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1

Malignancy Risk Analysis in Patients with Inadequate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the Thyroid  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the standard diagnostic modality for thyroid nodules. However, it has limitations among which is the incidence of non-diagnostic results (Thy1). Management of cases with repeatedly non-diagnostic FNAC ranges from simple observation to surgical intervention. We aim to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in non-diagnostic FNAC, and the success rate of repeated FNAC. We also aim to evaluate risk factors for malignancy in patients with non-diagnostic FNAC. Materials and Methods Retrospective analyses of consecutive cases with thyroid non diagnostic FNAC results were included. Results Out of total 1657 thyroid FNAC done during the study period, there were 264 (15.9%) non-diagnostic FNAC on the first attempt. On repeating those, the rate of a non-diagnostic result on second FNAC was 61.8% and on third FNAC was 47.2%. The overall malignancy rate in Thy1 FNAC was 4.5% (42% papillary, 42% follicular and 8% anaplastic), and the yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. Ultrasound guidance by an experienced head neck radiologist produced the lowest non-diagnostic rate (38%) on repetition compared to US guidance by a generalist radiologist (65%) and by non US guidance (90%). Conclusions There is a low risk of malignancy in patients with a non-diagnostic FNAC result, commensurate to the risk of any nodule. The yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. PMID:23185295

Al Maqbali, Talib; Tedla, Miroslav; Weickert, Martin O.; Mehanna, Hisham

2012-01-01

2

Comparison between fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of breast lesions.  

PubMed

Aim. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in patients with USdetected breast lesions. Patients and methods. Between September 2011 and May 2013, 3469 consecutive breast US examinations were performed. 400 breast nodules were detected in 398 patients. 210 FNACs and 190 CNBs were performed. 183 out of 400 (46%) lesions were surgically removed within 30 days form diagnosis; in the remaining cases, a six month follow up US examination was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values were calculated for FNAC and CNB. Results. 174 out of 400 (43%) malignant lesions were found while the remaining 226 resulted to be benign lesions. 166 out of 210 (79%) FNACs and 154 out of 190 (81%) CNBs provided diagnostic specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 97%, 94%, 95%, 91% and 98% were found for FNAC, and values of 92%, 82%, 89%, 92% and 82% were obtained for CNB. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 97%, 96%, 96%, 97% and 96% were found for FNAC, and values of 97%, 96%, 96%, 97% and 96% were obtained for CNB. Conclusion. FNAC and CNB provide similar values of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25174291

Moschetta, M; Telegrafo, M; Carluccio, D A; Jablonska, J P; Rella, L; Serio, Gabriella; Carrozzo, M; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G

2014-01-01

3

Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of axillary lymph nodes as a triage test in breast cancer staging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Axillary node fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has the potential to triage women with operable breast cancer to initial\\u000a nodal surgical procedure. Because of variability in the reported accuracy of this test its role and clinical utility in pre-operative\\u000a staging remains controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided axillary FNAC in all consecutive clinically T1–2 N0–1 breast\\u000a cancers that

Stefano Ciatto; Beniamino Brancato; Gabriella Risso; Daniela Ambrogetti; Paolo Bulgaresi; Cristina Maddau; Patricia Turco; Nehmat Houssami

2007-01-01

4

Emergency Diagnosis of Giant Cell Tumour (GCT) of Spine by Image Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC)  

PubMed Central

Giant cell tumour (GCT) of spine is an extremely rare neoplasm accounting 0.5% to 1.5% of all cases. The patient usually presents with weakness of lower limbs. We describe a case of 25-year-old male who presented with sudden onset of paraplegia. On plain radiograph there was an osteolytic lesion in T9 vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed expansile lytic lesion in T9 vertebral body with involvement of posterior elements on right side with associated soft tissue mass in the extradural location extending into the spinal cord. Further Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan (T1 contrast) showed the enhancing extradural mass involving spinal cord from D 8-10 levels. A provisional radiological diagnosis of GCT was made. A CT guided FNAC of the mass was performed which revealed typical cytological features of Giant cell tumour. Role of image guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of vertebral mass and its role in emergency situations with clear emphasis on differential diagnosis is highlighted. PMID:25177571

Chaudhry, Manish; Singh, Amitoj

2014-01-01

5

Pulmonary actinomycosis in fine needle aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months’ duration. A chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed a right upper lobe mass lesion with hilar lymphadenopathy. CT-guided FNAC revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. The disease is commonly confused with other chronic suppurative lung diseases and malignancy. An early diagnosis by FNAC prevents difficulties in the management of the disease, as well as considerable physiological and physical morbidity, including unwarranted surgery. PMID:21938164

Patel, Keyuri B; Gupta, Gurudutt; Shah, Menka; Patel, Purvesh

2009-01-01

6

Pulmonary actinomycosis in fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months' duration. A chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed a right upper lobe mass lesion with hilar lymphadenopathy. CT-guided FNAC revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. The disease is commonly confused with other chronic suppurative lung diseases and malignancy. An early diagnosis by FNAC prevents difficulties in the management of the disease, as well as considerable physiological and physical morbidity, including unwarranted surgery. PMID:21938164

Patel, Keyuri B; Gupta, Gurudutt; Shah, Menka; Patel, Purvesh

2009-04-01

7

PET/CT guidance for percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy  

PubMed Central

PET/CT, used as a guiding tool, can improve the accuracy of percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)/biopsy due to its ability to incorporate both physiological and anatomical information. PMID:19881087

Govindarajan, MJ; Nagaraj, KR; Kallur, KG; Sridhar, PS

2009-01-01

8

Fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed Central

Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

1985-01-01

9

Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology in testicular disorders of red deer (Cervus elaphus): a case report.  

PubMed

We used fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to diagnose Sertoli cell-only pattern and hypospermatogenesis in an Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Cytologic diagnosis was confirmed by histology and epididymal sperm analysis. We conclude that FNAC can be an important diagnostic tool in testicular diseases of wildlife. PMID:25248117

Pintus, Eliana; Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Garde, José Julián

2014-10-01

10

Amoebiasis: diagnosis by aspiration and exfoliative cytology.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the use of fine needle aspiration and exfoliative cytology in the identification of amoebic cysts/trophozoites, and to characterize amoebiasis. The subjects consisted of 15 patients, 11 diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as amoebic abscesses (14 liver and one pulmonary) and four women whose cervical smears contained Entamoeba histolytica cysts or trophozoites. Of 128 ultrasonographically guided FNAC of hepatic lesions over a four year period, 17 were abscesses of which 10 were diagnosed as amoebic. A single case of pulmonary amoebiasis was detected in an 18-year-old male. The case was initially diagnosed as tubercular due to deceptive symptomatology. Three cases of amoebic cysts and one trophozoite were reported on routine cervical smear screening. All four cases were unsuspected for amoebic infection. The disease may easily go undetected unless meticulous screening is exercised, and the search for cysts or trophozoites is made with clear concepts of the morphological characteristics of E. histolytica in mind. PMID:11722513

Bhambhani, S; Kashyap, V

2001-10-01

11

Cytological and Pathological Correlation of FNAC in Assessing Breast Lumps and Axillary Lymph Node Swellings in a Public Sector Hospital in India  

PubMed Central

Background. Breast lumps have varied pathology, and there are different techniques to prove the diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast lesions at our center. Methods. We had retrospectively analysed 854 patients who underwent FNAC for primary breast lumps and 190 patients who underwent FNAC for an axillary lymph node in the year 2010. Results. Of 854 patients, histological correlation was available in 723 patients. The analysis was done for 812 patients as medical records were not available for 42 patients. FNAC was false negative in seven cases; 2 cases of phyllodes were reported as fibroadenoma, and 5 cases of carcinoma were diagnosed as atypical hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity, and false negative value of FNAC in diagnosing breast lumps were 99% (715/723), 100%, and 1%, respectively. Of 190 patients for whom FNAC was performed for axilla, 170 had proven to have axillary lymph node metastases, and the rest had reactive hyperplasia or inflammatory cells. Conclusions. FNAC is rapid, accurate, outpatient based, and less complicated procedure and helps in diagnosis of breast cancer, benign diseases, and axillary involvement in experienced hands with less chance of false results. PMID:24455419

Challa, Vasu Reddy; Yale Guru, Basavanna Goud; Rangappa, Poornima; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Gayathri, devi. M.

2013-01-01

12

Fine needle aspiration cytology of lesions of liver and gallbladder: An analysis of 400 consecutive aspirations  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients presenting with mass lesions of liver and gallbladder are a common occurrence in a cancer hospital in north central part of India. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) serves as first line of pathological investigations, but there are pros and cons involved. Aim: The main objective of the present study was to establish adequacy of the procedure and to find out diagnostic pitfalls. An attempt was made to analyze inconclusive and inadequate aspirations. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 consecutive fine-needle aspirates of liver, belonging to 328 cases over a period of 2 years, were analyzed. Hematoxylin and eosin and May-Gr?nwald-Giemsa stains were used. Chi-square test was carried out to compare significant degree of difference in different kind of diagnosis. Results: Out of 400 aspirations, 289 (72.2%) were adequate, 75 (18.7%), inconclusive and 36 (9%), inadequate. Among positive aspirations the most common was metastatic adenocarcinoma, 128 (44.2%). The positive diagnosis and adequate aspirations were significantly high (P < 0.0001). Major differential diagnostic problems were: Distinguishing the poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from the metastatic adenocarcinoma; and leukemia/lymphoma from other malignant round cell tumors. Common diagnostic pitfalls were repeated aspirations from the necrotic area and aspiration of atypical, disorganized and reactive hepatocytes, adjacent to a metastasis. No complications were observed. Conclusion: FNAC can be used successfully for the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder lesions, thus avoiding open biopsy. Study indicates the potential of using FNAC in clinical intervention where the incidence of gall-bladder and liver cancer is very high and open biopsy and surgery are not an option.

Barbhuiya, Mustafa; Bhunia, Shushruta; Kakkar, Manisha; Shrivastava, Braj; Tiwari, Pramod K; Gupta, Sanjiv

2014-01-01

13

Fine needle aspiration cytology--a reliable diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of thyroid gland enlargements.  

PubMed

To evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of Thyroid gland enlargements. A retrospective analysis was done at Department of Pathology, Government Medical College and General Hospital, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. One hundred and fifty cases were included in this study. However in 10 cases aspirate was unsatisfactory and in 20 cases surgery was not performed and these cases were excluded from study. A total of 120 cases included in the final study. Detailed history, physical examination, routine investigations and other details of 120 patients were collected. FNAC with minimum two passes were performed in each case. Staining done with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and Papanicolaou stains. FNAC smears and histopathology slides were reviewed. Among 120 cases 100 (83.66%) were reported cytologically as benign and 20 (16.66%) were malignant. But histologically 98 (81.66%) were benign and 22 (18.33%) were malignant. Commonest benign lesion of thyroid in both cytology and histology was nodular colloid goiter. Follicular adenoma was the second commonest one. Among malignant conditions papillary carcinoma was the commonest one in our FNAC samples, follicular carcinoma was the commonest in our histopathology samples. Four cases of false positive and 6 cases of false negative were observed. Sampling errors were mainly responsible for these false negative diagnoses. FNAC showed an accuracy of 96.6%, sensitivity 75%, specificity 95.83%, positive predicative value (PPV) 81.81% and negative predicative value (NPV) of 93.81%. Our results were similar to other international studies and suggest that FNAC is more specific and sensitive in detecting thyroid malignancy. Therefore its useas a reliable diagnostic test cannot be over emphasized. FNAC is an accurate and reliable diagnostic tool to evaluate the cause of Thyroid gland enlargements provided strict adherence to adequacy criteria are maintained. PMID:23016483

Swamy, G G; Madhuravani, S; Swamy, G M

2011-12-01

14

Contribution of fine needle aspiration cytology to diagnosis and management of thyroid disease.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. METHODS: Clinical histories of 144 patients who had undergone FNAC of the thyroid were analysed. Clinical presentation, non-invasive investigations including hormone assays, ultrasound, and isotope scan procedures were compared with FNAC diagnoses in all cases and with histological diagnosis in the 28 cases (19%) that had undergone surgery. Clinical management was decided upon combining all of the above investigations. The relative contribution of the FNAC was divided into: essential, additional and non-contributory, misleading. RESULTS: FNAC diagnoses included: 29 (16%) benign colloid goitre, 56 (39%) benign cystic goitre, 24 (17%) thyroiditis, and 22 (15%) neoplasms. Nineteen (13%) of the specimens were unsatisfactory. When compared with clinical diagnoses based on non-invasive diagnostic investigations FNAC represented no improvement on the diagnosis of benign colloid/cystic goitre (55% v 54% respectively). It represented an improvement on the diagnosis of thyroiditis (9% v 17% respectively). FNAC decreased clinically suspicious lesions in which 22 neoplasms were diagnosed from 37% to 15%. Eleven patients with neoplasms underwent surgery and neoplasms were confirmed histologically. Others including lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma, and analplastic carcinoma were managed conservatively. There were four false negative FNAC diagnoses (3%) in clinically suspicious lesions, found on histology to be benign follicular adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: FNAC had an essential role in the diagnosis and management of 23% of our patients, a confirmatory role in 61% of patients, a non-contributory role in 13% when specimens were inadequate, and was misleading in 3% where results were false negative. The positive identification of thyroiditis and neoplasia stands on its own as a justification for FNAC. PMID:1597516

Godinho-Matos, L.; Kocjan, G.; Kurtz, A.

1992-01-01

15

Disseminated Cutaneous Histoplasmosis, an Initial Manifestation of HIV, Diagnosed with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology  

PubMed Central

Acute progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) may be the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, cutaneous involvement is very rare. We present an unusual case of acute PDH with multiple diffuse cutaneous papulonodular lesions predominantly on the face, trunk, and upper extremities, diagnosed initially with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Subsequent serological tests revealed positivity for antibodies for HIV 1 and 2. The cytomorphological features were further confirmed by biopsy and histochemical stains. FNAC is a rapid, cost-effective tool that may be utilized in the diagnosis of papulonodular forms of PDH and for initiating prompt therapy. We discuss the clinical features, clinical differentials, and treatment of the condition. PMID:24700939

Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Khan, Kalyan; Choudhary, Sanjiv; Banerjee, Sabyasachi

2014-01-01

16

Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of salivary gland lesions: A study with histologic comparison  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed in pre-operative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions for many years. Various studies in the existing literature have shown a wide range of sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of cytologic diagnosis. This study was aimed at evaluating salivary gland FNAC for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This study included 80 patients who underwent pre-operative FNAC followed by surgical procedure and histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was considered as the gold standard. FNAC diagnosis was compared with the final histologic impression and concordance assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant lesions were calculated. Results: Of the 80 cases, majority (67.5%) involved the parotid gland. Eight cases (10%) were non-neoplastic lesions, comprised of sialadenitis, retention cyst and sialadenosis. Of a total of 72 neoplasms, 58 were benign and 14 were malignant salivary gland tumors. A cyto-histologic concordance of benign diagnosis was achieved in 85.7% of cases and for malignant lesions in 92.8% of the malignant tumors. FNAC showed a sensitivity of 92.8%, specificity of 93.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.2% and negative predictive value of 98.4% for malignant salivary gland tumors. There was one false-negative diagnosis and four false-positive cases diagnosed on FNAC. Conclusion: FNAC continues to be a reliable diagnostic technique in hands of an experienced cytopathologist. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant lesions is high, though the rate of tumor type-specific characterization is lower, due to variable cytomorphology. In difficult cases, histologic examination may be employed for accurate diagnosis. PMID:23599724

Jain, Ritu; Gupta, Ruchika; Kudesia, Madhur; Singh, Sompal

2013-01-01

17

Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Evaluation of Breast Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a simple, minimally invasive, cost effective, outpatient based and a rapid diagnostic method for breast lesions. The aim of the present study was to correlate cytological findings with histopathological findings and to determine the accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Material and Methods: A total of 222 breast aspirates were studied. Histo-cytopathological correlations were obtained in 91 cases. All the aspirates were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H andE) stain. Results: Among 222 patients, 217 were females and 5 were males. Benign breast lesions were found in 144 cases (64.87%); among which fibroadenoma (30.18%) was the commonest lesion which was observed. Malignancy was observed in 69 cases (31.08%); among them, ductal carcinoma was the predominant lesion (29.28%) which was seen. Histopathological confirmations were obtained in 90 cases out of 91 cases in which histo-cytopathological corrections were possible. All 45 malignant aspirates were confirmed by histopathology. Benign reports were confirmed in 45 out of 46 cases by doing histological examinations; except one case which was diagnosed as malignant by studying its histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in breast lesions were reported to be 97.82% and 100% respectively, with 100% positive predictive value and 97.85% negative predictive value. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in the present study was found to be 98.90%. Conclusion: It is important to remember that a negative FNAC of a breast lesion does not preclude the diagnosis of a carcinoma, particularly in presence of a clinical suspicion of malignancy and/or an abnormal mammogram. PMID:24551635

Panjvani, Sahil I.; Parikh, Biren J.; Parikh, Swati B.; Chaudhari, Bhawana R.; Patel, Kazoomi K.; Gupta, Garima S.; Kodnani, Ashka H.; Anandani, Garima M.

2013-01-01

18

Computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration cytology of mass lesions of lung: Our experience  

PubMed Central

Context: Computerized tomography (CT) guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung lesions has rapidly emerged as a less-invasive, cheap, rapid and fairly accurate diagnostic aid in lung lesions. Aims: The purpose of this present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CT-guided FNAC in the diagnosis of pulmonary mass lesions (both benign and malignant) and to determine the complication rate of this procedure. Settings and Design: We conducted an institution-based, prospective study on 127 patients who presented with pulmonary mass lesions. Materials and Methods: After proper consent was obtained, CT-guided transthoracic fine needle aspiration was done and their diagnoses were confirmed by appropriate methods. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: Out of 127 cases selected for the study, 59.8% were males while the rest were females. Cough was the most common symptom present in 71.2% cases, followed by weight loss (62.4%). 21.2% cases were cytologically benign. Adenocarcinoma (54.2%) was the commonest malignant tumor. FNAC provided at least 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in diagnosing lung tumors. Among the benign lesions, specific diagnoses were obtained in 48.1% cases. Thus, altogether a specific diagnosis was obtained in 109 of 127 cases, i.e. 85.8%. No major complication was noted. Conclusions: CT-guided FNAC is an extremely valuable and fairly accurate diagnostic aid of intrathoracic mass lesions, with a reasonable rate of complication. PMID:22563151

Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Chakrabarti, Indranil; Ghosh, Nilanjana; Giri, Amita

2011-01-01

19

Computed tomogram guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of lung mass with histological correlation: A study in Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important and useful investigation, and is considered next to imaging in the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary mass lesion for the last few decades. Aims: To assess the role of Computed Tomogram (CT) guided FNAC in pulmonary mass lesions; to analyze the results; and to compare with histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: The clinical, radiological, and cytological data of 130 patients were prospectively studied who underwent CT guided FNAC from October 2009 through September 2011. Thereafter these patients underwent bronchoscopic/trucut biopsy/lobectomy, whatever clinically indicated. Smears and tissue sections were evaluated simultaneously to reach at a definite diagnosis. Results: Out of 130 cases, we found adequate FNAC smear and histopathology reports only in 124 cases. The age range varied from 35 to 73 years with the peak in the fifth to sixth decades. The benign lesions were 10 (8.07%) and malignant lesions were114 (91.93%) shown by cytology. The most common tumor was adenocarcinoma (51.72%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (22.41%) and small cell carcinoma 6.89%. Diagnostic accuracy of CT guided FNAC was 95%. Post procedural complications such as hemorrhage and chest pain were minimal and were noted only in three cases. Conclusion: CT guided FNAC of pulmonary masses provides simple, easy, and reliable method for reaching rapid tissue diagnosis with minimal complication. PMID:24455536

Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Nag, Dipanwita; Das, Rama; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Biswas, Pranab Kr; Osta, Manish

2013-01-01

20

Fine needle aspiration cytology of basal cell carcinoma of the skin: a clinical and cytopathological appraisal.  

PubMed

This report describes the fine needle aspiration cytologic findings of 22 cases of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. The series consisted of 17 men and 5 women with a mean age of 60.7 years (range, 35-80). All the patients were from south of Xinjiang and were outdoor workers with histories of prolonged exposure to strong sunlight. Histopathologic study was performed in all cases. Using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in evaluating basal cell carcinoma, there were no false-positive cases, but one false-negative one giving a diagnostic accuracy of 95.65%. Cytologic features suggestive of basal cell carcinoma included increased numbers of small, uniform hyperchromatic, relatively little cytoplasmic cell clusters. The peripheral cells appeared in monolayer form as a papillated outline with very strong cellular cohesion. Scattered tumor cells were seldom seen. The differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma in FNAC includes poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, eccrine gland carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. FNAC diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma is essential in order to ensure proper treatment. PMID:10554429

Fang, X; Ma, B

1999-10-01

21

Fine needle aspiration cytology of unilesional mycosis fungoides d'emblee  

PubMed Central

Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for 2% of all lymphomas. Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a rare, albeit commonest form of primary cutaneous T cell lymphoma. MF d’emblee is an uncommon variant which is easily mistaken clinically for epithelial malignancy. Diagnosis at cytology is challenging due to low degree of suspicion, rare occurrence and diverse morphology. We report a case of 51-year-old male presenting with a solitary nodulo-ulcerative lesion over right thigh. Smear showed atypical lymphocytes with hyper-convoluted cerebriform nuclei along with few mature lymphocytes consistent with MF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of unilesional MF d’emblee diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our case emphasizes that FNAC is an accurate method for early diagnosis and clinical staging of patients with MF. PMID:22438619

Amita, K; Shankar, S Vijay; Hazarika, Abinash; Roopa, AN

2012-01-01

22

The value of preoperative ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of radiologically suspicious axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Preoperative ultrasound (US) and eventually US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of suspicious axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a standard procedure in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. Preoperative US FNAC may prevent sentinel node biopsy (SNB) procedure in 24-30% of patients with early stage breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the institutional results of this preoperative diagnostic procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 cases of preoperative FNAC of suspicious ALN where retrieved from the pathology files. The results were compared with the final histology and staging. False negative (FN) FNAC cases were reviewed and possibly missed metastatic cases (2) were immunostained with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. Results: There were no false positives, whereas 16 cases were FN. In all but one case the FN's represented sampling error. Half of the 16 FN cases in this series were macrometastases. Discussion: About 83% of the preoperatively aspirated cases were N+, indicating that a radiologically suspicious ALN has a very high risk of being metastatic. Preoperative US guided FNAC from radiologically suspicious ALN is highly efficient in detecting metastases. Depending on national guidelines, a preoperative, positive ALN FNAC might help to stratify the patients as to SNB and/or ALN dissection. PMID:25317197

Sauer, Torill; Karesen, Rolf

2014-01-01

23

Anterior mediastinal masses: A study of 50 cases by fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure  

PubMed Central

Background: Mediastinal tumors are an uncommon abnormalities found in clinical practice. Anterior mediastinum is the common site and tissue diagnoses of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs) are very important for correct therapeutic decision. Objective: We evaluate the different malignant AMMs in various age groups and the sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Cytology smears are reviewed with particular emphasis on pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 50 patients who were consulted for AMMs and underwent FNAC and CNB under guidance of ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan from 2006 to 2011. Cytology smears and histological sections were evaluated in all patients. Results: Among 50 cases, 36 were male and 14 were female. Most AMMs (52%) were identified in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Metastatic carcinoma and nonHodgkin's lymphoma are the common AMMs. Adequate tissue material was obtained in 49 of 50 cases by CNB. Of these 49 patients, 35 (71.42%) cases were diagnosed correctly by FNAC, whereas 14 (28.57%) cases were not diagnosed definitely by FNAC. The sensitivity of CNB for AMMs was 97.95%, significantly higher than FNAC (71.42%) (P < 0.05). CNB had statistically significant higher diagnostic rate than FNAC in the noncarcinoma group (100% versus 62.96%) (P < 0.05). There is no significant difference of CNB and FNAC in carcinoma group (P > 0.05). Diagnostic rate of FNAC was higher for carcinomatous lesions (81.81%) than for noncarcinomatous lesions (62.96%). Conclusion: Ultrasound or CT scan-guided CNB in combination with FNAC are safe, minimally invasive, and cost-effective procedure, which can provide a precise diagnosis in the AMMs, and may obviate the need for invasive surgical approach. FNAC usually suffice for carcinomatous lesions but CNB should be performed whenever the diagnosis of carcinoma is equivocal or noncarcinoma lesions are suspected. PMID:24455533

Nasit, Jitendra G.; Patel, Maulin; Parikh, Biren; Shah, Manoj; Davara, Kajal

2013-01-01

24

Study of computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of thoracic lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: Thoracic lesions include a variety of benign and malignant lesions of lung, pleura, chest wall and mediastinum. Transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (TFNAC) is a well established technique for work up of thoracic lesions. Computed tomography (CT) has extended the use of FNAC, because it is accurate for localization, needle puncture and above all it permits evaluation of lesions less than 1 cm. This diagnostic modality has a high sensitivity, specificity and is of relatively low cost. Aims: To assess the role of CT-guided FNAC in the diagnosis of thoracic lesions. Materials and Methods: Eighty three patients with various thoracic lesions were evaluated by CT guided FNAC. The cytologic findings were compared with cell blocks whenever available. Results: Conclusive opinion was offered on cytology smears in 80 patients. Lesions of the lung were the most common. Neoplastic lesions in our study accounted for 65% of cases. The sensitivity and specificity of the study were 93.33% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: CT-guided TFNAC is a low cost, safe, minimally invasive and accurate diagnostic procedure with high sensitivity and specificity and when interpreted in conjunction with clinical and radiological data can prevent some of the pitfalls in diagnosis. PMID:22438614

Rangaswamy, Maggad; Zacharia, Togy Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Chennakeshaviah, Gururajprasad; Sunila; Vimala, Manjunath Gubbania

2012-01-01

25

Immunocytochemistry: It's role in diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasms by fine needle aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, cheap and reliable method for diagnosing any accessible lesion. However, there remains a group of malignant undifferentiated neoplasms, which can only be categorized with the help of immunocytochemistry (ICC). The categorization is important due to their vast difference in treatment and prognosis. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of ICC in categorizing the undifferentiated neoplasms diagnosed on routine FNAC smears. Materials and Methods: Thirty six cases of undifferentiated neoplasms were selected from a group of total 78 cytology cases of undifferentiated tumors from different sites like head and neck, lymph node, soft tissue etc. These were then subjected to a panel of ICC markers based on the clinical and cytomorphological features. Results: Of these, 21 were simple, ten were computerized tomography guided and five were ultrasound guided FNACs respectively. All the 78 cases were confirmed by histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. Of the 36 cytological cases, final diagnosis correlated in 30 cases histologically. The six cases were incorrect either due to inadequate material on the smears (three cases) or false positive staining (three cases). Conclusions: Our study found that ICC is a sensitive and specific method for early and definitive diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasms. However, selection of antibodies must be judicious to make it cost effective. PMID:23833402

Mandal, Palash Kumar; Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Roy, Shravasti; Adhikari, Anindya; Basu, Nandita; Sinha, Swapan Kumar

2013-01-01

26

Evaluation for Granulomatous Inflammation on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Using Special Stains  

PubMed Central

Background. Tuberculosis is the commonest infectious disease in the developing world. Many diagnostic tests are devised for its detection including direct smear examination. This study was designed to determine the frequency of cases positive for AFB and positive for fungus in patients diagnosed to have granulomatous inflammation on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology using special stains. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was done on 100 cases of granulomatous inflammation consistent with tuberculosis diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology at the Department of Pathology, King Edward Medical University, Lahore. After reporting granulomatous inflammation on Hematoxylin & Eosin staining of aspirates from FNAC, some unstained slides were subjected to special stains, like ZN, GMS, and PAS. Cases positive for AFB on ZN stain and fungus on GMS/PAS were noted down along with their frequency and percentages. Results. Forty-four cases (44%) of AFB positive smears were reported in granulomatous inflammation while only 5% cases of fungus were reported down. Cervical lymph nodes were the most commonly involved site (87%), and females were affected more (62%) than males. Most cases of AFB-positive smears were associated with caseation necrosis (93%). Conclusion. Special stains should be done on all granulomatous inflammation cases seen on FNAC for confirmation of TB and ruling out other infectious causes. PMID:21776343

Majeed, Muhammad Mudassar; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

2011-01-01

27

Intraparietal esophageal leiomyomas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: Cytological and immunocytochemical features in two cases  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) has proven to be of significant value as a diagnostic method for the evaluation of esophageal mesenchymal tumors, such as true leiomyomas. Utilizing the cell block procedure, the present study reports the diagnostic approach of EUS-FNAC in two patients affected by this lesion, describing the cytological and immunocytochemical findings. Spindle-shaped elements with elongated nuclei were appreciable; moreover, the cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical positivity for smooth muscle actin and desmin strongly supported the diagnosis of leiomyoma when also taking into account the constant negativity for CD34, CD117 and S100. The differential diagnosis between spindle cell mesenchymal tumors and leiomyomas, and the clinico-therapeutic management of the latter are also discussed in the study. PMID:24959231

TODARO, P.; CRINO, S.F.; IENI, A.; PALLIO, S.; CONSOLO, P.; TUCCARI, G.

2014-01-01

28

Pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis presenting as hypoechoic mass and malignancy diagnosed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Background: Pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is an extremely uncommon disease, presenting as hypoechoic mass on ultrasonography and imaging mimicking malignancy. Consequently, it represents a diagnostic challenge. Aims: To study 14 unusual cases of pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis undergoing ultrasound-/endoscopic-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the 5-year period from 2006 to 2010. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic-guided FNAC was done in two cases, while ultrasound-guided FNAC was performed in 12 cases using 22-G needles via a percutaneous transabdominal approach. The aspirated material was quickly smeared onto glass slides, air dried, and wet fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol for subsequent Papanicolaou staining. Results: All pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis cases showed solid-cystic pancreatic mass. Smears showed epithelioid cell granulomas, multinucleated giant cells, mixed inflammatory cells and histiocytes against a necrotic background. The common anatomic locations were the head, peripancreatic, tail and body of the pancreas. Conclusions: Ultrasound-/endoscopic-guided FNAC is a safe, reliable and cost-effective method for preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis. Clinical symptoms and accurate diagnostic approach by ultrasound-/endoscopic-guided FNAC of pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is needed to avoid performing redundant laparotomy. Despite its rarity, pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis should be considered for differential diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic cystic mass in endemic developing countries. PMID:23833404

Rao, R. N.; Pandey, Rakesh; Rana, Manoj Kumar; Rai, Praveer; Gupta, Archna

2013-01-01

29

Primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma: a rare pitfall in transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma (PPHL) is extremely rare. At an extranodal location such as the lung this lymphoma is likely to be confused with the more commonly occurring carcinomas at this site. We report the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings of a PPHL in a 36-year-old male with a view to discuss the pitfalls and clues to the accurate cytologic diagnosis. This patient presented with a large, heterogeneously enhancing mass involving the anterior segment of right upper lobe without any evidence of nodal involvement. A CT-guided transthoracic FNAC of this mass revealed large connective tissue fragments with entrapped voluminous cells amidst a polymorphous population of eosinophils, polymorphs, and lymphocytes. The large cells showed abundant often stripped off cytoplasm, an irregular nucleus with nucleolus and were initially diagnosed as non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. In view of the locally advanced stage, patient received a carboplatin and gemcite-based chemotherapy with complete response but postchemotherapy patient refused local surgery. Two years later, the patient developed enlarged nodes which were diagnosed as Hodgkin's lymphoma, and a review of prior lung tumor confirmed the diagnosis of PPHL. Hence the rare diagnosis of PPHL should be kept in mind when a cytopathologist observes large cells embedded in collagenous tissue fragments with dominant cell dispersal amidst an inflammatory infiltrate in an aspirate from a primary lung tumor. PMID:18677750

Kumar, Rajiv; Sidhu, Hardeep; Mistry, Rajesh; Shet, Tanuja

2008-09-01

30

Benign Pairs: A Significant Entity in Aspiration Cytology Smears From Breast Lesions  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a reliable diagnostic tool used to diagnose breast lesions preoperatively. However, FNAC is also associated with diagnostic pitfalls. Further studies are needed to improve its diagnostic efficacy. We noticed ovoid, bare nuclei arranged in closely touching diads (benign pairs) in a significant number of cytology smears. This prompted us to assess their diagnostic utility. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective study conducted in Sarojini NaiduMedical College, Agra, India. Quantitative estimation of benign pairs per 1000 ductal cells in at least 20 high power field was attempted in cytology smears of 128 cases. RESULTS The average number of pairs in benign and malignant lesions was calculated as 7.07 + 5.96 and 0.28 + 0.78, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the number of pairs in benign and malignant cases (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS Quantitative estimation of benign pairs is helpful in distinguishing benign from malignant cases. PMID:24324356

Rathi, Monika; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Atul; Budania, Satish Kumar; Ahuja, Harshkiran

2013-01-01

31

Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses: A study of 85 cases  

PubMed Central

Background: The diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions is one of the most difficult areas in surgical pathology. The retroperitoneal space allows both primary and metastatic tumors to grow silently before the appearance of clinical signs and symptoms. Fine needle aspiration cytology has shown promising role in establishing the diagnosis in this region. Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonography (USG)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions in the retroperitoneum, and to correlate the diagnosis by cytology of retroperitoneal masses with the results obtained by histology. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 85 patients presenting over the last five years with retroperitoneal masses on ultrasound. Results: Out of 85 cases, 32 were of kidney, 27 of lymph nodes, 24 of retroperitoneal soft tissues, and two were of the adrenals. Malignant lesions (47) were more common than nonmalignant lesions (38). In the kidney, the maximum number of cases were of renal cell carcinoma (12-38%), followed by Wilm's tumor (6-19%), pyonephrosis (5-16%), renal cyst (4), angiomyolipoma (2), cortical pseudotumor (2), and tuberculosis (1). Out of 27 cases of retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, 12 cases (44%) were of metastatic carcinoma followed by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (8-30%), tuberculosis (6-22%), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (1). The two cases of the adrenals were of angiomyolipoma and metastatic carcinoma. Among the 24 soft tissue tumors in the study, seven (29%) were malignant and 17 (71%) were benign (lipoma being the most common benign neoplasm). Results from histopathological investigations were available in 47 cases, out of which 45 were consistent with the FNAC-based diagnoses. Two cases for which the histopathological results were inconsistent with the FNAC diagnoses, were of renal cell carcinoma, which had been diagnosed as renal cysts on cytology. Conclusions: USG-guided FNAC is an inexpensive, rapid, safe, and accurate procedure for the diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses. PMID:21938165

Mangal, Nidhi; Sharma, Veena K; Verma, Nidhi; Agarwal, Anil K; Sharma, Surendra P; Aneja, Sangeeta

2009-01-01

32

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of medullary breast carcinoma: report of two cases and review of the literature with emphasis on differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Medullary carcinoma is a rare variant of breast carcinoma with a relatively good clinical prognosis as strictly defined. Characteristic features on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) allow medullary carcinoma to be considered in the cytologic differential diagnosis. We present two FNAC cases with such features, including high cellularity with clusters and single intact malignant cells, bizarre stripped nuclei with prominent nucleoli in a lymphoplasmacytic background, and illustrate one case in liquid-based preparation. Surgical excision revealed that one patient had medullary carcinoma, while the second patient had high-grade infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Breast FNAC samples with syncytial fragments, bizarre nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate should raise the possibility of medullary carcinoma. However, the differential diagnosis also includes high-grade ductal carcinoma, lymphoma, or metastasis to breast or intramammary lymph nodes; thus, histopathologic analysis is required for definitive diagnosis. PMID:17497662

Racz, Melinda M; Pommier, Rodney F; Troxell, Megan L

2007-06-01

33

Diagnosis of sclerosing hemangioma of lung: don't rely on fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis alone.  

PubMed

Sclerosing hemangioma is a rare variety of benign pulmonary neoplasm. It usually presents as asymptomatic, solitary, peripheral, circumscribed lesions in middle-aged women. Here, we describe a 46-year-old woman presenting to us for evaluation of right parahilar lung mass. Previous chest radiography done 10 years back showed a lung mass of almost similar size. Computed Tomography (CT)-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was suggestive of adenocarcinoma of lung. A well-circumscribed, capsulated, ovoid mass measuring 5.6 cm × 4 cm × 3 cm, adjacent to the transverse fissure of the right lung was excised by lateral thoracotomy. Histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry was suggestive of sclerosing hemangioma of lung. A pathologist must consider the clinicoradiological features before coming to a final diagnosis of lung malignancy from FNAC. Whenever there is any confusion regarding lung mass, thoracotomy must be done for arriving at an exact diagnosis from histopathology. PMID:24518736

Saha, Kaushik; Sit, Niranjan Kr; Jash, Debraj; Maji, Arnab

2013-01-01

34

Extramedullary plasmacytoma of thyroid - a mimicker of medullary carcinoma at fine needle aspiration cytology: A case report.  

