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Sample records for aspiration cytology fnac

  1. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) as a Diagnostic Tool in Paediatric Head and Neck Lymphodenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Silas, OA; Ige, OO; Adoga, AA; Nimkur, LT; Ajetunmobi, OI

    2015-01-01

    A neck mass that is present for longer than a week might be pathological requiring rapid and thorough evaluation. This study aims to evaluate the positive role Fine needle aspiration cytology plays in the diagnosis of pediatric patients with lymphadenopathy in the head and neck region. Fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes was carried out, fixed and stained by cytopathologists for 56 patients at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, 43 (76.8%) were inflammatory and 13 (23.2%) malignant. Reactive hyperplasia (72.1%), acute suppurative (18.6%) and tuberculosis (9.3%) constituted the inflammatory lesions. Non Hodgkins lymphoma was the commonest malignant lesion (76.9%) followed by Hodgkins lymphoma (15.4%), the least being Rhabdomyosarcoma (7.7%). Age range 10-14 years had the highest number of cases (46.4%). Males were 36 (64.3%) while females were 20 (35.7%). All malignant cases diagnosed by FNAC had to undergo confirmation/characterization by histology and had 100% concordance. Thus there were no false positives and specificity was 100%, sensitivity 100%. Of the 43 diagnosed as inflammatory by FNAC, 12 cases which did not resolve after treatment or where patients condition worsened had to undergo surgical biopsy. Out of these only 1 (8.3%) case of fungal infection was misdiagnosed by FNAC. The lymph nodes were generalized 4 (7.1%) and localized in 52 (92.9%). Maximum number of cases 53 (94.6%) had Cervical Lymphadenopathy followed by axillary 2 (3.6%) and inguinal 1 (1.8%). Out of the cervical group of nodes, the upper anterior and upper posterior deep cervical nodes were involved in majority of cases (95%). PMID:26306308

  2. Clinical impact of second opinion in thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC): A study of 922 interinstitutional consultations.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jaya; Morgenstern, Nora; Sugrue, Chiara; Wasserman, Jason; Wasserman, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    Interinstitutional consultation in pathology has shown to improve patient safety by detecting interpretive errors that may significantly impact clinical management. We conducted a study of 922 cases of thyroid FNAC slides, referred to our institution over a 2-year period, to assess the magnitude of discrepancies and determine the clinical impact of second opinion. Disagreements were categorized as none, minor or major, the latter two defined as one- or two-step deviations respectively on the NCI diagnostic categories scale. There were 122 disagreements (13%), including 44 major and 78 minor. Seventy-five patients underwent a change in management based on second opinion, in conjunction with clinical and radiologic findings (age, size of nodule, family history, ultrasonographic appearance, and solitary versus multiple nodules). The second opinion was supported on follow-up in 57% of major discrepancies, and the initial diagnosis was concurrent with the surgical diagnosis in 7% cases. The remainder (36%) of major discrepancy cases did not undergo surgery, precluding tissue confirmation. Critics have alleged increased costs due to interinstitutional consultations. However, cost avoidance from lost wages, potential surgical complications, and litigation is not easily quantified. Using a simplified calculation to objectively measure the costs associated with changed diagnoses, we estimate that second opinion of these 922 cases resulted in potential cost saving of $940,166 based on current Medicare reimbursement codes. Our study indicates the need for a quality-control program of outside thyroid FNA slides, especially in "high discrepancy categories" as discussed in the article. PMID:21964957

  3. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    PubMed

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. PMID:11977938

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of epididymal nodules

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vinaya B; Shet, Tanuja M; Lad, Shilpa K

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non neoplastic lesions are much more common in epididymis. Clinically, epididymal nodules are easily accessible to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) procedure. There are very few literature reports documenting the role of cytology in evaluation of epididymal nodules. Thus, we studied patients presenting with palpable epididymis nodules in the out patient department (OPD) from a tertiary care general hospital. Aim: This study is aimed to put forth the diagnostic utility of FNAC in palpable lesions of epididymis. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 palpable epididymal nodules were aspirated as a routine OPD procedure as part of this study. Smears were fixed in isopropyl alcohol and air dried. In all the cases, wet fixed papanicoloau stained and air dried giemsa stained smears were studied. Zeihl Neelsen stain was performed in cases which yielded caseous aspirate. Results: Except for two cases of adenomatoid tumor of epididymis all other lesions were nonneoplastic and included 14 cases (35%) of tuberculous granulomatous inflammation, 10 (25%) cystic nodules (9 spermatoceles and 1 encysted hydrocele), 5 (12.5%) of nonspecific inflammations, 3 (7.5%) filarial infection, 3 (7.5%) sperm granulomas and 3 (7.5%) adenomatous hyperplasia of rete testes. Except for the two tumors, one adenomatous hyperplasia and one tuberculous lesion, no other lesion was excised. Follow up and response to therapy was available in 78% patients and resolution indicated appropriateness of the diagnosis Conclusions: Thus, as most of the lesions in epididymis are non neoplastic responding to medical line of treatment and FNAC served to aid diagnosis of non specific inflammation and avoid surgical excision in most cases. PMID:21897542

  5. Diagnosing a parotid lump: fine needle aspiration cytology or core biopsy?

    PubMed

    Howlett, D C

    2006-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been widely adopted for the cytological diagnosis of parotid lumps. FNAC does have drawbacks, even under optimum conditions and may be associated with poor levels of diagnostic accuracy, particularly outside the specialized clinic environment. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy (USCB) is a relatively recently described technique in the parotid gland which has been well tolerated and has demonstrated a high degree of diagnostic accuracy in several studies. This article discusses the merits and pitfalls of FNAC, together with the technique of USCB and also highlights the potential advantages benefit provided by USCB in parotid diagnosis. PMID:16585720

  6. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  7. Comparison of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Mihashi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Akihiko; Kage, Masayoshi; Kojiro, Masamichi; Nakashima, Tadashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Sakamoto, Kikuo; Chiziwa, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 115 patients with salivary gland epithelial tumors who had undergone preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary glands and had been diagnosed by postoperative histopathological examination. We compared the findings of preoperative FNAC with their histopathological types in salivary gland tumors, and discuss the results and problems. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of preoperative FNAC of salivary glands were 98.2%, 88.2%, and 100%, respectively. The percentage of inadequate specimens was 6.1%. The rates of agreement in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, and basal cell adenoma were 96%, 92.9%, and 55.5%, respectively. The rate of agreement of histopathological types in the malignant tumors was 30%. We realized again not only that the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative FNAC for salivary gland tumors was high, but also that it was a safe, easy-to-perform, clinically very useful diagnostic procedure. However, this study exposed several problems which are the inadequate sampling rate and the difficulty in diagnosing malignant tumors. We have been making efforts to take appropriate specimens by writing comments on the cytological report indicating a re-examination, or by the presence of the clinical laboratory technician at the FNAC procedure. We consider it necessary to adequately re-aspirate the solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration, or to re-perform FNAC at a later date, and to improve the diagnostic accuracy by further experience with more patients. PMID:17043392

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dey, Pranab; Amir, Thasneem; Jogai, Sanjay; Al Jussar, Aisha

    2005-04-01

    In this article we described the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of five cases of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). There were four cases of metastatic lymph nodes and one case of metastatic skin lesion. All of the TCC cases were primarily in the urinary bladder and were high grade on histopathology (grade 3). Three cases showed bladder muscle involvement and two cases showed superficial TCC at the time of primary diagnosis. FNAC smears showed abundant cellularity. The cells were present in discrete and small syncytial clusters. Nuclear position of the cell was central to eccentric. Many cells showed prominent nucleoli. Cercariform cells (CCs) were noted in four cases. These cells are malignant cells with a nucleated globular body and a unipolar nontapering cytoplasmic process. Two cases showed intranuclear inclusions. Prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in three cases. In addition, cell cannibalism and attempted pearl formations were noted in two cases.In conclusion, clinical history along with the certain cytological features such as the presence of CCs, cells with eccentric nuclei, and intranuclear inclusions are helpful to diagnose metastatic TCC on FNAC material. PMID:15754372

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lesions of liver and gallbladder: An analysis of 400 consecutive aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Barbhuiya, Mustafa; Bhunia, Shushruta; Kakkar, Manisha; Shrivastava, Braj; Tiwari, Pramod K; Gupta, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients presenting with mass lesions of liver and gallbladder are a common occurrence in a cancer hospital in north central part of India. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) serves as first line of pathological investigations, but there are pros and cons involved. Aim: The main objective of the present study was to establish adequacy of the procedure and to find out diagnostic pitfalls. An attempt was made to analyze inconclusive and inadequate aspirations. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 consecutive fine-needle aspirates of liver, belonging to 328 cases over a period of 2 years, were analyzed. Hematoxylin and eosin and May-Grόnwald-Giemsa stains were used. Chi-square test was carried out to compare significant degree of difference in different kind of diagnosis. Results: Out of 400 aspirations, 289 (72.2%) were adequate, 75 (18.7%), inconclusive and 36 (9%), inadequate. Among positive aspirations the most common was metastatic adenocarcinoma, 128 (44.2%). The positive diagnosis and adequate aspirations were significantly high (P < 0.0001). Major differential diagnostic problems were: Distinguishing the poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from the metastatic adenocarcinoma; and leukemia/lymphoma from other malignant round cell tumors. Common diagnostic pitfalls were repeated aspirations from the necrotic area and aspiration of atypical, disorganized and reactive hepatocytes, adjacent to a metastasis. No complications were observed. Conclusion: FNAC can be used successfully for the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder lesions, thus avoiding open biopsy. Study indicates the potential of using FNAC in clinical intervention where the incidence of gall-bladder and liver cancer is very high and open biopsy and surgery are not an option. PMID:25190979

  10. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of soft tissue lesions: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Henryk A

    2007-12-01

    Clinical and radiographic data provide important information in the evaluation of soft tissue lesions/neoplasms. Morphologic tissue and cytologic examination is considered to be a necessary part of the diagnostic work-up. The standard procedure for obtaining tumor tissue for morphologic evaluation has been incisional (open) or core needle biopsy. An increasing use of minimally invasive diagnostic procedures has resulted in better acceptance of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions. This article discusses challenges in FNAC of soft tissue lesions based on the experience at a multidisciplinary referral sarcoma center. Obtaining sufficient specimens from deeply seated small and necrotic/cystic lesions is technically a potential pitfall and misdiagnosis of cells from reactive zones surrounding the tumor as well as the correct evaluation of spindle cell lesions, rare soft tissue neoplasms, and "new entities" lacking reproducible cytological criteria are other important challenges in FNAC of soft tissues. The successful cytological evaluation of soft tissue lesions requires the application of strict, reproducible morphological criteria in the context of the clinical findings as well as ancillary techniques. The minimal criteria for diagnostic intervention in various clinical settings and the relative advantages and disadvantages of FNAC must be understood. FNAC of soft tissue lesions is facilitated when limited to specialized orthopedic-oncologic centers with a well-integrated multidisciplinary team and experience in the evaluation and therapy of soft tissue lesions. PMID:18008345

  11. A comparative analysis of fine-needle capillary cytology vs. fine-needle aspiration cytology in superficial lymph node lesions.

    PubMed

    Sajeev, Suraj; Siddaraju, Neelaiah

    2009-11-01

    Fine-needle capillary cytology (FNCC) has been attempted in various organs and studies have shown this procedure to yield qualitatively superior material compared with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Studies evaluating the efficacy of this technique in lymph nodes are rare. The present study has attempted to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the FNCC technique in comparison to the more widely applied FNAC technique.Thirty enlarged lymph nodes from 26 patients were sampled by both the FNCC and FNAC techniques. The smears obtained were routinely stained by May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou staining. The quality of smears was evaluated using an objective scoring system originally devised by Mair et al., for various organs. The score of individual parameters in each case as well as the total scores for FNAC and FNCC procedures were calculated separately and Mann-Whitney's test was performed; a P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical results showed smears obtained by FNCC to be qualitatively better than those obtained by FNAC. Though, individual parameters were not statistically significant, FNCC smears showed better scores as compared with those of FNA smears. Also, the technique was found to be easier to perform and less apprehensive to the patient.Our study convincingly proved the technical superiority of the FNCC technique in cellular lymph node lesions, emphasizing the need for this less publicized procedure to be more widely applied. PMID:19526570

  12. Archival Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytopathology (FNAC) Samples

    PubMed Central

    Killian, J. Keith; Walker, Robert L.; Suuriniemi, Miia; Jones, Laura; Scurci, Stephanie; Singh, Parvati; Cornelison, Robert; Harmon, Shannon; Boisvert, Nichole; Zhu, Jack; Wang, Yonghong; Bilke, Sven; Davis, Sean; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Smith, William I.; Meltzer, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Microarray technologies provide high-resolution maps of chromosome imbalances and epigenomic aberrations in the cancer cell genome. Such assays are often sensitive to sample DNA integrity, voiding the utility of many archival pathology specimens and necessitating the special handling of prospective clinical specimens. We have identified the remarkable preservation of higher-molecular weight DNA in archival fine-needle aspiration cytopathology specimens from patients greater than 10 years of age. We further demonstrate the outstanding technical performance of 57 fine-needle aspiration cytopathology samples for aberration detection on high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization array, DNA methylation, and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping platforms. Forty-four of 46 malignant aspirates in this study manifested unequivocal genomic aberrations. Importantly, matched Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik fine-needle aspiration cytopathology samples showed critical differences in DNA preservation and DNA integrity. Overall, this study identifies a largely untapped reserve of human pathology specimens for molecular profiling studies, with ramifications for the prospective collection of clinical biospecimens. PMID:20959611

  13. Contribution of fine needle aspiration cytology to diagnosis and management of thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Godinho-Matos, L.; Kocjan, G.; Kurtz, A.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. METHODS: Clinical histories of 144 patients who had undergone FNAC of the thyroid were analysed. Clinical presentation, non-invasive investigations including hormone assays, ultrasound, and isotope scan procedures were compared with FNAC diagnoses in all cases and with histological diagnosis in the 28 cases (19%) that had undergone surgery. Clinical management was decided upon combining all of the above investigations. The relative contribution of the FNAC was divided into: essential, additional and non-contributory, misleading. RESULTS: FNAC diagnoses included: 29 (16%) benign colloid goitre, 56 (39%) benign cystic goitre, 24 (17%) thyroiditis, and 22 (15%) neoplasms. Nineteen (13%) of the specimens were unsatisfactory. When compared with clinical diagnoses based on non-invasive diagnostic investigations FNAC represented no improvement on the diagnosis of benign colloid/cystic goitre (55% v 54% respectively). It represented an improvement on the diagnosis of thyroiditis (9% v 17% respectively). FNAC decreased clinically suspicious lesions in which 22 neoplasms were diagnosed from 37% to 15%. Eleven patients with neoplasms underwent surgery and neoplasms were confirmed histologically. Others including lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma, and analplastic carcinoma were managed conservatively. There were four false negative FNAC diagnoses (3%) in clinically suspicious lesions, found on histology to be benign follicular adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: FNAC had an essential role in the diagnosis and management of 23% of our patients, a confirmatory role in 61% of patients, a non-contributory role in 13% when specimens were inadequate, and was misleading in 3% where results were false negative. The positive identification of thyroiditis and neoplasia stands on its own as a justification for FNAC. PMID:1597516

  14. Image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of ovarian tumors: An assessment of diagnostic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Afzal, Sheerin; Ansari, Hena A; Ansari, Maryem

    2010-01-01

    Background: Image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of ovarian lumps is being increasingly used for the successful diagnosis of ovarian tumors, although borderline cases may be difficult to diagnose by this method. Aim: To demonstrate the efficacy of image-guided FNAC in diagnosing ovarian tumors (benign and malignant) and to evaluate the usefulness of cytology as a mode of easy and rapid diagnosis of ovarian lumps. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 42 female patients. Clinical evaluation and relevant investigations were carried out. Diagnosis was established by FNAC performed under image guidance (ultrasonography/computed tomography). The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. Results: Cytological diagnosis was rendered on all the 42 ovarian lesions, with a correct diagnosis in 34 cases, resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 80.9%. Most of the cases with discordant diagnoses were surface epithelial tumors of low malignant potential and required histopathological examination for a final diagnosis. Conclusions: Image-guided FNAC is an inexpensive, rapid and fairly accurate procedure for the diagnosis of ovarian lesions. It provides a safe alternative to the more expensive, time consuming and cumbersome surgical route to diagnosis. PMID:21187883

  15. Rosai Dorfman disease diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology in a young man with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sall, Abibatou; Touré, Awa Oumar; Ndiaye, Fatou Samba; Sène, Abdoulaye; Sall, Fatimata Bintou; Faye, Blaise Félix; Seck, Moussa; Diop, Saliou

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message RDD (Rosai Dorfman disease) is a rare and benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. FNAC (Fine-needle aspiration cytology) is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of RDD, and as such, biopsy is avoidable. PMID:26509029

  16. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y.; Joshi, Anil R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. Aim: The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years’ experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Results: Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. Conclusion: This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed PMID:25210235

  17. Glioblastoma metastasis to parotid gland and neck lymph nodes: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Amaro, Deirdre; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Olaya, Sandra I

    2013-12-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most highly aggressive neoplasms of the central nervous system. Extra-cranial metastases in GBM are rare. Here we present the case of a 26-year-old man with extra-cranial metastasis of a frontal lobe GBM to the parotid gland, cervical lymph nodes, and bones, with initial diagnosis made by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the parotid gland. FNAC is a reliable technique in the study of primary and secondary parotid gland neoplasms, allowing a presumptive diagnosis in difficult cases. We correlate the cytologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings in this case and discuss previous literature reports. PMID:23637061

  18. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Meenal V.; Phatke, Anjali S.; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Rane, Sharda R.; Kulkarni, Kalpana K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality. PMID:27011435

  19. Diagnostic efficacy and importance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Muratli, Asli; Erdogan, Nilsen; Sevim, Sezgin; Unal, Isik; Akyuz, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules is an easy and cost-effective method. The increase in malignancy rates of the excised nodules due to the high sensitivity and specificity rates of the FNAC is remarkable. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of FNAC in the evaluation of thyroid nodules by comparing the results with histopathologic evaluation and comparing the consistency of the results with the literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, 1607 FNACs of 1333 patients which were classified according to the Bethesda system and 126 histopathological evaluations obtained from this group were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 51.24 (range: 17-89, 17% male and 83% female). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy rates were evaluated. Results: The sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity was 64.6%. The positive and negative predictive value and accuracy rates were 76.1%, 79.5%, and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusions: In our study, the evaluation of thyroid FNAC samples with Bethesda system highly correlated with the results of histopathological diagnosis. However, combination of additional and advanced diagnostic methods such as immunocytochemical studies and molecular pathology techniques enhance the prognostic value of FNAC in patients with atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance, lesions suspicious for malignancy, and suspected follicular neoplasm. PMID:25210233

  20. Diagnosing breast lesions by fine needle aspiration cytology or core biopsy: which is better?

    PubMed

    Tse, Gary M; Tan, Puay-Hoon

    2010-08-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) are widely used in diagnosing breast lesions, with both achieving high sensitivity and specificity. Whether FNAC or CNB is better remains highly controversial. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods are discussed, especially in relation to specific problematic groups of breast lesions. In general, CNB has a slight advantage with lower inadequate and suspicious rates, allowing easier grade assessment and ancillary testings (hormome receptors, HER2) in cases of cancers. FNAC cannot reliably predict invasion in a malignant aspirate, whereas CNB, although useful in confirming invasion in carcinomas, has a much lower efficacy in predicting invasion when only in situ carcinoma is detected. The other problematic areas are papillary breast lesions and fibroepithelial lesions, notably phyllodes tumors. In papillary lesions, FNAC diagnosis is inaccurate, but with CNB, one can confidently diagnose papillary lesion, although there is still significant false positive and false negative rates, even with immunohistochemistry. For fibroepithelial lesions, using either FNAC or CNB to differentiate between a phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma is also inaccurate. As management of breast diseases necessitates the triple approach (clinical, imaging and pathological), an awareness of the limitations of these very useful diagnostic modalities by all specialists is prudent, especially when dealing with these specific groups of breast lesions. PMID:20526738

  1. [The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in suspected neoplastic salivary gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Schoengen, A; Binder, T; Krause, H R; Stussak, G; Zeelen, U

    1995-04-01

    Imaging offers little support in the management of salivary gland masses suggestive of a neoplastic lesion. There are also contraindications for a surgical biopsy in many cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not yet widely recognized as a diagnostic tool. To date, 206 FNAC were carried out from 1986 through 1993 on 181 consecutive patients and were reviewed in the present study. Histological confirmation was possible in 174 tests, while 32 were confirmed on clinical follow-up. In sum, 192 samples were sufficient for interpretation, 10 were questionable by our standards and 4 were non-diagnostic. One hundred-seventy-one samples were true-negative, 27 true-positive, 4 false-negative and 4 false-positive. Sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity 97.7%. Out of 141 primary diagnostic procedures in which a final histologic diagnosis was available, FNAC was able to determine histogenesis in 113/124 benign lesions and 9/17 malignant masses. These included 65/67 pleomorphic adenomas and 21/22 adenolymphomas. In 8 cases a diagnosis of "adenoma" was made. Difficulties in interpretation were found in lesions that were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and, in part, adenoid cystic carcinomas. No complications occurred. Provided that there was sufficient experience in performing the aspiration technique and in cytologic interpretation, FNAC was found to be a quick, reliable, low-cost, easy-to-perform method with low risk in the management of nearly all benign and most malignant salivary gland lesions. PMID:7790235

