as multiple, umbilicated papules and vesicles. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum in an 11-year-old boy, which presented atypically as a solitary nodule over the right cheek, mimicking a skin adnexal tumor is reported here. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays a vital role in establishing the correct diagnosis of clinically unsuspected cases, and hence, the proper management of such lesions. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the presence of numerous large intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies that push the host nucleus to the periphery, giving a signet ring appearance to the superficial epidermal cells. PMID:21157556

  18. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests. PMID:26362326

  19. Fine needle aspiration of Histiocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mallya, Varuna; Bansal, Anju; Kapoor, Sujala

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is derived from histiocytes and is among the rarest of the tumors affecting the lymphoid tissue. We report a case of a histiocytic sarcoma arising from the lymph node in a 35-year-old male who came for a fine needle aspiration cytology and a subsequent biopsy was conducted and the tissue subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining. PMID:25745287

  20. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. Methods The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4 mm diameter needle attached to a 8 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4 ?m thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Results Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage localized in the different regions, local invasiveness and enlarged nuclei were observed. The samples included 3 tumors of mammary glands mammary tumors were complex carcinomas (n?=?2) and adenocarcinoma (n?=?1). The histological grades of the 3 cases were as follows: grade II, (1/3); grade III, (2/3) with high mitotic index. The preferential localization of mammary neoplasms was in the inguinal lobe (1/3 case) and abdominal lobes (2/3 cases). Furthermore, 1case of the inguinal mass affected the left caudo-inguinal lobe and 2cases right cranio and caudo abdominal lobes. Conclusion The study concluded that cytology could be used as a quick, rapid, field diagnostic technique in combination with histopathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary tumors (FMTs). Our findings in feline MTs indicate that FMTs could be useful as an animal model of human breast cancer. Moreover, because of the similarity of the cytohistopathological findings in the human and feline mammary gland tumours, it is possible to use the same cytopathological criteria applied in human pathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary gland tumours. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2047361423103295 PMID:23941603

  1. Assessment of Status of rpoB Gene in FNAC Samples of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis by Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Raoot, Amita; Dev, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR TB), the combined resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RFM) is a major public health problem in India as it ranks second among the MDR-TB high burden countries worldwide. WHO recommends RFM resistance as a "surrogate marker" for detecting MDR. FNAC is the most widely used noninvasive investigative technique for TB lymphadenitis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, an extremely versatile technique can be used for the timely detection and treatment of MDR TB by assessing RFM resistance status in the FNAC samples of TB lymphadenitis. Aim. To assess the status of rpoB gene by real-time PCR in FNAC samples of TB lymphadenitis. Materials and Methods. Thirty FNAC samples from patients with persistent LAP or appearance of new LAP after 5 months or more of Anti Tubercular Treatment were assessed for status of rpoB gene by Real-Time PCR using probe covering the "hot spot resistance" region of the rpoB gene. Result. By using probe covering codons 531 and 526 of rpoB gene, we could detect 17 of 30 (56.7%) rifampin resistant isolate. The PCR could detect Mtb DNA in 100% of cases. Conclusion. Use of molecular methods like Real-Time PCR for detection of MDR-TB in FNAC samples is time saving, logical and economical approach over the culture based method. PMID:22973508

  2. Evaluation Profile of Thyroid Nodule by Fnac in the Rural Population of Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Haryana

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ruchi; Rana, Parveen; Kalra, Rajnish; Kaur, Swarn; Duhan, Amrita; Verma, Sanjay; Agarwal, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid disease is most common endocrine disorder and is different from other endocrine diseases because of its visible swelling and ease of diagnosis. If left untreated, thyroid disease makes a person more prone for heart disease, infertility and osteoporosis. In India, significant burden of thyroid diseases exist with an estimation of around 42 million cases. The thyroid status and autoimmune status of adult Indian population in the post iodinization phase is largely unknown. Aim: The main objective of this study was to generate valuable epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of thyroid disorders in rural population of Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat in the post-iodinisation era in India. To assess whether thyroid autoimmunity or goitrogens along with environmental factors play role in the development of thyroid.This paper is being presented in view that no such study has been carried out in the rural population of this region in Haryana. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Department of Pathology, Bhagat Phool Singh Medical College for Women, Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat between August 2011 to July 2013. It included retrospective analysis of cytomorphology of fine needle aspiration cytology material of 206 patients presenting with thyroid nodule in the Department of Pathology. Results: The commonest age group affected was 31-40 yrs. The female patients (93.4%) outnumbered the male patients (6.6%).The cytomorphological analysis of 206 patients revealed 190 cases (92.2%) of neoplastic lesions, 10 cases (4.8%) were neoplastic and 6 cases (2.9%) had indeterminate cytomorphology. Maximum number (65.5%) of patients was suffering with goiter followed by lymphocytic thyroiditis (26.2%). Amongst the malignant cases three cases were of papillary carcinoma and one case of medullary carcinoma. Two out of the six cases of follicular neoplasm proved to be follicular adenoma on histopathology. Four patients with high T3 levels were under treatment with neomercazole. They showed change in cytomorphology from hyperplasia to colloid goiter. Only one case of acute suppurative thyroiditis was reported which shows rarity of its type. Conclusion: The increased prevalence of goiter in this post iodinisation era can be attributed to goitrogens, autoimmune thyroid disease and micronutrient deficiency of iron and selenium. Higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in females is linked with both genetic and environmental factors such as infection, stress. PMID:25478348

  3. Diagnosis of bile duct cancer by bile cytology: usefulness of post-brushing biliary lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Keiko; Nagata, Kaori; Ohno, Sachiyo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Mori, Keita; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathologic evidence of biliary diseases can be obtained from cytology in addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); however, the diagnostic effectiveness is not satisfactory. Study aim: This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the efficacy of various sampling methods for the cytologic diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Patients and methods: Biliary samples included bile that was simply aspirated, brush smear, brush-rinsed saline, and post-brushing biliary lavage fluid. A set of samples was compared for cytologic efficacy in 76 patients with surgically proven bile duct cancer and in 50 patients with benign biliary stricture. Results: The cytologic sensitivity for diagnosing biliary cancer was 34?% with aspirated bile, 32?% with brush smear, 43?% with brush-rinsed saline, and 70?% with post-brushing biliary lavage fluid, in contrast to the null false-positive result in the benign cases. The sensitivity of cytology was significantly higher with post-brushing lavage fluid than with the other three sampling methods (P?cytology was also associated with the amount of aspirated bile (P?=?0.01) and with the aspiration site (P?=?0.03). The rate of cancer positivity in a cytology set differed according to the tumor macroscopic type (85?% in the protruding type vs. 40?% in the flat type; P?=?0.003), and according to the size of the cancer (87?% for tumors ??50?mm vs. 66?% for tumors cytology provides superior diagnostic efficacy, and its addition to ERCP procedures is recommended for obtaining cytologic evidence of bile duct cancer. PMID:26357678

  4. [Some aspects of cytological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Jargin, S V

    2014-01-01

    In many countries both histological and cytological examinations are performed by pathologists. In Russia and some countries of the former Soviet Union, pathological anatomists usually do not examine cytological specimens. Cytology belong to another specialty: laboratory medicine. Some cytological smears can contain tissue fragments, evaluation of which requires application of histopathological criteria. Comparisons of cytological and histological specimens are of great significance because of the relatively high percentage of inconclusive reports in cytology, when only a suspicion can be expressed. In conclusion, it is proposed to unify the practical specialties "cytology" and "pathological anatomy" in Russia under the designation "pathoology". PMID:25929135

  5. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity.

    PubMed

    Lingappa, Hemalatha Anthanahalli; Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-05-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as "Intramuscular Sarcocystosis" and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  6. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as “Intramuscular Sarcocystosis” and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  7. Aspiration syndromes: aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E

    2010-02-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis are common clinical syndromes that occur in hospitalized patients. Aspiration pneumonia occurs in patients with dysphagia and usually presents as a community-acquired pneumonia with a focal infiltrate in a dependent bronchopulmonary segment. Patients with aspiration pneumonia require treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and management of the underlying dysphagia. Aspiration pneumonitis follows the aspiration of gastric contents, usually in patients with a marked decreased level of consciousness. Treatment of aspiration pneumonitis is essentially supportive; however, corticosteroids and other immunomodulating agents may have a role in these patients. PMID:20469622

  8. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine cytology ... the sample is collected as a clean catch urine sample in your doctor's office or at home. ... the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, you may get ...

  9. The role of cytology in the era of HPV-related head and neck carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Krishnamurthy, Savitri

    2015-07-01

    Enlarged neck lymph nodes are very often subject to fine needle aspiration biopsy to detect metastatic disease in patients with suspected or proven squamous cell carcinoma in head and neck region. Cytology specimens of metastatic carcinoma in such patients are routinely evaluated for human papilloma virus (HPV) to identify patients with HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Different types of cytology specimens including smears, cytospins, cell blocks and aspirated material in the rinse can all be used for different types of HPV testing such as immunohistochemistry for p16, HPV-in situ hybridization, and HPV-Polymerase chain reaction. There is currently no consensus regarding the testing of high-risk HPV in cytology specimens. The establishment of standardized HPV testing of cytology specimens is of utmost importance and is eagerly awaited. PMID:25638437

  10. Cystic prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma: an unusual presentation and cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Sexton, Wade; Zhang, Jingsong; Hakam, Ardeshir; Petrovskyy, Vyacheslav S; Bui, Marilyn M; Chuang, Shang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is an uncommon histological variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma that may present clinically as a cystic mass [1-3]. We report a case of cystic PDA presenting as a cystic perirectal mass in a 61 year old male. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed malignant cells with round-oval to focally elongated nuclei, conspicuous nucleoli, and amphophilic cytoplasm with focal acinar formation. Tumor cells were positive for prostate-specific antigen; however, the cytology was non-specific for site of origin. The radical cystoprostatectomy specimen revealed the true site of origin and showed a cystic PDA adjacent to conventional prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. Our objective is to describe the common cytological features of PDA and to analyze the differential diagnoses associated with cystic masses of the prostate. PMID:22371914

  11. Cytology of low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma in salivary glands: Cytological and immunohistochemical distinctions from other salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoshiki; Hirota, Yuko; Kohno, Yohko; Kishimoto, Koji; Norose, Tomoko; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Takimoto, Masafumi; Shiokawa, Akira; Ota, Hidekazu

    2016-03-01

    Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma of the parotid gland is rare malignancy that is classified as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. In routine cytologic slides from fine-needle aspiration of a parotid gland, we found several pseudopapillary clusters comprising mucus-producing cells. They included a few tumor cells having three-dimensional nuclear atypia and slight hyperchromatism, although most of the tumor cells showed bland nuclei. Our initial cytological diagnosis was: "Indeterminate. Uncertain whether cystadenocarcinoma or cystadenoma." The subsequent histological diagnosis was low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed diffuse and strong reactivity for S-100; tumor nests that were rimmed by p63(+) cells, which suggests intraductal proliferation. Here, we report cytomorphological findings of this case, and discuss cytological and immunohistochemical distinctions between low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma and other salivary gland tumors, including a review of the literature. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:241-245. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875597

  12. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of ophthalmic tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun D.; Biscotti, Charles V.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of intraocular tumors can be diagnosed based on clinical examination and ocular imaging studies, which obviate the need for diagnostic ophthalmic fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Overall, diagnostic accuracy of ophthalmic FNAB is high but limited cellularity can compromise the diagnostic potential of ophthalmic aspirate samples. The role of ophthalmic FNAB is limited in retinal tumors. Orbital FNAB should be considered in the evaluation of lacrimal gland tumors, orbital metastasis, and lymphoproliferative lesions. Negative cytologic diagnosis of malignancy should not be considered unequivocal proof that an intraocular malignancy does not exist. With improved understanding of genetic prognostic factors of uveal melanoma, ophthalmic FNAB is gaining popularity for prognostic purposes in combination with eye conserving treatment of the primary tumor. In special clinical indications, ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and FISH can be performed on ophthalmic FNAB samples. Assistance of an experienced cytopathologist cannot be overemphasized. PMID:23960981

  13. Cytologic findings of urogenital mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2013-07-01

    Mesenteric cysts are heterogeneous groups of lesions. Most of them are developmental cysts of lymphatic and enteric origin or cystic neoplasm such as mesothelioma or cystic teratoma. Urogenital cysts are a subcategory of developmental cysts of the mesentery. They are thought to arise from vestigial remnants of urogenital apparatus. These cysts may show evidence of mesonephric or metanephric differentiation. An 11 -year -old boy was presented with undescended testis. During preoperative work- up, an incidental cystic lesion was discovered which was attached to the ileum. Aspiration cytology of the cyst content revealed cuboidal to columnar cells; some of them were ciliated. Histologic examination showed a cyst with fibromuscular wall, lined by Mullerian type ciliated epithelium; so the diagnosis of urogenital mesenteric cyst of Mullerian type was made. Urogenital cysts are rare lesions, but they should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic lesion of the mesentery. Cytology could be a useful method for evaluation and revealing the nature of these cysts. PMID:23808784

  14. How to increase the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a relatively sensitive, accurate, and safe technique in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. There are many factors influencing the yield of TBNA, such as location and the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN), types of the needle used and the experience of the bronchoscopist. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomy, guidance, availability of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) and the number of aspirates, preparation of specimen and interpretations of the cytology and histology of specimens all play important roles. Especially, whether an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is required for TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses is currently a disputed subject.

  15. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia of the Hard Palate: A Rare Entity of Dilemma on Cytology, Confirmatory on Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chowdappa, Vijaya; Devasamudra, Chidananda R.; Janardhan, Jayalakshmi Valligari

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a rare, benign reactive necrotizing lesion, involving sites where salivary gland tissue is usually present. The importance of this lesion is that it mimics malignancy clinically leading to treatments ranging from conservative excision to total maxillectomy. Cytologically and histologically also the lesion is often confused with neoplasms. We present a case of a lady with a hard palatal swelling, which was non – ulcerative unlike typical cases of necrotizing sialometaplsia. FNAC features made us strongly suspect a low grade mucoepidermiod carcinoma, following which the swelling was excised. Histopathology came to the rescue, on which the final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate was made. Necrotizing siaometaplasia is often misdiagnosed by the inexperienced cytologist, with histopathological examination being confirmatory. We also emphasize the fact that lesions like necrotizing sialometaplasia need a high degree of suspicion along with clinical co relation before subjecting the patient to unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:26816899

  16. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia of the Hard Palate: A Rare Entity of Dilemma on Cytology, Confirmatory on Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Archana; Chowdappa, Vijaya; Devasamudra, Chidananda R; Janardhan, Jayalakshmi Valligari

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a rare, benign reactive necrotizing lesion, involving sites where salivary gland tissue is usually present. The importance of this lesion is that it mimics malignancy clinically leading to treatments ranging from conservative excision to total maxillectomy. Cytologically and histologically also the lesion is often confused with neoplasms. We present a case of a lady with a hard palatal swelling, which was non - ulcerative unlike typical cases of necrotizing sialometaplsia. FNAC features made us strongly suspect a low grade mucoepidermiod carcinoma, following which the swelling was excised. Histopathology came to the rescue, on which the final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate was made. Necrotizing siaometaplasia is often misdiagnosed by the inexperienced cytologist, with histopathological examination being confirmatory. We also emphasize the fact that lesions like necrotizing sialometaplasia need a high degree of suspicion along with clinical co relation before subjecting the patient to unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:26816899

  17. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  18. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zolotarevski?, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell. PMID:6303278

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of cytology and biopsy in primary bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C R; Hadfield, J W; Stovin, P G; Barker, V; Heard, B E; Stark, J E

    1981-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnosis in 656 patients with the four common histopathological types of primary lung cancer has been assessed by comparing the cell type diagnosis made on cytological and histological investigation with that determined by examination of the surgically resected or necroscopy specimen. The accuracy of diagnosis achieved by cytological examination of sputum and bronchial aspirate, and by bronchial biopsy histology was over 85%. The least accurate diagnostic procedure was percutaneous needle biopsy (62%). Squamous and small cell tumours were accurately diagnosed by all four investigations but errors were made in the diagnosis of large cell and adenocarcinomas. Nearly half the number of patients (43%) with large cell carcinoma were later reclassified as having squamous carcinoma and of the patients with adenocarcinoma 32% had been predicted to be squamous and 18% large cell carcinoma. We consider such quality control of pretreatment diagnosis mandatory in management of individual patients and before enrollment in clinical trials. PMID:6267108

  20. Aspiration in Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huey-Ju.

    This dissertation studies aspiration in Chinese in these four areas: the temporal relationships between aspiration and the vowel of the syllable, the perception of aspiration, the correlation between pitch and aspiration, and the role of aspiration in a historical change in Chinese. Data based on 144 words with aspiration contrasts were derived from the experiments which involved production and perception by a total of 28 Chinese speakers. On the basis of the measurements of acoustical characteristics of the voice onset time and the lengths of the syllable, a constant ratio model has been proposed to describe the timing relationships among the elements within a syllable. The perceptual experiment tested the cues of aspiration by deleting the portion of the voice onset time from the syllable on the front, back, middle and both ends. The results are reported and discussed. The effects of aspiration on intrinsic tone heights in Mandarin were measured and the significance calculated. Finally some attempts are made to solve the development of aspiration from voiced obstruents under the condition of different tones from Middle Chinese to modern dialects.

  1. Pleomorphic liposarcoma: a cytologic study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Leslie G; Sara Jiang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Kathleen; Bui, Marilyn M

    2015-02-01

    Pleomorphic liposarcoma represents one of the rarest variants of liposarcoma. It has a poor prognosis and unlike other variants of liposarcoma, lacks a molecular or genetic signature. Histologic studies of pleomorphic liposarcoma have defined this lesion as a high grade sarcoma, which contains a variable number of lipoblasts. We describe the cytologic features of five cases of pleomorphic liposarcoma, all of which had histologic confirmation. We consistently identified numerous lipoblasts as well as micro and macrovesicular fat vacuoles in the background of cellular, pleomorphic sarcomatoid neoplasms. The appearance of the aspirates differs substantially form other variants of liposarcoma. PMID:24652822

  2. Aspiration-related lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Prather, Andrew D; Smith, Tristan R; Poletto, Dana M; Tavora, Fabio; Chung, Jonathan H; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

    2014-09-01

    Aspiration is a common but underrecognized clinicopathologic entity, with varied radiographic manifestations. Aspiration represents a spectrum of diseases, including diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonitis, airway obstruction by foreign body, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, and aspiration pneumonia with or without lung abscess formation. Many patients who aspirate do not present with disease, suggesting that pathophysiology is related to a variety of factors, including decreased levels of consciousness, dysphagia, impaired mucociliary clearance, composition of aspirate, and impaired host defenses. In this pictorial essay, we will review the different types of aspiration lung diseases, focusing on their imaging features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24911122

  3. CYTOLOGY OF RHODOTORULA GLUTINIS

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, T. R.; Naylor, H. B.

    1962-01-01

    Thyagarajan, T. R. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and H. B. Naylor. Cytology of Rhodotorula glutinis. J. Bacteriol. 83:127–136. 1962.—The structure and manner of division of nuclei in actively dividing cells of Rhodotorula glutinis were studied with the phase contrast microscope. The nucleus consists of a dense central body, surrounded by a shell of optically uniform material of low density. The entire structure is enclosed within a nuclear membrane. Various fixation and staining techniques were employed to confirm the observations made from living cells. Since the dense central body is Feulgen-negative and is readily stained by iron alum hematoxylin, it is identified as the nucleolus. The material surrounding the nucleolus has no marked affinity for hematoxylin but is Feulgen-positive and stains intensely with Giemsa and basic fuchsin. The nucleus appears to divide by a process of elongation and constriction during which roughly half of the nucleolus, along with the surrounding chromatin, passes into the bud. The nuclear membrane was found to persist during all stages of division. Vacuoles were seldom observed in actively dividing cells. The nucleus of R. glutinis is similar in structure to the nuclei of higher organisms, but its behavior during division is quite different. Images PMID:13921134

  4. Granular Quality Reporting for Cervical Cytology Testing

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B.; MacLaughlin, Kathy L.; Chute, Christopher G.; Greenes, Robert A.; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Quality reporting for cervical cancer prevention is focused on patients with normal cervical cytology, and excludes patients with cytological abnormalities that may be at higher risk. The major obstacles for granular reporting are the complexity of surveillance guidelines and free-text data. We performed automated chart review to compare the cytology testing rates for patients with ’atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance’ (ASCUS) cytology, with the rates for patients with normal cytology. We modeled the surveillance guidelines, and extracted information from free-text cytology reports, to perform this study on 28101 female patients. Our results show that patients with ASCUS cytology had significantly higher adherence rates (94.9%) than those for patients with normal cytology (90.4%). Overall our study indicates that the quality of care varies significantly between the high and average risk patients. Our study demonstrates the use of health information technology for higher granularity of reporting for cervical cytology testing. PMID:26306264

  5. Skin lesion aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a skin lesion (sore). ... A needle is put into skin sore or skin abscess , which may contain fluid or pus. The fluid may be examined under a microscope. A sample of ...

  6. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is diagnostic but it also can ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Living With Lupus Bones, Muscles, and Joints ...

  7. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the joint. It is usually due to a bacterial infection in the joint. Joint aspiration helps to diagnose ... at the time of the test. If a bacterial infection such as septic arthritis is suspected, a culture ...

  8. Value of cytology in small cell lung carcinoma diagnostic--single-center study.

    PubMed

    Milici?, Valerija; Prvulovi?, Ivana; Misi?, Maja; Peri?, Marija; Samardzi?, Senka; Tomi?, Karla

    2014-06-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) together with the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), typical carcinoid (TC), and atypical carcinoid (AC) make a group of morphologically identifiable neuroendocrine tumors. The differential diagnosis of SCLC includes, first of all, other neuroendocrine tumors, and primary or metastatic non-small cell carcinomas. Although the criteria for the morphologic separation from other tumors of the lung are defined, in everyday practice it can be a problem, both in cytology and with histological samples. Accurate and early differentiation of the SCLC is important because it exhibits aggressive behavior, rapid growth, early spread to distant sites, but also exquisite sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. The study included 127 patients who underwent bronchoscopic examination or percutaneous transthoracic fine-needle aspiration (PTTFNA) during the period from early 2003 to 2007 in University Hospital Center Osijek whose cytological diagnosis was SCLC. The value of cytological diagnosis was determined by comparing it with histological findings obtained from a biopsy sample during bronchoscopy or on a resection specimen in 50 patients. In the remaining 77 patients, histological verification of cytological diagnosis was not made and the patients were treated based on cytological diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. In 76% of cases (38/50) cytological diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma was also confirmed histologically. In 8% of cases (4/50) adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed, in 10% (5/50) of the cases the squamous carcinoma was confirmed, and there was one case of urothelial carcinoma, one case of sarcoma and one undifferentiated carcinoma. Cytological diagnosis of SCLC was made in all cases in a brush smear while the catheter aspirate was positive in only 32 cases (25.8%). Median survival in the group of patients with histologically confirmed small cell cancer was 238 days, for women 250 days, and for men 237 days. Cumulative survival was 63.2% for 6 months, 26.3% for 12 months, 13.2% for 18 months and 7.9% for two years. In conclusion, cytology is a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Our results confirm that there is a good correlation between cytology and histology diagnoses, especially when it comes to malignant lesions. In determining the type of tumor cytology must be supported with additional methods, especially in cases when it is not possible to take samples for histological verification. PMID:25144997

  9. Silicone lymphadenopathy: presentation of a further case containing asteroid bodies on fine-needle cytology sample.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node. PMID:24995825

  10. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413

  11. Evaluation of the VE1 Antibody in Thyroid Cytology Using Ex Vivo Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Hyunee; Lee, Yong-Hee; Han, Jae Ho; Lee, Kyi Beom; Lee, Jeonghun; Soh, Euy Young; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Kim, Jang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, VE1, a monoclonal antibody against the BRAFV600E mutant protein, has been investigated in terms of its detection of the BRAFV600E mutation. Although VE1 immunostaining and molecular methods used to assess papillary thyroid carcinoma in surgical specimens are in good agreement, evaluation of VE1 in thyroid cytology samples is rarely performed, and its diagnostic value in cytology has not been well established. In present study, we explored VE1 immunoexpression in cytology samples from ex vivo papillary thyroid carcinoma specimens in order to minimize limitations of low cellularity and sampling/targeting errors originated from thyroid fineneedle aspiration and compared our results with those obtained using the corresponding papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues. Methods: The VE1 antibody was evaluated in 21 cases of thyroid cytology obtained directly from ex vivo thyroid specimens. VE1 immunostaining was performed using liquid-based cytology, and the results were compared with those obtained using the corresponding tissues. Results: Of 21 cases, 19 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas had BRAFV600E mutations, whereas two follicular variants expressed wild-type BRAF. VE1 immunoexpression varied according to specimen type. In detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, VE1 immunostaining of the surgical specimen exhibited 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, whereas VE1 immunostaining of the cytology specimen exhibited only 94.7% sensitivity and 0% specificity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen is less specific than that of a surgical specimen for detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, and that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen should be further evaluated and optimized for clinical use. PMID:26657312

  12. Significance of Charcot Leyden crystals in liver cytology-A case report.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Divya; Agarwal, Pallavi; Saran, Ravindra Kumar; Saluja, Sundeep

    2015-05-01

    Charcot Leyden crystals are colorless, hexagonal, bipyramidal crystals formed from aggregation of material from disintegrating eosinophils. Eosinophilic infiltrate along with the presence of Charcot Leyden crystals is an indirect evidence of parasitic infestation. Here, we report a case where fine-needle aspiration cytology smears prepared from hepatic space occupying lesion showed numerous Charcot Leyden crystals along with eosinophilic infiltrate, indicating parasitic infection. PMID:25350873

  13. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Waiting ... topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer diagnosed? Types ...