PubMed

A rare case of extra medullary plasmacytoma (EMP) of thyroid gland in a 60 year old male, occurring against a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is reported. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) initially done as an outpatient procedure, showed atypical epithelial cells on a background of amyloid. Considering these findings we gave a diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. Histology of the total thyroidectomy specimen showed an extensive infiltration of neoplastic plasma cells against a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, with a bizarre Hurthle cell change. Immunohistochemistry on the histology sections confirmed the diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma of thyroid against a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:25190987

Bhat, Vidya; Shariff, Shameem; Reddy, Roopa A Narayana

2014-01-01

35

Computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of thoracic mass lesions: A study of 57 cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Computed tomography (CT)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is regarded as a rapid, safe, and accurate diagnostic tool in examining thoracic mass lesions for the last three decades. Aims: To assess the role of CT-guided FNAC in thoracic mass lesions, to analyse the results, and to compare the results with other studies. Materials and Methods: Fifty-seven patients were studied over a year (July 2007 to June 2008) for their age, sex, and topographic distribution, pleural infiltration (based on CT findings), and cytological diagnoses. Results: Out of 57 cases, 78.9% (n = 45) were male and 21.1% (n = 12) were female. The age range varied from 34 to 79 years with the peak in the fifth decade. There were 54 parenchymal (lung) tumors and the remaining three tumor cases were mediastinal. The most common tumor was squamous cell carcinoma (42.6%) followed by adenocarcinoma (29.6%) and small cell carcinoma. Postprocedural complications were minimal and were noted in only three cases (a little pulmonary hemorrhage in two and hemoptysis in one). Conclusions: CT-guided FNAC of thoracic mass lesions provides a rapid and safe diagnostic procedure with minimal complications. The categorical diagnosis can also be achieved on the basis of cytomorphology. The figures obtained from this study are comparable with other studies except for a few differences. PMID:21938153

Saha, Anupam; Kumar, Kshitish; Choudhuri, Manoj K

2009-01-01

36

Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: The evaluation and management of various hepatic lesions is a common clinical problem and their appropriate clinical management depends on accurate diagnoses. Aims: To study the cytomorphological features of distinctive non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the liver and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (USG)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of liver diseases. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients with evidence of liver diseases underwent USG-guided, percutaneous FNAC. Cytomorphological diagnoses were correlated with clinical, biochemical and radiological findings, histopathological diagnoses and follow-up information. Results: The age of the patients ranged from eight months to 90 years with 48 males (66.67%) and 24 females (33.33%). Of the 72 cases, the cytological diagnosis was rendered in 71 patients and smears were inadequate for interpretation in one case. Neoplastic lesions (68.06%) were more common than non-neoplastic lesions (30.56%). The majority of the neoplastic lesions were hepatocellular carcinomas (36.12%) followed by metastatic adenocarcinomas (19.45%). Among non-neoplastic lesions, cirrhosis was the commonest lesion (8.34%). The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 97.82% with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.87 and 100% respectively. Conclusion: USG-guided FNAC of the liver is a safe, simple, cost-effective and accurate method for cytological diagnosis of hepatic diffuse, focal/nodular and cystic lesions with good sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22090691

Swamy, Mallikarjuna CM; Arathi, CA; Kodandaswamy, CR

2011-01-01

37

Evaluation of precision of guidance techniques in image guided fine needle aspiration cytology of thoracic mass lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: Transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an established and safe technique for diagnosis of thoracic mass lesions. Computed tomography (CT) scan depicts clear anatomical details and provides access to any area of the body. It is, however, expensive and the needle is not passed in real time. Ultrasound is cheaper, radiation free, and allows real time monitoring. Its limitations are obscurement of lesions by aerated lung, smaller, deep seated, and cavitary lesions. Aims: This study aims to compare sensitivity and specificity of CT scan and ultrasonography (USG) in thoracic FNAC. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on patients who presented with thoracic mass lesions in lungs, mediastinum, hilar lymph nodes, thoracic vertebrae, paraspinal soft tissue, and pleura. One hundred and twenty patients were studied. Only those cases in which sonographic guidance was not possible were taken up for CT guided FNAC. The lesions were assigned to benign and malignant categories and into specific diagnoses where possible. Biopsy correlation was available in 113 cases. Patients were lost to follow-up in five lung and two mediastinal masses. Statistical Analysis: Statistical tests applied included diagnostic tests for sensitivity and specificity. Results: An accuracy of 70.8% was found for image guided FNACs with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.2% and 100%, respectively. CT had a sensitivity of 93.2% and specificity of 100%. For USG guidance, the same was 91.3% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Precision of USG and CT scan is comparable for guidance in FNAC from thoracic mass lesions. PMID:22438609

Kalhan, Shivani; Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Sonia; Dudani, Sharmila; Ramakrishnan, TS; Chowdhry, Anupama

2012-01-01

38

Computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of solitary pulmonary nodules suspected to be bronchogenic carcinoma: Experience of a general hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may be diagnostic in candidates with indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) suspicious of bronchogenic carcinoma. Aims: The study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT)-guided FNAC in our centre. Materials and Methods: All the cases had a strong clinical suspicion of lung cancer, negative bronchoscopy, negative sputum cytology for malignant cells and acid fast bacilli. A thorough radiological evaluation was made to rule out primary malignancy elsewhere. Results: A total of 94 patients were studied in one year. May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain was used for the smears. The cytological diagnosis was correlated with clinical-radiological follow-up and biopsy to arrive at a final diagnosis. The procedure had a high sensitivity and specificity. Chi-square test was used to calculate statistical significance. Tumor of more than three centimeter and immediate cytological assessment significantly increased the yield. Review of slides added two cases of malignancy that were missed initially. There were very few complications. Conclusions: CT-guided FNAC was an accurate and safe procedure for SPNs. PMID:21042527

Mukherjee, Sumana; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Bhattacharya, Aparna; Ghosh, Ritu; Barui, Gopinath; Karmakar, Rupam

2010-01-01

39

Aspiration biopsy cytology in diagnosis of thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) is a diagnostic method that has been used extensively in Sweden for a quarter of a century. The technical steps involved in this biopsy procedure are described, and the differences from large needle biopsy techniques are pointed out. An overview is given of the different pathologic conditions that present as thyroid nodules and are recognizable by

Torsten Löwhagen; Jan-Silvester Willems; Göran Lundell; Rolf Sundblad; Per-Ola Granberg

1981-01-01

40

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Pediatric Age Group with Special Reference to Pediatric Tumors: A Retrospective Study Evaluating Its Diagnostic Role and Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established diagnostic technique in adult mass lesions but a comparatively new technique to pediatric lesions. Aim: The current study aims to evaluate the role of FNAC in pediatric age with special reference to pediatric tumors. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of FNAC in children ? 18 years of age presenting with mass lesions was studied for 5 years. Distribution of cases in different age groups, sex, and site of lesion was analyzed. Pediatric lesions were categorized into non-neoplastic, benign, and malignant conditions. Diagnostic efficacy was assessed by comparing subsequent histopathological examination wherever possible. Statistical Analysis: Epi info 07 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia (USA) 07) and values were presented as simple percentages. Results: FNAC was performed on 2903 cases in 5 years out of which 327 cases 11.3% (327/2903) were ? 18 years of age. Out of 327 cases, 180 cases 55% (180/327) were between 11 and 18 years. Male to female ratio was 1.15:1. The commonest site for FNAC was cervical lymph node swelling 48.3% (158/327). Reactive lymphadenitis was the commonest diagnosis among all mass lesions 38.8% (103/265), whereas Fibroadenoma 20.8% (10/49) was commonest diagnosis among benign lesions and among malignant lesions there were two cases 15.3% (2/13) each of Hodgkins and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and one case of chondrosarcoma. The positive predictive value of diagnosing malignant lesions on FNAC was 100%. Conclusions: The ease of FNAC along with its high diagnostic accuracy makes it a desirable method for diagnosing lesions in children. PMID:24669329

Prathima, S; Suresh, TN; Harendra Kumar, ML; Krishnappa, J

2014-01-01

41

Intraductal aspiration cytology and galactography for nipple discharge.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of preoperative cytology and galactography in women with nipple discharge using a simple intraductal aspiration method. From May 1997 to February 2002, 172 patients with unilateral, spontaneous nipple discharge without palpable masses underwent intraductal aspiration cytology followed by galactography. Major duct excision was performed in 133 of 155 successful cases. Pathological findings showed solitary papilloma in 65 cases, breast cancer in 16 cases, fibrocystic disease in 17 cases, papillomatosis in 12 cases, ductal hyperplasia in 11 cases, and finally, duct ectasia in 12 cases. Our results showed sensitivity of 75.0% and 68.8%, specificity of 86.3% and 62.4%, and overall accuracy of 85.1% and 63.2%, respectively, for cytological analysis and galactography. This suggests that the intraductal aspiration method for preoperative cytology and galactography is a minimally invasive and well-tolerated procedure that seems to be useful in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions in patients with unilateral, spontaneous nipple discharge. PMID:12872900

Baitchev, G; Gortchev, G; Todorova, A; Dikov, D; Stancheva, N; Daskalova, I

2003-01-01

42

Malignancy rate in nondominant nodules in patients with multinodular goiter: Experience with 1,606 cases evaluated by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Background: Conventional medical sources recommend the use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for single thyroid nodules and the dominant nodule in multinodular goiter (MNG). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the utility of FNAC for multiple thyroid nodules in patients with MNG and to determine the rate of malignancy in teh nondominant nodules. Materials and Methods: Our private practice performed ultrasound-guided FNAC on 1,606 patients between February 2001 and February 1, 2010. In the MNG cases, samples were taken from the dominant nodule and from trhee suspicious / nonsuspicious nodules larger than 1 cm on ultrasound. Ninety-four cases were diagnosed as ‘suspiciously malignant’(SUS) or ‘malignant’ (POS) based on FNAC. Results: The rate of an SUS / POS diagnosis was 5.7% in the dominant nodules; 2.3% of the nondominant nodules had a SUS / POS diagnosis in FNAC (p = 0.0003). Follow-up revealed malignancy in 15 (35.7%) nondominant nodules and in 27 (64.2%) dominant nodules, with 42 MNG cases undergoing surgery. X test showed a ‘p-level of 0.0003’ between the percentages of SUS / POS diagnosis in dominanat and nondominanat nodules. It was less than the significance level of 0.05. Therefore, the result was regarded to be statistically significant. Conclusions: Nondominant nodules could harbor malignancy. The risk of malignancy in nondominant nodules in MNG should not be underestimated. We have shown that the dominant nodule in patients with MNG was in fact about 2.5 times more likely to be malignant than a nondominant nodule. The use of FNAC for nondominant nodules could enhance the likelihood of detecting malignancy in an MNG. PMID:22114619

Paksoy, Nadir; Yazal, Kadri; Çorak, Selin

2011-01-01

43

CT guided fine needle aspiration cytology of thoracic mass lesions: a prospective study of immediate cytological evaluation.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of CT guided FNAC as diagnostic and supportive investigation for thoracic lesions, 190 patients were studied during two years period from March 2003 to February 2005 in our institution. A total number of 163 (85.8%) lung lesions, 22 (11.6%) mediastinal lesions and 05 (2.6%) pleural lesions were obtained; only neoplastic lesions were categorized as per WHO classification. The diagnostic sensitivity for malignancy was 97.71% and specificity 100%. Though our priority was cytological assessment, the cytological diagnosis was corroborated with clinico-radiological parameters and transbronchial biopsies whenever applicable. PMID:17474259

Bandyopadhyay, Anjali; Laha, Rabindranath; Das, Tushar Kanti; Sen, Sipra; Mangal, Srishtidhar; Mitra, Pradip Kumar

2007-01-01

44

Assessment of Her-2/neu status using immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization on fine-needle aspiration cytology smears: experience from a tertiary care centre in India.  

PubMed

Breast carcinoma shows amplification/overexpression of Her-2/neu in ?20-30% of cases. The determination of Her-2/neu expression accurately is vital in clinical practice as it has significant predictive value and eligibility for anti Her-2/neu therapy. Amplification and overexpression of Her-2/neu gene is traditionally identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue sections; only a few studies have evaluated feasibility of these techniques on cytological smears. One hundred cases of breast cancer with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples and corresponding surgically resected specimen were selected. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) and FISH for Her-2/neu was done on FNA smears, whereas IHC was performed on corresponding tissue sections. Diagnostic accuracy of ICC was 99% when compared with IHC. Comparison of FISH results with IHC showed 100% concordance. Unlike many centers in West, FNAC is still routinely performed in developing countries like India where vast majority of breast cancer cases present as palpable lumps. The high rates of accuracy of ICC and FISH for Her-2/neu detection can make FNAC a relevant first line of investigation as a cost effective model with a rapid turn-around time, providing complete information necessary for initial management of breast cancer patients. PMID:24376261

Durgapal, Prashant; Mathur, Sandeep R; Kalamuddin, Md; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Parshad, Rajinder; Julka, Pramod K; Panda, S K

2014-08-01

45

Cytopathological Pattern of Tubercular Lymphadenopathy on FNAC: Analysis of 550 Consecutive Cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lymph nodes is a simple, cost effective, out-patient procedure used for diagnosis of various causes of lymphadenopathies. In tuberculous lymphadenitis, it not only used for the cytological diagnosis but also used for other ancillary testing such as Ziehl- Neelsen staining and AFB Culture. Aims: Our study was designed to evaluate the cytopathological pattern of FNAC aspirate of patients presenting with lymphadenopathy with special reference to tuberculous lymphadenopathy. Materials and Methods: In this study all the patients referred to the cytopathology lab for FNAC of lymph nodes between January 2011 to June, 2013 were included. Out of 1050 patients presenting with lymphadenopathies, there were 550 cases of tuberculous lymphadenitis. The cytopathological findings of these 550 cases were analyzed. Results: A female preponderance was noted in our study with maximum incidence in the 3rd decade. Cervical lymph nodes were the most common nodes to be involved. Gross examination of aspirate showed maximum cases (74.5.2%) of whitish material. Among the four cytological patterns on FNAC, maximum cases demonstrated caseous necrotic material with degenerated inflammatory cells. Ziehl- Neelsen staining showed overall AFB positivity of 44.54%. Maximum AFB positivity was seen in cases having caseous necrosis only. Conclusion: FNAC is a simple, cost effective technique with high degree of accuracy in diagnosing Tubercular Lymphadenitis. Despite certain limitations and pitfalls, FNAC coupled with Ziehl- Neelson staining should be the 1st line investigation in cases with lymphadenopaty, in a developing country with high prevalence rate of tuberculosis. PMID:25386441

Chand, Priyanka; Dogra, Rajeev; Chauhan, Nidhi; Gupta, Renu

2014-01-01

46

Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087

Shyamala, K; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay

2014-01-01

47

Cytological diagnosis from fine needle aspiration biopsy of the liver.  

PubMed

One hundred and six fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of the liver were performed on 99 patients to rule out hepatic malignancy. Biopsies were performed with CT guidance (60), ultrasonography (40), fluoroscopy (3), by direct palpation (2) and intra-operatively (1). The smears and cell blocks were reviewed and the cytologic diagnoses were made after clinicopathologic correlation. Eight cases were excluded (six non-diagnostic and two mislaid). Fifty-two were positive, 2 suspicious and 44 negative for malignancy. There were no false positive results. The sensitivity for malignancy was 84.4%, the specificity was 100% and the predictive value of positive results was 100%. The false negative rate was ten out of 44 cases (22.7%). Of the malignant aspirates, there were 27 hepatocellular carcinomas, 21 metastases and four carcinomas of unknown histogenesis. Common benign lesions included abscesses, cysts, cirrhosis and steatosis. For FNAB to be an effective diagnostic procedure, adequate representative sampling, cell block preparation for appraisal of histological architecture and experience in cytomorphologic interpretation are necessary to increase yield and enhance precision of diagnosis. PMID:1652919

Wee, A; Nilsson, B; Chan-Wilde, C; Yap, I; Guan, R

1991-03-01

48

Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087

Shyamala, K.; Girish, H. C.; Murgod, Sanjay

2014-01-01

49

Histopathological Correlation of Atypical (C3) and Suspicious (C4) Categories in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of the Breast  

PubMed Central

Introduction. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) guidelines in 1996, breast lesions are categorized as C1 to C5 on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Very few studies are available in the English literature analyzing histopathology outcome of C3 (atypical, probably benign) and C4 (suspicious, probably malignant) lesions. Our study aims to correlate FNA cytology of breast lump diagnosed as C3 and C4 lesion with histopathological examination. Methods. During a period of 2 years, 59 cases of C3 and 26 cases of C4 were retrieved from total 1093 cases of breast FNA. All the cases were reviewed by two cytopathologists independently. The final 24 cases of C3 and 16 cases of C4 categories were correlated with histopathological diagnosis. Result. Among C3 category, 37.5% revealed malignant findings, whereas of C4 category, 87.5% were malignant on histopathology. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0017). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive value of C4 category in diagnosing breast malignancy were 60.8%, 88.2%, 87.5%, and 62.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Although FNAC is simple, safe, cost-effective and accurate method for diagnosis of breast masses, one must be aware of its limitations particularly in C3 and C4 categories. Also, since both these categories carry different probabilities of malignancy and thus different management, we therefore, support maintaining C3 and C4 categories. PMID:24175096

Goyal, Prashant; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Aggarwal, Deepti; Shukla, Pritesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Gupta, Ruchika; Singh, Sompal

2013-01-01

50

Fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous prostatitis induced by BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Six patients treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for superficial bladder cancer had granulomatous prostatitis demonstrated histologically by transperineal needle biopsy. Four of the six patients also underwent transrectal fine needle aspiration (FNA) for cytologic study. The diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis was made cytologically in all four without knowledge of the histologic findings. Granulomatous prostatitis appears to be common following intravesical BCG treatment; these cases show that FNA cytology can be recommended as a method for diagnosing this complication. PMID:3866459

Stilmant, M; Siroky, M B; Johnson, K B

1985-01-01

51

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Eccrine Spiradenoma of Back: Report of a Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Eccrine spiradenoma is an uncommon benign adnexal tumor. Cytological features of eccrine spiradenoma have been described very rarely in English literature. In the present case, we are describing a case of eccrine spiradenoma of back, which was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. Its cytology revealed tight multilayered clusters of uniform benign cuboidal epithelial cells along with spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells and occasional lymphocytes. PMID:25328342

Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Phukan, Jyoti Prakash

2014-01-01

52

Ultrasound Guided Fnac of Abdominal-Pelvic Masses-The Pathologists' Perspective  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fine Needle Aspiration(FNA) which is used for making a cytologic diagnosis has become an indispensable component of the work-up of many abnormalities.The objectives of this study were to adopt USG guided fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of abdomino-pelvic masses, to assess its efficacy and to study the cytological features of abdominopelvic masses. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients with clinically or sonologically diagnosed abdomino-pelvic masses were taken up for the study. FNAC was performed under real time USG guidance. The aspirates were smeared onto a minimum of 2 slides and they were routinely stained with H&E, MGG and Papanicolaou stains. Observations: The diagnostic accuracy rates of USG guided FNAC for benign, malignant and non-neoplastic lesions were 100%,96% and 94.4% respectively.The overall accuracy rate was 96.3%. Conclusion: USG guided FNAC is a rapid , economical,non-invasive, highly accurate and a safe diagnostic procedure which can pre-empt a lengthy and expensive workup in various abdomino- pelviv masses. PMID:23542397

A.L, Hemalatha; Sindhuram V, Sumana; S, Sushma; J.K, Suma; I, Varna; Aditya, Anubha

2013-01-01

53

Fine needle aspiration cytology of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. A cytologic, immunocytochemical and electron microscopic study.  

PubMed

We report the fine needle aspiration cytology findings in six cases of neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. Three cases were from the pancreas, two from hepatic metastases and one from a peripancreatic lymph node metastasis. The cytologic features that permitted a preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor were: a cellular aspirate; numerous isolated cells and irregular, loose, dyshesive cellular aggregates; minimal nuclear pleomorphism; infrequent mitoses; fine, evenly dispersed nuclear chromatin with occasional inconspicuous nucleoli; a scant-moderate amount of granular, amphophilic, well-defined cytoplasm; clustering of tumor cells around segments of capillaries; and rosette formation. The differential diagnosis includes cells derived from normal pancreatic acini, islet cell hyperplasia, acinic cell carcinoma, well-differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the lung, pancreatic small cell anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma. The application of immunocytochemistry to cytologic smears can be easily and reliably performed to confirm the neuroendocrine nature of the tumor and identify the specific type of polypeptide hormone or hormones produced by these tumors. Four aspirates showed immunoreactivity for chromogranin, and one was positive for gastrin. Cells of a lipid-rich neuroendocrine tumor were negative for chromogranin; however, the tissue section contained neuron specific enolase, and neurosecretory granules were demonstrated by electron microscopy. PMID:1523921

al-Kaisi, N; Weaver, M G; Abdul-Karim, F W; Siegler, E

1992-01-01

54

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Metastatic tumors in the breast require treatment according to origin and type of tumor. It is important to recognize these lesions in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in order to avoid unnecessary mastectomy or non-relevant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytological features of metastatic tumors and possible criteria that could alert us as to the possibility of a metastasis from an extra mammary malignancy. Methods: The material included 36 confirmed or suspected metastases in the breast registered in the pathology files at Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, during 1990–2007. There were a total of 6,325 cases of malignant breast FNAC, representing 30 men and 6,295 women. Smears were evaluated for the amount of material, presence or absence of myoepithelial cells, microcalcifications, mitoses and necrotic material. All carcinomas were graded. Results: There were seven men (7/30 = 23.3%) and 29 women (29/6,295 = 0.46%). The primary tumor was known in 22 cases (22/36 = 61.1%). No other primary tumor was known and metastatic lesion was not initially suspected in 14 cases (14/36 = 38.9%). The most common origin was lung (15/36 = 41.7%). In five cases (5/36 = 13.9%), the origin remained uncertain. Conclusions: Metastases from extra mammary sites are (relatively) common in males (23.3%). In women, metastatic lesions are rare (0.46%). A large proportion of them (88%) are high-grade adenocarcinomas and poorly differentiated carcinomas that may resemble grade 3 ductal carcinomas. Unusual clinical and/or radiological presentation in combination with high-grade malignant cells should alert us to consider the possibility of a metastasis. PMID:20806071

Sauer, Torill

2010-01-01

55

Aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes of normal breast epithelium  

SciTech Connect

From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue.

Bondeson, L.

1987-05-01

56

Fine-needle aspiration cytology: its origin, development, and present status with special reference to a developing country, India.  

PubMed

Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed on a large scale at Memorial Hospital, New York, during the 1930s, but during the ensuing years, it did not gain much encouragement in United States. The technique had a resurgence in Scandinavia during the 1950s and 1960s, where it flourished before spreading to other parts of the world. It had also a revival in the United States, which contributed enormously to this tool in each and every aspect. The status of FNA during 1966-2002 was assessed through review of MEDLINE search data on FNA and its correlation with World Bank website data on classification of countries. A total of 849 journals published 5,609 articles on FNA over a period of 37 years. Both the number of publishing journals and the number of published articles on FNA were low during the 1960s (3.5 +/- 0.58 and 4.0 +/- 0.82, respectively) and 1970s (20.3 +/- 14.72 and 25.0 +/- 20.54, respectively), but their number increased sharply from the 1980s onward (78.2 +/- 25.65 and 147.2 +/- 66.89, respectively, during the 1980s, 126.2 +/- 11.94 and 301.4 +/- 35.99, respectively, during the 1990s, and 113.3 +/- 36.46 and 287.3 +/- 85.93, respectively, during the 2000s). The difference between the decades of 1960s-2000s, with respect to the number of publishing journals and published articles, was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Only 90 (10.6%) of the journals were from the arena of pathology and its branches. The remaining journals belonged to various other disciplines of medicine; a small fraction were even from the veterinary sciences. Ten journals, including three in the field of cytopathology, published 2,448 (43.6%) of the total articles on FNA. During 1987-2002, 46 (29.7%) of the 155 developing nations published articles on FNA, whereas 28 (52.8%) of the developed (high-income economies) countries did so, the difference being highly significant (P = 0.0044). The total number of publications from high-income economies was 3,124 (195.3 per year), as opposed to 772 (48.3 per year) from the developing world. The number of articles published from the developing nations (16.8 +/- 52.21) was significantly lower as compared with that from the high-income economies (111.6 +/- 242.03) (P = 0.005). Except for infectious diseases, the high-income economies had a definite edge over the developing nations in the absolute number of publications from each and every site/organ. However, when the frequency of publications on various organs/sites was compared between the two groups, it was found that the number of articles from high-income economies was significantly higher with respect to breast diseases (P < 0.001) and pancreatic lesions (P = 0.0158), whereas the developing nations published more frequently on small round cell tumors (excluding exclusive reports on lymphoma) and infectious diseases (P < 0.001). In India, FNAC was first introduced during the early 1970s and spread to different parts through formal teaching under the postgraduate curriculum in pathology and by conducting workshops and continuing medical education program for pathologists, surgeons/physicians, and radiologists. FNAC is now practiced in all medical colleges, in big public sector hospitals, and even in private clinics and laboratories. The number of centers practicing FNAC increased sharply during 1980s, as evident from the response of 69 laboratories in various parts of India to a questionnaire. As of 1998, 55.9% of the laboratories performed >/=1,000 cases of FNA per year. In 46% of the centers, pathologists alone performed the FNAC, whereas in 51%, they performed it in collaboration with radiologists and surgeons. Disposable syringes and needles were used in all the centers, but syringe holders were used in only in 61% of centers. In 86% of laboratories, two or more routine stains were used, and one or more ancillary techniques on fine-needle aspirates were adopted in 72.5% centers. Of the 772 publications from the developing world during 1987-2002, India alone contributed to 374 (48.4%). During 1975-2002, 154 articles on FNA wer

Das, Dilip K

2003-06-01

57

Percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology of the pancreas: advantages and pitfalls.  

PubMed Central

Fine needle aspiration of the pancreas was performed in 62 patients with radiological suspicion of malignancy. All fine needle aspirates were taken under computed tomography or ultrasound guidance. Fine needle aspirates were positive in 31 of 41 patients with histologically or clinically confirmed pancreatic carcinoma. There were no false positive results. The sensitivity of this method for detecting malignant disease was 86%. Cytology was not able to provide conclusive results of benign conditions. Difficulties were encountered in diagnosing well differentiated carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours and distinguishing them from reactive epithelium and islet cell hyperplasia, respectively. This resulted in a 12.1% false negative rate. There were no complications in our series. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration proved a reliable method of diagnosing pancreatic carcinoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2541174

Kocjan, G; Rode, J; Lees, W R

1989-01-01

58

Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the tonsil diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

A case of tonsillar extramedullary plasmacytoma in a 53-year-old man with a complaint of lump sensation in the throat is presented. Examination of the oral cavity showed enlargement of the left tonsil. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a solid mass, measuring 3.2 x 2.0 x 3.8 cm, in the left tonsil. Cytologic smear obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy appeared highly cellular and was composed of clusters of plasma cells with varying maturity. Atypical plasma cells had prominent eccentric nuclei with nucleoli and finely granular cytoplasm. Binucleated cells and mitotic figures were also identified. The cytoplasm of mature-looking small plasma cells was also finely granular without a perinuclear halo. A cytologic diagnosis of plasmacytoma was made. Excisional biopsy showed sheets of plasmacytoid cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. Occasional binucleated and pleomorphic cells with giant nuclei and prominent nucleoli were observed. These plasmacytoid cells were diffusely immunoreactive for lambda light chain and IgG, partially positive for epithelial membrane antigen. Metastatic examination finding was negative for multiple myeloma, and the patient was diagnosed as having extramedullary plasmacytoma. Although the diagnosis of plasmacytoma on cytologic smear may be difficult, in the current case, fine-needle aspiration cytology provided a rapid and accurate diagnosis. PMID:18164414

Sakai, Yu; Ikeya, Jun; Morita, Ichiro; Sato, Kimiya

2008-02-01

59

Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pleomorphic Carcinomas of the Lung  

PubMed Central

Background Pleomorphic carcinoma (PC) is a rare pulmonary malignancy. Because of its rarity and histological heterogeneity, cytopathologists might suspect PC only rarely on the basis of its cytological specimen. In addition, cytological findings from fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens have rarely been described. Hence, we investigated the cytological features of FNA in the cases of PC. Methods We reviewed 7 FNA specimens of PC. The patients had undergone surgical resection at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital between 2007 and 2011. The cytological features of PC were assessed and compared with the histopathological features of the corresponding surgical specimen. Immunocytochemical analysis with cytokeratin and vimentin was performed on the cell blocks. Results The tumor cells were either dispersed or arranged in loose aggregates, and generally lacked any glandular or squamous differentiation. Pleomorphic or spindle shape tumor cells were observed, and mono-, bi-, or multi-nucleated giant cells were frequently observed. The background showed necrosis and contained numerous lymphocytes and neutrophils. Immunocytochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin and vimentin. Conclusions PC displays characteristic cytological features. It might therefore be possible to make an accurate diagnosis of PC by assessing the degree of nuclear atypia. PMID:23323109

Choi, Hee Seung; Heo, Il Yeong; Jung, Chang Won; Cho, Soo Youn; Park, Sunhoo; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook

2012-01-01

60

Cytology in nipple aspirate fluid during a randomized soy food intervention among premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Because soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the presence of epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF). In a randomized, crossover design, 82 premenopausal women completed a high-soy and a low-soy diet for 6 months each, separated by a 1-month washout period. They provided NAF samples at baseline, 6 months, and 13 months during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Papanicolaou-stained cytology slides (for 33 women at baseline, 24 at low-soy, and 36 at high-soy) were evaluated in women with sufficient NAF. Mixed models evaluated the effect of the high-soy diet on epithelial cytology as compared to baseline and the low-soy diet. At the end of the high-soy diet, cytological class had decreased in 8 (24%) and increased in 3 (9%) women as compared to baseline, whereas the respective values were 3 (14%) and 6 (29%) for the low-soy diet samples (p=0.32). Only the change in subclass indicated a trend in lower cytological class (p=0.06). Contrary to an earlier report, the number of NAF samples with hyperplastic epithelial cells did not increase after a soy intervention in amounts consumed by Asians. PMID:24127645

Maskarinec, Gertraud; Suzuki, Shana; Pagano, Ian S.; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A.; Ehya, Hormoz

2013-01-01

61

Diagnostic dilemma of parotid lipomas: imaging versus fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Lipomas are common soft tissue neoplasms; however, they are found rarely in the parotid gland region. The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic challenges of this rare condition. We performed a retrospective analysis of 11 patients with parotid lipomas, treated from November 2009 to February 2014. The mean age at diagnosis was 46.6±2.9 years, and the study population included 8 males and 3 females. Computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in radiological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed in all cases (including two times in five patients, for a total of 16 biopsies) and results were diagnostic in four instances. Specificities of the CT, MRI, and FNA cytology tests were 100%, 100%, and 25% respectively. CT and/or MRI scans were more reliable than FNA cytologies for accurate diagnosis of parotid lipomas. PMID:25428679

Arslan, Ilker Burak; Uluyol, Sinan; Genc, Selahattin; Eruyar, Tugrul; Bulgurcu, Suphi; Cukurova, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

62

Fine needle aspiration cytology and cell block in the diagnosis of seminoma testis  

PubMed Central

Testicular neoplasms which show a wide variety of morphologic types, comprise a small proportion of malignancies. Early identification and treatment is essential for achieving long term survival. The cytologic findings in fine needle aspiration smears from left testicular swelling of a 49 year old male suggestive of a germ cell tumor was complimented by cell block preparation as seminoma. This was confirmed by histopathologic studies. We are presenting this case to emphasize that cell block can be used for diagnosis of testicular tumors. PMID:21552408

Pandey, Abhishant; Nandini, NM; Jha, AK; Manjunath, GV

2011-01-01

63

CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma  

PubMed Central

Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, accounting for <0.1% of the hypertensive population. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (EAPs) are rarer still, accounting for 10% of all pheochromocytomas. Pheochromocytomas are functional catecholamine-secreting tumors of the paraganglionic chromaffin cells found in the adrenal medulla and the extra-adrenal paraganglia cells. EAPs are readily detected by computed tomography (CT) as soft tissue masses closely associated with the entire length of the abdominal aorta. Here, we present a rare case of EAP in a 45-year-old male hypertensive patient diagnosed by CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology. The smears showed loosely cohesive tumor cells with prominent anisokaryosis and abundant eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm. The diagnosis was later confirmed by histopathology. The present case also highlights the fact that fine needle aspiration of pheochromocytoma is not necessarily contraindicated. PMID:21042531

Rangaswamy, M; Kumar, Sandeep P; Asha, M; Manjunath, GV

2010-01-01

64

Correlation of mean nuclear area with estrogen receptor content in aspiration cytology of breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Thin needle aspirates of 42 consecutive breast carcinomas were obtained at the time of excisional biopsy. Nuclear diameters of 100 cells from each case were measured, and the nuclear areas were calculated. The concomitantly acquired histologic sections were reviewed and assigned a histologic grade according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project protocol no. 4. Estrogen receptor (ER) content was analyzed by both the DCCA and SDGA techniques. The ER content of each case was then compared to both the mean nuclear area of the cells on the cytologic smears and the histologic grade. All 16 cases with mean nuclear areas of less than 60 sq micrometer contained significant levels of ER (greater than 10 fmol/mg protein), as did 6 of 11 cases with nuclei between 60 and 90 sq micrometer. Only 5 of 15 cases with nuclei larger than 90 sq micrometer contained significant ER levels. Comparison of the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of both techniques suggests that a quantitative assessment of nuclear area in cytologic thin needle aspirates correlates more closely with ER content than does histologic grading. PMID:6957091

Mossler, J A; McCarty, K S; Woodard, B H; Mitchener, L M; Johnston, W W

1982-01-01

65

Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

2014-08-01

66

Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the kidney: a diagnostic dilemma in fine-needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Epithelioid angiosarcomas (EAS) of kidney are rare and aggressive tumors with noncharacteristic imaging features that overlap with those of inflammatory conditions and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We report the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology findings of a case of EAS that involved the left kidney of an 83-year-old male. The smears and cell block sections showed pleomorphic epithelioid cells with ample cytoplasm, eccentric nuclei, occasional cytoplasmic hyaline globules, and rare intracytoplasmic lumina. Immunohistochemical stains performed on cellblock sections showed that the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, CD31, CD34, Factor VIII, and CD10, but showed no staining for cytokeratins AE1/AE3 and 8/18, HMB45, CD45, smooth muscle actin, and S100. The morphological and immunohistochemical distinction between EAS, primary tumors of the kidney, and other epithelioid and rhabdoid neoplasms is discussed. PMID:21698784

Singh, Charanjeet; Xie, Linjun; Schmechel, Stephen C; Manivel, J Carlos; Pambuccian, Stefan E

2012-08-01

67

Huge pelvic parachordoma: fine needle aspiration cytology and histological differential diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Parachordoma is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor of unknown lineage. Parachordoma develops most often on the extremities. Only 2 cases have been reported as pelvic parachordoma. A 46-year old Egyptian woman with a huge painful pelvic mass was found to have a parachordoma with ectopic pelvic right kidney. There is only one report in the literature of fine needle aspiration cytology in this setting. The microscopic picture of parachordoma is not new to pathologists but the gross picture of this rare tumor has not previously been published; not even in the World Health Organization classification of soft tissues tumors. Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient is in good clinical condition without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 84 months of follow up. PMID:23372917

Samaka, Rehab M.; Kandil, Mona A.

2012-01-01

68

Primary Subcutaneous Inguinal Hydatid Cyst: Diagnosis by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

2014-01-01

69

Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Carcinoma Mimic H?rthle Cell Thyroid Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Background. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can cause misdiagnosis of cytomorphological findings between parathyroid and thyroid lesions. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old man presented with a palpable neck mass on the right thyroid lobe. FNA cytology was reported as intrathyroidal lymphoid hyperplasia. After 5 years, repeated FNA was done on the enlarged nodule with result of Hürthle cell lesion. Prior to right lobectomy, laboratories revealed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Careful history taking revealed chronic knee pain and ossifying fibroma at the maxilla. Ultrasonography showed a 2.8?cm mass inferior to right thyroid lobe. Pathology from en bloc resection was parathyroid carcinoma and immunohistochemical study revealed positivity for PTH. Genetic analysis found somatic mutation of CDC73 gene in exon1 (c.70delG) which caused premature stop codon in amino acid 26 (p.Glu24Lysfs*2). The final diagnosis was hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Conclusions. FNA cytology of parathyroid can mimic thyroid lesion. It is important to consider and correlate the entire information from clinical history, laboratory, imaging, and FNA. PMID:25177504

Sornmayura, Pattana; Chanplakorn, Niramol; Trachoo, Objoon; Sae-Chew, Pattarana; Aroonroch, Rangsima

2014-01-01

70

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and liquid-based thin-layer cytology  

PubMed Central

Background Optimal management of patients with lung cancer requires accurate cell typing of tumours and staging at the time of diagnosis. Endobronchial ultrasound?guided lymph node aspiration as a method of diagnosing and staging lung cancer is a relatively new technique. Aim To report the use of liquid?based?thin?layer cytology for the processing and reporting of these specimens. Methods The specimens obtained from 80 patients were processed using the ThinPrep system, with the remainder of the samples being processed as a cell block. Results 40 of the 81 procedures yielded malignant cells (30 non?small cell carcinoma, 8 small?cell carcinoma and 2 combined small?cell carcinoma/non?small?cell carcinoma). The cell blocks were found to contain sufficient material to allow the immunohistochemical characterisation of tumour cells with a range of antibodies. Conclusion The use of liquid?based?thin?layer cytological techniques provides high?quality specimens for diagnostic purposes. When used in conjunction with cell blocks, sufficient material may be obtained to allow immunohistochemical studies to confirm the tumour cell type. Given the current move towards centralisation of pathology services, this approach gives the pathologist high?quality specimens without the need for direct onsite support at the time of the procedure. PMID:16816170

Wallace, W A H; Monaghan, H M; Salter, D M; Gibbons, M A; Skwarski, K M

2007-01-01

71

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of Merkel cell carcinoma-A review of 69 cases.  

PubMed

This study reviewed the clinical presentation, cytologic findings, and the immunophenotype of 69 Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cases sampled by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). ?Demographic and clinical data, the cytology findings, and results of ancillary testing were reviewed. ?Median patient age was 78 years (37-104) with a 1:1.8 female to male ratio. The most common FNA sites sampled included lymph nodes in the neck, the axillary region, the inguinal region and the parotid gland. Most patients had a history of MCC (68%) and/or non-MCC malignancy (70%). ?The common cytologic pattern was a cellular smear with malignant cells arranged in a dispersed pattern with variable numbers of disorganized groups of cells. Cytoplasm was scant or absent and nuclei showed mild to moderate anisokaryosis, stippled chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and nuclear molding. Numerous apoptotic bodies were often present. ?Cell block samples (28 cases) were usually positive for cytokeratins in a perinuclear dot pattern, including 88% of cases with CK20 positivity. CD56 was the most sensitive (95%) neuroendocrine marker on cell blocks and was also positive with flow cytometry in nine cases tested. ?MCC is most commonly seen in FNA specimens from the head and neck of elderly patients, often with a history of previous skin lesions. Occasional cases present in younger patients and some may be mistaken for other round blue cell tumors, such as lymphoma. CD 56 may be a useful marker in cell block preparations and in flow cytometric analysis of MCC. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:924-928. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24678011

Shield, Paul W; Crous, Heinrich

2014-11-01

72

Cytological diagnosis of epidermal inclusion cyst of breast: A rare benign lesion  

PubMed Central

Epidermal inclusion cyst (EIC) is a benign lesion, which occurs due to proliferation and implantation of epidermal elements within a circumscribed space in dermis. They usually occur in the head and neck region, trunk and extremities. EIC occurring in the breast is very rare. In this study, we are presenting a rare case of EIC occurring in the breast; which was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Later on, histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. We are presenting this case not only because of its rare site of presentation, but also to highlight the role of FNAC in diagnosing this benign lesion. PMID:25097436

Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Sinha, Rajani

2014-01-01

73

Cytological diagnosis of epidermal inclusion cyst of breast: A rare benign lesion.  