  2. A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Tauro, Leo F.; Lobo, Geover J.; Fernandes, Hilda; George, Celine; Aithala, P. Sathyamoorthy; Shenoy, Divakar; Shetty, Prathvi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC/FNA) is the primary investigation for thyroid nodules. Fine needle capillary cytology (FNCC/FNC) is an alternative technique not commonly used, though it is easy to perform. Both the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to compare these two cytological techniques for better specimen and cytological diagnosis. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients attending the FR Muller Medical College Hospital from May 2006 to April 2008. The patients with thyroid nodules (diagnosed by palpation) were subjected to both the cytological techniques; FNA and FNC. The specimen and results were compared and then correlated with the final histopathological findings wherever surgical specimens were available (38 cases). Results The mean age of the patients was 39.16 with a female predominance. The majority of cases were diagnosed to have nodular goiters. The FNC technique yielded 88% diagnostic superiority and adequate specimens compared to 94% by FNA. Sensitivity was 50% for FNC and 100% for FNA while specificity was 100% for both techniques; accuracy score was 97.4% for FNC and 100% for FNA in predicting malignancy. While sensitivity was 75% for FNC and 100% for FNA; specificity was 100% for both techniques, and accuracy score was 97.4% for FNC and 100% for FNA in the prediction of neoplasia. Conclusion The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the two techniques; if done in tandem can give better and accurate cytological diagnosis. In highly cellular lesions, in which abundant material was obtained, FNC was more likely to be diagnostically superior, but FNA can diagnose most of the lesions. In less cellular lesions, FNA is more likely to be diagnostically superior to FNC. PMID:22496942

  3. Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Fine Needle Nonaspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongming; Wei, Chuankui; Li, Dengfeng; Hua, Kaiyao; Song, Jialu; Maskey, Niraj; Fang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and fine needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC) are useful cost-effective techniques for preoperatively assessing thyroid lesions. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and there is controversy over which method is superior. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between FNAC and FNNAC for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods. Primary publications were independently collected by two reviewers from PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, OALib, and the Cochrane Library databases. The following search terms were used: fine needle, aspiration, capillary, nonaspiration, sampling without aspiration, thyroid, and cytology. The last search was performed on February 1, 2015. Results. Sixteen studies comprising 1,842 patients and 2,221 samples were included in this study. No statistically significant difference was observed between FNAC and FNNAC groups with respect to diagnostically inadequate smears, diagnostically superior smears, diagnostic performance (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, average score of each parameter (background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture), and total score of five parameters. Conclusion. FNAC and FNNAC are equally useful in assessing thyroid nodules. PMID:26491689

  4. Clinically misinterpreted melanoma metastases can correctly be diagnosed by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Schaefer-Hesterberg, Gregor; Akkooi, Alexander J C Van; Letsch, Anne; Roewert, Joachim; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Keilholz, Ulrich; Voit, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (US-guided FNAC) of regional nodal basins is increasingly incorporated into the national follow-up schemes of high risk melanoma patients. In this paper we describe an additional added value of US-guided FNAC in the detection and verification of subcutaneous/in-transit metastases. A patient presented with a long lasting, smooth, movable node, close to the scar of the primary melanoma, mimicking a lipoma in every clinical follow-up. Ultrasound at once suspected a metastasis. FNAC was performed within one day of sampling in an outpatient setting, without side effects. A hypothesis of an auto-vaccination in this case could not be proven by examining the T-cell response. Despite the clinically benign aspect of this metastasis, US-guided FNAC can provide diagnosis within 1 day. FNAC is a rapid, cost-effective method, free of complications, of great value in the diagnosis of putative metastases. PMID:21489911

  5. Correlation between Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology and Histology for Palpable Breast Masses in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution

    PubMed Central

    Daramola, Adetola Olubunmi; Odubanjo, Mosebolatan Olatokunboh; Obiajulu, Fred John; Ikeri, Nzechukwu Zimudo; Banjo, Adekunbiola Aina Fehintola

    2015-01-01

    Background. Management of breast lumps can be challenging in resource poor settings. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) especially when used with cell block can help improve affordability for the patients. Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC of palpable breast lesions within a 5-year period. Methods. The findings obtained from FNAC of palpable breast lumps seen at the FNAC clinic of our department from January 2007 to December 2011 were retrieved and correlated with findings on histology of excisional biopsies. Results. A total of 1790 patients had FNAC of breast lumps during the 5-year period; 436 of them subsequently had biopsies. Our results compare favourably with the measures of test performance of the UK NHS Breast Screening Programme shown in brackets: absolute sensitivity 95.4% (>70%), complete sensitivity 99.2% (>90%), full specificity 88.9% (>65%), positive predictive value 99.6% (>99%), false-negative rate 0.8% (<4%), false-positive rate 0.4% (<0.5%), inadequate rate 3.2% (<15%), and suspicious rate 10.2% (<15%). Conclusion. Breast FNACs compare very well with histology of excisional biopsies and in experienced hands are extremely useful in the management of breast lumps. Further studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC and cell blocks in our setting are recommended. PMID:26635977

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D. C.; Irwin, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Four patients between 58 and 81 years of age undergoing investigation and endoscopic biopsy for gastric carcinoma also were subjected to direct-vision fine needle aspiration cytology of their mucosal lesions which yielded malignant cells. The relevance of this technique is discussed regarding both intrinsic and extrinsic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Images Fig 1. (a) Fig 1. (b) Fig 2. (a) Fig 2. (b) PMID:9414941

  7. Establishing an accurate diagnosis of a parotid lump: evaluation of the current biopsy methods - fine needle aspiration cytology, ultrasound-guided core biopsy, and intraoperative frozen section.

    PubMed

    Howlett, D C; Skelton, E; Moody, A B

    2015-09-01

    The optimum technique for histological confirmation of the nature of a parotid mass remains controversial. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), which has traditionally been used, is associated with high non-diagnostic and false negative rates, and ultrasound (US)-guided core biopsy and frozen section have been explored as alternatives. US-guided core biopsy is more invasive than FNAC, but is safe, well-tolerated, and associated with improved diagnostic performance. Although frozen section offers better specificity than FNAC, it has a number of important drawbacks and cannot be considered as a primary diagnostic tool. US-guided core biopsy should be considered as the initial diagnostic technique of choice, and in units where the accuracy of FNAC is good it can be used when FNAC is equivocal or non-diagnostic. PMID:25886878

  8. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Zarami, A. B.; Satumari, N. A.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries. PMID:26664783

  9. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center.

    PubMed

    Zarami, A B; Satumari, N A; Ahmed, M

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries. PMID:26664783

  10. Towards high performance cell segmentation in multispectral fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Edgar; Venkatesan, Vishwanath; Shah, Shishir

    2010-06-01

    Thyroid nodule is a common cancer of the thyroid gland that affects up to 20% of the world population and approximately 50% of 60-year-old persons. Early detection and screening of the disease, especially analysis by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), has led to improved diagnosis and management of the disease. Simultaneously, advances in imaging technology has enabled the rapid digitization of large volumes of FNAC specimen leading to increased interest in computer assisted diagnosis (CAD). This has led to development of a variety of algorithms for automated analysis of FNAC images, but due to the large scale memory and computing resource requirements, has had limited success in clinical use. In this paper, we present our experiences with two parallel versions of a code used for texture-based segmentation of thyroid FNAC images, a critical first step in realizing a fully automated CAD solution. An MPI version of the code is developed to exploit distributed memory compute resources such as PC clusters. An OpenMP version is developed for the currently emerging multi-core CPU architectures, which allow for parallel execution on every desktop system. Experiments are performed with image sizes ranging from 1024 x 1024 pixels up to 12288 x 12288 pixels with 21 spectral channels. Both versions are evaluated for performance and scalability. PMID:19720425

  11. Centrifugal cytology of nipple aspirate cells.

    PubMed

    Leif, R C; Bobbitt, D; Railey, C; Guarino, V; DerHagopian, R; Ng, A B; Silverman, M

    1980-01-01

    Two improvements in the methodology for obtaining and preparing nipple aspirates from nonlactating women are reported. The first is the development and use of a new breast pump with a controllable vacuum and cups of various sizes. The second is the use of centrifugal cytology to prepare the dispersions. Twenty-one of 24 breasts of patients in the age range 30 to 49 years produced cellular dispersions which contained foam cells; of them, 13 contained ductal cells. A comparison of glutaraldehyde and ethanol fixation indicated that the cells appeared substantially the same. PMID:6931468

  12. The role of fine needle aspiration cytology and core biopsy in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses

    PubMed Central

    Kocaay, Akin Firat; Celik, Suleyman Utku; Sevim, Yusuf; Ozyazici, Sefa; Cetinkaya, Omer Arda; Alic, Kamil Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modern approach to palpable breast masses is to get cytopathologic diagnosis before definitive surgery. We aimed to compare fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with core biopsy in histopathologic diagnosis of palpable breast masses. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on 123 women who have suspicious palpable breast masses from 2007 to 2010. Results: Of the 123 patients, core biopsies were performed on 64 patients (Group 1) and FNAC on 59 patients (Group 2). Malignancy was confirmed in 25 out of 32 clinically suspicious patients in Group 1 (78.1%), and 20 out of 21 participants in Group 2 (95.2%). Among the clinically suspicious patients, 81.8% of 33 patients in Group 1, and 90.3% of 31 patients in Group 2 were identified malignancy. Sensitivity was 100% for core biopsy and 95% for FNAC. Specificity was 100% in both procedures. False negativity rate in FNAC were 5%. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity showed that in the case of true histopathologic classification, core biopsy is superior to FNAC. Nevertheless, FNAC's role as a fast, simple and cheap diagnosis cannot be ignored. It is an effective diagnostic tool in most patients, in comparison to the correct and specific typing of core biopsies in benign lesions which protect patients from the open biopsy.

  13. Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Its Histopathological Correlation in A Tertiary Care Center of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    C, Akshatha; Masilamani, Suresh; Jonathan, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Background Salivary glands may enlarge either due to inflammation or neoplastic conditions and the diagnosis is possible by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Aim The present study was undertaken to determine utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 186 FNACs of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Of these, 146 cases had follow-up histopathological diagnosis. FNAC diagnoses were compared to histopathological diagnoses. Results The parotid glands were more commonly involved than others. Among the various diagnostic categories used in FNAC reports, Non neoplastic category was seen in 24 (16.4%), benign category in 86 (58.9%) and malignant category in 30 (20.6%) and unsatisfactory category in 6 (4.1%) of 146 cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions were 86.6%, 94.6%, 93.6%, 88.3%, and 94.6% respectively. Conclusion The present study concluded that FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions is highly sensitive, specific and accurate method. Hence, FNAC is a useful, quick and reliable diagnostic tool. It also appears to be a safe, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure, which provides information for management of salivary gland lesions. PMID:26266126

  14. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of orbital masses: A study of 41 cases

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Lekha Krishnan; Sankar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Complexity in the anatomy of orbit and the fear of globe rupture are the main challenges faced in the diagnosis and typing of orbital masses. Fine needle aspiration cytology can be used as an initial investigative procedure in the evaluation of orbital masses, which in turn can aid the clinician to plan the treatment modalities. A close cooperation between ophthalmologist and pathologist adds to the success of the procedure. Aim: The study was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of orbital lesions as a cost-effective diagnostic technique, and to assess its diagnostic efficacy by comparing it with histopathological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 patients, over a period of 3 years, who had presented with anterior orbital mass lesions with or without proptosis, and with those having accessible mass lesions. Patients with proptosis without anterior orbital masses, proptosis due to dysthyroid ophthalmopathy, arteriovenous fistulas, hamartomas and choristomas were excluded from the study. FNAC procedure was done after explaining about the procedure to the patient, and in the presence of an ophthalmologist. Results: Majority of patients belonged to the age group 50-59 years. Male: female ratio was 1.05: 1. The most common lesion on FNAC was non-Hodgkins lymphoma, [13 cases (31.7%)]. 11 (26.8%) cases out of this were confirmed to be non-Hodgkins lymphoma on histopathologic examination. Two cases turned out to be inflammatory pseudotumor. Conclusions: FNAC can be done in all palpable orbital mass lesions with minimal risk and complications, with close cooperation between ophthalmologist and pathologist. A good degree of correlation was obtained between FNAC and histopathology, which was assessed by kappa statistics. PMID:25210236

  15. Assessment of Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Breast Carcinoma Using Thin-Prep Cytology Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology FISH Experience From China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Yuan, Peng; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Linlin; Ying, Jianming; Wang, Mingrong; Zhao, Huan; Pan, Qinjing; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) overexpression can be used to predict patient prognosis in breast cancer (BC). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a reliable predictive marker in invasive breast cancer (IBC). Thin-Prep (TP) specimens are commonly utilized for immunocytochemistry (ICC) in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thus, we sought to investigate if the incorporation of molecular diagnosis performed on TP-processed specimens is applicable in clinical practice. Hormone receptors (HRs) and HER2 immunocytochemistry was performed on 542 primary breast cancer FNAC specimens using the TP method. One hundred fourteen HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on HER2 ICC 2+ FNAC specimens and the corresponding tissue samples. HRs results of TP slides and those of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slides were correlated well for ER (concordance rate = 93.3%, kappa value = 0.85) and PR (concordance rate = 88.6%, kappa value = 0.75). HER2 results for the TP slides and those of the matched FFPE slides also correlated well (concordance rate = 80.0%, kappa value = 0.62). The specificity of HER2 was 97.3%; however, the sensitivity was only 67.1%. Cytological specimens and histological samples showed a strong correlation (concordance rate = 99.1%, kappa value = 0.98) while being used to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. FNAC is a minimally invasive technique that can be used as an alternative method to collect tissue especially in cases where an excisional or core biopsy is difficult to obtain, or when recurrence is present. The results of ICC HRs in FNAC TP specimens may be used instead, but HER2 assessment may not be reliable enough for clinical use. FISH testing is necessary in this setting.

  16. The value of combined application of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and thyroglobulin measurement for the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jia-hong; Xu, Ying-ying; Pan, Qi-zheng; Sui, Guo-qing; Zhou, Jian-ping; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided (US-guided) fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), thyroglobulin measurement on fine-needle aspiration (FNA-Tg), combined US-guided FNAC, and the ratio between FNA-Tg and serum Tg (FNA-Tg/serum Tg) for patients with cervical lymph node (CLN) metastases from thyroid carcinoma. Methods: We selected 148 patients with thyroid cancer with suspicious CLN metastases who met the inclusion criteria. FNAC findings, FNA-Tg levels, and serum Tg levels were evaluated before surgical treatment. The results of FNAC and FNA-Tg from CLNs were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Ninety-four of 148 cases were metastatic and 54 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNAC were 68.1%, 100.0%, and 79.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNA-Tg/serum Tg were 91.5%, 88.9%, and 90.5%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNA-Tg [10 ng/mL] were 98.9%, 68.5%, and 87.8%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of combined US-guided FNAC and FNA-Tg/serum Tg were 95.7%, 96.3%, and 95.9%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between FNAC and combined US-guided FNAC and FNA-Tg/serum Tg for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The method of FNA-Tg/serum Tg is sensitive enough for diagnosing CLN metastases from thyroid cancer. The combined application of US-guided FNAC and FNA-Tg/serum Tg contributes to improving the accuracy of diagnosing CLN metastases in patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:26649004

  17. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  18. A Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour of the Head of Pancreas: A Rare Case Report Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Archana Hemant; Chhadi, Shyam Atmaram; Kumbhalkar, Dinkar T; Raut, Waman K

    2016-01-01

    Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour (SPPT) is a distinctive tumour of low malignant potential with a striking and unexplained predilection for adolescent girls and young women. Hence it is important to distinguish this rare tumour from other pancreatic tumours with similar cytomorphologic features because an accurate preoperative diagnosis is highly desirable since these patients can have long survival with adequate surgery. We report a case of the rare SPPT of the pancreas in a young girl who presented with nonspecific pain in the abdomen. Radiological investigations revealed a solid cystic mass in relation to the uncinate process of pancreas and third part of duodenum. The mass was diagnosed to be a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas on ultrasound guided FNAC. Surgical removal of the pancreatic tumour and detailed histologic study confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. We present this case because, to date, there are few case reports on the cytological diagnosis of this tumour, about 60 cases, diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) are reported in the literature. With widespread availability of high-quality imaging systems and a better understanding of its pathology, the number of cases reported in the literature has been steadily increasing in recent years. In our case, the cytological diagnosis was done even before the detailed imaging findings were available, the cytological features of this tumour are highly characteristic and it is possible to differentiate it from other pancreatic tumours with relative ease. PMID:27504299

  19. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities in breast cancer screening: results from the breast cancer screening programme in Oslo 1996-2001.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Torin; Myrvold, Kristina; Lømo, Jon; Anderssen, Karin Yvonne; Skaane, Per

    2003-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of nonpalpable mammographic lesions has been under attack from two sides for some years. There has been much discussion and controversy as to the ability to differentiate between in situ and invasive carcinomas in cytological material. A further issue is that of optimal sampling to obtain adequate cell material in sufficient quantity. We present the results of FNAC from 832 nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities detected in the course of the breast cancer screening programme in Oslo during 1996-2001. In 11.6% of cases the smears were inadequate, and there were 7% false negatives (FN) and 1.3% false positives. Of the FN, 64% represented microcalcifications and 86% were due to sampling errors. Absolute sensitivity was 74%, complete sensitivity 88% and specificity 88%. In 255 carcinomas a cytological diagnosis of them as in situ or invasive was made. In 93% of the invasive cases (190/205) these had been correctly identified as invasive on FNAC. In 78% of cases proper follow-up could be resolved by cytology/radiology alone. Suboptimal sampling and localization remains the main cause of FN FNAC results. Problems in differentiating between in situ and invasive breast carcinomas can be significantly reduced by applying strict criteria for in situ lesions. PMID:14659146

  20. Aggressive Lymphoma in a 14 Year Old Indian Boy, Diagnosed on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kurpad, Ramkumar; Narayanan, Manoj; Sasikumar, V K; Jadhav, S S

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma(BL) is a highly aggressive B -cell Lymphoma of childhood with a doubling time of 24 to 48 h. Depending upon the clinical and epidemiological factors it is classified as Epidemic, Sporadic and Immunodeficiency associated Burkitt’s lymphoma. Sporadic Burkitt’s lymphoma has its own characteristics with few differences pertaining to specific geographical location. Here, we present a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with advanced stage disease. On examination he had cervical lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement in the form of nerve palsy.USG revealed multiple well defined solid lesions in liver, both kidneys and pancreas. However, PBS did not show the presence of lymphomatous cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph node and liver lesion showed features suggestive of Burkitt’s lymphoma, which was further confirmed on Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. PMID:25478352

  1. [The utility of aspiration cytology for the distinction of aggressive and non-aggressive papillary carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Caprara, G; Collina, G

    2007-06-01

    Preoperative identification of the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by fine needle aspiration (FNAC) has been suggested and different systems for distinguishing them from classical variant of PTC have been employed, including a point-based cytology grading system as suggested by Damiani et al., that we currently use in our Institution. The aim of this paper is to verify if distinction of PTC in aggressive or nonaggressive variants impacts on surgical treatment. In 7 years, from 1998 to 2005, 13586 cases of FNAC of thyroid have been performed; among them 156 PTC. The cytological material of thirty complete thyroidectomies with histology proven papillary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. 11/30 cases were correctly stratified into the appropriate low or high-grade category. The cytological grading system was discordant with the final histopathological diagnosis in 9/30 cases while in 10 cases the grade was not assessed. Eight cases were downgraded and therefore the low grade papillary carcinoma diagnosed at cytological level turned to be high grade at histology. When those cases were reviewed, the histology of seven cases diagnosed as tall cell variant of PTC failed to show a percentage of tumour cells higher than 50% and therefore it would be better to diagnose them as classical variant of PTC. One case was under-graded at FNAC. The case that was cytologically upgraded was a follicular variant of PTC in Hashimoto thyroiditis with a focus of tall cells. All patients underwent thyroidectomy or thyroidectomy plus lymphadenectomy and from our results the pre-operative diagnosis did not effect the surgical treatment. No patient died of the disease. PMID:17987724

  2. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of superficial lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, M R

    1989-01-01

    A series of 244 enlarged superficial lymph nodes was examined by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Twenty-nine smears (11.9%) were inadequate for study. Of the remaining 215, 108 were negative, 13 suspicious for malignancy, and 94 positive. Forty-five excisional biopsies were performed correlating the cytologic and histologic findings. There were two cytologic false-negative results; both were patients who had been treated for carcinoma and whose aspirates were cytologically negative. Of the 13 samples reported as suspicious for malignancy, there were three epidermoid carcinomas, nine reactive hyperplasias, and one non-Hodgkin's lymphocytic lymphoma. Of the positive cases, 83 were metastatic tumors, and 11 were malignant lymphomas (two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and nine Hodgkin's lymphomas). The criteria used in the interpretation of these aspirates and the problems of differential cytological diagnosis are discussed. In spite of the drawbacks of inadequate and false-negative smears, fine-needle aspiration cytology is valuable in preliminary diagnosis of diseased lymph nodes and subsequent management. PMID:2776599

  3. The Role of CD56 in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Pilot Study Performed on Liquid Based Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Marrocco, Carla; D’Amato, Donato; Traini, Emanuela; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Fadda, Guido; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Rossi, Esther Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration Cytology (FNAC) fulfills a reliable role in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Although the majority of nodules are quite easily diagnosed as benign or malignant, 30% of them represent an indeterminate category whereby the application of ancillary techniques (i.e. immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing) has been encouraged. The search for a specific immunomarker of malignancy sheds light on a huge number of ICC stains although none of them attempt to yield 100% conclusive results. Our aim was to define in a pilot study on thyroid FNAC whether CD56 might be a valid marker also in comparison with HBME-1 and Galectin-3. Materials and Methods Inasmuch as this is the largest pilot study using only liquid based cytology (LBC), we selected all the cases only in the categories of benign nodules (BN) and positive for malignancy (PM) for validation purposes. Eighty-five consecutive (including 50 PM and 35 BN) out of 950 thyroid FNACs had surgical follow-up. The ICC panel (HBME-1, Galectin-3 and CD56) was carried out on LBC and histology. Results All BNs and PMs were histological confirmed. CD56 was negative in 96% of the PM while 68.5% of the BNs showed cytoplasmic positivity for this marker, with an overall high sensitivity (96%) but lower specificity (69%). In specific, our 96% of the PMs did not show any follicular cell with CD56 expression. Different ICC combinations were evaluated showing that the panel made up of CD56 plus HBME-1 and Galectin-3 had the highest sensitivity (98%) and specificity (86%). Conclusions Our pilot study suggests that CD56 may be a good marker for ruling out PTC and its variants. The low specificity suggests that an immunopanel including also HBME-1 and Galectin-3 could obtain the highest diagnostic accuracy in thyroid lesions. Our results suggest that CD56 may be a feasible additional marker for identifying malignancies also in the FNs and SMs. PMID:26186733