  14. Fine-needle aspiration of soft tissue myoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Tucker, Tracy; Ng, Tony L; Villamil, Carlos F; Hayes, Malcolm M

    2016-02-01

    Soft tissue myoepithelioma is a rare neoplasm composed of myoepithelial cells. We describe the cytologic features of a soft tissue myoepithelioma arising in the right lower chest wall in a 65-year-old woman. The fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed round to oval, spindle, epithelioid, and plasmacytoid cells in the myxoid background. The nuclei were uniform, round to ovoid, with finely distributed chromatin and eosinophilic or pale cytoplasm, and resembled lobular carcinoma of breast. Ultrasound guided core biopsy showed the tumor cells had bland cytologic features, arranged in small cords, nests, and dissociated single cells, with no glandular differentiation or breast tissue seen. The tumor cells demonstrated immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but were negative for estrogen receptor. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the EWSR1 rearrangement, confirming the diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:152-155. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26644362

  15. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  20. Joint Aspiration: Arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, John William

    1987-01-01

    Joint aspiration is an easily mastered procedure used to confirm or rule out joint sepsis and crystal-induced arthrosis. It is routinely performed with or without local anaesthetic, or with cooling spray. The time spent obtaining the fluid is short. The procedure is safe, requiring no hospitalization, except in the case of diagnosed sepsis. Arthrocentesis is a necessary procedure to prove beyond reasonable doubt that infection is not the cause of the arthritis. The family physician must be familiar with this procedure and obtain fluid for analysis, or refer when joint fluid cannot be readily aspirated. (Can Fam Physician 1987; 33:2057-2062.) PMID:21263975

  1. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region. PMID:26881166

  2. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P.; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  3. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  4. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  5. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a specimen resulted in saving of time. It added a certain amount of objectivity to the process of arriving at a diagnosis. PMID:24250082

  6. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  7. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > Teens > Cancer Center > Diagnostic Tests > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  8. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  9. Assessing Children's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    In the past several years, "Science and Children" has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations.…

  10. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

  11. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  12. Aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Lee, Joyce S; Pianosi, Paolo T; Ryu, Jay H

    2015-03-01

    Aspiration of foreign matter into the airways and lungs can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders with various presentations. The type of syndrome resulting from aspiration depends on the quantity and nature of the aspirated material, the chronicity, and the host responses. Aspiration is most likely to occur in subjects with a decreased level of consciousness, compromised airway defense mechanisms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and recurrent vomiting. These aspiration-related syndromes can be categorized into airway disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction, large airway obstruction with a foreign body, bronchiectasis, bronchoconstriction, and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, or parenchymal disorders, including aspiration pneumonitis, aspiration pneumonia, and exogenous lipoid pneumonia. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, aspiration has been implicated in disease progression and acute exacerbation. Aspiration may increase the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in patients who have undergone a lung transplant. Accumulating evidence suggests that a causative role for aspiration is often unsuspected in patients presenting with aspiration-related pulmonary diseases; thus, many cases go undiagnosed. Herein, we discuss the broadening spectrum of these pulmonary syndromes with a focus on presenting features and diagnostic aspects. PMID:25732447

  13. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  14. Diagnosis of clinical bovine mastitis by fine needle aspiration followed by staining and scanning electron microscopy in a Prototheca zopfii outbreak.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Elizabeth Oliveira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Ribeiro, Andréa Rentz; Rocha, Noeme Sousa; de Nardi Júnior, Geraldo

    2004-07-01

    Biopsy by fine needle aspiration together with microbiological examination and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated in diagnosis of clinical bovine mastitis in a Prototheca zopfii outbreak. Fine needle aspiration was performed in 21 mammary quarters from ten Holstein cows presenting clinical mastitis caused by P. zopfii. The algae were previously identified in the microbiological examination of milk collected from these cows. Material aspirated from these 21 mammary glands was submitted to cytological staining (Gram, Giemsa and/or Shor staining). Fine needle aspiration enabled cytological identification of the algae in these 21 mammary glands, from which P. zopfii was isolated in the milk. Simultaneously, five mammary fragments collected by fine needle aspiration from these 21 mammary glands presenting clinical mastitis were also submitted to microbiological examination. P. zopfii was also isolated from these five fragments. Scanning electron microscopy technique also identified three of these five P zopfii strains isolated from mammary fragments collected by cytological aspiration. These results suggest that fine needle aspiration may be an alternative method for the diagnosis of clinical mastitis. PMID:15487325

  15. Strongyloides stercolaris infection mimicking a malignant tumour in a non-immunocompromised patient. Diagnosis by bronchoalveolar cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mayayo, E; Gomez-Aracil, V; Azua-Blanco, J; Azua-Romeo, J; Capilla, J; Mayayo, R

    2005-01-01

    Autoinfective strongyloidiasis is often fatal in immunosuppressed patients or in immunocomprised hosts. An interesting case of Strongyloides stercolaris hyperinfection was seen in an immunocompetent patient. This report describes a case of fatal strogyloidiasis in a 79 year old man, who had suffered gastrointestinal discomfort for years, and who presented because of respiratory illness. A chest radiograph showed an irregular mass close to the mediastinum and interstitial infiltrates, but blood eosinophilia was not observed. Cytological examination of the samples obtained from bronchial aspiration and brushing identified several filariform larvae. Thus, cytology was essential for the correct diagnosis in this patient and is a very reliable method to diagnose lung parasitosis. PMID:15790710

  16. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed. PMID:19352601

  17. Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA detection in whole blood and spleen aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Faria, Joice Lara Maia; Dagnone, Ana Sílvia; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Joăo, Carolina Franchi; Pereira, Wanderson Adriano Biscola; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA by nPCR in whole blood and spleen aspiration. The sample included 40 dogs showing thrombocytopenia associated to clinical signs suggestive of canine ehrlichiosis. Morulae detection showed that in 35 of the dogs studied, 17 had morulae in spleen tissue, and two in buffy coat smears. E. canis DNA was detected in 29/40 blood samples. We verified that morulae detection is more efficient in cytological preparations from spleen aspiration. On the other hand, nPCR on spleen and blood samples were equally efficient for disease diagnosis. PMID:20624346

  18. Eosinophilic Structure: Should it be Included in Routine Cytology Reporting of Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis?

    PubMed Central

    Boovalli, Mythri M; Venkataramappa, Srinivasa Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, rapid procedure routinely employed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis lymphadenitis. Positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in Ziehl-Neilsen stained smear is still considered as gold standard for diagnosis of Tuberculosis, but all lesions may not yield AFB, thus pose diagnostic problems. Few cytomorphological changes i.e. Eosinophilic structure (ES) in the stained smears correlates with the presence of AFB thus, helping us in rapid diagnosis. Aim To evaluate the correlation between AFB and ES in necrotic lymph node aspirates. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from January to December 2014. Lymphnodes upon purulent aspiration which were reported as granulomatous lymphadenitis suggestive of tuberculosis were included in the study. All the stained smears (H&E, MGG and ZN Stains) for each case were retrieved from the files and rescreened for the presence of ES, granulomas and AFB. Presences of ES were correlated with AFB. Statistical Analysis Stastistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results Our study included 103 cases. The common age group involved was 21-40 years, with female predominance. Cervical lymph nodes were most commonly involved. In relation to ES and AFB, four different cytological pictures were seen i.e., ES and AFB-(31%); ES-AFB+(16.5%); ES+, AFB+(39%); ES+AFB-(14.5%). Chi-square test showed a highly significant stastistical association between ES and AFB with p=0.001. Conclusion Eosinophilic structure is one of the cytomorphological features to be considered in necrotic lymph node aspirate which has a significant correlation with AFB in the smears. Hence pathologist should search for this, and it should be included in routine cytology reporting of tuberculosis lymphadenitis. PMID:26816895

  19. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Caraway, Nancy P.; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T.; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  20. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  1. Influence of secondary aspiration on human aspiration efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K.R.; Anthony, T. Renee

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the contribution of secondary aspiration to human aspiration efficiency estimates using a humanoid model with realistic facial features. This study applied coefficient of restitution (CoR) values for working-aged human facial skin to the facial regions on the humanoid CFD model. Aspiration efficiencies for particles ranging from 7 to 116 ?m were estimated for bounce (allowing for secondary aspiration) and no-bounce (CoR=0) simulations. Fluid simulations used the standard k–epsilon turbulence model over a range of test conditions: three freestream velocities, two breathing modes (mouth and nose breathing, using constant inhalation), three breathing velocities, and five orientations relative to the oncoming wind. Laminar particle trajectory simulations were used to examine inhaled particle transport and estimate aspiration efficiencies. Aspiration efficiency for the realistic CoR simulations, for both mouth- and nose-breathing, decreased with increasing particle size, with aspiration around 50% for 116 ?m particles. For the CoR=0 simulations, aspiration decreased more rapidly with increasing particle size and approached zero for 116 ?m compared to realistic CoR models (differences ranged from 0% to 80% over the particle sizes and velocity conditions). Differences in aspiration efficiency were larger with increasing particle size (>52 ?m) and increased with decreasing freestream velocity and decreasing breathing rate. Secondary aspiration was more important when the humanoid faced the wind, but these contributions to overall aspiration estimates decreased as the humanoid rotated through 90°. There were minimal differences in aspiration between uniform CoR values of 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 and realistic regionally-applied CoR values, indicating differences between mannequin surfaces and between mannequin and human skin will have negligible effect on aspiration for facing-the-wind orientation. PMID:26778849

  2. Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.

    PubMed

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2013-08-01

    On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

  3. Cytological diagnosis of osteoblastoma of cervical spine: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Suguna Belur; Prasad, Sruthi

    2015-03-01

    Osteoblastomas are rare benign but sometimes aggressive primary bone tumors (1%), usually seen in males in the 2nd decade. Osteoblastomas, occurring in the spine, constitute a medical emergency due to impending cord compression. Hence a rapid and simple diagnostic modality, such as fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays an important role in clinical decision making. Cytological diagnosis of osteoblastoma is rare. We report a case of a young female patient presenting with a swelling in the left cervical paravertebral region. The X-ray findings were non-diagnostic and the patient was sent for an FNA. Aspiration yielded moderately cellular hemorrhagic smears with plasmacytoid cells, spindle cells, and osteoclastic giant cells in a background of matrix material. A diagnosis favoring osteoblastoma was made. The CT scan findings were in agreement with the cytological diagnosis and the lesion was excised. Histopathological examination confirmed the same. We describe here, the clinical and cytological features of osteoblastoma with their differential diagnosis, along with review of the literature. FNA can be used as an important tool in the pre-operative diagnosis of osteoblastoma. PMID:24853790

  4. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  9. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy. PMID:26730066

  10. Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

  11. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: imaging and cytologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Jung Hee; Han, Boo-Kyung; Ko, Eun Young; Kang, Seok Seon; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Young Lyun; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2007-06-01

    Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSPC) is a rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, for which the imaging and cytologic features have not been reported. The aim of this study is to gain better insight into the characteristic imaging and cytologic features of DSPC and to suggest treatment guidelines. We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic and computed tomographic (CT) features in eight patients diagnosed with pathologically proven DSPC between 1996 and 2006. Of these eight patients, five patients underwent preoperative ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA). All the patients were women, who presented at a relatively young age (mean age: 31.9 years) with large tumors (mean diameter: 5.9 cm) and cervical lymph node metastases. The US features (7/8) of DSPC were heterogeneous echotexture (7/7), solid composition (7/7), ill-defined margins (4/7), scattered microcalcifications having snowstorm appearance (7/7), and various echogenicities. CT findings (6/8) revealed numerous microcalcifications and multiple enlarged nodes in all the patients. Cytological examination showed lymphocytes intermingled with nests of tumor cells, psammoma bodies, and squamous differentiation with typical nuclear features of papillary carcinoma in all. Through the combination of typical imaging findings and careful cytological examination, DSPC can be diagnosed preoperatively, allowing for the aggressive surgical treatment required in treating this disease. PMID:17614778

  12. Testicular cytology indicates differences in Sertoli cell counts between "good freezer" and "poor freezer" bulls.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Thippeswamy, Vijetha Bajjalli; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Layek, Siddhartha Shankar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Gaurav, Mukesh Kumar; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Prasad, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    In artificial insemination, poor quality of semen unsuitable for cryopreservation and susceptibility of spermatozoa to cryodamage in crossbred bulls have been a matter of concern. Present study was designed to identify the testicular cytology indices that might be used to predict the semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls. Based on the ejaculate rejection rate and sperm cryotolerance, bulls (Holstein Friesian X Tharparkar crossbred) were classified into either good (producing good quality semen with spermatozoa having good cryotolerance; n = 4) or poor (producing poor quality semen with spermatozoa having poor cryotolerance; n = 4). Testicular cytology was studied in all the 8 bulls using fine needle aspiration technique. Testicular cytology of good bulls and poor bulls differed significantly. The proportion of Sertoli cells was significantly higher in good bulls (25.3 ± 1.6) compared to poor bulls (11.0 ± 0.8). The Sertoli cell index was 46.1 ± 5.0 in good bulls while it was only 13.8 ± 1.3 in poor bulls. The cut off values, as determined using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis, indicate that the bulls having testicular cytogram comprising of < 15.5% Sertoli cells, < 24.3 Sertoli cell index and > 4.0 spermatogenic cells to Sertoli cell ratio might be a poor bull in terms of semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. The proportion of Sertoli cells in the testicular cytology had positive (P < 0.05) relationship with semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. PMID:26891549

  13. Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.

    PubMed

    Milici?, Valerija; Prvulovi?, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bili?-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Seri?, Vatroslav

    2014-06-01

    There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature. PMID:25144998

  14. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  15. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  16. A Case of Significant Endobronchial Injury due to Recurrent Iron Pill Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Joo-Hee; Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric mucosal damage by iron pills is often reported. However, iron pill aspiration is uncommon. Oxidation of the impacted iron pill causes bronchial mucosal damage that progresses to chronic bronchial inflammation, necrosis, endobronchial stenosis and rarely, perforation. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with chronic productive cough and significant left-sided atelectasis. Bronchoscopy revealed substantial luminal narrowing with exudative inflammation of the left main bronchus. Bronchial washing cytology showed necroinflammatory exudate and a small amount of brown material. Mucosal biopsy showed diffuse brown pigments indicative of ferrous pigments, crystal deposition, and marked tissue degeneration. After vigorous coughing, she expectorated dark sediments and her symptoms and radiological abnormalities improved. There are a few such reports worldwide; however, this was the first case reported in Korea. Careful observation of aspiration-prone patients and early detection of iron pill aspiration may prevent iron pill-induced bronchial injury. PMID:26508942

  17. Pulmonary aspiration in perioperative medicine.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative aspiration into the lungs is an infrequent but potentially serious cause of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. It is still a leading cause of death from pulmonary complications. Aspiration occurs in approximately three per 10.000 anesthetic procedures with higher incidences in special patient populations and emergency situations. Any patient with symptoms following aspiration that last for more than two hours in the recovery room should be admitted to an intensive care unit for further observation and therapy. This article reviews incidence, morbidity and mortality of perioperative aspiration as well as risk factors and preventive measures. Among preventive measures the use of drugs designed to increase gastric pH, recent developments in supraglottic airway devices and application of rapid sequence induction with cricoid pressure are discussed. Also, international fasting guidelines and clinical management following aspiration are provided. PMID:23767172

  18. Respiratory Cytology-Current Trends Including Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy and Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy: Analysis of Data From a 2013 Supplemental Survey of Participants in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Charles D; Marshall, Carrie B; Barkan, Guliz A; Booth, Christine N; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Souers, Rhona J; Keylock, Joren B; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Russell, Donna K; Moriarty, Ann T; Doyle, Mary A; Thomas, Nicole; Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z; Collins, Brian T; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Crothers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Context .- Nongynecologic cytology (NGC) practices are expanding in relationship to historical gynecologic cytology screening programs. Bronchopulmonary cytology is experiencing an evolution regarding new procedural types. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) tracks practice patterns in NGC by developing questionnaires, surveying participants, and analyzing respondent data. Objective .- To analyze responses to a 2013 CAP supplemental survey from the Interlaboratoy Comparison Program on bronchopulmonary NGC. Design .- The "NGC 2013 Supplemental Questionnaire: Demographics in Performance and Reporting of Respiratory Cytology" was mailed to 2074 laboratories. Results .- The survey response rate was 42% (880 of 2074) with 90% of respondents (788 of 880) indicating that their laboratories evaluated cytology bronchopulmonary specimens. More than 95% of respondents indicated interpreting bronchial washings (765 of 787) and bronchial brushings (757 of 787). A minority of laboratories (43%, 340 of 787) dealt with endobronchial ultrasound-guided samples, and an even smaller fraction of laboratories (14%, 110 of 787) saw cases from electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy. Intraprocedural adequacy assessments by pathologists (and less often by cytotechnologists or pathologists-in-training) were routinely performed in percutaneous transthoracic aspiration cases (74%, 413 of 560) with less involvement for other case types. Most laboratories reported that newly diagnosed primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas were triaged for molecular testing of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Conclusions .- The parameters examined in this 2013 survey provide a snapshot of current pulmonary cytopathology practice and may be used as benchmarks in the future. PMID:26717056

  19. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  20. Correlation of ultrasound findings, liver and spleen cytology, and prognosis in the clinical staging of high metastatic risk canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Book, Alison P; Fidel, Janean; Wills, Tamara; Bryan, Jeffrey; Sellon, Rance; Mattoon, John

    2011-01-01

    Cytologic sampling of the ultrasonographically normal spleen and liver is not implemented routinely in the clinical staging of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and normal ultrasound findings are often accepted as sufficient evidence for ruling out splenic or liver metastasis. Our objective was to define the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound findings for diagnosis of mast cell infiltration when verified with cytologic evaluation, and to define the prognostic role of cytologic evaluation of liver and splenic aspirates. Dogs with a diagnosis of clinically aggressive grade II, or grade III mast cell tumor treated with a combination vinblastine/CCNU chemotherapy protocol, were selected retrospectively based on availability of cytologic evaluation of spleen plus or minus liver for staging. Out of 19 dogs, 10 dogs had a grade II tumor and nine a grade III tumor. Seven dogs had mast cell infiltration of the spleen, liver, or both. The sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting mast cell infiltration was 43% for the spleen and 0% for the liver. Dogs with positive cytologic evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had significantly shorter survival (100 vs. 291 days) than dogs without evidence of mast cell infiltration (P<0.0001). Routine splenic aspiration should be performed regardless of ultrasonographic appearance in dogs with a clinically aggressive mast cell tumor. PMID:21689203

  1. Ultrasound-guided vs endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pancreatic cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Masato; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kuraoka, Kensuke; Yukisawa, Seigo; Kasuga, Akiyoshi; Ozaka, Masato; Suzuki, Sho; Takano, Kouichi; Sugiyama, Yuko; Itoi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic PC between February 2006 and September 2011 were selected for this retrospective study. FNA biopsy for pancreatic tumors had been performed percutaneously under extracorporeal ultrasound guidance until October 2009; then, beginning in November 2009, EUS-FNA has been performed. We reviewed the complete medical records of all patients who met the selection criteria for the following data: sex, age, location and size of the targeted tumor, histological and/or cytological findings, details of puncture procedures, time from day of puncture until day of definitive diagnosis, and details of severe adverse events. RESULTS: Of the 121 patients who met the selection criteria, 46 had a percutaneous biopsy (Group A) and 75 had an EUS-FNA biopsy (Group B). Adequate cytological specimens were obtained in 42 Group A patients (91.3%) and all 75 Group B patients (P = 0.0192), and histological specimens were obtained in 41 Group A patients (89.1%) and 65 Group B patients (86.7%). Diagnosis of malignancy by cytology was positive in 33 Group A patients (78.6%) and 72 Group B patients (94.6%) (P = 0.0079). Malignancy by both cytology and pathology was found in 43 Group A (93.5%) and 73 Group B (97.3%) patients. The mean period from the puncture until the cytological diagnosis in Group B was 1.7 d, which was significantly shorter than that in Group A (4.1 d) (P < 0.0001). Severe adverse events were experienced in two Group A patients (4.3%) and in one Group B patient (1.3%). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA, as well as percutaneous needle aspiration, is an effective modality to obtain cytopathological confirmation in patients with advanced PC. PMID:23613631

  2. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  7. [Foreign body aspiration in children].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shlomo; Goldberg, Shmuel; Springer, Chaim; Avital, Avraham; Picard, Elie

    2015-03-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs mainly in children under 3 years of age and is one of the most frequent causes of accidental death under 12 months of age. The increased risk of FB aspiration in children is due to the different structure of the pharynx and the upper airways compared to adults. In addition, children have an immature swallowing mechanism and they most commonly aspirate food stuffs. FB aspiration is usually a sudden and dramatic event when the child feels that he is suffocating or choking. After the acute event, the clinical presentation widely ranges from severe respiratory distress to the most minimal symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic modality for FB inhalation. Prevention and rapid diagnosis can be lifesaving. In 2010, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a position paper on prevention of FB aspiration. The association calls for more proactive preventative measures to protect children from FB aspiration and to prevent mortality and morbidity. These include: 1. Raising awareness of parents and caregivers to supervise children and create a safe environment for them. 2. Promoting legislation and enforcing regulations that will prevent dangerous products being sold for children. 3. Changing the design of products, especially food products and toys, that will reduce the risks of choking. In this overview we will show the principles of diagnosis of FB aspiration and a flow chart including when flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is required. PMID:25962247

  8. Accuracy of liquid cytology in the diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    García Rojo, Marcial; López Viedma, Bartolomé; de la Santa Belda, Eva; Palomar, Pilar Olivencia; Torrijos, Elisa Gómez; López, Lucia González; Camacho, José Olmedo

    2014-01-01

    Background Oesophagoscopy with biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). Therefore is important to discover less-invasive diagnostic methods. Methods Cytology specimens were obtained in patients with active EoE (AEoE) (?15 eos/hpf) and EoE in remission (EoER) (<15 eos/hpf). The samples were assessed by two independent pathologists and were compared with biopsy samples. EoE cytology specimens were compared with specimens obtained from patients with GERD. Results Specimens of 36 patients (69.4% male, mean age 30.88 years) were included. AEoE (17, 47.2%), EoER (11, 30.5%) and GERD (22.2%). eos/hpf in cytology (AEoE 9.23 vs. EoER 1.54 vs. GERD 2, p?=?0.01). Linear correlation between eos/hpf average biopsy and cytology eos/hpf: r?=?0.57, p?cytology obtained a sensitivity of 70%, specificity 81%, PPV 86% and NPV 60% (AUC?=?0.81, p?=?0.01). For detection of AEoE, ?3 eos/hpf in LBC obtained a sensitivity of 70%, specificity 82%, PPV 81% and NPV 66% (AUC?=?0.87, p?=?0.001). Conclusions LBC in oesophageal aspirate seems to be effective for the diagnosis and monitoring activity in EoE. These results support the usefulness of non-invasive methods for the diagnosis and monitoring of EoE. PMID:25452842

  9. [Supraclavicular schwannoma with malignant cytologic appearance].

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, A; Fernández-Nogueras Jiménez, F; Rubí Uría, J; Perales Jodar, E

    1992-01-01

    We present the case of a old woman with a supraclavicular mass and sarcomatous cytologic appearance. The final microscopic appearance was schwannoma. We also review the pertinent literature. PMID:1299287

  10. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Aspiration and ... What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect ...

  11. Large-volume barium aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Hundemer, Gregory L.; Kumar, Varun

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of large-volume barium aspiration in a 56-year-old woman with stage IV tongue squamous cell carcinoma and longstanding dysphagia. The patient rapidly developed hypoxemic respiratory failure from the resultant chemical pneumonitis. However, her respiratory status improved with supportive care alone in 48 hours. Barium aspiration is rare and often produces dramatic radiographic findings, but is generally associated with a favorable prognosis. PMID:25829647

  12. Lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas: The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zamil; Walker, Blair; Lam, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions that can appear as a complex cyst or a mass in the pancreas. Cytology from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be helpful in making a diagnosis with the aim of avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. A case involving a 51-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain who was found to have a multiloculated cystic lesion at the junction of the pancreatic body and tail is described. Cytology from EUS-FNA was consistent with a pancreatic LEC. The lesion was managed conservatively and follow-up imaging of the cyst over the following two years was unchanged. The patient remains clinically well. Cytology from EUS-FNA can help distinguish LECs from cystic neoplasms, thus preventing radical surgical resection of this benign pancreatic cyst. PMID:20559575

  13. Cytopathologic diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Misiakos, Evangelos P; Margari, Niki; Meristoudis, Christos; Machairas, Nickolas; Schizas, Dimitrios; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Machairas, Anastasios

    2016-02-16

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an important diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid lesions. Several systems have been proposed for the cyropathologic diagnosis of the thyroid nodules. However cases with indeterminate cytological findings still remain a matter of debate. In this review we analyze all literature regarding Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting systems trying to identify the most suitable methodology to use in clinical practice for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. A review of the English literature was conducted, and data were analyzed and summarized and integrated from the authors' perspective. The main purpose of thyroid FNA is to identify patients with higher risk for malignancy, and to prevent unnecessary surgeries for benign conditions. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the most widely used system for the diagnosis of thyroid FNA specimens. This system also contains guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of indeterminate or suspicious for malignancy cases. In conclusion, patients who require repeated FNAs for indeterminate diagnoses will be resolved by repeat FNA in a percentage of 72%-80%. PMID:26881190

  14. Cytopathologic diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Misiakos, Evangelos P; Margari, Niki; Meristoudis, Christos; Machairas, Nickolas; Schizas, Dimitrios; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Machairas, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an important diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid lesions. Several systems have been proposed for the cyropathologic diagnosis of the thyroid nodules. However cases with indeterminate cytological findings still remain a matter of debate. In this review we analyze all literature regarding Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting systems trying to identify the most suitable methodology to use in clinical practice for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. A review of the English literature was conducted, and data were analyzed and summarized and integrated from the authors’ perspective. The main purpose of thyroid FNA is to identify patients with higher risk for malignancy, and to prevent unnecessary surgeries for benign conditions. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the most widely used system for the diagnosis of thyroid FNA specimens. This system also contains guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of indeterminate or suspicious for malignancy cases. In conclusion, patients who require repeated FNAs for indeterminate diagnoses will be resolved by repeat FNA in a percentage of 72%-80%. PMID:26881190

  15. Supersymmetry: aspirations and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tata, Xerxes

    2015-10-01

    The realization in the early 1980s that weak scale supersymmetry stabilizes the Higgs sector of the spectacularly successful Standard Model (SM) led several authors to explore whether low energy supersymmetry could play a role in particle physics. Among these were Richard Arnowitt, Ali Chamseddine and Pran Nath who constructed a viable locally supersymmetric grand unified theory (GUT), laying down the foundation for supergravity GUT models of particle physics. Supergravity models continue to be explored as one of the most promising extensions of the SM. After a quick overview of some of the issues and aspirations of early researchers working to bring supersymmetry into the mainstream of particle physics, we re-examine early arguments that seemed to imply that superpartners would be revealed in experiments at LEP2 or at the Tevatron. Our purpose is to assess whether the absence of any superpartners in searches at LHC8 presents a crisis for supersymmetry. Toward this end, we re-evaluate fine-tuning arguments that lead to upper bounds on (some) superpartner masses. We conclude that phenomenologically viable superpartner spectra that could arise within a high scale model tuned no worse than a few percent are perfectly possible. While no viable underlying model of particle physics that leads to such spectra has yet emerged, we show that the (supergravity-based) radiatively driven natural supersymmetry framework serves as a surrogate for a phenomenological analysis of an underlying theory with modest fine-tuning. We outline the phenomenological implications of this framework, with emphasis on those LHC and electron-positron collider signatures that might point to the underlying natural origin of gauge and Higgs boson masses. We conclude that the supergravity GUT paradigm laid down in 1982 by Arnowitt, Chamseddine and Nath, and others, remains a vibrant possibility.