PubMed

Epidermal inclusion cyst (EIC) is a benign lesion, which occurs due to proliferation and implantation of epidermal elements within a circumscribed space in dermis. They usually occur in the head and neck region, trunk and extremities. EIC occurring in the breast is very rare. In this study, we are presenting a rare case of EIC occurring in the breast; which was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Later on, histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. We are presenting this case not only because of its rare site of presentation, but also to highlight the role of FNAC in diagnosing this benign lesion. PMID:25097436

Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Sinha, Rajani

2014-07-01

74

Metachronous soft-tissue masses in children and young adults with cancer: correlation of histology and aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

We describe a series of 28 fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of soft tissue from 22 patients. Four patients had two separate FNABs, and one had three aspiration procedures. The patient population was limited to children and young adults (age range, 2 months to 29 years; mean, 16 years) who were known to have diverse forms of cancer, and who subsequently developed a mass in the peripheral soft tissues (including breast). The interval between the time of diagnosis of the primary malignant neoplasm and FNAB ranged from 1 day to 17 years (mean, 39 months). All FNAB diagnoses were confirmed by subsequent surgical open biopsy or clinical follow-up greater than 1 year. No complications occurred from the procedure. The cytomorphology is presented in selected cases and correlated with the patient's original tissue histopathology. Twenty aspirates were diagnosed as cytologically malignant, one as suspicious for malignancy. Seven were considered benign. None were unsatisfactory. One false-positive and no false-negative cytologic diagnoses were obtained. The overall accuracy of FNAB diagnoses was 96%, while sensitivity was 100% and specificity 88%. Sites of aspiration included soft tissues of the head and neck (seven cases), trunk (eight cases), breast (four cases), and extremities (nine cases). Malignant cytologic diagnoses included sarcoma (thirteen), seminoma (two), lymphoma/leukemia (two), melanoma (one), undifferentiated neoplasm (one), and neuroblastoma (one). Electron microscopy of aspirated cells was used to confirm the diagnosis in two cases. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of soft tissue masses from children and young adults with cancer demonstrates a high diagnostic accuracy, and its use is justified in this population. PMID:2190911

Wakely, P E; Powers, C N; Frable, W J

1990-06-01

75

Pulmonary hamartoma: Cytological study of a case and literature review.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common but rare benign tumor-like lesions of the lung arising from the embryonic rest. They are more common in males and in aged. Majority are asymptomatic and seen as coin lesions with popcorn calcification in the chest radiograph. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps to diagnose and distinguish them from the cancerous lesions of the lung. The cytological material is characterized by fibromyxoid stroma, cartilage, bronchial cells, adipose tissue and bone. Bronchial cells with reactive atypia may be a source of false-positive result. Symptomatic cases need surgical intervention such as enucleation or segmental resection. We report a case of a 74-year-old male who had a lung mass that did not progress over 4-year on chest radiograph. The CT-guided FNAC smears showed benign bronchial epithelial cells, fibro-myxoid spindle cell stroma and fat spaces that aided the diagnosis of pulmonary hamartoma avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:23326033

Umashankar, T; Devadas, Acharya K; Ravichandra, G; Yaranal, Parasappa J

2012-10-01

76

Pulmonary hamartoma: Cytological study of a case and literature review  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common but rare benign tumor-like lesions of the lung arising from the embryonic rest. They are more common in males and in aged. Majority are asymptomatic and seen as coin lesions with popcorn calcification in the chest radiograph. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps to diagnose and distinguish them from the cancerous lesions of the lung. The cytological material is characterized by fibromyxoid stroma, cartilage, bronchial cells, adipose tissue and bone. Bronchial cells with reactive atypia may be a source of false-positive result. Symptomatic cases need surgical intervention such as enucleation or segmental resection. We report a case of a 74-year-old male who had a lung mass that did not progress over 4-year on chest radiograph. The CT-guided FNAC smears showed benign bronchial epithelial cells, fibro-myxoid spindle cell stroma and fat spaces that aided the diagnosis of pulmonary hamartoma avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:23326033

Umashankar, T; Devadas, Acharya K; Ravichandra, G; Yaranal, Parasappa J

2012-01-01

77

A case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma: aspiration cytology findings.  

PubMed

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma that exhibits a more aggressive clinical course and poorer prognosis than the typical diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this study, we report the case of a 67-year-old man with left cervical lymph node swelling. Aspiration cytology revealed many clusters of cohesive, large, and solitary cells. The tumor cells had abundant cytoplasm and large round-to-oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli. The Giemsa staining specimens exhibited amorphous global bodies adjacent to some clusters. Histologically, large tumor cells occupied the lymph nodes in a sinusoidal pattern, and immunohistochemically, these cells were cytokeratin-, CD19(-), CD20(-), CD79a(-), CD3(-), CD30(-), CD138(+), IgG(-), IgA(+), and ALK(+). Chromogenic in situ hybridization revealed restricted immunoglobulin light-chain expression. Fluorescent in situ hybridization demonstrated translocation of the ALK gene. The tumor cells were negative for Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8. It is important to differentiate ALK+LBCL from metastatic carcinoma and other lymphoma subtypes with similar histological features to ensure a proper treatment strategy and prediction of prognosis. PMID:23457005

Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Oku, Kazuko; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanamoto, Atsushi; Ito, Mahito; Hashimoto, Koji

2014-01-01

78

Inconclusive or erroneous fine-needle aspirates of breast with adequate and representative material: a cytologic/histologic study.  

PubMed

Adequately cellular and representative fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of breast have a high diagnostic accuracy. There is, however, a recognized category designated as "gray zone" where a definitive diagnosis cannot be reached. We reviewed our experience in this category to identify useful diagnostic parameters. Twenty-four such FNAs with surgical follow-up were retrieved from AUBMC files (2003-2009). Cytology slides were reviewed blindly. All cases were females, 29-73 years. There were three erroneous and 21 inconclusive diagnoses. The majority (15) was invasive adenocarcinomas: two cribriform, four tubular, one lobular, and eight not otherwise specified. The remaining cases were papillary and fibroepithelial tumors (three each), ductal carcinoma in situ, cribriform (two), and one adenomyoepithelioma (AME). Useful diagnostic features included: (1) Biphasic cell population with focal nuclear atypia and intranuclear and cytoplasmic vacuolar inclusions (AME). (2) Complex clusters of epithelial cells with cribriform architecture (cribriform carcinoma). (3) Rigid tubular epithelial structures with abrupt change in diameter, ending in pointed tips with abnormal branching (tubular carcinoma). (4) Cellular stromal fragments (fibroepithelial tumors). (5) Papillary fibrovascular cores, columnar cells, and three-dimensional papillary epithelial fragments (papillary tumors). Myoepithelial cells classically described in benign aspirates were not always a discriminatory factor. The "gray zone" in breast FNA is usually due to overlapping cytologic features of some benign and malignant lesions. Useful distinguishing cytologic features are described. PMID:24167007

Shabb, Nina S; Boulos, Fouad I; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Abbas, Jaber; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W

2014-05-01

79

Foregut duplication of the stomach diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst.In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment. PMID:23374143

Napolitano, Vincenzo; Pezzullo, Angelo M; Zeppa, Pio; Schettino, Pietro; D'Armiento, Maria; Palazzo, Antonietta; Della Pietra, Cristina; Napolitano, Salvatore; Conzo, Giovanni

2013-01-01

80

Is fine needle aspiration cytology a useful diagnostic tool for granular cell tumors? A cytohistological review with emphasis on pitfalls  

PubMed Central

Background: Granular cell tumors (GCT) formerly known as Abrikossoff tumor or granular cell myoblastoma, are rare neoplasms encountered in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) service. Named because of their highly granular cytoplasm which is invariably positive for the S-100 antibody, the classic GCT is thought to be of neural origin. The cytomorphological features range from highly cellular to scanty cellular smears with dispersed polygonal tumor cells. The cells have abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, eccentric round to oval vesicular nuclei with small inconspicuous nucleoli. The fragility of the cells can result in many stripped nuclei in a granular background. The differential diagnosis occasionally can range from a benign or reactive process to features that are suspicious for malignancy. Some of the concerning cytologic features include necrosis, mitoses and nuclear pleomorphism. Methods: We identified 6 cases of suspected GCT on cytology within the last 10 years and compared them to their final histologic diagnoses. Results: Four had histologic correlation of GCT including one case that was suspicious for GCT on cytology and called atypical with features concerning for a malignant neoplasm. Of the other two cases where GCT was suspected, one showed breast tissue with fibrocystic changes, and the other was a Hurthle cell adenoma of the thyroid. Conclusions: These results imply that FNA has utility in the diagnosis of GCT, and should be included in the differential diagnoses when cells with abundant granular cytoplasm are seen on cytology. Careful attention to cytologic atypia, signs of reactive changes, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical correlation are helpful in arriving at a definite diagnosis on FNA cytology. PMID:25379050

Koshy, Jason; Schnadig, Vicki; Nawgiri, Ranjana

2014-01-01

81

Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Cytological Indicators of Diagnostic Value  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important investigation in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid (FVPTC) is a well defined entity in histopathology, but its diagnosis in FNAC is usually missed and is challenging compared to classic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Aims: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively analyze cytological features in histologically confirmed cases of FVPTC, compare them with literature and document the features that could increase the sensitivity of FNAC diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cytological smears from 22 histologically confirmed cases of FVPTC were evaluated for microscopic pattern and nuclear features by two independent pathologists and results compared with previous studies. Statistical analysis was done based on bivariate Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Among 22 cases 21 were female and one male with age range 21 – 50 years. All patients had a solitary nodule except one with multicentric presentation. Preoperative cytological diagnosis were, classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); 7, FVPTC; 3, suspicious for PTC; 4, follicular neoplasm; 5 and adenomatous goiter;3. Diagnosis upon cytological review were, FVPTC; 11, classic PTC; 7 , suspicious for PTC; 2, follicular adenoma;1 and adenomatous goiter; 1. Conclusion: We conclude that cellular smears with features as observed in our case like microfollicular pattern, syncytial clusters, fine powdery chromatin, anisonucleosis and nucleomegaly should alert the pathologist to look carefully for other more specific features like nuclear grooves and nuclear pseudoinclusions. This approach will help in avoiding misdiagnosis of FVPTC and would aid in choosing the right treatment modality. PMID:24783078

D, Manimaran; T M, Karthikeyan; Khan, Dost Mohamed; Raman R, Thulasi

2014-01-01

82

Breast Cancer Risk in Women With Abnormal Cytology in Nipple Aspirates of Breast Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We previously showed that women with abnormal cytology in breast fluid obtained by nipple aspira- tion had an increased relative risk (RR) of breast cancer compared with women from whom fluid was not obtained and with women whose fluid had normal cytology. This study extends the follow- up in the original study group (n = 4046)and presents the first

Margaret R. Wrensch; Nicholas L. Petrakis; Rei Miike; Eileen B. King; Karen Chew; John Neuhaus; M. Lee; Moore Rhys

2001-01-01

83

Liquid-based cytologic findings of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma in thyroid: A case report identified with fine-needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Preoperative cytologic diagnosis of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) presents a challenge to cytopathologists because this tumor rarely occurs as a primary thyroid malignant neoplasm. In this report, we provide the first description of liquid-based cytomorphologic findings of SEP observed on fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid. A 56-year-old woman with a history of Hashimoto thyroiditis presented with a growing nodule in the thyroid. The liquid-based preparation obtained from FNAB showed numerous dispersed plasmacytoid cells with occasional loosely cohesive aggregates of tumor cells. Cells were round to oval in shape, with eccentrically located nuclei. Hyalinized perinuclear vacuoles were found in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Initial cytological findings, including those of immunochemistry using a cell block preparation, were consistent with plasmacytoma. Histopathological examination subsequent to thyroidectomy revealed a plasmacytoma in the thyroid. Plasma cell neoplasms were not concurrently detected in tissues other than the thyroid. On the basis of preoperative FNAB findings, a specific diagnosis of SEP in the thyroid can be difficult because this tumor is rare. Moreover, diagnosis is impeded because SEP in the thyroid resembles other, more common thyroid lesions, including both benign and malignant neoplasms. Careful cytomorphologic examination and supportive studies may be required to fully confirm a diagnosis of SEP. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:964-969. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24623561

Lee, Chung Hun; Jung, Yoon Yang; Chung, Yul Ri; Ryu, Han Suk

2014-11-01

84

Metastatic breast cancer: mechanisms and opportunities for cytology.  

PubMed

Despite significant advances in diagnosis, surgical techniques, general patient care, and local and systemic adjuvant therapies, metastatic disease remains the most critical condition limiting the survival of patients with breast cancer. Therefore, the development of effective treatment against late-arising metastasis has become the centre of clinical attention and is one of the current challenges in cancer research. A deeper understanding of the metastatic cascade is fundamental, and the need for repetitive tumour assessments for the evaluation of tumour evolution is a relatively new practice in routine medical care. As such, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is ideally placed to monitor biological changes in metastasis that may affect treatment and response. As FNAC is a minimally invasive method, it can be performed repeatedly with relatively little trauma, and selective ancillary tests can be applied to FNAC specimens, including for tumour whose primary nature is known. Herein, we review how the linear and parallel models explain metastatic dissemination, thus influencing therapeutic and clinical decisions, and how cytology, together with immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis, can be a tool for routine clinical practice and clinical trials aimed at metastatic disease with a special emphasis on breast cancer. PMID:24889678

Martins, D; Beca, F; Schmitt, F

2014-08-01

85

Introduction and utility of liquid-based cytology on aspiration biopsy of peripheral nodular lesions of the lung  

PubMed Central

In the present study, aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) was used for the diagnosis of peripheral nodular lesions in the lung (PNLL), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) was carried out on the material collected to evaluate it in comparison with the conventional method (CM). The subjects comprised 130 cases that underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided ABC for PNLL. A total of 73 cases received a tumor resection, with a diagnosis based on the pathology, while 57 cases were followed up, as the tumor showed no change on the radiological examinations. Biopsy samples from these patients and lavage fluid from the aspiration needles were used for analysis. Cellular material was obtained by centrifugation of the lavage fluid, and samples were prepared by two methods, direct smearing and LBC according to the ThinPrep method. The samples were categorized into three diagnoses: i) Benign, ii) suspicion of malignancy and iii) malignant. Appropriate samples were collected in 72% of cases by LBC, but only in 36% of cases by the CM. There was no marked difference in cellular images between the two methods, with the exception of a few specific cases. LBC on its own provided sensitivity at 68%, specificity at 61% and accuracy at 65%, while a combination of LBC and biopsy markedly improved these figures to 94, 81 and 84%, respectively. The introduction of LBC is considered useful for the cytopathological diagnosis of PNLL by CT-guided ABC. LBC enables the examination of appropriate samples rich in cellular components and supports a biopsy-based diagnosis. A combination of these two methods provides even higher diagnostic accuracy, and LBC is considered an excellent method to evaluate these pathological samples. PMID:24520290

IMURA, JOHJI; ABE, KAORI; UCHIDA, YOSHIAKI; SHIBATA, MASAHARU; TSUNEMATSU, KAZUE; SATHOH, MOTOHIRO; MIWA, SHIGEHARU; NAKAJIMA, TAKAHIKO; NOMOTO, KAZUHIRO; HAYASHI, SHINICHI; TSUNEYAMA, KOICHI

2014-01-01

86

Introducing the reporting system for thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology according to the new guidelines of the Japan Thyroid Association.  

PubMed

The Japan Thyroid Association (JTA) recently published new guidelines for clinical management of thyroid nodules. This paper introduces their diagnostic system for reporting thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology. There are two points where the new reporting system that differs from existing internationally-accepted ones. The first is the subclassification of the so-called indeterminate category, which is divided into 'follicular neoplasm' and 'others'. The second is the subclassification of follicular neoplasm into 'favor benign', 'borderline' and 'favor malignant'. It is characterized by self-explanatory terminologies as to histological type and probability of malignancy to establish further risk stratification as well as to facilitate communication between clinicians and cytopathologists. The different treatment strategies adopted for thyroid nodules is deeply influenced by the particular diagnostic system used for thyroid cytology. In Western countries all patients with follicular neoplasms are advised to have immediate diagnostic surgery while patients in Japan often undergo further risk stratification without immediate surgery. The JTA diagnostic system of reporting thyroid cytology is designed for further risk stratification of patients with indeterminate cytology. If a surgeon applies diagnostic lobectomy to all patients with follicular neoplasm unselectively, this subclassification of follicular neoplasm has no practical meaning and is unnecessary. Cytological risk stratification of follicular neoplasms is optional and cytopathologists can choose either a simple 6-tier system without stratification of follicular neoplasm or a complicated 8-tier system depending on their experience in thyroid cytology and clinical management. PMID:24727657

Kakudo, Kennichi; Kameyama, Kaori; Miyauchi, Akira; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

2014-06-29

87

Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy processed by cytologic smear and cell block techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors: a study of 48 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) processed by smear cytology and cell block (CB) techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors (LGTs). Study Design: In a prospective study, we enrolled 48 consecutive patients with LGTs. Immediately after excision of LGTs, the tissues were underwent FNAB with 23-gauge needles. The FNAB samples were processed to produce cytologic smears and CB from which slides were cut for immunohistochemical staining. The remainders were submitted for routine histopathologic processing. The diagnostic value of FNAB was assessed by comparing the FNAB diagnoses to those made by routine histopathology. Results: Cytopathologic evaluations based on smear cytology and CB with sections stained immunohistochemically can distinguish non-epithelial lesions from epithelial ones in all cases. The diagnostic sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions were: cytologic smears--76%, 68%, and 71%, respectively; CB with immunohistochemical staining--88%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. The accuracy of the tissue diagnosis compared to routine histopathology was less for cytologic smears (58%) than for CB with immunohistochemistry (81%; P < 0.05). Conclusions: FNAB of LGT processed using a CB technique capable of producing immunohistochemically stained slides results in a greater percentage of accurate tissue diagnoses than do cytologic smears, when compared to routine histopathology. PMID:25120744

Wang, Xiangning; Qian, Jiang; Yuan, Yifei; Ping, Bo; Feng, Liqing; Bi, Yingwen; Li, Xiaping

2014-01-01

88

Hemophagocytosis on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology: Single Center Experience in North Himalayan Region of India  

PubMed Central

Background: The differentiation of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with other causes of hemophagocytosis is essential as HLH is life-threatening condition and requires definite clinical and biochemical criteria for its diagnosis. Aim: The present study was conducted to study hemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirates and to observe if there is any difference on bone marrow examination between HLH and non HLH cases showing hemophagocytosis. Materials and Methods: The study reviewed all the cases of bone marrow aspirate for evidence of hemophagocytosis in which at least three smears and 500 nucleated cells were observed for every case. The cases were provisionally diagnosed as HLH according to the proposed HLH diagnostic criteria, 2009. Results: A total of 80 cases showed hemophagocytosis in the present study with infections followed by HLH being the most common cause. Pancytopenia and erythroid hyperplasis were common hematological presentation. Moderate to severe hemophagocytosis was observed in HLH cases while mild grade in non HLH cases. Conclusion: The study concludes that hemophagocytosis even if observed in single cell should always be documented in the bone marrow reports. It may be the only indicator of subtle infection in the marrow. Pancytopenia and higher grade of hemophagocytosis on bone marrow examination may be helpful in establishing an early differentiation of HLH and non HLH cases. PMID:25328776

Chandra, H; Chandra, S; Kaushik, RM; Bhat, NK; Shrivastava, V

2014-01-01

89

Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as a pancreatic mass by computed tomography scan and mimicking a primary neuroendocrine tumor: a potential pitfall in aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant neoplasm, often presenting at late stage and portending a poor prognosis for the patient. The peripancreatic fat is a rare site of extrahepatic metastasis, and metastatic HCC can mimic primary pancreatic neoplasms, even in this location. It is crucial to be aware of this pitfall in the evaluation of aspiration cytology of pancreatic neoplasms and to develop a strategy to reach the correct diagnosis. We present an endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic HCC presenting as a pancreatic mass radiologically that had neuroendocrine features on various cytological and histological preparations. The metastatic lesions were located surgically in the peripancreatic adipose tissue with involvement of one peripancreatic lymph node. This case illustrates the utility of FNA for diagnosing uncommon presentations of HCC and the importance of clinical history, cell block, and an immunocytochemical panel in determining the origin of the tumor. PMID:19582809

Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Kim, Stacey A; Borcich, Anthony; Zhu, Hongfa; Wu, Maoxin; Szporn, Arnold H; Chen, Hua

2009-12-01

90

A Case of Adenomatous Goiter Involving Diffuse, Acute, and Painful Thyroid Enlargement after Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology  

PubMed Central

The patient was a 44-year-old woman who exhibited a diffuse goiter during health screening. Her medical history did not include any significant medication-based treatment. An echographic examination detected a solid cystic tumor, which measured 21 × 14 × 10?mm, in her right thyroid lobe; however, she displayed normal thyroid function. After fine-needle aspiration cytology had been performed with a 22?G injection needle, the patient immediately complained of compression and pain extending from the front of her neck to her lower chin, which was not accompanied by dyspnea. A second echographic examination revealed diffuse and edematous enlargement and increased internal blood flow in the bilateral thyroid lobes as well as a thyroid nodule. We immediately iced the patient's neck and administered 125?mg methylprednisolone via an intravenous infusion. Within one hour, her symptoms had markedly improved, but acute pain remained. Thus, we continued the steroid (prednisone) treatment, but the dose was gradually reduced from 10?mg/day to 5?mg/day at 1 week after the patient's symptoms disappeared. The mechanism responsible for the patient's condition remains unclear.

Ogata, Ryohei; Saito, Wataru; Ohta, Yusuke; Koike, Yoshikazu; Yamashita, Tetsumasa; Yamamoto, Yutaka

2014-01-01

91

Psammoma body and its precursors in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a study by fine-needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Psammoma bodies (PBs) form an important diagnostic criterion of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), but their mechanism of formation is not clear. Following our observation in a case of PTC that laminated hyaline globules may be the precursor form of PBs, the present study was undertaken to find out their relation to PBs in PTC cases. Fifty-four cases of PTC and 14 follicular neoplasms, diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, were studied by one of the investigators (DKD) to find out the PBs, irregular calcifications, hyaline globules, and other forms made of similar material. PBs along with irregular calcification were present in five PTC cases, PB alone was present in 1 case, and irregular calcification alone was present in 4 cases. Large hyaline globules (LHGs), small hyaline globules (SHGs), branching hyaline cylinders (BHCs), and irregular hyaline deposits (IHDs) were identified in 10, 14, 6, and 9 cases, respectively. One or more of these four forms were present altogether in 18 (33.3%) of PTC cases and none of the follicular neoplasms (P=0.0142). These forms were present in 80.0% of cases with PB/irregular calcifications as opposed to 22.7% in cases without them (P=0.0012). Our observations suggest that LHGs, SHGs, and BHCs are precursors of PBs and IHDs serve as a nidus for irregular calcification. PMID:15540187

Das, Dilip K; Mallik, Mrinmay K; Haji, Bahiyah E; Ahmed, Mahmoud S; Al-Shama'a, Mariam; Al-Ayadhy, Bushra; George, Sara S; Sathar, Sitara A; Junaid, Thamradeen A

2004-12-01

92

Putting an eye on cytological specimens: An audit of the clinical impact of thyroid fine-needle aspiration in different health care settings.  

PubMed

There is published evidence showing less cost-benefit approaches in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. We performed an institutional audit of the cytologic diagnosis of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in an attempt to perceive the clinical impact of this technique on the management of thyroid nodules and to compare it in two different types of health care: Primary Care Medicine and Endocrinology. We performed a retrospective analysis to the electronic records of patients referred from General Practitioners (GP) and Endocrinologists (E) for thyroid FNA between 2010 and 2012. Request forms for cytological reports where retrieved for analysis of clinical and cytological data. The database search retrieved 1655 patients (female gender: 88.2%; GP references: 51.8%). Preprocedure clinical information was available from 157 out of 2005 nodules (7.8%). Significant differences in cytological diagnosis were seen in "Nondiagnostic" (GP: 11.6%; E: 7.5%, ?(2) ?=?0.002) and "Benign" categories (GP: 75%; E: 81.8%, ?(2) ?cytological diagnostic results. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:1009-1012. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24678022

Pereira, Bernardo Dias; Gerhard, Renê; Schmitt, Fernando

2014-12-01

93

Evaluation of endoscopic cytological diagnosis of unresectable pancreatic cancer prior to and after the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration  

PubMed Central

With the advances in the multidisciplinary treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC) over the last few years, it is crucial to obtain a histopathological diagnosis prior to treatment. Histopathological diagnosis for unresectable PC is currently performed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in combination with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We retrospectively assessed the results of these two methods and investigated diagnostic performance according to the location of the lesion and the complications. This study was conducted on a series of 263 consecutive cases of unresectable PC diagnosed with endoscopic cytology. Up to 2006, ERCP-guided cytology (group A) was performed as the first choice for the diagnosis of PC. EUS-FNA was introduced in 2007 and became the first choice thereafter (group B), except in cases with obstructive jaundice, in which ERCP-guided cytology during endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) remains the first choice. There were statistically significant differences in the overall cancer-positive rate between groups A and B (60.4 vs. 75.3%, P=0.01). The cancer-positive rate in the pancreatic body and tail was significantly higher in group B (59.5 vs. 83.3%, P=0.005), whereas there were no significant differences regarding cancer of the pancreatic head. The complication rate was 4.95% in group A and 3.09% in group B (P=0.448). The endoscopic cytology cancer-positive rate in unresectable PC cases was increased as a result of the introduction of EUS-FNA. In conclusion, we recommend performing EUS-FNA in combination with ERCP-guided cytology in cases with a lesion in the pancreatic head that requires EBS. PMID:24940503

USHIJIMA, TOMOYUKI; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; SUGIYAMA, GEN; SASAKI, YU; KURAOKA, KEI; YASUMOTO, MAKIKO; TAIRA, TOMOKI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; TSURUTA, OSAMU; SATA, MICHIO

2014-01-01

94

Diagnostic Efficacy of Cell Block Immunohistochemistry, Smear Cytology, and Liquid-Based Cytology in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Lesions: A Single-Institution Experience  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnostic efficiency of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology varies widely depending on the treatment method of the specimens. The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of cell block (CB) immunohistochemistry, smear cytology (SC), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in patients with pancreatic lesions without consulting an on-site cytopathologist. Methods This study prospectively enrolled 72 patients with pancreatic lesions. The EUS-FNA specimens were examined by SC, LBC, and CB immunohistochemistry. The diagnostic efficacy of the 3 methods was then compared. Patients’ final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical resection specimens, diagnostic imaging, and clinical follow-up. Results Our results included 60 malignant and 12 benign pancreatic lesions. The diagnostic sensitivity (90%), negative predictive value (66.7%), and accuracy (91.7%) of CB immunohistochemistry were significantly higher than those of SC (70.0%, 30.0%, and 75.0%, respectively) and LBC (73.3%, 31.6%, and 77.8%, respectively) (all P<0.05). The combination of CB and SC, or CB and LBC, did not significantly increase the efficacy compared to CB immunohistochemistry alone. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in the absence of an on-site cytopathologist, CB immunohistochemistry on EUS-FNA specimens offers a higher diagnostic efficacy in patients with pancreatic lesions than does SC and LBC. PMID:25259861

Qin, Shan-yu; Zhou, You; Li, Ping; Jiang, Hai-xing

2014-01-01

95

Role of FNAC in the Preoperative Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: The characteristic cytologic features of the common salivary gland lesions have been well-delineated in literature. However, there also exist cytologic pitfalls and overlapping features that make an accurate diagnosis difficult in few cases. The present study was designed to compare the cytologic findings of salivary gland lesions with the histologic diagnoses, in order to assess the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, with an emphasis on discordant cases. Materials and Methods: Patients with suspected salivary gland enlargements, who were referred for FNAC, were included in this study, which was done over a 3 year period in a medical college hospital. FNAC was performed by using the standard procedure. Smears were stained by using Papanicolaou’s and MGG stains. Cytologic diagnosis was compared with histopathologic diagnosis wherever it was available. Results: Eighty eight patients with salivary gland swellings were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 82 years, with the M:F ratio being 1.6:1. Out of 88 cases, 68 had swellings in parotid gland, 19 had them in submandibular gland and one had them in hard palate. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest neoplasm which was seen in our study. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the only malignant lesion seen in our study. One each of Warthin’s tumour (WT) and MEC were overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed respectively, the reason being squamous metaplasia in WT and subtle nature of malignant cells in low-grade MEC. Conclusion: WT and MEC can pose problems in cytologicdiagnosis. Sampling errors and interpretational errors can lead todiscordant diagnoses. PMID:25386436

D'souza, Clement R S; Khosla, Charu; George, Lovely; Katte, Namitha Hegde

2014-01-01

96

Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%), reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%), suppurative (n=16, 12.4%) lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%), and Hodgkin's lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%). Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of opportunistic infections, neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Comparison of lymph node lesions with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging, haematological alterations and AFB grading reflects immunity, stage of disease and disease activity aiding better treatment. PMID:24718407

Tirumalasetti, Neelima; Prema Latha, P.

2014-01-01

97

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of unusual germ cell tumors of the mediastinum: atypical seminoma and parietal yolk sac tumor.  

PubMed

A 30-yr-old man presented with a mediastinal germ cell tumor that combined the histologic pattern of seminoma with the immunohistochemical profile of embryonal carcinoma (beta-HCG+/PLAP-). In FNA smears, this atypical seminoma presented as fragile large cells with scanty cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, irregular and indistinct nucleoli, scattered singly and in loosely cohesive fragments without the characteristic lymphocytic or tigroid background. The cytologic features were more suggestive of a poorly differentiated carcinoma than seminoma, potentially leading to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. The second case was a 51-yr-old female smoker who presented with mediastinal parietal yolk sac tumor with extension to the lung, a rare occurrence, and contrary to the clinical impression of lung cancer with hilar lymph node metastasis. This case illustrates the value of using the unique cytologic features of parietal yolk sac tumor, i.e., the abundant, viscous, stringy metachromatic extracellular hyaline material associated with the tumor cells in reaching the accurate diagnosis. PMID:12203871

Yang, Grace C H; Hwang, Sonya J; Yee, Herman T

2002-08-01

98

Fine needle aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes in nonneoplastic breast lesions. Possible pitfalls in cytodiagnosis  

SciTech Connect

The range of radiation-induced changes in fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears of the breast is described. In 41 of more than 800 patients who underwent breast-conserving treatment, a palpable breast lesion developed, and FNA was performed. In six cases, a recurrent carcinoma was present. In the remaining cases, three patterns of nonneoplastic lesions could be discerned: epithelial atypia (14 cases), fat necrosis (10 cases) and poorly cellular smears without epithelial atypia or fat necrosis (13 cases). It is important to be familiar with the patterns of radiation-induced epithelial atypia, since such atypia may lead to a misdiagnosis of recurrent carcinoma. These atypical cells may show impressive anisocytosis and anisonucleosis; however, the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio remains normal and an admixture of bipolar cells is present. Cell dissociation and necrotic cell debris, as often seen in breast cancer smears, were never encountered in FNA smears from radiated nonneoplastic breasts.

Peterse, J.L.; Thunnissen, F.B.; van Heerde, P.

1989-03-01

99

Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Diagnosed as Anaplastic Carcinoma: Failure in Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology?  

PubMed Central

A case of primary squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid which had been initially diagnosed as an anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) is described: female, 73 years old, with a fast-growing cervical nodule on the left side and hoarseness for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed a 4.5?cm solid nodule. FNA was compatible with poorly differentiated carcinoma with immunoreactivity for AE1/AE3, EMA. Thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed a nonencapsulated tumor. Immunohistochemistry disclosed positivity for AE1/AE3, p53,p63, and Ki67. The diagnosis was ATC. A second opinion reported tumor consisting of squamous cells, with intense inflammatory infiltrate both in tumor and in the adjacent thyroid, with final diagnosis of SCC, associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. No other primary focus of SCC was found. Patient has shown a 48-month survival period. Clinically, primary SCCs of the thyroid and ATCs are similar. The distinction is often difficult particularly when based on the cytological analysis of FNA material. PMID:25295208

Domingues, Maria A. C.; Sobrinho-Simoes, Manuel; Castilho, Emanuel C.; Carelli, Guareide; Paes, Norberto S.; Mazeto, Glaucia M. F. S.

2014-01-01

100

Chromogenic in situ hybridization to detect EGFR gene copy number in cell blocks from fine-needle aspirates of non small cell lung carcinomas and lung metastases from colo-rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates to the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the presence of lung nodules, cytology is often the only possible diagnostic approach. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is an alternative technique to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but its feasibility in detecting EGFR GCN in cell blocks from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung nodules has not yet been established. Methods We evaluated the feasibility of CISH on 33 FNAC from 20 primary NSCLC (5 squamous carcinomas, 8 large cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas) and 13 lung metastases from CRC. Results Of the 33 FNAC analyzed by CISH, 27 (82%) presented a balanced increase in EGFR gene and chromosome 7 number: 10 cases (30%) showed a low polysomy, 15 (45%) a high polysomy and 2 (6%) NSCLC were amplified. No significant differences between NSCLC and CRC lung metastases were found in relation to disomic or polysomic status. In addition, no correlation between EGFR GCN and EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression was found. Furthermore, we compared CISH results with those obtained by FISH on the same samples and we found 97% overall agreement between the two assays (k = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Two cases were amplified with both assays, whereas 1 case of NSCLC was amplified by FISH only. CISH sensitivity was 67%, the specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. Conclusions Our study shows that CISH is a valid method to detect EGFR GCN in cell blocks from FNAC of primary NSCLC or metastatic CRC to the lung. PMID:20843314

2010-01-01

101

Cytologic features of pulmonary blastoma  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary blastomas are rare lung neoplasms constituting 0.5% of all lung tumors. This tumor has an aggressive course and needs to be recognized on cytology. A preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary blastoma is difficult to obtain by cytopathologic methods. A diagnosis of biphasic pulmonary blastoma should be considered when there is a dimorphic population of cells on cytology. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressing breathlessness and left-sided chest pain for the past one month. Chest radiograph and computed tomography of thorax revealed an anterior mediastinal mass that was subjected to ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Aspiration cytology showed a highly cellular lesion with a dimorphic population of tumor cells in a necrotic background. The possibility of a non-small cell carcinoma was suggested. Subsequent histopathology revealed the tumor to be a pulmonary blastoma. The importance of recognizing the dimorphic population of cells in cytology is discussed. PMID:21938157

Shalini, CN Sai; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Abraham, Georgi; Prathiba, D; Rajendiran, S

2009-01-01

102

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) with overlapping cytomorphological features with T-CLL and T-ALL: a case initially diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and immunocytochemistry.  

PubMed

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a very unusual form of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, which has rarely been diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. We report one such case with some overlapping cytomorphological features with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A 91-year-old man presented with generalized lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, ascites, and an ulcerated growth in rectum. FNA smears from the left cervical lymph node showed a monotonous population of small lymphoid cells having small but distinct nucleoli that was initially diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Smears from the left axillary lymph node contained both small and medium-sized lymphoid cells with frequent hand-mirror cell appearance, which has been described in acute lymphoblatic leukemia (ALL). Immunocyto/histochemical stainings on smears and cell block preparations of the aspirate showed the following immunophenotype: CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD8-, CD20-, CD23-, and Tdt-. Total peripheral blood leukocyte count was 26.4 × 10(9) /L and total lymphocyte count, 8.3 × 10(9) /L with predominance of small lymphocytes. T-cell nature of the neoplasm was confirmed by biopsies from the cervical lymph node (T-cell lymphoma), bone marrow (T-cell lymphoid neoplasm/chronic lymphocytic leukemia), and the ulcerated rectal lesion (atypical T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder). The patient developed deep vein thrombosis, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding from duodenal ulcer. By the time the reports of all the investigations were ready, the patient succumbed to bronchopneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this T-CLL/T-PLL which was diagnosed initially by FNA cytology with immunocytochemical support is first of its kind to be reported. PMID:21987484

Das, Dilip K; Pathan, Shahed K; Joneja, Munish; Al-Musawi, Fatma A; John, Bency; Mirza, Kamran R

2013-04-01

103

Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy for management of simple ovarian cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the procedure of aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy in the management of simple ovarian cysts. Methods: Twenty-five cases of simple ovarian cysts were subjected to cyst fluid aspiration and 5% tetracycline injection under ultrasound guidance. Cytological examination of the aspirated fluid was carried out in 24 cases and the patients were followed for 6–36 months. Results: Cytology revealed

S. AbdRabbo; A. Atta

1995-01-01

104

Efficiency of a Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound and Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology to Detect Patients with Extensive Axillary Lymph Node Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have demonstrated that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) does not affect patient survival, even in those with one or two positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). On the other hand, patients with 3 or more metastatic lymph nodes are eligible for chemotherapy. Therefore, it is crucial to identify a priori patients at risk of having a high number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes for their surgical and/or clinical management. Ultrasound (US) guided Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) has been proven to be a useful and highly specific method for detecting metastatic axillary lymph nodes. However, only one recent study has evaluated the efficiency of this method in identifying patients with high metastatic nodal involvement. Our aim was to validate US-guided FNA as a reliable method to discriminate a priori patients with >3 metastatic lymph nodes. Methods A retrospective series of 1287 breast cancer patients who underwent a simultaneous preoperative breast and axillary US to stage their axilla was collected. A total of 365 patients, with either positive SLNs (278) or positive axillary lymph nodes detected via US-guided FNA (87), underwent ALND. In these two subgroups, we compared the number of metastatic lymph nodes in the axilla. Results The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes in patients who underwent US-guided FNA was significantly higher (63% had >3 metastatic lymph nodes) than that in patients with SLNs positive for micro- or macrometastases (3% and 27%, respectively) (P<0.001, ?2?=?117.897). Conclusions Preoperative axillary US-guided FNA could act as a reliable tool in identifying breast cancer patients with extensive nodal involvement. PMID:25207643

Castellano, Isabella; Deambrogio, Cristina; Muscara, Francesca; Chiusa, Luigi; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Bussone, Riccardo; Gazzetta, Guglielmo; Macri, Luigia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

2014-01-01

105

Basics of cytology  

PubMed Central

This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material. PMID:23210005

Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.

2011-01-01

106

Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis diagnosed by conventional cytology and liquid based cytology  

PubMed Central

Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL; Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) is a rare benign disorder. The diagnosis of HNL is established on recognizing the characteristic histologic findings from biopsy of the enlarged lymph nodes. Though diagnosis of HNL by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was reported, the characteristic fine-needle aspiration cytologic features with conventional cytology and a liquid based cytology test (LCT) have not been well documented. In this study, 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes were subjected to cytology and biopsy diagnosis. The lymph nodes were aspirated using a 10 mL disposable syringe with the percutaneous ultrasound guided. Samples were used for conventional cytology and LCT. Among 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes, 37 of cases were histologically confirmed as HNL; 3 of cases were hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue; 1 case was tuberculosis of lymph node, and 1 case was classical Hodgkin lymphoma (nodular sclerosis type). 31 out of 37 (83.8%) cases of HNL were diagnosed by conventional cytology, 33 out of 37 (89.2%) were diagnosed by LCT. Our results indicate that no significant difference on accuracy rate between conventional cytology and LCT, but LCT has its advantages in the diagnosis of HNL.

Hong, Lianqing; Wang, Xinfang; Huang, Zihui; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Jiandong

2014-01-01

107

Fine-needle aspiration of granulocytic sarcomas: A morphologic and immunophenotypic study of seven cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulocytic sarcoma is an uncommon extramedullary, solid tumor of myeloid cells. Only rarely has this entity been diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. This report encompasses the cytologic findings of FNAs from seven patients with granulocytic sarcomas, including four male and three female patients with a mean age of 52 years (range, 12 to 77 years). The aspirates were obtained

Jianguo Tao; Maoxin Wu; Alexander Fuchs; Patricia Wasserman

2000-01-01

108

Imaging-Cytology Correlation of Thyroid Nodules with Initially Benign Cytology  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the role of imaging-cytology correlation in reducing false negative results of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) at thyroid nodules. Methods. This retrospective study included 667 nodules 1?cm or larger in 649 patients diagnosed as benign at initial cytologic evaluation and that underwent follow-up ultrasound (US) or FNA following a radiologist's opinion on concordance between imaging and cytologic results. We compared the risk of malignancy of nodules classified into subgroups according to the initial US features and imaging-cytology correlation. Results. Among included nodules, 11 nodules were proven to be malignant (1.6%) in follow-up FNA or surgery. The malignancy rate was higher in nodules with suspicious US features (11.4%) than in nodules without suspicious US features (0.5%, P < 0.001). When a thyroid nodule had discordant US findings on image review after having benign FNA results, malignancy rate increased to 23.3%, significantly higher than that of nodules with suspicious US features (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in the risk of malignancy between the nodules without suspicious US features (0.5%) and imaging-cytology concordant nodules (0.6%, P = 0.438). Conclusions. Repeat FNA can be effectively limited to patients with cytologically benign thyroid nodules showing discordance in imaging-cytology correlation after initial biopsy, which reduces unnecessary repeat aspirations. PMID:25374600

Sung, Ji Min; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung

2014-01-01

109

Multicentric Aggressive Mammary Fibromatosis with Cytological Features and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Fibromatosis is a fibroblastic lesion composed of uniform fibroblasts and collagen with an infiltrative growth pattern but lacking malignant cytological features. It is a rare entity and is even more unusual when found in the breast. Multicentricity in fibromatosis has been reported in 10% cases. Multicentricity in breast cancer has been defined as the presence of two or more tumor foci within different quadrants of the same breast. Considering this definition of multicentricity for fibromatosis, we herein report a case of recurrent multicentric aggressive mammary fibromatosis and its cytological features with review of literature because of limited literature of (FNAC) in mammary fibromatosis. PMID:24995189

Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Gupta, Nilakshi; Pant, Prabhat; Thapliyal, Naveen Chandra

2014-01-01

110

The Aspir-Gun: When to Draw  

PubMed Central

Aspiration biopsy cytology or fine needle aspiration is a well-established, safe, highly reliable, inexpensive diagnostic procedure which must be distinguished from the more familiar `needle biopsy'. The Aspir-Gun, a plastic syringe `pistol', makes the technique simple enough for use in a solo practitioner's office. Since it is cheaper to send slides to referral centres than patients, it has a special screening value for doctors in isolated areas. Indications are discussed, with emphasis on those anatomic sites and palpable masses, which have practical application for the primary care physician. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21283378

Mack, Gordon; Morrow, Des

1983-01-01

111

Aspiration pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

Pneumonia is a breathing condition in which there is swelling or an infection of the lungs or large airways. Aspiration pneumonia occurs when food, saliva, liquids, or vomit is breathed into the lungs or airways leading to the lungs.