  4. Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Mallikarjuna CM; Arathi, CA; Kodandaswamy, CR

    2011-01-01

    Background: The evaluation and management of various hepatic lesions is a common clinical problem and their appropriate clinical management depends on accurate diagnoses. Aims: To study the cytomorphological features of distinctive non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the liver and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (USG)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of liver diseases. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients with evidence of liver diseases underwent USG-guided, percutaneous FNAC. Cytomorphological diagnoses were correlated with clinical, biochemical and radiological findings, histopathological diagnoses and follow-up information. Results: The age of the patients ranged from eight months to 90 years with 48 males (66.67%) and 24 females (33.33%). Of the 72 cases, the cytological diagnosis was rendered in 71 patients and smears were inadequate for interpretation in one case. Neoplastic lesions (68.06%) were more common than non-neoplastic lesions (30.56%). The majority of the neoplastic lesions were hepatocellular carcinomas (36.12%) followed by metastatic adenocarcinomas (19.45%). Among non-neoplastic lesions, cirrhosis was the commonest lesion (8.34%). The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 97.82% with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.87 and 100% respectively. Conclusion: USG-guided FNAC of the liver is a safe, simple, cost-effective and accurate method for cytological diagnosis of hepatic diffuse, focal/nodular and cystic lesions with good sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22090691

  5. Solitary thyroid metastasis from colon cancer: fine-needle aspiration cytology and molecular biology approach.

    PubMed

    Onorati, M; Uboldi, P; Bianchi, C L; Nicola, M; Corradini, G M; Veronese, S; Fascì, A I; Di Nuovo, F

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid gland is one of the most vascularized organs of the body, nevertheless clinical and surgical series report an incidence of secondary malignancies in this gland of only 3%. Colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland is not as uncommon as previously believed, infact the number of cases seems to be increased in recent years due to the more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) guided by ultrasonography. Although kidney, breast and lung metastases to the thyroid are frequent, metastasis from colon cancer is clinically rare with 52 cases reported in the literature in the last 5 decades and three cases described as solitary thyroid metastasis from the colon cancer without any other visceral metastases. To the best of our knowledge, we report the fourth case of solitary, asymptomatic thyroid metastasis from colon cancer without involvement of other organs. We discuss the importance of FNAC to detect metastatazing process as a compulsory step of the diagnostic and therapeutic management algorithm, combined with a molecular biology approach. A review of the last 5 decades literature, to update the number of cases described to date, is also included. PMID:26946875

  6. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of major salivary gland tumors: A study with histological and clinical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Archana; Geethamani, V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neoplastic lesions of salivary glands present an interesting subject because of their histologic diversification. Complex features exhibited by them have aroused considerable speculations concerning their histogenesis and continues to hold the interest of clinicians and pathologists. Major salivary glands are superficial and have easy accessibility for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). These glands are generally not subjected to incisional or core needle biopsy, because of the possible risks of fistula formation and tumor seedling. FNAC diagnosis of major salivary gland neoplasms aids in proper planning of required surgery and avoidance of the same in cases of non-neoplastic lesions. Materials and Methods: Cytological features of major salivary gland tumors diagnosed on FNAC were studied over a period of one and a half years. Cytological and architectural patterns in smears were compared with histopathological features in cases where the specimens were available with a note on the age, sex and presenting complaints. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to find the significance of study parameters. Chi-square/Fisher Exact was used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more groups. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 114 salivary gland FNACs were done, 75 patients were clinically suspected to be neoplasms. The peak incidence was in the third to fourth decade of life with a female preponderance. Parotid was the most commonly affected gland (80%) with pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (10.7%) being the most common benign and malignant tumors respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 97.6%. Warthins tumor was misdiagnosed and was associated with a strong smoking history. Conclusion: Salivary gland neoplasms constitute a small but significant percentage of head and neck tumors. FNAC is inexpensive, quick, and aids in the

  7. Ultrasonography Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Preparation of Cell Blocks in the Diagnosis of Intra- Abdominal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Muniyappa, Bharathi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is currently the most favoured and increasingly used pre-operative diagnostic procedure in various deep seated neoplastic and non-neoplastic mass lesions. Cell blocks prepared from residual fine needle aspiration (FNA) material can aid in better morphologic assessment and contribute to establish a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis. Aim To assess the value of ultrasonography guided FNAC in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal (non-pelvic) masses. Objectives To determine the reliability of ultrasonography guided FNAC in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic intra-abdominal mass lesions. To assess the usefulness of cell block as a complimentary diagnostic material in the morphologic evaluation of the lesions. Materials and Methods Aspirate material was collected from 62 patients with clinically and/or radiologically detected abdominal mass under ultrasonographic (USG) guidance. Pelvic masses were excluded from the study. In every case an attempt was made to prepare cell block (CB) from any residual material after preparation of routine smears. The final cytomorphologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical and radiologic findings, histopathologic diagnosis, follow up and response to therapy information. Results The diagnostic yield of USG guided FNAC was 96.77%. The cases included 42 malignant (67.74%), two (3.23%) benign, and 16 (25.8%) non-neoplastic lesions. Two (3.23%) smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation. In 45 out of 62 cases (72.58%) CB preparations were available. There was a good agreement between smear diagnosis and that observed on CB section. Additionally CB yielded better diagnostic material in 15.55% of cases and aided in establishing a more precise final cytopathologic diagnosis. Confirmation of diagnosis in the form of biopsy and/or surgically resected specimen and follow up was available in 56 cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of USG guided FNAC was 96

  8. Cytological detection of lymphoma in Douglas aspirate.

    PubMed

    Ljubić, Nives; Sucić, Mirna; Vasilj, Ankica; Lang, Nada; Dominis, Mara; Batinica, Anita Grgurević; Jurković, Ljiljanka; Siftar, Zoran

    2008-10-01

    Except in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), serous effusions with lymphomatous cells in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are not frequently seen as first manifestation of disease. In NHL lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow are frequently sites of disease and this type of NHL is usually associated with a serum paraprotein of IgM type accompanied by the clinical syndrome of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Our patient with NHL LPL type presented in this report had less frequently seen involvement of gastrointestinal tract and clinically was first manifested as effusion in Douglas space. Cytological evaluation as well immunoanalyses of effusion in such cases is essential, and various ancillary studies, because of differential diagnostic problems of lymphomas in serous effusions, first include reactive lymphocytoses and small round-cell tumors (SRCT). In our patient, cytology of effusion revealed cytomorphologically atypical lymphomatous cells with plasmocytoid differentiation. Immunocytochemical and flow cytometry analysis confirmed lymphoid cell differentiation and pathohistological diagnosis of CD20(+) LPL was set after pathohistological analysis of resected ileum. PMID:18773438

  9. Archival fine-needle aspiration cytopathology (FNAC) samples: untapped resource for clinical molecular profiling.

    PubMed

    Killian, J Keith; Walker, Robert L; Suuriniemi, Miia; Jones, Laura; Scurci, Stephanie; Singh, Parvati; Cornelison, Robert; Harmon, Shannon; Boisvert, Nichole; Zhu, Jack; Wang, Yonghong; Bilke, Sven; Davis, Sean; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Smith, William I; Meltzer, Paul S

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technologies provide high-resolution maps of chromosome imbalances and epigenomic aberrations in the cancer cell genome. Such assays are often sensitive to sample DNA integrity, voiding the utility of many archival pathology specimens and necessitating the special handling of prospective clinical specimens. We have identified the remarkable preservation of higher-molecular weight DNA in archival fine-needle aspiration cytopathology specimens from patients greater than 10 years of age. We further demonstrate the outstanding technical performance of 57 fine-needle aspiration cytopathology samples for aberration detection on high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization array, DNA methylation, and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping platforms. Forty-four of 46 malignant aspirates in this study manifested unequivocal genomic aberrations. Importantly, matched Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik fine-needle aspiration cytopathology samples showed critical differences in DNA preservation and DNA integrity. Overall, this study identifies a largely untapped reserve of human pathology specimens for molecular profiling studies, with ramifications for the prospective collection of clinical biospecimens. PMID:20959611

  10. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Can Play a Role in Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Operable Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garbar, Christian; Curé, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that CNB has been progressively replaced by FNAC in the investigation of nonpalpable lesions or microcalcifications without a clinical or radiological mass lesion, FNAC has yet a role in palpable lesions provided it is associated with the triple diagnosis and experienced cytologist. In these conditions, FNAC is a safe, effective, economical, and accurate technique for breast cancer evaluation. Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses illustrated the advantages and disadvantages of both methods CNB and FNAC. The difference does not seem significant when noninformative and unsatisfactory FNAC was excluded. Recently, cytological methods using liquid-based cytology (LBC) technology improve immunocytological and molecular tests with the same efficiency as classical immunohistochemistry. The indications of FNAC were, for palpable lesions, relative contraindication of CNB (elderly or frailty), staging of multiple nodules in conjunction or not with CNB, staging of lymph node status, newly appearing lesion in patient under neoadjuvant treatment, decreasing of anxiety with a rapid diagnosis, evaluation of biomarkers and new biomarkers, and chronological evaluation of biomarker following the neoadjuvant therapy response. PMID:23936675

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology can play a role in neoadjuvant chemotherapy in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Garbar, Christian; Curé, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that CNB has been progressively replaced by FNAC in the investigation of nonpalpable lesions or microcalcifications without a clinical or radiological mass lesion, FNAC has yet a role in palpable lesions provided it is associated with the triple diagnosis and experienced cytologist. In these conditions, FNAC is a safe, effective, economical, and accurate technique for breast cancer evaluation. Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses illustrated the advantages and disadvantages of both methods CNB and FNAC. The difference does not seem significant when noninformative and unsatisfactory FNAC was excluded. Recently, cytological methods using liquid-based cytology (LBC) technology improve immunocytological and molecular tests with the same efficiency as classical immunohistochemistry. The indications of FNAC were, for palpable lesions, relative contraindication of CNB (elderly or frailty), staging of multiple nodules in conjunction or not with CNB, staging of lymph node status, newly appearing lesion in patient under neoadjuvant treatment, decreasing of anxiety with a rapid diagnosis, evaluation of biomarkers and new biomarkers, and chronological evaluation of biomarker following the neoadjuvant therapy response. PMID:23936675

  12. “A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine” — cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prashant; Agarwal, Shipra; Singh, Geetika; Xess, Immaculata; Bhowmik, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases. PMID:27011447

  13. Is there still a role for thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of a thyroid nodule in the era of fine needle aspiration cytology and molecular testing?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Bourmorck, Carole; Chami, Rayan; Corvilain, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is now rarely used in the work-up of a thyroid nodule except in the presence of a low TSH value. Therefore, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) with a normal TSH value are diagnosed only in the rare medical centers that continue to use thyroid scan systematically in the presence of a thyroid nodule. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of AFTN with a normal TSH level and the possible consequences of performing fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in an undiagnosed AFTN. We also discuss the risk of malignant AFTN which may be higher than previously stated. PMID:27158470

  14. CT-guided aspiration cytology of advanced silicosis and confirmation of the deposited zeolite nano particles through X ray diffraction: A novel approach.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Majumdar, Kaushik; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mitra, Partha; Nag, Subhomoy

    2016-03-01

    Silicosis is a common occupational lung disease, resulting in fibrotic nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lung parenchyma. Most of the pneumoconioses are diagnosed on the basis of relevant history and clinico-radiological correlation. Image-guided aspiration cytology appears to be poorly yielding and is not usually considered as a diagnostic modality. However, silicosis may sometimes offer a diagnostic challenge because of its radiological resemblance and clinical overlap with pulmonary tuberculosis and neoplastic lesions. We present a unique situation where image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been advised on the basis of nodular upper lobe opacities. The cytology smears revealed hypocellular granular material, while phase contrast and polarized light microscopy highlighted crystalline particles. History of silica dust exposure long back was available after the cytological evaluation, suggesting the diagnosis of pulmonary silicosis. X ray diffraction (XRD) crystallography was also possible on cytology smears, confirming zeolite nano particles of size as small as 40 - 50 nm as the concerned agent for the first time. Cytological evaluation by phase contrast and polarized light microscopy may be useful for the confirmation of silicosis, supplemented by clinical history and radiological evaluation. XRD on smears may help in determination of chemical nature and particle size. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:246-249. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26748653

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Ganjei, P

    1995-09-01

    FNA cytology has been shown to be highly accurate in diagnosing malignant tumors. In gynecology, an overall accuracy of 94.5% in the differentiation between benign and malignant tumors has been reported. Despite many controversial views regarding its safety, aspiration cytology has been accepted as an innocuous procedure that can be accomplished with minimal discomfort or complications and, in association with laparoscopy, assist in the management of ovarian cysts and masses. Although FNA cannot be considered the first-hand diagnostic procedure for ovarian cancer in postmenopausal patients, it may be extremely helpful in young women, even during pregnancy, to safely differentiate functional and other benign ovarian cysts from malignant ones. In postmenopausal women, especially those in the high risk group for surgical procedures and those undergoing a "second look" intervention following radiation or chemotherapy, aspiration cytology may provide sufficient information to warrant abandoning unnecessary surgery. During laparotomy for suspected unilateral disease, FNA may provide sufficient data about the opposite ovary to allow that organ to remain in place, thus preserving its function in a young patient. The pathologist must be familiar with the cytology of normal pelvic structures and the diagnostic criteria used to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, as well as potential diagnostic pitfalls, such as interpretation based on very few cells or the absence of appropriate clinical information. Although proper classification of ovarian masses can be achieved through FNA, the pathologist should be aware of its limitations, such as difficulties in differentiating adenomas from non-neoplastic cysts, and tumors of low malignant potential from well-differentiated carcinomas. Descriptive histologic terminology should be applied, and terms such as "suspicious" or "atypical" avoided. The aspirated material may not only be used for the diagnosis and classification of

  16. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  17. FNAC and frozen section correlations with definitive histology in thyroid diseases.

    PubMed

    Mayooran, Nithiananthan; Waters, Peadar S; Kaim Khani, Tahir Y; Kerin, Michael J; Quill, Denis

    2016-08-01

    The ability to diagnose thyroid cancers pre-op or intra-operatively by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or frozen section (FS) leads to the delivery of appropriate one-stage surgical management. We aim to study the concordance and discordance of FNAC and FS with final histology in thyroid pathologies. All thyroid procedures from 2007 to 2011(n = 423), involving FNAC and or frozen section in their management pathway were included. FNAC (n = 159) were classified in a five-tier system (Nondiagnostic, Benign, Atypical, Suspicious or Malignant). FS (n = 128) were classified as inconclusive, benign, suspicious or malignant. FNAC and FS were correlated with final histopathology. 159 out of 423 patients had FNAC (PPV 85.1 %), 26 inadequate specimens noted, benign cytology 57, atypical (n = 23), follicular neoplasm (n = 27), suspicious for malignancy (n = 16) and malignant 11. 13 out of 27 follicular neoplasm and 6 of atypical FNAC cases showed malignancy in their final histopathology. Frozen sections; total of 126 patients had intra-operative frozen section biopsies performed. Overall 105 out of 126 FS biopsies were benign; 21 malignancies detected intraoperatively. Three FS were inconclusive and reported benign in final histopathology. Overall, FNAC demonstrated a PPV of 66.6 % and NPV of 84.6 %. FS demonstrated PPV and NPV of 76.1 and 85.7%, respectively. In conclusion, FNAC is considered as the best modality to triage the thyroid nodule pre-operatively. Atypical and follicular neoplasm cytology categories warrant further clinical assessment and close follow-ups when appear benign. The intra-operative frozen sections are helpful to perform a one-stage operation for suspicious thyroid lesion. This study also highlights the recognised limitation of intra-operative frozen section analysis of thyroid neoplasia. PMID:26242254

  18. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  19. Can We Confidently Diagnose Pilomatricoma with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology?

    PubMed Central

    WONG, Yin-Ping; MASIR, Noraidah; SHARIFAH, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical ‘lymphadenopathy’, and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. ‘Ghost cells’ were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic ‘ghost cells’ and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies. PMID:15754369

  1. FNAC Versus Core Needle Biopsy: A Comparative Study in Evaluation of Palpable Breast Lump

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Sarkar, Koushik; Saha, Ashis Kumar; Sarkar, Diptendra KR

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour and the leading cause of carcinoma death in women in world. The main purpose of FNAC or CNB of breast lumps is to confirm cancer preoperatively and to avoid unnecessary surgery in specific benign conditions. Aims and Objective The objective of the study was to compare between Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and Core Needle Biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma with final histological diagnosis from excision specimen as it is gold standard. Materials and Methods A prospective study was done on 50 cases. Patients undergoing all three procedures (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Core Needle Biopsy done at Department of Pathology; subsequent excision surgeries done at Department of General Surgery) were selected. May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) and Papaniculou (PAP) staining were performed on cytology smears. Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was done on both the CNB and tissue specimens obtained from subsequent excision surgeries to see the histological features. Results FNAC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 69%, 100%, 100%, 38.1%, and 74% respectively in diagnosing carcinoma. CNB had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of 88.3%, 100%, 100%, 53.3% and 86%. Both FNAC and CNB showed statistically significant correlation with confirmatory HPE of excision specimen (p-value <0.05) in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Conclusion Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, less complicated, economical, reliable and relevant method for the preoperative pathological diagnosis of breast carcinoma in a developing nation like ours. If the initial FNAC is inadequate, core needle biopsy (CNB) can be a useful second line method of pathological diagnosis in order to minimize the chance of missed diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:27042469

  2. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnosis of an Urachal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasu, Balamurugan; Yadav, Siddharth; Kumar, Rajeev; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Urachal Carcinoma (UC) is a rare malignancy of urinary bladder. It is usually found in adults in advanced stages because the tumour often grows outside the bladder without producing clinical symptoms. Most of the cases are mucinous, intestinal or signet ring cell adenocarcinoma and the diagnosis is usually made on biopsy. Radiographic images of this tumour may show characteristic features with a midline solid or cystic mass in the anterior wall of bladder associated with small calcification, which is considered as a pathognomonic sign for the diagnosis of UC. We report a case of UC in an adult, whose radiographic images suggested an urachal tumour and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) cytology revealed an adenocarcinoma. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy with umbilectomy and pelvic node dissection was done without further histopathological confirmation. Surgical intervention of UC on the basis of FNA diagnosis has not been reported in the literature. PMID:27190817

  3. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnosis of an Urachal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukkarasu, Balamurugan; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Yadav, Siddharth; Kumar, Rajeev; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-04-01

    Urachal Carcinoma (UC) is a rare malignancy of urinary bladder. It is usually found in adults in advanced stages because the tumour often grows outside the bladder without producing clinical symptoms. Most of the cases are mucinous, intestinal or signet ring cell adenocarcinoma and the diagnosis is usually made on biopsy. Radiographic images of this tumour may show characteristic features with a midline solid or cystic mass in the anterior wall of bladder associated with small calcification, which is considered as a pathognomonic sign for the diagnosis of UC. We report a case of UC in an adult, whose radiographic images suggested an urachal tumour and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) cytology revealed an adenocarcinoma. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy with umbilectomy and pelvic node dissection was done without further histopathological confirmation. Surgical intervention of UC on the basis of FNA diagnosis has not been reported in the literature. PMID:27190817

  4. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Epithelioid Leiomyoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Karen Sue; Jensen, Joanne

    1999-01-01

    Purpose. Epithelioid leiomyoblastomas comprise the majority of gastric sarcomas and are uncommon in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis of this lesion by fine-needle aspiration cytology has been occasionally described in the literature. Two additional cases are herein reported. Subjects . A 66-year old male with an omental mass and a 47-year old male with a perihepatic tumor. Results and Discussion. Cytologic materials in both cases showed predominantly round or epithelioid cells, along with polygonal to spindle cells, occuring singly and in clusters, with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei.The nuclei were monotonous, usually banal, and centrally-located with only focal suggestion of pleomorphism and rare mitosis. Eosinophilic cytoplasm was noted in most of the cells, some demonstrating vacuolation. Electron microscopy supported a primitive smooth cell derivation of the neoplastic cells. Conclusions. The cytomorphology of the tumors of the two cases reported here is not adequately known. More cases need to be collected and studied. PMID:18521258

  5. Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, K.; Girish, H. C.; Murgod, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087

  6. Ultrasonographic Findings in Patients with Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules who underwent Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Majstorov, Venjamin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with thyroid nodules represent common problem in daily routine of thyroidologists as well as other medical specialties. Fortunately only small number of thyroid nodules turns out to be malignant. Ultrasound is most frequently used imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid nodules and certain ultrasonographic features are associated with greater risk for malignancy. AIM: The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of various ultrasonographic findings regarding thyroid malignancy. METHODS: Between September 2012 and August 2013 a total of 592 patients with 694 nodules were included in the present study. They were evaluated for thyroid nodules as a part of routine work up at outpatient’s unit of Institute of Pathophysiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty, UKIM Skopje. In all patients thyroid ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were performed. Surgically were removed 84 nodules and ultrasonography and cytology data were compared to histology results. RESULTS: From all examined ultrasonographic features, significant association with malignancy has been found for hypoechogenecity, marked central vascularisation, ultrasound suspicious nodules (including at least two suspicious features) and marginal for presence of microcalcifications. Highest sensitivity was obtained for hypoechogenecity, and highest specificity for microcalcifications and marked central vascularisation. CONCLUSION: Awareness of the suspicious ultrasound features is mandatory in order to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the vast number of patients with thyroid nodules. PMID:27275309