  16. A case of successful detection of disseminated gastrointestinal stromal tumors by ascites smear cytology using cell block preparation with DOG1 immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Kawabe, Akihiro; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Oda, Katsutoshi; Kawana, Kei; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Cytological features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have been reported, especially regarding fine-needle aspiration cytology, including immunostaining for c-kit and DOG1. Meanwhile, cytological findings of GISTs on ascites cytology have rarely been reported, which may be owing to the rare appearance of GIST tumor cells in ascites. Herein, we present a 66-year-old woman who had disseminated GISTs in the abdomen. The GIST tumor cells appeared sparsely in the ascites smear cytology using ascites obtained at the time of autopsy. Even when widespread intra-abdominal dissemination takes place, GISTs may be hard to detect in ascites smear cytology, based on the experience of this case. However, immunohistochemistry of DOG1 using a cell block preparation was found to clearly visualize the GIST tumor cells, although they were sparsely present. Immunostaining of c-kit did not provide as clear an identification of the tumor cells as DOG1 did. When suspicious about GISTs, it is wise to prepare a cell block to make it possible to visualize the tumor cells immunohistochemically. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:137-140. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26646159

  17. Canine bone marrow cytological examination, classification and reference values: A retrospective study of 295 cases.

    PubMed

    Turinelli, Vanessa; Gavazza, Alessandra; Stock, Graham; Fournel-Fleury, Corinne

    2015-12-01

    Cytologic assessment of bone marrow with knowledge of the hemogram represents an effective method to investigate hemic tissue and its function. To determine the spectrum and prevalence of canine bone marrow disorders over a 2year period in a diagnostic laboratory setting achieved through a standard approach to cytologic bone marrow assessment. A retrospective study of bone marrow fine needle aspirates sample preparations, blood smears, hemogram data and case records. Of the 295 bone marrow samples evaluated, 90 (30.5%) were nondiagnostic samples. Of the remaining samples, 25.1% were classified as hyperplasia of which most were granulocytic hyperplasia (58.1% of the total hyperplasia), 19.3% had no cytological abnormalities, 12.9% had malignant hemopathy and 7.8% had hypo-aplastic conditions. Only a small proportion of cases involved dysplasia (1.7%) and metastatic disease was detected in only one case (0.3%). Reference values of nucleated cells and the M/E ratio were calculated for normal and erythroid and granulocytic hyperplastic bone marrow. This study provides the spectrum and the prevalence of canine bone marrow disorders as well as a differential bone marrow cell counting and determination of reference intervals for diseases. PMID:26679822

  18. Cytologic features of nipple adenoma: a report of four cases of adenoma of the nipple.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Satoru; Mizukami, Yuji; Kawahara, Ei

    2015-08-01

    We report four cases of adenoma of the nipple, a rare benign epithelial benign tumor occurring under the nipple and areola. Clinically, erosion findings of the nipple require discrimination from Paget's disease. In addition, a mass found in the nipple warrants discrimination from ductal carcinoma. Two cases underwent aspiration biopsy cytology and the other underwent tumor imprint cytology, respectively, revealing a large number of epithelial cell populations in the necrotic background material. These large cell clusters had a papillary or sheet structure and exhibited decreased cell cohesiveness at the cluster part. In addition, small clusters and solitary epithelial cells were also present. Furthermore, a two-cell pattern comprising both duct epithelial and myoepithelial cells was observed in the cell clusters. Two other cases underwent nipple brush cytology, revealing a few small papillary clusters with isolated epithelial cells in the hemorrhagic background. The clusters appeared as benign duct proliferative lesions such as papilloma, papillomatosis, and adenosis. An accurate diagnosis warrants the recognition of regular nuclei with bland chromatin and myoepithelial cells and the identification of the lesion location. PMID:26011103

  19. Computed tomographic (CT) guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy: the Yale experience.

    PubMed Central

    Hammers, L. W.; McCarthy, S.; Williams, H.; Rigsby, C. M.; Carter, A.; Rapoport, S.; Weltin, G.; Taylor, C.; Richter, J.; Barwick, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-one CT-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsies (PFNAB) were performed on 46 consecutive patients over 15 months. Cytologies were obtained to identify primary or secondary malignancy in the abdomen, pelvis, retroperitoneum, bone, and paraspinal region. Adequate cytologic material was obtained in 50 of 51 biopsies. There were 29 true-positive, 0 false-positive, 12 true-negative, and two false-negative cases with an overall accuracy rate of 95 percent. There was one minor complication, mesenteric hemorrhage, which did not require transfusion. Fifteen of the 51 biopsies were performed on outpatients. The procedure is an accurate, safe, and cost-effective nonsurgical means of diagnosing primary or secondary malignancy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:3765665

  20. Metastases to the Pancreas Encountered on Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided, Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pang, Judy C; Roh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic lesions in the pancreas are very uncommon and may be difficult to differentiate from the more commonly encountered primary neoplasms derived from the exocrine and endocrine pancreas because of the significant overlap in clinical presentation, imaging, and cytologic features. Metastasis to the pancreas may occur years after treatment of the primary neoplasm and is often not considered on initial evaluation because of the rarity of such events. The possibility of a metastasis to the pancreas should be entertained in patients with any prior history of malignancy because a proper diagnosis is essential in identifying surgical candidates, or avoiding potentially unnecessary surgery and facilitating triage to more appropriate nonoperative therapy. Herein, we describe intrapancreatic metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung carcinoma, as documented by cytologic examination of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the pancreatic masses. PMID:26414469

  1. Horrifying Basal Cell Carcinoma: Cytological, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing and frequently occurring tumor of the eyelids. Among BCC cases, there is a subtype of aggressive cases called horrifying BCC (HBCC). There are also rare BCC cases that show neuroendocrine differentiation. Here, we describe a case of HBCC with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient, a 41-year-old woman, presented with abnormal left eye tearing and left cheek pain. On computed tomography imaging, a tumor that extended to the left orbit was detected in the left cheek. On cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples, the tumor cells were observed as sheet-like clusters and single bare nuclei with a clear background; peripheral palisading was not clearly seen. On examination of the biopsy specimen taken after FNA, the tumor was found to be composed of cancer cell nests with scattered peripheral palisading in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CD56 and were negative for CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Membrane-bound dense-core granules were detected on ultrastructural study. A HBCC case with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been previously reported. The correlation between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in HBCC and patient prognosis should be further studied. PMID:25120472

  2. Ultrasonographic guideline for thyroid nodules cytology: single institute experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Min; Park, Joon Beom; Kang, Seong Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The main issue with the current ultrasonography (US) guidelines is the overestimation of malignant and indeterminate nodules as they do not aid in making decisions to treat patients. To overcome this, new US guidelines for thyroid nodules that have been shown to be better correlated with cytologic results have been proposed. We also suggested specific indications for US-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) using the new US guidelines. Methods Clinical and pathologic data from 925 patients and 1,419 thyroid nodules were retrospectively collected. All subjects underwent US- and US-guided FNA at Department of Surgery, Wonju Christian Hospital, between March 2010 and July 2011. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both the current guidelines and the new guidelines. Results The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the current guidelines in predicting malignancy were 24.1%, 99.3%, 62.2%, 25.0%, and 99.8%, respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the new guidelines in predicting malignancy were 66.0%, 96.0%, 86.7%, 47.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Conclusion The use of the new US guidelines allow for a more accurate and specific diagnosis and a better treatment plan than the current guidelines. Additionally, the use of the new FNA guidelines may help prevent unnecessary FNAs and promote cost-effective follow-up for patients. PMID:23396617

  3. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  4. A spontaneously resolving breast lesion: imaging and cytological findings of nodular fasciitis of the breast with FISH showing USP6 gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Kang, Alexandra; Kumar, Jayant Brij; Thomas, Anitha; Bourke, Anita Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast in a 48-year-old woman who presented with a tender rapidly growing right breast lump. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the solid mass was performed. Cytology was reported as atypical spindle cell neoplasm and the patient was referred to a breast surgeon at a tertiary institution for a definitive diagnosis and further management. Follow-up ultrasound showed partial regression and MRI, mammogram after 2-3?weeks confirmed spontaneous and total resolution of the lesion. Nodular fasciitis of the breast is rarely diagnosed on cytology alone and a histological diagnosis is usually required for a definitive diagnosis. However, in this case, the lesion spontaneously resolved prior to core biopsy or diagnostic open biopsy. The cytological features in conjunction with immunohistochemistry and the clinical history strongly suggest nodular fasciitis, which is further supported by a USP6 FISH positive result. PMID:26698206

  5. Correlation of Tissue Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Positron Emission Tomography Results

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Daniel; Herrington, Bruce; Bhargava, Peeyush; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Verstovsek, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans are positive in any condition which increases metabolism in a mass or tissue and are therefore not specific for neoplastic conditions. The use of an SUV cutoff value of 2.5 may not always help discriminate between benign and malignant cases. For a practicing cytopathologist doing adequacy checks during an image-guided procedure, it may be of value to be aware that elevated SUV values are not always indicative of a malignant process, and vice versa. PMID:21559200

  6. Determination of the Optimal Time Interval for Repeat Evaluation After a Benign Thyroid Nodule Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nou, Eric; Kwong, Norra; Alexander, Lukas K.; Cibas, Edmund S.; Marqusee, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The optimal timing for repeat evaluation of a cytologically benign thyroid nodule greater than 1 cm is uncertain. Arguably, the most important determinant is the disease-specific mortality resulting from an undetected thyroid cancer. Presently there exist no data that evaluate this important end point. Methods: We studied the long-term status of all patients evaluated in our thyroid nodule clinic between 1995 and 2003 with initially benign fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. The follow-up interval was defined from the time of the initial benign FNA to any one of the following factors: thyroidectomy, death, or the most recent clinic visit documented anywhere in our health care system. We sought to determine the optimal timing for repeat assessment based on the identification of falsely benign malignancy and, most important, disease-related mortality due to a missed diagnosis. Results: One thousand three hundred sixty-nine patients with 2010 cytologically benign nodules were followed up for an average of 8.5 years (range 0.25–18 y). Thirty deaths were documented, although zero were attributed to thyroid cancer. Eighteen false-negative thyroid malignancies were identified and removed at a mean 4.5 years (range 0.3–10 y) after the initial benign aspiration. None had distant metastasis, and all are alive presently at an average of 11 years after the initial falsely benign FNA. Separate analysis demonstrates that patients with initially benign nodules who subsequently sought thyroidectomy for compressive symptoms did so an average of 4.5 years later. Conclusions: An initially benign FNA confers negligable mortality risk during long-term follow-up despite a low risk of identifying several such nodules as thyroid cancer. Because such malignancies appear adequately treated despite detection at a mean 4.5 years after falsely benign cytology, these data support a recommendation for repeat thyroid nodule evaluation 2–4 years after the initial benign FNA. PMID:24276452

  7. Testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy male dromedary camels during rutting and non-rutting periods.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Regassa, Fekadu; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Kassa, Tesfu; Vencato, Juri; Owiny, David Okello; Stelletta, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy dromedary bulls during rutting and non-rutting periods. Pairs of testes from 26 (18 non-rutting and 8 rutting seasons) dromedary bulls 6-12 years old that were slaughtered at Akaki, Addis Ababa abattoir were sampled. A 21 gauge needle attached to 20mL syringe was used to collect Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) samples and five aspiration smears were prepared from each testis. A total of 312 slides (260 Testicular fine Needle Aspiration and 52 imprints) were examined. The modified May-Grunwald Giemsa (mMGG) technique and a light microscope were used to assess cellularity, morphology and quantification of the testicular. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were identified and counted. The spermatic index (SI), Sertoli cell index (SEI) and the relationship between SI and SEI indexes (SSEI) were used to assess the ratio between mature spermatozoa and nursing cells. There were differences (P<0.05) between the rutting and non-rutting seasons among the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. There were no differences between groups for primary spermatocyte numbers, early spermatid numbers and SSEI. There was no differences (P>0.05) between TFNA and imprint smear slides of the testicular cells except for Sertoli cell count and SEI. Filarial worm larvae were present on the TFNA smear slides of four animals. Imprint and TFNA smear slides had comparable cytological profiles in dromedary bulls and significant differences were observed between rutting and non-rutting periods. PMID:26526117

  8. Utilization of ancillary studies in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Layfield, Lester J.; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. Currently, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the pre-operative classification of pancreatic cysts. A number of gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, von Hippel-Lindau, RNF43 and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:25191518

  9. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Martha B.; Centeno, Barbara A.; Ali, Syed Z.; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-del; Schmidt, C. Max; Brugge, William R.; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the “neoplastic” category separated into “benign” (serous cystadenoma) or “other” (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility for patient management, which has become increasingly conservative for some neoplasms. PMID:25191517

  10. Preanalytic parameters in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation testing for non-small cell lung carcinoma: A review of cytologic series.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Saieg, Mauro Ajaj

    2015-11-01

    The results from molecular assays can be affected significantly by the preanalytic condition of cytologic samples. The authors review current knowledge on the use of cytologic samples for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer with a focus on preanalytic parameters. A systematic electronic search of the MEDLINE database was performed to identify original articles that reported the use of cytologic samples for EGFR molecular analysis and included a minimum of 100 samples. The information collected included author(s), journal, and year of publication; number of patients and samples; sampling method; type of preparation; type of fixative; staining techniques; mutation analysis techniques; tumor cellularity; the percentage of tumor cells; data on DNA quantity, quality, and concentration; failed assays; and the mutation rate. EGFR mutation analysis was conducted on 4999 cytologic samples from 22 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fine-needle aspirates and pleural effusions were the most common types of specimens used. DNA was mainly extracted from cell blocks and smears, and the most commonly reported fixatives included formalin, ethanol, and CytoLyt. Cellularity assessments and DNA yields were available from 5 studies each. The average success rate for the assays that used cytologic specimens was 95.87% (range, 85.2%-100%). The mutation rate ranged from 6% to 50.46%, and a higher mutation detection rate and lower numbers of insufficient cases were reported for pleural effusions and lymph node samples from endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with histologic specimens. Low cellularity and a low percentage of tumor cells were associated with higher test failure rates. Future guidelines should consider the current data for specific recommendations regarding cytologic samples. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2015;123:633-643. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26288231

  11. [Contributions to the morphological basis of the cytology of the respiratory tract (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, P; Sygula, E; Bernhardt-Huth, D

    1978-01-01

    It is reported on 275 cases treated for bronchial carcinoma at the Surgical Departement of DĂĽsseldorf University between 1970 and 1974. In all cases cytological as well as histological methods were used for diagnosis. These cases are complemented by 60 cases selected under cytological aspects from other sources. Localization by X-ray proved a central tumor in 11% and tumors in the different lobes in 89% of the cases. Tumors were more frequent in the upper lobes (54%) than in the lower lobes (30%), and more frequent in the right lung (58%) than in the left (42%). Cytological smears were positive or suspicious in 77% of the central carcinoma and in 60 and 56% in cases of roentgenologically peripheral localization. There is no difference found between tumors in the upper and lower lobes. Bronchial secretion renders less positive results for all histological types. This indicates a small area of origin for the cells investigated by this method. Metaplastic cell changes were observed in one third of all cases involving all histological types equally. Operation was possible in only 30% of the cytologically diagnosed cases in comparison to 52% of all cases. The 60 selected cases were composed of 48 primary and twelve secondary tumors. Probatory excision had been performed in 50%, 8% remaining negative even after repetition. 33% could only be verified by autopsy corresponding to 29% with sputa, bronchial aspirate and pleural effusion positive at the same time and therefore regarded as late stages. Negative results can be caused by fibrosis as well as obstruction, fibrosis not being a regular result of treatment with X rays. Differentiation of tumor types is possible in cytological smears. Sometimes differences in the same tumor are evident and occasionally the tumor type can be more distinct in the cytological preparations. Metastatic tumor cells are open to false classification. Tumor and tuberculosis were found in four of sixty cases. One false positive result was caused by cells ressembling cases of experimentally induced bronchiolization of alveoli by different noxa. PMID:686983

  12. Effect of suction on specimen size in fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J; Virkkunen, P; Bondestam, S

    1990-11-01

    High incidences of unsatisfactory specimens in fine-needle aspiration biopsy for cytology have been reported previously. Inappropriate aspiration techniques may account partly for this. In this study, the effect of suction on specimen size was studied in vitro using an automatic sampler. Bovine liver, testis, and pig's kidney were used as target tissues and biopsies were performed with 18-, 20- and 22-gauge needles. Specimen weight increased rapidly and linearly with suction force (P less than .001), regardless of the target tissue or needle diameter, when standard needle movement was applied. In the absence of needle movement, the suction force, rate of increase of suction, and duration of suction had no effect on the weight of the specimens. Needle movement alone, without suction, also produced meager specimens. Suction alone does not seem to tear fragments off target tissues. Nevertheless, in combination with needle movement, suction force plays an important role in the determination of specimen size. PMID:2254053

  13. Myxoid liposarcoma of the anterior mediastinum. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Attal, H; Jensen, J; Reyes, C V

    1995-01-01

    The mediastinum is an uncommon primary site of liposarcoma, which constitutes < 1% of tumors at that site. We report a case of myxoid liposarcoma evaluated with fine needle aspiration biopsy in a 66-year-old male who presented with cardiac tamponade, superior vena cava syndrome and radiologic evidence of a large anterior mediastinal mass. Cytologically the neoplastic cells were strikingly dyscohesive, with ovoid or spindle-shaped, hyperchromatic nuclei. The cytoplasm was abundant and often finely vacuolated with lipid. They were associated with a prominent myxoid, intercellular substance and distinct, arborized capillary structures. Survival is influenced by the tumor cell type and differentiation. The overall prognosis seems to be poorer than that of liposarcomas occurring in other areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary mediastinal liposarcoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:7762343

  14. Diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma: computed tomography, sonography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, K.; Raptopoulos, V.; Reale, F.; Krolikowski, F.J.; D'Orsi, C.J.; Graham, S.; Smith, E.H.

    1983-06-01

    The diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma was made prospectively and noninvasively in four patients with the use of sonography, computed tomography, and sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The imaging methods revealed information similar to the operative findings, with clear superiority of computed tomography over sonography. These noninvasive methods may be used as screening tools, especially among groups or in regional areas with a high risk for asbestos exposure. The findings included soft-tissue masses with invariable involvement of the omentum; small intraperitoneal nodules; thickened peritoneum, mesentery, and bowel wall; pleural plaques; and usually minimal, if any, ascites. Since the differential diagnosis from peritoneal carcinomatosis may be difficult, sonographically (or CT) guided aspiration biopsy is needed to produce diagnostic cytologic specimens. The use of this type of biopsy should obviate surgical exploration.

  15. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  16. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  17. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  1. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  4. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  5. Aspiring Teachers Take up Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishall

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Teacher Residency program is a yearlong, selective preparation route that trains aspiring teachers, many of them career-changers, to take on jobs in some of the city's highest-needs schools. The program, which fits neither of the two most common types of teacher preparation--alternative routes and traditional teacher education…

  6. Career Aspirations in Cataclysmic Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Susan L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses children's career aspirations from viewpoints of literature on children's career notions and psychological impact of nuclear threat on young. Presents terminologies of two-stage theories of career development as conceptual link between these disparate areas of inquiry. Suggests nuclear threat literature reveals pertinent variables for…

  7. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection in the small intestine. ... A sample of fluid from the small intestine is needed. A procedure ... done to get the sample. The fluid is placed in a special dish in ...

  8. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of metastatic malignant mesothelioma with myxoid change and signet ring cells: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manisha M.; Farver, Carol F.; Chute, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare neoplasm, which is most commonly encountered in cytology through effusion specimens. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of MM, particularly the epithelioid subtype, can be a source of diagnostic difficulty and may mimic sampling of an adenocarcinoma. This is the first case report to demonstrate abundant extracellular myxoid material and numerous intracellular vacuoles, including signet ring cells, in a fine needle aspirate of metastatic MM. A review of the literature for myxoid change and vacuoles in fine needle aspiration biopsies of MM discloses that vacuoles are found in up to 35% of aspirates of MM, but myxoid change is very rare, reported in <5% of the cases. Cytologists should be aware of this rare morphologic pattern of metastatic epithelioid MM. PMID:27014364

  9. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  10. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  11. Crowning achievement: a case of dental aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Nicholas M.; Lessing, Juan N.; Çoruh, Ba?ak

    2015-01-01

    Aspiration of foreign bodies during dental procedures is a rare but potentially serious complication. We present a case of a 75-year-old man who aspirated a dental crown requiring flexible bronchoscopic retrieval. We discuss the risk factors for aspiration, the radiographic features of diagnosis, and the techniques for management and retrieval. PMID:26649115

  12. Cytologic diagnosis of adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma in a lung cancer patient: Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Anna S.; Koizumi, June H.; Giorgadze, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare type of pheochromocytoma. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first cytological diagnosis of this variant via fine-needle aspiration in an 81-year-old male patient who was found to have an adrenal mass while undergoing workup of the recently diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma. We describe the cytomorphologic findings in our case and provide a review of the reported cases of adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma – all of which appear to be benign, nonfunctional, occur in adults, and have similar morphologic features. The pathologist should be aware of this uncommon diagnostic entity and its potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:25838834

  13. Measurement of TFF3 mRNA in aspirates from thyroid nodules using mesh filtration: the first clinical trial in 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroya; Takano, Toru; Kihara, Minoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hidaka, Yoh; Miyauchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of gene expression levels in thyroid tumor cells in aspirates was difficult because it is interfered with peripheral blood cells or infiltrating lymphocytes. In this study, we established a novel method to separate thyroid tumor cells from blood cells efficiently with mesh filtration. The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA was estimated using LGALS3 mRNA as an internal control (T/G ratio) in 148 preoperative thyroid aspirates. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of T/G ratio for high, moderate, and low samples were 6.5%, 2.5%, and 9.7%, respectively, and inter-assay CV for high, moderate, and low samples were 27.7%, 21.9%, and 38.2%, respectively. Nondiagnostic samples in terms of T/G ratio and cytology were 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. We observed no interference with the data by contaminating blood cells. Among these patients, 12 patients received more than two repeated aspirations. We did not observe a marked day-to-day variation except in two cases. All 13 preoperative aspirates diagnosed as malignant by cytology showed an extremely low T/G ratio, whereas 93 aspirates diagnosed as benign by cytology showed extremely varied T/G ratios and 21.5% of them showed a T/G ratio below the cut-off value. Eleven cases underwent surgery. All nodules showing a low T/G ratio were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma by pathological diagnosis. However, one nodule diagnosed as follicular adenoma after surgery showed a high T/G ratio. Our present method may be a promising preoperative test for measuring mRNAs in thyroid aspirates. PMID:22572548

  14. MR-guided fine needle aspiration of breast lesions: Initial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, D.S.; Weinreb, J.C.; Newstead, G.; Flyer, M.; Bose, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive procedure that is used to obtain cytologic specimens of suspicious lesions in the breast. The goal of this study was to evaluate the logistics and limitations of MR-guided FNA using a prototype breast localization coil. MR-guided FNAs were attempted on 18 lesions (detected on mammography and/or palpation) in 16 patients. Patients were prone with their compressed mediolaterally between two plates in a circularly polarized RF coil. Lesion position was determined by reference to fiducial makers that corresponded to a grid of holes placed at 5 mm intervals in compression plate. FNA was performed with a 22G non-ferromagnetic needle. FNA was successful for 11 of 18 lesions (61%). Of the seven unsuccessful cases, there were four in which the lesions were too posteriorly placed to be accessed through the compression plate by the needle. Three cases were too anteriorly placed to be effectively immobilized and, although successfully localized, were insufficiently sampled by the FNA technique. MR-guided FNA is possible using a prototype breast localization device in a select group of patients. Current coil design limits its use in performing MR-guided FNA on the most anteriorly and posteriorly placed breast lesions. Unique requirements of FNA under MR guidance as compared to needle localization and biopsy have been identified. Modifications in localization hardware and cytology aspiration needles should overcome these restrictions. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign Bodies.