112

CT-guided FNAC of intrathoracic mass lesions--a study among 35 patients.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of CT-guided FNAC among 35 patients with intrathoracic mass lesions. It was done using 19 gauge coaxial needles. Patients were in the age group 7-77 years (mean 47.3 years, median 50 years). Maximum number of patients (60%) were in 41-70 years age group. There were 29 males (82.86%) and 6 females (17.14%).Total number of biopsies done were 40 in 35 patients; one attempt in 31 patients (88.57%), two attempts in 3 patients (8.57%) and three in 1 patient (2.86%). Only 2 patients (5.7%) had pneumothorax as a complication of FNAC. A correct diagnosis could be made in 31 patients amounting to an accuracy of 88.57%. Accuracy with respect to the number of biopsies was 77.5% (31/40). There were 28/35 patients (80%) with malignancies, and only 3/35 with benign inflammatory lesions. Average depth of the lesion ranged from 20-80 mm (mean 48mm). Average diameter of the lesions in this study ranged from 7 mm-8 cm (mean 4.7cm). Diagnostic accuracy for 7/35 small lesions < 1.5 cm was 85.7%, for 15/35 medium sized lesions (> or =1.5 cm - <3 cm) was 93.33% and for 13/35 large lesions (> or = 3 cm) was 84.6%. CT-guided FNAC is accurate, safe and minimally invasive procedure for diagnosis of intrathoracic mass lesions. PMID:21510529

Yadav, Rohtas K; Sen, Rajeev; Agarwal, Shalini; Aggarwal, Sunil

2010-09-01

113

The cytologic diagnosis of epithelioid myxofibrosarcoma: a case report.  

PubMed

The epithelioid variant of myxofibrosarcoma is a rare but recently described entity. We report a case of an elderly woman who presented with a slowly enlarging mass of the right lower extremity. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology revealed a malignant epithelioid neoplasm. The smears of the aspirate material were highly cellular and contained a dominant population of cells with uniform round-to-oval nuclei and cytoplasmic vacuolization, arranged in loosely cohesive aggregates and linear arrays within a myxoid background. A second minor population of cells consisted of aggregates of bland spindled cells. On resection, the neoplasm proved to be an epithelioid myxofibrosarcoma. To our knowledge, the cytologic features of epithelioid myxofibrosarcoma have not previously been documented. Herein, we discuss the cytologic features of epithelioid myxofibrosarcoma as seen on FNA biopsy and its distinction from other epithelioid neoplasms of soft tissue. PMID:22927294

Weber, Michelle H; Kilpatrick, Scott E; Bergman, Simon

2012-08-01

114

Fine-needle aspiration findings in epithelioid myoepithelioma of the parotid gland: A diagnostic pitfall  

PubMed Central

The cytological features of myoepithelioma of the parotid gland are documented in only a few case reports. We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytological findings in a case of epithelioid myoepithelioma of the parotid gland in a 43-year-old male. The differential diagnosis with other salivary gland neoplasms is discussed. PMID:24959054

Gayathri, BN; Kalyani, R; Harendra Kumar, ML; Azeem Mohiyuddin, SM

2014-01-01

115

Cytological diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cutaneous involvement  

PubMed Central

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease affecting predominantly children. The course of the disease varies, from spontaneous resolution to a progressive multisystem disorder with organ dysfunction and potential life-threatening complications. Diagnosis of LCH is often difficult and may be delayed because of its rarity and especially so if it occurs with unusual presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a 4 year old male child, a case of LCH is presented with a purpose of highlighting the characteristic cytological features. A high index of suspicion, awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH and its differential diagnoses is necessary. This can obviate the need of biopsy and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry if available can be performed on cytology smear and cell block. PMID:23661952

Chandekar, Sushama A; Shah, Vinaya B; Kavishwar, Vikas

2013-01-01

116

ASPIRE: Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) website provides free access to 22 interactive science labs with downloadable simulations for use in grades 4-9. Half of the simulations are related to Astronomy and half pertain to general topics such as simple machines, force and motion, momentum, and kinetic energy. Each interactive lab is designed to be visually attractive and fun, yet mentally challenging for students in the middle grades. Materials include complete lesson plans which were authored collaboratively by teachers and research scientists.

Sokolsky, Pierre

2005-08-23

117

Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. Methods The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4 mm diameter needle attached to a 8 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4 ?m thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Results Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage localized in the different regions, local invasiveness and enlarged nuclei were observed. The samples included 3 tumors of mammary glands mammary tumors were complex carcinomas (n?=?2) and adenocarcinoma (n?=?1). The histological grades of the 3 cases were as follows: grade II, (1/3); grade III, (2/3) with high mitotic index. The preferential localization of mammary neoplasms was in the inguinal lobe (1/3 case) and abdominal lobes (2/3 cases). Furthermore, 1case of the inguinal mass affected the left caudo-inguinal lobe and 2cases right cranio and caudo abdominal lobes. Conclusion The study concluded that cytology could be used as a quick, rapid, field diagnostic technique in combination with histopathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary tumors (FMTs). Our findings in feline MTs indicate that FMTs could be useful as an animal model of human breast cancer. Moreover, because of the similarity of the cytohistopathological findings in the human and feline mammary gland tumours, it is possible to use the same cytopathological criteria applied in human pathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary gland tumours. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2047361423103295 PMID:23941603

2013-01-01

118

Neutrophil phagocytosis by tumor cells--a cytological study.  

PubMed

Cell cannibalism is defined as the ability of a cell to phagocytose another cell. Malignant tumor cells may develop phagocytic property and demonstrate phagocytosis of own cells or cells of other series like neutrophils and lymphocytes. We report 11 cases in which the tumor cells showed evidence of neutrophil phagocytosis/emperipolesis on FNAC smears. Cases of malignancies diagnosed on FNA over a period of 1 year were retrieved, and smears were examined for neutrophil phagocytosis by tumor cells. These cases were classified according to type and differentiation of malignancy. The cytomorphological features and background inflammation were also studied at both primary and metastatic site. Of 362 malignant cases diagnosed on FNA smears, in 11 cases (3.09%), tumor cells showed neutrophil phagocytosis. The background showed increase in polymorphs in all cases. All the cases were associated with metastasis at presentation and were high-grade tumors cytologically. There were three cases of anaplastic carcinoma, two cases of adenocarcinoma, two cases of carcinoma breast, two cases of anaplastic non-Hodgkins lymphoma, one case each of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma from larynx and lung, respectively. Phagocytic activity by tumor cells is uncommon and usually seen in high-grade/poorly differentiated malignancies. It is frequently associated with metastatic disease. On cytology smears, true phagocytosis of neutrophils by tumor cells has to be distinguished from superimposed inflammatory cells from the background. The tumor cells also need to be distinguished from histiocytes displaying phagocytosis. PMID:20949458

Singhal, Niti; Handa, Uma; Bansal, Cherry; Mohan, Harsh

2011-08-01

119

NIPPLE ASPIRATE FLUID AND DUCTOSCOPY TO DETECT BREAST CANCER  

PubMed Central

Background We prospectively performed cytologic assessment and image analysis (IA) on matched nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and mammary ductoscopy (MD) specimens to determine 1) the accuracy of these methods in cancer detection, and 2) whether the two collection methods provide complementary information. Methods NAF and MD specimens were collected from 84 breasts from 75 women (nine bilateral samples) who underwent breast surgery. Cytologic evaluation was performed on all samples. Image analysis was performed on slides with sufficient epithelial cells. Results Cytologic evaluation proved more accurate in patients without pathologic spontaneous nipple discharge (PND) than those with PND, mainly because of the potential false positive diagnosis in the latter. While the sensitivity of NAF and MD cytology was low (10% and 14%, respectively), both were 100% specific in cancer detection in the non-PND cohort. Combining NAF and MD cytology information improved sensitivity (24%) without sacrificing specificity. Similar to cytology, image analysis was more accurate in patients without PND having high specificity (100% for aneuploid IA), but relatively low sensitivity (36%). Combining NAF and MD cytology with aneuploid IA improved the sensitivity (45%) while maintaining high specificity (100%). The best predictive model was positive NAF cytology and/or MD cytology combined with IA aneuploidy, which resulted in 55% sensitivity and 100% specificity in breast cancer detection. Conclusions Cytologic evaluation and IA of NAF and MD specimens are complementary. The presence of atypical cells arising from an intraductal papilloma in ductoscopic specimens is a potential source of false positive diagnosis in patients with nipple discharge. PMID:19795490

Sauter, Edward R.; Klein-Szanto, Andres; MacGibbon, Brenda; Ehya, Hormoz

2012-01-01

120

Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions.  

PubMed

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:24554498

Brugge, William; Dewitt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

2014-04-01

121

Tuberculosis revisited: Cytological perspective.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. The clinical manifestations of tuberculosis are very nonspecific and may mimic many other conditions. An accurate diagnosis is extremely important as the disease is treatable with antituberculous therapy. Cytological examination can provide useful diagnostic material for routine and ancillary techniques for rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis. Here we review the different morphological patterns of tuberculosis, challenges, and application of ancillary techniques for cytological diagnosis of tuberculosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:993-1001. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24975566

Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Dey, Pranab

2014-11-01

122

HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY Biology 215  

E-print Network

1 HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY Biology 215 Mark Nowel, O.P., Ph.D. Lectures: MWF 11:30 Office: Harkins about cytological and histological features. This is much better than simple memorization of facts with Functional Correlations by Victor P. Eroschenko, 12th edition. 2. Histology and Cytology Lab Notebook Fall

Arévalo, Elisabeth

123

Aspiration and leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Management needs an aspiration as to how the company will work in the future. It needs a guide for corporate priorities. Any company - local or global - must be driven by an aspiration that energizes and motivates the company from top to bottom. Yet very few managers and executives know how a corporate aspiration can help to

Pieter Klaas Jagersma

2007-01-01

124

Computer-assisted grading of adenocarcinoma in prostatic aspirates.  

PubMed

Conventional cytologic grading of fine needle aspirates of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been shown neither to be reproducible nor to correlate well with histologic grading. This study developed a tumor grade classification based on computerized cytomorphometric features and compared the results to conventional grading of companion tissue sections. The image analysis system evaluated architectural features of the aspirates (mainly cell cluster features and interrelationships) as well as nuclear features. Thirty-five prostatic adenocarcinomas (8 well, 19 moderately and 8 poorly differentiated) were evaluated. Discriminant functions based on data collected at medium and high resolution distinguished between aspirates from low-grade (well-differentiated) and high-grade (poorly differentiated) adenocarcinomas with 81% accuracy. Moderately differentiated cancers could not be classified as a distinct group. This study suggests that accurate grading of prostatic adenocarcinoma in fine needle aspirate smears requires the evaluation of medium-resolution features related to specimen cellularity and uniformity or crowding of cell clusters as well as of high-resolution features of nuclear area, perimeter and coarseness of chromatin texture. These findings are compared to those of other schemes for the cytologic grading of prostatic aspirates. PMID:2190568

Schultz, D S; Harry, T; Wong, K L; Stilmant, M M; Zahniser, D J; Hutchinson, M L

1990-04-01

125

Computer-derived nuclear features distinguish malignant from benign breast cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of computer-based analytical techniques to define nuclear size, shape, and texture features. These features are then used to distinguish between benign and malignant breast cytology. The benign and malignant cell samples used in this study were obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) from a consecutive series of 569 patients: 212 with cancer and 357 with

William H Wolberg; Dennis M Heisey; Olvi L Mangasarian

1995-01-01

126

Cytology of Fungal Infection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a laboratory exercise in plant patholgy. Students become familiar with the cytological events involved in the establishment of infection by a fungal pathogen. Upon completion of this laboratory students should understand the effect of various management practices on particular infection events, and the significance of this to disease management.Instructors and students notes are included, as well as data record sheets and discussion questions.

Paul Vincelli. (University of Kentucky;)

2001-06-18

127

Cytological diagnosis of collagenous spherulosis of breast.  

PubMed

Collagenous spherulosis is a rare entity usually seen in association with benign breast lesions. It is often picked up incidentally with a reported incidence of about 0.2% in cytological material. There are very few reports describing cytomorphological features of collagenous spherulosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the only case reported from the middle-east region. The presence of hyaline spherules surrounded by a single layer of benign myoepithelial cells is the hallmark of collagenous spherulosis on FNA. However, due to close cytological resemblance, it can be misdiagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. A 40-year-old woman presented with a history of a painless lump in the infraareolar region of left breast for a year. Fine needle aspiration was performed. The smears showed scanty cellularity comprising of cohesive clusters and a few branching fragments of benign ductal epithelial cells closely intermingled with many spherical, acellular homogenous hyaline globules. Few bare bipolar nuclei were noted in the background. A diagnosis of collagenous spherulosis associated with benign proliferative breast disease was made. Cytopathologists need to be aware of this entity in order to differentiate it from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast which requires radical treatment. PMID:25210240

Gokhale, Uday A; Nanda, Annu; Pillai, G Rajasekharan

2014-04-01

128

42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221...Testing § 493.1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the laboratory must meet the...

2013-10-01

129

42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221...Testing § 493.1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the laboratory must meet the...

2010-10-01

130

42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221...Testing § 493.1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the laboratory must meet the...

2011-10-01

131

42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221...Testing § 493.1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the laboratory must meet the...

2012-10-01

132

[Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].  

PubMed

Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell. PMID:6303278

Zolotarevski?, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

1983-01-01

133

ThinPrep Cytological Findings of Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor with Extensive Glandular Differentiation: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of this tumor has only been reported in a few cases. In most of these cases, the diagnosis was made using fine-needle aspiration cytology. Most DSRCTs resemble disseminated carcinomatoses in their clinical manifestation as well as cytomorphologically, even in young-adult patients. These authors report a case of using peritoneal-washing and pleural-effusion ThinPrep cytology to diagnose DSRCT, with extensive glandular differentiation and mucin vacuoles. We found that fibrillary stromal fragment, clinical setting, and adjunctive immunocytochemical staining were most helpful for avoiding misdiagnosis. PMID:23667380

Sohn, Byeong Seok; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Park, Kyeongmee

2013-01-01

134

Cytology of the Genus Sanguisorba  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE genus Sanguisorba L., comprising about 40 species, has been the object of several cytological and taxonomical studies during recent years. Thus we have already gained a rather good idea of the cytological pattern of this genus1,2. In particular, specimens of the form complex Sanguisorba minor, from all over its distribution area, have been studied. The species forms a polyploid

Kai Larsen

1959-01-01

135

[Clinical cytology: why and how?].  

PubMed

Clinical cytology is a morphological diagnostic profession, which has not been properly utilized in current medicine, primarily due to inadequate awareness among physicians of its diagnostic possibilities and advantages. The purpose of this historical review of clinical cytology and its diagnostic role is to contribute to higher awareness of the current possibilities offered by cytologic diagnosis and its future development in the era of technological progress and medical striking into profitability, with its negative connotations. The main features of cytologic diagnosis, i.e. non-aggressiveness, simplicity, promptness and accuracy, should be maintained while following new technological possibilities. Standard cytomorphology provides a basis for deciding on using additional technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular analysis and cytogenetics) after thorough microscopic analysis, on cytologic samples or/and cytologic smears. The conditio sine qua non for that purpose is appropriate education of cytologists and cytotechnologists as well as appropriate organization of cytology in the healthcare system. As in the historical development of clinical cytology, enthusiasts are necessary to maintain and even improve all its possibilities to the benefit of our patients. PMID:24979879

Znidarci?, Zeljka

2013-12-01

136

Aspiration-related lung diseases.  

PubMed

Aspiration is a common but underrecognized clinicopathologic entity, with varied radiographic manifestations. Aspiration represents a spectrum of diseases, including diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonitis, airway obstruction by foreign body, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, and aspiration pneumonia with or without lung abscess formation. Many patients who aspirate do not present with disease, suggesting that pathophysiology is related to a variety of factors, including decreased levels of consciousness, dysphagia, impaired mucociliary clearance, composition of aspirate, and impaired host defenses. In this pictorial essay, we will review the different types of aspiration lung diseases, focusing on their imaging features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24911122

Prather, Andrew D; Smith, Tristan R; Poletto, Dana M; Tavora, Fabio; Chung, Jonathan H; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

2014-09-01

137

Occult metastatic mesothelioma--diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration. A case report.  

PubMed

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of an enlarged right axillary lymph node was performed on a 33-year-old woman with Ebstein's cardiac anomaly. Microscopic examination of the cytologic material revealed large discohesive cells with abundant pale cytoplasm, "ruffled" cytoplasmic borders, and prominent central nucleoli. Immunocytochemical analysis of the aspirate confirmed the mesothelial origin of these cells and prompted the diagnosis of metastatic mesothelioma. Autopsy examination revealed a large pericardial mesothelioma with metastases to mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes. This case report demonstrates the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of metastatic mesothelioma. PMID:1553914

Craig, F E; Fishback, N F; Schwartz, J G; Powers, C N

1992-04-01

138

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

The percentage of patients with atypical extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis has been increasing. Among extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases, tuberculosis of the pancreas and peripancreatic lymph nodes is a rare clinical entity. Here, we present a case of peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) both cytologically and microbiologically. A 23-year-old man had a 1-week history of epigastralgia and low-grade fever. Subsequently, he was found to have an abnormality on abdominal ultrasound. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a solitary mass consisting of multiple cystic components with rim enhancement in the peripancreatic portion contiguous to the gall bladder. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The cytological examination revealed epithelioid cells with caseous necrosis, indicating tuberculosis. The aspirated fluid was positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antituberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide was started based on the PCR and cytology results, and a good response to the treatment was noted. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology with PCR analysis is very useful for the diagnosis of peripancreatic tuberculosis. PMID:17322998

Itaba, Soichi; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Takahiro; Honda, Kuniomi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yamada, Kinya

2007-01-01

139

Polystyrene Microspheres as a Specific Marker for the Diagnosis of Aspiration in Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of recurrent aspiration in young children is problematic because there is no specific gold standard test to be used. In the present work, normal saline or a suspension of white polystyrene microspheres in normal saline was instilled into hamsters' trachea ( n ? 42), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology, microsphere index (total microspheres\\/100 macrophages), and lung histology were

Avraham Avital; Eli Shapiro; Victoria Doviner; Yoav Sherman; Shlomo Margel; Merav Tsuberi; Chaim Springer

140

The added value of using mutational profiling in addition to cytology in diagnosing aggressive pancreaticobiliary disease: review of clinical cases at a single center  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to better understand the supporting role that mutational profiling (MP) of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and supernatant specimens may play in the diagnosis of malignancy in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and biliary brushing specimens from patients with pancreaticobiliary masses. Methods Cytology results were examined in a total of 30 patients with associated surgical (10) or clinical (20) outcomes. MP of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and from discarded supernatant fluid was analyzed in 26 patients with atypical, negative or indeterminate cytology. Results Cytology correctly diagnosed aggressive disease in 4 patients. Cytological diagnoses for the remaining 26 were as follows: 16 negative (9 false negative), 9 atypical, 1 indeterminate. MP correctly determined aggressive disease in 1 false negative cytology case and confirmed a negative cytology diagnosis in 7 of 7 cases of non-aggressive disease. Of the 9 atypical cytology cases, MP correctly diagnosed 7 as positive and 1 as negative for aggressive disease. One specimen that was indeterminate by cytology was correctly diagnosed as non-aggressive by MP. When first line malignant (positive) cytology results were combined with positive second line MP results, 12/21 cases of aggressive disease were identified, compared to 4/21 cases identified by positive cytology alone. Conclusions When first line cytology results were uncertain (atypical), questionable (negative), or not possible (non-diagnostic/indeterminate), MP provided additional information regarding the presence of aggressive disease. When used in conjunction with first line cytology, MP increased detection of aggressive disease without compromising specificity in patients that were difficult to diagnose by cytology alone. PMID:25084836

2014-01-01

141

Cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland: A report of two cases with an emphasis on cytology.  

PubMed

Cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland (CAMSG) is a recently characterized low grade salivary gland malignancy that most commonly presents as a mass in the base of the tongue, frequently with regional lymph node metastasis. Given its relative rarity and overlapping cytomorphology, CAMSG may be confused with polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in minor salivary gland sites and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in cervical metastasis, in both fine-needle aspiration and excisional specimens. As there are no cytology reports in the literature, we present two new cases of CAMSG and describe the aspiration cytology of the tumor taken from bench top aspirates, compare it with the histomorphology, and discuss the features that may help one avoid misdiagnosis of PTC in the setting of cervical lymph node metastasis. We found that like PTC, aspirates of CAMSG contain polymorphic fragments of epithelial cells arranged in monolayer sheets, papillary fronds and tips, and occasional cribriform configurations, and metachromatic stromal fragments, which may be misinterpreted as colloid. A background of myxoid/mucoid material also reminiscent of colloid was prominent. Differentiation from PLGA is more difficult based strictly on cytology. A review of the most current literature in relation to the molecular and immunohistochemical profiles, therapeutic options, and prognosis is also presented. It is critical for pathologists and clinicians to be aware of this tumor when presented with patients having a cervical lymph node mass in the absence of a primary tumor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:1085-1090. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24550144

Gailey, Michael P; Bayon, Rodrigo; Robinson, Robert A

2014-12-01

142

Sputum cytology: a limited role.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To determine the cost and sensitivity of sputum cytology in routine use and to determine when sputum cytology is most appropriate. METHODS: A retrospective study, based on all sputum cytology requests received in five histopathology/cytopathology laboratories in Yorkshire from 1 January to 31 December 1993. Cytology findings were correlated with histological diagnosis or clinical outcome, and related to the speciality of the referring clinician. RESULTS: Laboratory practice and performance was similar in all five centres. The average laboratory cost of sputum cytology was 26.93. The mean absolute sensitivity was 36% and the specificity was 99.6%. The majority of specimens was submitted by general physicians or geriatricians. The largest proportion of positive specimens were submitted by chest physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Often sputum cytology is used inappropriately as a screening investigation on, or soon after, admission. In addition, it is used inappropriately before bronchoscopy. Sputum cytology should be limited to individuals in whom a histological diagnosis is desired, but in whom bronchoscopy is inappropriate or unsuccessful. PMID:9306936

Gledhill, A; Bates, C; Henderson, D; DaCosta, P; Thomas, G

1997-01-01

143

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.  

PubMed

Littoral cell angiomas are uncommon primary vascular neoplasms that arise from the sinusoidal lining or littoral cells of the splenic red pulp, and hence are unique to the spleen. We report a case of littoral cell angioma in 34-year-old woman, which was diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB). The cytologic features of littoral cell angiomas have been described only in three previous case reports, one of which was a bench-top aspirate. In our case, we have utilized the fine-needle aspiration samples obtained by a linear endoscopic ultrasound examination for establishing the diagnosis. The characteristic cytologic features identified on the smears along with immunohistochemical analysis performed on the compact cellblock prepared from the aspirate aided in the confirmation of the diagnosis. We suggest that EUS-FNAB is a safe and reliable method in the diagnosis of vascular lesions of the spleen. PMID:21488173

Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Cai, Gouping; Padda, Manmeet S; Selbst, Megan; Kowalski, Diane; Proctor, Deborah D; Chhieng, David; Aslanian, Harry R; Harigopal, Malini

2011-05-01

144

Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation  

PubMed Central

Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

2013-01-01

145

Clear cell hidradenoma of breast mimicking atypical breast lesion: a diagnostic pitfall in breast cytology.  

PubMed

Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon skin adnexal tumor arising from eccrine glands. Although several kind of skin adnexal tumors arise in the breast tissue, CCH of the breast is an extremely rare entity. Failure to identify its cytomorphologic features and rarity of this tumor may lead to misdiagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology. Hereby we report a case of 30-year-old female who presented with painless lump in left breast since 10 months. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lump yielded fluid material. On May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained smears, a possibility of atypical breast lesion was considered and patient was advised a biopsy examination. Final diagnosis of CCH was made on histopathologic examination. Awareness of cytomorphologic features of breast CCH will prevent misdiagnosis as malignant or atypical breast lesions and will allow for correct management of the patients. PMID:25002948

Sehgal, Shelly; Goyal, Prashant; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Mittal, Deepti; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-05-13

146

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the islet cell tumor of pancreas: a comparison between computerized axial tomography and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to compare the cytologic features of islet cell tumor (ICT) of pancreas obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and computed tomography guided FNA (CT-FNA). We also describe the cytologic features associated with malignant ICT. Eleven cytology samples from 121 CT- FNA and 30 EUS- FNA of the pancreas were obtained from nine patients with ICT. Diff-Quik, Papanicolaou, and immunohistochemical stains to determine neuroendocrine differentiation and the hormonal status were evaluated. Cytologic features and specimen adequacy were compared between the two techniques. Cytologic features noted in both benign and malignant ICT were also compared. Nine patients (5 men, 4 women) ranging in age from 29 to 84 years (mean age, 53.8 years). Diagnoses consisted of benign (4) and malignant (5) ICT. EUS-FNA was superior to CT-FNA in obtaining adequate cells (2/2 v 7/9) for the diagnosis and increased cellularity to perform additional immunohistochemical stains (2/2 v 4/7). Single, plasmacytoid cells with finely granular chromatin distribution characterized ICT on cytology. Mitoses (3/5) and necrosis (1/5) were noted in malignant ICT but not in benign ICT. EUS-FNA is superior to CT- FNA for obtaining cells for the diagnosis of ICT. Detection of mitoses and or necrosis from patients with ICT should initiate a search for metastasis. PMID:12004358

Jhala, Darshana; Eloubeidi, Mohammad; Chhieng, David C; Frost, Andra; Eltoum, Isam A; Roberson, Janie; Jhala, Nirag

2002-04-01

147

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Teens > Cancer Center > Diagnostic Tests > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size ... Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ...

148

Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... be limited. Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... anesthesia for a bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy? While you will be given a local anesthetic, ...

149

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size ... Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ...

150

Forensic importance of aspiration.  

PubMed

The problems of assessment of aspiration (foreign bodies, stomach contents, food material) in forensic practical work are well-known, especially if 'suffocation due to aspiration' is considered to be the cause of death (or a concurrent cause of death). In the last 4 years (1998-2001) in the Department of Legal Medicine of the Free University, Berlin, 14 deaths with massive aspirations were investigated. The lethal aspiration cases consisted of seven men and five women between 55 and 91 years old, as well as two children (boy 6 years and girl 19 months old). All but one of the victims had severe neurological alterations (dementia, apoplexia, sequelae of head injuries). In six cases the victims died during or a short time after a meal; they had been fed by the nursing staff, a family member or another caregiver. The witness statements pertaining to clinical symptoms or the course of events ranged from 'no symptoms' to intensive cyanosis, congestion and no clear reactions of distress. PMID:12935619

Bockholdt, Britta; Ehrlich, Edwin; Maxeiner, Helmut

2003-03-01

151

Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

152

Cytological Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Cytological Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Neural Networks Konstantinos Blekas, Andreas Stafylopatis loannina, Greece E-mail: arly@cs.uoi.gr Petros Karakitsos Department of Clinical Cytology and Cytogenetics Date | 4/18/12 1:19 PM #12;Volume 8, Nos. 1-2 Cytological Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Neural Networks max

Likas, Aristidis

153

Quality control in cervical cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

From surveys conducted by the authors it is concluded that the best and most acceptable quality control methods in cytology are those from within the laboratory. Most of these have results which can be reported centrally. Where the overall control and codes of practice are high, there the results are the most reliable, as sources of error from whatever cause

O. A. N. Husain; E. Blanche Butler; D. M. D. Evans; J. Elizabeth Macgregor; R. Yule

1974-01-01

154

Cooling Bath for Cytological Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE disadvantage of liquid air1 as a cooling bath for the rapid quenching necessary in freezing and drying for cytological purposes was recognized by Hoerr2 as the formation of a vapour coat of low thermal conductivity around the specimen. He introduced isopentane for this purpose as a liquid of high boiling point which did not vaporize around the piece of

L. G. E. Bell

1952-01-01

155

Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila.  

PubMed

Since their first detection in pond water, large ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila, have captivated school children and scientists alike with the elegance of their swimming and the beauty of their cortical organization. Indeed, cytology - simply looking at cells - is an important component of most areas of study in cell biology and is particularly intriguing in the large, complex Tetrahymena cell. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena is critical for the study of the microtubule cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, complex nuclear movements and interactions, and the cellular remodeling during conjugation, to name a few topics. We briefly review previously reported cytological techniques for both light and electron microscopy, and point the reader to resources to learn about those protocols. We go on to present new and emerging technologies for the study of these marvelous cells. These include the use of fluorescent-protein tagging to localize cellular components in live cells, as well as for tracking the dynamic behavior of proteins using pulse labeling and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. For electron microscopy, cellular and antigenic preservation has been improved with the use of cryofixation and freeze-substitution. The technologies described here advance Tetrahymena cell biology to the cutting-edge of cytological analysis. PMID:22444152

Winey, Mark; Stemm-Wolf, Alexander J; Giddings, Thomas H; Pearson, Chad G

2012-01-01

156

Aspiration of barium contrast.  

PubMed

The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

2014-01-01

157

Aspiration of Barium Contrast  

PubMed Central

The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Barbara

2014-01-01

158

ASPIRE: Lunar Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial features an inquiry-based approach to promote understanding of moon phases. Part of the Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE), the tutorial opens with a diagram of the Earth-Moon system. The user "spins" the Earth, then determines which sections of Earth and Moon are receiving sunlight. In Part 2, users investigate how sunlight reflecting off the Earth is related to moon phases. The animation divides Earth into 8 sections and places the direction of incoming sunlight. Using only the images in the diagram, students must correctly label the moon phases. Part 3 puts everything together as Moon orbits around Earth. This resource is part of ASPIRE, an interactive lab project designed to be visually attractive and fun, yet mentally challenging for students in the middle grades. Materials include complete lesson plans authored collaboratively by teachers and research scientists.

Sokolsky, Pierre

2010-07-12

159

Musculoskeletal Aspiration Procedures  

PubMed Central

With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800

Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

2012-01-01

160

Genetic Analysis in Fine-needle Aspiration of the Thyroid: A New Tool for the Clinic.  

PubMed

This review will examine the application of genetic analysis to cytological specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the management of thyroid tumours. In particular, it will consider the use of polymerase chain reaction-based techniques in the diagnosis of the micrometastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma to cervical lymph nodes, as well as in the detection of oncogenic alterations in solid thyroid nodules. PMID:10461175

Russo; Arturi; Pontecorvi; Filetti

1999-09-01

161

Endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Diagnostic accuracy and complication assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) permits cytological confirmation of EUS findings. A multicenter prospective evaluation of EUS-FNA for primary diagnosis, staging, and\\/or follow-up purposes was undertaken. METHODS: EUS-FNA was performed in 457 patients with 554 lesions. Clinical (n = 218) or histopathologic (n = 256) confirmation was available in 192 lymph nodes, 145 extraluminal masses, 115 gastrointestinal

MJ Wiersema; P Vilmann; M Giovannini; KJ Chang; LM Wiersema

1997-01-01

162

Clear cell chondrosarcoma: Cytologic findings in six cases.  

PubMed

Clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) is a rare variant of chondrosarcoma characterized, in most instances, by indolent behavior and a long interval to progression of disease. CCCS commonly occurs in adult individuals and has a proclivity for the epiphysis of long bones, although it has been reported in other sites. This lesion is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Factors contributing to difficulty in recognizing this lesion include its relative scarcity as well as its tendency to be confused with other lesions on imaging studies. In the following, we report six cases of CCCS initially diagnosed by fine needle aspiration and/or touch preparations of needle biopsy samples. The cytologic features identified include large, plasmacytoid cells with foamy cytoplasm as well as extracellular chondroid type matrix material. Definitive diagnosis was made in each case by recognizing the "clear cell" nature of the tumor on cell block material. PMID:24167115

Jiang, Xiaoyin Sara; Pantanowitz, Liron; Bui, Marilyn M; Esther, Robert; Budwit, Debra; Dodd, Leslie G

2014-09-01

163

Anaplastic myeloma presenting as mandibular swelling: Diagnosis by cytology.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma is a disease resulting from clonal proliferation of plasma cells. A disease of the elderly, jaw lesions are seen in 14% of patients affected with myeloma. Rarely the oral and maxillofacial lesions can be the first manifestation of the disease. We report the case of a 75-year-old man who presented with mandibular swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was done from the swelling and smears were suggestive of anaplastic myeloma, which is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma. The diagnosis of a plasmacytoma was confirmed by biopsy. Further workup of the patient revealed osteolytic lesions in skull, M band in electrophoresis and evidence of renal failure. Peripheral smear and bone marrow findings were also consistent with myeloma. PMID:25210245

Subitha, K; Renu, Thampy; Lillykutty, Pothen; Letha, V

2014-04-01

164

Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.  

PubMed

On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

2013-08-01

165

Utility of cell block in the cytological preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

In most cases involving jaw lesions, a biopsy and a histopathological analysis are necessary to establish the final diagnosis. However, biopsy may be a complex procedure at some maxillomandibular sites, and some systemic conditions could contraindicate the procedure. Thus, a search for new, less invasive techniques, which could eventually replace biopsy and simplify the diagnostic process, would benefit both professionals and patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cell block technique, prepared from the aspiration of luminal contents, in the preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT). From 135 cases of lesions aspirated and processed by the cell block technique, we selected those containing keratin. In all cases selected, histological diagnosis was based on surgical biopsy. From 20 cases containing keratin in the cytological analyses, 19 were KCOTs and one was an orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC). In all KCOT cases, we observed the presence of parakeratin, even in those with intense inflammation. In the cytological analysis of the OOC, parakeratin was not observed. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that KCOT can be confidently diagnosed preoperatively by cytological analyses of lesions punctured and processed by the cell block technique. PMID:24433974

Rivero, Elena Riet Correa; Grando, Liliane Janete; de Oliveira Ramos, Grasieli; da Silva Belatto, Maria Fernanda; Daniel, Filipe Ivan

2014-04-01

166

Adenomatoid mesothelioma with intranuclear inclusion bodies: a case report with cytological and histological findings.  

PubMed

We report a very unusual cytologic feature, intranuclear inclusion bodies, in mesothelioma of a predominantly adenomatoid type. The patient, a 57-year-old woman, was presented with dyspnea and right pleural effusion. Pleural aspiration cytology revealed many cohesive ball-like clusters, with a tubular pattern, composed of small atypical cells displaying a high-nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. They had a nuclear groove and irregular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Right lung partial resection with thoracoscopy revealed that a white tumor had proliferated along the pleural surface at S(8) . Histology revealed nodular tumor cells forming dilated structures mixed with small tubular or glandular structures similar to those seen in benign adenomatoid tumors. These tumor cells had invaded peripheral lung tissues. Such inclusion bodies have not been reported earlier in mesothelioma. On the basis of this observation, we propose that the adenomatoid type of malignant mesothelioma be added to the differential diagnosis of malignant effusions when tumor cells with nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusions are found in pleural aspiration cytology. PMID:23166110

Kawai, Toshiaki; Kawashima, Katsuhiko; Serizawa, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Kyeongil, Kim

2014-05-01

167

High-Growth Aspiration Entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper jointly examines the determinants of entrepreneurship and high-growth aspiration entrepreneurship in 42 countries. Using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) surveys for 1998-2003, we analyse how the institutional environment and the entrepreneurial characteristics affect both individual decisions to become entrepreneurs and aspirations to set up a high- growth venture. We find that institutions exert different effects on entrepreneurial entry

Saul Estrin; Julia Korosteleva; Tomasz Mickiewicz

168

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...

2010-10-01

169

42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

2010-10-01

170

42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...

2010-10-01

171

42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

2013-10-01

172

42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...

2011-10-01

173

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...

2013-10-01

174

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...

2012-10-01

175

CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE THELYTOKOUS PARTHENOGENESIS IN THE  

E-print Network

CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE THELYTOKOUS PARTHENOGENESIS IN THE CAPE HONEYBEE (APIS MELLIFERA, formed by complete meiosis. However, cytological mechanisms were inferred from the segregation of mutant number, provide an excellent genetic system to study the cytological processes underlying female

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

2012-10-01

177

42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...

2012-10-01

178

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...

2011-10-01

179

Computerderived Nuclear Features Distinguish Malignant from Benign Breast Cytology.  

E-print Network

1 Wolberg Computer­derived Nuclear Features Distinguish Malignant from Benign Breast Cytology cancer, image processing, cytology, diagnosis, inductive machine learning Corresponding author William H features. These features are then tested to distinguish between benign and malignant breast cytology

Street, Nick

180

42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...

2013-10-01

181

42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

2011-10-01

182

Adult wilms' tumor metastatic to the lung: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.  

PubMed

Adult Wilms' tumor (WT) is a rare entity with less than 300 cases reported to date in the medical literature. Histologic and cytologic features of adult WT of the kidney are similar to findings in pediatric WT. While the lungs are noted to be the most frequent site of metastatic disease in the pediatric population, the incidence of lung metastases remains unknown for adult WT. A search revealed 38 cases of adult WT with lung metastases published to date in the English literature. Amongst these cases only two have utilized cytology of the lung lesions as a means to arrive at a final diagnosis. We report a case of adult WT metastatic to the lung that was initially diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. The aim is to compare the current cytologic and immunohistochemical findings with those cases previously published, to outline the cytologic features of adult WT metastatic to the lung, and to emphasize the significance of cytologic diagnosis in the work-up of adult WT. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:950-955. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23913752

Perrino, Carmen M; Wang, Jeff F; Chen, Alexander C; Collins, Brian T

2014-11-01

183

Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.  

PubMed

Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

Tjalma, W A A

2014-01-01

184

Cytologic Findings of Thyroid Carcinoma Showing Thymus-like Differentiation: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare carcinoma of the thyroid or adjacent soft tissue of the neck with a histologic resemblance to thymic epithelial tumors. Although the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a central role in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, few reports about the cytologic findings of CASTLE have been found according to a review of literatures. We report cytologic findings of a case of CASTLE. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of sore throat. The FNA showed that the smear was composed of three dimensional clusters and sheets. The tumor cells were round to ovoid with high nuclear : cytoplasmic ratios. The nuclei were vesicular with small nucleoli. There were some tumor cells showing keratinization. Some lymphocytes were found on the background and within clusters. The presence of poorly-differentiated tumor cells with a focal keratinization and a lymphocytic background on the FNA is suggestive of CASTLE. PMID:23110020

Joo, Mee; Kim, Hanseong

2012-01-01

185

Guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology from the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology: A review.  