  7. Image-Guided Fine Needle Cytology with Aspiration Versus Non-Aspiration in Retroperitoneal Masses: Is Aspiration Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Rajiv Kumar; Mitra, Shaila; Jain, Rishav Kumar; Vahikar, Shilpa; Bundela, Archana; Misra, Purak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although using fine needle cytology with aspiration (FNC-A) for establishing diagnoses in the retroperitoneal region has shown promise, there is scant literature supporting a role of non-aspiration cytology (FNC-NA) for this region. We assessed the accuracy and reliability of FNC-A and FNC-NA as tools for preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses and compared the results of both techniques with each other and with histopathology. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with retroperitoneal masses were subjected to FNC-A and FNC-NA. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and hematoxylin and eosin stain. An individual slide was objectively analysed using a point scoring system to enable comparison between FNC-A and FNC-NA. Results: By FNC-A, 91.7% accuracy was obtained in cases of retroperitoneal lymph node lesions followed by renal masses (83.3%). The diagnostic accuracy of other sites by FNC-A varied from 75.0%–81.9%. By FNC-NA, 93.4% diagnostically accurate results were obtained in the kidney, followed by 75.0% in adrenal masses. The diagnostic accuracy of other sites by FNC-NA varied from 66.7%–72.8%. Conclusions: Although both techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages, FNC-NA may be a more efficient adjuvant method of sampling in retroperitoneal lesions. PMID:25812734

  8. Subcutaneous Rhinosporidiosis Masquerading as Soft Tissue Tumor: Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kishan Prasad, HL; Rao, Chandrika; Girisha, BS; Shetty, Vikram; Permi, Harish S; Jayakumar, Meera; Kiran, HS

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous lesion caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It frequently involves nasopharynx and ocular region. Presenting as cutaneous and subcutaneous mass is extremely rare. This report describes the FNA cytology of rhinosporidiosis occurring as a soft tissue mass in the right mid thigh region. We present a rare case of a 71-year-old male, who presented with multiple subcutaneous soft tissue mass lesions in the posteromedial aspect of mid right thigh region since 2 weeks. Local examination revealed multiple firm to hard mass with skin over the swelling was unremarkable. CT of the right thigh showed a heterogeneous lesion with infiltrative margins in the thigh. Clinically soft tissue sarcoma was considered. Diagnostic FNAC was performed showing numerous mature and immature sporangias with giant cell reaction. Hence, an excision biopsy confirmed the rhinosporidiosis. To conclude, the FNAC diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis is specific. Preoperative diagnosis is possible even in cases with unusual clinical presentations. PMID:25814750

  9. Role of FNAC, fluid specimens, and cell blocks for cytological diagnosis of lung cancer in the present era

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nalini; Sekar, Aravind; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Cytoblocks prepared from residual tissue fluids and fine-needle aspirations can be useful adjuncts to smears for establishing a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis. These paraffin embedded cytoblocks have been popular since these can be handled like any other histologic specimen. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) can help in attaining adequate material in the cytoblock, which is a major concern to the cytopathologists. Ancillary studies can be done using cytoblocks including IHC and various molecular techniques. The opportunities for cytopathologists to influence therapy, and uncover strategies in the complex field of lung cancer are exciting and limitless especially in the presence of an adequate cytoblock PMID:26811567

  10. Effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Iacob, Alina; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Ormenişan, Alina; Mezei, Tibor; Sin, Anca; Tilinca, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Given that the clinical and radiological examinations of lateral cervical masses are not always sufficient for deciding on appropriate management, the cytological examination of the material obtained by fine-needle aspiration might be an efficient tool in the preoperative investigation of these lesions. In this prospective cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy and diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the assessment of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors, by comparing its results with those of histopathology. A total of 58 patients with lateral cervical masses were included. Preoperative cytological results were compared with the histopathologic examination of surgical specimens. Both cytology and histology indicated that malignant tumors outnumbered benign lesions (62% vs 38%), with 88.9% of malignancies presenting in patients aged >50 years, but cytology was less effective at differentiating between benign and nontumor lesions. Cytology had 76.5% specificity and 78.1% sensitivity for identifying malignant lateral cervical lesions, and there was a concordance between the two diagnostic tests (McNemar test, P = 0.17, κ = 0.50, P <0.001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a simple, quick, and effective procedure that can aid in the preoperative evaluation of lateral cervical masses by differentiating benign tumors and inflammatory processes from malignancies and thus help in determining a subsequent therapeutic strategy. PMID:27495074

  11. Diagnosis of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Case Report and Review of the Cytology Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Neeta; Sayed, Shahin; Vinayak, Sudhir

    2011-01-01

    A case of multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a two-year-old child is presented where fine needle aspiration was helpful in achieving a rapid and accurate diagnosis in an appropriate clinical and radiological setting. This can avoid unnecessary biopsy and guide the management especially where access to histopathology is limited. The highly characteristic common and rare cytological features are highlighted with focus on differential diagnoses and causes of pitfalls. PMID:21331166

  12. Aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes of normal breast epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Bondeson, L.

    1987-05-01

    From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue.

  13. The Utilization of Cytologic Fine-Needle Aspirates of Lung Cancer for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    In this era of precision medicine, our understanding and knowledge of the molecular landscape associated with lung cancer pathogenesis continues to evolve. This information is being increasingly exploited to treat advanced stage lung cancer patients with tailored, targeted therapy. During the management of these patients, minimally invasive procedures to obtain samples for tissue diagnoses are desirable. Cytologic fine-needle aspirates are often utilized for this purpose and are important not only for rendering diagnoses to subtype patients’ lung cancers, but also for ascertaining molecular diagnostic information for treatment purposes. Thus, cytologic fine-needle aspirates must be utilized and triaged judiciously to achieve both objectives. In this review, strategies in utilizing fine-needle aspirates will be discussed in the context of our current understanding of the clinically actionable molecular aberrations underlying non-small cell lung cancer and the molecular assays applied to these samples in order to obtain treatment-relevant molecular diagnostic information. PMID:26076721

  14. Intranuclear Pseudo-inclusions and Grooves in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2016-02-01

    Cytologic findings of pulmonary carcinoid have been well described. We report new cytological findings in a case of carcinoid tumor. The patient is a 36-year-old man presenting with hemoptysis of about six months in duration. Chest CT scans showed a well-defined round polypoid lesion measuring 1 × 1 cm within the right upper lobe of the bronchus with hyperinflation of the right upper lobe. Trans-bronchial fine needle aspiration and biopsy were done. Cytologic smears showed isolated and loose clusters of uniform round to spindle shape cells with round centrally located nuclei, fine granular (salt and pepper) chromatin and pale cytoplasm. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves were seen in some tumor cells. No mitotic figures or necrosis were evident. A cytological diagnosis of carcinoid tumor was made and histopathologic examination and subsequent immunohistochemical study confirmed the diagnosis. Carcinoid tumor may be reliably diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology smears. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves may be evident in tumor cells. PMID:26838088

  15. Robinson's cytological grading on aspirates of breast carcinoma: Correlation with Bloom Richardson's histological grading

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, SK; Sinha, Namita; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Mondal, Santosh K

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cytological grading (CG) on aspirates of breast carcinoma is a useful tool for surgical maneuver and prognosis. Aims: An endeavor was made to use CG on aspirates of breast carcinoma using Robinson's grade and to correlate it with Bloom Richardsons’ histopathological grading. Materials and Methods: A total of 59 patients of breast carcinoma, aged 28-57 years, were aspirated and the smears were graded using Robinson's criteria. All the cases were correlated with Bloom Richardson's grade on histopathology in mastectomy specimens. Lymphadenopathy in 38 cases was aspirated and stained with Papanicolaou and Romanowsky stain. Results: Robinson's CG correlated well with Bloom Richardson's histopathological grading. For grade I and II tumors, there was substantial strength of agreement between cytology and histopathology, while in grade III, the concordance was nearly perfect. Lymph node metastasis was found in 27 of 32 axillary nodes, three of five cervical nodes and the only palpable supraclavicular node. Lymph node metastasis was observed in three with cytological grade II, 28 of grade III and none of grade I. All grade I had stage A, two of grade II had stage B, while all grade III had either stage B or stage C disease. Conclusions: Thus, CG of breast carcinoma correlates well with histopathological grading and may well be useful as a prognostic marker. PMID:21938177

  16. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  17. Grey zone lesions of breast: Potential areas of error in cytology.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Dey, Pranab

    2015-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast is a rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive procedure to diagnose breast lesions, and was widely employed to diagnose breast lesions in the past. However, in recent times, core needle biopsy of the breast is gaining popularity and acceptability, although FNAC still looms large. There are some intrinsic disadvantages to FNAC, of which the most important is probably difficulty in classification of a significant percentage of breast lesions. Such lesions are usually denoted by the rubric "grey zone lesions of the breast." This article attempts to review these grey zone lesions and highlight the difficulties in diagnosing them. PMID:26729973

  18. Grey zone lesions of breast: Potential areas of error in cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Dey, Pranab

    2015-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast is a rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive procedure to diagnose breast lesions, and was widely employed to diagnose breast lesions in the past. However, in recent times, core needle biopsy of the breast is gaining popularity and acceptability, although FNAC still looms large. There are some intrinsic disadvantages to FNAC, of which the most important is probably difficulty in classification of a significant percentage of breast lesions. Such lesions are usually denoted by the rubric “grey zone lesions of the breast.” This article attempts to review these grey zone lesions and highlight the difficulties in diagnosing them. PMID:26729973

  19. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology of the pancreas: advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Kocjan, G; Rode, J; Lees, W R

    1989-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration of the pancreas was performed in 62 patients with radiological suspicion of malignancy. All fine needle aspirates were taken under computed tomography or ultrasound guidance. Fine needle aspirates were positive in 31 of 41 patients with histologically or clinically confirmed pancreatic carcinoma. There were no false positive results. The sensitivity of this method for detecting malignant disease was 86%. Cytology was not able to provide conclusive results of benign conditions. Difficulties were encountered in diagnosing well differentiated carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours and distinguishing them from reactive epithelium and islet cell hyperplasia, respectively. This resulted in a 12.1% false negative rate. There were no complications in our series. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration proved a reliable method of diagnosing pancreatic carcinoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2541174

  20. Sclerosing hemangioma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jennifer; Zhou, Fang; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Kovacs, Sandor; Simsir, Aylin; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung is a benign neoplasm with a widely debated histogenesis. It has a polymorphic histomorphology characterized by a biphasic cell population of “surface cells” and “round cells” arranged in four general patterns: Papillary, solid, angiomatous, and sclerotic. This variability in histomorphology makes it difficult to diagnose sclerosing hemangioma by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We present a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed on FNA with immunohistochemistry performed on an accompanied cell block. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:27168758

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervical lymph node involvement by ovarian serous borderline tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Longwen; Butler, Kristina A.; Bell, Debra A.

    2016-01-01

    Serous borderline tumor (SBT) involving a cervical lymph node is extremely rare. In addition, fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the involved cervical lymph node shares tremendous morphologic similarity with other low-grade papillary carcinomas. Thus, it can be easily misdiagnosed as metastatic carcinoma. A 42-year-old female had a history of bilateral SBT and postbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She presented with left cervical lymphadenopathy 6 months later. FNA cytology showed a low-grade papillary neoplasm with psammoma bodies. Needle core biopsy along with immunostains was diagnostic of cervical lymph node involvement (LNI) of SBT. although extremely rare, cervical LNI can be found in patients with SBTs. FNA cytology, sometimes, is indistinguishable from metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma. Cell block or needle core biopsy is essential to make the correct diagnosis.

  2. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology vs. the Postoperative Histology - the Continuing Need for Multi-Disciplinary Approach?

    PubMed

    Gill, G; Kalyanasundaram, K; Varughese, G; Wilson, P; Varadhan, L

    2016-07-01

    We set out to investigate the concordance rates that were observed between fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) compared with that of the post operative histology obtained for thyroid nodules over an 8 year period at a large university hospital.A retrospective analysis of 355 cases was conducted; patients operated for hyperthyroidism were excluded for the purposes of this study. We identified malignancy in a total of 101 cases (28%) The chance of malignancy with 2 Thy1 specimens was 5% in this study and 9% was observed in those with a Thy 2 FNA. On the converse, 7% of patient had malignant cytology on FNA though post-operative histology turned out to be benign.This therefore highlights the potential for discordance between thyroid FNA cytology and post-operative histology in the assessment of any thyroid nodule and thus reinforcing the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the assessment of all thyroid nodules. PMID:27223871

  3. [Technic of fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid gland: coagulation inhibiting and stabilizing additives].

    PubMed

    Schröder, F; Poley, F

    1988-04-01

    In the fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid gland by the moistening of cannule and syringe with heparin or citric sodium rather disadvantages for the evaluation are the result. Artificial changes are most clearly to be seen in heparin. ACD-buffer does indeed not bring about any artefacts, does, however, also not show any provable advantages. In the fine needle biopsy the additives mentioned are entirely avoidable. PMID:3388921

  4. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  5. Toward improving fine needle aspiration cytology by applying Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.

  6. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected. PMID:26148740

  7. Cytological diagnosis of metastatic malignant melanoma by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Kathryn G; Ingram, Courtney; Bergeron, Joseph; Yang, Jack

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased surveillance and public awareness, the incidence of melanoma is increasing. Frequently, fine-needle aspiration is employed for the diagnosis of metastatic disease, and aspirated material is used for cytogenetic and molecular studies to guide treatment options. The pairing of a significant diagnosis with the numerous morphologic variants of melanoma can make the cytologic evaluation disquieting. We present selected examples of our experiences and a brief review of the literature to provide cytodiagnostic clues for this malignancy. The clinical history is foremost, although the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of metastatic melanoma can provide a diagnosis before identification of the primary lesion in up to 20% of cases. If a history of melanoma is assured, negative results in sampling of pulmonary and subcutaneous nodules should be suspected as false negatives. The smearing pattern usually features poorly cohesive cells. Frankly malignant, spindled, and epithelioid cell shapes are most common, and cytoplasmic vacuoles, if sought on Romanowsky-stained specimens, can usually be found. The telltale feature of melanin production, although diagnostic, is only present in 50% of cases. Finally, eccentric placement of nuclei, nucleoli, and nuclear pseudoinclusions are accessory features for the cytologic interpretation of melanoma. Numerous morphologic patterns of melanoma are potentially seen, but a stepwise approach to diagnosis usually produces a successful result. PMID:27199077

  8. Cytologic Diagnosis of Heterobilharzia americana Infection in a Liver Aspirate From a Dog.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, V; McGovern, D A; Fletcher, J M; Grasperge, B J

    2016-05-01

    Heterobilharzia americanais a trematode of the Schistosomatidae family that infects dogs, raccoons, and other mammals as definitive hosts. This parasite is considered endemic in the southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts; however, only a few cases are reported. A 7-year-old dog from Louisiana was referred for persistent hypercalcemia, hyperglobulinemia, and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed diffuse hyperechogenicity of the liver with several hyperechoic nodules of varying size. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates of the liver revealed few ovoid to round basophilic thin-walled eggshell fragments and rare ciliated miracidia.H. americanaeggs were identified on fecal sedimentation. PMID:26272209

  9. Bacterial Pericarditis Accompanied by Sudden Cardiac Tamponade After Transbronchial Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    A 48-year-old man was referred for an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Transbronchial needle aspiration cytology was performed at the mediastinal necrotic lymph node #7, and he was diagnosed as having small cell carcinoma. Fifteen days after bronchoscopy, sudden cardiac tamponade occurred and pericardial drainage suggested a diagnosis of bacterial pericarditis. He was successfully treated by drainage and administration of antibiotics. Complication of bacterial pericarditis associated with bronchoscopy is rare. However, physicians should watch for the appearance of this condition for up to 3 weeks after bronchoscopy, especially in cases with necrotic lymph nodes. PMID:27058720

  10. Multinucleate Giant Cells in FNAC of Benign Breast Lesions: Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    R, Kalyani; Murthy V, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleate giant cells are described in breast aspirates. However, due to its rarity very few cases have been described cytologically. Hence recognition and correct interpretation of their presence is difficult, yet crucial for accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The prospective study of FNAC (fine needle aspirate cytology) of breast lumps was conducted for a period of six months. Direct smears were prepared from the material aspirated. In case of fluid aspirates, centrifuge done and cell sediment was used for making smears. Smears were alcohol fixed and stained with PAP/H&E or air dried smears were stained with Leishman stain. Further smears were subjected to immunocytochemistry using vimentin and CD34 markers to know the origin of multinucleate giant cells. Results: We have reported 11 cases of breast lesions, which showed multinucleate giant cells on FNAC. Out of the 11 cases, Cytologically six cases showed granuloma debris with relative proportion of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleate giant cells. Two cases were diagnosed as acute suppurative granulomatous mastitis. Two cases of fibroadenoma and one case of fat necrosis showed multinucleate giant cells. Immunocytochemistry showed vimentin positivity in both stromal and histiocytic type of multinucleate giant cells and in isolated histiocytes. CD34 was focally positive in histiocytic type of giant cells. Conclusion: An effort is made to distinguish between the stromal and histiocytic type giant cells in non-neoplastic breast lesions. Further molecular studies have to be done to know the exact histogenesis and role of these multinucleate giant cells in benign lesions. PMID:25653953

  11. Phylloides tumor: findings on mammography, sonography, and aspiration cytology in 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Buchberger, W; Strasser, K; Heim, K; Müller, E; Schröcksnadel, H

    1991-10-01

    Phylloides tumor is a rare fibroepithelial breast tumor that occasionally has unpredictable clinical behavior. In nine cases of histologically benign tumors and one case of malignant phylloides tumor, the findings on physical examination, mammography, sonography, and aspiration biopsy were correlated retrospectively with the histologic diagnosis of resected specimens. Mammograms showed a round or lobulated benign-appearing opacity in nine cases; one small tumor was missed mammographically. Sonography depicted all tumors as mostly solid masses. Sonographic features included low-level internal echoes, either uniform or scattered; smooth contours; and no significant posterior shadowing. Intramural cysts were shown in six cases. Neither mammography nor sonography allowed reliable differentiation between benign and malignant phylloides tumors. Aspiration biopsy permitted accurate diagnosis of seven benign tumors. The malignant phylloides tumor was classified as a malignant tumor, but the definite differentiation from a carcinoma could not be made. Two histologically benign phylloides tumors were misdiagnosed as carcinomas. Although uncommon, phylloides tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mammographically benign-appearing breast masses, especially if sonography shows intramural cysts within a well-defined solid lesion. Aspiration cytology is unreliable because of the inhomogeneity of the tumor; both intraoperative frozen section and permanent sections are needed for correct histologic diagnosis. PMID:1654022

  12. Spermatic granuloma presenting as an epididymal nodule: fine needle aspiration cytological findings and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Gupta, Nalini; Srinivasan, Radhika; Nijhawan, Raje; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2004-10-01

    Spermatic granuloma is a granulomatous lesion that presents clinically as a nodular lesion in the region of epididymis. There are only few documented cases of spermatic granuloma in the literature. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) reveals mixed inflammatory cells comprising of plenty of macrophages along with lymphocytes and scattered polymorphs in a fluidy background containing many spermatozoa and sperm heads. Sperm heads are also noted within macrophages. Ill formed to well-formed granulomas were seen in all the cases. FNA has an important role in the differential diagnosis of epididymal nodule as it can rule out malignancy and other benign cytological diagnosis like tuberculosis, acute and chronic epididymo-orchitis. Distinction of spermatic granulomas from the more common tuberculous granulomatous infection is important from the cytopathologist's point of view. By providing an accurate and rapid diagnosis, FNA prevents aggressive and potentially inappropriate surgical procedures. PMID:16295378

  13. Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

  14. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of isolated skull nodule: Unfolding the clinical spectrum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prajwala; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been classified as either minimally invasive or widely invasive carcinoma and shows a propensity for blood-borne metastasis. Most common sites of metastasis are lung and bone followed by brain, liver, and skin. Minimally invasive FTC (MIFTC) is characterized by limited capsular and/or vascular invasion with good long-term outcomes, some cases of which show a poor prognosis because of severe distant metastasis. Skull metastasis in adults commonly arises from the lung, breast, and prostate and uncommonly from the thyroid. In our case, fine-needle aspiration cytology of isolated skull nodule was a reliable tool in the diagnosis of metastasis and suggesting the primary in thyroid thereby prompting early workup of a patient. The case is unique since it represents the rare disseminated metastasis from MIFTC with incomplete capsular penetration alone without angioinvasion that can behave as aggressively as a widely invasive FTC. PMID:27510690

  15. NSCLC subtype prediction using cytologic fluid specimens from needle aspiration biopsies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hee Yeong; Lee, Ji Won; Shim, Hyo Sup; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of tumor marker concentrations in cytologic fluids (CF) for subtyping non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and assessed the relationship between fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake with serum and CF tumor marker levels. This prospective study included 88 patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) concentrations in the CF samples were correlated with serum tumor marker concentrations, (18)F-FDG uptake, and NSCLC subtype. Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Multivariate analysis revealed higher CF and serum SCCA levels; smoking status predicted SCC from adenocarcinoma. CF SCCA showed the highest accuracy (83%) in distinguishing between SCC and adenocarcinoma. CF samples obtained during routine needle aspiration biopsy procedure contain tumor marker levels sufficient to distinguish between SCC and adenocarcinoma; CF SCCA had the highest diagnostic accuracy. PMID:23429366

  16. Use of Fine-Needle Aspiration in the Evaluation of Breast Lumps

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Arshad, Madiha; Jamal, Shahid; Niazi, Shahida; Bashir, Shahid; Bakhshi, Irfan M.; Shaharyar