    PubMed

    Green, S Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal and aspirated foreign bodies have important clinical significance, and both should be considered carefully when the history or physical examination findings raise sufficient suspicion. The published evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of foreign body ingestion or aspiration is weighted disproportionately with observational studies, case controls, expert opinion, and systematic reviews. Most of the publications would receive a categorization of C (observational studies including case-control and cohort design) and D (expert opinion, case reports, and clinical reasoning). One of the few prospective studies examining the diagnostic evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children could be considered level B evidence (randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, or diagnostic studies with minor limitations). This study found that the medical history is the most important predictive part of the evaluation. There is evidence for considering bronchoscopy if there is significant history suggestive of foreign body aspiration, even in the setting of normal physical examination findings. (28). Most ingested foreign bodies spontaneously pass without incident. However, special attention should be paid to objects in the esophagus as well as to batteries and magnets. Based on a systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) and the potential for rapid and life-threatening damage, batteries in the esophagus should be removed immediately. (10) Other objects, such as coins, may be observed for passage in an asymptomatic patient. In addition, given the high risk of significant complications, ingestion of high-powered magnets should be quickly and carefully evaluated. Although single magnets are likely to pass without complication, multiple magnets or magnets ingested with other metal objects can cause significant damage and should be removed if there is any concern for mural entrapment, bowel perforation, or failure to progress. (10)(16)(17)(18)(19). Lastly, another systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) about the aspiration of food objects in children suggests that this is a significant public health concern with potentially devastating consequences. Despite clear legislation and regulation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission regarding toys, there is no similar regulation of high-risk foods. The data suggest that there is opportunity for improvement in legislation about the production and packaging of high-risk items as well as in the education of caregivers. (22) PMID:26430203

  16. From cytology to histology: diagnosis of a relapsed mediastinal lymphoma by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial histological needle.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Bango Álvarez, Antonio; Pérez, Liliana; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fuentes, Nelson; Casan, Pere

    2015-06-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is highly accurate in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathies of lung cancer and benign disorders, with the advantage that it is a minimally invasive technique, unlike open surgery and mediastinoscopy. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not well defined. The lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological needles decreases the diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas. We present the first described case in the literature of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma relapsed, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by EBUS-TBNA with the particularity of using a histological needle. PMID:26090115

  17. From cytology to histology: diagnosis of a relapsed mediastinal lymphoma by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial histological needle

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Bango Álvarez, Antonio; Pérez, Liliana; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fuentes, Nelson; Casan, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is highly accurate in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathies of lung cancer and benign disorders, with the advantage that it is a minimally invasive technique, unlike open surgery and mediastinoscopy. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not well defined. The lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological needles decreases the diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas. We present the first described case in the literature of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma relapsed, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by EBUS-TBNA with the particularity of using a histological needle. PMID:26090115

  18. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Mohan, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare intricate pediatric neoplasm with varied clinical manifestations and multiple treatment modalities. Aim: To study the cytological features of LCH and the differential diagnoses on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Materials and Methods: FNA was performed using a 23-gauge needle fitted to a 10 mL syringe mounted on syringe holder. LCH was diagnosed on FNA smears in seven cases confined to the head and neck region, which included three cases of lymphadenopathy, three cases of scalp swelling, and one case of orbital swelling. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 25 days to 11 years and male-to-female ratio was 1:1.3. Clinically, the diagnoses suggested were tuberculosis, inflammatory lesion, abscess, and malignancy. The cytologic findings included high cellularity, isolated Langerhans cells (LCs) with prominent nuclear indentation, grooves and abundant vacuolated cytoplasm, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Areas of necrosis were noted in one case. Histopathology, along with positive S-100 immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Conclusions: LCH is a rare disease occurring predominantly in children and can be diagnosed with ease on FNA cytology by the presence of characteristic Langerhans cells. The S-100 positivity aids in suggesting a diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26811572

  19. Organisms in an aspirate from an ulcerated mass: etiologic agent or mass-querade?

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Jacqueline

    2005-06-01

    Smears prepared from a fine-needle aspirate of an ulcerated, dermal mass between the digits of a 9-month-old Bull Terrier puppy revealed a moderately cellular, mixed-cell inflammation with numerous extracellular organisms. The organisms were 3-8 microm in length, curved to oval in shape, with prominent nuclei, and (retrospectively) a rare single, narrow-based bud. The cytologic diagnosis was mycotic dermatitis due to infection with an unusual yeast. Histologic sections of the lesion showed pyogranulomatous inflammation without evidence of an infectious organism. Contamination of the cytologic smears was suspected to have taken place in the clinical pathology laboratory and was confirmed by the isolation of a yeast with identical microscopic features from a cactus located on a windowsill near the work bench. The yeast was cultured and identified as Rhodotorula minuta, an airborne contaminant and ubiquitous saprophyte. It can be difficult to differentiate external contamination from infection when interpreting a cytologic specimen, however, it is important to do so, especially for unusual or opportunistic pathogens. PMID:15902671

  20. Comparison of 21-Gauge and 22-Gauge Aspiration Needle in Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Akulian, Jason; Lechtzin, Noah; Yasin, Faiza; Kamdar, Biren; Ernst, Armin; Ost, David E.; Ray, Cynthia; Greenhill, Sarah R.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Filner, Joshua; Feller-Kopman, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure originally performed using a 22-gauge (22G) needle. A recently introduced 21-gauge (21G) needle may improve the diagnostic yield and sample adequacy of EBUS-TBNA, but prior smaller studies have shown conflicting results. To our knowledge, this is the largest study undertaken to date to determine whether the 21G needle adds diagnostic benefit. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of 1,299 patients from the American College of Chest Physicians Quality Improvement Registry, Education, and Evaluation (AQuIRE) Diagnostic Registry who underwent EBUS-TBNA between February 2009 and September 2010 at six centers throughout the United States. Data collection included patient demographics, sample adequacy, and diagnostic yield. Analysis consisted of univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression comparing diagnostic yield and sample adequacy of EBUS-TBNA specimens by needle gauge. Results: A total of 1,235 patients met inclusion criteria. Sample adequacy was obtained in 94.9% of the 22G needle group and in 94.6% of the 21G needle group (P = .81). A diagnosis was made in 51.4% of the 22G and 51.3% of the 21G groups (P = .98). Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression showed no statistical difference in sample adequacy or diagnostic yield between the two groups. The presence of rapid onsite cytologic evaluation was associated with significantly fewer needle passes per procedure when using the 21G needle (P < .001). Conclusions: There is no difference in specimen adequacy or diagnostic yield between the 21G and 22G needle groups. EBUS-TBNA in conjunction with rapid onsite cytologic evaluation and a 21G needle is associated with fewer needle passes compared with a 22G needle. PMID:23632441

  1. Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

  2. Evaluation of cetacean and sirenian cytologic samples.

    PubMed

    Varela, René A; Schmidt, Kimberly; Goldstein, Juli D; Bossart, Gregory D

    2007-01-01

    Cytology is a fundamental part of marine mammal veterinary medicine that is involved in preventive medicine programs in captive animals and in the health assessment of wild populations. Marine mammals often exhibit few clinical signs of disease; thus, the cost-effective and widely accessible nature of cytologic sampling renders it one of the most important diagnostic procedures with these species. Many of these mammals are endangered, protected, and located in developing nations in which resources may be scarce. This article can be used as a field guide to advise a veterinarian, biologist, or technician working with cetaceans or sirenians. A simplistic cost-effective staining technique is used, which is ideal for situations in which funds, facilities, or time may be a limiting factor in clinical practice. PMID:17198961

  3. Cytological diagnosis of lymphoma in serous effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, A I; Vanhegan, R I

    1981-01-01

    A consecutive series is presented of 100 cases of malignant lymphoma in which a correlation could be made between the histological findings and the cytology of pleural or peritoneal fluid or both. Using the Kiel classification, 80 cases could be given a histological label, while 20 remain unclassified. In those cases in which lymphoma cells were identifiable in the serous fluid, their morphology was studied and was found in general to correlate well with the cell-type expected from the histology. It is not claimed that the type of lymphoma can be reliably diagnosed from the cytology of pleural or peritoneal fluid, but an opinion can be provided as to the grade (high or low), and in some cases it is also possible to give an indication of the cell-type involved. Images PMID:6895757

  4. Calcitonin measurement on fine needle washouts: preanalytical issues and normal reference values.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Ceriani, Luca; Bongiovanni, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Calcitonin (CT) measurement on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) washouts (FNAC-CT) is a promising tool in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Guidelines for the method with codified cut-off are needed to use this technique in clinical routine. This study was undertaken to assess the best pre-analytical procedure and to define a reliable reference value for FNAC-CT. Fifty-four patients underwent thyroid surgery, so MTC was excluded by surgical pathology examination and CT immunostains. Before surgery, FNAC-CT was measured on 78 thyroid nodules from such 54 patients. Needles were rinsed by normal saline and specific CT-free dilution buffer, and CT was measured by a fully automated immunochemiluminometric assay. FNAC-CT levels were not significantly different in normal saline or specific buffer. The calculated 97.5th upper FNAC-CT value was 8.5 pg/mL (saline) and 7.43 pg/mL (buffer), respectively. Seeing its relatively large sample size, rigorous selection criteria and inclusion of CT immunostaining of thyroid nodules, the present study provides a reliable guideline and a clinically relevant reference value for FNAC-CT measurement in thyroid nodules. PMID:22144096

  5. Computerized interactive morphometry of brushing cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Marchevsky, A M; Hauptman, E; Shepard, C; Watson, C; Gil, J

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two bronchial brushing cytology specimens were evaluated by a video-based computerized interactive morphometry (CIM) system with an interactive peripheral consisting of a touch-sensitive screen mounted over a high-resolution video monitor. The system was programmed to allow a trained observer to rapidly measure nuclear and cytoplasmic profile diameters of randomly selected cells and to calculate their nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios. The specimens included 13 cytologic slides with no malignant cells present, 14 with non-small cell carcinoma cells and 15 with small cell carcinoma cells. The cases were divided into two groups: a training set composed of slides with "known diagnosis" and a test set of slides with "unknown diagnosis". A data set was constructed with the measurements from the cases with "known diagnosis," and an algorithm that allowed the classification of cases by hierarchical analysis was developed. The data was also analyzed with statistical methods of classificatory discriminant analysis. Utilizing the information in the data base, the slides with "unknown diagnosis" were classified individually; all cases were correctly classified by the procedures. Potential applications of CIM in cytology are discussed. PMID:2837035

  6. Time for evidence-based cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC) is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed. PMID:17210074

  7. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of thyroid nodules: comparison with cytologic and histologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Tomimori, Eduardo K; Bisi, Helio; Medeiros-Neto, Geraldo; Camargo, Rosalinda Y A de

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate our ultrasonographic classification of thyroid nodules, based on echo structure, echogenicity, calcification, margin and analysis of the surrounding parenchyma. From January 1998 to January 2002, 2,468 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules were referred for thyroid ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (USFNAB) in our Thyroid Unit. Among 1,039 nodules classified as benign on ultrasound, 998 (96.1%) were also benign on cytology, 37 (3.6%) were suspicious and only 4 (0.4%) were malignant. On the other hand, among 153 nodules classified as suspicious on ultrasound, 20 (13.1%) were suspicious and 88 (57,5%) were malignant on cytology. Of the 71 nodules suspicious on ultrasound submitted to surgery, 67 (94.3%) were malignant and 56 (96.6%) of 58 nodules considered benign were benign on pathologic studies. In conclusion, we advocate USFNAB in nodules classified as indeterminate or suspicious. Nodules classified as benign may be followed up at periodic intervals. PMID:15611823

  8. Kba.62 and S100 protein expression in cytologic samples of metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Erdag, Gulsun; Chowdhuri, Sinchita Roy; Fetsch, Patricia; Erickson, Dana; Hughes, Marybeth S; Filie, Armando C

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of melanoma can be challenging, especially in metastatic lesions, due to the ability of melanoma cells to morphologically mimic carcinoma, sarcoma and even lymphoma cells. Moreover, melanomas can exhibit negative immunostaining for the melanoma markers HMB-45 and MART-1/Melan-A, often used in the diagnosis of this tumor. KBA.62 is a recently described antibody that reacts with benign and malignant melanocytic proliferations. In this study, we report our experience with KBA.62 and S100 protein immunostaining in the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma on fine-needle aspiration and effusion samples. We reviewed 60 cytology samples from 58 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our results showed that KBA.62 stained 75% of the cases and S100 protein 87% of the cases. KBA.62 and S100 protein stained the majority of metastatic melanomas that were negative for HMB-45 and MART-1; KBA.62 stained 73% of the cases and S100 protein 73% of the cases. The majority (85%) of the cases negative for HMB-45 and MART-1 were positive for KBA.62 and/or S100 protein. Additionally, we also observed that KBA.62 staining was positive in the majority of epithelioid and spindle cell type melanoma cells. In conclusion, the performances of KBA.62 and S100 protein were similar and both markers are useful in the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma in cytology material, especially when the tumor cells lack expression of HMB-45 and MART-1. PMID:23554410

  9. Comparison of Ultrafast Papanicolaou Stain with the Standard Papanicolaou Stain in Body Fluids and Fine Needle Aspiration Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Alwahaibi, Nasar Yousuf; Alsubhi, Mariam Said; Aldairi, Najat; Alshukaili, Amna; Bai, Usha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most cytology laboratories in all Gulf countries including Oman, use the standard papanicolaou (PAP) method to stain various cytological specimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible application of ultrafast PAP (UF-PAP) method in cytology laboratory. Materials and Methods: Samples from 46 patients containing 26 body fluids and 20 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) (9 thyroids and 11 breasts) were collected. Two air dried and two wet smears from each sample were prepared and stained by UF-PAP and the standard PAP stains, respectively. Background, nuclear staining, cell morphology, and overall staining were independently reviewed by two cytoscreeners. Results: In all cases of FNA, UF-PAP stain gave a good score for the background, nuclear staining, cell morphology, and overall staining when compared with the standard PAP method. Although the correct diagnosis was made in all cases of body cavity fluids cases except in one case, UF-PAP stain gave a fewer score in the assessment of body cavity fluid samples. Conclusion: The findings of this study support the use of UF-PAP method in cytology laboratory with a high emphasis on FNA samples. PMID:27013808

  10. Diagnosis of orotracheal aspiration using radionuclide salivagram.

    PubMed

    Akbunar, Ali T; Kiristioglu, Irfan; Alper, Eray; Demiray, Hulya

    2003-07-01

    There are two main Nuclear Medicine techniques, the gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy with late lung imaging and the nuclear salivagram, for diagnosis of pulmonary aspiration. Each of the techniques can document the two different, antegrade and retrograde, routes of pulmonary aspiration. In this report, we presented a patient with recurrent respiratory problems and emphasized the importance of concomitant use of the two techniques in the radionuclide diagnosis of aspiration. PMID:12971643

  11. Aspiration thrombectomy in concert with stent thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Travis M; Mokin, Maxim; Sorkin, Grant C; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-05-01

    In the SWIFT and TREVO 2 trials, aspiration thrombectomy was not able to be performed. Outside these studies, in post-market application, the interventionist can use aspiration thrombectomy in addition to stent device thrombectomy. This technique is described in detail in the present report. Combined aspiration/stentriever thrombectomy may improve recanalization efforts, simplify a second thrombectomy attempt if necessary and may limit distal embolization. PMID:23868216

  12. Aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diagnosis of benign lesions. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  13. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of proximal third tibia

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Arunkumar; Ingle, Sachin B; Rajurkar, Pawan; Goyal, Vishav; Dokrimare, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old man had aswelling over the anterior aspect of the proximal third of the tibia for 1 year, which was peanut size initially and progressively increased to its present size of 10 cm × 8 cm. He underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) twice during this period and reported aspindle cell sarcoma. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a malignancy of the connective tissue surrounding the nerves. Previously, MPNST was also known as neurofibrosarcoma, malignant schwannoma, andneurogenic sarcoma. We are reporting this case for its rarity and peculiar mode of presentation. FNAC/core biopsy can be used as an effective tool to achievethe correct pathological diagnosis. PMID:26468455

  14. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of proximal third tibia.

    PubMed

    Rao, Arunkumar; Ingle, Sachin B; Rajurkar, Pawan; Goyal, Vishav; Dokrimare, Nikhil

    2015-10-10

    A 16-year-old man had aswelling over the anterior aspect of the proximal third of the tibia for 1 year, which was peanut size initially and progressively increased to its present size of 10 cm × 8 cm. He underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) twice during this period and reported aspindle cell sarcoma. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a malignancy of the connective tissue surrounding the nerves. Previously, MPNST was also known as neurofibrosarcoma, malignant schwannoma, andneurogenic sarcoma. We are reporting this case for its rarity and peculiar mode of presentation. FNAC/core biopsy can be used as an effective tool to achievethe correct pathological diagnosis. PMID:26468455

  15. Impact of Mutational Testing on the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Analysis of 1056 FNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ohori, N. Paul; Hodak, Steven P.; Carty, Sally E.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Ferris, Robert L.; Yip, Linwah; Seethala, Raja R.; Tublin, Mitchell E.; Stang, Michael T.; Coyne, Christopher; Johnson, Jonas T.; Stewart, Andrew F.; Nikiforova, Marina N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Thyroid nodules are common in adults, but only a small fraction of them is malignant. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology provides a definitive diagnosis of benign or malignant disease in many cases, whereas about 25% of nodules are indeterminate, hindering most appropriate management. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the clinical utility of molecular testing of thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology. Design: Residual material from 1056 consecutive thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology was used for prospective molecular analysis that included the assessment of cell adequacy by a newly developed PCR assay and testing for a panel of mutations consisted of BRAF V600E, NRAS codon 61, HRAS codon 61, and KRAS codons 12/13 point mutations and RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and PAX8/PPAR? rearrangements. Results: The collected material was adequate for molecular analysis in 967 samples (92%), which yielded 87 mutations including 19 BRAF, 62 RAS, 1 RET/PTC, and five PAX8/PPAR?. Four hundred seventy-nine patients who contributed 513 samples underwent surgery. In specific categories of indeterminate cytology, i.e. atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, and suspicious for malignant cells, the detection of any mutation conferred the risk of histologic malignancy of 88, 87, and 95%, respectively. The risk of cancer in mutation-negative nodules was 6, 14, and 28%, respectively. Of 6% of cancers in mutation-negative nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance cytology, only 2.3% were invasive and 0.5% had extrathyroidal extension. Conclusion: Molecular analysis for a panel of mutations has significant diagnostic value for all categories of indeterminate cytology and can be helpful for more effective clinical management of these patients. PMID:21880806

  16. Peripancreatic cystic lymphangioma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound/fine-needle aspiration: a rare mesenchymal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Tanimu, Sabo; Rafiullah; Resnick, Jeffrey; Onitilo, Adedayo A

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of intermittent nausea, vomiting, central abdominal discomfort and a 17-pound weight loss over the past year. Laboratory testing, including a complete blood count with differential, liver function testing, amylase and lipase studies were normal. A CT scan showed a bilobed cystic lesion inferior to the body of the pancreas. An endoscopic ultrasound revealed a 5.3×3.9 cm, anechoic, bilobed cystic lesion, extrinsic to the body of the pancreas with a 1–2 mm septation and a normal pancreas. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a milky-white aspirate with negative cytology. Laboratory assessment of the cystic aspirant revealed carcinoembryonic antigen 1.7 ng/mL, amylase 148 units/L, cholesterol 300 mg/dL, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 3 units/mL. He underwent resection of the mass, with the histopathology confirming a diagnosis of peripancreatic lymphangioma. He did well after the surgery with interval resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24092605

  17. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth. PMID:26712673

  18. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  19. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator....

  20. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator....

  1. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator....

  2. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator....

  3. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator....

  4. Grades, Aspirations, and Postsecondary Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Milla, Joniada; Stengos, Thanasis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we exploit a rich longitudinal data set to explore the forces that, during high school, shape the development of aspirations to attend university and achieve academic success. We then investigate how these aspirations, along with grades and other variables, impact educational outcomes such as going to university and graduating. It…

  5. Gendered Trends in Student Teachers' Professional Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a small-scale, exploratory study investigating the professional aspirations of a cohort of student teachers at a UK university. Questionnaires and interviews sought insights into the students' perceptions of leadership, future aspirations and self-perceptions as potential leaders. Whilst there was commonality in male and…

  6. Occupational Aspirations of Talented Black Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Valerie D.

    Ideal levels of aspiration, real levels of aspiration, and fear of success have been identified as precursors of black women's career attainment. Black (N=32) and white (N=32) females, talented high school sophomores, completed a test battery comprised of two verbal cues designed to measure fear of success and a self-report questionnaire to assess…

  7. Educational Aspirations in Inner City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Winston, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils' educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below-average examination results and low rates of continuing in…

  8. Clinical factors predicting risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration among patients with Stroke1

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Morais, Huana Carolina Cândido; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the association of risk factors with the Risk for aspiration nursing diagnosis and respiratory aspiration. Method: cross-sectional study assessing 105 patients with stroke. The instrument used to collect data addressing sociodemographic information, clinical variables and risk factors for Risk for aspiration. The clinical judgments of three expert RNs were used to establish the diagnosis. The relationship between variables and strength of association using Odds Ratio (OR) was verified both in regard to Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. Results: risk for aspiration was present in 34.3% of the patients and aspiration in 30.5%. The following stood out among the risk factors: Dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex, Neurological disorders, and Impaired physical mobility, all of which were statistically associated with Risk for aspiration. Note that patients who develop such a diagnosis were seven times more likely to develop respiratory aspiration. Conclusion: dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex were the best predictors both for Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. PMID:26039291

  9. A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Muthalagan, Elancheran; Subashchandrabose, Priya; Sivasubramanian, Priya Banthavi; Venkateswaran, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology smears of conventional PTC, the background usually shows scanty, bubble gum-like colloid. But the macrofollicular variant and papillary microcarcinoma reveals abundant thin colloid in the background. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in a 37-year-old female with abundant thin colloid, obscuring the nuclear morphology in many clusters, along with the presence of typical nuclear features within occasional clusters in FNA cytology and hence, masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia. Histopathological examination of the total thyroidectomy specimen revealed papillary microcarcinomatous focus in a background of nodular hyperplasia. The differential diagnosis of PTC should be entertained even in colloid-rich FNA smears if the typical nuclear features are present. Hence, a meticulous search for any fragment with nuclear features of PTC is mandatory before labeling the smears as benign nodular hyperplasia.

  10. Electron microscopy: cytology of cell fractions.

    PubMed

    NOVIKOFF, A B

    1956-11-16

    It should be evident from this brief account that electron microscopy of thin sections is an invaluable asset in the study of fractions isolated by differential centrifugation. I have tried to indicate how the integrity of particles, purity of fractions, and the existence of new particles can be established through its use. I have also suggested the desirability of a common terminology for all cytology -classic, electron-microscopic, and biochemical. Some have expressed the opinion that neutral terms such as alpha, beta, and gamma membranes (59) are more useful than ergastoplasm, Golgi apparatus, and so forth. As helpful as such neutral terms may be in describing intracellular structures, they do not appear to me to substitute for historically rooted cytological names. Note added in proof: Since this article went to press there has appeared an important article by G. E. Palade and P. Siekevitz (60). These authors consider that the vesicles without granules found in the microsome fraction were "probably derived from the smooth surfaced parts of the endoplasmic reticulum." The latter were found to be continuous with the granule-studded membranes; "the two varieties of profiles represent local differentiation within a common system." The authors confirm the finding of Rouiller (18) and Novikoff et al. (7) of the dense bodies adjacent to the bile canaliculi and describe their presence in the microsome fraction as a "minor component." PMID:13380407

  11. Collagenous spherulosis: An interesting cytological finding in breast lesion

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Shailja; Mohindroo, Shobha; Gulati, Anchana

    2015-01-01

    Collagenous spherulosis (CS) is a rare and interesting entity associated with benign breast lesions. CS is an incidental finding picked up only on 0.2% of cytology specimen. Typically cytologically of CS of breast consists of central spherical hyaline spherule surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The central hyaline spherule has been found to be basement membrane material histochemically and immunohistochemically. The importance of recognizing CS of breast lies in the fact that similar hyaline globules can occur in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast (ACCB). The two lesions need to be differentiated on cytology failing which inappropriate treatment can be given for either of the two lesions. We present here a case of CS associated with benign breast lesion and a case of ACCB to describe their cytological features and key points to differentiate them cytologically. PMID:26681973

  12. Surgical jejunostomy in aspiration risk patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weltz, C R; Morris, J B; Mullen, J L

    1992-01-01

    One hundred patients underwent laparotomy for independent jejunal feeding tube placement. Neurologic disease was present in 50%, and obtundation (28) and oropharyngeal dysmotility (25) were the most common indications for enteral feeding. The post-pyloric route was chosen because of aspiration risk in almost all (94%) patients. Postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 21%, because of cardiopulmonary failure in most (18). One death resulted directly from aspiration of tube feeds. Two surgical complications required reoperation: one wound dehiscence and one small bowel obstruction. Four wound infections occurred. Two patients underwent reoperation after tube removal, and four tubes required fluoroscopically guided reinsertion for peritubular drainage (2), removal (1), and occlusion (1). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 18 patients preoperatively and in eight postoperatively. None of the patients with feeding-related preoperative aspiration pneumonia (13) had a recurrence while fed by jejunostomy. Three patients developed postoperative aspiration pneumonia before initiation of jejunostomy feedings. Jejunostomy may be performed with low morbidity rate and substantial reduction of feeding-related aspiration pneumonia, and is the feeding route of choice in aspiration risk patients. PMID:1546899

  13. The presence of diatom algae in a tracheal wash from a German Wirehaired Pointer with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Benson, Catherine J; Edlund, Mark B; Gray, Sarah; Powell, Lisa; Paulin-Curlee, Geisa; Armien, Anibal; Overmann, Jed A

    2013-06-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female German Wirehaired Pointer was presented with difficulty breathing after being found seizing in a water-filled drainage ditch while out hunting. Aspirates from a tracheal wash contained numerous degenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, some of which contained basophilic debris, low numbers of extracellular diatoms, and a single intracellular short bacterial rod. As the dog continued to clinically decline and could not be weaned from oxygen support, the owners chose euthanasia. The major necropsy finding was a severe granulomatous bronchopneumonia that was likely due to aspiration of foreign material based on the microscopic presence of plant-like material, bi-refringent crystalline material, non-cellular debris, and occasional fungal structures. Diatoms are a class of algae that live primarily in water. Diatom analysis has been used, with some controversy, in human forensics to assist in documenting drowning as the cause of death. In this case, given the clinical history, the presence of diatoms and inflammation in the tracheal wash were interpreted as a likely result of the aspiration of surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of diatoms observed in a cytologic specimen in a nonhuman mammal with aspiration pneumonia. PMID:23647227

  14. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  15. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  16. Error Rates in Cervical Cytological Screening Tests

    PubMed Central

    May, D.

    1974-01-01

    In an attempt to clear up the confusion evident in the literature concerning some aspects of cervical cytological screening tests, the principle is stated upon which the data acquired in a series of tests should be tabulated. The table is used to define several rates or probabilities, most of which express the rates at which errors occur. Certain rates are distinguished as of basic importance, others playing only a secondary role. The inter-relations of the rates are displayed as equations and reference is made to a set of conversion tables constructed from the equations. As an illustration, the data from a particular published paper is treated in detail, showing how the various rates can be calculated or estimated, and, in passing, also demonstrating their high degree of uncertainty. PMID:4830137

  17. Urine cytology in patients with calculi.

    PubMed Central

    Highman, W; Wilson, E

    1982-01-01

    The cytological changes in voided urines were analysed in 154 patients with calculi. No abnormality was seen in 52.6%; 40.9% contained smooth-bordered clusters of transitional cells with essentially normal, centrally placed nuclei. These, when found in routine urines, were reliable in predicting calculi in 62.5% of cases. Of the calculus urines, 6.5% showed features suspicious of differentiated transitional carcinoma. Although their morphological features overlapped with those observed in urines from 40 cases of proved differentiated transitional carcinoma, they contained significantly fewer single and clusters of transitional cells with abnormal nuclear morphology. Histological examination of urothelium adjacent to calculi in eight patients showed no evidence of malignancy although one case showed hyperplasia and severe epithelial atypia. Images PMID:7068927

  18. Chondroid syringoma of the axilla: An unusual tumor diagnosed by fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert; Zhou, Fang; Grunes, Dianne; Shapiro, Richard L; Bannan, Michael; Simsir, Aylin; Leung, Allen

    2016-04-01

    Chondroid syringoma (CS) is a rare benign adnexal tumor of the skin with a resemblance to pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland, most commonly involving the head and neck region. In the present literature, reports of the cytologic appearance of CS are scarce as it is rarely encountered by fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 67-year-old woman presented with a 1 year history of a 1 cm subcutaneous nodule in the right axilla. FNA biopsy was performed revealing an epithelial-mesenchymal biphasic neoplasm suggesting CS. Surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated extensive ossification, an extremely rare feature, with only seven reported cases, all located on the head. CS is a rare benign adnexal tumor of the skin, often overlooked due to its unremarkable clinical presentation. FNA is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of CS and helps guide optimal surgical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:342-346. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800260

  19. Mediastinal Abscess Following Endobronchial Ultrasound Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in a Patient With Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    McGovern Murphy, Frederic; Grondin-Beaudoin, Brian; Poulin, Yannick; Boileau, Robert; Dumoulin, Elaine

    2015-10-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure with a low rate of complications. It is used in the diagnosis of malignant and benign disease such as sarcoidosis. We report a case a 42-year-old man who had undergone EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement. Sarcoidosis was diagnosed on cytologic examination. Three weeks after the procedure, he developed a mediastinal abscess secondary to EBUS-TBNA. Sarcoidosis may be a risk factor for mediastinal infection complication. A local immune defect related to sarcoidosis may explain this risk. Our case underlines the importance of considering and recognizing this complication, and its possibility should be taken into account when undertaking the procedure for benign disease. PMID:26348695

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration: Technique and applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Tharian, Benjamin; Tsiopoulos, Fotios; George, Nayana; Pietro, Salvatore Di; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Since its initial report in 1992, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has now been incorporated into the diagnostic and staging algorithm for the evaluation of benign and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. Its introduction constitutes a major breakthrough in the endoscopic field and has gradually transformed EUS from a pure imaging modality into a more interventional procedure. In addition, the possibility of collecting samples, providing a definitive cytological and/or histological evidence of the presence of malignancy, has strongly contributed to changing EUS from a subjective, highly operator dependant procedure into a more objective one. This article will review the instrumentation, technique and the most important clinical applications of EUS-FNA. PMID:23293723

  1. Management of thyroid nodules: scanning techniques, thyroid suppressive therapy, and fine needle aspiration

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcraft, M.W.; Van Herle, A.J.