PubMed

The newest installment on state-of-the-art standards of practice in cytopathology from the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) focuses on the pancreaticobiliary system. Similar to the National Cancer Institute recommendations for aspiration cytology of the thyroid, the PSC guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology addresses indications, techniques, terminology and nomenclature, ancillary studies, and postprocedure management. Each committee was composed of a multidisciplinary group of experts in diagnosing, managing, and treating patients with pancreaticobiliary disease. Draft documents were posted on an interactive Web-based forum hosted by the PSC Web site (www.papsociety.org) and the topics of terminology, ancillary testing, and management were presented at national and international meetings over an 18-month period for discussion and feedback from practicing pathologists around the world. This review provides a synopsis of these guidelines. PMID:24777782

Pitman, Martha B; Layfield, Lester J

2014-06-01

186

Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.  

PubMed

There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature. PMID:25144998

Milici?, Valerija; Prvulovi?, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bili?-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Seri?, Vatroslav

2014-06-01

187

Diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of tuberculous lymphadenitis involving the peripancreatic lymph nodes: a case report.  

PubMed

Pancreatic tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary disease. The diagnosis preoperatively is difficult because clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings are nonspecific. Published data indicate that these lesions mimic cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and the confirmation of clinical suspicion could only be obtained by an open surgical biopsy. Recently, fine needle aspiration cytology has been shown to be a safe, reliable and cost-effective alternative. We report a new case of a peripancreatic tuberculosis in a 52 year old woman and review the relevant literature, paying special attention to the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:17230623

Boujaoude, Joseph-D; Honein, Khalil; Yaghi, Cesar; Ghora, Claude; Abadjian, Gerard; Sayegh, Raymond

2007-01-21

188

Foreign Body Aspiration: Imaging Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aspiration of foreign bodies into the respiratory tract can occur at any age, but is most common in young children and in\\u000a the elderly population. Foreign body aspiration is the most frequent pediatric domestic accident, and has serious and sometimes\\u000a fatal sequelae (Black et al. 1994; Fitzpatrick and Guarisco 1998; Bhana et al. 2000; Ciftci et al. 2003). Most cases

Benjamin Z. Koplewitz; Jacob Bar-Ziv

189

The role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the prostate in staging adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Stage A prostate cancer is defined as the incidental finding of cancer in specimens obtained by transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in a clinically benign gland. A low-to-moderate grade tumor involving less than 5% of the TURP specimen has been termed Stage A1; a high-grade tumor or tumor involving more than 5% of the TURP specimen is termed Stage A2. Most investigators agree that Stage A1 disease has a significantly better prognosis than Stage A2 disease and may not warrant radical prostatectomy. However, the problem of correctly differentiating A1 and A2 disease remains. The authors prospectively studied 100 consecutive patients undergoing TURP for outlet obstruction without clinical suspicion of prostate cancer by digital examination. Each patient underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of each side of the prostate immediately before TURP. These data show that the addition of preprostatectomy FNAB increased the incidence of finding adenocarcinoma of the prostate from 10% to 14%. An additional 3% had FNAB results that were highly suspicious. A positive correlation between cytologic and histologic findings was seen in 83% of patients. Of three patients with Stage A2 prostate cancer, none had malignant cytologic findings. Of seven patients with Stage A1 disease, five (71%) had suspicious or malignant cytologic findings. Seven patients (7%) had suspicious or malignant cytologic findings with no histologic evidence of tumor. In conclusion, preprostatectomy FNAB cannot differentiate Stage A1 from Stage A2 prostate cancer. However, the procedure does increase the yield of finding incidental prostate cancer. The therapy of patients with either (1) malignant cytologic findings alone (Stage A0 disease), or (2) Stage A1 histologic and malignant cytologic findings (Stage A1+) is unclear at present. PMID:1591691

Honig, S C; Stilmant, M M; Klavans, M S; Freedlund, M C; Siroky, M B

1992-06-15

190

Metastatic myxoid liposarcoma of lung and mediastinum diagnosed by fine needle aspiration  

PubMed Central

Myxoid liposarcomas metastatic to lungs and mediastinum are infrequent lung neoplasms. The tumor has an aggressive course and needs to be recognized cytologically. A 60-year-old male smoker presented with gradually progressive left-sided chest pain, cough, and expectoration for the past one month. Chest radiograph and computed tomography of thorax revealed a lung mass in left apical region extending into the posterior mediastinum, which was subjected to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). Smears showed a cellular tumor with ovoid to spindle shaped tumor cells in a myxoid background having a rich vascular network. The possibility of a myxoid liposarcoma metastatic to lung and mediastinum was suggested and confirmed by histopathology. A previous history of excision of a tumor in the thigh one and half years ago was present. The importance of recognizing the cytological picture by FNA is discussed. PMID:21552406

Inuganti, Renuka V; Bala, Saila G; Bharathi, Krishna Y

2011-01-01

191

All lesions great and small, part 1: diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice. PMID:24554514

Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

2014-06-01

192

Research and Development on Aspirated Compressors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program consisted of three primary objectives: (1) the development of a computational design system for the design of aspirated compressors; (2) the design, construction, and testing of a low-tip speed fan stage incorporating aspiration in the rotor ...

J. Kerrebrock, A. Epstein, J. Adamczyk, A. Merchant

2003-01-01

193

[Primary pancreatic lymphoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy].  

PubMed

Although primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare malignant tumor, the correct diagnosis is essential since their therapeutic management differs from other pancreatic tumors. The fine needle aspiration cytology guided by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS-FNA) is currently the preferred technique for the diagnosis of neoplasms of the pancreas, being of particular interest in those pancreatic lesions with atypical characteristics or presentation. However, the usefulness of EUS-FNA in the PPL has been poorly studied because of the rarity of this entity. We report a case of a patient with HIV infection and PPL diagnosed by EUS-FNA. PMID:20932603

Gimeno-García, Antonio Z; Alonso, María Mar; García Castro, Candelaria; Nicolás Pérez, David; Quintero, Enrique

2010-11-01

194

Primary Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Diagnosed by Using Endoscopic Ultrasound with Fine Needle Aspiration  

PubMed Central

There is paucity in the literature on the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for evaluating the thyroid gland. We report the first case of primary papillary thyroid cancer diagnosed by using EUS and fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 66-year-old man underwent EUS for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. FNA of the lymph nodes showed benign findings. A hypoechoic mass was noted in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. Therefore, FNA was performed. The cytological results were consistent with primary papillary thyroid cancer. PMID:25133124

Jalil, Ala Abdel; Elkhatib, Fateh A.; Mahayni, Abdulah A.

2014-01-01

195

Ultrasonographic guideline for thyroid nodules cytology: single institute experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose The main issue with the current ultrasonography (US) guidelines is the overestimation of malignant and indeterminate nodules as they do not aid in making decisions to treat patients. To overcome this, new US guidelines for thyroid nodules that have been shown to be better correlated with cytologic results have been proposed. We also suggested specific indications for US-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) using the new US guidelines. Methods Clinical and pathologic data from 925 patients and 1,419 thyroid nodules were retrospectively collected. All subjects underwent US- and US-guided FNA at Department of Surgery, Wonju Christian Hospital, between March 2010 and July 2011. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both the current guidelines and the new guidelines. Results The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the current guidelines in predicting malignancy were 24.1%, 99.3%, 62.2%, 25.0%, and 99.8%, respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the new guidelines in predicting malignancy were 66.0%, 96.0%, 86.7%, 47.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Conclusion The use of the new US guidelines allow for a more accurate and specific diagnosis and a better treatment plan than the current guidelines. Additionally, the use of the new FNA guidelines may help prevent unnecessary FNAs and promote cost-effective follow-up for patients. PMID:23396617

Kim, Kwang Min; Park, Joon Beom; Kang, Seong Joon

2013-01-01

196

Acute human parvovirus b19 infection: cytologic diagnosis.  

PubMed

Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR. PMID:25332559

Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik

2014-09-01

197

Horrifying Basal cell carcinoma: cytological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing and frequently occurring tumor of the eyelids. Among BCC cases, there is a subtype of aggressive cases called horrifying BCC (HBCC). There are also rare BCC cases that show neuroendocrine differentiation. Here, we describe a case of HBCC with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient, a 41-year-old woman, presented with abnormal left eye tearing and left cheek pain. On computed tomography imaging, a tumor that extended to the left orbit was detected in the left cheek. On cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples, the tumor cells were observed as sheet-like clusters and single bare nuclei with a clear background; peripheral palisading was not clearly seen. On examination of the biopsy specimen taken after FNA, the tumor was found to be composed of cancer cell nests with scattered peripheral palisading in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CD56 and were negative for CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Membrane-bound dense-core granules were detected on ultrastructural study. A HBCC case with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been previously reported. The correlation between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in HBCC and patient prognosis should be further studied. PMID:25120472

Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2014-05-01

198

Horrifying Basal Cell Carcinoma: Cytological, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing and frequently occurring tumor of the eyelids. Among BCC cases, there is a subtype of aggressive cases called horrifying BCC (HBCC). There are also rare BCC cases that show neuroendocrine differentiation. Here, we describe a case of HBCC with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient, a 41-year-old woman, presented with abnormal left eye tearing and left cheek pain. On computed tomography imaging, a tumor that extended to the left orbit was detected in the left cheek. On cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples, the tumor cells were observed as sheet-like clusters and single bare nuclei with a clear background; peripheral palisading was not clearly seen. On examination of the biopsy specimen taken after FNA, the tumor was found to be composed of cancer cell nests with scattered peripheral palisading in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CD56 and were negative for CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Membrane-bound dense-core granules were detected on ultrastructural study. A HBCC case with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been previously reported. The correlation between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in HBCC and patient prognosis should be further studied. PMID:25120472

Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2014-01-01

199

Aspiring Teachers Take up Residence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Boston Teacher Residency program is a yearlong, selective preparation route that trains aspiring teachers, many of them career-changers, to take on jobs in some of the city's highest-needs schools. The program, which fits neither of the two most common types of teacher preparation--alternative routes and traditional teacher education…

Honawar, Vaishall

2008-01-01

200

A penetration-aspiration scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of an 8-point, equalappearing interval scale to describe, penetration and aspiration events are described. Scores are determined primarily by the depth to which material passes in the airway and by whether or not material entering the airway is expelled. Intra-and interjudge reliability have been established. Clinical and scientific uses of the scale are discussed.

John C. Rosenbek; Jo Anne Robbins; Ellen B. Roecker; Jame L. Coyle; Jennifer L. Wood

1996-01-01

201

Silent Aspiration Risk is Volume-dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical swallow protocols cannot detect silent aspiration due to absence of overt behavioral signs, but screening with a\\u000a much larger bolus volume, i.e., 90 cc vs. 1–10 cc, may elicit a reflexive cough in individuals who might otherwise exhibit\\u000a silent aspiration. A swallow screen that maintains high sensitivity to identify aspiration risk while simultaneously reducing\\u000a the false-negative rate for silent aspiration would

Steven B. LederDebra; Debra M. Suiter; Barry G. Green

202

Immunocytochemical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen in fine-needle aspirates from patients with diverse breast diseases.  

PubMed

Fine-needle aspirates and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 91 cases with diverse breast diseases were immunostained with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody using a BioGenex StrAviGen kit based on the biotin-streptavidin amplified methodology. The results were compared with histopathologic tumor type and tumor stage. CEA was not expressed in fibrocystic changes with mild or florid epithelial hyperplasia (n = 23) and fibroadenomas (n = 8). On the other hand, 90% (56/60) of primary breast carcinomas showed positive cytoplasmic staining for CEA. No correlation was found between CEA expression, histopathologic tumor type, and tumor stage. We suggest that CEA immunocytochemistry will help in the accurate diagnosis of primary breast carcinoma in fine-needle aspirates in addition to the usual cytological criteria. PMID:8261842

Alexiev, B A; Valkov, I N; Popov, A A; Marinov, V S

1993-08-01

203

Metastatic chordoma detected by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration  

PubMed Central

Chordomas are rare, slow-growing malignant bone tumours arising from cellular remnants of the notochord. These tumours are locally invasive but have also a metastastic potential. Chordomas are characterized by the presence of physaliferous cells in a myxofibrillary stromal background. In cytological aspirates, these characteristic cells are usually absent, revealing only clusters of cells with varying degrees of vacuolation. This makes definitive diagnosis of chordoma difficult as the tumor can mimic other myxoid neoplasms including renal cell carcinomas and well-differentiated chondrosarcomas. In such situations, a confident diagnosis of chordoma requires comparison with histology of the primary tumor. We describe the first case of metastatic chordoma diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). PMID:23372955

Fearon, Conor; Fabre, Aurelie; Heffernan, Eric J.; Skehan, Stephen J.; Swan, Niall; Keane, Michael P.

2013-01-01

204

Diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma: computed tomography, sonography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy  

SciTech Connect

The diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma was made prospectively and noninvasively in four patients with the use of sonography, computed tomography, and sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The imaging methods revealed information similar to the operative findings, with clear superiority of computed tomography over sonography. These noninvasive methods may be used as screening tools, especially among groups or in regional areas with a high risk for asbestos exposure. The findings included soft-tissue masses with invariable involvement of the omentum; small intraperitoneal nodules; thickened peritoneum, mesentery, and bowel wall; pleural plaques; and usually minimal, if any, ascites. Since the differential diagnosis from peritoneal carcinomatosis may be difficult, sonographically (or CT) guided aspiration biopsy is needed to produce diagnostic cytologic specimens. The use of this type of biopsy should obviate surgical exploration.

Reuter, K.; Raptopoulos, V.; Reale, F.; Krolikowski, F.J.; D'Orsi, C.J.; Graham, S.; Smith, E.H.

1983-06-01

205

Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

2013-01-01

206

Acoustic features for detection of aspirated stops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspiration is an important phonemic feature in several Indian languages. Unlike English, languages such as Marathi have lexicons in which words with different meanings differ only in the aspiration feature of the initial voiced or unvoiced stop. Thus the reliable discrimination of aspirated stops from their unaspirated counterparts is important in automatic speech recognition for such languages. The important acoustic

Vaishali Patil; Preeti Rao

2011-01-01

207

Student Aspiration to Fall, Along with Funding  

E-print Network

Student Aspiration to Fall, Along with Funding www.atn.edu.au | June 2013 aspiration of Australian education is as much a financial decision as an education choice. "The aspirations of potential students, is welcomed, as is the maintenance of an improved rate of indexation. News of planned consultation

Mayer, Wolfgang

208

Hope, Fear and Aspirations Xue Dong He  

E-print Network

Hope, Fear and Aspirations Xue Dong He and Xun Yu Zhou July 23, 2012 Abstract We propose a rank, fear and aspirations. Hope and fear are modeled through a reversed S-shaped probability weighting function and aspirations through a probabilistic constraint. By employing the recently developed approach

209

Applying a Typology to Vocational Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychological meaning and predictive value of a person's vocational aspirations were examined by applying Holland's typology to the vocational aspirations of high school juniors (N=1,005), college juniors (N=692), employed adults (N=140), and a second sample of college students studied over a 1 year interval (N=624). The aspirational data were…

Holland, John L.; Gottfredson, Gary D.

210

Primary chondrosarcoma of breast--cytology with histopathological correlation: a rare case report with review of literature.  

PubMed

Malignant mesenchymal tumors of the breast other than angiosarcoma are extremely rare and comprise <0.5% of breast tumors. Primary chondrosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare entity and only 10 cases are reported as single case reports in literature until date. A diagnosis of primary mammary sarcoma can be established only after excluding metaplastic carcinomas and malignant phyllodes by extensive sampling for evidence of in situ or invasive carcinoma. Here, we report a primary chondrosarcoma of breast in a 55-year-old lady diagnosed precisely on fine-needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathological examination after total mastectomy. We emphasize on diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology smears and discuss differential diagnoses. PMID:24943775

Sinhasan, Sankappa P; Bharathi, K V; Bhat, Ramachandra V; Dasiah, Simon David

2014-01-01

211

Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters  

PubMed Central

Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

2013-01-01

212

Comparison of Computational Learning Methods on a Diagnostic Cytological Application  

E-print Network

Comparison of Computational Learning Methods on a Diagnostic Cytological Application K. Koutroumbas methods on a problem of diagnostic cytology and more specifically on the classification of gastric cells. INTRODUCTION Cytology has been proved a powerful tool for the diagnosis of gastric lesions. In recent years

Paliouras, George

213

Breast Cytology Diagnosis Via Digital Image Analysis 1 2 3  

E-print Network

Breast Cytology Diagnosis Via Digital Image Analysis 1 2 3 William H. Wolberg, M.D. 4 W. Nick has been developed for evaluating cytologic features derived directly from a digital scan of breast Key words: automation, breast cancer, cytology, FNAB, expert systems, image processing (computer

Street, Nick

214

Multiplex Cytological Profiling Assay to Measure Diverse Cellular States  

E-print Network

Multiplex Cytological Profiling Assay to Measure Diverse Cellular States Sigrun M. Gustafsdottir a multiplex cytological profiling assay that "paints the cell" with as many fluorescent markers as possible or chemical structure based on cytological profiles. The results demonstrate that the assay captures subtle

Carpenter, Anne E.

215

Identification of Wolbachiahost interacting factors through cytological analysis  

E-print Network

Review Identification of Wolbachia­host interacting factors through cytological analysis Uyen Tram. Cytological studies of the most common Wolbachia­induced phenotype, cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), demonstrate that Wolbachia induce CI by altering host cell cycle timing. Cytological analyses also suggest

Sullivan, William T.

216

Colposcopic assessment of the accuracy of cervical cytology screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred asymptomatic women in a general practice were screened both cytologically and colposcopically for evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The prevalence detected by cytology alone was 5%, but the prevalence detected by cytology and colposcopy together was 11%. None of the larger lesions of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (affecting more than two quadrants of the cervix) was associated with negative

John A Giles; Elizabeth Hudson; Julie Crow; Denis Williams; Patrick Walker

1988-01-01

217

Cytologic evaluation of urine after kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

Over a ten-month period, 54 kidney transplant patients returning for routine clinic visits were prospectively evaluated utilizing urinary cytology; 101 urine specimens were examined. The incidence of undetected infection was low. Two patients were noted to have polyomavirus infections, and two had candiduria. No patient had urinary tract malignancy. PMID:2823518

Stilmant, M M; Freedlund, M C; Schmitt, G W

1987-01-01

218

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonteratomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum.  

PubMed

We assessed the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnosis of mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs). In the archives of 3 pathology departments, we found records of 7 patients with mediastinal GCTs who underwent mediastinal FNAB as part of the diagnostic workup. The FNAB smears, results of the immunocytochemical analysis, the corresponding histologic findings, and the clinical charts were reviewed. All patients were men (age range, 24-44 years; mean, 32 years). One patient had a history of testicular mixed GCT 10 years earlier. The 6 primary mediastinal GCTs consisted of 3 seminomas and 3 yolk sac tumors. Based on the cytologic features and immunocytochemicalfindings, a cytologic diagnosis of GCT was made in 5 cases, including the case of metastatic GCT In 2 cases, the differential diagnosis was between poorly differentiated carcinoma and GCT Results of ancillary studies were noncontributory in 1 case, and the aspirate of the second case demonstrated extensive necrosis. Our findings demonstrate that a diagnosis of mediastinal GCT, primary or secondary, can be established with a high degree of accuracy on the basis of FNAB. Immunocytochemical analysis helps confirm the diagnosis. PMID:12219784

Chhieng, David C; Lin, Oscar; Moran, Cesar A; Eltoum, Isam A; Jhala, Nirag C; Jhala, Darshana N; Simsir, Aylin

2002-09-01

219

Estrogen Receptor Expression in Benign Breast Ductal Cells Obtained from Random Periareolar Fine Needle Aspiration Correlates with Menopausal Status and Cytomorphology Index Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast epithelial cells has potential as a risk marker for development of breast cancer and as a response marker for preventive interventions.Aim  The purpose of this study was to determine if ER expression in benign cytologic specimens acquired by random periareolar fine needle aspiration (RPFNA) increases with morphologic abnormality as has been reported for histologic preparations.Methods  ER

Priyanka Sharma; Bruce F. Kimler; Chezna Warner; Trina Metheny; Qiao Xue; Carola M. Zalles; Carol J. Fabian

2006-01-01

220

Microarray Analysis of Thyroid Nodule Fine-Needle Aspirates Accurately Classifies Benign and Malignant Lesions  

PubMed Central

Current preoperative diagnostic procedures for thyroid nodules rely mainly on the cytological interpretation of fine-needle aspirates (FNAs). DNA microarray analysis has been shown to reliably distinguish benign and malignant thyroid nodules in surgically resected specimens, but its diagnostic potential in thyroid FNA has not been examined. In the present study, the expression profiles of 50 benign thyroid lesions and papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue samples were compared, generating a list of 25 differentially expressed genes from this training set. A test set of 22 FNA specimens was evaluated by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis using this gene list, and the results were compared to FNA cytology. FNA specimens were found to fall into three clusters: malignant (n = 10), benign (n = 7), and indeterminate (n = 5). The benign and malignant groups showed complete concordance with the final histological diagnosis except for one histologically benign lesion, which was rediagnosed as follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma on histological review. Paired analysis between FNA and matched tissues samples illustrated adequate sampling with FNA. These results illustrate that microarray analysis of FNA is feasible and has the potential to improve the accuracy of FNA in categorizing benign from malignant lesions beyond routine cytological evaluation. PMID:16931590

Lubitz, Carrie C.; Ugras, Stacy K.; Kazam, J. Jacob; Zhu, Biaxin; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Fahey, Thomas J.

2006-01-01

221

Pleural fluid cell-free DNA integrity index to identify cytologically negative malignant pleural effusions including mesotheliomas  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. DNA integrity index has been reported to be a marker of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid DNA integrity index in the diagnosis of MPE. Methods We studied 75 pleural fluid and matched serum samples from consecutive subjects. Pleural fluid and serum ALU DNA repeats [115bp, 247bp and 247bp/115bp ratio (DNA integrity index)] were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Pleural fluid and serum mesothelin levels were quantified using ELISA. Results Based on clinico-pathological evaluation, 52 subjects had MPE (including 16 mesotheliomas) and 23 had benign effusions. Pleural fluid DNA integrity index was higher in MPE compared with benign effusions (1.2 vs. 0.8; p<0.001). Cytology had a sensitivity of 55% in diagnosing MPE. If cytology and pleural fluid DNA integrity index were considered together, they exhibited 81% sensitivity and 87% specificity in distinguishing benign and malignant effusions. In cytology-negative pleural effusions (35 MPE and 28 benign effusions), elevated pleural fluid DNA integrity index had an 81% positive predictive value in detecting MPEs. In the detection of mesothelioma, at a specificity of 90%, pleural fluid DNA integrity index had similar sensitivity to pleural fluid and serum mesothelin (75% each respectively). Conclusion Pleural fluid DNA integrity index is a promising diagnostic biomarker for identification of MPEs, including mesothelioma. This biomarker may be particularly useful in cases of MPE where pleural aspirate cytology is negative, and could guide the decision to undertake more invasive definitive testing. A prospective validation study is being undertaken to validate our findings and test the clinical utility of this biomarker for altering clinical practice. PMID:23009708

2012-01-01

222

Aspiration thrombectomy in concert with stent thrombectomy.  

PubMed

In the SWIFT and TREVO 2 trials, aspiration thrombectomy was not able to be performed. Outside these studies, in post-market application, the interventionist can use aspiration thrombectomy in addition to stent device thrombectomy. This technique is described in detail in the present report. Combined aspiration/stentriever thrombectomy may improve recanalization efforts, simplify a second thrombectomy attempt if necessary and may limit distal embolization. PMID:23868216

Dumont, Travis M; Mokin, Maxim; Sorkin, Grant C; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

2014-05-01

223

Aspiration  

MedlinePLUS

... and localized lung disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

224

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL...or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology (cells). (b...ISO 10993 ‘Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices—Part I: Evaluation and...

2014-04-01

225

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology (cells). (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this device are: (1) FDA's: (i) “Use...

2013-04-01

226

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology (cells). (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this device are: (1) FDA's: (i) “Use...

2012-04-01

227

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology (cells). (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this device are: (1) FDA's: (i) “Use...

2011-04-01

228

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Oncogenic (tumor-induced) osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome of phosphate wasting that is frequently associated with phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT). As the cytologic features of this tumor apparently have not been reported, we describe the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) findings for PMT that arose from the gluteal soft tissue in a patient with hypophosphatemia and multiple fractures secondary to osteomalacia. Smears from the computerized tomography (CT)-guided FNA showed groups of spindle cells having elongated nuclei, fine to moderately coarsely granular chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and delicate cytoplasm. Marked nuclear atypia, mitotic figures, and necrosis were absent. The differential diagnosis included a variety of benign and malignant spindle cell neoplasms such as monophasic synovial sarcoma, leiomyoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, fibrosarcoma, and, less likely, metastatic melanoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma. The bland-appearing cytologic features of a spindle cell tumor in a patient with osteomalacia should suggest the diagnosis of PMT. PMID:18181193

Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa; Abbott, Todd E; Dalkin, Alan C; Bennett-Wick, Jane; Frierson, Henry F

2008-02-01

229

Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers  

SciTech Connect

The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

1984-01-01

230

Evaluation of cetacean and sirenian cytologic samples.  

PubMed

Cytology is a fundamental part of marine mammal veterinary medicine that is involved in preventive medicine programs in captive animals and in the health assessment of wild populations. Marine mammals often exhibit few clinical signs of disease; thus, the cost-effective and widely accessible nature of cytologic sampling renders it one of the most important diagnostic procedures with these species. Many of these mammals are endangered, protected, and located in developing nations in which resources may be scarce. This article can be used as a field guide to advise a veterinarian, biologist, or technician working with cetaceans or sirenians. A simplistic cost-effective staining technique is used, which is ideal for situations in which funds, facilities, or time may be a limiting factor in clinical practice. PMID:17198961

Varela, René A; Schmidt, Kimberly; Goldstein, Juli D; Bossart, Gregory D

2007-01-01

231

Successful grading of renal-cell carcinoma in fine-needle aspirates.  

PubMed

Early-stage renal-cell carcinoma is more frequently diagnosed due to more frequent use of advanced radiologic techniques. Partial nephrectomy may be curative for small tumors and may sometimes be necessary if the opposite kidney is functionally compromised. This therapeutic option is however not possible in high-grade neoplasms. In the current study, we attempted to grade cases of renal-cell carcinoma on smears obtained from preoperative fine-needle aspirates (FNA). Eighteen cases of histologically proven renal-cell carcinoma formed the basis of this study. FNAs were performed prior to nephrectomy. FNA smears were blindly reviewed, and the cases were evaluated for cellularity, nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios, nuclear pleomorphism, and the presence of naked nuclei and prominent nucleoli; cases were graded according to the presence or absence of these criteria and their combination. The cases were cytologically graded from grade I-IV and then were given a low grade if the tumor was considered grade I or II, or high grade if the tumor was considered grade III or IV. The histology of the neoplasms was reviewed, and the tumors were graded according to the Fuhrman nuclear grading system. Correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades within the same histologic grade was seen in 13 of the 18 cases (72.2%). The difference was no more than one grade for each discrepancy. When grading as high or low grade was used, agreement was seen in 100% of the cases. The most reliable cytologic features seen on cytology distinguishing low- from high-grade tumors were the N/C ratio and the presence or absence of nucleoli. Pleomorphism, naked nuclei, and increased cellularity were less distinguishing features. We conclude that grading of renal-cell carcinoma can be reliably achieved in FNA material. Preoperative FNAs can thus be performed on small renal neoplasms with subsequent conservative treatment if the tumor proves to be low grade. PMID:10787141

Al Nazer, M; Mourad, W A

2000-04-01

232

Clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a mammary micropapillary carcinoma in a dog.  

PubMed

Mammary invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a rare variant of mammary carcinoma that was recently recognized in dogs. The cytologic features and biologic behavior of such neoplasms in dogs have not yet been widely discussed in the veterinary literature. We report the clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a canine micropapillary carcinoma in a 13-year-old female mongrel dog. The mammary region presented with extreme local pain, severe edema and erythema, and multifocal epidermal ulceration, which is typical for an inflammatory mammary carcinoma. Fine-needle aspirates were highly cellular and consisted of individual cells and papillary cell clusters with characteristics of malignant epithelial cells. Histologic examination revealed neoplastic cells arranged in small papillae without fibrovascular cores, sometimes inside clear lymphatic spaces, indicating lymphovascular invasion. Regional lymph node evaluation revealed metastatic cells. Due to deteriorating clinical condition the dog was euthanatized 5 months after mastectomy. At necropsy, metastatic neoplastic mammary cells were found in popliteal and mediastinal lymph nodes, the right femoral biceps muscle, liver, heart, lungs, and urinary bladder. PMID:23919629

Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Colodel, Márcia M; Figueiroa, Fernanda C; Soares, Luisa M; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

2013-09-01

233

Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: a case report with liquid based and conventional smear cytology  

PubMed Central

Background Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare neoplasm confined to the meninges without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventriculoperitoneal shunt may be used as a therapeutic modality. Herein, we describe the first report of cytologic findings of a case of this neoplasm with shunt-related peritoneal metastasis. Case presentation A 19-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of severe headaches. He had bilateral papilledema on physical exam. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was negative. Four months later a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Shortly thereafter, he was diagnosed with primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis based on the biopsy of an intradural extramedullary lesion adjacent to the lumbar spinal cord at a referral cancer center. The histology featured an infiltrating growth pattern of pleomorphic astrocytes with diffuse positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein. A couple of months later he presented at our institution with ascites and an anterior peritoneal mass. Repeat cerebrospinal fluid cytology and fine needle aspiration of the mass confirmed disseminated gliomatosis. Cytologic characteristics included clusters of anaplastic cells of variable size, high nuclear to cytoplasm ratio and scant to moderate cytoplasm. Occasional single bizarre multinucleated cells were seen with eccentric "partial wreath-like" nuclei, clumped chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Patient expired 13 months after initial presentation. Conclusion Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic aseptic meningitis and in the presence of a peritoneal tumor in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Immunocytochemistry may be of diagnostic value. PMID:16174291

Bilic, Masha; Welsh, Cynthia T; Rumboldt, Zoran; Hoda, Rana S

2005-01-01

234

Naive Reinforcement Learning With Endogenous Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This risk.paper considers a simple learning process for decision problems under All behaviour change derives from the reinforcing or deterring effect of instantaneous payoff experiences. Payoff experiences are reinforcing or deterring depending on whether the payoff exceeds an aspiration level or falls short of it. The aspiration level is endogenous. Over time it is adjusted into the direction of the

Tilman Börgers; Rajiv Sarin

2000-01-01

235

Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

Inoue, Yukiko

236

Assessment of an Aspiring Leaders Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a program designed to support aspiring educational leaders' leadership competence, autonomy, relatedness, and leadership motivation. It also discusses the New Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards. To assess the extent to which the program achieved its goals, 27 aspiring leaders, all of whom are…

Alao, Solomon; Wright, Henrietta; Newton, Vera

237

Remote Possibilities: Rural Children's Educational Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better understand the influence of rural context on youth's life chances, this study takes up the question of rural children's educational aspirations. The experience of rural life may, as some claim, limit students' educational aspirations. Yet there are indications that rural communities simultaneously generate important social benefits that…

Howley, Caitlin W.

2006-01-01

238

Voices of Women Aspiring to the Superintendency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few superintendents of K-12 public school districts in the United States are women, though many women have leadership positions in schools. This book presents findings of a study that explored what it was like to be a qualified woman aspiring to the superintendency. Data were obtained from interviews with 27 self-identified women aspirants who…

Grogan, Margaret

239

Educational Aspirations in Inner City Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils' educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below-average examination results and low rates of continuing in…

Strand, Steve; Winston, Joe

2008-01-01

240

Occupational Aspirations of Talented Black Adolescent Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ideal levels of aspiration, real levels of aspiration, and fear of success have been identified as precursors of black women's career attainment. Black (N=32) and white (N=32) females, talented high school sophomores, completed a test battery comprised of two verbal cues designed to measure fear of success and a self-report questionnaire to assess…

George, Valerie D.

241

Pulmonary aspiration during unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of patients who did not respond to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was assessed at autopsy and found to be 29%. This figure is undoubtedly an underestimate of the total problem, and some indication of the potential for aspiration during CPR is revealed by the fact that 46% of the patients studied had full

E. G. Lawes; P. J. F. Baskett

1987-01-01

242

21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886...Devices § 886.4150 Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is...

2010-04-01

243

21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886...Devices § 886.4150 Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is...

2011-04-01

244

Computed Tomography—Guided Aspirations of Parapharyngeal and Skull Base Masses  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography (CT)—guided aspirations of 22 parapharyngeal and skull base masses were performed via an oblique approach between the ascending ramus of the mandible and the pterygoid plates. A 22 g spinal needle was inserted through an 18 g introducer needle for sampling. Diagnostic specimens were obtained in 20 cases including six salivary gland neoplasms, five squamous cell carcinomas, five infections, and two cysts. On average, 2.8 passes into the mass were required although fewer were necessary to diagnose neoplasms (2.0 passes). No complications occurred. In this series, 100% of neoplasms were detected cytologically and there were no false-negative results. In two cases (9.1%) there was a discrepancy between the initial aspiration report and the final histologic diagnosis. CT-guided aspirations of skull base masses are a viable alternative to what would otherwise be a difficult surgical approach for biopsy. Diagnostic samples are obtained in 90.9% (20 of 22) with an accuracy of 90% (18 of 20). ImagesFigure 1Figure 1 PMID:17170938

Yousem, David M.; Sack, Martha J.; Hayden, Richard E.; Weinstein, Gregory S.

1995-01-01

245

Biomarkers in the diagnosis of aspiration syndromes  

PubMed Central

Recognizing and managing the different types of aspiration events remain a challenging task due to the lack of distinguishing clinical or laboratory characteristics. Numerous biomarkers in serum, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage have been studied, and their role in the recognition of aspiration remains controversial at this time. Recent animal investigations using an array of biomarkers based on distinct pathogenic features of each aspiration event have produced promising results; however, they have not been validated in humans. Newer markers are being introduced as diagnostic and prognostic tools in conditions such as community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, but they have not been examined in aspiration. The present review summarizes the different biomarkers that have been studied in aspiration and those who might have a potential clinical use in the future. PMID:20370588

Jaoude, Philippe Abou; Knight, Paul R; Ohtake, Patricia; El-Solh, Ali A

2010-01-01

246

Variation in NHS utilisation of vault cytology post-hysterectomy.  

E-print Network

??Hysterectomy is commonly performed but there is scant evidence concerning appropriate follow-up by vaginal vault cytology testing. This observational, retrospective cohort study, using routinely collected… (more)

Stokes-Lampard, Helen Jayne

2010-01-01

247

Comparative study of intra-operative cytology, frozen sections, and histology of tumor and tumor-like lesions of nose and paranasal sinuses  

PubMed Central

Background: The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses - including the maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses are collectively referred to as the sinonasal tract. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of paranasal sinus lesions for early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions is difficult due to closed architecture, and only one study has been documented in the literature. Aims: To find the efficacy of intra-operative cytology and frozen section for frequently encountered tumor and tumor-like lesions of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Materials and Methods: Thirty cases were included in this study. The material for cytologic examination and frozen sections were taken per-operatively. Cytological smears were prepared by imprint/squash methods from the representative tissue pieces and stained with Leishman-Giemsa and Papanicolaou. Frozen section and paraffin-embedded section were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. A rapid opinion regarding the benign or malignant nature of the lesion and the type of tumor was given. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of imprint cytology, squash cytology, and frozen section were 100%, 100%, and 100%; 100%, 96.15%, and 80.0%; and 100%, 96.15%, and 80.0%, respectively. Overall diagnostic accuracy of imprint smears, squash smears, and frozen section was100%, 96.7%, and 96.7%, respectively. Imprint smears had better specificity as cells morphology could be more accurately appreciated. Conclusions: Intra-operative cytology and frozen section examinations of lesions of nose and paranasal sinuses are useful, quick, and reliable diagnostic technique for rapid diagnosis in the operation theatre and can be used as an adjunct to histopathology for better management of patients. PMID:23661934

Nigam, JS; Misra, V; Dhingra, V; Jain, S; Varma, K; Singh, A

2013-01-01

248

Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology.Design Prospective study.Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia.Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August

Elizabeth Davey; Jefferson dAssuncao; Les Irwig; Petra Macaskill; Siew F Chan; Adele Richards; Annabelle Farnsworth

2007-01-01

249

42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general...

2012-10-01

250

42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general...

2013-10-01

251

42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general...

2010-10-01

252

42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general...

2011-10-01

253

Implementation of the bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology: Interobserver concordance and reclassification of previously inconclusive aspirates.  

PubMed

Standardized diagnostic terminology was introduced by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) in an effort to bring uniformity to the reporting of thyroid cytopathology, provide more defined categories to enable clinical management, and minimize the number of inconclusive cases. Previous studies indicate that the BSRTC is a reliable and valid reporting system for thyroid cytology. This study was conducted to compare the concordance between observers with varying cytopathology experience when using the BSRTC, and to assess the impact on the number of inconclusive reports. A retrospective study was conducted in two parts. In the first part 415 thyroid aspirates were reviewed independently by three observers with different experience levels. The aspirates were reclassified according to BSRTC and agreement scores were calculated using kappa statistics. In the second part 39 inconclusive aspirates signed out previously, were recategorized according to BSRTC. Agreement level between the three observers using the BSRTC was strong (Fleiss' kappa score?=?0.6561). Inconclusive cases could be categorized further with BSRTC; there was significant reduction in the number of inconclusive diagnoses (P?aspirates. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:944-949. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24692395

Pathak, Priya; Srivastava, Ruchi; Singh, Navjeevan; Arora, Vinod K; Bhatia, Arati

2014-11-01

254

Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... under your shoulders and your neck extended. The biopsy site is cleaned. A thin needle is inserted ...

255

Experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the use of aspiration on compressor blade design. The pressure ratio can be significantly increased by controlling the development of the blade and endwall boundary layers. This concept is validated ...

Schuler, Brian Joseph, 1974-

2001-01-01

256

Pleural Cytologies in Lung Cancer Without Pleural Effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Malignant pleural effusions significantly increase the stage of lung cancer with attendant worsening of prognosis. There is a paucity of literature evaluating malignant pleural lavage cytology in patients without pleural effusions. We propose to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for lung cancer and to identify any predictive risk

Sten I Kjellberg; Carolyn M Dresler; Melvyn Goldberg

1997-01-01

257

Evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology during pregnancy with colposcopy.  