    2011-01-01

    Background. A study was designed to see the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in palpable breast lumps. Materials and Methods. Four hundred and twenty five (425) patients came to the Department of Pathology King Edward Medical University, Lahore in four years for FNAC of their palpable breast masses from June 2006 to June 2010. FNAC diagnosis was compared with histological diagnosis to see the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology for neoplastic lesions. Results. There were 271/425 benign, 120/425 malignant, and 32/425 suspicious smears. Inadequate samples were repeated twice or thrice, and the degree of success was improved with consecutive repeating approaches. The frequency of inadequacy declined from 86 to 18, and 2 for first, second and third attempts, respectively. The number of repeats increased the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates which is statistically significant (P = .000). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most commonly reported lesion with maximum incidence in the 4th, 5th, and 6th decades followed by invasive lobular carcinoma and other malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and the positive predictive value of FNAC was 98%, 100%, 98%, 100%, and 97%, respectively. Conclusion. FNAC serves as a rapid, economical, and reliable tool for the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions because the cytopathological examination of these lesions before operation or treatment serves as an important diagnostic modality. PMID:21789264

  17. Fibromatosis colli - a rare cytological diagnosis in infantile neck swellings.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabina; Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

    2014-11-01

    Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

  18. A rare cytological diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Biswajit; Goyal, Vasudha; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Mahajan, Nidhi; Jain, Shyama

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the parotid gland is relatively rare and constitutes about 4-5% of extranodal lymphomas. The majority of them is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is B cell in nature. We report a case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the parotid gland in an elderly male. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the right parotid gland as high grade B-cell NHL and confirmed on histopathology as DLBCL. In correlation with the clinicoradiological findings, the case was diagnosed as primary parotid DLBCL. The case highlights the role of FNAC as a timely and useful diagnostic tool. PMID:27279690

  19. Role of Cell Block in Guided FNAC of Abdominal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Nandini; Shivajirao, Prathima; Manjunath; Jothady, Sunila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of space occupying lesions in superficial or deep anatomic sites is an increasingly common procedure, providing rapid and safe diagnosis. However, sometimes FNA does not yield sufficient information for a precise diagnosis and the risk of false negatives and indeterminate diagnosis is always present. Therefore, we attempted to obtain additional information via the preparation of Cell Block (CB) from the residual material of aspirates and thus enhance the diagnostic accuracy. Aim This study was carried out to evaluate the role of CB as a useful adjunct to smears for establishing a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis and for its utility in special staining and Immuno-histochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods A total of 66 cases of image-guided FNA of abdominal masses were studied. In addition to the routine smears, CBs were prepared from the residual tissues for all possible cases and its diagnostic efficacy was analysed. Further, the use of CBs for special staining and IHC was also established. Results This study included a total of 66 patients with abdominal masses who were referred for guided FNA cytology. Out of these cases, adequate material was obtained on FNAC in 64 cases (96.96%) and on CB in 45 cases (68.18%) and the diagnosis was provided. There was a good agreement between the FNA smear diagnosis and CB diagnosis. The histopathology of CB sections further helped in precise final cytopathological diagnosis. Two FNA smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation and hence the diagnosis was done on CB sections alone. With FNA cytology and CB in combination, a cytopathological diagnosis was given for all the 66 cases. The sensitivity of FNA in comparison to the histopathology of CB was 91.6% and specificity was 88.8%. The diagnostic accuracy was 62% and the discordance was 6%. Conclusions CB in addition to the routine FNA is a simple, reliable and cost-effective technique that further contributes to the final

  20. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  1. [Cytologic diagnosis of abdominal lesions with fine needle aspiration guided by ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Candia, P; Rojas, M; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A; Römer, M A

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of puncture-aspiration with fine needle, guided by ultrasonography, trying to determine its usefulness in our hospitals and its reliability in the diagnosis of intraabdominal lesions of different locations. 29 punctures were practiced on 19 patients, 9 women and 10 men of ages comprised between 34 and 94 years, with lesions in different organs of the abdominal cavity diagnosed by ultrasonography with real time equipment and lineal 3.5 and 5 MHz transducers. After cleaning and antisepsis a Chiba needle is introduced under ultrasonographic vision, up to the location of the lesion, the guide is removed and under a negative pressure, the sample is taken, which is later dried into the air and coloured using the May-Grünwald-Giemsa Technique. Only in one case it was not possible to obtain adequate material for the cytological study. There were 11 positive cases for malignity and 7 negative, one of which was a false negative. The sensibility of the method was of 91.6% with a specificity of 100% and a reliability of 89.4%. We definitely believe that the method is practical, very easy to carry out in our hospitals with a minimum amount of risk, and most of all, dependable to clarify certain diagnoses. PMID:2152268

  2. Rectal palpation and transrectal fine needle aspiration of the prostate in the monitoring of prostate cancer: a study of 59 patients during treatment with estramustine phosphate or estrogens.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, P O; Das, D; Löwhagen, T; Esposti, P

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-nine hormonally treated prostatic carcinoma patients were prospectively followed by rectal palpation and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) at 6 month intervals for periods ranging from 6 to 120 months (median follow-up, 48 months). The cytologic impressions and palpatory findings were divided into four categories, respectively, ranging from benign to clearly malignant. Cytologic material and palpatory descriptions suitable for evaluation were available for 306 follow-up examinations, with a mean number of follow-up examinations per patient of five (range, 1-13). Tumor relapse was noted in 26 patients and was diagnosed at the same time by FNAC and palpation in six patients. In 16 of the patients tumor progression was first noted by cytology, and in four patients relapse was first detected by rectal palpation. Different patterns of cytologic and palpatory findings during the development of remission and progression of the tumors and drawbacks of the methods are discussed. PMID:2594583

  3. Hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma with trabecular growth pattern: a mimic of hepatocellular carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Xie, Linjun; Jessurun, Jose; Manivel, J Carlos; Pambuccian, Stefan E

    2012-07-01

    Epithelioid angiomyolipomas (AMLs) of the liver are rare tumors with imaging and cytologic features overlapping with those of hepatocellular carcinomas. We report the fine needle aspiration and core biopsy findings of an epithelioid AML in the right hepatic lobe of a 32-year-old female with tuberous sclerosis. She had undergone renal transplantation 8 years previously after bilateral nephrectomy for renal AMLs and a 3-cm chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma was suspected during the initial cytologic and histologic examination based on the presence of numerous large polygonal cells with ample finely vacuolated or granular cytoplasm, low nucleocytoplasmic ratio, and mild nuclear pleomorphism in the smears, as well as a distinctive trabecular histologic pattern in the core biopsies. Immunoperoxidase stains showed that the neoplastic cells were negative for cytokeratins and positive for HMB45, Melan-A, and smooth muscle actin, establishing the diagnosis of epithelioid AML. To determine the distinguishing cytomorphologic features between epithelioid AML and HCC, we have compared the cytologic features of 15 cases of hepatic AML reported in the literature, including the present case, to the FNA cytologic findings of 38 consecutive cases of HCC diagnosed at out institution. PMID:21563318

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology: a tool to diagnose cervical and vaginal endometriosis in low-income places.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Manoel; Rao, Vietla S; Eleutério, José; Medeiros, Francisco C

    2013-01-01

    Regarded as infrequent, vaginal and cervical endometriosis is probably more common than is generally realized. The apparent rarity of the lesion may be ascribed to the limited awareness of its clinical appearance, combined with technical difficulty in obtaining suitable biopsy material for confirmation. Thus, clinical recognition and tissue confirmation become essential. This paper focuses on vaginal and cervical endometriosis, documenting the clinical, macroscopic, cytological and colposcopic findings in 4 cases seen at a single physical vaginal examination. Diagnosis in these patients was facilitated and improved by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histology. This technique, which is not used for the diagnosis of endometriosis, could be an option in low-income areas. PMID:23406608

  5. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists. PMID:3336958

  6. The final outcome of indeterminate cytology of thyroid nodules in a District General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    DODDI, S.; CHOHDA, E.; MAGHSOUDI, S.; SHEEHAN, L.; SINHA, A.; CHANDAK, P.; SINHA, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnostic thyroid lobectomy is performed to resolve the dilemma of indeterminate (Thy3) cytology of thyroid nodules. But on final histology most nodules are benign thereby subjecting this group of patients to surgery with its associated risks. Aim To determine the proportion of cancers in patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. Patients and methods This is a retrospective observational study of 621 patients who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of their thyroid nodules over a 60 month period in a district general hospital. Patient demographics, cytology and final histology results were extracted from the hospital database. Results On final analysis, 48 patients had an indeterminate cytology (7.7%) and 12 patients had cancer in this group (25%) following diagnostic lobectomy. Conclusion Till an alternative robust technology becomes widely available we need to continue to perform diagnostic lobectomy in patients with indeterminate cytology in view of the high incidence of thyroid cancer in this group of patients. PMID:26188757

  7. Gallbladder carcinoma: An attempt of WHO histological classification on fine needle aspiration material

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajni; Jain, Deepali; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Sharma, Atul; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carcinoma of the gallbladder (CaGB) is common in India and its prognosis depends primarily on the extent of the disease and histological type. We aim to study the role of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of CaGB and to evaluate the feasibility of applying world health organization (WHO) classification on fine needle aspiration (FNA) material to predict the outcome of the tumor. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cytomorphologic analysis was performed in all cases of CaGB diagnosed by ultrasound (US) guided FNAC over a period of 2 years. A specific subtype was assigned according to WHO classification based on characteristic cytologic features. These included papillary or acinar arrangement, intra and extracellular mucin, keratin, rosettes and columnar, signet ring, atypical squamous, small, clear, spindle and giant cells. Correlation with histopathology was performed when available. Results: A total of 541 aspirations with clinical or radiological suspicion of primary CaGB were studied. Of these, 54 aspirates were unsatisfactory. Fifty cases were negative for malignancy. Remaining 437 aspirates were positive for carcinoma. Histopathologic diagnosis was available in 32 cases. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent diagnosis in 86.7% of cases. Mucinous, signet ring, adenosquamous, squamous, small cell, mixed adenoneuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinoma including spindle and giant cell subtypes were diagnosed identifying specific features on FNAC. Correlation with histopathology was present in all, but one case giving rise to sensitivity of 96.8%. No post-FNA complications were recorded. Conclusions: US guided FNAC is a safe and effective method to diagnose CaGB. Although, rare, clinically and prognostically significant variants described in WHO classification can be detected on cytology. PMID:23858322

  8. Interobserver agreement among cytopathologists in the evaluation of pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology specimens*

    PubMed Central

    Mounzer, Rawad; Yen, Roy; Marshall, Carrie; Sams, Sharon; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Said, Mohamed Sherif; Obuch, Joshua C.; Brauer, Brian; Attwell, Augustin; Fukami, Norio; Shah, Raj; Amateau, Stuart; Hall, Matthew; Hosford, Lindsay; Wilson, Robert; Rastogi, Amit; Wani, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care in the evaluation of solid pancreatic lesions. Limited data exist on interobserver agreement (IOA) among cytopathologists in assessing solid pancreatic EUS-FNA specimens. This study aimed to evaluate IOA among cytopathologists in assessing EUS-FNA cytology specimens of solid pancreatic lesions using a novel standardized scoring system and to assess individual clinical and cytologic predictors of IOA. Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic lesions at a tertiary care referral center were included. EUS-FNA slides were evaluated by four blinded cytopathologists using a standardized scoring system that assessed final cytologic diagnosis and quantitative (number of nucleated/diagnostic cells) and qualitative (bloodiness, inflammation/necrosis, contamination, artifact) cytologic parameters. Final clinical diagnosis was based on final cytology, surgical pathology, or 1-year clinical follow-up. IOA was calculated using multi-rater kappa (κ) statistics. Bivariate analyses were performed comparing cases with and without uniform agreement among the cytopathologists followed by logistic regression with backward elimination to model likelihood of uniform agreement. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included (49 % males, mean age 64 years, mean lesion size 26 mm). IOA for final diagnosis was moderate (κ = 0.45, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.4 – 0.49) with minimal improvement when combining suspicious and malignant diagnoses (κ = 0.54, 95 %CI 0.49 – 0.6). The weighted kappa value for overall diagnosis was 0.65 (95 %CI 0.54 – 0.76). IOA was slight to fair (κ = 0.04 – 0.32) for individual cytologic parameters. A final clinical diagnosis of malignancy was the most significant predictor of agreement [OR 3.99 (CI 1.52 – 10.49)]. Conclusions: Interobserver agreement among

  9. Papillary-cystic tumor of the pancreas in a young woman: fine-needle aspiration cytology, ultrastructure and DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Skarda, J S; Honick, A B; Gibbins, C S; Josselson, A R; Rishi, M

    1994-01-01

    A case of papillary-cystic tumor (PCT) of the pancreas in a young woman is reported. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was done preoperatively under ultrasound guidance. The aspirate showed numerous delicate papillary fragments, dyscohesive and monomorphic tumor cells with folded nuclear membranes, and foamy macrophages. A diagnosis of PCT of the pancreas was made based on clinical, radiologic, and cytologic findings. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy without complications. The histopathologic examination of the surgical tissue confirmed the diagnosis of PCT of the pancreas. The tumor cells were faintly positive with mucicarmine and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) stains. Immunocytochemistry using Ki67 monoclonal antibody showed a cycling index of 0.1 percent, supporting the clinical observation of low metastatic and recurrence rates of this rare tumor. DNA analysis of the tumor showed a DNA index of 1.09 (diploid) and an S-phase fraction of 5.38%. The tumor cells were positive for progesterone receptors (> 15 fmol/mg protein) but negative for estrogen receptors (< 15 fmol/mg protein). Abundant mitochondria, prominent endoplasmic reticulum and few junctional complexes were noted on electron microscopy. Emphasis is placed on accurate diagnosis based on preoperative FNA cytology in order to maximize cure rates while minimizing surgical risk and complications. PMID:8005036

  10. Diagnosis of High-Grade Osteosarcoma by Radiology and Cytology: A Retrospective Study of 52 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, Lambert; Unni, Krishnan K.; Bertoni, Franco; Brosjö, Otte; Kreicbergs, Andris

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic value of combined radiology and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was retrospectively assessed in a consecutive series of 52 patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. The series was divided into typical and atypical osteosarcomas according to radiological features and site. Thirty-two of 33 radiologically typical osteosarcoma cases were correctly diagnosed by cytology; one lesion was diagnosed as sarcoma NOS. Nineteen osteosarcoma cases were radiographically atypical. Six of these were diagnosed as osteosarcoma and another six as sarcoma NOS. In three cases another type of sarcoma was suggested. One case was falsely classified as benign. FNAC of three cases were non-diagnostic. Overall, the diagnostic difficulties pertained to the radiologically atypical cases. Notably, four of these also posed considerable difficulties in the histopathological assessment prompting external consultation. Our study suggests that open biopsy can be obviated in high-grade osteosarcomas exhibiting typical radiological features, i.e., in two-thirds. PMID:18521391

  11. Large needle aspiration biopsy and galectin-3 determination in selected thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNA-cytology

    PubMed Central

    Carpi, A; Naccarato, A G; Iervasi, G; Nicolini, A; Bevilacqua, G; Viacava, P; Collecchi, P; Lavra, L; Marchetti, C; Sciacchitano, S; Bartolazzi, A

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA)-cytology is widely used for the preoperative characterisation of thyroid nodules but this task is difficult for follicular lesions, which often remain undefined. We propose a strategy for improving the preoperative characterisation of selected follicular thyroid proliferations, which is based on large needle aspiration biopsy (LNAB) and galectin-3 expression analysis. Eighty-five thyroid specimens were obtained by LNAB (20-gauge needles) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate follicular FNA-cytology. Aspirated material was processed as a tissue microbiopsy to obtain cell blocks for both cyto/histo-morphological evaluation and galectin-3 expression analysis, by using a purified monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and a biotin-free immunoperoxidase staining method. Preoperative diagnosis was compared to the final histology. LNAB and cell-block technique allow a preliminary distinction between nodules with a homogeneous microfollicular/trabecular structure, as frequently observed in tumours, and lesions with mixed normo–micro–macrofollicular architecture, as observed in goitre. Furthermore, LNAB provides optimal substrates for galectin-3 expression analysis. Among 85 cases tested, 14 galectin-3-positive cases were discovered preoperatively (11 thyroid cancers and three adenomas confirmed at the final histology), whereas galectin-3-negative cases were 71 (one carcinoma and 70 benign proliferations at the final histology). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of this integrated morphologic and phenotypic diagnostic approach were 91.6, 97.2 and 95.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LNAB plus galectin-3 expression analysis when applied preoperatively to selected thyroid nodules candidate to surgery can potentially reduce unnecessary thyroid resections. PMID:16804521

  12. Comparative evaluation of six cytological grading systems in breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaushik; Raychaudhuri, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Bitan Kuamr; Das, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological grading is a useful tool for selection of therapy and prognosis in breast carcinoma. Despite having many cytological grading systems, there is still no agreement among pathologists to accept one of them as a gold standard. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate six such three-tier cytological grading systems to determine which system corresponds best to histological grading done by Nottingham modification of Scarff Bloom Richardson (SBR)'s method. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind study, preoperative cytological grades obtained by six systems on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears were compared by testing concordance, association and correlation with histological grade derived postoperatively by the SBR's method in 57 patients of breast carcinoma. Bivariate correlation studies and multiple linear regressions were done to assess the significance of the different cytological parameters to predict final cytological grades. Results: Robinson's system demonstrated the best correlation (ρ = 0.799; P = 0.000 and τ = 0.765; P = 0.000), maximum percent agreement (77.19%) and a substantial kappa value of agreement (κ = 0.62) with the SBR's grading system. All the six cytological grading systems correlated with histological grading strongly and positively. In multiple regression analysis, all of the cytological parameters of Robinson's system except cell size and nucleoli had significance in predicting the final cytological grade. Conclusions: Robinson's grading system is simple, more objective and reproducible, and demonstrated the best concordance with histological grading. So, Robinson's system should be used routinely for breast carcinoma aspirates. PMID:23833396

  13. Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies in Children: Study of Cytological-Histological Correlation and Immunostaining with Thyroid Peroxidase Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hoperia, Victoria; Larin, Alexander; Jensen, Kirk; Bauer, Andrew; Vasko, Vasily

    2010-01-01

    Context. There is limited data comparing results of fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) to histological diagnosis in children. Design. FNABs were performed in 707 children and cytological results were compared to histology in 165 cases. The usefulness of immunostaining with anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies (MoAb47) on FNAB samples was examined in 54 operated patients. Results. Among unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious, and malignant FNAB, the histological diagnoses were benign in 12/12 (100%), 69/70 (98.5%), 40/50 (80.0%), and 0/33 (0%), respectively. After surgery, malignancy was established in 44/165 (26.6%) cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 95.4%, 55.8%, 61.7%, and 95% with standard FNAB; and 100%, 75%, 73.3, and 100% with MoAb47. Among suspicious FNAB, positive MoAb47 staining was a reliable marker for exclusion of malignancy. Conclusion. Benign and malignant FNAB accurately predict histological diagnosis. In suspicious FNAB, MoAb47 immunostaining may be a useful adjunct to standard cytology. PMID:20652042

  14. How to improve the success of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-García, Antonio Z; Elwassief, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is highly accurate for assessing the pancreatic parenchyma and ductal system. Currently, it is the most sensitive imaging procedure for detecting small solid pancreatic masses. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNA) is a safe and highly accurate tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy. Prior to perform an EUS-FNA one should wonder whether the benefits outweigh the potential risks of the procedure. Therefore, it is important to take into account whether the procedure will influence patient management. The diagnostic yield and success rate of EUS-FNA in pancreatic lesions varies greatly depending on many factors including: the characteristics of the lesion itself (location of the mass and consistency of the lesion), technical factors (type of needle size, use of stylet, use of suction and number of needle passes performed) and the availability of immediate cytological assessment of the specimen. The aim of this review is to analyze all these factors for optimizing specimen collection and diagnostic efficiency in dealing with solid pancreatic masses. PMID:22586548

  15. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Chondroid Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Aiad, Hayam; Youssef Asaad, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of tendon sheath is a localized form of tenosynovial GCT, which preferentially affects the joints of hands and feet. Chondroid metaplasia is a rare phenomenon in tenosynovial GCT either in localized or diffuse types. The current case investigates the cytological and histopathological features of chondroid GCT of tendon sheath in a 22-year-old female presenting with wrist swelling. PMID:26266013

  16. Penile neurilemmoma: Utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Shukla, Saumya; Gupta, Anurag; Awasthi, Namrata Punit; Husain, Nuzhat; Dhayal, Lshwar Ram

    2014-07-01

    Subcutaneous lesions in the penis are of rare occurrence and encompass benign as well as malignant tumors. These include lipomas, leiomyomas, neurilemmomas and their malignant counterparts. A surgical excision at this site carries the risk of postoperative penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. We report a rare case of penile neurilemmoma which presented as a subcutaneous nodule on the dorsal surface of the penis. A fine-needle aspiration was performed which aided in the preoperative diagnosis and guided the extent of excision. We report this case to highlight the importance of needle aspiration as a simple outdoor procedure for penile lesions which can aid surgical approach and postoperative outcome. PMID:25538392

  17. Penile neurilemmoma: Utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Shukla, Saumya; Gupta, Anurag; Awasthi, Namrata Punit; Husain, Nuzhat; Dhayal, lshwar Ram

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous lesions in the penis are of rare occurrence and encompass benign as well as malignant tumors. These include lipomas, leiomyomas, neurilemmomas and their malignant counterparts. A surgical excision at this site carries the risk of postoperative penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. We report a rare case of penile neurilemmoma which presented as a subcutaneous nodule on the dorsal surface of the penis. A fine-needle aspiration was performed which aided in the preoperative diagnosis and guided the extent of excision. We report this case to highlight the importance of needle aspiration as a simple outdoor procedure for penile lesions which can aid surgical approach and postoperative outcome. PMID:25538392

  18. [The use of ultrasonically-guided needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of hepatic lesions].