    1981-03-01

    For the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroidal disease, ultrasound displays anatomic but not histologic features. Other visualization techniques can be used including isotope scanning (radioiodine, 99m technetium, 241 americium fluorescence, 131 cesium, 67 gallium, 75 selenomethionine, 201 thallium, 32 phosphorus, 99m Tc-bleomycin, 197 mercury, 133 xenon), thermography, x-ray techniques (plain films, computed tomographic scan, xeroradiography, chest x-ray barium swallow, lymphography, angiography), and thyroid hormone suppression. Needle biopsy can be done by core biopsy (Vim-Silverman and drill biopsy), large needle biopsy for histologic processing and fine needle aspiration for cytologic interpretation. The latter is the safest, most reliable, and most cost-effective technique currently available to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroidal disease and has great promise for the future.

  2. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  3. Lung cancer cytology: potential pitfalls and mimics - a review

    PubMed Central

    Idowu, Michael O; Powers, Celeste N

    2010-01-01

    Cytology is increasingly being used in the evaluation of lung lesions. There are several potential pitfalls and mimics encountered in the evaluation of respiratory cytology specimens, making interpretation of respiratory cytology challenging. Familiarity with the mimics and the pitfalls is essential in avoiding a misdiagnosis because a false positive or false negative diagnosis may have significant management implications. This article focuses on the main classification of primary lung carcinoma - small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma - with potential mimics discussed under each tumor category. We have attempted to separate pitfalls from common potential mimics and have suggested general rules when such pitfalls are encountered. PMID:20490328

  4. Urinary cytology in bladder cancer: why is it still relevant?

    PubMed

    Comploj, Evi; Trenti, Emanuela; Palermo, Salvatore; Pycha, Armin; Mian, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy with cytology is currently considered the gold standard for the detection and surveillance of primary tumors and for the follow-up of patients after transurethral resection. Even if cytology has a low sensitivity especially in low-grade bladder carcinomas, the high specificity and the inexpensive nature of the equipment required, justify performing it. The greatest value of cytology for patients with low-grade, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the detection of those lesions that may progress to high-grade urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26219472

  5. Molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases using cytological specimens.

    PubMed

    Canberk, Sule; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Pathologists have an important role in the diagnosis of infectious disease (ID). In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made using cytopathology alone. However, several ancillary techniques can be used on cytological material to reach a specific diagnosis by identifying the causative agent and consequently defining the management of the patient. This review aims to present the effectiveness of the application of molecular studies on cytological material to diagnose IDs and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various molecular techniques according to the type of cytological specimen and the infectious agents. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:156-164. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26620694

  6. Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: a prospective study on 114 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G; Palermo, G; Zini, E

    2015-08-01

    Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FNA, FNI, and/or IS) were available from the same lesion; Îş-agreement and accuracy between cytological and histopathological results were calculated. Eighteen cytological specimens were excluded, with a retrieval rate of 84.2%. Of the 96 samples analysed, FNA, FNI, and IS were available from 80, 76, and 73 animals, respectively. Overall, 60/67 (89.6%) and 21/29 (72.4%) lesions were neoplastic in dogs and cats, respectively, with the remaining being non-neoplastic. For all lesions, Îş-values obtained by FNA, FNI, and IS were in dogs 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.84), respectively, and in cats 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of FNA, FNI, and IS in dogs with neoplasia were 98.2%, 98.1%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in cats with neoplasia were 95.6%, 95.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the high agreement with histopathology suggests that cytological examinations by FNI, FNA, and IS are all appropriate methods to correctly diagnose lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats. PMID:25466576

  7. Changing patterns in cervical cytology among oral and non-oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Fuertes-de la Haba, A; Pelegrina, I; Bangdiwala, I S; Hernández-Cibes, J J

    1973-01-01

    9634 patients (21-39 years, with at least 1 normal pregnancy) with no previous experience with oral contraceptives or IUDs, seen at clinics in Rio Piedras, Caguas, and Ponce, Puerto Rico from July 1961 to October 1969 to study their changing patterns in cervical cytology were divided randomly into 2 groups, of which 4846 were given oral contraceptive, Enovid, and 4788 provided with a vaginal contraceptive excluding IUDs, and followed for a period of 6 months-8 years. Separate Pap smears were obtained at admittance to the study by an endocervical aspiration with the pipette and cervical sample with Ayre spatula scraped over the cervico-columnar junction. The cervix was diagrammed showing any erosion. Schiller tests were done. Possible presence of Trichomonas vaginalis was treated. Repeat smears were done at 3-month intervals. 2129 oral patients and 2249 nonoral patients experienced either regression or progression in cytological patterns throughout the 8 years of observation. The analysis is divided into 3 groups, irrespective of the time at which they were observed. Of the 2129 oral patients showing a first change, 55.5% progressed to a higher Pap class, 44.5% regressed to a lower Pap class. In the nonoral group, 55.2% progressed and 44.4% regressed. 1255 patients had a second change: in the oral group, 37.5% progressed, 62.5% regressed. In the nonoral group, 36.7% progressed, 63.3% regressed out of 1258 patients. 690 oral patients showed a third change: 46.1% progressed and 53.9% regressed. Of the 718 nonoral patients 47.1% progressed and 52.9% regressed. There was no significant difference in the pattern of progression and regression between oral and nonoral groups. Oral contraceptives do not aggravate the conditions which lead to development of premalignant lesions in the uterine cervix. PMID:4572229

  8. Common aspirations of world women.

    PubMed

    Huang, B

    1996-02-01

    The comments of the Director of Foreign Affairs for the China State Family Planning Commission reflect satisfaction with the achievements at the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. It is posited that the historic documents from the conference reflect the common aspirations of all women in the world for equality, development, and peace. The conference's focus on social development for women has been translated in China into a "vigorous" IEC campaign. China is developing integrated approaches to family planning in rural areas. The approach aims to help rural women to become economically independent before achieving equality within the family and society. A National Conference on Integrated Programs was held in Sichuan province. Examples of integrated programs in Sichuan, Jilin, and Jiangsu were described for conference participants. The example is given of how poor rural women in Deyang Prefecture, Sichuan province, have received credit for income generation and access to skill development and literacy classes. Continuous economic and social development are important for achieving "poverty eradication and the liberation of women." Sustainable development involves use of resources, environmental protection, the reasonable change in consumption patterns, and transitional changes in modes of production. The concept of reproductive health means Chinese family planning workers must meet higher standards. Future plans include intensifying the IEC program in meeting the comprehensive biological, psychological, and social reproductive health needs of women. Respect must be given to the fertility intentions and reproductive rights of wives and husbands. "In China, voluntary choice of childbearing should be guided by the fertility policy formulated by the government." Training of family planning workers should be intensified to include training in public health, reproductive theory, contraception, and the techniques of interpersonal communication. Some provinces have already begun to establish reproductive health centers as community demonstration projects. PMID:12291333

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and useful ancillary methods

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Mario; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Kusec, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in evaluating pancreatic pathology has been well documented from the beginning of its clinical use. High spatial resolution and the close proximity to the evaluated organs within the mediastinum and abdominal cavity allow detection of small focal lesions and precise tissue acquisition from suspected lesions within the reach of this method. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is considered of additional value to EUS and is performed to obtain tissue diagnosis. Tissue acquisition from suspected lesions for cytological or histological analysis allows, not only the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions, but, in most cases, also the accurate distinction between the various types of malignant lesions. It is well documented that the best results are achieved only if an adequate sample is obtained for further analysis, if the material is processed in an appropriate way, and if adequate ancillary methods are performed. This is a multi-step process and could be quite a challenge in some cases. In this article, we discuss the technical aspects of tissue acquisition by EUS-guided-FNA (EUS-FNA), as well as the role of an on-site cytopathologist, various means of specimen processing, and the selection of the appropriate ancillary method for providing an accurate tissue diagnosis and maximizing the yield of this method. The main goal of this review is to alert endosonographers, not only to the different possibilities of tissue acquisition, namely EUS-FNA, but also to bring to their attention the importance of proper sample processing in the evaluation of various lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and other accessible organs. All aspects of tissue acquisition (needles, suction, use of stylet, complications, etc.) have been well discussed lately. Adequate tissue samples enable comprehensive diagnoses, which answer the main clinical questions, thus enabling targeted therapy. PMID:25339816

  10. To Aspire: A Systematic Reflection on Understanding Aspirations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Aspirations for higher education by people from low socioeconomic status backgrounds are now a focus of government policy in many OECD nations. This is part of a global trend emphasizing the perceived benefits of "raising" aspirations among under-represented groups as a social inclusion strategy to widen university participation, but…

  11. Phenotype-Guided Natural Products Discovery Using Cytological Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Jessica L; Bray, Walter M; Lokey, R Scott; Linington, Roger G

    2015-09-25

    Phenotype-guided natural products discovery is emerging as a useful new discovery tool that addresses challenges in early, unbiased natural product biological annotation. These high-content approaches yield screening results that report directly on the impact of test compounds on cellular processes in target organisms and can be used to predict the modes of action of bioactive constituents from primary screening data. In this study we explored the use of our recently implemented cytological profiling platform for the isolation of compounds with a specific, predefined mode of action, namely, induction of mitotic arrest. Screening of a microbially derived extract library revealed six extracts whose cytological profiles clustered closely with those of known antimitotic agents from the pure compound training set. Subsequent examination of one of these extracts revealed the presence of two separate bioactive constituents, each of which possessed a unique cytological profile. The first, diketopiperazine XR334 (3), recapitulated the observed antimitotic phenotype of the original extract, demonstrating that cytological profiling can be used for the targeted isolation of compounds with specific modes of action. The second, nocapyrone L (6), possessed a cytological profile that clustered with known calcium channel modulators, in line with previous published activities for this compound class, indicating that cytological profiling is a flexible and powerful platform for the de novo characterization of compound modes of action. PMID:26292657

  12. Next Generation Sequencing Improves the Accuracy of KRAS Mutation Analysis in Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration Pancreatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

  13. "Cannonballs" and psammoma bodies: unusual cytologic features of metastatic pulmonary small-cell carcinoma in a pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Conway, Andrea B; Hart, Melissa K; Jessurun, Jose; Pambuccian, Stefan E

    2013-03-01

    Large three-dimensional cell aggregates and psammoma bodies are usually encountered in benign serous effusions (mesothelial hyperplasia and endosalpingiosis), mesotheliomas, and metastatic papillary carcinomas. We report a case of pulmonary small-cell carcinoma occurring in an 88-year-old woman that initially presented with a malignant pleural effusion characterized cytologically by a predominance of large three-dimensional neoplastic cell aggregates ("cannonballs"), associated with rare psammoma bodies. Although the crowded three-dimensional tumor-cell aggregates did not allow detailed cytologic examination, the diagnosis of metastatic small-cell carcinoma could be established noting the characteristic chromatin features of the occasional single neoplastic cells and the characteristic "cell-in-cell" and "stack-of-coins" arrangements of rare small clusters of neoplastic cells. Immunoperoxidase stains showing positivity of the tumor cells for CD56, synaptophysin, and TTF1 further supported this diagnosis. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of a mediastinal lymph node subsequently confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary small-cell carcinoma. Metastatic pulmonary small-cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of serous effusions showing large three-dimensional neoplastic cell aggregates and psammoma bodies to prevent a potential diagnostic pitfall. PMID:21987407

  14. ?H2AX expression in cytological specimens as a biomarker of response to radiotherapy in solid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ketan; Boghozian, Ramon A; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Shah, Ketan A; Vallis, Katherine A

    2016-02-01

    Many anticancer treatments, including radiotherapy, act by damaging DNA and hindering cell function and proliferation. H2AX is a histone protein directly associated with DNA that is phosphorylated to produce ?H2AX that accumulates in foci in an early response to DNA double-strand breaks, the most deleterious lesion caused by anticancer therapy. This study reports a ?H2AX detection assay that has the potential to be used as a biomarker of response to guide cancer treatment. ?H2AX immunostaining was applied to tumour cell specimens obtained using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Liquid-based cytology and direct smear cytology methods were evaluated and immunostaining protocols established using FNA samples from five cancer patients. The assay was then applied to three patients before and after radiotherapy. Results demonstrate induction of ?H2AX foci following treatment, persisting for as long as one week after therapy. Immunostaining for ?H2AX has been successfully applied to FNA samples, providing an opportunity to evaluate ?H2AX as a treatment response marker in cancer. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:141-146. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26667983

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

  16. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  17. Urine: beyond cytology for detection of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Pattari, Sanjib Kumar; Dey, Pranab

    2002-09-01

    In the present review we discuss various ancillary modalities for detection of malignancies in urine samples, with an emphasis on urothelial carcinomas. Flow cytometry, bladder tumor antigen (BTA), nuclear matrix protein (NMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), human chorionic gonadotrophic (HCG), telomerase, and other techniques are discussed. DNA FCM is a relatively costly and sophisticated technique. It has a practical application in the diagnosis of bladder cancer among subjects at high risk and is of value in monitoring the course of the disease and anticipating recurrence following conservative treatment. The BTA test is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive adjunct to cystoscopy and the results of the test are equivalent or superior to those of voided urinary cytology. NMP-22 immunoassay is a useful diagnostic test for predicting recurrence of urothelial malignancy. It is also a cost-effective and sensitive screening test for detecting tumor in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Beta-HCG estimation in urine samples appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the assessment of distant metastasis in bladder carcinoma rather than a screening test. Other ancillary techniques such as detection of expression of cytokeratin 20 by RT-PCR, MMP-9 estimation, and fluorescent in situ hybridization and telomerase activity are rarely applied clinically in routine urinary samples and are not cost-effective. PMID:12203859

  18. Urine cytology. It is still the gold standard for screening?

    PubMed

    Brown, F M

    2000-02-01

    Urine cytology remains the gold standard for bladder cancer screening. It is the test against which all others are compared when evaluating potential bladder tumor markers. The answer to whether urine cytology possess the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity to retain consideration as the best screening device depends on the goals of the clinical practice. Urine cytology has excellent specificity with few false-positive cases. Its overall sensitivity is poor, but this drawback is explained for the most part by poor criteria for identifying well-differentiated, low-grade TCC. The natural history of such lesions is the occurrence of multiple superficial recurrences in 70% to 80% of patients, with only a minority (10% to 15%) progressing to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Because patients with low-grade TCC are at low risk for progression, they are monitored primarily for the development of a subsequent tumor. One might argue that the detection of new low-grade lesions is of secondary importance to the early detection of disease progression. The performance characteristics of urine cytology in this regard are much improved. Urine cytology often results in the identification of high-grade malignant cells even before a cystoscopically distinguishable gross lesion is present. Routinely diagnosing grade I TCC may be clinically irrelevant. Ancillary techniques to improve the sensitivity of urine cytology have been insufficiently additive to have much clinical value. Several promising bladder tumor markers have been investigated as potential screening tools and are summarized in Table 3. BTA, nuclear matrix proteins, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products share lower specificities than urine cytology and may have high rates of false positivity. Telomerase is highly sensitive and highly specific but is not readily available as a point-of-service test. Hyaluronidase and hyaluronic acid are promising prognostic markers, but hyaluronidase does not detect grade I TCC. Early results from studies of this marker await verification. Combining some of these new markers may optimize their performance status, allowing the advantages of one test to correct the shortcomings of another. Likewise, their combination with urine cytology may prove beneficial. Although adding urine cytology has not increased the sensitivity of some point-of-service tests, few studies have addressed the effect on specificity. Until an obvious winner is declared in the race to find a bladder tumor marker, urine cytology will remain the gold standard screening method because of its comfortable familiarity. PMID:10696242

  19. Transcatheter mechanical thrombus aspiration for stent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Galli, M; Bonatti, R; Butti, E; Zerboni, S

    2000-03-01

    Currently, in-stent thrombosis is a rare but serious clinical event. The mechanical or pharmacological approach has not totally solved this problem. In this report we describe the treatment of in-stent thrombosis with a new device for mechanical thrombus aspiration. We used the Rescue catheter (Rescue Catheter System, Boston Scientific), a new 4.5F dual lumen monorail catheter that was able to break and aspirate thrombus without evidence of distal embolization. In this case the procedure was quickly performed with good angiographic results after mechanical aspiration and additional traditional coronary angioplasty. Moreover, the excellent clinical outcome confirmed the efficacy of the technique in the percutaneous treatment of this late complication of stent implantation. PMID:10806992

  20. EGFR mutation testing in lung cancer: a review of available methods and their use for analysis of tumour tissue and cytology samples

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Gillian; Zhu, Guanshan; Moulis, Alexandros; Dearden, Simon; Speake, Georgina; McCormack, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Aims Activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Testing for mutations in EGFR is therefore an important step in the treatment-decision pathway. We reviewed reported methods for EGFR mutation testing in patients with lung cancer, initially focusing on studies involving standard tumour tissue samples. We also evaluated data on the use of cytology samples in order to determine their suitability for EGFR mutation analysis. Methods We searched the MEDLINE database for studies reporting on EGFR mutation testing methods in patients with lung cancer. Results Various methods have been investigated as potential alternatives to the historical standard for EGFR mutation testing, direct DNA sequencing. Many of these are targeted methods that specifically detect the most common EGFR mutations. The development of targeted mutation testing methods and commercially available test kits has enabled sensitive, rapid and robust analysis of clinical samples. The use of screening methods, subsequent to sample micro dissection, has also ensured that identification of more rare, uncommon mutations is now feasible. Cytology samples including fine needle aspirate and pleural effusion can be used successfully to determine EGFR mutation status provided that sensitive testing methods are employed. Conclusions Several different testing methods offer a more sensitive alternative to direct sequencing for the detection of common EGFR mutations. Evidence published to date suggests cytology samples are viable alternatives for mutation testing when tumour tissue samples are not available. PMID:23172555

  1. GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis on Concentrated Fine Needle Aspirates in High Tuberculosis Burden Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Aragaw, Dossegnaw; Abdella, Kedir; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; de Jong, Bouke C.; Rigouts, Leen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL) remains challenging. The routinely used methods (cytology and smear microscopy) have sub-optimal sensitivity. Recently, WHO recommends GeneXpert to be used as the initial diagnostic test in patients suspected of having extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). However, this was a conditional recommendation due to very low-quality evidence available and more studies are needed. In this study we evaluated the performance of Xpert for the diagnosis of TBL on concentrated fine needle aspirates (FNA) in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods FNA was collected from presumptive TBL cases. Two smears were prepared from each aspirate and processed for cytology and conventional microscopy. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH and centrifuged for 15minutes at 3000g. The concentrated sediment was used for culture and Xpert test. Capilia TB-Neo test was used to differentiate M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Composite bacteriological methods (culture and/or smear microscopy) were considered as a reference standard. Result Out of 143 enrolled suspects, 64.3% (92/143) were confirmed TBL cases by the composite reference standard (CRS). Xpert detected M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in 60.1% (86/143) of the presumptive TBL cases. The sensitivity of Xpert compared to CRS was 87.8% [95% CI: 81.0–94.5] and specificity 91.1% [95% CI: 82.8–99.4]. The sensitivity was 27.8% for smear microscopy and 80% for cytology compared to CRS. Cytology showed the lowest specificity (57.8%). Xpert was positive in 4 out of 45 culture- and smear-negative cases. Among 47 cytomorphologically non-TBL cases, 15 were positive on Xpert. More than half of Xpert-positive cases were in the range of very low cut-off threshold values (28aspirates. PMID:26366871

  2. A Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases After the Chornobyl Accident. Cyto-Histopathologic Correlation and Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Nodules Detected During the First Screening in Ukraine (1998-2000)

    PubMed Central

    Bozhok, Yuriy; Greenebaum, Ellen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zelinskaya, Anna; Brenner, Alina V.; Zurnadzhy, Lyudmyla Y.; Zablotska, Lydia; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ukrainian American Cohort Study was established to evaluate the risk of thyroid disorders in a group exposed as children and adolescents to 131I by the Chornobyl accident (arithmetic mean thyroid dose=0.79 Gray). Subjects are screened by palpation and ultrasound and referred to surgery according to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). However, the accuracy of FNA cytology for detecting histopathologically confirmed malignancy following this level of internal exposure to radioiodines is unknown. Methods As a result of the first screening cycle (1998-2000), 13,243 individuals were examined, 356 with thyroid nodules were referred for FNA, 288 completed the procedure, 85 were referred to surgery, 82 were operated upon, and pre-operative cytology was available for review in 78. Cytological interpretation for the nodule that resulted in surgical referral was correlated with final pathomorphology; discrepancies were retrospectively reviewed; and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNA cytology were calculated. Results All 24 cytological interpretations definite for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were histopathologically confirmed (PPV=100%) and of 11 suspect for PTC, 10 were confirmed (PPV=90.9%). Ten of 41 FNAs interpreted as either definite or suspect for follicular neoplasm (FN) were confirmed as malignant (PPV=24.4%): 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) and 8 PTCs (all but one of the follicular or mixed subtypes). Depending on whether a cytological interpretation of FN was considered a “positive” or “negative”, sensitivity was 100% or 77.3%, respectively; similarly, specificity was 17.6% or 97.1 %, PPV 61.1% or 97.1% and NPV 100% or 76.7%. Conclusions Among children and adolescents exposed to 131I following Chornobyl and evaluated 12 to 14 years later, thyroid cytology has a sensitivity and predictive value similar to that reported in unexposed populations. PMID:19365829

  3. A Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases After the Chornobyl Accident. Cyto-Histopathologic Correlation and Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Nodules Detected During the First Screening in Ukraine (1998-2000)

    PubMed Central

    Bozhok, Yuriy; Greenebaum, Ellen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zelinskaya, Anna; Brenner, Alina V.; Zurnadzhy, Lyudmyla Y.; Zablotska, Lydia; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Background The Ukrainian American Cohort Study was established to evaluate the risk of thyroid disorders in a group exposed as children and adolescents to 131I by the Chornobyl accident (arithmetic mean thyroid dose=0.79Gray). Subjects are screened by palpation and ultrasound and referred to surgery according to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). However, the accuracy of FNA cytology for detecting histopathologically confirmed malignancy following this level of internal exposure to radioiodines is unknown. Methods As a result of the first screening cycle (1998-2000), 13,243 individuals were examined, 356 with thyroid nodules were referred for FNA, 288 completed the procedure, 85 were referred to surgery, 82 were operated upon, and pre-operative cytology was available for review in 78. Cytological interpretation for the nodule that resulted in surgical referral was correlated with final pathomorphology; discrepancies were retrospectively reviewed; and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNA cytology were calculated. Results All 24 cytological interpretations definite for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were histopathologically confirmed (PPV=100%) and of 11 suspect for PTC, 10 were confirmed (PPV=90.9%). Ten of 41 FNAs interpreted as either definite or suspect for follicular neoplasm (FN) were confirmed as malignant (PPV=24.4%): 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) and 8 PTCs (all but one of the follicular or mixed subtypes). Depending on whether a cytological interpretation of FN was considered a “positive” or “negative”, sensitivity was 100% or 77.3%, respectively; similarly, specificity was 17.6% or 97.1 %, PPV 61.1% or 97.1% and NPV 100% or 76.7%. Conclusions Among children and adolescents exposed to 131I following Chornobyl and evaluated 12 to 14 years later, thyroid cytology has a sensitivity and predictive value similar to that reported in unexposed populations PMID:17083123

  4. Explaining the Aspirations of Working Class Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    Until recently research on women's educational and occupational aspirations has ignored the role of sex role ideology (SRI) and has concentrated primarily on college women. This study was implemented with 270 grade 12 girls, 25 percent of whom were from lower class backgrounds. Four scales of SRI were administered: femininity, power, division of…

  5. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  6. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  7. Occupational Aspirations and Experiences of College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangri, Sandra Schwartz

    This paper discusses women who enter male-dominated professions, so-called "Role Innovators", and some of the personality and background characteristics of these women. Findings include that (1) Role-Innovators' mothers were more likely to be working and to have Role-Innovative professions themselves; although the daughters' aspirations and…

  8. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  9. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  10. Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

  11. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

  12. THE EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL ASPIRATIONS OF PRISONERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOYLES, GARY

    INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS PRISONERS' VOCATIONAL ASPIRATIONS AND THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK WERE COMPLETED BY 175 INMATES IN NORTH DAKOTA IN THE SPRING OF 1966. UPON RELEASE, 35 PERCENT PLANNED TO GET MORE EDUCATION, 52 PERCENT PLANNED TO GET A JOB, SEVEN PERCENT PLANNED TO WORK AT HOME, AND SIX PERCENT HAD NO DEFINITE PLANS. SATISFACTION WITH…

  13. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, LaĂ­s Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies. PMID:26811557

  14. A Conversation on Mobility, Aspiration and Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critical Studies in Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On 11 and 12 October 2010, the National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education held its second annual "Student Equity in Higher Education National Conference" in Melbourne, Australia. The conference theme was "Aspiration, Mobility, Voice". During the conference the three keynote speakers--Gareth Parry (University of Sheffield, UK), Jane…

  15. Cayenne aspiration: an unusual type of lower airway foreign-body aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lianjun; Wang, Yuchuan; Zha, Xiankui; Tang, Fei; Lv, Liping; Liu, Xinmin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cayenne aspiration is an unusual type of foreign-body aspiration that is usually misdiagnosed. This article analyzes the clinical features of cayenne aspiration in the lower airway. Patients and methods Clinical data on eight adult patients with cayenne aspiration were retrospectively analyzed. Six were elderly patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2010 and August 2014. Results The most common symptoms of cayenne aspiration were cough (eight cases, 100%) and sputum (five cases, 62.5%). Only one patient (12.5%) could supply the history of aspiration on his first visit to doctor and was diagnosed definitely without delay. The other seven cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia and the time to accurate diagnosis was from 1 month to 6 months. The history of aspiration could be recalled after confirmed diagnosis for the other seven cases. The most common presentation shown by chest computed tomography (CT) was pneumonic opacity (eight cases, 100%). The existence of cayenne could not be detected by chest CT in any of the patients. All the patients were diagnosed definitively and managed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. Cayenne was more often lodged in the right bronchus tree (seven cases, 87.5%), especially the right lower bronchus (four cases, 50%). The segment of cayenne was complete in five cases (62.5%) and scattered in three cases (37.5%). Conclusion The clinical features of cayenne aspiration are usually obscure and nonspecific which may lead to delay in diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is safe and useful for early diagnosis and effective management. PMID:25473273

  16. Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

  17. The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

  18. Cytological image segmentation based on iterative generalized Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Liu, Meimei; Sui, Lihua; Cheng, Li

    2006-09-01

    Automatic exact segmentation of medical images is very important, since applications need to extract precisely the interesting organic features in the human body. An important example is cell detection in cytological and histological images for the diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we propose a time- and memory-efficient algorithm, called Iterative Generalized Hough Transform (IGHT) for automated cytological image segmentation. In addition to lowering memory requirement, the proposed algorithm reduces the excessive time with image scaling. Instead of being applied to a full-sized image, the IGHT scales down to half-sized and quarter-sized images. The proposed algorithm efficiently exploits both region and edge information. The results show that it is a reliable method for segmenting nuclei in cytological images and for extracting components of interest, which is a key step for diagnosing breast cancer and predicting the course of the disease.