PubMed

During a 6 1/2 year study period the authors used colposcopy to evaluate 174 pregnant patients with abnormal cervical cytology. The technique of colposcopy proved safe, accurate, and effective in determining the presence or absence of cervical cancer in the present patient's cervix. Colposcopy is mandatory for the evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology during pregancy. PMID:463975

Ostergard, D R; Nieberg, R K

1979-08-01

258

Pharmacologic prevention of aspiration pneumonia: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Several approaches, inclu- ding bed positioning, dietary changes, and oral hygiene, have been proposed to prevent aspiration pneumonia, yet few data are available on the efficacy of pharmacologic interventions in reducing the rate of aspiration. Objective: This study was a systematic literature review of the pharmacologic prevention of aspiration

Ali A. El Solh; Ranime Saliba

2007-01-01

259

Role of endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration evaluating adrenal gland enlargement or mass  

PubMed Central

AIM: To report the clinical impact of adrenal endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the evaluation of patients with adrenal gland enlargement or mass. METHODS: In a retrospective single-center case-series, patients undergoing EUS-FNA of either adrenal gland from 1997-2011 in our tertiary care center were included. Medical records were reviewed and results of EUS, cytology, adrenal size change on follow-up imaging ? 6 mo after EUS and any repeat EUS or surgery were abstracted. A lesion was considered benign if: (1) EUS-FNA cytology was benign and the lesion remained < 1 cm from its original size on follow-up computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging or repeat EUS ? 6 mo after EUS-FNA; or (2) subsequent adrenalectomy and surgical pathology was benign. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients had left (n = 90) and/or right (n = 5) adrenal EUS-FNA without adverse events. EUS indications included: cancer staging or suspected recurrence (n = 31), pancreatic (n = 20), mediastinal (n = 10), adrenal (n = 7), lung (n = 7) mass or other indication (n = 19). Diagnoses after adrenal EUS-FNA included metastatic lung (n = 10), esophageal (n= 5), colon (n = 2), or other cancer (n = 8); benign primary adrenal mass or benign tissue (n = 60); or was non-diagnostic (n = 9). Available follow-up confirmed a benign lesion in 5/9 non-diagnostic aspirates and 32/60 benign aspirates. Four of the 60 benign aspirates were later confirmed as malignant by repeat biopsy, follow-up CT, or adrenalectomy. Adrenal EUS-FNA diagnosed metastatic cancer in 24, and ruled out metastasis in 10 patients. For the diagnosis of malignancy, EUS-FNA of either adrenal had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 86%, 97%, 96% and 89%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adrenal gland EUS-FNA is safe, minimally invasive and a sensitive technique with significant impact in the management of adrenal gland mass or enlargement. PMID:25332900

Martinez, Melissa; LeBlanc, Julia; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Sherman, Stuart; DeWitt, John

2014-01-01

260

Aspiration Due to Difficulty in Swallowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swallowing mechanism after a propyliodone (`dionosil') swallow was studied in 44 infants, aged 6 days to 6 months, who were admitted during a 6-month period to the Paediatric Clinic of Athens University because of choking spells during feedings or persistent vomiting.Twenty-three infants showed aspiration of the opaque material into the tracheobronchial tree.The incidence of aspiration was very high. It

N. Matsaniotis; J. Karpouzas; M. Tzortzatou-Vallianou; E. Tsagournis

1971-01-01

261

Ultrasoundelastography: Can it provide valid information for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules?  

PubMed

Ultrasoundelastography (USE) is a new imaging technique that is performed with a normal ultrasound transducer. It provides improved characterization of a tissue or nodule based on the latter's elasticity and stiffness. The aim of the present, prospective study was to assess the validity of USE in characterizing thyroid nodules. USE patterns were analyzed in light of nodule cytology (British Thyroid Association classification) to determine whether these patterns can be used to decide whether or not fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is indicated. We examined a consecutive series of 617 thyroid nodules in patients referred for the first time to the Endocrinology Unit of Atri Hospital (Atri, [TE]). Patients underwent ultrasonographic and USE examinations of their thyroid nodules, which were then subjected to FNAC. All nodules with Thy 1 cytology were excluded, leaving 567 nodules for analysis. USE findings were classified on the basis of the degree and distribution of elasticity within the lesion: four patterns were identified (1, 2, 3a, 3b, or 4).None of the nodules with Thy 4 cytology (malignant) had USE pattern 1 or 2; patterns 3 and 4 were associated with higher cytologic grades. In conclusion, USE provides additional information on thyroid nodules, which can be used with ultrasound features of the nodules, to decide whether FNAC is indicated. In fact, patterns 1 and 2 do not seem to be associated with Thy 4 cytology. PMID:23396629

Raggiunti, B; Capone, F; Franchi, A; Fiore, G; Filipponi, S; Colagrande, V; Di Nicola, M; Mangifesta, R; Ballone, E

2011-09-01

262

Ultrasoundelastography: Can it provide valid information for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules?  

PubMed Central

Ultrasoundelastography (USE) is a new imaging technique that is performed with a normal ultrasound transducer. It provides improved characterization of a tissue or nodule based on the latter’s elasticity and stiffness. The aim of the present, prospective study was to assess the validity of USE in characterizing thyroid nodules. USE patterns were analyzed in light of nodule cytology (British Thyroid Association classification) to determine whether these patterns can be used to decide whether or not fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is indicated. We examined a consecutive series of 617 thyroid nodules in patients referred for the first time to the Endocrinology Unit of Atri Hospital (Atri, [TE]). Patients underwent ultrasonographic and USE examinations of their thyroid nodules, which were then subjected to FNAC. All nodules with Thy 1 cytology were excluded, leaving 567 nodules for analysis. USE findings were classified on the basis of the degree and distribution of elasticity within the lesion: four patterns were identified (1, 2, 3a, 3b, or 4). None of the nodules with Thy 4 cytology (malignant) had USE pattern 1 or 2; patterns 3 and 4 were associated with higher cytologic grades. In conclusion, USE provides additional information on thyroid nodules, which can be used with ultrasound features of the nodules, to decide whether FNAC is indicated. In fact, patterns 1 and 2 do not seem to be associated with Thy 4 cytology. PMID:23396629

Raggiunti, B.; Capone, F.; Franchi, A.; Fiore, G.; Filipponi, S.; Colagrande, V.; Di Nicola, M.; Mangifesta, R.; Ballone, E.

2011-01-01

263

The pattern of malignant epithelial tumours of deep seated organs in young adults.  

PubMed

Epithelial malignancy is common in older age group but it is also an Important cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults. The reports of deep seated carcinomas diagnosed in a one-year time period by CT guided FNAC in a medical college of West Bengal were analysed. Of total 447 malignant lesions of lung diagnosed by aspiration cytology 15 cases (3.3%) occurred in 15-39 years age group. PMID:21510533

Mukhopadhyay, Subhalakshmi; Ray, Sumit; Sadhu, Anup; Sinha, Swapan Kumar

2010-09-01

264

Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and useful ancillary methods  

PubMed Central

The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in evaluating pancreatic pathology has been well documented from the beginning of its clinical use. High spatial resolution and the close proximity to the evaluated organs within the mediastinum and abdominal cavity allow detection of small focal lesions and precise tissue acquisition from suspected lesions within the reach of this method. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is considered of additional value to EUS and is performed to obtain tissue diagnosis. Tissue acquisition from suspected lesions for cytological or histological analysis allows, not only the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions, but, in most cases, also the accurate distinction between the various types of malignant lesions. It is well documented that the best results are achieved only if an adequate sample is obtained for further analysis, if the material is processed in an appropriate way, and if adequate ancillary methods are performed. This is a multi-step process and could be quite a challenge in some cases. In this article, we discuss the technical aspects of tissue acquisition by EUS-guided-FNA (EUS-FNA), as well as the role of an on-site cytopathologist, various means of specimen processing, and the selection of the appropriate ancillary method for providing an accurate tissue diagnosis and maximizing the yield of this method. The main goal of this review is to alert endosonographers, not only to the different possibilities of tissue acquisition, namely EUS-FNA, but also to bring to their attention the importance of proper sample processing in the evaluation of various lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and other accessible organs. All aspects of tissue acquisition (needles, suction, use of stylet, complications, etc.) have been well discussed lately. Adequate tissue samples enable comprehensive diagnoses, which answer the main clinical questions, thus enabling targeted therapy. PMID:25339816

Tadic, Mario; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Kusec, Rajko

2014-01-01

265

Screening for anal neoplasia: anal cytology - sampling, processing and reporting.  

PubMed

Anorectal cytology (ARC) is increasingly accepted as a valid screening tool for the diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesions in populations at increased risk for anal cancer. As with cervical cancer screening protocols, proper patient preparation, specimen collection and specimen processing are essential for obtaining an optimal cytological sample. With attention and experience, the clinician can collect the best possible ARC specimen for laboratory evaluation. The incorporation of repeated interval anal cytology into standard surveillance practices for high-risk individuals is a valuable tool for the early detection of human papillomavirus-related anal squamous epithelial lesions and the prevention of anal squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:22950982

Darragh, Teresa M; Winkler, Barbara

2012-12-01

266

Impact of fine or large needle aspiration on the dog's testis: in vitro ultrasonographic, bacteriological, gross anatomy and histological assessment.  

PubMed

Despite its extensive use for evaluation of spermatogenesis and assisted reproduction, the safety and consequences of fine (FNA) and large needle aspiration (LNA) to the testicular parenchyma and its normal function have not been established. This study was performed in order to accurately assess, by serial in vitro ultrasonographic, bacteriologic, gross anatomic and histological examinations, the type and extent of the effect of FNA or LNA on the dog's testis. Twenty three sexually mature, 1 to 2 years old, healthy laboratory Beagles were randomly assigned to 2 groups: (1) 5 dogs without testicular aspiration (control group) and (2) 18 dogs in which one of their testes was aspirated using a 23 G butterfly needle and the other using a 19 G butterfly needle (experimental group). Two dogs at a time were castrated 10 minutes, 60 minutes, 2, 14, 29, 63, 76, 90 or 180 days post-aspiration. The control group was also castrated 2, 29, 63, 90 or 180 days after the beginning of the experiment. Following castration, in vitro ultrasonographic, gross anatomic, cytological examinations of epididymal sperm, bacteriologic and histological examinations of the testes were performed. Following testicular FNA and LNA bacteriologic, gross anatomic, histologic, epididymal sperm findings and the in vitro ultrasonographic appearance of the testis were normal, except of intratesticular haemorrhage, detected the first days post-aspiration, and degeneration of less than 1.5% of the seminiferous tubules. Within the parameters of this experiment, testicular FNA and LNA have no ill effect on the canine testis and therefore, both FNA and LNA should be considered safe. PMID:20875678

Gouletsou, P G; Galatos, A D; Leontides, L S; Sideri, A I

2010-12-01

267

BRAF(V600E) assessment by pyrosequencing in fine needle aspirates of thyroid nodules with concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a reliable assay.  

PubMed

Detection of BRAF mutation in cytology specimens has been proposed as a diagnostic adjunctive tool in evaluation of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology findings. Concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), a disease characterized by thyroid lymphocytic infiltration, is a frequent occurrence. A large lymphocytic infiltrate might reduce the sensitivity of methods employed to detect BRAF mutation in thyroid cytology specimens. To determine whether testing for BRAF mutational status in fine needle aspirates (FNA) is reliable also in the presence of HT lymphocytic infiltration, we assessed the BRAF status by direct sequencing and pyrosequencing in a series of FNAs with and without concomitant HT lymphocytic infiltration. We also performed the same assessment by pyrosequencing in the corresponding tissue samples. Pyrosequencing demonstrated to be more sensitive than direct sequencing. The percentage of mutant BRAF(V600E) alleles was higher in FNAs than in the corresponding tissues, probably because of the lower stromal contamination in FNA than in the sections. In the presence of lymphocytic infiltration, the percentage of mutant BRAF(V600E) alleles determined by pyrosequencing was higher in FNAs than in the corresponding tissue samples (P < 0.0001), indicating a minor lymphocytic contamination in FNA. The diagnostic value of BRAF(V600E) in inconclusive FNAs was not hampered by thyroid lymphocytic infiltration. These results indicate that BRAF(V600E) assessment by pyrosequencing is a reliable assay useful to refine inconclusive cytology of thyroid nodules also in the presence of concurrent HT. PMID:23775008

Guerra, Anna; Di Stasi, Vincenza; Zeppa, Pio; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Marotta, Vincenzo; Vitale, Mario

2014-03-01

268

Next Generation Sequencing Improves the Accuracy of KRAS Mutation Analysis in Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration Pancreatic Lesions  

PubMed Central

The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

269

Next generation sequencing improves the accuracy of KRAS mutation analysis in endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration pancreatic lesions.  

PubMed

The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

270

Aspiration Cytopathology of Peripancreatic Space: A Clinicoradiologic and Cytopathologic Analyses of 42 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background The pancreas is surrounded by soft tissue known as the peripancreatic space (PPS). Pathologic lesions of the PPS are infrequent and have only rarely been reported in the cytopathology literature. Methods A retrospective review of cytopathology files at two large institutions revealed 42 cases of PPS lesions obtained by transabdominal fine needle aspiration (FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA over a 16-year period. Clinicoradiologic findings and follow-up information were also reviewed. Results Patients ranged in age from 23-83 years (mean, 60 years) with an equal gender distribution. The major clinical presentations included pain, jaundice, nausea/vomiting, and abnormal liver enzymes. Radiographic characteristics included lymphadenopathy and cystic/solid soft tissue masses with a size range of 1.5 to 8 cm. Cytologically, 4 (9.5%) cases were nondiagnostic, 9 (21.5%) were diagnosed as benign, 4 (9.5%) were atypical or suspicious for cancer, and 25 (59.5%) were malignant. Six of 25 (24%) patients had metastasis of a prior known malignancy. Conclusions FNA of PPS masses is a rare occurrence. The majority of lesions are metastatic carcinomas from a variety of primary sites. Flow cytometry and immunoperoxidase studies are useful adjuncts to determine the tumor origin. The sensitivity of PPS aspiration for a malignant diagnosis is 90% with a positive predictive value of 100%. PMID:23837019

Bishop, Justin; Zhang, Wei; Ioffe, Olga B.

2013-01-01

271

'Speaking valve' aspiration in a laryngectomy patient.  

PubMed

Tracheo-oesophageal speech using a one-way speaking valve is a common mode of speech rehabilitation for laryngectomy patients. Aspiration of this device can cause significant airway obstruction and pose anaesthetic and surgical challenges during its retrieval. In this case report, we describe our management of a patient who had had a laryngectomy who aspirated his speaking valve through his stoma. Emergency retrieval of the valve was performed, during which difficulties were encountered, first in obtaining an adequate seal for pre-oxygenation, and second in maintaining adequate oxygen saturation. We discuss some innovative techniques that could be used to address these issues. PMID:20191798

Rao Kadam, V; Lambert, P; Pant, H; O'Reilly, M

2010-01-01

272

Teaching conventional transbronchial needle aspiration. A continuum.  

PubMed

Proponents of the endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) propose that in this era of EBUS-TBNA, training for conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) should be abandoned. The authors of this editorial provide the opposing view. C-TBNA has a short and a steep learning curve and adds to the diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy in a cost-effective fashion. Considering its simplicity, availability, affordability, safety, and several unique indications, C-TBNA continues to contribute to the welfare of patients worldwide. It should remain as an integral part of pulmonary fellowship training programs. PMID:24364773

Mehta, Atul C; Wang, Ko-Pen

2013-12-01

273

Cytological analysis of reproduction in johnsongrass - Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.  

E-print Network

CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTION IN JOHNSONGRASS ? SORGHUM HALEPENSE (L. ) PERS. A Thesis by BLAIZE NDUBUISI KADURU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Agronomy CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTION IN JOHNSONGRASS ? SORGHUM HALEPENSE (L. ) PERS. A Thesis by . BLAIKE NDUBUISI KADURU Approved as to style and content by: (C airm n of Commi ee) (Member...

Kaduru, Blaize Ndubuisi

2012-06-07

274

Scrape cytology in rare case of hairy tongue  

PubMed Central

Hairy tongue (HT) is a benign condition that causes concern over its abnormal appearance. HT is most commonly seen in adults and is seen as an abnormal coating of the tongue due to hyperkeratosis of filiform lingual papillae. Cytological scraping of the lesion on the tongue was done which showed squamous cells, extraneous material, bacterial colonies, fungal bodies, and hair-like projections, which are the hall mark of the disease. We present a case along with its scrape cytology findings. PMID:21938163

Patil, Rekha; Nayak, Suprita; Munshi, Maitryee; Bobhate, Sudhakar

2009-01-01

275

Use of monoclonal antiestrogen receptor antibody to evaluate estrogen receptor content in fine needle aspiration breast biopsies.  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody prepared against estrogen receptor has been shown to be highly specific and sensitive for the detection and quantification of estrogen receptor in human breast lesions using immunohistochemical methods. A semiquantitative relationship has been shown between the intensity of staining and biochemical receptor analysis. To evaluate the usefulness of this technique in fine needle aspiration biopsies, 41 cases of breast cancer were studied. Nuclear localization of receptor antibody PAP complex was observed. Comparison of the immunocytochemical analysis of the aspiration cytologic specimens to the biochemical analysis of the excised tumor mass revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 89%, respectively. There was a significant semiquantitative correlation between the methods. These results extend the observation that antireceptor monoclonal antibody in immunohistochemical analysis is an effective tool in the evaluation of estrogen receptor content in human breast lesions and with careful specimen handling and proper controls may be extended to the evaluation of fine needle aspiration biopsies. Images FIGS. 1A and B. PMID:3954477

Flowers, J L; Burton, G V; Cox, E B; McCarty, K S; Dent, G A; Geisinger, K R; McCarty, K S

1986-01-01

276

Comparison of the BTA statTM Test with Voided Urine Cytology and Bladder Wash Cytology in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the BTA statTM test (BTA stat), a new one-step immunochromatographic assay that can be performed in the urologist’s office or in the laboratory, to voided urine cytology and bladder wash cytology (cytology) in the diagnosis and monitoring of cancer of the bladder (BC). Methods: BTA stat and cytology were performed in a double-blinded, prospective, clinical study on

Herbert Leyh; Michael Marberger; Pierre Conort; Cora Sternberg; Vito Pansadoro; Francesco Pagano; Pierfrancesco Bassi; Laurent Boccon-Gibod; Vincent Ravery; Uwe Treiber; Laura Ishak

1999-01-01

277

Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.  

PubMed

An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

2013-06-01

278

Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Rural High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 184 rural high school students found no differences in educational aspiration between males and females. Females expressed significantly higher occupational aspirations, in terms of jobs rated highly on the Total Socioeconomic Index 2. (SK)

Apostal, Robert; Bilden, Janet

1991-01-01

279

Ultrasonically-aided percutaneous orbital aspiration.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography is the most effective diagnostic modality for locating and delimiting cystic orbital lesions, and may often provide an accurate tissue diagnosis. A case is presented demonstrating the ability of ultrasonography to aid in the percutaneous aspiration of selected orbital cystic lesions. PMID:523057

Skalka, H W; Callahan, M A

1979-11-01

280

Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

2008-01-01

281

Tracking Student Aspirations: A Work in Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that is concerned with surveying the aspirations of some students in an Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) College and developing strategies to address issues arising from the surveys. The study is essentially a series of surveys, thought it has an action learning aspect because of its developmental…

Thompson, Doug; Nevard, Jennifer

2004-01-01

282

Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

Lin, Meng-Jie

2011-01-01

283

Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

2012-01-01

284

Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

2007-01-01

285

A Conversation on Mobility, Aspiration and Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On 11 and 12 October 2010, the National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education held its second annual "Student Equity in Higher Education National Conference" in Melbourne, Australia. The conference theme was "Aspiration, Mobility, Voice". During the conference the three keynote speakers--Gareth Parry (University of Sheffield, UK), Jane…

Critical Studies in Education, 2011

2011-01-01

286

Level of aspiration, or probability of success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Level of aspiration (LA) may be valid index of S's feelings of success or failure in a situation where he is free to change his goal from one trial to the next; but if the goal he is trying to achieve is established and maintained by agencies over which he has no control, his estimate of the probability of success

James C. Diggory

1964-01-01

287

The Gap between Aspiration and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

Tuckett, Alan

2013-01-01

288

Cytological characterization and histogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma.  

PubMed

In addition to a light-microscopical and histochemical investigation of primary and metastic lesions in 27 cases of Ewing's sarcoma, biopsy materials from the primary bone lesions of 7 patients with this neoplasm were examined histochemically, enzyme-cytochemically and electron microscopically to elucidate the histogenesis and nature of the neoplasm. Ultrastructural observation has revealed that besides intracytoplasmic and extracellular deposition of glycogen the tumor cells possess several cytological features characterized by intracytoplasmic microfilaments of varying thickness up to 80 A, occasional appearance of dense patches, fat droplets, desmosomal connections and reminiscent attachment bodies. The tumor cells are mostly round, oval or polygonal in shape, but spindle or elongated cells are intermingled and occasionally contain well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, resembling pericytes or fibroblasts. In the intercellular spaces amongst the tumor cells, varying amounts of variable-shaped amorphous materials are found, which are compatible with acid mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins histochemically verified. These findings may suggest that Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasm originating from a transitional cell developed from pericytes to vascular smooth muscle cells in the bone marrow. PMID:132079

Kojima, M

1976-03-01

289

Modern imaging techniques and ultrasound-guided aspiration cytology for the assessment of neck node metastases: a prospective comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although palpation has proved to be an unreliable staging procedure, the indications for and the implications of more reliable radiologic staging methods for the neck in patients with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck remain controversial. Only a very accurate imaging technique can replace neck dissection in clinical NO disease. This study compares the value of

M. W. M. van den Brekel; J. A. Castelijns; H. V. Stel; R. P. Golding; C. J. L. Meyer; G. B. Snow

1993-01-01

290

Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

2010-01-01

291

The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

Somerville, Margaret

2013-01-01

292

The Clinical Spectrum of Foreign Body Aspiration in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to report on the clinical spectrum of complica- tions of foreign body aspiration in a selected group of children. The following case reports were selected as uncommon complications of foreign body aspiration. Nine infants and children aged 11 months to 12 years presented with a broad spectrum of complica- tions of foreign body aspiration. Two presented as

Mohammad M. Saleem

293

Students’ School Motivation and Aspiration Over High School Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students from a school in Hong Kong (n?=?199) responded to 22 items asking about their school motivation and aspirations in a survey. Structural equation models found four school motivation factors consistent with the task, effort, competition, and praise scales of the Inventory of School Motivation, one education aspiration factor, one career aspiration factor, and significant relations of the motivation factors

Alexander Seeshing Yeung; Dennis M. McInerney

2005-01-01

294

Educational Opportunities and Occupational Aspirations: A Two-Dimensional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues against the one-dimensional approach to the study of occupational aspirations, noting that standard scales of aspiration cannot identify those who aim at occupations that generate high income but require low education. Demonstrates a new index of occupational aspirations. Discusses the impact educational tracking may have on the nature of…

Ayalon, Hanna; Yuchtman-Yaar, Ephraim

1989-01-01

295

USERS GUIDE FOR ASPIRE 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION SOFTWARE  

E-print Network

USERS GUIDE FOR ASPIRE 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION SOFTWARE Jeffrey A. Fessler COMMUNICATIONS & SIGNAL for public release; distribution unlimited. #12;Users guide for ASPIRE 3D image reconstruction software is a users guide for the iterative 3D image reconstruction portion of the ASPIRE software suite

Fessler, Jeffrey A.

296

Aspiring to physical health: The role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess aspirations for physical health over 18 months. To examine whether maintained importance of aspirations for physical health mediated and\\/or moderated the effect of an intensive intervention on long-term tobacco abstinence.

Christopher P. Niemiec; Richard M. Ryan; Edward L. Deci; Geoffrey C. Williams

2009-01-01

297

Risk and outcome of aspiration pneumonia in a city hospital.  

PubMed Central

Because aspiration pneumonia contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, this study was undertaken to identify risk factors for morbidity and mortality associated with aspiration pneumonia. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia in 1985 and 1990 were studied. Factors associated with death from aspiration pneumonia were: altered mental status, cerebrovascular accident, endotracheal intubation, tachycardia, and hypoxemia. Fever, cough, and unilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph were associated with survival. Attention to proper positioning of comatose patients, aggressive treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and strict attention to endotracheal tubes and tracheostomies should decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with aspiration pneumonia. PMID:8350375

Jones, J.

1993-01-01

298

Cytology of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma in pleural effusion.  

PubMed

We report a case of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma focusing on its cytological features in pleural effusion. A 32-year-old man had noticed a tumor in his left buttock 5 years earlier but had not sought treatment because the tumor had been painless. He visited our hospital because the tumor had gradually increased in size. The resected tumor was 12 × 8 × 6 cm in size and had a delineated margin. The histological diagnosis was sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma with a negative surgical margin. Multiple tumor nodules were recognized in both lungs 9 months after the initial surgery, and an excisional biopsy was performed. A histological examination revealed a metastasis of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, and chemotherapy was initiated. Pleural disseminations were detected 4 years after the chemotherapy, and the pleural effusion was sampled for cytological examination. The cytological examination revealed several medium-sized cell clusters with moderate overcrowding and an epithelioid cell arrangement; numerous histiocytes and lymphocytes and a small amount of mesothelial cells were observed in the background. The nuclei were pleomorphic with oval, spindle, or cleaved shapes and occasional multinucleation; they were located eccentrically in the cytoplasm and exhibited uniformly fine granular chromatin, a thin nuclear membrane, and several small nucleoli. The above cytological features, coupled with the clinical findings, enabled a diagnosis of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first cytological description of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. PMID:20091700

Tsuchido, Keiko; Yamada, Makoto; Satou, Tamami; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Shin-ichi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

299

Hypercalcitoninemia and thyroid nodules: When cytology (still) matters.  

PubMed

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can assume various cytomorphological and architectural forms, mimicking other thyroid and extra-thyroid tumors and rendering the cytological and histological diagnosis challenging. Consequently, measurement of calcitonin (CT) levels is generally considered to be more accurate than cytology in diagnosing MTC. Here, we report on a patient with a multinodular goiter and significantly elevated basal CT levels; based on cytology examination and CT immunocytostains, neither MTC nor C-cell hyperplasia was detected upon final histopathological examination. CT testing has a high false-positive rate and low positive predictive value for detecting clinically relevant MTC. Judicious integration of cytological examination with immunocytochemical stains (when needed) may be useful for selecting the most appropriate therapy and avoiding overtreatment (i.e., central neck lymph node dissection in the present case). This case demonstrates that cytological examination with ancillary techniques is still valuable in patients with thyroid nodules and suspicious MTC. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:970-973. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24550235

Giovanella, Luca; Giugliano, Gioacchino; Maffini, Fausto A; Chiesa, Fausto; Bongiovanni, Massimo

2014-11-01

300

[Bone marrow aspiration. Use and benefits].  

PubMed

Bone marrow aspiration is an old and well-established test procedure, the use of which may rest more on diagnostic tradition than on scientific documentation. Its use was evaluated in a Norwegian regional hospital by registering indication, presence of pathology and clinical "utility" judged from a given definition, in 200 reports on bone marrow aspiration. The result was pathological in 53%, and judged to be clinically useful in 61% of the tests. The diagnostic yield was highest for indications related to bone marrow function, and low for unspecific indications such as fever of unknown origin and elevated SR without M-component. The large number of results with pathological findings that are judged to be clinically useful raise the question of whether use of this test should be increased. PMID:1557761

Hammerstrøm, J

1992-03-10

301

Fracture and aspiration of a tracheostomy tube.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old woman presented with a fracture and aspiration of her polyvinyl chloride tracheostomy tube. Her chest X-ray showed that a foreign body was lodged in the right main bronchus. She was otherwise asymptomatic. The foreign body was removed under general anaesthesia using a flexible bronchoscope. The patient developed pneumonia after the procedure and was admitted to the intensive care unit. She was discharged home 5 days after the event with no permanent complications. PMID:24554685

Loh, Tze Ling; Chin, Ronald; Flynn, Peter; Jayachandra, Shruti

2014-01-01

302

Aspiration catheter for percutaneous thrombectomy: clinical results.  

PubMed

The clinical application of an aspiration thrombectomy system is presented. The system consists of a 7-F Teflon catheter with a rotating coaxial propeller-tipped wire. Thrombectomy was successful in treating occlusion of two femoropopliteal arteries and one hemodialysis implant but was not completely successful in a draining shunt vein. Preliminary results are encouraging; mechanical thrombectomy may offer an alternative to local lysis therapy. PMID:2315493

Guenther, R W; Vorwerk, D

1990-04-01

303

Involvement of periodontopathic anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has linked the anaerobic bacteria forming periodontopathic biofilms with aspiration pneumonia in elderly persons. In experiments designed to eliminate the potent respiratory pathogens forming biofilms in the oral cavity, we have shown that the mechanical and chemical oral cleansing using povidone-iodine effectively reduced the detection rates and numbers of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae in patients scheduled to undergo oral surgery requiring endotracheal intubation. We confirmed the pathogenicity of periodontopathic anaerobic bacteria for aspiration pneumonia in an experimental mouse model. Based upon the finding of the coexistence of Porphyromonas gingivalis with Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis lesions, we innoculated a mixed culture of P. gingivalis and T. denticola into the mouse trachea; the resulting infection induced inflammatory cytokine production and caused pneumonia. In another series of investigations, professional oral health care (POHC), mainly cleansing administered by dental hygienists once a week for 24 months to elderly persons requiring daily care, resulted in the reduction of the number of total anaerobes, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus species and in the number of cases of fatal aspiration pneumonia. We also found that the POHC treatment of elderly persons for 6 months in the winter season reduced the salivary levels of protease, trypsin-like activity, and neuraminidase and also decreased the frequency of influenza cases. PMID:16277588

Okuda, Katsuji; Kimizuka, Ryuta; Abe, Shu; Kato, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

2005-11-01

304

A randomized trial comparing conventional cytology to liquid-based cytology and computer assistance.  

PubMed

Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional cytology (CC) for cervical cancer screening in some countries. However, it remains unclear whether LBC is superior to CC. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between August 2007 and March 2009 in Germany to compare LBC, alone and in combination with computer-assisted imaging technology (CAS), to CC in the detection of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The main outcome measures were detection rates, relative sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs) and relative PPVs comparing LBC without and with CAS to CC. Primary histological outcome was CIN2 or higher. Included were 20,627 women participating in opportunistic cervical cancer screening at 20 gynecologic practices. The practices were randomized weekly to use LBC (n = 11,331) or CC (n = 9,296). Patients with positive findings were invited to expert colposcopy. The relative sensitivity of LBC versus CC using the CIN2+ cut-off was 2.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-4.53). The relative sensitivity of LBC/CAS versus CC for CIN2+ was 3.17 (95% CI 1.94-5.19). The PPV of LBC and CC for CIN2+ was 48% and 38%, respectively. The PPV ratio did not differ significantly from unity. Differences between LBC and CC were smaller in some sensitivity and subgroup analyses; however, relative sensitivity of LBC remained increased. LBC without and with CAS compared with CC under the field conditions of an opportunistic screening system had a significantly higher sensitivity for the detection of CIN without deterioration of PPVs. Additional use of CAS did not further improve sensitivity of LBC. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23175270

Klug, Stefanie J; Neis, Klaus J; Harlfinger, Werner; Malter, Armin; König, Jochem; Spieth, Sibylle; Brinkmann-Smetanay, Friederike; Kommoss, Friedrich; Weyer, Veronika; Ikenberg, Hans

2013-06-15

305

RESEARCH ARTICLE Cytological analysis of MRE11 protein during early meiotic  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Cytological analysis of MRE11 protein during early meiotic prophase I their components or how they may be involved in these events. In this study, we describe the cytological behavior

Anderson, Lorinda K.

306

Cytometry: The Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, Supplement 6, 1993: Abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This contains the 465 presentation and poster abstracts for the XVI Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, March 1993. Plenary Sessions included the following: Industrial Cytometry; Clinical Issues (in Cytology); Molecular Pathology; biotechnology; new biology; temporal cytometry.

Mayall, B.H.; Landay, A.L.; Shapiro, H.M.; Visser, J.W.M. [eds.

1993-12-31

307

CT-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the inferior vena cava wall: a posterior coaxial approach.  

PubMed

A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis. PMID:19214626

Kos, Sebastian; Bilecen, Deniz; Baumhoer, Daniel; Guillaume, Nicolas; Jacob, Augustinus L

2010-02-01

308

CT-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Inferior Vena Cava Wall: A Posterior Coaxial Approach  

SciTech Connect

A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis.

Kos, Sebastian, E-mail: skos@gmx.de; Bilecen, Deniz [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology (Switzerland); Baumhoer, Daniel [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Pathology (Switzerland); Guillaume, Nicolas [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine (Switzerland); Jacob, Augustinus L. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology (Switzerland)

2010-02-15

309

Role of imprint cytology in intraoperative diagnosis: value and limitations.  

PubMed Central

Imprints prepared from fresh surgical specimens give excellent cytological clarity. Used intraoperatively, the imprint method can provide valuable information when frozen-section interpretation is equivocal. However, cytologically well-differentiated tumours and tumours with a dense fibrous stroma, constituting 6% of the cases in the present series, cannot be diagnosed by this method. To increase diagnostic accuracy we recommend the combined use of imprints and frozen sections. The imprint technique requires little additional work and does not delay the frozen-section procedure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (a) Fig. 2 (b) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:641209

Suen, K C; Wood, W S; Syed, A A; Quenville, N F; Clement, P B

1978-01-01

310

Percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions; fine needle aspiration biopsy versus core biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the results and complication rate in CT guided percutaneous trans-thoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and core biopsies of lung lesions, and to determine the applicability of these needles. Patients and methods In 242 patients (166 males; 76 females) with mean age of 58.9 years (13–84 years) CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were performed on dual slice CT equipment. The average diameter of lung lesion was 2.9 cm (1.2–6.3 cm). For FNAB’s 20 – 22 G Chiba needles and for core biopsies 14 G biopsy needles were used. The samples were sent for the histological analysis. The cytological or histological results and the eventual complications were compared. Results FNAB’s cytological samples were adequate for definitive diagnosis in 117 patients (79.60 %) and inadequate in 30 patients (20.40 %). Core biopsies samples were adequate in 92 (96.85 %) patients and non- representative (necrotic tissue) in 3 (3.15 %). Pneumothorax as the most frequent complication was detected in 14 (9.7 %) of the patients in the group of FNAB’s and in 30 (31.5 %) of the patients with the core biopsy group. Conclusions The results showed that percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were an effective and safe procedure in the diagnosis of lung lesions. Core biopsy gives a higher percentage of representative samples than FNAB, and is a preferred method regardless of the higher rate of complications. PMID:22933975

Beslic, Serif; Zukic, Fuad; Milisic, Selma

2012-01-01

311

Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of ipsilateral synchronous neoplasm - mucoepidermoid carcinoma with warthin tumor in parotid gland.  

PubMed

Warthin tumor (WT) owing to its heterogeneous appearance, biological behavior and multicentricity poses a diagnostic challenge to cytologists worldwide. We report a rare double pathology of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) with WT which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). Cytological smears revealed sheets of epithelial cells and small clusters of squamous cells in a background of mucoid material along with a few small groups and scattered oncocytic cells and inflammatory cells (mainly lymphocytes). In view of the cytological findings various differentials such as oncocytic lesions, benign lesions of the parotid with extensive lymphoid reaction, necrotizing sialometaplasia, WT with extensive squamous/mucoid metaplasia, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with or without cystic change, oncocytic variant of MEC and a possibility of a synchronous MEC with WT were considered. By means of extensive review of the smears and clinic-pathological meets as discussed below, 2 differential diagnoses were given- MEC with WT versus an oncocytic variant of MEC with "?" lymphoid (tumor response) reaction. Subsequent histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of MEC with WT. Recent discovery of t(11; 19) translocation generating a novel fusion gene CRTC1/MAML2 which has been demonstrated in both MEC and WT has helped in providing the missing link in confirming the genetic relatedness and proof of development of a subset of WT with concomitant MEC. The case discusses the FNA findings of a rare collision tumor (MEC with WT), its possible differentials and highlights the importance of noting the background material in a case of double pathology on FNA. PMID:22227551

Kaur, J; Mannan, R; Duggal, P; Bhasin, T S; Manjari, M

2012-01-01

312

The importance of team work of cytologist and surgeon in preoperative diagnosis of intraoral minor salivary gland tumours.  

PubMed

Tumours arising from oral minor salivary glands may exhibit an overlap of clinical and morphological features that may produce diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. The aim of this study is to asses the value of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in differentiation of benign and malignant tumours and to render a specific diagnosis. We evaluated the team work of surgeon and cytologist to improve diagnostic accuracy. Two steps are important for accuracy: sampling aspirate that should be done together by surgeon and cytologist and cytological microscopic analysis of the smears that should be performed by an experienced cytologist. The study included 132 patients with intraoral minor salivary gland tumours between 2002 and 2011. Adequate material was obtained from 121 (91.7%) patients. FNAC was usually performed by cytologist in a team with maxillofacial surgeon at cytology department that is more convenient for preparing the samples and especially for ROSE procedure (rapid-on site evaluation) of smears. In such a way the cytologist checked the adequacy of samples and decided whether some ancillary techniques should be used and therefore repeat FNAC. A total of 82 patients underwent surgery, 40 with malignant and 42 with benign tumours. Preoperative cytological diagnoses were compared with histopathological ones using histopathology as a gold standard. The most common benign tumour was pleomorphic adenoma and among malignant tumours adenoid cystic carcinoma. The most commonly affected site was the palate. The team work of surgeon and cytologist achieved specificity of 95.1%, sensitivity of 97.6% and diagnostic accuracy of 96.3%. We can conclude that although subclassification of some tumour types of salivary glands remains poor, FNAC is invaluable in patient triage and therefore should be considered in the first line investigations of these lesions by the cytologist and surgeon. PMID:23397776

Ostovi?, Karmen Trutin; Luksi?, Ivica; Virag, Miso; Macan, Darko; Müllers, Danko; Manojlovi?, Spomenka

2012-11-01

313

SEGMENTATION OF CYTOLOGICAL IMAGES USING COLOR AND MATHEMATICAL Lezoray Olivier *,1,3  

E-print Network

SEGMENTATION OF CYTOLOGICAL IMAGES USING COLOR AND MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY Lezoray Olivier *,1 on color images from serous cytology. The aim of this paper is to present the strategy of the first part.5% for the nuclei and 93% for the cytoplasm. Our morphological color segmentation of cytological serous images

Lezoray, Olivier

314

CYTOTECHNOLOGISTS are health professionals who practice diagnostic cytology, the examination of cells removed from all body  

E-print Network

1 #12;2 #12;3 CYTOTECHNOLOGISTS are health professionals who practice diagnostic cytology abnormalities and to correlate cytologic findings with clinical information before a diagnosis is rendered Outlook The use of diagnostic cytology as a tool in the early detection of cancer has increased throughout

Cheng, Mei-Fang

315

Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to,  

E-print Network

Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare. Citation: Gruhn JR, Rubio C, Broman KW, Hunt PA, Hassold T (2013) Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex

Broman, Karl W.

316

Evaluation of the Quantitative Cytological Changes in the Epithelium of the Uterine Cervix  

E-print Network

6 5 Evaluation of the Quantitative Cytological Changes in the Epithelium of the Uterine Cervix Sofia 2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University ­ Sofia Abstract: The cytological annually [1]. The cytological gynecological investigation is the basic method for observing the early

Borissova, Daniela

317

PDES-BASED MORPHOLOGY ON GRAPHS FOR CYTOLOGICAL SLIDES SEGMENTATION AND CLUSTERING  

E-print Network

PDES-BASED MORPHOLOGY ON GRAPHS FOR CYTOLOGICAL SLIDES SEGMENTATION AND CLUSTERING Xavier the problem of cytological computer-aided diagnos- tic. Such approach uses our previously introduced formal a microscope. This is a complex process as a cytological slide can contains millions of cells on which abnormal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Cytology Submission Form College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University AHDC Accession No. / Date  

E-print Network

Cytology Submission Form College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University AHDC Accession No Monday through Friday. AHDC Acct. No.____________ Sampling Date Please check all that apply: p Cytology field). Page ____ of ____ VSS-FORM-002-V.06 Smears Submitted CYTOLOGY TESTS REQUESTED : Species Breed

Keinan, Alon

319

Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.  