    PubMed

    Geroni, P L; Caffi Avogadri, G M; Costardi, F

    1990-10-31

    The paper reports the results of 68 ultrasonically-guided fine needle aspirations of the liver. Histological confirmation was carried out in 24 cases and in 2 of these there was discrepancy with regard to the type of malignant neoplasia (hepatocarcinoma versus metastasis following adenocarcinoma). Following a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasonically-guided fine needle aspiration of hepatic lesions in comparison to other techniques, including CT, RNM, angiography, laparoscopy and scintigraphy, the specificity, sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the method are determined. Particular emphasis is placed on the ease of performance, the possibility of reaching concealed targets, the limited nature of complications and the reduced cost. The Authors conclude that this technique should be preferentially used in the diagnosis of nodular hepatic lesions. PMID:2082208

  19. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the management of salivary gland tumors: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Stow, Nicholas; Veivers, David; Poole, Alan

    2004-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 104 cases of salivary gland tumors that were initially assessed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Based on subsequent histopathologic analysis of excised specimens, we found that preoperative FNAB was highly sensitive and specific for both benign and malignant tumors-including the most common, pleomorphic adenomas and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Despite its possible drawbacks, we conclude that preoperative FNAB is a useful tool in the management of salivary gland tumors. PMID:15008447

  20. Potential value and disadvantages of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Perić, Marija; Milicić, Valerija; Pajtler, Marija; Marjanović, Ksenija; Zubcić, Vedran

    2012-11-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign, slow growing but locally aggressive tumor that is clinically manifested as swelling in a jaws. Prone to relapse (30%) even 30 years after inadequate primary operation. The most important cytological features of this tumor are small bazaloid cells in clusters, and single spindle and stellate shaped cells. We report on a case of 79-year-old patient, who was hospitalized due to tumor formation in the buccal region. FNA was performed and liquid material that contained only fagocites was collected. The conclusion was--cyst, while biopsy finding--adenoma baseo-cellulare, pointed to the salivary gland tumor. Patient refused the proposed surgical treatment. Four years later, the patient was urgently hospitalized due heavy bleeding from the tumor in the same region. It affected the crest portion of the upper jaw and a section of hard palate, and was bleeding on palpation. In second FNA we found phagocytes and a few small clusters of basaloid cells with palisade arrangement at the edges. Because of uniform and benign cytomorphological features it was concluded that it was a cystic tumor. On biopsy pattern the diagnose of ameloblastoma was determinated. The patient underwent surgery, however due to postoperative complications he died. Preoperative diagnosis is usually set on the basis of clinical and often nonspecific radiological findings. As it is very important to get the correct diagnose before planning an adequate surgical procedure, we would like to point out the potential value and disadvantages of FNA cytology in the diagnosis of ameloblastoma. PMID:23397775

  1. The utility of cytology in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma lung: A tertiary care center study

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Saumya; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Husain, Nuzhat; Gupta, Anurag; Anand, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma harbors various molecular abnormalities that include epidermal growth factor mutation, anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene re-arrangement, K-RAS mutations. The availability of targeted therapy against these molecular markers has revolutionized personalized medicine. Accurate cytological diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma will aid in utilising the cytology smears for molecular testing. Objective: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various cytology samples in the diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: The study included a retrospective case series of 50 patients with biopsy proven non small cell lung carcinoma of adenocarcinoma subtype. The corresponding cytology reports of all the 50 cases were analyzed for different samples including broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), bronchial washings, bronchial brush smears, pleural fluid, sputum and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung and metastatic lymph nodes. The overall cyto-diagnosis efficacy as well that of various cytological samples were analyzed. Results: Multiple cytology samples were received in 14 of 50 cases. The overall diagnostic efficacy of the various cytology samples in the diagnosis of malignancy was 78% and 66.6% cases were accurately typed as non small cell lung carcinoma-adenocarcinoma. The best cytological sample for the detection of pulmonary adenocarcinoma was bronchial brush smears which had a detection rate of 70%. In fine needle aspiration cytology samples and bronchial washings the detection rate was 65.5% and 25% respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: In cases where the cytological diagnosis is certain the tissue biopsies can be simultaneously tested for EGRF and ALK gene mutations. Repeat biopsies are often required due to small amount of tumor tissue or necrotic biopsies. Alternate use of cytological specimen for molecular testing can be done when a diagnosis of pulmonary

  2. Gene Methylation and Cytological Atypia in Random Fine-Needle Aspirates for Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Vered; Fackler, Mary Jo; Hafeez, Sidra; Bujanda, Zoila Lopez; Chatterton, Robert T; Jacobs, Lisa K; Khouri, Nagi F; Ivancic, David; Kenney, Kara; Shehata, Christina; Jeter, Stacie C; Wolfman, Judith A; Zalles, Carola M; Huang, Peng; Khan, Seema A; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-08-01

    Methods to determine individualized breast cancer risk lack sufficient sensitivity to select women most likely to benefit from preventive strategies. Alterations in DNA methylation occur early in breast cancer. We hypothesized that cancer-specific methylation markers could enhance breast cancer risk assessment. We evaluated 380 women without a history of breast cancer. We determined their menopausal status or menstrual cycle phase, risk of developing breast cancer (Gail model), and breast density and obtained random fine-needle aspiration (rFNA) samples for assessment of cytopathology and cumulative methylation index (CMI). Eight methylated gene markers were identified through whole-genome methylation analysis and included novel and previously established breast cancer detection genes. We performed correlative and multivariate linear regression analyses to evaluate DNA methylation of a gene panel as a function of clinical factors associated with breast cancer risk. CMI and individual gene methylation were independent of age, menopausal status or menstrual phase, lifetime Gail risk score, and breast density. CMI and individual gene methylation for the eight genes increased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing cytological atypia. The findings were verified with multivariate analyses correcting for age, log (Gail), log (percent density), rFNA cell number, and body mass index. Our results demonstrate a significant association between cytological atypia and high CMI, which does not vary with menstrual phase or menopause and is independent of Gail risk and mammographic density. Thus, CMI is an excellent candidate breast cancer risk biomarker, warranting larger prospective studies to establish its utility for cancer risk assessment. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 673-82. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27261491

  3. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of ovarian steroid cell tumor: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Vardhan, Harsh; Khokhar, Singh; Rai, Naresh; Saxena, Rajeev; Riyaz, Shahida

    2015-01-01

    Steroid cell tumors (SCTs) of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors that account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, which produces symptoms such as hirsutism, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and male patterned voice. For evaluation of the androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the first laboratory tests to be measured. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although SCTs are generally benign, the risk of malignant transformation is always present. Surgical excision of tumor is the most important and hallmark treatment. The present case signifies the early preoperative diagnosis of a virilizing SCT, based on cytological features and its careful correlation with clinicopathological and radiological findings. PMID:26811582

  4. Gaucher's Disease: A Rare Case, Diagnosed By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi Rani; Kumar, Bipin

    2016-03-01

    Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is a simple, inexpensive and innocuous diagnostic tool. It is increasingly accepted in daily medical practice. We report a case of Gaucher's disease diagnosed by FNA of enlarged spleen in a seven-year-old male presented with complaints of fever, on and off irregular bowel habits, abdominal distension and asymmetric gaze for four years and decreased vision in night for last one year. The diagnosis was based on the finding of large, macrophage like cells with abundant, pale, fibrillary cytoplasm and small nuclei. The patient had no family history of Gaucher's disease, and the diagnosis was not suspected clinically. PMID:27134885

  5. Gaucher’s Disease: A Rare Case, Diagnosed By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Rashmi Rani

    2016-01-01

    Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is a simple, inexpensive and innocuous diagnostic tool. It is increasingly accepted in daily medical practice. We report a case of Gaucher’s disease diagnosed by FNA of enlarged spleen in a seven-year-old male presented with complaints of fever, on and off irregular bowel habits, abdominal distension and asymmetric gaze for four years and decreased vision in night for last one year. The diagnosis was based on the finding of large, macrophage like cells with abundant, pale, fibrillary cytoplasm and small nuclei. The patient had no family history of Gaucher’s disease, and the diagnosis was not suspected clinically. PMID:27134885

  6. A case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Sheikh, Zafar A; Alansary, Taiba A; Amir, Thasneem; Al-Rabiy, Fatma N; Junaid, Thamradeen A

    2016-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms, the most common being malignant lymphoma, especially Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). In this report, we describe the fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features of a case with concurrent LCH and HL in a lymph node. A 20-year-old man presented with an enlarged left upper cervical lymph node. FNA smears from the swelling revealed numerous CD1a+ and S-100+ Langerhans-type cells (LCs) along with many eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; there were also large atypical cells with enlarged nuclei having prominent nucleoli. The cytodiagnosis was LCH and the possibility of association with or trans-differentiation into a lymphoma was suggested. The histopathological diagnosis of the excised left cervical lymph node was classical HL-nodular sclerosis type (CHL-NS) with LCH. The lacunar type Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells were positive for CD30 and CD15, and the LCs were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein. PET/CT imaging demonstrated hypermetabolic lymph nodes in neck, abdomen, thorax and pelvis as well as pulmonary nodules and a splenic mass. The patient received 13 courses of chemotherapy and two years later, the enhanced CT revealed regressive course of the disease. PMID:26608102

  7. Grading systems in the cytological diagnosis of breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Cherry; Pujani, Mukta; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Srivastava, A N; Singh, U S

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, diagnosis of breast carcinoma is still made on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). For the resource-poor settings, FNAC is cheaper, less invasive and can sample different areas of the lesion compared with core needle biopsy. The role of breast FNA is usually limited to just categorize the lesion as benign or malignant. Prognostic information from cytomorphology, conveyed to the clinician depends upon the cytopathologist's way of formatting the report. PubMed-based literature search collated the information from articles describing the architectural and cytological features studied on breast aspiration smears. This review focuses on cytomorphological features and the different grading systems with their strengths, short-comings, and practical applicability. Eight worldwide articles proposing new methods of grading the cytological smears from breast cancers were published between 1980 and 2006. All the grading methods were developed for the most common type of breast cancer, that is, infiltrating duct carcinoma (not otherwise specified) type, and most of the workers used Papanicolaou-stained smears for the purpose of grading. Moreover, if interpreted carefully FNAC smears can convey information on most of the histological features. Hence, in developing countries, the focus should be on extracting the maximum information from cytological smears, so that a more precise "surgical pathology" type diagnosis can be given, instead of merely reporting as benign or malignant. Among all the discussed grading systems, we suggest grading system by Howell would be most appropriate and closest to the accepted histologic grading system as it applies Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histological grading system with modifications on FNA smears. We recommend it to be followed by all cytopathologists, in order to bring uniformity in the reporting of breast FNAs for grading the malignant lesions. PMID:25579516

  8. Neural network analysis for evaluating cancer risk in thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis at aspiration cytology: identification of a low-risk subgroup.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Antonio M; De Laurentiis, Michelino; La Rosa, Giacomo L; Eleuteri, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Roberto; De Placido, Sabino; Vigneri, Riccardo; Belfiore, Antonino

    2004-12-01

    Thyroid nodules with a predominant follicular structure are often diagnosed as indeterminate at fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). We studied 453 patients with a thyroid nodule diagnosed as indeterminate at FNAB by using a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to integrate cytologic and clinical data, with the goal of subgrouping patients into a high-risk and in a low-risk category. Three hundred seventy-one patients were used to train the network and 82 patients were used to validate the model. The cytologic smears were blindly reviewed and classified in a high-risk and a low-risk subgroup on the basis of standard criteria. Neural network analysis subdivided the 371 lesions of the first series into a high-risk group (cancer rate of approximately 33% at histology) and a low-risk group (cancer rate of 3%). Only cytologic parameters contributed to this classification. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that the ANN model discriminated with higher sensitivity and specificity between benign and malignant nodules compared to standard cytologic criteria (p < 0.001). This value did not show degradation when ANN predictions were applied to the validation series of 82 nodules. In conclusion, neural network analysis of cytologic data may be a useful tool to refine the risk of cancer in patients with lesions diagnosed as indeterminate by FNAB. PMID:15650360

  9. Estimation of thyroglobulin in lymph node aspirates: Pilot experience from a tertiary referral cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Chauhan, Subhra; Naveen; Latha, B. S.; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kekatpure, Vikram; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Manjunath, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment of cervical lymph node involvement in patients with thyroid cancer either during preoperative surgical mapping or detection of recurrences during follow-up is a crucial step in the management of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs). In most patients, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirms the presence of metastasis in lymph node. However, in cases of paucicellular lymph node aspirate or discordant sonogram and cytology results, thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the lymph node aspirate (FNA-Tg) is useful and a value >1 ng/ml is considered consistent with metastatic disease. Context: The addition of FNAC to the US improves the specificity, but 5–10% are nondiagnostic and 6–8% rate of false-negative results. Several studies have reported that the detection of Tg in FNA-needle washes improves the evaluation of suspicious lymph nodes in patients with DTC.Data from Indian centers on FNA-Tg are limited. Aims: We piloted the utility of FNA-Tg in patients with sonographically suspicious cervical lymph node enlargement in the setting of suspicious thyroid nodule or in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. Settings and Design: Prospective data collection. Results: We measured Tg in 13 lymph node aspirates (12 patients, 10 females) among whom 4 patients had a total thyroidectomy and 1 had a hemithyroidectomy. Eight of the 13 lymph node aspirates had FNA-Tg values >150 ng/ml, all of them had unequivocal malignant cytology and four among them had proven metastatic DTC on surgical pathology. The median FNA-Tg of the patients with malignant cytology was 7550 ng/ml with a range of 162–30,000 ng/ml. Among the remaining 5 lymph node aspirate, 2 lymph nodes showed cytological features suggestive of reactive lymphadenitis (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml) and were not operated, 1 had a high-grade malignancy consistent with anaplastic thyroid cancer (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml), and 2 had nondiagnostic cytology (one had non-caseating granuloma on surgical pathology [FNA-Tg 1

  10. Thyroid cyst wall atypia in a patient with a history of malignant melanoma: a pitfall in fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca L; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2013-08-01

    We present an interesting case report from a patient with a history of desmoplastic malignant melanoma (MM), who presented with a thyroid nodule. The patient's clinical diagnosis included a benign thyroid nodule versus a primary thyroid malignancy or metastatic MM. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed highly atypical spindle cells suspicious for metastatic MM. The acellular cell block prevented further studies such as immunohistochemical analysis. The patient underwent surgical excision of the mass, which showed a benign cystic thyroid nodule with an atypical cyst lining. Here, we report the presence of atypical cyst-lining cells in a patient with diagnosis of MM. The atypical cytology of the cyst-lining cells has been reported in the English literature; however, presence of significant cytological atypia, especially in a patient with a history of another malignancy, can be problematic. The cytopathologist should be aware of this entity and its diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22351646

  11. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of an osteoclast-rich undifferentiated urothelial carcinoma: A cytology case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Chetna N.; Bui, Marilyn M.; Hakam, Ardeshir

    2010-01-01

    Osteoclast-rich undifferentiated carcinoma of urinary bladder (ORUCUB) is a very rare and an unusual variant of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Here, we report an extraordinary case of metastatic ORUCUB, diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, in a 74-year-old Hispanic male who presented with a palpable, tender left groin mass and a known previous history of high-grade carcinoma of urinary bladder and prostatic cancer. To the best of our knowledge, diagnosis of ORUCUB by FNA is the first case report in FNA cytology to be published to date. A review of the literature is emphasized on the cytological, histological and immunohistochemical features and differential diagnoses of giant cell tumor. PMID:20976205

  12. Putting an eye on cytological specimens: an audit of the clinical impact of thyroid fine-needle aspiration in different health care settings.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bernardo Dias; Gerhard, Renê; Schmitt, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    There is published evidence showing less cost-benefit approaches in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. We performed an institutional audit of the cytologic diagnosis of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in an attempt to perceive the clinical impact of this technique on the management of thyroid nodules and to compare it in two different types of health care: Primary Care Medicine and Endocrinology. We performed a retrospective analysis to the electronic records of patients referred from General Practitioners (GP) and Endocrinologists (E) for thyroid FNA between 2010 and 2012. Request forms for cytological reports where retrieved for analysis of clinical and cytological data. The database search retrieved 1655 patients (female gender: 88.2%; GP references: 51.8%). Preprocedure clinical information was available from 157 out of 2005 nodules (7.8%). Significant differences in cytological diagnosis were seen in "Nondiagnostic" (GP: 11.6%; E: 7.5%, χ(2)  = 0.002) and "Benign" categories (GP: 75%; E: 81.8%, χ(2)  < 0.001). The main potential cause of "Nondiagnostic" samples was nodules smaller than one centimeter (total: 14 cases; GP: 7; E: 7). Reasons to request FNA for these nodules were provided in 6 out of 27 cases (GP: 0/16; E: 6/11, P < 0.001). The rate of insufficient samples was inversely correlated with nodule size (τ = -0.242, P = 0.001). When evaluating thyroid nodules, clinicians should take into account the limitations of FNA, the international recommendations for better cost-benefit approaches and the importance of a well-informed cytopathologist for better cytological diagnostic results. PMID:24678022

  13. The role of fine-needle aspiration in the thyroid nodules of elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Maurizio; Straccia, Patrizia; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We assess the role of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) in our series of elderly patients. The growing subset of people aged older than 70 years has shown an increased incidence of thyroid diseases which need to be studied in order to reduce the percentage of surgical treatments in patients with higher likelihood of co-morbidities and associated life risk. We compared Follicular/Indeterminate Neoplasms(FN) and suspicious of malignancy(SM) with pediatric and adult cohorts. We discussed the role of immunocytochemistry-ICC to refine diagnoses. Four hundred and eighty out of 3539FNACs(13.5%) in elderly patients, were surgical followed-up. They included: 35Inadequate, 188benign(BL), 164FN/AUS, 49SM and 44positive for malignancy (PM). All PM and 95.7%BL were histological confirmed. The malignant rate was 24.3% mostly diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinomas. An ICC panel (HBME-1 and Galectin-3) was carried out on liquid based cytology (LBC) and performed on FN/AUS, SM and PM. We found concordant positive ICC in 69.3%malignancies and concordant negative ICC in 97.6%benign follicular adenomas. Among FNs, 42.9%malignant histologic cases had concordant positivity whilst 97.4%benign histology had negative panel. Thyroid FNAC shows high feasibility in elderly patients. ICC helps in reducing the number of useless thyroidectomies and providing a more adequate clinical and/or surgical selection in elderly patients. PMID:26919251

  14. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: High-yield thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology: an update focused on ancillary techniques improving its accuracy.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, M; Trimboli, P; Rossi, E D; Fadda, G; Nobile, A; Giovanella, L

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a fast growing field. One of the most developing areas is represented by molecular tests applied to cytological material. Patients that could benefit the most from these tests are those that have been diagnosed as 'indeterminate' on FNA. They could be better stratified in terms of malignancy risk and thus oriented with more confidence to the appropriate management. Taking in to consideration the need to improve and keep high the yield of thyroid FNA, professionals from various fields (i.e. molecular biologists, endocrinologists, nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists) are refining and fine-tuning their diagnostic instruments. In particular, all these developments aim at increasing the negative predictive value of FNA to improve the selection of patients for diagnostic surgery. These advances involve terminology, the application of next-generation sequencing to thyroid FNA, the use of immunocyto- and histo-chemistry, the development of new sampling techniques and the increasing use of nuclear medicine as well as molecular imaging in the management of patients with a thyroid nodule. Herein, we review the recent advances in thyroid FNA cytology that could be of interest to the 'thyroid-care' community, with particular focus on the indeterminate diagnostic category. PMID:26450171

  15. Clinical usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients less than 20 years old: a 10-year experience at a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunzoo; Jang, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the spectrum of cytological diagnoses and evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) in patients less than 20 years old. The subjects were selected by retrospectively reviewing records from 1999 to 2009. Selected patients less than 20 years old underwent FNA. Cytological and histological slides of samples from the subjects were reviewed. Our study included a total of 909 subjects with a mean age of 14.6 years. The majority of the FNA samples were taken from lymph nodes (n = 448, 49.3%), with the remaining aspirates obtained from the thyroid gland (n = 247, 27.2%), soft tissues of head and neck masses (n = 106, 11.7%), salivary glands (n = 75, 8.3%), breasts (n = 18, 1.9%), skins (n = 9, 1.0%) and soft tissues of extremity (n = 6, 0.7%). The majority (87.6%, n = 796) of the FNA samples were categorized as ‘benign’, with the remaining designated as ‘atypical lesion’ (n = 18, 2.0%), ‘malignant’ (n = 24, 2.6%), or ‘inadequate specimen’ (n = 71, 7.8%). FNA accuracy was 92% for diagnosing cancer. Specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 63%, respectively. Our study first revealed that FNA has a high specificity for diagnosing cancer in various anatomical locations in young patients and can be confidently used as an effective tool for diagnosing malignancies in young individuals with a clinically suspicious lesion. PMID:24294385

  16. Secondary B-cell lymphoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and flow cytometry following penile carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HUAN; QIU, LIAN-NV; WU, MAO; CHEN, WAN-YUAN; REN, LI-GANG; HE, XIANG-LEI; ZHOU, YONG-LIE

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies reporting lymphoma as a secondary tumor has gradually increased. However, few studies have reported that occurrence of lymphoma as a secondary tumor following treatment for penile carcinoma, particularly cases in which the lymphoma was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and flow cytometry. The present study reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who was troubled with frequent urination and repeated chest tightness for 5 years. The diagnosis upon admission was penile carcinoma. Two months subsequent to the tumor removal surgery, enlarged lymph nodes were extracted from the patient using fine-needle biopsy, to be analyzed using light microscopy and flow cytometry. Smear results indicated a large number of abnormal cells scattered in the right axillary lymph node. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping of fine-needle aspiration samples indicated the increased expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)79a, CD19, CD20, CD38, κ chain and human leukocyte antigen-DR, which supported a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma based on the results of the fine-needle aspiration biopsy and flow cytometry. The method of diagnosis and causes of therapy-related leukemia are discussed in the present report. PMID:27073496