  19. Cytological features of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, F; Jiménez-Heffernan, Ja; Salas, C; Pastrana, M; Sanz, E

    2012-07-01

    A case of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) evaluated during an intraoperative pathological consultation is presented. The patient, a 70-year-old woman was being followed because of a tumor in the left buttock. Cytological smears were obtained after scrapping the tumoral cut surface and revealed a myxoid background with fragments composed of a denser, fibrillar metachromatic stroma with accompanying round to oval tumoral nuclei and no vessels. Single cells were predominantly monomorphic with a round to oval morphology and scarce cytoplasm. The most relevant feature of the tumor was its peripheral, plaque-like, calcified consistency. The review of the cytological descriptions of four cases revealed similar findings that can be presumed as those of a low-grade myxoid tumor of round to oval cells. A specific recognition of OFMT based solely on cytological features seems difficult. However, when such features are coupled with characteristic radiological findings (peripheral calcification) this entity must be considered. PMID:23112466

  20. Cytometry: The Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, Supplement 6, 1993: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayall, B.H.; Landay, A.L.; Shapiro, H.M.; Visser, J.W.M.

    1993-12-31

    This contains the 465 presentation and poster abstracts for the XVI Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, March 1993. Plenary Sessions included the following: Industrial Cytometry; Clinical Issues (in Cytology); Molecular Pathology; biotechnology; new biology; temporal cytometry.

  1. Clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed by bile duct brushing cytology.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li-Ying; Mitchell, Kisha A; Cai, Guoiping

    2016-02-01

    Clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma (CCHCC) is an uncommon morphologic variant of HCC and rarely invades into the main bile ducts. Here we describe a case of CCHCC that was diagnosed by bile duct brushing cytology. Liquid-based preparation of brushing specimen showed clusters of atypical epithelial cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, round nuclei, and occasional intranuclear inclusions. The tumor cells were positive for HepPar-1 and arginase 1, suggestive of their hepatic origin. The overall morphologic and immunophenotypic features were consistent with CCHCC. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the resected tumor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:147-151. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26638110

  2. Urinary cytology as a test in mass screening.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, R; Kato, T; Shibata, K; Kano, M

    1981-09-01

    A rapid and simple cytologic screening system for urinary tract cancer stained with toluidine blue was described. Utilizing this system, a hospital population was screened for urinary tract cancer from specimens sent for routine urinalysis. In this study of 16,062 fresh urine sediments selected at random from non-urologic patients, three cases histologically proven bladder cancer were detected, leading to the detection rate of one bladder cancer in 5,000 individuals. The results emphasizes the usefulness of this simple screening technique in combination with clinical urinalysis and cytology for early detection of urinary tract malignancy. PMID:7324046

  3. The contribution of vacuum-assisted modified Menghini type needle to diagnosis of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Birgi, Erdem; Ergun, Onur; Türkmenoğlu, Tuğba Taşkın; Tatar, İdil Güneş; Durmaz, Hasan Ali; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the contribution of vacuum-assisted modified Menghini type needle to diagnosis of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid evaluated by a pathologist at the bedside. METHODS A total of 147 thyroid nodules in 138 patients (122 women, 16 men) were included in this prospective study. Sonographic features of nodules, number of aspirations, pain and pain severity during the process, hemorrhage, and presence of sample obtained for cell block analysis were recorded and analyzed with the results of aspiration biopsy. RESULTS Using the 21G modified Menghini type needle, a diagnosis could not be reached in 14.3% of nodules. Adequate samples for cell block analysis were obtained in 47 nodules (32%), 17 of which contributed to the diagnosis. While the difference between diagnostic cytopathology results and the contribution of the cell block were statistically significant, obtainability of cell block samples was not significantly correlated with the number of aspirations or the presence of a cystic component in the nodule. CONCLUSION FNAB with 21G vacuum-assisted modified Menghini type needle is a safe procedure with very low complication rates. In addition to the cytologic smear samples, microtissue fragments obtained with this method help pathologists in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. PMID:26714056

  4. Ultrasonic gas alloy atomization under near-zero aspiration pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Deping; Yan, Biao

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic gas atomization (USGA) of Zn-Al under near-zero aspiration pressure was discussed. The protrusion length of delivery tube was modified to adjust the aspiration pressure. Under near-zero aspiration pressure, melt filming was observed by camera and more fine powders were produced. While under larger subambient aspiration pressure, melt filming was unavailable, corresponding to less fine powders. The results suggest that the position of the wake near the delivery tube can be optimized under near-zero aspiration. Less protrusion of delivery tube reduces the energy loss in gas flow deflection. Both facilitate to produce finer powders.

  5. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  10. First trimester abortion by vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Borko, E; Breznik, R; Kokos, Z; Edelman, D; Brenner, W

    1975-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and complications of using the 8 mm diameter metal and flexible plastic cannulae for performing abortions of pregnancies of 7--10 menstrual weeks' gestation by vacuum aspiration, a comparative study was conducted. Both types of cannulae were randomly assigned to 300 subjects in a study design where the physician who performed the abortion was not the same person who evaluated the subject after the abortion or at the time of the follow-up visit. All abortions were performed under paracervical block anesthetic after mechanical dilatation of the cervix to 8.6 mm. The rates of specific complications, blood loss and the need for secondary procedures to complete the abortion were not significantly different for the two types of cannulae. The amount of tissue obtained with a routine curette check following the vacuum aspiration, and the incidence of cannula obstruction were similar for the two types of cannulae. PMID:1211837

  11. The sweet lung: Chewing gummi bear aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tavladaki, Theonimfi; Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Spanaki, Anna-Maria; Ilia, Staurula; Geromarkaki, Elissabet; Briassoulis, George

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of foreign bodies, a leading cause of accidental death, is most common in preschool children. In this article we report our experience with a 5-year-old Greek girl who presented with a 24-hour history of sore throat, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Emergency bronchoscopy was performed and multiple small chewing gummi bear (HARIBO) particles impacted in the orifices of the right main bronchus and right lobar and segmentalinic bronchi were successfully removed and aspirated. Aspiration of gummi bears, which is for the first time reported, may cause a silent choking episode leading to life-threatening bronchi obstruction at multiple sites, even in children older than 4 years. PMID:22919167

  12. Olive oil aspiration pneumonia (lipoid) in children.

    PubMed

    Annobil, S H; el Tahir, M; Kameswaran, M; Morad, N

    1997-04-01

    In the Asir region of south-western Saudi Arabia, nasal instillation of olive oil to infants and children in the recumbent position is practised to relieve nasal congestion. Aspiration of olive oil results in lipoid pneumonia resistant to antimicrobial treatment. A series of 5 children, aged 4-72 months, with olive oil-induced lipoid pneumonia is presented. Clinical presentation included persistent coughing, tachypnoea, recurrent febrile illness and chest infections. The pulmonary radiological picture was mainly right middle lobar and perihilar infiltrates. Bronchial lavage and microscopic examination of the aspirate confirmed the presence of fat globules. The pneumonia resolved on treatment with steroids and physiotherapy in the form of clapping and vibrations. For infants and children in this area who present with persistent pulmonary infiltrates which are not responsive to antimicrobials, the differential diagnosis of not only animal fat (ghee, clarified butter) but also of olive oil lipoid pneumonia must be considered. PMID:9171848

  13. Fracture and aspiration of a tracheostomy tube

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tze Ling; Chin, Ronald; Flynn, Peter; Jayachandra, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a fracture and aspiration of her polyvinyl chloride tracheostomy tube. Her chest X-ray showed that a foreign body was lodged in the right main bronchus. She was otherwise asymptomatic. The foreign body was removed under general anaesthesia using a flexible bronchoscope. The patient developed pneumonia after the procedure and was admitted to the intensive care unit. She was discharged home 5?days after the event with no permanent complications. PMID:24554685

  14. CT-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Inferior Vena Cava Wall: A Posterior Coaxial Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, Sebastian Bilecen, Deniz; Baumhoer, Daniel; Guillaume, Nicolas; Jacob, Augustinus L.

    2010-02-15

    A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis.

  15. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen: utilization of fine needle aspiration for diagnosis of a potential mimic of a pancreatic neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Tara A.; Miller, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Accessory spleen (AS) is not a rare occurrence, and with the second most common site being the tail of the pancreas, intrapancreatic AS (IPAS) can easily mimic a pancreatic neoplasm. Together with radiologic imaging findings, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) can be used to assist in the diagnosis, preventing potentially unnecessary surgical procedures. The most common cytologic findings that have been described in the literature include a heterogenous population of small lymphocytes along with traversing small vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for CD8 has also been documented as a useful tool to support the diagnosis as it specifically highlights the endothelial cells of the splenic sinus. Here, we report two additional cases of IPAS diagnosed by FNA and discuss the potential pitfalls in diagnosis of this entity.

  16. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations. PMID:25914033

  17. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  18. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  19. Cytomorphology of Boerhaave's syndrome: A critical value in cytology

    PubMed Central

    Khalbuss, Walid E.; Hooda, Shveta; Auger, Manon

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal perforation into the pleural cavity (Boerhaave's syndrome) is a rare life-threatening condition, which requires early diagnosis and urgent management. The diagnosis of such critical condition in many cases is delayed because of atypical clinical presentation, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Cytological examination of pleural fluid can provide early, fast and accurate diagnosis of such critical condition and help in better and early management of this disease. We describe a case of an 81-year-old female with esophageal perforation who presented with a left sided pleural effusion. The correct diagnosis was established in this case by observing gastrointestinal-like fluid characteristics of the thoracic drainage upon cytological and chemical analyses and the rupture was confirmed by esophagography. The cytological examination of pleural fluid revealed benign reactive squamous cells, fungal organisms, bacterial colonies, and vegetable material consistent with a ruptured esophagus. Cytological examination of pleural fluid is a rapid and accurate technique that can help in establishing the diagnosis of this challenging entity and guide initiation proper management of this unusual entity. PMID:23858318

  20. CYTOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF NORMAL AND CLONED BULLS’ MEIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytological and molecular analysis of meiotic cells from two bull clones and three non-clones was performed in order to detect effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNCT) on the meiotic process. Pachytene cells were analyzed by immunohistology using antibodies against the synaptonemal complex pr...

  1. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Diagnosis on Thyroid Aspirate and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Saqi, Anjali; Kuker, Adriana P; Ebner, Susana A; Ausiello, John; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Bhagat, Govind; Giorgadze, Tamar A

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid gland involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis is extremely rare. A 35-year-old woman with a history of a suprasellar mass previously diagnosed as a ganglioglioma and complicated by diabetes insipidus, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and central hypothyroidism presented with acute onset of neck enlargement. On ultrasound examination, almost the entire thyroid appeared replaced by abnormal lobulated hypoechoic tissue with increased vascularity. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid was performed and revealed singly scattered and loosely cohesive large cells with abundant cytoplasm, including some with irregular nuclear contours and nuclear grooves. No thyroid follicular cells were noted. Based on the cytomorphologic findings and ancillary studies (immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis) a cytological diagnosis of "positive for neoplastic cells" with features suggestive of monocytic/histiocytic origin, possibly Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was rendered. Following FNA, the patient underwent an incisional thyroid biopsy that confirmed the cytological impression of LCH. In light of the new diagnosis of LCH, the prior suprasellar mass biopsy slides were re-reviewed and rare cells suspicious for LCH were observed. Appropriate treatment for systemic LCH was initiated successfully. This case demonstrates that the presence of enlarged and loosely cohesive cells, especially those with irregular nuclear contours, in thyroid FNA specimens should raise suspicion for LCH. The diagnosis of LCH in FNA specimens is challenging. Additional material should be allocated for ancillary studies to confirm the morphological impression. In our case, not only was the thyroid FNA crucial in diagnosing LCH, but instrumental in initiating a thorough diagnostic work-up for multisystem involvement and thus unmasking the true etiology of the patient's suprasellar mass and associated endocrinopathies. PMID:25596951

  2. Diagnostic Thyroidectomy May Be Preferable in Patients With Suspicious Ultrasonography Features After Cytopathology Diagnosis of AUS/FLUS in the Bethesda System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Hyeung Kyoo; Chang, Hojin; Kim, Seok Mo; Kim, Bup-Woo; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a new category in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) for which repeat fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is recommended. The aim of this study was to identify specific ultrasonography and clinical predictors of malignancy in a subset of thyroid nodules associated with cytology diagnoses of AUS/FLUS. Between January 2011 and December 2102, 5440 patients underwent thyroid surgery at our institution. Of these, 213 patients were diagnosed AUS/FLUS at the preoperative cytopathology diagnosis. The frequency of FNAC and ultrasonography images was compared between patients with cancerous and benign tumors based on their final pathology. Of the 213 patients, 158 (74.2%) were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma in their final pathology reports. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the frequency of FNAC was not significantly correlated with the cancer diagnosis. Hypoechogenicity (odds ratio 2.521, P?=?0.007) and microcalcification (odds ratio 3.247, P?=?0.005) were statistically correlated with cancer risk. Although AUS/FLUS in cytopathology is recommended for repeating FNAC in BSRTC, we proposed that thyroid nodules with ultrasonography findings that suggest the possibility of cancer should undergo thyroidectomy with diagnostic intent. PMID:26705204

  3. The diagnostic reliability of urinary cytology: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Raisi, O; Magnani, C; Bigiani, N; Cianciavicchia, E; D'Amico, R; Muscatello, U; Ghirardini, C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. The first aim was to estimate the diagnostic reliability of urinary cytology for detection and management of urothelial neoplasms by using a specific preserving fluid for sample collection, and the liquid-based thin layer method for specimen preparation, the estimate was based on the correlation between the cytological findings of 10,000 non-hospitalized patients, and their histological diagnoses. A second aim was to compare the reliability of two instruments for thin-layer preparation, i.e., TP2000, TP3000, capable of processing the specimens at very different rates. The preservation of cell structure is ameliorated by the procedure of sample collection and treatment here described. This allows a more accurate reading of LBC slides as shown by: (a) the significant concordance between cytological and histological diagnosis (92%); (b) the significant number of low-grade urothelial carcinomas (20.5%) revealed by urinary cytology and validated by histologic diagnosis; (c) the low rate (8%) of misjudgement of cytological diagnosis reached in this study. The quality of performances of the two instruments tested for thin-layer preparation, i.e., TP2000 and TP3000, is statistically comparable. We recommend the procedure that makes use of preserving fluid for sample collection (cytolyt™) and treatment (preservcyt ™) as here described. We also recommend the use of thin-layer method for specimen preparation since it allows a more uniform distribution of the cells on the support with reduction of overlapping phenomena. Finally, economic considerations suggest the preferential use of Thin Prep 3000. PMID:21548121

  4. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytological alveolar damage in patients with severe pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriu, Bogdan; Jacobs, Frédéric; Beuzen, Fabienne; El Khoury, Rony; Axler, Olivier; Brivet, Francois G; Capron, Frédérique

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Histological examination of lung specimens from patients with pneumonia shows the presence of desquamated pneumocytes and erythrophages. We hypothesized that these modifications should also be present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia. Methods We conducted a prospective study in mechanically ventilated patients with clinical suspicion of pneumonia. Patients were classified as having hospital-acquired pneumonia or not, in accordance with the quantitative microbiological cultures of respiratory tract specimens. A group of severe community-acquired pneumonias requiring mechanical ventilation during the same period was used for comparison. A specimen of BAL (20 ml) was taken for cytological analysis. A semiquantitative analysis of the dominant leukocyte population, the presence of erythrophages/siderophages and desquamated type II pneumocytes was performed. Results In patients with confirmed hospital-acquired pneumonia, we found that 13 out of 39 patients (33.3%) had erythrophages/siderophages in BAL, 18 (46.2%) had desquamated pneumocytes and 8 (20.5%) fulfilled both criteria. Among the patients with community-acquired pneumonia, 7 out of 15 (46.7%) had erythrophages/siderophages and 6 (40%) had desquamated pneumocytes on BAL cytology. Only four (26.7%) fulfilled both criteria. No patient without hospital-acquired pneumonia had erythrophages/siderophages and only 3 out of 18 (16.7%) had desquamated pneumocytes on BAL cytology. Conclusion Cytological analysis of BAL from patients with pneumonia (either community-acquired or hospital-acquired) shows elements of cytological alveolar damage as hemorrhage and desquamated type II pneumocytes much more frequently than in BAL from patients without pneumonia. These elements had a high specificity for an infectious cause of pulmonary infiltrates but low specificity. These lesions could serve as an adjunct to diagnosis in patients suspected of having ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:16356206

  5. The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, R?dvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors. PMID:16262899

  6. Improvement in the Detection of Cystic Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma by Measurement of Thyroglobulin in Aspirated Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Wang, Min-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Ahuja, Anil T.; Zhou, Chun-Wu; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Guo, Hui-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Cystic change in metastatic lymph nodes of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a diagnostic challenge for fine needle aspiration (FNA) because of the scant cellularity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of thyroglobulin in fine needle aspirate (Tg-FNA) for detecting metastatic PTC in patients with cystic neck lesions and to validate the optimal cutoff value of Tg-FNA. A total of 75 FNA specimens of cystic lesions were identified, including 40 of metastatic PTC. Predetermined threshold levels of 0.04 (minimum detection level), 0.9, 10.0, and 77.0?ng/mL (maximum normal serum-Tg level) were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Tg-FNA for metastatic PTC detection. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing metastatic PTC of Tg-FNA values of 0.04, 0.9, 10.0, and 77.0?ng/mL were 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.382–0.618), 0.645 (95% CI, 0.526–0.752), 0.945 (95% CI, 0.866–0.984), and 0.973 (95% CI, 0.907–0.996), respectively. With a cutoff value of 77.0?ng/mL, the combination of Tg-FNA and FNA cytology showed superior diagnostic power (97.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity) compared to FNA cytology alone (80% sensitivity and 100% specificity). We recommend a Tg-FNA cutoff of 77.0?ng/mL, the maximum normal serum-Tg level, for cystic neck lesions.

  7. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm with expansile invasive carcinoma of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Ayako; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kodama, Yuzo; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Adachi, Souichi; Haga, Hironori

    2014-04-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the pancreas, a novel entity included in the World Health Organization 2010 classification, accounts for <1% of all pancreatic exocrine neoplasms and the number of reported cases is limited in the English literature. Herein we describe the cytologic features of ITPN with invasive carcinoma showing expansile growth on endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology. A 74-year-old male patient is presented with a 6.2 cm irregular mass in the head of the pancreas. Microscopic examination of EUS-FNA material showed abundant branching clusters of cells, with some scattered discohesive cells. High power magnification revealed tubular and cribriform patterns with central lumina, containing mucinous or proteinaceous secretions. The constituent cells were relatively uniform and showed mild to intermediate nuclear atypia. Intracytoplasmic mucin was not identified. On cell-block preparation, luminal spaces of clusters contained wispy luminal mucin. Immunohistochemically, constituent cells were positive for MUC1 and MUC6, and were negative for MUC5AC. The large cribriform and tubular clusters with luminal spaces containing wispy mucin were considered to be diagnostic clues for the cytologic diagnosis of ITPN by EUS-FNA. MUC1, MUC6, and MUC5AC immunohistochemistry for cell-block preparation appears to be a useful adjunctive tool to confirm the diagnosis. On EUS-FNA, ITPN should be included in the differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion showing good circumscription. PMID:24339429

  8. Accuracy of diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas on fine needle aspiration: A multi-institution experience of ten cases

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Sidra; Loya, Asif; Siddiqui, Momin T.; Akhter, Noreen; Yusuf, Muhammed Aasim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a neoplasm of uncertain origin and indolent biologic behavior with distinctive morphological features occurring predominantly in young women. This tumor has an excellent prognosis compared to neuroendocrine and acinar cell carcinoma, which are close differential diagnoses based on morphology, hence making it crucial to diagnose SPTP correctly. Objectives: To discuss the cytomorphological features of 10 cases of SPTP reported in two institutions and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in establishing the diagnosis of SPTP. Methods: Ten diagnosed cases of SPTP were retrieved from the computerized endoscopy and pathology databases of our two tertiary care institutions. Nine patients had subsequent histological follow-up available. Eight patients underwent EUS-FNA while one patient each had ultrasound and computed tomography-guided FNA. The rapid on-site evaluation was carried out in all 10 cases, and additional material was retained for cell block preparation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains ranging from synaptophysin, progesterone receptor, chromogranin, β-catenin, CD10, and NSE were applied on cell blocks. Histological sections of all resected specimens were reviewed, and findings were correlated with those obtained by FNA. Results: Adequate material was obtained in all ten cases. IHC stains helped to confirm the cytological impression of SPTP. Histological examination of resection specimens, available in 9/10 cases, confirmed the cytological diagnosis. Conclusions: FNA particularly that obtained with EUS guidance is an effective tool in the accurate diagnosis of SPTP. PMID:26884802

  9. Reliable EGFR mutation testing in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular lymph node fine-needle aspirates: a cohort study with diagnostic performance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Amir; Tiwari, Sandeep; Sovani, Vishakha; Baldwin, David R; Kumaran, Maruti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 15–30% of patients with lung cancer will have supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy (SCLN). Ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is regarded as an effective diagnostic tool in small size lymph nodes (LNs) and impalpable positron emission tomography detected nodes. We evaluated our diagnostic service performance in relation to the adequacy of samples for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Methods Retrospective data analysis from electronic records, searching for all suspected lung cancer referrals that underwent US of the neck±FNA, over a continuous period of 4?years. Results Of 306 cases with suspected lung cancer referred to our department for US FNA of SCLN, 228 patients underwent the procedure. Of the remaining 78 patients, LNs were not detected in 52 cases and appeared benign in 26. Cytological diagnosis was established in 171 patients (75%) for treatment decisions without further investigations. The remaining 57 patients had further investigations; 45 reconfirmed the US-guided FNA diagnosis. The average LN size was 12.9?mm, and positive cytology was obtained in LNs ranging from 3 to 45?mm. Of 57 adenocarcinoma cases, 34 were tested for EGFR confirming 4 positive, 25 negative and 5 insufficient samples. No complications were recorded. Conclusions US-guided FNA of SCLN remains an important diagnostic tool in lung cancer. Adequate tissue can be obtained for reliable diagnosis from LNs and for EGFR mutational analysis, without the need for more invasive and expensive investigations in more than 80% of cases. PMID:26175906

  10. Lung adenocarcinoma and its thyroid metastasis characterized on fine-needle aspirates by cytomorphology, immunocytochemistry, and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bellevicine, Claudio; Vigliar, Elena; Malapelle, Umberto; Carelli, Emanuele; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Santini, Mario; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2015-07-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) share a number of microscopic and immunophenotypical features. Thus, patients presenting with thyroid and lung synchronous neoplasms may be difficult on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples to define the site of origin of the malignancy. In the case reported here, inherent to a 57-years-old man presenting with a right lung mass and a large (44 mm) thyroid nodule, an integrated cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach enabled to clarify the primary nature of the neoplasm. FNA cytology showed in both sites papillary structures and nuclear changes reminiscent of PTC. The lung origin of the neoplasm was suggested on cell-block immunocytochemistry showing thyroid transcription factor-1 positive and PAX8 and TGB negative neoplastic cells. Next generation sequencing performed on the Ion Torrent platforms by the Ion Ampliseq Colon and Lung Cancer panel showed a similar genomic profile in both neoplastic sites with a concurrent KRAS G12C mutation. An integrated approach on FNA biospecimen is safe, cost effective, and may be coupled effectively with modern ancillary molecular techniques that may be useful, besides their predictive value, as a adjunctive diagnostic tool when the synchronous occurrence of lesions featuring overlapping morphologies challenge the cytopathologist. PMID:25900221

  11. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  12. Sequential Voluntary Cough and Aspiration or Aspiration Risk in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Okun, Michael S.; Troche, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is almost always present to some degree in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), either causing aspiration or greatly increasing the risk for aspiration during swallowing. This likely contributes to aspiration pneumonia, a leading cause of death in this patient population. Effective airway protection is dependent upon multiple behaviors, including cough and swallowing. Single voluntary cough function is disordered in people with PD and dysphagia. However, the appropriate response to aspirate material is more than one cough, or sequential cough. The goal of this study was to examine voluntary sequential coughing in people with PD, with and without dysphagia. Methods Forty adults diagnosed with idiopathic PD produced two trials of sequential voluntary cough. The cough airflows were obtained using pneumotachograph and facemask and subsequently digitized and recorded. All participants received a modified barium swallow study as part of their clinical care, and the worst penetration–aspiration score observed was used to determine whether the patient had dysphagia. Results There were significant differences in the compression phase duration, peak expiratory flow rates, and amount of air expired of the sequential cough produced by participants with and without dysphagia. Conclusions The presence of dysphagia in people with PD is associated with disordered cough function. Sequential cough, which is important in removing aspirate material from large- and smaller-diameter airways, is also impaired in people with PD and dysphagia compared with those without dysphagia. There may be common neuroanatomical substrates for cough and swallowing impairment in PD leading to the co-occurrence of these dysfunctions. PMID:24792231

  13. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ?30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ?CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ?CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ?CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ?50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  14. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  15. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia induced by aspiration of insecticide.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, Keisuke; Kamitani, Takeshi; Matsuo, Yoshio; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Sunami, Shunya; Jinnouchi, Mikako; Nagao, Michinobu; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disorder caused by inhalation and/or aspiration of oil-based substances. The confirmed diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia is difficult, especially in cases for which it is impossible to ascertain a history of inhalation or aspiration. We present a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia due to aspiration of insecticide, for which the computed tomography findings of fat attenuation within the lesion were helpful in reaching a correct diagnosis. PMID:21952608

  16. Brillo pad crack screen aspiration and ingestion.

    PubMed

    Moettus, A; Tandberg, D

    1998-01-01

    Crack cocaine is commonly smoked in a pipe with a metallic filter made from a steel wool scouring pad. We report an unusual complication of smoking crack cocaine: the aspiration and ingestion of a Brillo pad filter. A 34-year-old female presented 7 h after drinking beer and smoking crack. She was concerned that she might have inhaled the "screen" from her crack pipe, a piece of Brillo pad the size of her fingertip. She complained of "burning" in her throat, a foreign body sensation, and change in her voice, but no dyspnea, dysphagia, or abdominal pain. On physical examination, she was afebrile with a pulse of 105 beats/min and respiratory rate of 24 breaths/min. She was tearful and spoke in a whisper. There were no visible oropharyngeal burns and the lungs were clear to auscultation, but she had intermittent inspiratory stridor. The O2 saturation was 96%, and the ethanol concentration was 100 mg/dl. No foreign body or burn was seen on indirect laryngoscopy. A lateral neck x-ray study showed a normal epiglottis and no foreign body. Chest x-ray studies were unremarkable. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy showed left posterior arytenoid edema and swelling. An abdominal x-ray study revealed a foreign body in the right lower quadrant consistent with the Brillo pad filter. The next morning, the patient was asymptomatic and was discharged, recovering without sequellae. While crack pipe screen aspiration is a rarely reported event, physicians should be aware of the potential for foreign body aspiration and ingestion by this mechanism. PMID:9848701

  17. Evolution of transbronchial needle aspiration technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Ben, Su-Qin; Xia, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an established technique to collect cell and tissue specimens from lesions outside the airway wall, generally guided by flexible bronchoscope under the direct visualization of the puncture site. TBNA has been utilized for 30 years, and now there is renewed interest in utilizing it in conjunction with endobronchial ultrasound. Although the basic operational principles have remained the same, conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided TBNA (EBUS-TBNA) have been greatly improved over the years with the increased application in clinic and the advance of new technology. In this article we briefly discussed the evolution of TBNA technique and its future. PMID:26807269

  18. Concentration of Lymph Node Aspirate Improves the Sensitivity of Acid Fast Smear Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Result Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. Conclusion The concentration of lymph node aspirates for acid fast smear microscopy had significantly higher sensitivity than direct microscopy. PMID:25184279

  19. Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

  20. Building and using a PACS in pathology and cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Drunen, Rudi; van Teylingen, Geert; Boon, Mathilde E.; Kok, Lambrecht P.