PubMed

Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

2014-09-01

320

Income, aspirations and the Hedonic Treadmill in a poor society  

Microsoft Academic Search

► The paper estimates the determinants of income need and of subjective well-being. ► Income need is found in part to represent aspirations for income. ► ‘Aspiration income’ is a positive function of actual income and of reference income. ► Subjective well-being is raised by actual income and lowered by aspiration income. ► The findings suggest the existence of a

John Knight; Ramani Gunatilaka

2012-01-01

321

Thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.  

PubMed

The main goal of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is to achieve not only restoration of flow in the epicardial coronary artery, but also reperfusion at the level of myocardial tissue. Distal embolization is a possible complication of PPCI; in these patients, a microvascular injury occurs, which finally leads to a lack of myocardial reperfusion. Thrombus aspiration during PPCI has been proposed to prevent embolization. Several different thrombectomy devices have been demonstrated to be well tolerated and effective in improving surrogate markers of myocardial reperfusion; furthermore, in a few studies, the use of thrombectomy was associated with an improvement of clinical outcome. Because study results appeared largely inconsistent, especially about clinical outcome data, several meta-analyses have been carried out, showing that thrombectomy is able to improve markers of myocardial reperfusion and that manual thrombectomy is associated with better results in terms of myocardial reperfusion and clinical outcome, compared with embolic protection or mechanical thrombectomy devices, probably due to its easy and time-sparing use with low rate of complication. Literature data, based mainly on the Thrombus Aspiration During Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (TAPAS) trial, indicate a favourable effect on outcome of routine manual thrombectomy strategy and the recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) guidelines on myocardial revascularization recommend thrombus aspiration during PPCI. However, data on long-term clinical outcome are still inconsistent and no trials have been, at the present time, designed to assess hard endpoint. In this review, we have carefully analysed literature data on thrombectomy during PPCI, taking into account the most recent studies and the last meta-analyses; study results have been compared to verify if either a routine or a selective use of thrombectomy should be adopted and to assess whether the use of thrombectomy may finally improve clinical outcome. PMID:21986489

Picchi, Andrea; Limbruno, Ugo

2012-01-01

322

Anatomical and Cytological Sex of a Saanen Goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Saanen goat registered as female was found to have a pair of abdominal testes, a well developed uterus and a prominent clitoris. The chromosome features of peripheral leukocytes and the nuclear sex chromatin pattern of lymphocytes and testicular cells conformed to those of a cytological female. The testicular tissue showed all stages of meiosis and fully formed sperm indicating

Parvathi K. Basrur; R. I. Coubrough

1964-01-01

323

A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Turki, T. A., Filfilan, S. A. & Mehmood, S. F.: A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia. - Willdenowia 30: 339-358. 2000. - ISSN 000-000. The chromosome numbers of 31 taxa belonging to 14 families of angiosperms collected from dif- ferent regions of Saudi Arabia are reported. These include first chromosome number reports for six species: Anabasis setifera

TURKI A. AL-TURKI; SHAFIK A. FILFILAN; SYED F. MEHMOOD

324

Managing women with human papillomavirus changes in cervical cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 86 women with cervical cytological evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection who underwent colposcopy, 55 yielded histological confirmation of HPV infection and 17 of them had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 51 women followed up six months after cryotherapy of their cervical lesions, 46 showed no evidence of HPV infection in their cervices. Of the patients with CIN lesions,

S J Winceslaus; C Brown; B T Goh

1988-01-01

325

The Value of Cervical Cytology in HIV-Infected Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of cytology to predict the results of colposcopically directed cervical biopsies in HIV-infected women. We performed a case-control study of 52 HIV(+), 31% of whom had AIDS, and 57 HIV(-) women referred to two tertiary care centers for colposcopy from July 1991 to November 1993. All 57 HIV(-) controls and

Giuseppe Del Priore; Terry Maag; Mondira Bhattacharya; Patricia M. Garcia; Michele Till; John R. Lurain

1995-01-01

326

Application of Bethesda System for Cervical Cytology in Unhealthy Cervix  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Women presenting with unhealthy cervix needs to be evaluated with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear for epithelial abnormalities. Aim: To detect epithelial cell abnormalities in unhealthy cervix using the 2001Bethesda system of reporting for cervical cytology and to confirm histopathologicaly the findings of Pap smear. Materials and Methods: In this study, 125 women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix underwent conventional cytology. Cervical biopsies were taken from abnormal areas seen on colposcopy and sent for histopathology. Results: Out of 125 Pap smears, 122 were satisfactory for evaluation (19 normal, 86 negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and 17 with epithelial cell abnormality) and 3 were unsatisfactory (one hemorrhagic and two severe inflammation). Out of 17 (13.60%) cases with epithelial cell abnormality, ASC-US was seen in 6 (4.80%), LSIL in 7 (5.60%), HSIL in 1 (0.80%), squamous cell carcinoma in 1 (0.80%), AGC endocervical in 1 (0.80%) and adenocarcinoma in 1 (0.80%) patients. Cervical biopsy was taken in 67 women. Diagnostic accuracy of Pap smear for preinvasive and invasive disease was 81.15% with overall sensitivity and specificity 78.57% and 88.67% respectively and predictive value of 64.71%. Conclusion: Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. The Bethesda system for cervical cytology reporting should be used universally as it will give a standardized interpretation. PMID:25386491

Jain, Veena; Kaur, Tejinder

2014-01-01

327

Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation  

E-print Network

Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

2011-01-01

328

Equine bronchoalveolar lavage cytology: survey of thoroughbred racehorses in training.  

PubMed

Sixty-two Thoroughbred horses aged between 1 and 7 years in training in Sydney had bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples collected for cytological examination. All horses, except the yearlings and those with a cough, had raced at the time of the examination and the trainers reported satisfactory performance. Free erythrocytes were found in 73% of samples and haemosiderophages in 90% of the samples, indicating immediate or past occurrences of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Bronchoalveolar fluid from the yearlings contained significantly less (P < 0.05) erythrocytes and haemosiderophages than samples from horses in other age groups. In the older horses, there was also more haemosiderin within the macrophages. No differences in BAL cytology could be attributed to gender, and there was no relationship between BAL cytology and racing performance. The main cytological findings were (mean +/- sd): total nucleated cells--832 +/- 578/microL with the main cell types being: macrophages--59 +/- 10% (haemosiderophages--20 +/- 24%); neutrophils--9 +/- 6%; lymphocytes--31 +/- 9%. The erythrocyte count was 10.3 +/- 17.7% of the total cell count. Horses with chronic coughing had a higher proportion of macrophages and a lower proportion of lymphocytes in the leucocytes obtained from BAL. There was a higher occurrence of EIPH detected in BAL findings than that previously reported when endoscopic examination has been used to diagnose EIPH. The occurrence and severity of EIPH as indicated by the BAL findings was found to be related to exercise intensity. The cytological findings were similar to those reported in horses in the northern hemisphere.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8280021

McKane, S A; Canfield, P J; Rose, R J

1993-11-01

329

Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears  

PubMed Central

Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG)-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s) containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC) from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas). There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin) and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark), and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France). Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC). The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4%) was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post fixation in formalin is necessary for ISH. PMID:22574078

Beraki, Elsa; Olsen, Thale Kristin; Sauer, Torill

2012-01-01

330

HER2 Expression in Fine Needle Aspirates of Lymph Nodes Detected by Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of HER2 levels in ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNA) aspirates of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in the determination of lymph node metastasis or the characterization of primary breast cancer, and to correlate the HER2 levels in US-FNA aspirates (FNA-HER2s) of metastatic ALNs with the HER2 statuses of corresponding primary breast cancers. An institutional review board approved the study. Between January and October 2010, 164 patients with 167 ALNs examined by US-FNA were included. FNA-HER2s of ALNs were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and they were correlated with cytologic/final diagnoses. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic ability to differentiate benign and metastatic ALNs. Additionally, FNA-HER2s of metastatic ALNs were correlated with HER2 status and other clinicopathologic variables of the primary breast cancers. Among the 167 ALNs, 138 were metastatic and 29 were benign. The mean FNA-HER2 (6.3 ng/ml) of metastatic ALNs was higher than that of benign ALNs. All 29 benign ALNs showed no measurable value of FNA-HER2 (0.0 ng/ml). The area under the ROC curves of FNA-HER2 of ALNs was 0.679 for the diagnosis of ALN metastasis. The FNA-HER2 statuses of 108 metastatic ALNs (79.4%) were concordant with the HER2 statuses of the corresponding primary breast cancers. In a subgroup analysis of HER2-positive cancers with ALN metastasis, distant metastasis was significantly associated with FNA-HER2-negativity of metastatic ALNs (P?=?0.04). Although FNA-HER2 of ALNs did not improve the diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in preoperative diagnosis of ALN metastasis of overall patients, FNA-HER2-positive metastatic ALNs were significantly associated with HER2-positivity of primary breast cancers. Additionally, FNA-HER2 analysis of ALN may help to develop more personalized treatment protocol for breast cancer patients by determining the concordance or discordance of HER2 status between primary cancers and metastatic ALNs. PMID:25393693

Choi, Ji Soo; Kim, Hyun Ok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Suh, Young Joo; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung

2014-01-01

331

Relationships of Teenage Smoking to Educational Aspirations and Parents' Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that teenagers with less educated parents and teenagers with lower academic aspirations are more likely than their peers to smoke. This study was conducted to provide additional descriptive data concerning the relationships of smoking to parents' education and students' educational aspirations and to provide preliminary…

Waldron, Ingrid; Lye, Diane

332

Aspiring Social Justice Ally Identity Development: A Conceptual Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals who are supportive of social justice efforts are not always effective in their anti-oppression efforts. Some who genuinely aspire to act as social justice allies are harmful, ultimately, despite their best intentions, perpetu- ating the system of oppression they seek to change. Different underlying motivations of those who aspire to be allies can lead to differences in effectiveness, consistency,

Keith E. Edwards

2006-01-01

333

Debridement of vaginal radiation ulcers using the surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator  

SciTech Connect

The surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator (USA) is a fairly new surgical instrument used for an increasingly wide range of procedures. This paper introduces a new application: debridement of vulvovaginal necrotic ulcers resulting from intracavitary radiation therapy. The ultrasonic aspirator allowed removal of the soft, necrotic tissue while preserving underlying healthy, firm tissue and blood vessels.

Vanderburgh, E.; Nahhas, W.A. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine, Dayton, OH (USA))

1990-10-01

334

Income, Aspirations and the Hedonic Treadmill in a Poor Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially designed household survey for rural China is used to analyse the determinants of aspirations for income, proxied by reported minimum income need, and the determinants of subjective well-being, both satisfaction with life and satisfaction with income. It is found that aspiration income is a positive function of actual income and reference income, and that subjective well-being is raised

John Knight; Ramani Gunatilaka

2009-01-01

335

Aspirations and wellbeing in Romanian and US undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

TUpdating cross-cultural research of the past decade on the relationship between life aspirations and wellbeing, we compared Romanian (N?=?69) and US (N?=?64) undergraduates on the contribution of the importance and likelihood of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations to psychological maladjustment and life satisfaction, and on the qualitative meaning they assign to financial success. Similarly to prior studies, we found that

Michael J. Stevens; Petru-Madalin Constantinescu; Andreea Butucescu

2011-01-01

336

Aspirations, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences between American  

E-print Network

1 Aspirations, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences between American Women and Men;2 Aspirations, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences between American Women and Men Anke C, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences between American Women and Men Women start adult life

de Gispert, Adrià

337

Social and Psychological Antecedents of Black Student Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a critical review of research which deals with various aspects of aspirations, expectations and educational attainment, this study attempts to determine the social psychological antecedents of black educational levels of aspiration. The study is based upon data colledted from black sophomore students at a large, predominantly white…

Nacoste, Rupert W.; Scott, Richard R.

338

Vocal Fold Adjustments in Aspirated and Unaspirated Stops in Danish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocal fold adjustments in Danish aspirated and unaspirated stops were investigated by electromyography, photo-electric glottography, and fiberoptic stills. The results show that these two stop types are produced primarily by different types of glottal gesture, rather than by a different timing of the glottal and supraglottal articulations. Other, more general aspects of glottal behaviour in relation to aspiration and devoicing

Birgit Hutters

1985-01-01

339

Mortality, morbidity, and disease severity of patients with aspiration pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Aspiration pneumonia is a common syndrome, although less well characterized than other pneumonia syndromes. We describe a large population of patients with aspiration pneumonia. Methods In this retrospective population study, we queried the electronic medical record at a tertiary-care, university-affiliated hospital from 1996–2006. Patients were initially identified by ICD-9 code 507.x; subsequent physician chart review excluded patients with aspiration pneumonitis and those without a confirmatory radiograph. Patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia were compared to a contemporaneous population of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. We compared CURB-65 predicted mortality with actual 30-day mortality. Results We identified 628 patients with aspiration pneumonia, of which 510 were community-acquired. Median age was 77, with 30-day mortality of 21%. Compared to CAP patients, patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia had more frequent inpatient admission (99% vs. 58%) and ICU admission (38% vs. 14%), higher Charlson comorbidity index (3 vs. 1), and higher prevalence of “do not resuscitate/intubate” orders (24% vs. 11%). CURB-65 predicted mortality poorly in aspiration pneumonia patients (AUC 0.66). Conclusions Patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia are older, have more comorbidities, and demonstrate higher mortality than CAP patients, even after adjustment for age and comorbidities. CURB-65 poorly predicts mortality in this population. PMID:23184866

Lanspa, Michael J.; Jones, Barbara E.; Brown, Samuel M.; Dean, Nathan C.

2013-01-01

340

Performing Desires: The Dilemma of Aspirations and Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors critique the mechanistic notion of aspirations running through much research and policy-making on educational and vocational outcomes. They present a performative model, with individuals drawing on limited social resources to express aspirations within constrained contexts. This argument is illustrated by discussion of the findings of…

St. Clair, Ralf; Benjamin, Amanda

2011-01-01

341

Expectations, Aspirations, and Achievement Among Latino Students of Immigrant Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between various measures of parental and student expectations and aspirations and math achievement among Latino 12th graders of immigrant parents in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS): 2002 database. Findings indicate parental expectations and aspirations were not significant predictors of student achievement after controlling for an index of covariates. Moreover, neither were student expectations, agreement between

Dick M. Carpenter II

2008-01-01

342

Predictors of Aspiration Pneumonia in Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspiration pneumonia is a serious problem for the elderly institutionalized person, often requiring transfer to a hospital and a lengthy stay there. It is associated with a high mortality rate and is very costly to the health care system. The current study sought to determine the key predictors of aspiration pneumonia in a nursing home population with the hope that

Susan E. Langmore; Kimberly A. Skarupski; Pil S. Park; Brant E. Fries

2002-01-01

343

A new acoustic measure for aspiration noise detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new acoustic measure for detecting aspiration noise in vowels. The measure is an index of synchronization between frequency bands around the first and third formants. The measure is based on the principle that the vocal tract responses to the glottal excitation are synchronized between these frequency bands when aspiration noise is absent, and uncorrelated

Carlos Toshinori Ishi

2004-01-01

344

A tale of three aspirations: foreign bodies in the airway  

PubMed Central

Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a serious medical problem, with clinical manifestations ranging from acute asphyxiation to insidious lung damage, as demonstrated by the three presented cases. Patient 1 aspirated during dinner, emergency bronchoscopy retrieved pieces of food, and she fully recovered the following day. Patient 2 presented with recurrent pneumonia and a right lower lobe lung abscess. After right lower lobectomy, pathology revealed a foreign object in the right main stem bronchus, a peanut aspirated one year earlier. Patient 3 became unresponsive several days after spinal surgery. The differential diagnosis included myocardial infarction, stroke, and foreign body aspiration. The patient died and necropsy revealed a foreign body in the right main stem bronchus (cooked meat). Thus, foreign body aspiration is not always suspected clinically, and the pathologist may play an important role in making the diagnosis. Histological identification of the aspirated material may be necessary for definitive diagnosis. Therefore, sections of commonly aspirated foods are presented, together with a 10 year history of aspirated objects received by this institution’s surgical pathology department. PMID:14514789

Pritt, B; Harmon, M; Schwartz, M; Cooper, K

2003-01-01

345

40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63 Section 53.63... Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a) Overview. This...purpose of this test is to ensure that the aspiration of a Class II candidate...

2011-07-01

346

Effects and complications of stereotactic aspiration for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) improves the general condition of patients, promotes improvement of consciousness, and decreases the incidence of pneumonia, but may induce rebleeding. The present study investigated the effects of stereotactic aspiration and factors that inhibit rebleeding in 70 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic aspiration for ICH. Consciousness was significantly improved after surgery. Of patients who underwent surgery on day 0 or 1, 5 patients developed pneumonia and 29 patients did not. Of patients who underwent surgery on day 2 or later, 14 patients developed pneumonia and 22 patients did not. Early surgery within 2 days significantly reduced the rate of aspiration pneumonia. Patients with rebleeding tended to have liver dysfunction and hemorrhagic tendency. Early stereotactic aspiration of ICH facilitates better patient management than conservative treatment in patients with moderate consciousness disturbance. Patients with liver dysfunction and hemorrhagic tendency should be identified. PMID:20671378

Umebayashi, Daisuke; Mandai, Ayako; Osaka, Yasuhiko; Nakahara, Yoshikazu; Tenjin, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

347

Can Nature Make Us More Caring? Effects of Immersion in Nature on Intrinsic Aspirations and Generosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies examined the effects of nature on valuing intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. Intrinsic aspirations reflected prosocial and other-focused value orientations, and extrinsic aspirations predicted self-focused value orientations. Participants immersed in natural environ- ments reported higher valuing of intrinsic aspirations and lower valuing of extrinsic aspirations, whereas those immersed in non-natural environments reported increased valuing of extrinsic aspirations and no

Netta Weinstein; Andrew K. Przybylski; Richard M. Ryan

2009-01-01

348

Acid aspiration-induced airways hyperresponsiveness in mice  

PubMed Central

The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH (1.8) equivalent to the upper range of typical gastric contents would lead to AHR in naive mice. We further speculated that modest reductions in aspirate acidity to a level expected during gastric acid suppression therapy (pH 4.0) would impede aspiration-induced AHR. BALB/c female mice were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane and allowed to aspirate 75 ?l of saline with HCl (pH 1.8, 4.0, or 7.4) or underwent sham aspiration. Mice were re-anesthetized 2 or 24 h later, underwent tracheostomy, and were coupled to a mechanical ventilator. Forced oscillations were used to periodically measure respiratory impedance (Zrs) following aerosol delivery of saline and increasing doses of methacholine to measure for AHR. Values for elastance (H), airways resistance (RN), and tissue damping (G) were derived from Zrs. Aspirate pH of 1.8 led to a significant overall increase in peak RN, G, and H compared with pH 4.0 and 7.4 at 2 and 24 h. Differences between pH 7.4 and 4.0 were not significant. In mice aspirating pH 1.8 compared with controls, airway lavage fluid contained more neutrophils, higher protein, and demonstrated higher permeability. We conclude that acid aspiration triggers an acute AHR, driven principally by breakdown of epithelial barrier integrity within the airways. PMID:19797689

Leclair, Timothy R.; von Reyn, Jessica; Larrabee, Yuna C.; Cloutier, Mary E.; Irvin, Charles G.; Bates, Jason H. T.

2009-01-01

349

Destroyed lung due to aspiration of phenolphthalein.  

PubMed

A 76-year-old female, presented with a recurrent cough and haemoptysis after an aspiration of a 'grain de Valls'. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated an atelectasis of the medial segment of the right middle pulmonary lobe. Bronchoscopy was negative for any malignancy but the onco-PET-scan showed a pathologic hypermetabolic lesion in the right middle lobe. A lobectomy was performed and pathology revealed a 'destroyed lung' with images of foreign body reactions and microabscesses without any sign of malignancy. Postoperatively, clinical improvement with complete resolution of the symptoms was observed. With this case report we demonstrate the irritative and clastogenic characteristics of phenolphtalein, the main active ingredient of the 'grain de Valls'. This case also illustrates an example of a false positive PET-scan. PMID:16315846

De Wulf, M; Ceuppens, H; Gheysens, B; Inderadjaja, N

2005-01-01

350

Higher Education -ASPIRE Program Concept IRU Australia has developed this concept for a Higher Education (HE) ASPIRE program to  

E-print Network

1 of 4 Higher Education - ASPIRE Program Concept IRU Australia has developed this concept for a Higher Education (HE) ­ ASPIRE program to stimulate discussion about possible new approaches to addressing the under-representation of disadvantaged Australians in higher education. The IRU Australia

351

Building and using a PACS in pathology and cytology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in Pathology and Cytology are currently hardly used in the diagnostic process. Here we describe a system that, together with existing equipment, stores data from cervix smears, and aids the physician in the diagnostic process. The system comprises of a scanning system for the specimen and a multi-level storage system partly on disk and partly on optical media. The system adds additional benefits in the diagnostic process while at the same time provides a safe long-term storage and archive of the data. Due to the open nature and the cost-effectiveness of this solution applications of this system can be found not only in cervical cytology but also in pathology or other parts of medicine where image processing or storage is a major issue.

van Drunen, Rudi; van Teylingen, Geert; Boon, Mathilde E.; Kok, Lambrecht P.

2001-08-01

352

Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

1988-01-01

353

Cytological relationships of selected species of Panicum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytological investigation of 12 taxa ofPanicum L. revealed that the vast majority of them have the basic number x=9 at different ploidy levels. The basic number x=8 was\\u000a recorded only in the tetraploid speciesP. maximum with 2n=32. The diploid number 2n=18 was encountered inP. capillare, P. laevifolium, P. antidotale andP. coloratum (2) with 3B-chromosomes recorded in the latter species.

M. A. Hamoud; S. A. Haroun; R. D. MacLeod; A. J. Richards

1994-01-01

354

Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.  

PubMed

As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:939-943. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24692343

Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

2014-11-01

355

411 The Classification of Allergic Rhinitis and Its Cytological Correlate  

PubMed Central

Background The ARIA document introduced a new classification of allergic rhinitis, based on its duration and severity, which is graded on the basis of the impact of AR on daily activities and quality of life. Nasal cytology is a simple and reliable diagnostic tool to identify the presence and type of inflammation in rhinitis. Thus, we assessed severity of AR by nasal cytology on the basis of the ARIA classification. Methods Patients suffering from AR caused by grass pollen only, and healthy subjects were studied. The severity of rhinitis was defined according to ARIA. All subjects underwent nasal cytology, using a Rhino-probe. Scrapings were air-dryied and stained by May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Differential cell count was expressed as % of the total leukocytes. Unpaired t test was used for comparisons. Results Sixty-two grass-allergic patients (34 men, mean age 35.2 years) and 18 healthy subjects (10 men, mean age 32) were studied. 67.8% of patients had intermittent AR (33.9% mild and 33.9% moderate-severe) and 32.2% had persistent AR (14.5% mild and 17.7% moderate-severe). The patients with moderate-severe AR had significantly more mast cells and lymphocytes than those with mild AR, with a relatively smaller number of neutrophils and eosinophils. Mast cells and/or lymphocytes could be detected in only 3/30 patients with mild rhinitis, and in 19/32 patients with moderate/severe rhinitis. No difference in cell counts was found when comparing intermittent and persistent AR. Conclusions Moderate/severe allergic rhinitis displays a cytological inflammatory pattern different from mild rhinitis.

Gelardi, Matteo; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Fiorella, Maria Luisa; Frati, Franco

2012-01-01

356

CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

2003-06-01

357

Deformable membrane for the segmentation of cytological samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In clinical cytology quantitative parameters have to be extracted from a large number of biological samples to obtain diagnostically relevant and reproducible information. Computer-assisted microscopy can provide methods that increase the quality and comparability of clinical studies by reducing the subjective influence of human operators on their results. In order to guarantee the correctness of extracted parameters automatic and reliable segmentation of the samples is required. For the detection of cytological objects a novel deformable membrane model is presented which is strictly based on macroscopical mechanics and statics. This is appropriate for modeling physiological membranes, because their shape is determined exclusively by mechanical forces. The self-driven membrane converges iteratively towards a stable state, where the contrary forces are in balance. However, active contours may not yield sufficient detection quality for acquisition of quantitative parameters. Therefore, after convergence a stochastic optimization process corrects the contour according to local graylevel information. This yields a contour that is well- adapted to the local graylevel structure. Additionally, for subsequent cytometric quantifications a local measure of confidence is provided for the contour. this can be used to enhance the robustness of the extracted parameters by incorporating the confidence factors in the quantification process. The method is applied to cytological and histological samples of different magnification.

Metzler, Volker H.; Bredno, Joerg; Lehmann, Thomas M.; Spitzer, Klaus

1998-06-01

358

Clinical and cytological correlations in pericardial effusions with cardiac tamponade.  

PubMed

We studied 27 patients diagnosed with pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade on which pericardiocentesis was performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the benefits and limits of the cytological examination of the pericardial liquid in the etiological diagnosis and the treatment of patients with cardiac tamponade. The pericardial liquid taken was examined macroscopically, biochemically (content of proteins, glucose, cholesterol, and LDH), cytologically (MGG stained smears from pericardial liquid) and bacteriologically. The obtained results were compared to the clinical data, the laboratory and paraclinical tests, to differentiate the cause and therapeutically procedure. The cardiac tamponade remitted after pericardiocentesis in all patients. The pericardial liquid was exudate (Ligth criteria) in 82% of all patients. The cytological examination of the pericardial liquid showed malignant smear in 40.74% of the patients, smear of the TBC specific inflammation type in 7.40% patients, smear of non-specific inflammation type in 25.94% of patients, reactive type smear in 25.9% of patients. PMID:19434319

Petcu, D P; Petcu, C; Popescu, Carmen Florina; B?t?iosu, C; Alexandru, D

2009-01-01

359

Chin tuck for prevention of aspiration: effectiveness and appropriate posture.  

PubMed

Chin tuck has been has been widely used to prevent aspiration in the patients with dysphagia. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness and the degree of optimal neck flexion of chin tuck. Ninety-seven patients who showed aspiration in the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS). Participants were grouped into the effective (patients who showed effect with chin tuck) and ineffective group (those who did not show effect with chin tuck). VFSS was performed in neutral and chin tuck position and findings were compared between the groups. Severity of aspiration was assessed by the point penetration-aspiration scale. Duration of dysphagic symptoms, history of tracheostomy, and other possible contributing factors were also compared. Neck flexion angle was measured to find appropriate posture in which aspiration was prevented with chin tuck. Aspiration was reduced or eliminated in only 19 patients (19.6 %) with chin tuck. Oral transit time, pharyngeal delayed time and pharyngeal transit time were significantly shortened in both groups (p < 0.05), but the difference between the groups was not significant. Female sex and absence of residue in pyriform sinus favored the effect of chin tuck (p < 0.05). At least 17.5° of neck flexion was required to achieve an effect with chin tuck. The effectiveness of chin tuck was less than anticipated. Patients without residue in pyriform sinus were more likely to benefit from chin tuck. Sufficient neck flexion was important in chin tuck to prevent aspiration. PMID:25012700

Ra, Jong Yun; Hyun, Jung Keun; Ko, Kyung Rok; Lee, Seong Jae

2014-10-01

360

Interlaboratory variation in the performance of liquid-based cytology: insights from the ATHENA trial.  

PubMed

Although it is recognized that cervical cytology is highly subjective, and that there is considerable interlaboratory variation in how slides are evaluated, little is known as to how this impacts the performance of cytology. In the ATHENA trial, liquid-based cytology specimens from 46,887 eligible women ?21 years of age were evaluated at four large regional US laboratories, providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of interlaboratory variations on the performance of cervical cytology. All women with abnormal cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or higher) were referred to colposcopy, as were all high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-positive women ?25 years of age and a random subset of those ?25 years of age who were negative by both hrHPV testing and cytology. Sociodemographics, risk factors for cervical disease, and prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were similar across the laboratories. There were considerable differences among the laboratories both in overall cytological abnormal rates, ranging from 3.8 to 9.9%, and in sensitivity of cytology to detect CIN grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), from 42.0 to 73.0%. In contrast, the hrHPV positivity rate varied only from 10.9 to 13.4%, and the sensitivity of hrHPV testing from 88.2 to 90.1%. These observations suggest that hrHPV testing without cytology should be considered as the initial method for cervical cancer screening. PMID:24122508

Wright, Thomas C; Stoler, Mark H; Behrens, Catherine M; Sharma, Abha; Sharma, Keerti; Apple, Raymond

2014-04-15

361

Lung ultrasound findings in meconium aspiration syndrome.  

PubMed

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a rare and life-threatening neonatal lung injury induced by meconium in the lung and airways. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a quick, easy and cheap imaging technique that is increasingly being used in critical care settings, also for newborns. In this paper we describe ultrasound findings in MAS. Six patients with MAS of variable severity were examined by LUS during the first hours of life. Chest X-rays were used as reference. The following dynamic LUS signs were seen in all patients: (1) B-pattern (interstitial) coalescent or sparse; (2) consolidations; (3) atelectasis; (4) bronchograms. No pattern was observed for the distribution of signs in lung areas, although the signs varied with time, probably due to the changing localisation of meconium in the lungs. LUS images corresponded well with X-ray findings. In conclusion, we provide the first formal description of LUS findings in neonates with MAS. LUS is a useful and promising tool in the diagnosis and management of MAS, providing real-time bedside imaging, with the additional potential benefit of limiting radiation exposure in sick neonates. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:25220126

Piastra, Marco; Yousef, Nadya; Brat, Roselyne; Manzoni, Paolo; Mokhtari, Mostafa; De Luca, Daniele

2014-09-01

362

Severe meconium aspiration syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

This is a case report on severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) that resulted in early neonatal death. Antenatal care was provided at a low-cost non-governmental organization (NGO) clinic. First stage of labour lasted for only 2 hours and 45 minutes. There were no foetal heart rate abnormalities that were noted during the first stage of labour. Artificial rupture of membranes was done in second stage of labour. There was no liquor amnii seen but scanty thick old meconium was noted. Delivery was easy. The baby's skin, nails, umbilical cord, placenta and vernix were deeply stained yellow with old meconium. Resuscitation included suction through direct laryngoscopy, nasotracheal intubation with pulmonary toilet, as well as administration of 100% oxygen. The condition of the baby did not improve. A diagnosis of severe MAS with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH), persistent foetal circulation syndrome (PFCS) and meconium chemical pneumonitis was made. The baby was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for assisted ventilation and critical care. The condition of the baby continued to deteriorate and demise occurred 18 hours after birth. The pathophysiologic processes of intrauterine meconium release, mechanisms of foetal effects and dilemmas in management are discussed. PMID:17153662

Koigi-Kamau, R; Kungu, E C

2006-08-01

363

Prevention of suicide: aspirations and evidence.  

PubMed Central

The Health of the Nation white paper set a target for 15% reduction in overall suicide rates by the year 2000. If the targets are to be achieved interventions must be identified which are of proved effectiveness. This paper examines the evidence on the available interventions and points of access to the population at risk. No single intervention has been shown in a well conducted randomised controlled trial to reduce suicide. The greatest potential seems to arise from limiting the availability of methods. In particular it is likely that the introduction of the catalytic convertor will lead to reduced lethality of care exhausts and reductions in suicide using this method. General practitioner education programmes, the effectiveness of lithium and maintenance antidepressants, and limits on the quantity of medicines available over the counter or on prescription should all be evaluated. Particular high risk groups include people recently discharged from psychiatric hospitals and those with a history of parasuicide. Many social processes affect suicide rates and these rather than specific interventions may help or hinder the ability to realise the Health of the Nation targets. Well conducted trials are essential to distinguish complex social processes from the effects of specific interventions for suicide prevention. This review of the available evidence offers little support for the aspiration that the posited targets can be achieved on the basis of current knowledge and current policy. Images p1229-a p1233-a PMID:8080520

Gunnell, D.; Frankel, S.

1994-01-01

364

Uterine lavage or aspirate: which view of the intrauterine environment?  

PubMed

Fluid within the uterine cavity provides the microenvironment for preimplantation blastocyst development and early implantation. Analysis of uterine fluid sampled by aspiration or lavage provides a view of this microenvironment but the similarity or otherwise of the sample components is not known. This study compared proteins in aspirates versus lavage samples taken sequentially from the same women, using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), multiplex cytokine assays, and an activity assay for proprotein convertase 6. Both lavage and aspiration enabled analysis of uterine fluid components, but they provided substantially different protein profiles. Although there were many similarities in overall protein profiles and most specific proteins examined were detected in both fluids, these were neither qualitatively nor quantitatively comparable within each participant. A likely explanation is that lavage samples the entire uterine cavity including washing the endometrial surface (glycocalyx), whereas aspiration sampling is very local. PMID:22544848

Hannan, N J; Nie, G; Rainzcuk, A; Rombauts, L J F; Salamonsen, L A

2012-10-01

365

Aerodynamic performance measurements in a counter-rotating aspirated compressor  

E-print Network

This thesis is an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic performances of a counter-rotating aspirated compressor. This compressor is implemented in a blow-down facility, which gives rigorous simulation of the ...

Onnée, Jean-François

2005-01-01

366

Turban pin aspiration; a potential risk for young Islamic girls.  

PubMed

A turban is a kind of headcover, worn for religious intentions. In Islamic countries, girls start to wear a turban with the onset of puberty. Turban pins (headscarf needles) are used for attaching the layers of turban to each other in order to keep it in a steady position around the head. Aspiration of these pins is investigated in accordance with age groups, pin characteristics and treatment. From 1987 through 1998, 63 girls were admitted to our department with turban pin aspiration. All patients were healthy prior to aspiration. The median age was 14 years. Foreign bodies were removed, either by rigid bronchoscopy (n = 57), flexible bronchoscopy (n = 2), laryngoscopy (n = 3) or thoracotomy (n = 1). Repeated bronchoscopy rate was 8% (n = 5) and we had no mortality. This recently recognized aspiration hazard can be minimized by using adhesive bands or snap fasteners, instead of pins, when wearing a turban. PMID:10375038

Kaptanoglu, M; Dogan, K; Onen, A; Kunt, N

1999-05-01

367

PPARC `TOWN' Meeting COSMIC AFRICA: Raising Aspirations for African-  

E-print Network

-physics and their allied professions, in order to raise their confidence, self- esteem and aspirations in science #12 and contributors, giving them ownership of it and building their confidence Partnerships with role models: Role

368

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for suspected malignancies adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in association with a multidisciplinary team evaluation for the detection of gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: A cohort of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract received EUS-FNA after a standardized multidisciplinary team evaluation (MTE) and were divided into 4 groups according to their specific malignant risk score (MRS). Patients with a MRS of 0 (without detectable risk of malignancy) received only EUS without FNA. For patients with a MRS score ranging from 1 (low risk) - through 2 (intermediate risk) - to 3 (high risk), EUS-FNA cytology of the lesion was planned for a different time and was prioritized for those patients at higher risk for cancer. The accuracy, efficiency and quality assessment for the early detection of patients with potentially curable malignant lesions were evaluated for the whole cohort and in the different classes of MRSs. The time to definitive cytological diagnosis (TDCD), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the rate of inconclusive tests were calculated for all patients and for each MRS group. RESULTS: A total of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions were evaluated by EUS-FNA. In 515 patients of 616 with true malignant lesions the tumor was diagnosed by EUS-FNA; 421 patients with resectable lesions received early surgical treatment, and 94 patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The overall diagnostic accuracy for the 1019 lesions in which a final diagnosis was obtained by EUS-FNA was 0.95. When patients were stratified by MTE into 4 classes of MRSs, a higher rate of patients in the group with higher cancer risk (MRS-3) received early treatment and EUS-FNA showed the highest level of accuracy (1.0). TDCD was also shorter in the MRS-3 group. The number of patients who received surgical treatment or chemo-radiotherapy was significantly higher in the MRS-3 patient group (36.3% in MRS-3, 10.7% in MRS-2, and 3.5% in MRS-1). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA can effectively detect a curable malignant lesions at an earlier time and at a higher rate in patients with a higher cancer risk that were evaluated using MTE. PMID:25024614

Gambitta, Pietro; Armellino, Antonio; Forti, Edoardo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Colombo, Paola Enrica; Aseni, Paolo

2014-01-01

369

Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

2011-01-01

370

Modeling of bare and aspirated thermocouples in compartment fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an effort to characterize the uncertainties associated with temperature measurements in fire environments, models of bare bead, single-shielded aspirated, and double-shielded aspirated thermocouples were developed and used to study the effects of varying the gas and average effective surroundings temperatures on the thermocouple error of each configuration. The models were developed for steady-state conditions and hence provide

Linda G. Blevins; William M. Pitts

1999-01-01

371

Aspiration of intraspinal synovial cyst: recurrence after temporal improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspinal synovial cyst primarily occurs in the lumbar spine and may cause back pain and compression nerve disturbance.\\u000a Percutaneous aspiration has been recommended as an alternative to surgery in three cases. We report on two patients who improved\\u000a after aspiration of gelatinous material and steroid injection but whose cyst recurred within a short period of time. There\\u000a are reportedly two

K. Imai; K. Nakamura; K. Inokuchi; H. Oda

1998-01-01

372

Endothelial selectin blockade attenuates lung permeability of experimental acid aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A central role for the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) in experimental acid aspiration has been demonstrated by the observation that PMN depletion reduced pulmonary vascular permeability. This study investigates the role of recombinant soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-immunoglobulin fusion protein (rPSGL-Ig), a P- and E-selectin antagonist in moderating acid aspiration lung injury. Methods: Tracheostomy tubes were placed in male C57BL\\/6 mice

Constantinos Kyriakides; William Austen; Yong Wang; Joanne Favuzza; Francis D Moore; Herbert B Hechtman

2000-01-01

373

Basic technique for solid lesions: Cytology, core, or both?  

PubMed Central

This chapter highlights key fundamentals relevant to post-procurement tissue handling of materials obtains by aspiration and/or biopsy and details the subtle techniques that can significantly impact patient management and practice patterns. A basic knowledge of tissue handling and processing is imperative for endosonographers who attempt to achieve a greater than 95% diagnostic accuracy with their tissue-acquisition procedures. PMID:24949408

Hebert-Magee, Shantel

2014-01-01

374

Molecular Plant Volume 1 Number 5 Pages 816829 September 2008 RESEARCH ARTICLE Integration of Cytological Features with  

E-print Network

of Cytological Features with Molecular and Epigenetic Properties of Rice Chromosome 4 Ben-Liang Yina , Lan Guoa and heterochromatic regions that correspond with the cytological staining. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH

Wang, Xiangfeng "Bryan"

375

University of California Program for Analytical Cytology five-year report, 1982-1987  

SciTech Connect

The Program for Analytical Cytology (PAC) was created by the Regents of the University of California on June 17, 1982. The purposes of the Program are to encourage research into theoretical, scientific, and engineering aspects of analytical cytology and into its biological and clinical applications.

Stull, S. (ed.); Calkins, M.