  17. Fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of equine skin disease and the epidemiology of equine skin cytology submissions in a western Canadian diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Erin K; Burgess, Hilary J; Wobeser, Bruce K

    2016-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is commonly used to diagnose skin disease in companion animals, but its use in horses appears to be infrequent. Equine veterinarians in western Canada were surveyed to determine their opinions about FNA and 15 years of diagnostic submissions were used to compare the perceived to actual value of FNA in the diagnosis of skin disease in horses. Practitioners viewed FNA as quick, easy, economical, and minimally invasive. However, most veterinarians rarely chose to use FNA due to a perception that sample quality and diagnostic yield were poor and there was a narrow range of diseases the technique could diagnose. Analysis of the FNA cytology samples from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory showed a wide variety of equine skin disease conditions, but the frequency of non-diagnostic results was significantly higher in equine submissions compared to those from dogs and cats. PMID:27247463

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salla, Charitini; Chatzipantelis, Paschalis; Konstantinou, Panagiotis; Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Pantazopoulou, Akrivi; Dappola, Victoria

    2007-10-14

    We describe the clinical, imaging and cytopathological features of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided (EUS-guided) fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 17-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of an unexplained episodic abdominal pain for 2 mo and a short history of hypertension in the endocrinology clinic. Clinical laboratory examinations revealed polycystic ovary syndrome, splenomegaly and low serum amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. Computed tomography (CT) analysis revealed a mass of the pancreatic tail with solid and cystic consistency. EUS confirmed the mass, both in body and tail of the pancreas, with distinct borders, which caused dilation of the peripheral part of the pancreatic duct (major diameter 3.7 mm). The patient underwent EUS-FNA. EUS-FNA cytology specimens consisted of single cells and aggregates of uniform malignant cells, forming microadenoid structures, branching, papillary clusters with delicate fibrovascular cores and nuclear overlapping. Naked capillaries were also seen. The nuclei of malignant cells were round or oval, eccentric with fine granular chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves in some of them. The malignant cells were periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-Alcian blue (+) and immunocytochemically they were vimentin (+), CA 19.9 (+), synaptophysin (+), chromogranin (-), neuro-specific enolase (-), a1-antitrypsin and a1-antichymotrypsin focal positive. Cytologic findings were strongly suggestive of SPTP. Biopsy confirmed the above cytologic diagnosis. EUS-guided FNA diagnosis of SPTP is accurate. EUS findings, cytomorphologic features and immunostains of cell block help distinguish SPTP from pancreatic endocrine tumors, acinar cell carcinoma and papillary mucinous carcinoma. PMID:17876886

  19. Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration cytology of non-invasive, low-grade urothelial carcinoma with lung metastasis: A case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vural, ÇiĞdem; Yildiz, Kürsat; Çabuk, Devrim; Akgül, Asli

    2015-01-01

    Radiological analyses in a 61-year-old patient being followed since 2005 for low-grade, non-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) (Ta) revealed a 5-cm pleural-based mass in the lower lobe of the right lung for which a subsequent transthoracic fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed. Upon observing the carcinoma cells consistent with UC metastasis, systemic chemotherapy was commenced. The patient underwent a metastatectomy based on the thoracic computerized tomography scan performed on the 4th month of treatment, which revealed notable regression. The resected tumor was morphologically similar to cells seen in the transthoracic fine-needle aspiration and was immunohistochemically positive for p63, uroplakin, thrombomodulin, CK7 and CK20 at varying degrees but was negative for TTF-1. We report a case of metastatic UC of the lung in a patient who had had a low-grade superficial UC of the urinary bladder and we discuss the cytopathological features of this rare entity in light of the literature. PMID:26229254

  20. Utility of FNAC in Conjunction with Cell Block for Diagnosing Space-Occupying Lesion (SOL) of Liver with Emphasis on Differentiating Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Metastatic SOL: Analysis of 61 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sheefa, Haq; Lata, Jadhav; Basharat, Mubeen; Rumana, Makhdoomi; Veena, Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the cytological patterns of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) obtained from space-occupying lesions (SOLs) of the liver with an aim to differentiate primary hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic deposits and to evaluate the added advantage and efficacy of studying cell blocks in conjunction with smears for enhancing diagnostic accuracy.   Methods This prospective study took place over two years (September 2007 to 2009) and included 61 patients with cases of liver SOLs that were clinically or radiologically suspicious for malignancy and who were referred for computed tomography or ultrasonography-guided FNAC. Smears were prepared from the aspirated material, and any remainder was used to make the cell block (n = 55). A final diagnosis was made after evaluating the smears and cell block sections.   Results On cytomorphology, a diagnosis of moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic carcinoma was made in 10 (18.2%) and 25 (45.5%) cases, respectively, and were confirmed using cell block sections. In cases where it was difficult to differentiate between well-differentiated HCC and regenerative nodules, and between poorly differentiated HCC and poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma, a final diagnosis was made with the help of cell blocks sections. Cell blocks assisted in reaching a final diagnosis in 16 (29.1%) cases. Cases that were diagnosed using cytomorphology were confirmed by the cell block method. In these 39 (70.9%) cases we were able to render a diagnosis with much more confidence.   Conclusion In our experience, difficulties in diagnosing SOL liver are attributed to differentiation of the tumor. Cell block preparation gives an additional advantage as architectural details can be studied that help to reach an accurate diagnosis in problematic and challenging cases. Thus, we strongly recommend the use of the cell block technique in conjunction with cytosmears for the purpose of diagnosis. PMID

  1. Eliminating the Residual Negative Pressure in the Endoscopic Ultrasound Aspirating Needle Enhances Cytology Yield of Pancreas Masses

    PubMed Central

    Aadam, A Aziz; Oh, Young S; Shidham, Vinod B; Khan, Abdul; Hunt, Bryan; Rao, Nagarjun; Zhang, Ying; Tarima, Sergey; Dua, Kulwinder S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prior to withdrawing the EUS-FNA needle from the lesion, the stopcock of the suction-syringe is closed to reduce contamination. Residual negative pressure (RNP) may persist in the needle despite closing the stopcock. AIMS To determine if neutralizing RNP before withdrawing the needle will improve the cytology yield. METHODS Bench-top testing was done to confirm the presence of RNP followed by a prospective, randomized, cross-over study on patients with pancreas mass. Ten-mL suction was applied to the FNA needle. Before withdrawing the needle from the lesion, the stopcock was closed. Based on randomization, the first pass was done with the stopcock either attached to the needle (S+) or disconnected (S−) to allow air to enter and neutralize RNP and accordingly the second pass was crossed over to S+ or S−. On-site cytopahtologist was blinded to S+/S−. RESULTS Bench tests confirmed the presence of RNP which was successfully neutralized by disconnecting the syringe (S−) from the needle. Sixty patients were enrolled, 120 samples analyzed. S+ samples showed significantly greater GI-tract contamination compared to S− samples (16.7% vs. 6.7%, p=0.03). Of the 53 patients confirmed to have pancreas adenocarcinoma, FNA using S− approach was positive in 49 (93%) compared to 40 using the S+ approach (76%, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS Despite closing the stopcock of the suction-syringe, RNP is present in the FNA needle. Neutralizing RNP prior to withdrawing the needle from the target lesion significantly decreased GI-tract contamination of the sample thereby improving the FNA cytology yield. PMID:26346997

  2. FNAC diagnosis of medullary carcinoma thyroid: A report of three cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Ansari, Hena A; Sadaf, Lubna; Khan, Mohammad Amanullah

    2010-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is an unusual neoplasm, which is associated with specific supportive diagnostic markers. Despite this, its cytological diagnosis is often difficult. We report herewith three cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis was established on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Plasmacytoid cell pattern was observed in two cases and spindle cell pattern in the third case. PMID:21157553

  3. Role of FNAC in the Preoperative Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Clement R S; Khosla, Charu; George, Lovely; Katte, Namitha Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Background: The characteristic cytologic features of the common salivary gland lesions have been well-delineated in literature. However, there also exist cytologic pitfalls and overlapping features that make an accurate diagnosis difficult in few cases. The present study was designed to compare the cytologic findings of salivary gland lesions with the histologic diagnoses, in order to assess the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, with an emphasis on discordant cases. Materials and Methods: Patients with suspected salivary gland enlargements, who were referred for FNAC, were included in this study, which was done over a 3 year period in a medical college hospital. FNAC was performed by using the standard procedure. Smears were stained by using Papanicolaou’s and MGG stains. Cytologic diagnosis was compared with histopathologic diagnosis wherever it was available. Results: Eighty eight patients with salivary gland swellings were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 82 years, with the M:F ratio being 1.6:1. Out of 88 cases, 68 had swellings in parotid gland, 19 had them in submandibular gland and one had them in hard palate. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest neoplasm which was seen in our study. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the only malignant lesion seen in our study. One each of Warthin’s tumour (WT) and MEC were overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed respectively, the reason being squamous metaplasia in WT and subtle nature of malignant cells in low-grade MEC. Conclusion: WT and MEC can pose problems in cytologicdiagnosis. Sampling errors and interpretational errors can lead todiscordant diagnoses. PMID:25386436

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes in nonneoplastic breast lesions. Possible pitfalls in cytodiagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterse, J.L.; Thunnissen, F.B.; van Heerde, P.

    1989-03-01

    The range of radiation-induced changes in fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears of the breast is described. In 41 of more than 800 patients who underwent breast-conserving treatment, a palpable breast lesion developed, and FNA was performed. In six cases, a recurrent carcinoma was present. In the remaining cases, three patterns of nonneoplastic lesions could be discerned: epithelial atypia (14 cases), fat necrosis (10 cases) and poorly cellular smears without epithelial atypia or fat necrosis (13 cases). It is important to be familiar with the patterns of radiation-induced epithelial atypia, since such atypia may lead to a misdiagnosis of recurrent carcinoma. These atypical cells may show impressive anisocytosis and anisonucleosis; however, the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio remains normal and an admixture of bipolar cells is present. Cell dissociation and necrotic cell debris, as often seen in breast cancer smears, were never encountered in FNA smears from radiated nonneoplastic breasts.

  5. B cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical hodgkin lymphoma: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Lynnhtun, Kyaw; Varikatt, Winny; Pathmanathan, Nirmala

    2014-08-01

    A 58-year-old lady presented with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A thoracoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration showed large atypical epithelioid cells arranged in cohesive sheets and dispersed as single cells with intact cytoplasm amid a background of lymphocytes and histiocytes. A cytological diagnosis of "a malignant neoplasm" was made, raising a broad list of differential diagnoses. A broad panel of immunocytochemical stains performed on the cell block was indicative of a lymphoproliferative disorder, but the immunophenotype was intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Diffuse and strong reactivity to CD20, CD79a, and PAX-5, and weak reactivity to CD30, was in favor of a DLBCL, or more precisely mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphoma (MLBL). However, there were negative staining for LCA, OCT-2, and BOB-1 as well as positive staining for EBV-encoded RNA, which were against a diagnosis of MLBL and raised the possibility of cHL. The absence of RS cells and the typical mileu, the negativity for CD15 and the strong positivity of CD20 and PAX-5 were against a diagnosis of cHL. On this basis, the diagnosis of "B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with features intermediate between DLBCL and cHL" was rendered. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed on excisional biopsy. This case report demonstrates broad differential diagnoses raised by this diagnostic entity and the importance of an adequate cell block for accurate designation. PMID:23630122

  6. Tibial bone metastasis as an initial presentation of endometrial carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Boukhar, Sarag Aboujafar; Kaneshiro, Ricky; Schiller, Alan; Terada, Keith; Tauchi-Nishi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. However, bony metastasis is infrequent and exceptionally rare as the initial presentation. We report a case of a 77-year-old female with a clinically silent endometrial carcinoma who presented with a left tibial metastasis as the first manifestation of her disease. Ours is only the third case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, and the first to detail the cytomorphologic features of metastatic endometrial cancer to bone. These microscopic findings, including three-dimensional cohesive clusters with cellular overlapping and cuboidal to columnar cells exhibiting low nuclear: cytoplasmic ratios and partially vacuolated cytoplasm, differ significantly from those of endometrial carcinoma on a Papanicolaou test. The tumor bore similarity to the more commonly encountered metastatic colon cancer, but immunohistochemical staining enabled reliable distinction between these entities. A review of osseous metastases of endometrial cancer demonstrates a predilection for bones of the lower extremity and pelvis with a predominance of the endometrioid histologic subtype. In about a quarter of the cases, the bony metastasis was the first manifestation of the cancer. FNA was an effective diagnostic modality for this unusual presentation of a common malignancy. Awareness of this entity and its differential diagnosis is essential for accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:26085835

  7. Mucocele-like tumor associated with ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed as mucinous carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration cytology: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shoichi; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki

    2012-02-01

    Mucocele-like tumors (MLTs) of the breast are rare, with only 11 cases reported from Japan and 35 cases from other countries. MLTs of the breast were first described by Rosen in 1986. They are believed to be related to atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma, or mucinous carcinoma. It is difficult to diagnose this tumor preoperatively, and especially difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant forms. We report a case of MLT associated with ductal carcinoma in situ, which was initially diagnosed as fibroadenoma by mammography and ultrasonography, and as mucinous carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration cytology. We discuss the characteristic findings of imaging and the appropriate clinical treatment of this tumor. The characteristic image first signals the possibility of this tumor, following which the diagnosis can be confirmed by pathological examination of a fully excised tumor specimen. Breast-conserving surgery is recommended because of the low risk of high-grade malignancy, even when malignancy is confirmed, and lymph node dissection may be avoided. PMID:22237901

  8. Tumour seeding after fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy of the head and neck--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Keval S V; Ethunandan, Madan

    2016-04-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy are essential diagnostic investigations of lumps in the head and neck, seeding along the needle track has long been a concern, and various factors have been implicated. We therefore searched the Medline database for relevant English language papers published between 1970 and 2014, excluding those on the thyroid and parathyroid, and systematically reviewed them to assess the risk. In the 610 articles reviewed we found only 7 reports of seeding (5 after FNAC and 2 after core needle biopsy). Tumours were found between 3 months and 3 years after the procedure in 4 cases, and in 3, tumour cells were found along the needle track between 0 and 33 days after the procedure. The needles varied in size from 18 - 22 gauge (G) and there were 3 to 4 passes. Four cases occurred after investigation of a mass in the salivary glands, and 3 after assessment of a cervical lymph node. Disease was benign in one and malignant in 6. Seeding along the needle track after FNAC or core needle biopsy of a lump in the head and neck is rarely reported, and an accurate estimate of its incidence is difficult to ascertain. Crude estimates suggest 0.00012% and 0.0011% after FNA and core needle biopsy, respectively. A distinction should be made between seeding that is seen shortly after the procedure and the development of tumour along the needle track. PMID:26837638

  9. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute

    PubMed Central

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. Methods We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005–2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Results Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005–2011] and second period [2012–2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. Conclusions The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist’s skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a

  10. Cytological accuracy and radiological staging in patients with thyroid cancer in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jenny; Hendry, Jane; Van der Horst, Cynthia; Hunter, Mark A; MacKenzie, Kenneth; Hilmi, Omar

    2016-09-01

    To assess the accuracy of initial combined cytological accuracy and radiological staging of patients suspected of having thyroid malignancy with their final histopathology. Retrospective case series in a tertiary referral centre for head and neck malignancy. All patients with malignant thyroid cytology and cytology suspicious for malignancy, between the dates of June 2010 and July 2014, were included. The pre-operative staging was compared against the final histological staging. Demographics and outcomes for each patient were recorded. Sixty-five patients were recorded in this group. 20 (30.7 %) were male. The mean age at presentation was 51 years (SD 16.8 years). 39 (60 %) patients were aged over 45 years. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed in all patients and was Thy 4 in 40 (62 %) and Thy 5 in 25 (38 %). Following surgery or subsequent biopsy, FNAC was found to be accurate in 38/40 (Thy 4) and 25/25 (Thy 5) cases in diagnosing malignancy, with Thy 4 yielding 95 % malignancy and Thy 5 % 100 %. Fifty-eight patients underwent a surgical procedure for thyroid cancer. Two further patients had a diagnostic hemi-thyroidectomy for later proven benign disease. Five patients due to medical co morbidities, inoperable disease or refusal of surgery were managed non-surgically. In the surgical group 16 patients underwent a diagnostic hemi-thyroidectomy and 11 of these required a completion thyroidectomy. Forty-six patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Forty-six patients underwent a neck dissection: 27 prophylactic central compartment neck dissections and 19 planned therapeutic neck dissections were performed. Radiological staging correctly predicted final pathological TNM staging in 25 (43 %) patients. 27 (47 %) patients had radiological staging which under staged their final histological staging and 6 (10 %) patients had scans that over staged their cancer. Of those that were under staged, 15 (56 %) had their nodal disease under staged

  11. Cytologic aspects of an interesting case of medullary thyroid carcinoma coexisting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bidish K; Roy, Arun; Badhe, Bhawana A; Siddaraju, Neelaiah

    2016-01-01

    Among primary thyroid neoplasms, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) are known to coexist and are pathogenetically linked with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). However, HT occurring in association with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is rarely documented. We report here an interesting case. A 34-year-old female with a solitary thyroid nodule underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) that was interpreted as “MTC with admixed reactive lymphoid cells, derived possibly from a pretracheal lymph node.” Total thyroidectomy specimen showed “MTC with coexisting HT.” At a later stage, a follow-up FNAC from the recurrent thyroid swelling showed features consistent with HT. As an academic exercise, the initial smears on which a diagnosis of MTC was offered were reviewed to look for evidence of coexisting HT that showed scanty and patchy aggregates of reactive lymphoid cells without Hürthle cells. Our case highlights an unusual instance of MTC in concurrence with HT that can create a tricky situation for cytopathologists. PMID:27279687

  12. Expert system support using Bayesian belief networks in the diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsy specimens of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, P W; Anderson, N; Bartels, P H; Thompson, D

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To develop an expert system model for the diagnosis of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast. METHODS--Knowledge and uncertainty were represented in the form of a Bayesian belief network which permitted the combination of diagnostic evidence in a cumulative manner and provided a final probability for the possible diagnostic outcomes. The network comprised 10 cytological features (evidence nodes), each independently linked to the diagnosis (decision node) by a conditional probability matrix. The system was designed to be interactive in that the cytopathologist entered evidence into the network in the form of likelihood ratios for the outcomes at each evidence node. RESULTS--The efficiency of the network was tested on a series of 40 breast FNAC specimens. The highest diagnostic probability provided by the network agreed with the cytopathologists' diagnosis in 100% of cases for the assessment of discrete, benign, and malignant aspirates. Atypical probably benign cases were given probabilities in favour of a benign diagnosis. Suspicious cases tended to have similar probabilities for both diagnostic outcomes and so, correctly, could not be assigned as benign or malignant. A closer examination of cumulative belief graphs for the diagnostic sequence of each case provided insight into the diagnostic process, and quantitative data which improved the identification of suspicious cases. CONCLUSION--The further development of such a system will have three important roles in breast cytodiagnosis: (1) to aid the cytologist in making a more consistent and objective diagnosis; (2) to provide a teaching tool on breast cytological diagnosis for the non-expert; and (3) it is the first stage in the development of a system capable of automated diagnosis through the use of expert system machine vision. PMID:8027370

  13. Chromogenic in situ hybridization to detect EGFR gene copy number in cell blocks from fine-needle aspirates of non small cell lung carcinomas and lung metastases from colo-rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates to the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the presence of lung nodules, cytology is often the only possible diagnostic approach. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is an alternative technique to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but its feasibility in detecting EGFR GCN in cell blocks from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung nodules has not yet been established. Methods We evaluated the feasibility of CISH on 33 FNAC from 20 primary NSCLC (5 squamous carcinomas, 8 large cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas) and 13 lung metastases from CRC. Results Of the 33 FNAC analyzed by CISH, 27 (82%) presented a balanced increase in EGFR gene and chromosome 7 number: 10 cases (30%) showed a low polysomy, 15 (45%) a high polysomy and 2 (6%) NSCLC were amplified. No significant differences between NSCLC and CRC lung metastases were found in relation to disomic or polysomic status. In addition, no correlation between EGFR GCN and EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression was found. Furthermore, we compared CISH results with those obtained by FISH on the same samples and we found 97% overall agreement between the two assays (k = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Two cases were amplified with both assays, whereas 1 case of NSCLC was amplified by FISH only. CISH sensitivity was 67%, the specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. Conclusions Our study shows that CISH is a valid method to detect EGFR GCN in cell blocks from FNAC of primary NSCLC or metastatic CRC to the lung. PMID:20843314

  14. Fusion of FNA-cytology and gene-expression data using Dempster-Shafer Theory of evidence to predict breast cancer tumors.

    PubMed

    Raza, Mansoor; Gondal, Iqbal; Green, David; Coppel, Ross L

    2006-01-01

    Decision-in decision-out fusion architecture can be used to fuse the outputs of multiple classifiers from different diagnostic sources. In this paper, Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) has been used to fuse classification results of breast cancer data from two different sources: gene-expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and Fine-Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAc) data. Classification of individual sources is done by Support Vector Machine (SVM) with linear, polynomial and Radial Base Function (RBF) kernels. Out put belief of classifiers of both data sources are combined to arrive at one final decision. Dynamic uncertainty assessment is based on class differentiation of the breast cancer. Experimental results have shown that the new proposed breast cancer data fusion methodology have outperformed single classification models. PMID:17597882

  15. Does the new automated "HALO" nipple aspiration fluid system really deliver as promised? The answer is "No, but...": A literature review of the role of breast fluid cytology in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, Tarik M

    2009-09-01

    The HALO breast Pap test is a new automated nipple aspiration fluid (NAF) system that was recently introduced into the market. In an extensive marketing campaign directed principally toward OB/GYN practices, including endorsements from few local news media, HALO has been promoted as the "new Pap screening test for breast." Physicians are encouraged to perform this test on all women, as part of their annual examination, with claims that HALO will detect breast cancers as early as 10 years before mammography. These arguments are made more appealing to physician's offices by highlighting the potential positive financial impact on their practices, without consuming physician time, as medical assistants or technicians can perform this test. As a result of this directed campaign, cytology laboratories are increasingly confronted with implementing the HALO system and clinicians are increasingly soliciting pathologist's input regarding its validity. Yet, there is no data available regarding this new system, outside rare reports sponsored by the manufacturer. In this discussion, I examine the pros and cons of this new NAF system, including literature review of breast fluid cytology, and how it relates to breast cancer risk assessment. PMID:19530102

  16. Usefulness of Serum Calcitonin in Patients Without a Suspicious History of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and with Thyroid Nodules Without an Indication for Fine-Needle Aspiration or with Benign Cytology.