    2001-08-01

    Applications of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in Pathology and Cytology are currently hardly used in the diagnostic process. Here we describe a system that, together with existing equipment, stores data from cervix smears, and aids the physician in the diagnostic process. The system comprises of a scanning system for the specimen and a multi-level storage system partly on disk and partly on optical media. The system adds additional benefits in the diagnostic process while at the same time provides a safe long-term storage and archive of the data. Due to the open nature and the cost-effectiveness of this solution applications of this system can be found not only in cervical cytology but also in pathology or other parts of medicine where image processing or storage is a major issue.

  1. Pigmented Paget's disease of nipple: A diagnostic challenge on cytology.

    PubMed

    Vani, Br; Thejaswini, Mu; Srinivasamurthy, V; Rao, M Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Paget's disease is a rare form of breast cancer often associated with an underlying ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive cancer. A 47-year-old female patient presented with bleeding from the left nipple since 4 months. Imprint smears from the lesion showed pleomorphic malignant epithelial cells in singles and in small clusters, many of them containing dark brown cytoplasmic pigment granules. There was no palpable breast lump or axillary lymph node enlargement. Based on the physical examination and cytological features, a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with a differential of Paget's disease of the nipple was made. Biopsy showed features of Paget's disease and immunohistochemistry was positive for HER-2/neu, negative for HMB-45 and S-100, thus confirming the diagnosis. This case has been reported to emphasize the fact that Paget's cells can contain imbibed brown cytoplasmic pigment and should not be mistaken for melanoma cells on cytology smears. PMID:23661948

  2. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors: an entity in search of cytologic criteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng Cheng; Collins, Brian T; Flint, Andrew; Michael, Claire W

    2013-08-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are histologically subclassified into typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC). The criteria for subclassification in cytological specimens are not well defined. In this study, we reviewed histologically confirmed 18 TC, 8 AC, 10 LCNEC, and 10 SCLC cytologic specimens from 45 patients. The following features were reviewed: small clusters, geographic sheets, trabecular structures, pseudo-rosettes, single cells, doublets, triplets or short cords, papillary-like structures, capillary vasculatures, necrosis, smear background, cell size, cell pleomorphism, amount of cytoplasm, plasmacytoid cells, spindle cells, nuclear atypia, molding, palisading and smearing, chromatin textures, nucleoli, and mitotic figure count. Based on our results, geographic clusters and necrosis were often seen in LCNEC and SCLC; while AC only showed scattered single cell necrosis. TC and AC commonly exhibited trabecular structures. Papillary-like structures and capillary vasculature were only present in TC, AC, and LCNEC. Cells forming doublets, triplets, and short cords were more commonly seen in SCLC and rarely seen in other entities. Plasmacytoid and spindle cells were only seen in TC and AC. Nuclear smearing was not identified in TC, rare in AC, focally present in LCNEC and obvious in SCLC. Mitotic figures were nearly absent in TC, ?5/10 HPF in AT, and ?10/10 HPF in SCLC. LCNEC showed a wide span of mitotic count ranging between 2 and 16/10 HPF. In this study, we propose a set of cytological features that are essential for subclassification of PNETs in cytologic specimens. PMID:23166111

  3. False-negative cytology in invasive cancer of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Fetherston, W C

    1983-12-01

    The mainstay of early diagnosis of CIN is exfoliative cytologic screening of the cervicovaginal area. The Achilles heel in this tremendously valuable screening process is the high false negativity rate. The false negativity rate can be diminished by rigid adherence to indications for screening, screening technique, proper interpretation and reporting, and utilization, where indicated, of adjunctive diagnostic methods such as multiple biopsy, colposcopy, and maintenance of the annual screening schedule in the majority of patients. PMID:6661844

  4. Ciliated pancreatic foregut cyst: MRI, EUS, and cytologic features.

    PubMed

    Alessandrino, Francesco; Allard, Felicia D; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated foregut cysts are extremely uncommon pancreatic cystic lesions, with-to the best of our knowledge-only five cases previously reported in the English literature. We report herein on a case of a ciliated foregut cyst of the pancreas connected with the duct of Wirsung. The magnetic resonance imaging, endoultrasonographic, and cytologic features are described and a brief review of literature is also presented. PMID:26526788

  5. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Detection of MicroRNAs in Archival Cytology Urine Smears

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs’ dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06–4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope?=?-3.4084; R-squared?=?0.99; efficiency?=?1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers. PMID:23469001

  7. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  8. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  9. Deformable membrane for the segmentation of cytological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Bredno, Joerg; Lehmann, Thomas M.; Spitzer, Klaus

    1998-06-01

    In clinical cytology quantitative parameters have to be extracted from a large number of biological samples to obtain diagnostically relevant and reproducible information. Computer-assisted microscopy can provide methods that increase the quality and comparability of clinical studies by reducing the subjective influence of human operators on their results. In order to guarantee the correctness of extracted parameters automatic and reliable segmentation of the samples is required. For the detection of cytological objects a novel deformable membrane model is presented which is strictly based on macroscopical mechanics and statics. This is appropriate for modeling physiological membranes, because their shape is determined exclusively by mechanical forces. The self-driven membrane converges iteratively towards a stable state, where the contrary forces are in balance. However, active contours may not yield sufficient detection quality for acquisition of quantitative parameters. Therefore, after convergence a stochastic optimization process corrects the contour according to local graylevel information. This yields a contour that is well- adapted to the local graylevel structure. Additionally, for subsequent cytometric quantifications a local measure of confidence is provided for the contour. this can be used to enhance the robustness of the extracted parameters by incorporating the confidence factors in the quantification process. The method is applied to cytological and histological samples of different magnification.

  10. [THE MORPHOMETRY IN CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXUDATIVE FLUIDS].

    PubMed

    Snikhovskaya, K V; Shabalova, I P

    2015-08-01

    The cytological technique takes a leading position in diagnostic of tumor processes according exudative fluids. However, its results depend on large number of subjective factors. The morphometry is one of techniques by virtue of which objectification of data of cytological analysis is possible. The study was carried out to establish differences of morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cells of pleural effusion. The morphometric analysis of cells of mesothelium, breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach was implemented. The parameters characterizing size (area, perimeter) and form (form factor) of nucleus and cell, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio. The results demonstrated that in pleural effusion between cells of proliferating mesothelium and malignant neoplasms exist significant differences in morphometric parameters (p<0.001). The differences between area of nuclei and cells are especially significant. The comparison of data of morphometry of cells of breast cancer; adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach demonstrated that despite of some morphological similarities, analysis of morphometric parameters can provide important data for proper establishment of cytological diagnosis. PMID:26596045

  11. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of spleen diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Douglas H; Wu, Yaping; Weston, Allan P; McAnaw, Mary P; Bromfield, Cecil; Bhattatiry, Manu M

    2003-07-01

    Splenic metastases are infrequent, and determination of the primary site by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can be complex. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who was found to have a large heterogeneously enhancing 8 x 7-inch splenic mass by abdominal computed tomography (CT). FNA by transesophageal endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated atypical cells conclusive for malignancy and consistent with metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on cytomorphology, histochemical lipid positivity, and immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratin, vimentin, and renal cell carcinoma marker. Repeat CT with and without arteriovenous contrast demonstrated bilateral renal cysts, including a 0.9 x 0.8-cm lesion on the left with significant enhancement. Splenectomy confirmed the radiological and cytological findings, and left kidney exploration and nephrectomy demonstrated a small (1.5 cm) lower pole renal cell carcinoma of chromophil (papillary) type, histologically similar to the splenic metastasis. This case demonstrates the diagnostic importance of interdisciplinary involvement (oncology, radiology, gastroenterology, pathology, and general and urologic surgery); cytomorphology; histochemistry, including fat stain on frozen cell block; and immunohistochemistry, including the recently developed renal cell carcinoma marker. PMID:12861126

  12. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized Following Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Festic, Emir; Park, Pauline K.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Dabbagh, Ousama; Adesanya, Adebola; Gajic, Ognjen; Bartz, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary aspiration is an important recognized cause of ARDS. Better characterization of patients who aspirate may allow identification of potential risks for aspiration that could be used in future studies to mitigate the occurrence of aspiration and its devastating complications. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Lung Injury Prediction Score cohort to better characterize patients with aspiration, including their potential risk factors and related outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 5,584 subjects at risk for ARDS and who required hospitalization, 212 (3.8%) presented with aspiration. Subjects who aspirated were likely to be male (66% vs 56%, P < .007), slightly older (59 years vs 57 years), white (73% vs 61%, P = .0004), admitted from a nursing home (15% vs 5.9%, P < .0001), have a history of alcohol abuse (21% vs 8%, P < .0001), and have lower Glasgow Coma Scale (median, 13 vs 15; P < .0001). Aspiration subjects were sicker (higher APACHE [Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation] II score), required more mechanical ventilation (54% vs 32%, P < .0001), developed more moderate to severe ARDS (12% vs 3.8%, P < .0001), and were twofold more likely to die in-hospital, even after adjustment for severity of illness (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6). Neither obesity nor gastroesophageal reflux was associated with aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Aspiration was more common in men with alcohol abuse history and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale who were admitted from a nursing home. It is independently associated with a significant increase in the risk for ARDS as well as morbidity and mortality. Findings from this study may facilitate the design of future clinical studies of aspiration-induced lung injury. PMID:24811480

  13. [Role of urinary cytology in the study of bladder cancer. Comparison with the BTA test].

    PubMed

    Iori, F; De Matteis, A; Frioni, D; De Dominicis, C; Leonardo, C; Vahedi, M; Laurenti, C

    1999-12-01

    Early diagnosis of bladder neoplasia at the moment makes use of urinary cytology and cystoscopy. The authors describe the results of a study on 62 patients (56 men and 6 women) with bladder neoplasia, and compare the results of urinary cytology to the BTA test (Bladder Tumor Antigen test), ones, after considering histological results of TURB (Trans Urethral Resection Bladder) or cystectomy. Sensibility of urinary cytology was quite better than BTA test sensibility (80.6% vs 48%). Finally it's described a study on 450 cases of istologically controlled bladder carcinomas, on which had been executed a cytological analysis before surgical treatment. The outcome of cytological diagnosis on 414 cases (92%) was neoplasia. On the basis of their experience, the authors regard cytology as a fundamental method in diagnostic iter and in follow-up of patients with bladder neoplasia. PMID:10673790

  14. Stability of Career Aspirations: A Longitudinal Test of Gottfredson's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junk, Kate E.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Gottfredson's theory of the career compromise process was evaluated using a longitudinal data set of 2,353 female and 321 male students recruited for Zuckerman's "Seven College Study," who reported their career aspirations twice over a 1-year period. Expressed career aspirations were coded on the dimensions of sex type, prestige, and the…

  15. Exploring Aspiring Principals' Perceptions of Principalship: A Slovenian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trnavcevic, Anita; Vaupot, Silva Roncelli

    2009-01-01

    A lot is expected of Slovenian principals, yet very little is known about aspiring principals' own expectations of principalship. Currently there is no Slovenian study of aspiring principals, although they represent the majority of those enrolled on the "certification programme" of the National School for Leadership in Education. The purpose of…

  16. Stability of Career Aspirations: A Longitudinal Test of Gottfredson's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junk, Kate E.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Gottfredson's theory of the career compromise process was evaluated using a longitudinal data set of 2,353 female and 321 male students recruited for Zuckerman's "Seven College Study," who reported their career aspirations twice over a 1-year period. Expressed career aspirations were coded on the dimensions of sex type, prestige, and the…

  17. The Relationship between Gender and Aspirations to Senior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzky, Barrie; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender, work factors, and non-work factors with aspirations to positions in senior management. A process model of senior management aspirations was developed and tested. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via an online survey that resulted in a sample of 368 working…

  18. Debridement of vaginal radiation ulcers using the surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderburgh, E.; Nahhas, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator (USA) is a fairly new surgical instrument used for an increasingly wide range of procedures. This paper introduces a new application: debridement of vulvovaginal necrotic ulcers resulting from intracavitary radiation therapy. The ultrasonic aspirator allowed removal of the soft, necrotic tissue while preserving underlying healthy, firm tissue and blood vessels.

  19. Sociological Theory and Youth Aspiration Research: A Critical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; Wells, Richard H.

    Reviewing sociological theories relative to youth aspiration research, the following thesis was presented: "pre-path analysis aspiration research was characterized by a person-centered, middle-range functionalist approach which eventually shifted to a person-centered, functionalist-system approach with the introduction of the path model…

  20. A tale of three aspirations: foreign bodies in the airway.

    PubMed

    Pritt, B; Harmon, M; Schwartz, M; Cooper, K

    2003-10-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a serious medical problem, with clinical manifestations ranging from acute asphyxiation to insidious lung damage, as demonstrated by the three presented cases. Patient 1 aspirated during dinner, emergency bronchoscopy retrieved pieces of food, and she fully recovered the following day. Patient 2 presented with recurrent pneumonia and a right lower lobe lung abscess. After right lower lobectomy, pathology revealed a foreign object in the right main stem bronchus, a peanut aspirated one year earlier. Patient 3 became unresponsive several days after spinal surgery. The differential diagnosis included myocardial infarction, stroke, and foreign body aspiration. The patient died and necropsy revealed a foreign body in the right main stem bronchus (cooked meat). Thus, foreign body aspiration is not always suspected clinically, and the pathologist may play an important role in making the diagnosis. Histological identification of the aspirated material may be necessary for definitive diagnosis. Therefore, sections of commonly aspirated foods are presented, together with a 10 year history of aspirated objects received by this institution's surgical pathology department. PMID:14514789

  1. Experience with the chin tuck maneuver in postesophagectomy aspirators.

    PubMed

    Lewin, J S; Hebert, T M; Putnam, J B; DuBrow, R A

    2001-01-01

    Aspiration is a common finding in the postesophagectomy barium swallow that often necessitates premature termination of the study prior to complete evaluation of the gastric conduit. More importantly, aspiration may play a significant role in the high incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications in this population. The chin tuck maneuver is a postural technique that reduces and often eliminates aspiration in swallowing-impaired patients. To evaluate the ability of the chin tuck maneuver to prevent aspiration during radiographic examination of the gastric conduit, the technique was used in 21 esophagectomy patients who aspirated during a swallowing evaluation combining the barium swallow and videofluoroscopy. Aspiration was eliminated in 81% of aspirators using the chin tuck maneuver. The results of this study demonstrate that the chin tuck maneuver is a simple technique that should be attempted in patients who aspirate postesophagectomy during radiographic imaging studies that require multiple swallows of contrast materials. Combining the barium swallow with the videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing provides objective documentation of both the structural integrity of the gastric conduit and swallowing function in patients after esophagectomies who are at high risk for postoperative morbidity. PMID:11453570

  2. Students' School Motivation and Aspiration over High School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2005-01-01

    Students from a school in Hong Kong (n = 199) responded to 22 items asking about their school motivation and aspirations in a survey. Structural equation models found four school motivation factors consistent with the task, effort, competition, and praise scales of the Inventory of School Motivation, one education aspiration factor, one career…

  3. Calculating Student Aspiration: Bourdieu, Spatiality and the Politics of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a recent study of aspirations for higher education by secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds in regional Australia. At the same time, it goes in search of explanations that transcend a Bourdieuian account of aspirations as produced by and reproductive of cultural histories and dominance, given the apparent…

  4. Calculating Student Aspiration: Bourdieu, Spatiality and the Politics of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a recent study of aspirations for higher education by secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds in regional Australia. At the same time, it goes in search of explanations that transcend a Bourdieuian account of aspirations as produced by and reproductive of cultural histories and dominance, given the apparent…

  5. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  6. Study of Educational Aspirations of Preparatory School Students in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.

    To identify causes for low enrollment in secondary agricultural schools in Yemen, the United States Agency for International Development and the Yemen Ministry of Education surveyed 990 preparatory (junior high) students, examining their educational aspirations, differences between rural and urban youth, major influences on student aspirations,…

  7. Aspiring Social Justice Ally Identity Development: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals who are supportive of social justice efforts are not always effective in their anti-oppression efforts. Some who genuinely aspire to act as social justice allies are harmful, ultimately, despite their best intentions, perpetuating the system of oppression they seek to change. Different underlying motivations of those who aspire to be…

  8. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  9. Occupational Aspirations of Normal and Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    1981-01-01

    The levels of occupational aspirations of 40 emotionally disturbed adolescent males and 40 normal adolescent males were compared. Results indicated that the emotionally disturbed adolescents maintained their aspirations at lower levels, suggesting that their level of occupational aspiration vacillated. (RC)

  10. The Astrophysics Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, J.

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.

  11. Effects of aspiration on public cooperation in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Lu, Pei-Min; Zeng, Yong-Zhi

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a deterministic win-stay-lose-shift rule into the spatial public goods game, according to which a player will change its current strategy only if its payoff is below a predefined aspiration level. Simulation results on the square lattice and scale-free network indicate that the aspiration level greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. For small multiplication factors, the frequency of cooperation increases to 0.5 as the aspiration level increases. For large multiplication factors, intermediate levels of aspiration prove optimal for the successful evolution of public cooperation. Some qualitative analyses are provided to explain the above results. Besides, we have found that there exists a ping-pong vibration of cooperation at some specific values of multiplication factors and aspiration levels.

  12. Interlaboratory variation in the performance of liquid-based cytology: insights from the ATHENA trial.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas C; Stoler, Mark H; Behrens, Catherine M; Sharma, Abha; Sharma, Keerti; Apple, Raymond

    2014-04-15

    Although it is recognized that cervical cytology is highly subjective, and that there is considerable interlaboratory variation in how slides are evaluated, little is known as to how this impacts the performance of cytology. In the ATHENA trial, liquid-based cytology specimens from 46,887 eligible women ?21 years of age were evaluated at four large regional US laboratories, providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of interlaboratory variations on the performance of cervical cytology. All women with abnormal cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or higher) were referred to colposcopy, as were all high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-positive women ?25 years of age and a random subset of those ?25 years of age who were negative by both hrHPV testing and cytology. Sociodemographics, risk factors for cervical disease, and prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were similar across the laboratories. There were considerable differences among the laboratories both in overall cytological abnormal rates, ranging from 3.8 to 9.9%, and in sensitivity of cytology to detect CIN grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), from 42.0 to 73.0%. In contrast, the hrHPV positivity rate varied only from 10.9 to 13.4%, and the sensitivity of hrHPV testing from 88.2 to 90.1%. These observations suggest that hrHPV testing without cytology should be considered as the initial method for cervical cancer screening. PMID:24122508

  13. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  14. Vocal fold immobility and aspiration status: a direct replication study.

    PubMed

    Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M; Duffey, Dianne; Judson, Benjamin L

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this direct replication study was to confirm the incidence of vocal fold immobility (VFI) and its relationship to pharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration. Using a single-group consecutively referred case series, a total of 2,650 participants underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing between August 2003 and December 2007. Main outcome measures included overall incidence of VFI and aspiration status, with specific emphasis on age, gender, etiology and pharyngeal phase bolus flow characteristics, and side of VFI (right, left, or bilateral). These data were compared to and then combined with the original study (n = 1,452) for a total of 4,102 participants. Results indicated that the incidence of VFI was 4.3% (112/2,650), i.e., 27% (31/112) unilateral right, 58% (65/112) unilateral left, and 14% (16/112) bilateral. Incidence of aspiration was 22% (580/2,650). Of those with VFI, 40% (45/112) aspirated, i.e., 42% (13/31) unilateral right, 37% (24/65) unilateral left, and 50% (8/16) bilateral. An individual with VFI had 2.50 times the odds of aspirating as someone without VFI (95% CI = 1.86-3.37). For liquid aspiration, the odds ratio (OR) = 2.41 (95% CI = 1.77-3.28), and for puree aspiration, OR = 2.08 (95% CI = 1.47-2.93). Left VFI occurred most frequently due to surgical trauma. Liquid was aspirated more often than a puree. Males exhibited VFI more often than females. Side of VFI and age were not factors that increased the incidence of aspiration significantly. It was confirmed that VFI is not an uncommon finding during dysphagia testing and, when present, increased the odds of aspiration compared to a population already being evaluated for dysphagia. PMID:21858715

  15. Acid aspiration-induced airways hyperresponsiveness in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Timothy R.; von Reyn, Jessica; Larrabee, Yuna C.; Cloutier, Mary E.; Irvin, Charles G.; Bates, Jason H. T.

    2009-01-01

    The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH (1.8) equivalent to the upper range of typical gastric contents would lead to AHR in naive mice. We further speculated that modest reductions in aspirate acidity to a level expected during gastric acid suppression therapy (pH 4.0) would impede aspiration-induced AHR. BALB/c female mice were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane and allowed to aspirate 75 ÎĽl of saline with HCl (pH 1.8, 4.0, or 7.4) or underwent sham aspiration. Mice were re-anesthetized 2 or 24 h later, underwent tracheostomy, and were coupled to a mechanical ventilator. Forced oscillations were used to periodically measure respiratory impedance (Zrs) following aerosol delivery of saline and increasing doses of methacholine to measure for AHR. Values for elastance (H), airways resistance (RN), and tissue damping (G) were derived from Zrs. Aspirate pH of 1.8 led to a significant overall increase in peak RN, G, and H compared with pH 4.0 and 7.4 at 2 and 24 h. Differences between pH 7.4 and 4.0 were not significant. In mice aspirating pH 1.8 compared with controls, airway lavage fluid contained more neutrophils, higher protein, and demonstrated higher permeability. We conclude that acid aspiration triggers an acute AHR, driven principally by breakdown of epithelial barrier integrity within the airways. PMID:19797689

  16. Religiosity and Migration Aspirations among Mexican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    International migration has become an important topic of discussion from a policy and humanitarian perspective. Part of the debate includes a renewed interest in understanding the factors that influence decisions about migration to the US among Mexican youth still residing in their country of origin. The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge specifically about internal and external religiosity and their influence on youths' migration aspirations. The data for this study were collected in 2007 from students enrolled in an alternative high school program located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The findings indicated that as external religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA decreases. Furthermore, as internal religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA and plans to migrate increase. The results are interpreted and discussed in light of previous research on religious and cultural norm adherence. PMID:25663825

  17. Fine-needle breast aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R; Shank, J C; Gratton, C

    1989-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of breast lesions is a safe, accurate, well-tolerated procedure that can easily be done in the family physician's office. It has a specificity and positive predictive value of virtually 100 percent, a sensitivity of 53 to 99 percent (median of 89 percent), and a negative predictive value of 80 to 99 percent (median of 93 percent). It is limited by the nature of the lesion, which must be easily palpable, the physician's technical ability, and the availability of a reference cytopathologist. Complications are rare and usually very benign, such as local hematoma. With proper training and understanding of the procedure, many family physicians could easily introduce the procedure into their office practice. PMID:2926346

  18. [Our experiences with early vacuum aspiration (miniinterruption)].

    PubMed

    Poradovský, K; Ondás, P; Posluch, J

    1982-07-01

    The authors report their experiences with 80 early vacuum aspirations (mini-interruptions) performed at the 1st Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital in Kosice during 1980-81. The procedure was performed between days 36-42 in 15% of the women, between days 43-49 in 52.7% of the women, between days 50-56 in 27.5%, and between days 57-60 in 5% of the women. Interruption of pregnancy did not require general anesthesia or hospitalization of the patients. Complications occurred in 10% of the women, 6.25% due to residua and 2.5% to inflammation. Further experience should reduce the occurrence of complications. The authors consider the method to be advantageous and prospective. (author's modified) PMID:7127164

  19. Molecular identification of Bartonella species in dogs with leishmaniosis (leishmania infantum) with or without cytological evidence of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Soubasis, Nectarios; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Theodorou, Konstantina; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Saridomichelakis, Manolis; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggest that Bartonella species may cause polyarthritis and lameness in dogs. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a multi-systemic disease often occurring in association with arthritis. We hypothesized that concurrent Bartonella infection may be a contributing factor for the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. Hence the primary objective of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in dogs with naturally occurring CanL, with or without cytologically documented arthritis. Thirty-eight dogs with CanL (31 with neutrophilic arthritis and 7 without arthritis) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four archived clinical specimens from these 38 dogs, including 33 blood samples, 19 bone marrow (BM) samples and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from 22 dogs were tested for Bartonella spp. DNA using the Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Overall, eight (21.1%) dogs were infected with one or two Bartonella species; however, Bartonella spp. infection was not associated with arthritis in dogs with CanL. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine if there is a correlation between Bartonella spp. infection and the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. PMID:25258172

  20. Coupling Optimization Design of Aspirated Compressor Airfoil and Aspirated Scheme Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and CST Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xiaodong; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on creating a new design method optimizing both aspirated compressor airfoil and the aspiration scheme simultaneously. The optimization design method is based on the artificial bee colony algorithm and the CST method, while the flow field is computed by one 2D computational program. The optimization process of the rotor tip and stator tip airfoil from an aspirated fan stage is demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the new coupling method. The results show that the total pressure losses of the optimized stator tip and rotor tip airfoil are reduced relatively by 54% and 20%, respectively. Artificial bee colony algorithm and CST method indicate a satisfying applicability in aspirated airfoil optimization design. Finally, the features of aspirated airfoil designing process are concluded.

  1. [Evaluation of the role of cytology in the diagnosis of cancer of the lung. Comparison between cytology and pathological anatomy in 330 cases of proximal cancers].