1987-01-01

376

Relationships between uterine culture, cytology and pregnancy rates in a Thoroughbred practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometrial cytology and culture specimens (n=2123) were collected concurrently with a guarded uterine culture instrument from 970 mares (738 barren, 1230 foaling and 155 maiden mares) during three breeding seasons (2001–2004). Results were compared to the 28-d pregnancy rate for the cycle from which the samples were taken. Cytological smears were evaluated for inflammation at ×100 and graded as: not

W. T. Riddle; M. M. LeBlanc; A. J. Stromberg

2007-01-01

377

NMP 22, BTA stat Test and Cytology in the Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of the NMP 22 and BTA stat test in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer and to compare these tests to cytology and cystoscopy, routine diagnostic methods. Methods: 150 patients followed up for bladder cancer or symptoms suggestive of bladder cancer underwent cystoscopy after cytology, NMP 22 and BTA stat test using a recently

J. L. Gutiérrez Baños; M. H. Rebollo Rodrigo; F. M. Antolín Juárez; B. Martín García

2001-01-01

378

CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FIBER TYPES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

A comparative investigation of the mammalian diaphragm has revealed a correlation between certain cytological aspects of red and white muscle fibers and functional activity. This skeletal muscle presents the advantage of a similar and constant function among the mammals, but its functional activity varies in a quantitative manner. Both the rate of breathing (and hence the rate of contraction of the diaphragm) and metabolic activity are known to be inversely related to body size; and this study has demonstrated a relationship between cytological characteristics of the diaphragm and body size of the animal. Small fibers rich in mitochondria (red fibers) are characteristic of small mammals, which have high metabolic activity and fast breathing rates; and large fibers with relatively low mitochondrial content predominate in large mammals, which have lower metabolic activity and slower breathing rates. In mammals with body size intermediate between these two groups (including the laboratory rat), the diaphragm consists of varying mixtures of fiber types. In general, the mitochondrial content of diaphragm fibers is inversely related to body size. It appears, then, that the red fiber reflects a high degree of metabolic activity or a relatively high rate of contraction within the range exhibited by this muscle. PMID:5950272

Gauthier, Geraldine F.; Padykula, Helen A.

1966-01-01

379

Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the accuracy of conventional cytology with liquid based cytology for primary screening of cervical cancer.Design Randomised controlled trial.Setting Nine screening programmes in Italy.Participants Women aged 25-60 attending for a new screening round: 22 466 were assigned to the conventional arm and 22 708 were assigned to the experimental arm.Interventions Conventional cytology compared with liquid based cytology and

Guglielmo Ronco; Jack Cuzick; Paola Pierotti; Maria Paola Cariaggi; Paolo Dalla Palma; Carlo Naldoni; Bruno Ghiringhello; Paolo Giorgi-Rossi; Daria Minucci; Franca Parisio; Ada Pojer; Maria Luisa Schiboni; Catia Sintoni; Manuel Zorzi; Nereo Segnan; Massimo Confortini

2007-01-01

380

Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveLiquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both cervical cytology and histology records for all patients, we compared the outcome of the two screenings methods with regard to the detection

H. Beerman; E. B. L. van Dorst; V. Kuenen-Boumeester; P. C. W. Hogendoorn

2009-01-01

381

Fine-needle aspiration as a diagnostic technique in 50 cases of primary Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor. Institut Curie's experience.  

PubMed

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) followed by a core-needle biopsy during general anesthesia is a method for diagnosing pediatric tumors in our Institute. To complete the diagnosis in the case of round cell sarcomas, cytology material is also used for genomic analyses, that is, karyotyping and molecular biology-derived techniques. Fifty primary Ewing sarcomas/peripheral neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNET) in 50 patients were sampled. Cytological diagnoses were "malignant" in all cases and accurate (ES/PNET) in 46 (92%). Two (4%) cases were misdiagnosed as neuroblastoma, and two others (4%) as rhabdomyosarcoma and nephroblastoma. No suspicious or false-negative results were rendered. Karyotyping was performed in 20 (40%) cases and was interpretable in 17 cases but not in three cases. Molecular search for ES/PNET fusion transcripts were performed in all cases and were detected in 44 (88%) cases, but not in six (12%) cases. In conclusion, FNA assisted by genomic techniques is powerful methods to accurate diagnose ES/PNET. PMID:22180234

Klijanienko, Jerzy; Couturier, Jérôme; Bourdeaut, Franck; Fréneaux, Paul; Ballet, Stelly; Brisse, Hervé; Lagacé, Réal; Delattre, Olivier; Pierron, Gaëlle; Vielh, Philippe; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Michon, Jean

2012-01-01

382

The clinical effectiveness of fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with palpable breast lesions seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria: A 10-year retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Although open surgical biopsy is the ‘gold standard’ for diagnosis of palpable breast lesions, in recent years two types of minimally invasive breast biopsy techniques, core needle biopsy and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), have become established for the diagnostic evaluation of palpable breast lesions. Aims: This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of FNAB as a first line diagnostic procedure in the management of patients with breast lumps in University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, using the suggested thresholds for cytology performance as recommended by the United Kingdom National Health Services Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). Settings and Design: A 10-year retrospective cohort study carried out in the Pathology Department of UCH. Materials and Methods: All FNAB and histologically diagnosed cases of breast lesions in the pathology department between January 1996 and December 2005 were reviewed. The cytological diagnoses were then categorized into one of five diagnostic categories in accordance with the recommendations of the NHSBSP. Results: The positive predictive value for malignancy was 99.3% with a complete sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity (full) of 94.2%. Conclusions: The high quality assurance measures obtained in this study affirms FNAB as a clinically effective diagnostic procedure for breast lesions. PMID:21897544

Ukah, Cornelius O; Oluwasola, Olayiwola A

2011-01-01

383

What is New on Thyroid Cancer Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Thyroid cancer harbours in about 5% of thyroid nodules. The majority of them are well-differentiated cancers originating from the follicular epithelium, and are subdivided into papillary and follicular carcinomas. Undifferentiated carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas arising from C cells are less common. Although most thyroid nodules are benign, distinguishing thyroid cancer from benign lesions is crucial for an appropriate treatment and follow-up. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) allows the diagnosis of nature of thyroid nodules in the majority of cases. However, FNAC has some limitations, particularly in the presence of follicular lesions which can appear dubious in rare instances even at histology. In an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy and offer new prognostic criteria, several immunohistochemical and molecular markers have been proposed. However, most of them have to be validated on large series before being used in routine practice. PMID:19578508

Ruggeri, Rosaria M.; Campenni, Alfredo; Baldari, Sergio; Trimarchi, Francesco; Trovato, Maria

2008-01-01

384

Thyroid Tuberculosis: A Case Series and a Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is a very rare disease. The incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis has been showing a progressive increase in the recent years. We present three cases of primary thyroid tuberculosis. Methods. Two cases were diagnosed on the basis of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), as they presented with thyroid nodule. The third case was diagnosed on histopathology as the patient underwent total thyroidectomy for the left-side nodule which was a follicular lesion on FNAC. Tuberculosis was diagnosed on the other lobe. Results. All three patients were given antituberculous treatment for nine months, and their nodular lesions completely resolved after treatment. Conclusion. Although rare the, thyroid tuberculosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of thyroid masses, even in patient with no history and symptom of tuberculosis disease elsewhere. PMID:21603164

Majid, Uzma; Islam, Najmul

2011-01-01

385

Limitation of the Cavitron technique by conifer pit aspiration.  

PubMed

The Cavitron technique facilitates time and material saving for vulnerability analysis. The use of rotors with small diameters leads to high water pressure gradients (DeltaP) across samples, which may cause pit aspiration in conifers. In this study, the effect of pit aspiration on Cavitron measurements was analysed and a modified 'conifer method' was tested which avoids critical (i.e. pit aspiration inducing) DeltaP. Four conifer species were used (Juniperus communis, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Larix decidua) for vulnerability analysis based on the standard Cavitron technique and the conifer method. In addition, DeltaP thresholds for pit aspiration were determined and water extraction curves were constructed. Vulnerability curves obtained with the standard method showed generally a less negative P for the induction of embolism than curves of the conifer method. Differences were species-specific with the smallest effects in Juniperus. Larix showed the most pronounced shifts in P(50) (pressure at 50% loss of conductivity) between the standard (-1.5 MPa) and the conifer (-3.5 MPa) methods. Pit aspiration occurred at the lowest DeltaP in Larix and at the highest in Juniperus. Accordingly, at a spinning velocity inducing P(50), DeltaP caused only a 4% loss of conductivity induced by pit aspiration in Juniperus, but about 60% in Larix. Water extraction curves were similar to vulnerability curves indicating that spinning itself did not affect pits. Conifer pit aspiration can have major influences on Cavitron measurements and lead to an overestimation of vulnerability thresholds when a small rotor is used. Thus, the conifer method presented here enables correct vulnerability analysis by avoiding artificial conductivity losses. PMID:20551085

Beikircher, B; Ameglio, T; Cochard, H; Mayr, S

2010-07-01

386

Insufficient Experience in Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Leads to Misdiagnosis of Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid is a widely accepted confirmatory test for thyroid cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. FNA is a simple procedure that is learned by many clinicians to enable accurate diagnosis of thyroid cancer. However, it is assumed that because the FNA test is a relatively simple procedure, its cytologic results are reliable regardless of the operator's experience. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the diagnostic indices of FNA between operators with different levels of experience. Methods A total of 694 thyroid FNA specimens from 469 patients were reviewed, and were separated based on the experience of the clinicians who performed the procedure. One hundred and ninety were categorized in the experienced group, and 504 in the inexperienced group. All FNA results were then compared with histological data from surgically resected specimens, and the sample adequacy and diagnostic accuracy of the groups were compared. Results The age, gender, and nodule size and characteristics were similar in both groups. The sample adequacy rate was not significantly different between the experienced and nonexperienced groups (96.3% vs. 95.4%, P=0.682). However, the non-experienced group had a higher false-negative rate than the experienced group (6.4% vs. 17.2%, P=0.038), and the sensitivity of the FNA test also tended to be lower in the nonexperienced group (95.6% vs. 88.9%, P=0.065). Conclusion These results suggest that FNA operators who have less experience may miss cases of thyroid cancer by performing the procedure incorrectly. As such, the experience of the FNA operator should be considered when diagnosing thyroid cancer. When clinicians are being trained in FNA, more effort should be made to increase the accuracy of the procedure; therefore, enhanced teaching programs and/or a more detailed feedback system are recommended. PMID:25309787

Son, Jung Il; Rhee, Sang Youl; Park, Won Seo; Byun, Jong Kyu; Kim, Yu-Jin; Byun, Ja Min; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Oh, Seungjoon; Kim, Sung Woon; Kim, Young Seol

2014-01-01

387

Fine-needle aspiration of gray zone lesions of the breast: fibroadenoma versus ductal carcinoma.  

PubMed

While breast lesions have characteristic cytological features, some lesions, particularly adenocarcinoma and fibroadenoma, may present with overlapping features causing erroneous diagnoses. The current study aimed to define significant cytomorphologic features predictive of fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma, respectively. Further, we intended to evaluate the predictive characteristics for differentiation between gray zone lesions and to identify root causes contributing to misdiagnoses. First, direct smears prepared from 14 histology-confirmed fibroadenomas and 14 adenocarcinomas were reviewed and characteristics of commonly encountered morphologic features were assessed. We then retrospectively and blindly reviewed nine cytohistologic discrepant cases using the significant characteristic as a guideline, in order to assess whether these discrepant cases could be correctly categorized. Morphologic characteristics predictive of fibroadenoma included moderate cellularity, large, folded cellular sheets/aggregates, staghorn projections, smooth and round borders, monolayers, honeycomb arrangement, smaller nuclear size, and background bipolar cells. Predictive characteristics of adenocarcinoma included high cellularity, loose cohesive sheets/aggregates, pointed projections, irregular borders, larger nuclear size, irregular nuclear membrane, prominent nucleoli, and single atypical epithelial cells. Retrospective, blind review correctly re-classified seven out of nine cytohistologic discrepant cases, including five false negative cases and two false positive cases. Root causes contributing to the misdiagnoses were large branching sheets of carcinoma mimicking folded sheets of fibroadenoma; fibroblasts mimicking myoepithelial cells; apocrine cells mimicking carcinoma cells; and not recognizing the loose myxoid matrix presenting as soap bubbles in fibroadenoma. In conclusion, this study identified significant characteristics that can assist in achieving accurate diagnosis in a subpopulation of breast aspirates that present with overlapping features. PMID:22936545

Jing, Xin; Normolle, Daniel; Michael, Claire W

2013-09-01

388

Cytological Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Neural K. Blekas and A. Stafylopatis \\Lambda , D. Kontoravdis y , A. Likas z ,  

E-print Network

Cytological Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Neural Networks K. Blekas and A. Stafylopatis \\Lambda , D, Greece x Department of Clinical Cytology And Cytogenetics, Laiko Hospital, Athens, Greece 1 #12 in Diagnostic Cytology. Pattern recog­ nition, data base search, knowledge extraction and decision

Likas, Aristidis

389

Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Molecular and Cytological Analyses of Large Tracks of Centromeric DNA Reveal  

E-print Network

Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Molecular and Cytological Analyses of LargeC. The two BACs, consisting of 200 kb of cytologically defined centromeric DNA, are composed exclusively, in the majority of al. 1997). The cytological locations of the pAL1 repeat eukaryotic species, centromeres

390

Hurthle cell tumor of the thyroid gland: report of a rare case and review of literature.  

PubMed

This article presents a case of Hurthle cell adenoma (HCA) of the thyroid gland with a review of literature on Hurthle cell tumors. This case presented is that of a 57-year-old woman with a recurrent thyroid swelling. She previously underwent a right hemithyroidectomy for thyroid mass 10 years prior. A left lobectomy was done and microscopic examination revealed a HCA of the thyroid. The patient was discharged on thyroid replacement therapy and has remained healthy after more than 24 months of follow-up. The literature review highlights the criteria for diagnosis, the role of imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in preoperative diagnosis. PMID:24714021

Okere, P C N; Olusina, D B; Enyinnah, M O

2014-01-01

391

Diagnostic Accuracy of High Resolution Ultrasound to Differentiate Neoplastic and Non Neoplastic Causes of Cervical Lymphadenopathy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Lymph nodes are normal structures distributed throughout the human body and are enlarged in various disease entities. Identifying the relevant lymph nodes is important in treating these patients. High resolution sonography (HRSG) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) play crucial role in planning the treatment. Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRSG differentiate neoplastic and non neoplastic causes of enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: HRSG evaluation of enlarged cervical lymph nodes were performed to differentiate neoplastic from non neoplastic lymph nodes followed by FNAC correlation and the accuracy of HRSG was studied. Results: One hundred and fourteen lymph nodes of 106 patients were analysed to accomplish the study objective. In our study, HRSG had 96% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for differentiating between neoplatic and non-neoplastic cervical lymphadenopathy. Similarly positive and negative predictive values were 88.9% and 96.7% respectively. Overall accuracy of HRSG was 93%. Conclusion: Owing to high sensitivity and negative predictive value, HRSG with Doppler is an excellent first line investigating tool for enlarged lymph nodes and avoids invasive procedures like FNAC in cases of reactive/ inflammatory (non-neoplastic) lymph nodes. However, neoplastic diagnosis of HRSG needs further confirmation by FNAC. PMID:25386501

Shivalli, Siddharudha; Rai, Sheethal; Haris, Arafat; Madhurkar, Rohit; Hemraj, Sandhya

2014-01-01

392

Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

1984-08-01

393

Cytology Adds Value to Imaging Studies for Risk Assessment of Malignancy in Pancreatic Mucinous Cysts  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate the value of cytology relative to imaging features in risk assessment for malignancy as defined in the Sendai Guidelines. Background The Sendai Guidelines list symptoms, cyst size > 30mm, dilated main pancreatic duct (MPD) > 6mm, mural nodule (MN) and “positive” cytology as high risk stigmata for malignancy warranting surgical triage. Methods We reviewed clinical, radiological and cytological data of 112 patients with histologically confirmed mucinous cysts of the pancreas evaluated in a single tertiary medical center. Cytology slides were blindly re-reviewed and epithelial cells grouped as either benign or high grade atypia (HGA) [? high grade dysplasia]. Histologically, neoplasms were grouped as benign (low-grade and moderate dysplasia) and malignant (in-situ and invasive carcinoma). Performance characteristics of cytology relative to other risk factors were evaluated. Results Dilated MPD, MN and HGA were independent predictors of malignancy (p<0.0001), but not symptoms (p=.29) or cyst size > 30 mm (p=.51). HGA was the most sensitive predictor of malignancy in all cysts (72%) and in small (? 30 mm) branch-duct IPMN (67%) while also being specific (85 and 88% respectively). MN and dilated MPD were highly specific (>90%), but insensitive (39–44%). Cytology detected 30% more cancers in small cysts than dilated MPD or MN and half of the cancers without either of these high risk imaging features. Conclusions Cytology adds value to the radiological assessment of predicting malignancy in mucinous cysts, particularly in small branch-duct IPMN. PMID:22041510

Genevay, Muriel; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Yaeger, Kurt; Konstantinidis, Ioannis T.; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Thayer, Sarah; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-del; Sahani, Dushyant; Bounds, Brenna; Forcione, David; Brugge, William R; Pitman, Martha Bishop

2013-01-01

394

Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15

395

Conjunctival impression cytology in non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

AIM To examine the integrity of the ocular surfaces of subjects with and without diabetes with no conjunctival and dry eye signs and symptoms and compare conjunctival impression cytology findings in diabetics with non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS Conjunctival impression cytology was performed on 43 eyes of 43 subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 42 eyes of 42 subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and 30 eyes of 30 control subjects. Impression cytology specimens of each group were graded and scored in the range 0-3 according to Nelson's method. RESULTS There were 45 (52.9%) women and 40 (47.1%) men. The mean age of the patients was 59.6±9.3y (range, 43-76y) in NPDR group and 58.0±8.8y (range, 41-85y) in PDR group. Cases with NPDR and PDR showed statistically significant higher impression cytology scores than control group (P<0.05). There was no difference between the NPDR and PDR patients for impression cytology grading scores. CONCLUSION It is determined that impression cytology grades are altered in patients with NPDR and PDR. Consequently, we suggest that there might be an association between the impression cytology grading scores and the severity of diabetic retinopathy PMID:24790878

Citirik, Mehmet; Berker, Nilufer; Haksever, Hulya; Elgin, Ufuk; Ustun, Huseyin

2014-01-01

396

Correlation between laryngeal sensitivity and penetration/aspiration after stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is the most common neurological disease in adults that is associated with deglutition disorders. The presence of laryngeal sensitivity is very important in developing safe swallowing without risk of pulmonary complications. The aim of this study was to correlate laryngeal sensitivity with laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration after swallows of three food consistencies (puree, thickened liquid, and liquid) in poststroke individuals in the late phase. A cross-sectional clinical study was performed with 91 post-ischemic stroke individuals, with oropharyngeal dysphagia, who were in rehabilitation center treatment from 2009 to 2011. They had a mean age of 68.1 years and average time since injury was 22.6 months; 39 had injury to the right hemisphere and 52 had injury to the left hemisphere. All underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and evaluation of laryngeal sensitivity by touching the tip of the endoscope to the arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. The linear correlation coefficient of Spearman was applied to evaluate the correlation between laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration and the presence/absence of laryngeal sensitivity. There was a negative correlation between the observation of penetration and tracheal aspiration and laryngeal sensitivity, with all bolus consistencies (p < 0.001 for aspiration and p ? 0.01 for penetration). The absence of laryngeal sensitivity determines the more frequent findings of penetration and tracheal aspiration. This sensory stimulus in the mucosa of the pharynx and larynx is an essential element for safe swallowing and its deficiency associated with altered motor activity can cause laryngeal penetration and aspiration in poststroke individuals regardless of food consistency. PMID:24442645

Onofri, Suely Mayumi Motonaga; Cola, Paula Cristina; Berti, Larissa Cristina; da Silva, Roberta Gonçalves; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

2014-04-01

397

DICOM-compatible format for analytical cytology data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of a list mode data type to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard, DICOM will enhance the storage and transmission of digital microscopy data and extend DICOM to include flow cytometry data. This would permit the present International Society for analytical Cytology Flow Cytometry Standard to be retired. DICOM includes: image graphics objects, specifications for describing: studies, reports, the acquisition of the data, work list management, and the individuals involved (physician, patient, etc.) The glossary of terms (objects) suitable for use with DICOM has been extended to include the collaborative effort of Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) and Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED) to create a consistent, unambiguous clinical reference terminology. It also appears that DICOM will be a significant part of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture, CORBA.

Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.

1998-04-01

398

Anatomy and cytology of Taphrina entomospora during infection of Nothofagus.  

PubMed

Taphrina entomospora is one of the few species of the genus described on native plants of the Southern Hemisphere and also one of the few leaf pathogens known on Nothofagus species. The anatomical changes it produces on N. pumilio leaves, and its morphology, cytology, and sporogenesis were studied. The fungus is a perennial species that overwinters as mycelium in the foliar buds and infects the developing leaves, so the whole blade develops the disease symptoms. Interveinal areas of the leaves become chlorotic, thickened and rounded. Palisade parenchyma fails to develop, with spongy parenchyma developing as packed, rounded, isodiametric cells with little intercellular space. The mycelium is subcuticular, dikaryotic, and produces ascogenous hyphae, asci, and ascospores as described for other species in the genus. Before ascus discharge, ascospores bud in a regular, unique way. The life-cycle of T. entomospora is compared with other representative taxa in the genus and the distribution of this pathogen is discussed. PMID:17512180

Hansen, Paula V; Bianchinotti, M Virginia; Rajchenberg, Mario

2007-05-01

399

Isozyme and cytological markers of some Psathyrostachys juncea accessions.  

PubMed

Psathyrostachys juncea (synonymous to Elymus junceus; 2n=2x=14, NN) has unique biotic and abiotic attributes that could contribute towards wheat improvement. The effectiveness of such an intergeneric hybridization program depends greatly on being able to establish diagnostic markers of the alien chromosomes. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) analyses of six enzyme systems have identified five biochemical markers - malate dehydrogenase (MDH), esterase (EST), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and ?-amylase (?-AMY) - to be of positive diagnostic value; glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) banding profiles were of no definite value in the background of Triticum aestivum cvs 'Chinese Spring' and 'Seri-82', the potential recipients of Ps. juncea chromosomes. The Giemsa C-banding karyotype distinctively separates the Ps. Juncea chromosomes from each other and from those of T. aestivum with little banding site polymorphisms prevalent among its accessions analyzed, indicating the usefulness of C-bands as cytological markers. PMID:24201337

William, M D; Mujeeb-Kazi, A

1992-08-01

400

AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outline above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE mission concepts and their supporting Science Teams are led by Principal Investigator Dr. Scott Sandford of NASA s Ames Research Center, with industry partner Ball Aerospace Technologies Ltd., and managed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA s Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

2006-01-01

401

Rapid on-site evaluation of endoscopic-ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of pancreatic masses  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an essential tool for the study of pancreatic diseases. Specifically, EUS plays a pivotal role evaluating patients with a known or suspected pancreatic mass. In this setting, differential diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fine-needle biopsy (FNB) have been proven to be safe and useful tools in this setting. EUS-guided FNA and FNB, by obtaining cytological and/or histological samples, are able to diagnose pancreatic lesions with high sensitivity and specificity. In this context, several methodological features, trying to increase the diagnostic yield of EUS-guided FNA and FNB, have been evaluated. In this review, we focus on the role of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). From data reported in the literature, ROSE may increase diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA specimens by 10%-30%, and thus, diagnostic accuracy. However, we should point out that many recent studies have reported adequacy rates of > 90% without ROSE, indicating that, perhaps, at high-volume centers, ROSE may not be indispensable to achieve excellent results. The use of ROSE can be considered important during the learning curve of EUS-FNA, and also in hospital with diagnostic accuracy rates < 90%. PMID:25071339

Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Larino-Noia, Jose; Abdulkader, Ihab; Dominguez-Munoz, J Enrique

2014-01-01

402

Molecular Biologic Approach to the Diagnosis of Pancreatic Carcinoma Using Specimens Obtained by EUS-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration  

PubMed Central

We review the utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), a rapid, safe, cost-effective, and accurate diagnostic modality for evaluating pancreatic tumors. EUS-FNA is currently used for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic tumors. The sensitivity of EUS-FNA for pancreatic malignancy ranges from 75% to 94%, and its specificity approaches 100% in most studies. However, EUS-FNA has some limitations in the diagnosis of well-differentiated or early-stage cancers. Recent evidence suggests that molecular biological analysis using specimens obtained by EUS-FNA improves diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, especially in borderline cytological cases. It was also reported that additional information regarding patient response to chemotherapy, surgical resectability, time to metastasis, and overall survival was acquired from the genetic analysis of specimens obtained by EUS-FNA. Other studies have revealed that the analysis of KRAS, MUC, p53, p16, S100P, SMAD4, and microRNAs is helpful in making the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. In this paper, we describe the present state of genetic diagnostic techniques for use with EUS-FNA samples in pancreatic diseases. We also discuss the role of molecular biological analyses for the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:23197977

Kato, Kiyohito; Kamada, Hideki; Fujimori, Takayuki; Aritomo, Yuuichi; Ono, Masahiro; Masaki, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

403

Loose cell clusters with vascular coats: Zellballen pattern of paraganglioma on cytology  

PubMed Central

Paragangliomas are uncommon tumors arising in paraganglion tissue, which is well represented in the head and neck. A correct pre-operative cytological diagnosis helps in planning early and optimal surgery. Cytologic features in carotid body tumor and extra adrenal paragangliomas have been well described and documented. In addition to the acinar and discrete arrangement of cells, smears also showed a few large loose clusters of cells enveloped by thin vascular channels-the so-called zellballen pattern, a diagnostic feature on histopathology. Zellballen pattern of paraganglioma on cytology is not a common finding and hence is being reported. PMID:24648676

Jashnani, Kusum D; Patil, Roshni D; Balsarkar, Dharmesh J

2013-01-01

404

Student Equity and Disabilities UnitNever Stand Still ASPIRE Annual  

E-print Network

Kindergarten to Year 12) and breadth (working with students in school and on campus and with the local continued as ASPIRE partners in 2011 82 Kindergarten students participated in ASPIRE activities New

New South Wales, University of

405

COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES  

E-print Network

1 COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES William H. Wolberg in size or character. Patients with cancer received standard treatment. #12; 4 Outcome Measures: Cross methods based on linear programming that were applicable to breast cancer diagnosis and prognostic

Street, Nick

406

Benefits of a Mentoring Program for Aspiring Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a study that determined the benefits of mentoring as part of an administrator preparation program are discussed in this paper. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine practicing administrators, who worked directly with aspiring administrators who served as candidates in one cycle of the Danforth Foundation Program for the…

Daresh, John C.; Playko, Marsha A.

407

Aspiration and Injection of the Knee Joint: Approach Portal  

PubMed Central

Aspiration and injection of the knee joint is a commonly performed medical procedure. Injection of corticosteroid for the treatment of osteoarthritis is the most common reason for knee joint injection, and is performed as an office procedure. Debate exists among practitioners as to the 'best' approach portal for knee injection. This paper examines the various approach portals for injection and/or aspiration of the knee joint, as well as the accuracy of each approach. Searches were made of electronic databases, and appropriate papers were identified and hand-searched. Although there is some evidence that particular approach portals may be more efficacious in the presence of specific knee joint pathologies, generally, in experienced hands, it is of no clinical consequence as to which approach portal is utilised for aspiration or injection of the knee joint. No approach portal is 100% accurate, and the accuracy of injection of the knee joint may be enhanced by the use of techniques such as ultrasound. Practitioners are reminded that they should continuously refine and practice their preferred technique. Knee joint aspiration and injection is a common, simple, and generally safe office procedure. PMID:24639940

2014-01-01

408

Desired mobility or satisfied immobility? Migratory aspirations among knowledge workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the aspects discussed within the globalisation process, the international mobility of professional workers assumes considerable relevance. This paper focuses on migratory aspirations among knowledge workers within the context of economic globalisation and market restructuring in Romania. Due to a lack of literature dealing with these issues, the originality of this study consists in its attention to the stage immediately

Anna Ferro

2006-01-01

409

Desired Mobility or Satisfied Immobility? Migratory Aspirations among Knowledge Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the aspects discussed within the globalisation process, the international mobility of professional workers assumes considerable relevance. This paper focuses on migratory aspirations among knowledge workers within the context of economic globalisation and market restructuring in Romania. Due to a lack of literature dealing with these issues,…

Ferro, Anna

2006-01-01

410

Aspiration Levels and Educational Choices An experimental study  

E-print Network

to possibly receive higher rewards. To test the impact of aspiration levels, outcomes were either presented gender effect in the loss framing treatment, such that males performed better and reached higher levels background on educational achievement are well documented. Em- pirical data show that children from higher

Boyer, Edmond

411

Career Aspirations of Undergraduate Mathematics Majors: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been much research attention on ability level, motivation, and self-efficacy of students at schools of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). However, there is scant research on vocational choice, career development and aspirations of these students. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by asking…

Piotrowski, Chris; Hemasinha, Rohan

2012-01-01

412

Raising Aspirations within School Communities: The Learning Catalysts Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article accounts for a project that rests on a collaboration between the Leadership for Learning group at the Faculty of Education and the county council in King's Lynn and West Norfolk to address a concern regarding the low aspirations in the community. At the heart of the project was the development of a cadre of "Learning Catalysts" who…

Waterhouse, Joanne

2008-01-01

413

Work in progress: narratives of aspiration from the new economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to the challenges posed by an increasingly unclear and unstable vocational

George Morgan

2006-01-01

414

Mobility of Assistant Principals: Examining Their Roles, Accomplishments, and Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question of this dissertation was whether assistant principals aspired to the principalship, or had plateaued in their career. This arose from the dearth of research on the assistant principal in the literature on educational leadership. An original survey was distributed through SAANYS, the School Administrators Association of New…

Dunleavy, Carole-Ann Sheils

2011-01-01

415

Uncertainty in Early Occupational Aspirations: Role Exploration or Aimlessness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socio-economic attainment if it signifies "role exploration," characterized by career development, continued education and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to…

Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

2010-01-01

416

The Consumption Aspirations of Adolescents: Determinants and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the determinants of the consumption aspirations of adolescents, with a major emphasis on the influence of the family. Finds that the ability of adolescents to purchase substantial consumer durable goods with their own earnings while being supported in the parental household may lead to unrealistic future consumption goals. (FMW)

Freedman, Deborah S.; Thornton, Arland

1990-01-01

417

Functional morphology and evolution of aspiration breathing in tetrapods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the evolution of aspiration breathing, the responsibility for lung ventilation gradually shifted from the hyobranchial to the axial musculoskeletal system, with axial muscles taking over exhalation first, at the base of Tetrapoda, and then inhalation as well at the base of Amniota. This shift from hyobranchial to axial breathing freed the tongue and head to adapt to more diverse

Elizabeth L. Brainerd; Tomasz Owerkowicz

2006-01-01

418

The Career Aspirations of Rural Appalachian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contributions of several social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors in predicting the career aspirations of a group of high school students living in the central part of rural Appalachia. Sixty-three high school students completed measures assessing their vocational/educational…

Ali, Saba Rasheed; Saunders, Jodi L.

2009-01-01

419

Lipoid Pneumonia: A Silent Complication of Mineral Oil Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Chronic constipation is a common symptom in pediatrics, and physicians often use mineral oil to treat chronic constipation in children. Min- eral oil, a hydrocarbon, may not elicit a normal protective cough reflex and may impair mucociliary transport. These effects can increase the likelihood of its aspiration and subsequent impaired clearance from the respiratory tract. We report a

Hari P. R. Bandla; Scott H. Davis; Nancy Eddy Hopkins

420

Factors Influencing Career Aspirations of Senior and Freshmen College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although numerous studies have investigated internal and external factors that influence career aspirations of college students, little has been done to investigate how these factors differentially affect specific grade levels of college students. This study examined several internal and external variables (grade level, gender, college major,…

Dunlop, Linda L.; Canale, Joseph R.

421

Women Teachers' Aspirations to School Leadership in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The under-representation of women in the leadership of secondary schooling is a problem common to many developing countries, raising issues of social justice and sustainable development. It has its roots in societal understandings about leadership, the schooling and career aspirations of girls, the organizational characteristics of the…

Sperandio, Jill; Kagoda, Alice Merab

2010-01-01

422

Parents' Roles in Shaping Early Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations among dimensions of parenting and adolescents' occupational aspirations were examined in two specific domains: academics and sports. The sample consisted of 444 seventh graders, with approximately equal numbers of African American and European American males and females, from two-parent nondivorced families. Multiple measures were used as indicators of parents' values and behaviors, youths' values and be- liefs, positive identification

Kathleen M. Jodl; Alice Michael; Oksana Malanchuk; Jacquelynne S. Eccles; Arnold Sameroff

2001-01-01

423

Discussing ICT, aspirations and targets for Education: international perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussing ICT, aspirations and targets for Education (dICTatEd) project is predicated on the assumptions that investments in 'educational' Information and Communications Technology (ICT) are not having the scale of impact within the education system that might be expected at least in part due to lack of shared understandings about why we should be using ICT in education. This paper

Peter Twining

2007-01-01

424

Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

2004-01-01

425

Turban pin aspiration; a potential risk for young Islamic girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A turban is a kind of headcover, worn for religious intentions. In Islamic countries, girls start to wear a turban with the onset of puberty. Turban pins (headscarf needles) are used for attaching the layers of turban to each other in order to keep it in a steady position around the head. Aspiration of these pins is investigated in accordance

Melih Kaptanoglu; Kasim Dogan; Ahmet Onen; Nur Kunt

1999-01-01

426

Adolescent Boys' Science Aspirations: Masculinity, Capital, and Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread international concern about post-16 participation rates in science, with women's under-representation constituting a particular issue. This paper contributes to these debates through a novel, critical examination of the role of masculinity within boys' negotiations of science aspirations. Drawing on a UK longitudinal…

Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Willis, Beatrice

2014-01-01

427

Moderating the Material Aspirations of Criminals and Delinquents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes program initiated to moderate material aspirations of criminals, thus reducing crime and delinquency motivated by desire for great wealth. Discusses how, following participation in program, inmates' median choice of income they considered large enough to have comfortable life moved down slightly. Recommends additional experimental trials…

Greenberg, Norman

1988-01-01

428

Microbiology of Severe Aspiration Pneumonia in Institutionalized Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to investigate prospectively the microbial etiology and control strategies, and innovative pharmacologic approaches prognostic indicators of 95 institutionalized elders with severe aspi- have shown promise in reducing aspiration events, but their ration pneumonia, and to investigate its relation to oral hygiene efficacy remains to be established in large randomized trials. in using quantitative bronchial sampling. Data collection included

Ali A. El-Solh; Celestino Pietrantoni; Abid Bhat; Alan T. Aquilina; Mifue Okada; Vikas Grover; Nancy Gifford

429

Occupational Aspirations and Early Attainment of Southern Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the relationship between occupational aspirations and early job attainment of Southern youth. Occupational goal deflection (OGD), defined as the difference between these, was analyzed by race, sex, and residence. Data were gathered in 1966 and 1972 in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas. In 1966, 10th grade…

Sollie, Ray; Lightsey, Mike

430

Uncovering the relationships between aspirations and luxury brand preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to test the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations on luxury brand preference. The objective is to help luxury marketers better understand and anticipate the psychological needs of their customers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on a thorough review of the literature, a series of hypotheses are derived and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation

Yann Truong; Rod McColl; Philip J. Kitchen

2010-01-01

431

Aspirations, Expectations, and Attitudes of South Carolina High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-two representative South Carolina high schools were surveyed via similar, group administered questionnaires in 1966-67 (5,400 sophomore students) and again in 1969-69 (4,376 senior students) to determine: (1) the aspirations and expectations of South Carolina youth with regard to occupation, education, marriage and family size, future…

Boyd, Virlyn A.

432

Searching for Autonomy: Young Black Men, Schooling and Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationships between being young and black, and educational and career aspirations, drawing on new research evidence from two recent studies carried out in two urban locations in Northern England. The first of these studies forms part of a wider research project concerned with analysing the connections between aspects of…

Law, Ian; Finney, Sarah; Swann, Sarah Jane

2014-01-01

433

ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTS AND ASPIRATIONS OF FARM YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN 1962 A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED BY SURVEYING 756,000 FARM FAMILIES IN 30 STATES, WITH CHILDREN 15 THROUGH 21 YEARS OLD. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO--(1) EXAMINE THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ECONOMIC RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO FARM YOUTH FOR SECURING POST HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION, (2) DETERMINE THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND ASPIRATIONS OF THESE FARM YOUTH FOR…

MOORE, E.J.; AND OTHERS

434

Who Wants a Job in Biology? Student Aspirations and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the results of a questionnaire survey of UK Year 3 biology undergraduates' career aspirations, and their perceptions of employment in teaching, research and conservation. Although most students sought material benefits in their potential careers, even more wished to gain job satisfaction. None of the careers in biology was…

Henderson, Danielle; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2007-01-01

435

Adolescents' Attainability and Aspiration Beliefs for Famous Musician Role Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the role that adolescents' competence beliefs and subjective task values for music have in relation to their aspirations and expectations for becoming like their musician role models. A total of 381 adolescents (aged 13-14) completed a questionnaire about their competence beliefs and values for music, the musicians they admired…

Ivaldi, Antonia; O'Neill, Susan A.

2010-01-01

436

Parents' Roles in Shaping Early Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations among parenting dimensions and adolescents' occupational aspirations related to academics and sports. Found that parents' values predicted youths' values directly in the academic domain. Fathers' behaviors mediated the relation between parents' and youths' sports values. Identification was directly related to adolescents'…

Jodl, Kathleen M.; Michael, Alice; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Sameroff, Arnold

2001-01-01

437

Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland) and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Environics Ltd., Graanintie 5, P.O. Box 349, FI-50101, Mikkeli (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland) and Drug Discovery and Development Technology Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland) and Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland)

2007-04-15

438

Percutaneous aspiration of fluid for management of peritonitis in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: As a medical emergency that can affect even well-screened, healthy individuals, peritonitis developing during a long-duration space exploration mission may dictate deviation from traditional clinical practice due to the absence of otherwise indicated surgical capabilities. Medical management can treat many intra-abdominal processes, but treatment failures are inevitable. In these circumstances, percutaneous aspiration under sonographic guidance could provide a "rescue" strategy. Hypothesis: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid can be performed in microgravity. METHODS: Investigations were conducted in the microgravity environment of NASA's KC-135 research aircraft (0 G). The subjects were anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs weighing 50 kg. The procedures were rehearsed in a terrestrial animal lab (1 G). Colored saline (500 mL) was introduced through an intra-peritoneal catheter during flight. A high-definition ultrasound system (HDI-5000, ATL, Bothell, WA) was used to guide a 16-gauge needle into the peritoneal cavity to aspirate fluid. RESULTS: Intra-peritoneal fluid collections were easily identified, distinct from surrounding viscera, and on occasion became more obvious during weightless conditions. Subjectively, with adequate restraint of the subject and operators, the procedure was no more demanding than during the 1-G rehearsals. CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid collections is feasible in weightlessness. Treatment of intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions in spaceflight might rely on pharmacological options, backed by sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration for the "rescue" of treatment failures. While this risk mitigation strategy cannot guarantee success, it may be the most practical option given severe resource limitations.

Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Nicolaou, S.; Campbell, M. R.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Melton, S.; Beck, G.; Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Hamilton, D. R.

2002-01-01

439

Career Decision-Making, Career Barriers and Occupational Aspirations in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study tested the relationship between occupational aspirations/expectations (type and status) and decision-making difficulties, efficacy and career barriers in 498 Chinese high school students. Males aspired to investigative and enterprising types, but expected realistic and enterprising ones; females aspired to enterprising and conventional…

Creed, Peter A.; Wong, Oi Yin; Hood, Michelle

2009-01-01

440

The propagation of cooperation in a model of learning with endogenous aspirations.  

E-print Network

The propagation of cooperation in a model of learning with endogenous aspirations. Paolo Lupi that support cooperation among rms. Keywords: Oligopoly, local interaction, learning, aspirations, evolution@shiva.york.ac.uk Abstract In this paper we build a spatial, aspiration-based model of learning in the context of Cournot

White, Douglas R.