    PubMed

    De Villaine, S; Mesguich, P; Fabien, N; Isaac, S; Rochet, M; Paulin, C

    1996-07-01

    This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the interest of cytology in the diagnosis of pulmonary carcinomas. Bronchial samples were collected from 330 patients known to display a macroscopic lesion which was detected by bronchoscopy. Cytological analysis of the bronchial brushings and washings, removed at the first fibroscopy, allowed the diagnosis of malignancy in 92% of the cases analyzed whereas the biopsy confirmed the malignancy in 77% of the cases. In conclusion cytological studies gave information on malignity and classification in 90% of the cases. However histological classification only could guarantee the choice of the best treatment regimen. PMID:8765923

  2. Cytologic and DNA-Cytometric Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Remmerbach, Torsten W.; Weidenbach, Horst; Pomjanski, Natalja; Knops, Kristiane; Mathes, Stefanie; Hemprich, Alexander; Böcking, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study was to report on the diagnostic accuracy of conventional oral exfoliative cytology taken from white?spotted, ulcerated or other suspicious oral lesions in our clinic. In addition we checked DNA?image cytometry as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. Our hypothesis is that DNA?aneuploidy is a sensitive and specific marker for the early identification of tumor cells in oral brushings. Study design. 251 cytological diagnoses obtained from exfoliative smears of 181 patients from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral mucosa and from clinically seemingly benign oral lesions which were exisiced for establishing histological diagnoses were compared with histological and/or clinical follow?ups of the respective patients. Additionally nuclear DNA?contents were measured after Feulgen restaining using a TV image analysis system. Results. Sensitivity of our cytological diagnosis on oral smears for the detection of cancer cells was 94.6%, specificity 99.5%, positive predictive value 98.1% and negative predictive value 98.5%. DNA?aneuploidy was assumed if abnormal DNA?stemlines or cells with DNA?content greater 9c were observed. On this basis the prevalence of DNA?aneuploidy in smears of oral squamous cell carcinomas in situ or invasive carcinomas was 96.4%. Sensitivity of DNA?aneuploidy in oral smears for the detection of cancer cells was 96.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative 99.0%. The combination of both techniques increased the sensivity to 98.2%, specificity to 100%, positive predictive value to 100% and negative to 99.5%. Conclusions. Brush cytology of all visible oral lesions, if they are clinically considered as suspicious for cancer, are an easily practicable, cheap, non?invasive, painless, safe and accurate screening method for detection of oral precancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma in all stages. We conclude that DNA?image cytometry is a very sensitive, highly specific and objective adjuvant tool for the early identification of neoplastic epithelial cells in oral smears. PMID:11564897

  3. Aspiration of radiolucent dentures in facial trauma: Case report.

    PubMed

    Chadwell, Jon B; Mitchell, Joshua R; Donnino, Michael; Peterson, Charles; Guentert, Paul; Arnold, Cliff; Walsh, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Foreign body aspiration is a serious problem that may lead to complications or even death. People who sustain major maxillofacial trauma can often damage their teeth or oral prostheses, and aspiration can occur. Detection of this type of aspiration can be difficult, especially in elderly people wearing dental appliances, since many dental prostheses are not radiopaque and the aspiration is not always recognized at the time of injury. We report a specific case of extensive maxillofacial trauma from a self-inflicted gunshot wound leading to aspiration of large, radiolucent denture fragments, delayed diagnosis, and complications. The possibility of denture fragment aspiration must always be part of the differential diagnosis in an elderly trauma patient presenting with dyspnea, hypoxia or, eventually, pneumonia. This is especially so when radiologic evaluation does not reveal a foreign body, since much dental prosthesis material is radiolucent. Delayed complications of radiolucent dental prosthesis aspiration could be avoided by the inclusion of some radiopaque material within the acrylic material of the prosthesis. PMID:21174264

  4. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children. PMID:25890398

  5. Aspiration of barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres by a dog.

    PubMed

    Greci, V; Bissett, S A; Copple, C N; Hawkins, E C

    2010-05-01

    This case report describes an 11-year-old Belgian Malinois dog with acute onset of cough caused by aspiration of barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) and pneumonia following an episode of suspected gastric dilation. Although bronchoscopic retrieval of the BIPS was largely unsuccessful, the dog recovered uneventfully, with most of the BIPS being coughed out and swallowed over a 1-month period. Aspiration of BIPS should be considered a potential complication of their administration. Furthermore, endoscopic removal of aspirated BIPS is challenging and may not be indicated because of their inert nature and possible self-clearance. PMID:20529021

  6. Usefulness Of Glucocorticoids In The Management Of Foreign Body Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pagán Rivera, Bryan L; Anselmi, Francisco Jaume; Torres, Maria Del Mar; Segarra, Amaury; Rivera, Jose Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration can be a life-threatening emergency. An aspirated solid or semi-solid object may lodge in the larynx, trachea or other breathing airways. If the object is large enough to cause nearly complete obstruction of the airway, asphyxia may rapidly cause death. We report a 19-year old man admitted with right lower lobe pneumonia who spontaneously expelled a foreign body, one day after admission and glucocorticoids administration. Glucocorticoids should be considered in foreign body aspiration management because improvement of the inflammatory reaction may facilitate expontaneous expulsion or foreign body extraction PMID:26742192

  7. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.O.L.P.; Heráclio, S.A.; Coelho, A.V.C.; Acioly, V.L.; Souza, P.R.E.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases). The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001). The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02), and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. PMID:26247400

  8. University of California Program for Analytical Cytology five-year report, 1982-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, S.; Calkins, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Program for Analytical Cytology (PAC) was created by the Regents of the University of California on June 17, 1982. The purposes of the Program are to encourage research into theoretical, scientific, and engineering aspects of analytical cytology and into its biological and clinical applications.

  9. Cytology of metastatic prostate cancer following orchiectomy and antiandrogen therapy: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Rapkiewicz, Amy; Gorokhovsky, Rimma; Farcon, Eduardo; Das, Kasturi

    2008-07-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy induces apoptosis and decreases both cell proliferation and angiogenesis in prostate adenocarcinoma. The molecular alterations following androgen ablation translate into unique cytologic features in both primary and metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. We describe the cytologic appearance of metastatic prostate carcinoma following both surgical castration and androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:18528888

  10. Acid aspiration prophylaxis for emergency Caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J C; Kan, A F; Rowbottom, S J; Yau, G; Gin, T

    1996-05-01

    Over a 3.5 year period, 384 patients requiring emergency Caesarean section under general anaesthesia received at random one of six acid aspiration prophylaxis regimens as soon as the decision was made for surgery. In the first phase of the study, sodium citrate administered orally 0.3 M, 30 ml (group C, n = 120) was compared with metoclopramide 10 mg administered intravenously and sodium citrate (group MC, n = 65). In the second phase, all patients received sodium citrate, and either intravenous administration of ranitidine 50 mg (group RC, n = 50), omeprazole 40 mg (group OC, n = 50), ranitidine 50 mg with metoclopramide 10 mg (group RMC, n = 50) or omeprazole 40 mg with metoclopramide 10 mg (group OMC, n = 49). Gastric contents were aspirated using a 16 FG Salem sump tube and acidity measured with a pH meter. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. There was no difference in gastric volume or pH between groups C and MC, or among OC, RC, OMC and RMC. After pooling the data, median (range) gastric volume in groups C and MC (55 (0-360) ml) was greater than in groups OMC and RMC (40 (3-270) ml, p < 0.05). Median (range) pH was lower in groups C and MC (4.97 (0.76-6.99)) than in groups OC, RC, OMC and RMC (5.76 (1.11-7.5), p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with pH < 3.5 and volume > 25 ml in the C and MC groups (43/185) was greater than that in the OC, RC, OMC and RMC groups (18/199, p < 0.001). Ranitidine and omeprazole administered intravenously were equally effective adjuncts to sodium citrate in reducing gastric acidity for emergency Caesarean section. Compared with sodium citrate alone, the addition of either ranitidine, omeprazole or metoclopramide alone did not reduce gastric volume while small reductions in gastric volume were seen with the addition of metoclopramide and either ranitidine or omeprazole. PMID:8694150

  11. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for suspected malignancies adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gambitta, Pietro; Armellino, Antonio; Forti, Edoardo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Colombo, Paola Enrica; Aseni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in association with a multidisciplinary team evaluation for the detection of gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: A cohort of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract received EUS-FNA after a standardized multidisciplinary team evaluation (MTE) and were divided into 4 groups according to their specific malignant risk score (MRS). Patients with a MRS of 0 (without detectable risk of malignancy) received only EUS without FNA. For patients with a MRS score ranging from 1 (low risk) - through 2 (intermediate risk) - to 3 (high risk), EUS-FNA cytology of the lesion was planned for a different time and was prioritized for those patients at higher risk for cancer. The accuracy, efficiency and quality assessment for the early detection of patients with potentially curable malignant lesions were evaluated for the whole cohort and in the different classes of MRSs. The time to definitive cytological diagnosis (TDCD), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the rate of inconclusive tests were calculated for all patients and for each MRS group. RESULTS: A total of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions were evaluated by EUS-FNA. In 515 patients of 616 with true malignant lesions the tumor was diagnosed by EUS-FNA; 421 patients with resectable lesions received early surgical treatment, and 94 patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The overall diagnostic accuracy for the 1019 lesions in which a final diagnosis was obtained by EUS-FNA was 0.95. When patients were stratified by MTE into 4 classes of MRSs, a higher rate of patients in the group with higher cancer risk (MRS-3) received early treatment and EUS-FNA showed the highest level of accuracy (1.0). TDCD was also shorter in the MRS-3 group. The number of patients who received surgical treatment or chemo-radiotherapy was significantly higher in the MRS-3 patient group (36.3% in MRS-3, 10.7% in MRS-2, and 3.5% in MRS-1). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA can effectively detect a curable malignant lesions at an earlier time and at a higher rate in patients with a higher cancer risk that were evaluated using MTE. PMID:25024614

  12. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  13. Crush Cytology of Secretory Meningioma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae; Yee, Gie-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Secretory meningioma, a histologic subtype of meningioma of World Health Organization grade 1, is clinically significant because it is frequently accompanied by peritumoral brain edema. The patient was a 53-year-old woman suffering from dysarthria and motor weakness of the right arm. Enhanced magnetic resonance images showed an enhancing mass measuring 2.5 cm in size located in the right parietal convexity. Intraoperative squash cytology showed moderately cellular smears composed mainly of clusters of ovoid cells with scattered whorl formations. The cells had round nuclei and a moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm with ill-defined cell borders. Neither atypia nor mitosis was observed. Some scattered round shaped eosinophilic refractile hyaline globules, measuring from 5 to 25 µm, were observed, and a periglobular halo was occasionally observed. The diagnosis of secretory meningioma should be made as early as possible so that neurosurgeons can prevent postoperative aggravation of peritumoral edema. We emphasize that cytologic findings including eosinophilic, non-fibrillary cytoplasm with eosinophilic refractile hyaline globules are helpful in differentiating secretory meningioma from other subtypes of meningioma, primary and metastatic brain tumors. PMID:26605274

  14. Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility. PMID:25181856

  15. Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  16. Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  17. Histopathological outcomes of women with abnormal cervical cytology: a review of literature in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cytology remains the principal screening method to detect pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions. Management of abnormal cervical cytology depends on the risk of encountering a significant cervical lesion or high-grade cervical disease. These risks may vary in different areas across the country. Thus, determining the rate of significant cervical lesion associated with each type of abnormal cervical cytology in each area is of critical importance for designing area-specific management approach. This review was conducted to evaluate the rate of high-grade cervical disease among Thai women with abnormal cervical cytology. A relatively high incidence of underlying significant lesions including invasive disease was demonstrated even in those having only minimal smear abnormality. This baseline information is crucial and must be taken into consideration in management of women with abnormal cytological screening to achieve the goals of comprehensive cervical cancer control in Thailand. PMID:25169475

  18. Urine cytology and adjunct markers for detection and surveillance of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Peggy S; Chan, Jessica B; Levin, Mary R; Rao, Jianyu

    2010-01-01

    Urine cytology coupled with cystoscopic examination has been and remains the standard in the initial evaluation of lower urinary tract lesions to rule out bladder cancer. However, cystoscopy is invasive and may miss some flat lesions, whereas cytology has low sensitivity in low-grade papillary disease. Additional lab-based or office-based markers are needed to aid in the evaluation of these lesions. Recently, many such markers have been developed for the purpose of improving the cytologic diagnosis of bladder malignancies. In this review, we will first discuss conventional cytomorphologic analysis of urine cytology followed by a discussion of markers that have been developed in the past for detection and surveillance of urothelial carcinoma. We will focus on how these markers can be used in conjunction with urine cytology in daily practice. PMID:20733951

  19. Brush Cytology with Immunocytochemical Evaluation of VEGF Expression versus Biopsy in Clinically Precancerous Laryngeal Lesions: Can We Diagnose Laryngeal Cancer Only with Brush Cytology?

    PubMed Central

    Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Tsinaslanidou, Zinovia; Valeri, Rozalia; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Constantinidis, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the most common SCC of the head and neck. The high incidence of this malignancy and the low survival rate necessitate the development of novel diagnostic approaches. Aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of laryngeal brush cytology combined with VEGF immunocytochemistry versus histopathology of clinically precancerous lesions of the larynx. Material and Methods. Thirty patients with precancerous or suspected malignant laryngeal lesions underwent microlaryngoscopy, during which samples were taken for cytological, immunocytochemical, and histological analysis. Cytology and histology results were classified as follows: benign lesions, atypia/moderate dysplasia, and malignancy, whereas the expression of VEGF was evaluated as strong, moderate, weak, and zero expression, based on the percentage of cells stained. Results. The cytology results were in accordance with the histology results in 86.7% of the patients. The exfoliative cytology's sensitivity was estimated at 85% and its specificity at 90%. Its positive prognostic value was 94%, while its negative prognostic value was 75%. The additional immunocytochemical evaluation of VEGF expression increased all the noted parameters. Discussion. Exfoliative cytology of laryngeal lesions is a minimal-invasive, easily applicable procedure during microlaryngoscopy and reliable in terms of diagnostic value. Under certain conditions it could be held also in local anesthesia. Concurrent immunocytochemical analysis of VEGF expression further enhances its diagnostic value. PMID:26457244

  20. Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in community practice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) provides an opportunity to diagnose mediastinal lesions and stage bronchogenic carcinoma in a minimally invasive fashion. The procedure is easy to learn and requires zero upfront cost. Any community pulmonologist can acquire and maintain the skills of C-TBNA without undergoing formal interventional pulmonary fellowship training. Besides being used for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer, C-TBNA can be used in patients suspected to have benign conditions such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. It also contributes in improving the diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy while dealing with endobronchial, submucosal, peribronchial, or peripheral lesions. C-TBNA may be the only diagnostic modality that can be performed in patients in whom mediastinoscopy is contraindicated due to a bleeding diathesis. The procedure is safe and has great potential to augment the welfare of patients with pulmonary ailments. The learning curve of the procedure is short and steep. Every community pulmonologist should be able to perform C-TBNA. PMID:26807272

  1. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  2. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Methods Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40–69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ?70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ?66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. Results There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40–69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ?70. The sensitivity of cytology ? HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355–462) and 226 (95% CI: 177–292) respectively. Women aged ?66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17–22% reduction in case fatality. Conclusions Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. PMID:26346038

  3. A Comparison Between ThinPrep Monolayer and Cytospin Cytology for the Detection of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The sensitivity of urine cytology is higher for carcinoma in situ and poorly differentiated tumors in bladder cancer, while being fairly low for low-grade or well-differentiated tumors. Development of a sensitive diagnostic test to detect bladder carcinoma would significantly facilitate patient management and allow earlier treatment of this disease. This study compared ThinPrep urine cytology (Cytyc Co.) and conventional Cytospin urine cytology (Shandon Scientific Ltd.) in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods From January 2002 to December 2010, ThinPrep cytology and conventional urine Cytospin cytologic examination of bladder washings were performed in 3,085 subjects suspected of having bladder cancer and in 379 patients with follow-up after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). The sensitivity and specificity of the urine ThinPrep test was compared with that of conventional Cytospin cytology according to tumor number, size, pathological stage, grade, and recurrence. Results Of 3,085 subjects, bladder cancer was confirmed by TUR-BT in 379 subjects. The overall sensitivity of ThinPrep and Cytospin cytology was 60.9% and 59.9% in patients suspected of having bladder cancer, respectively. The overall specificity of ThinPrep and Cytospin cytology was 94.8% and 95.3% in patients suspected of having bladder cancer, respectively. The sensitivity of ThinPrep and Cytospin cytology was increased with increasing number, size, pathological stage, and grade, but there was no significant difference between the two tests. Conclusions These results suggest that ThinPrep cytology has no advantage in the diagnosis of bladder cancer of a low grade or low stage. PMID:24955223

  4. Primary thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Rubina; Khattak, Rauf; Mateen, Abdul

    2011-12-01

    Incidence of thyroidal masses is very high with predominance in females. Most of these masses are benign. Malignancy can be of thyroid or non-thyroid origin. Surgery is treatment of choice in the former but not in latter. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare cause of thyroid malignancy of non-thyroid origin which is highly treatable without surgery but early diagnosis is important requisite to have better outcome. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important tool in early diagnosis of PTL, which enables doctors to treat patient better without major surgery and its morbidity. Two cases of primary thyroid lymphoma are hereby presented. The patient diagnosed on FNAC had better outcome than the one who had major surgery. PMID:22166704

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts by combined cytopathology and cystic content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Amanda K; Zhou, Zhongren

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have resulted in an increase in incidental discoveries of pancreatic cystic lesions. Pancreatic cysts comprise a wide variety of lesions and include non-neoplastic cysts and neoplastic cysts. Because some pancreatic cysts have more of a malignant potential than others, it is absolutely essential that an accurate diagnosis is rendered so that effective care can be given to each patient. In many centers, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has emerged as the modality of choice that enables one to distinguish between mucinous and non-mucinous lesion, diagnose malignancy and collect cyst fluid for further diagnostic studies, such as pancreatic enzyme levels, molecular analysis and other tumor biomarkers. The current review will focus on EUS-guided FNA and the cytological diagnosis for pancreatic cysts. PMID:26504505

  6. Well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung: cytomorphologic features on fine-needle aspiration with emphasis on use of beta-catenin as a useful diagnostic marker.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Lori; Folpe, Andrew L; Esper, Annette; Wolfenden, Linda L; Force, Seth; Logani, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma (WDFA), also known as low grade adenocarcinoma of the fetal lung type, is a rare pulmonary neoplasm now considered to be a variant of lung adenocarcinoma rather than a type of pulmonary blastoma. Upregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway with subsequent aberrant nuclear/cytoplasmic beta-catenin expression has been recently described in these tumors providing a possible pathogenetic role for this gene in WDFA. We describe the cytomorphologic findings of a case of WDFA in a 36-yr-old female patient and emphasize the diagnostic utility of aberrant nuclear/cytoplasmic expression of beta-catenin as an adjunct to the correct preoperative recognition of this tumor on aspiration cytology. PMID:17173289

  7. Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; McLoughlin, M.J.; Tao, L.C.; Blendis, L.; Evans, W.K.

    1981-04-01

    Forty patients with suspected malignant disease of the liver underwent percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy with radioisotope scintigraphic and fluoroscopic guidance. The needle was aimed at focal defects identified on the liver scan and several passes were made. When the scan was diffusely abnormal, the liver was widely sampled with multiple passes. Thirty patients were eventually considered to have malignant disease and aspiration biopsy was positive in 28 (93%) of these patients, including 25 of 26 with liver metastases (96%). There were two false-positive results and one minor complication. In 24 patients, conventional wide-bore needle biopsy was also performed. In this group, 16 patients had a final diagnosis of hepatic malignancy. Aspiration biopsies were positive in 14 of these (87%) and conventional needle biopsies were positive in four (25%). Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy is recommended for pathologic diagnosis of hepatic malignancy because of its simplicity, high yield, and reasonable safety.

  8. Turban pin aspiration; a potential risk for young Islamic girls.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, M; Dogan, K; Onen, A; Kunt, N

    1999-05-01

    A turban is a kind of headcover, worn for religious intentions. In Islamic countries, girls start to wear a turban with the onset of puberty. Turban pins (headscarf needles) are used for attaching the layers of turban to each other in order to keep it in a steady position around the head. Aspiration of these pins is investigated in accordance with age groups, pin characteristics and treatment. From 1987 through 1998, 63 girls were admitted to our department with turban pin aspiration. All patients were healthy prior to aspiration. The median age was 14 years. Foreign bodies were removed, either by rigid bronchoscopy (n = 57), flexible bronchoscopy (n = 2), laryngoscopy (n = 3) or thoracotomy (n = 1). Repeated bronchoscopy rate was 8% (n = 5) and we had no mortality. This recently recognized aspiration hazard can be minimized by using adhesive bands or snap fasteners, instead of pins, when wearing a turban. PMID:10375038

  9. From Educational Aspirations to College Enrollment: A Road with Many Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Educational aspiration is one of the most important factors influencing an individual's educational attainment. Although students' aspirations are changeable and the stability of their aspirations is important for their goal reaching, previous studies are rather limited in their ability to capture aspiration changes due to their incomplete…

  10. From Educational Aspirations to College Enrollment: A Road with Many Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Educational aspiration is one of the most important factors influencing an individual's educational attainment. Although students' aspirations are changeable and the stability of their aspirations is important for their goal reaching, previous studies are rather limited in their ability to capture aspiration changes due to their incomplete…

  11. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

  12. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Huimiao, Jiang; Chepovetsky, Julie; Zhou, Ming; Sun, Wei; Simsir, Aylin; Cohen, Deirdre; Leung, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Renal mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) was recently described as a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the 2004 World Health Organization classification of kidney tumors. MTSCC is a rare low grade malignancy with < 100 cases reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, there are 5 case reports with a total of 6 patients describing its diagnosis by fine needle aspiration (FNA). All of these cases were diagnosed as conventional RCC on FNA. Subsequent excisions proved them to be MTSCC. We herein report a case in a 67-year-old male. He presented with abdominal pain and was found to have a new colon adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the liver and lungs. The extent of disease made the patient ineligible for surgical excision, and he received chemotherapy. Work-up also revealed a kidney mass which was later biopsied by FNA and core biopsy. The tumor was composed of epithelial and spindled cell components embedded in a myxoid background. It was positive for CK7, AMCAR, vimentin, and epithelial membrane antigen. The tumor was diagnosed as MTSCC. One year later the kidney mass remained stable. However, the patient developed new metastasis to the liver from colonic primary. The kidney mass was not resected. Although rarely encountered in FNA cytology of the kidney, we believe the cytologic features of this tumor are distinctive and are different from conventional and other subtypes of RCC. Therefore, its accurate diagnosis on FNA is possible once pathologists are aware that MTSCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of kidney tumors. PMID:26884801

  13. [Aspiration in a specialised weaning unit--an underestimated problem].

    PubMed

    Zenner, M; Meurer, D; Baumann-Emmel, S; Brand, M; Berndt, U; Rheinbay, G; Kienast, K H

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective case series shows that 45?% of patients aspirated straight after removal of the tracheal cannula. The present case series includes 82 patients with long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) admitted to a specialised weaning unit. Aspiration was proven after patients sipped water coloured with patent blue V. Colour was detected with a bronchoscope after passing through the tracheostoma and directed toward the VC. The aspiration rate in this study is in good agreement with other reports in the literature.We could find no significant statistical differences concerning age (p?=?0.97), gender (47?% vs. 49), number of bronchoscopies (p?=?0.91) and comorbidities (p?=?0.326) between patients with and without aspiration. The duration of the stay at the ward and the duration of ventilation as well as the parameter Hb at the time of admission (p?=?0.566), CO2(p?=?0.288/p?=?0.716), HCO3 (p?=?0.915/p?=?0.612) and CRP (p?=?0.402/p?=?0.523) at the time of admission and discharge also showed no significant differences.The Kaplan Meier curves show a considerable divergence between patients with and without aspiration. However, the Log Rank Test (p?=?0.348) and the univariate Cox Regression (HR 1.4, 95?% CI 0.689?-?2.849) were not significant. We believe that this can be attributed to the event rate, which was too low in our collective. This trend to a higher mortality of patients with aspiration might be due to weakness of the respiratory muscles when there is reduced coughing. Proof of aspiration in these patients is only one aspect of a multidimensional problem. Larger, prospective cohort studies are needed to show whether aspiration can serve as a prognostic marker. PMID:25599139

  14. Cryoextraction: A novel approach to remove aspirated chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Edmundo; Gupta, Prag; Ie, Susanti; Boyd, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of aspirated foreign bodies can prove challenging at times, requiring even rigid bronchoscopy. Cryotherapy probes have been reported to help with extraction of foreign bodies. We present a case where successful “cryoextraction” was performed on an aspirated chewing gum. The case highlights the fact that this technique is useful to extract all materials that have water content. This technique can be performed through flexible bronchoscopy and can save patients from more aggressive approaches. PMID:23440914

  15. Laryngeal diversion and tracheotracheal speech fistula for chronic aspiration.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Dulguerov, P

    2000-06-01

    Intractable aspiration is a life-threatening problem and often requires a procedure for blocking or separating the larynx from the bronchial tree. The disadvantage of these techniques is a compromise of phonation. We report the use of a speech fistula after laryngotracheal diversion to restore voice. It allows for the definitive treatment of aspiration, while maintaining the use of the vocal folds for phonation. PMID:10855574

  16. Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M.; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics. PMID:24598208

  17. [Life threatening late dislocation in chronic foreign body aspiration].

    PubMed

    Czap, C; Weissenrieder, N; Mantel, K; Nicolai, T

    1993-08-01

    We report a case of a boy with a long-standing foreign body aspiration in the left main bronchus causing severe pneumonia of the left lung. During intravenous therapy with antibiotics there was a life-threatening event with acute dislocation of the foreign body into the right main bronchus, leading to acute respiratory insufficiency. We conclude that in chronic foreign body aspiration antibiotic therapy preceding bronchoscopy should only be performed in in-patients and with strict monitoring. PMID:8377767

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of High Resolution Ultrasound to Differentiate Neoplastic and Non Neoplastic Causes of Cervical Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Rai, Sheethal; Haris, Arafat; Madhurkar, Rohit; Hemraj, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lymph nodes are normal structures distributed throughout the human body and are enlarged in various disease entities. Identifying the relevant lymph nodes is important in treating these patients. High resolution sonography (HRSG) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) play crucial role in planning the treatment. Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRSG differentiate neoplastic and non neoplastic causes of enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: HRSG evaluation of enlarged cervical lymph nodes were performed to differentiate neoplastic from non neoplastic lymph nodes followed by FNAC correlation and the accuracy of HRSG was studied. Results: One hundred and fourteen lymph nodes of 106 patients were analysed to accomplish the study objective. In our study, HRSG had 96% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for differentiating between neoplatic and non-neoplastic cervical lymphadenopathy. Similarly positive and negative predictive values were 88.9% and 96.7% respectively. Overall accuracy of HRSG was 93%. Conclusion: Owing to high sensitivity and negative predictive value, HRSG with Doppler is an excellent first line investigating tool for enlarged lymph nodes and avoids invasive procedures like FNAC in cases of reactive/ inflammatory (non-neoplastic) lymph nodes. However, neoplastic diagnosis of HRSG needs further confirmation by FNAC. PMID:25386501

  19. Calvarial tuberculosis presenting as cystic lesion: An unusual presentation in two patients

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Pratima; Gupta, Renu; Chand, Priyanka; Agarwal, Swapnil

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a common disease in developing countries such as India, posing a major public health problem. With human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection being a global endemic, there has been a resurgence of tuberculosis even in developed countries. Tuberculosis may affect almost any part of the body. However, tuberculosis of the calvarium is very rare. Presentation of tuberculosis as a soft tissue swelling on the scalp poses a diagnostic problem. These two cases are being reported here to convey the utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in providing the confirmatory diagnosis obviating the need for invasive surgical procedure. PMID:26729978

  20. Solitary fibrous tumour of lacrimal gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Narang, Vikram; Singh, Nagi Anitaraj Rajendra; Bajwa, Gurkirat Singh; Sood, Neena

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumour of mesenchymal origin most commonly encountered in pleura. It can affect the orbital region but SFT of lacrimal gland is rare. We hereby report of a SFT of lacrimal gland in a 50-year-old male presenting with slow growing swelling in left superolateral orbital region. The preliminary fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) could not reveal any definite diagnosis. Excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the diagnosis. Therefore, clinician and pathologist should be aware of this entity and biopsy along with IHC is required to rule out other entities which can mimic it clinically and histopathologically. PMID:25954627