    PubMed

    Rosario, P W; Calsolari, M R

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of serum calcitonin (Ctn) in subjects without a suspicious history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and with nodular thyroid disease without an indication for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or with benign cytology. This was a prospective study that evaluated 421 patients with nodular disease without an indication for FNA and 602 patients with benign cytology. Patients with basal Ctn>10 pg/ml were submitted to calcium stimulation testing. Patients with stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml were submitted to total thyroidectomy. Basal Ctn was<10 pg/ml in 1001 patients (97.8%). Among patients with basal Ctn>10 pg/ml, 16/22 exhibited stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml. Two of these 16 patients had MTC. The 2 patients with MTC had undetectable basal Ctn 6 months after surgery. Using a cut-off of 30 pg/ml in women and 60 pg/ml in men for basal Ctn, the 2 cases of MTC of our series would have been identified and there would have been no false-positive case. It should be noted that 14/16 patients with stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml were false-positive cases. Although uncommon, even subjects without a suspicious history and with nodular thyroid disease without an indication for FNA or with benign cytology can have MTC. The measurement of Ctn permits the diagnosis of these cases. Our results favor the hypothesis that basal Ctn could be superior to stimulated Ctn. PMID:27203410

  17. Osteoclast-Like Giant Cell Tumor of the Parotid Gland: Report of a Case Diagnosed on Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology With Histological and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    PubMed

    Elhence, Poonam; Rao, Meenakshi; Goyal, Amit; Kumar, Amit; Khera, Pushpinder S; Bhattacharya, Shilajit

    2016-06-01

    Extraosseous giant cell tumors have been described in organs like larynx, thyroid, pancreas, heart, skin, lung, colon, kidney, and soft tissues (Wu et al., Oncol Lett 2013;6:829-832). Osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the parotid gland has been reported only rarely with the first description of primary giant cell tumour of the parotid gland (GCTPs) given in 1984 by Eusebi et al. (Am J Clin Pathol. 1984;81:666-675). However, FNAC of osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the parotid gland has not been well described, and only one case has been reported till date (Torabinezad et al., Acta Cytol. 2006;50:80-83). Two presentations have been observed in the form of either an isolated giant cell tumor (Eusebi et al., Am J Clin Pathol. 1984;81:666-675) or tumor associated with a carcinomatous component (Yang et al., Korean J Pathol 2012;46:297-301; Pasricha et al., J Can Res Ther 2013;9:314-316). GCTPs are uncommon benign soft tissue tumors with a malignant potential. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:548-551. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27079183

  18. Efficacy and Pitfalls of FNAC of Thyroid Lesions in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; A.L., Hemalatha; B., Rakhi; S., Githanjali

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fine-needle aspiration has proven safe and efficacious in the evaluation of nodular diseases in the adults. It has been used extensively to select patients for surgical exploration with a high degree of reliability. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of its applicability in thyroid lesions in children and adolescents, as well as to determine distribution of thyroid lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients in whom the prevalence of thyroid nodules and probability of malignancy are different. Methodology: This is a four-year study undertaken between January 2009 and December 2012, during which, 284 fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed for palpable thyroid lesions in children and adolescents and analysed. Out of these 11, 52, 82 and 116 aspirates belonged to the age group between 7-<12 years, 12 -<16 years, 16 -<19 years, 19-21 years respectively. There were 261 (91.9%) satisfactory aspirates and 23 unsatisfactory aspirates (8.1%). These 261 satisfactory aspirates with adequate cellular material were taken up for interpretation and analysed. Thirty one patients underwent thyroidectomy. There were 4 true positives, 24 true negatives, 2 false positives and one false negative case in this study. Sensitivity, Specificity, Accuracy, Positive predictive value and Negative predictive value were calculated. Results: Benign cytology was reported in 89 cases (34.2%) where 11 cases (4.2%) were males. Thyroiditis was observed in 154 cases (59%) and 8 cases (3.1%) were males. Suspicious cytology was reported in 12 cases and comprised of 2 cases with a suspicion of Papillary Carcinoma and 10 cases (3.8%), with a suspicion of a Follicular lesion. Papillary Carcinoma was detected on 6 cases where all were females. The Sensitivity was 96%, Specificity was 66% and the Accuracy was 90%, Positive predictive value was 66%, Negative predictive value was 96%. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of palpable thyroid lesions in

  19. [Up-to-date experience with the international classification system Bethesda 2010 for thyroid fine-needle aspirate: a review].

    PubMed

    Ludvíková, Marie; Kholová, Ivana

    2014-07-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) was introduced in thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in 2010. A six-tier system is generally accepted. Bethesda categories include morphologic description, risk of malignancy and follow-up suggestions in each group. The system has its advantages and disadvantages, that are discussed. The most problematic are the categories of "Atypia of undetermined significance" or "Follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (AUS/FLUS). The group is heterogenous and overused thus far. The possibilities of its improvement are discussed. The Bethesda system does not include any prognostic and predictive markers. However, they represent the promising direction in the improved version of the BSRTC. Novel molecular methods and alternative techniques such as core needle biopsy are briefly discussed. PMID:25186598

  20. The usefulness of S100P, mesothelin, fascin, prostate stem cell antigen, and 14-3-3 sigma in diagnosing pancreatic adenocarcinoma in cytological specimens obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Dim, Daniel C; Jiang, Feng; Qiu, Qi; Li, Ting; Darwin, Peter; Rodgers, William H; Peng, Hong Qi

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas is an efficient and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Because of some limitations of EUS-FNA in diagnosis of well-differentiated or early stage cancers, the purpose of this study is to assess the added benefit of immunohistochemistry. We studied five proteins overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, namely, prostate stem cell antigen, fascin, 14-3-3 sigma, mesothelin and S100P utilizing immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections from cellblocks obtained by EUS-FNA. Sixty-two cases of EUS-FNA of the pancreas that had follow-up histological and/or clinical diagnosis and sufficient material in cell blocks were included. Using histological diagnosis and/or clinical outcome as the reference standard, EUS-FNA shows the highest sensitivity (95%) and specificity (91%) and is superior to any marker in this study. Among five antibodies, S100P reveals the best diagnostic characters showing 90% of sensitivity and 67% of specificity. Fascin shows high specificity (92%) but low sensitivity (38%). Mesothelin has a moderate sensitivity (74%) and low specificity (33%), PSCA and 14-3-3 show high sensitivity but zero specificity. S100P and mesothelin were useful in nine indeterminate cases. S100P correctly predicted six of seven cancers and one of one without cancer and mesothelin correctly diagnosed five of seven cancers and one of two noncancers in this group. EUS-FNA cytomorphology is superior to any of the immunohistochemical markers used in this study. Use of S100P and mesothelin in cytologically borderline cases can increase the diagnostic accuracy in this group. PMID:21538952

  1. Basics of cytology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.

    2011-01-01

    This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material. PMID:23210005

  2. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  3. Bone marrow aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Bain, B

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow aspiration biopsies are carried out principally to permit cytological assessment but also for immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, molecular genetic, and other specialised investigations. Often, a trephine biopsy is carried out as part of the same procedure. Bone marrow aspirations should be carried out by trained individuals who are aware of the indications, contraindications, and hazards of the procedure. They should follow a standard operating procedure. The operator should have made an adequate assessment of clinical and haematological features to ensure both that appropriate indications exist and that all relevant tests are performed. For the patient's comfort and safety, the posterior iliac crest is generally the preferred site of aspiration. Films of aspirated marrow and, when appropriate, films of crushed particles should be made and labelled. Once thoroughly dry, films should be fixed and stained. As a minimum, a Romanowsky stain and a Perls' stain are required. A cover slip should be applied. The bone marrow films should be assessed and reported in a systematic manner so that nothing of importance is overlooked, using a low power, then intermediate, then high power objective. A differential count should be performed. An interpretation of the findings, in the light of the clinical and haematological features, should be given. The report should be signed or computer authorised, using a secure password, and issued in a timely manner. Key Words: bone marrow aspirate • haematological diagnosis PMID:11533068

  4. A comparison between the cytological and histological characteristics in thirteen canine and feline thymomas

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Catherine A.; Jacobs, Robert M.; Couto, C. Guillermo

    1989-01-01

    Cytological smears and histological sections collected from histologically diagnosed cases of thymoma in nine dogs and four cats were reviewed. Most of the histological features were apparent in the cytological specimens with two notable differences. The epithelial component was underestimated and Hassal's corpuscles were not observed using Wright's-stained cytological preparations. Features of thymoma were recognized in seven of the nine cases in which fine needle aspiration biopsy was done. Therefore, cytology, and specifically fine needle aspiration biopsy, has the potential to be a useful aid in the rapid diagnosis of canine and feline thymomas. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423346

  5. Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--a case report with FNAC histologic, MIB-1 proliferative index and immunohistochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Karak, A K; Sahoo, M; Bhatnagar, D

    1998-10-01

    Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma is a recently described benign thyroid tumor, almost exclusively occurring in females. The morphological features of this entity overlap with both papillary and medullary carcinoma to varying extent. This, in turn, creates a situation of serious diagnostic pitfall particularly for a false positive diagnosis of papillary carcinoma in fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. False consideration of medullary carcinoma is also possible by the unwary especially if staining for Congo red and/or immunostaining for calcitonin is not resorted to. At histologic level, the distinctive architectural pattern is however of great help and thus poses a much lesser danger of misdiagnosis. We relate here our experience in a recently encountered case of hyalinizing trabecular adenoma and describe detailed FNA cytologic and histologic findings along with immunohistochemical profile using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies. The tumor proliferative potential has also been assessed using MIB-1 (Ki-67) immunostaining. The various pros and cons of diagnostic pitfalls are discussed. PMID:9866913

  6. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Divakar Sullery; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Kakoti, Lopa Mudra

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence. PMID:25948945

  7. [Intraoperative pancreas puncture cytology].

    PubMed

    Eggert, A; Lattmann, E; Kopf, R; Pfeiffer, M; Klöppel, G

    1984-01-01

    In the case of 10 to 15% of surgical patients with a pancreatic disorder an intraoperative diagnosis had to be made when a preoperative diagnosis had not yielded a definite result. Fine needle aspiration biopsy ( FNAB ) of the pancreas provided the basis for intraoperative differentiation of malignant and benign pancreatic processes. 244 pancreatic biopsies were carried out in 100 patients. It was possible to make a statement in 99% of the cases, with 65 malignant and 35 benign changes. In 83% the cytological diagnosis was correct; the method yielded incorrect-negative results in 7% of the cases. In 9% the presence of tumour cells was only suspected. There were no incorrect positive cancer diagnoses. FNAB caused no postoperative complications. Intraoperative bleeding after FBAB had to be stopped with a suture in one case. Transitory, asymptomatic hyperamylasemy must be expected in 25% of the patients after FNAB . This diagnostic technique is recommended in preference to the histological tissue removal methods because of its low risk factor. At least 2 biopsies of the suspect area with 2 smears are required, as a training in this diagnostic technique. PMID:6730761

  8. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... unconscious or semi-conscious) after a stroke or brain injury Problems with swallowing ... how ill the person is before the aspiration (chronic illness). Sometimes a ventilator (breathing machine) is needed ...

  9. Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Mulè, Antonino; Maggiore, Claudia; Miraglia, Antonella; Lauriola, Libero; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The major types of cytologic preparations used in most laboratories to detect the lesions of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) are examined. These methods include sputum, bronchial washing, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Sputum represents the simplest and most cost-effective sampling method even though fiberoptic bronchoscopy and radiologic guided FNAB are superseding it as the first diagnostic choice in most cases. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each technique:bronchial brushing and FNABs tend to preserve both the cellular details and their architectural arrangement whereas sputum and bronchial washing often cause a variable degree of cellular degeneration and fragmentation. As a result, most pulmonary lesions may be detected and correctly diagnosed if multiple techniques are used to acquire diagnostic material. CT-guided FNAB represents the most effective method to achieve a correct diagnosis in pulmonary tumors. PMID:15852720

  10. [Cytology in the internet].

    PubMed

    Glatz, K; Bubendorf, L; Glatz, D

    2007-09-01

    Computer-based learning (E-learning) is of increasing importance for the education of students and professionals. Various publicly accessible online courses for cytologists now exist and some of these are presented in this paper. For the learning platform Patho-Basiliensis (http://www.unibas.ch/patho/) we have developed several learning materials: a database of 726 cytology images, a cytopathology course to teach the basics of cytopathology, and a game testing histologic-cytologic correlation. Tests on lung and urinary cytology were attended by 383 international participants. The virtual microscopy technology will revolutionize telecytology and cytology education. PMID:17632721

  11. Cytological diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cutaneous involvement.

    PubMed

    Chandekar, Sushama A; Shah, Vinaya B; Kavishwar, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease affecting predominantly children. The course of the disease varies, from spontaneous resolution to a progressive multisystem disorder with organ dysfunction and potential life-threatening complications. Diagnosis of LCH is often difficult and may be delayed because of its rarity and especially so if it occurs with unusual presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a 4 year old male child, a case of LCH is presented with a purpose of highlighting the characteristic cytological features. A high index of suspicion, awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH and its differential diagnoses is necessary. This can obviate the need of biopsy and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry if available can be performed on cytology smear and cell block. PMID:23661952

  12. Primary actinomycosis of breast-A diagnosis on cytology.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Alka Vikas; Anvikar, Arti Rameshrao; Sulhyan, Kalpana Ranjitsingh; Manek, Dhruti Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Primary actinomycosis of breast is a rare disease with only a few cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a 25-year-old lactating woman with primary actinomycosis of breast which was diagnosed on cytology. The patient presented with lump in left breast with dull aching pain. Fine-needle aspiration cytology smears showed acute suppurative inflammation with presence of fluffy basophilic colonies on Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and branched, Gram positive filamentous bacilli on Gram staining. The bacilli were non-acid fast with 1% Zeihl Neelsen stain. A diagnosis of actinomycosis was suggested on cytology. Histopathological examination revealed an abscess with few Gram positive basophilic granules surrounded by eosinophilic Splendore-Hoeppli material thus confirming the diagnosis of actinomycosis. Meticulous search for microorganisms with the aid of special stains should be done on cytology smears before labeling an inflammatory lesion as nonspecific. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:693-695. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27238823

  13. Cytological diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cutaneous involvement

    PubMed Central

    Chandekar, Sushama A; Shah, Vinaya B; Kavishwar, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease affecting predominantly children. The course of the disease varies, from spontaneous resolution to a progressive multisystem disorder with organ dysfunction and potential life-threatening complications. Diagnosis of LCH is often difficult and may be delayed because of its rarity and especially so if it occurs with unusual presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a 4 year old male child, a case of LCH is presented with a purpose of highlighting the characteristic cytological features. A high index of suspicion, awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH and its differential diagnoses is necessary. This can obviate the need of biopsy and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry if available can be performed on cytology smear and cell block. PMID:23661952

  14. [Starch aspiration].

    PubMed

    Volk, O; Neidhöfer, M; Schregel, W

    1999-06-01

    Starch is a white, neutral smelling, insoluble and harmless powder. The case of a 24-year old worker with a pronounced bronchospasm and arterial hypoxaemia after a collapse and aspiration during working in a silo filled with corn starch will be reported. Medication consisted mainly in mucolytics. Intensive airway clearing consisted of repeated bronchoscopies, bedding, tapotement and vibration massage. The patient has made a complete recovery in 3 days. PMID:10429779

  15. [Aspiration pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Clavé, Pere

    2007-09-29

    The incidence and the prevalence of aspiration pneumonia (AP) in the community is poorly defined. It increases in direct relation with age and underlying diseases. The pathogenesis of AP presumes the contribution of risk factors that alter swallowing funtion and predispose the orofaringe and gastric region to bacterial colonization. The microbial etiology of AP involves Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae for community-acquired aspiration pneumonia and Gram-negative aerobic bacilli in nosocomial pneumonia. It is worth bearing in mind the relative unimportance of anaerobic bacterias in AP. When we choose the empirical antibiotic treatmentant we have to consider some pathogens identified in orofaríngea flora. Empirical treatment with antianaerobics should only be used in certain patients. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies should be used to determine the nature and extent of any swallow disorder and to rule out silent aspiration. Assessment of swallowing disorders is cost-effective and results in a significant reduction in overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:17927938

  16. Endoscopic and endosonography guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Antillon, M R; Chang, K J

    2000-10-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration is emerging as the preferred technique for the cytologic diagnosis of various gastrointestinal lesions. This technique may not be routinely available, but there is still a role for endoscopic or endoscopic ultrasound-assisted fine-needle aspiration. This article provides an overview of the evolution of these various techniques and discusses the advantages, disadvantages, indications, and contraindications of each. PMID:11036536

  17. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity.

    PubMed

    Lingappa, Hemalatha Anthanahalli; Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-05-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as "Intramuscular Sarcocystosis" and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  18. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as “Intramuscular Sarcocystosis” and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  19. [Cytopathology of the breast. 1. Secretion and nipple cytology].

    PubMed

    Barten, M

    1991-01-01

    Cytological examinations of breast secretions, nipple smears and breast fine needle aspirates can establish important diagnostic findings provided that technical conditions and methodical advantages and disadvantages are taken into consideration. The first part of the paper is dealing with clinically relevant aspects of secretion and nipple cytology. These simple examinations are applicable by every gynaecologist. The source of cell material is the spontaneous exfoliation, which should be increased in nipple smears by additional procedures. Diagnostic findings of secretion cytology can be obtained in breast cancer, duct papilloma, cystic fibrosis, and inflammatory lesions. The value of secretion cytology for breast cancer detection is limited, because pathological secretion is only induced in a small number of patients. Cytological examinations of nipple lesions are useful especially in the presence of Paget's disease and other tumors of the nipple. Limitations are caused by difficulties in cell sampling. Easy practicability and little alteration of the patient are the major advantages of the secretion and nipple cytology, which stands opposite a limited sensitivity as disadvantage. PMID:1755254

  20. Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Filippo; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    A cytological grading for mast cell tumours (MCTs) would be highly desirable, allowing to select the most appropriate therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. This study evaluates the applicability on fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the novel Kiupel grading system, based on number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and presence of karyomegaly. Fifty consecutive cases with pre-operative cytological diagnosis were included. In cytological specimens, approximately 1000 cells were evaluated, and the histological grade was assessed on the corresponding resected specimens. On cytology, the above parameters were significantly different between histologically low-grade and high-grade tumours (P < 0.001). The cytograding correctly predicted the histological grade in 47 cases (accuracy, 94%; sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 97.3%). Two high-grade MCTs (4%) were not detected on cytology. The cytograding can provide helpful insights to assist clinical decisions in most cases. However, the risk of underestimation in a minority of patients represents a limit to the overall utility of the technique. PMID:24717019

  1. Paediatric nasopharyngeal cytology: a new diagnostic opportunity?

    PubMed

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Colombo, M R; Rosazza, C; Pignataro, L

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the first application of nasopharyngeal cytology (NPC), a new cytological technique to collect cellular material from the nasopharyngeal surface non-invasively in children with chronic adenoiditis associated with recurrent acute otitis media and/or otitis media with effusion. Cellular material was collected transorally using an extra-thin flexible wire nasopharyngeal swab and then examined under a light microscope. The diagnostic accuracy of NPC in detecting the presence of allergy and pathogens (compared to microbiological evaluation of nasopharyngeal aspirates, NPAs) was assessed. NPC was performed on 121 children (mean age 69.4 ± 15.5 months). Inflammatory cells and pathogens were detected in 61.1 % and 44.2 % of patients, respectively. The specificity of nasopharyngeal eosinophils in detecting allergy was good (91.9 %), as was the specificity of mast cells, but the sensitivities were less. The NPAs revealed bacterial colonisation in 84.7 % of the patients, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated (60.0 %). NPC revealed the presence of bacteria in 94.9 % of patients, including bacillary species in 33.9 %. NPC was highly sensitive in detecting pathogens (96.0 %). Its specificity in detecting bacillary species was fairly good (75.0 %), but the corresponding values of the specificity of NPC in detecting pathogens and its sensitivity in detecting bacillary species were poor. Our findings suggest the need for more structured studies that can test the real effectiveness and usefulness of NPC in defining nasopharyngeal cytological patterns in children with chronic nasopharyngeal diseases by comparing it with established diagnostic techniques. PMID:27039342

  2. How to increase the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a relatively sensitive, accurate, and safe technique in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. There are many factors influencing the yield of TBNA, such as location and the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN), types of the needle used and the experience of the bronchoscopist. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomy, guidance, availability of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) and the number of aspirates, preparation of specimen and interpretations of the cytology and histology of specimens all play important roles. Especially, whether an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is required for TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses is currently a disputed subject.

  3. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  4. Solitary intramammary schwannoma mimicking phylloides tumor: Cytological clues in the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Thejaswini, Mu; Padmaja, Kp; Srinivasamurthy, V; Rao, M Sudha

    2012-10-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a huge exophytic lobulated mass in the right breast, clinically and radiologically resembling phylloides tumor. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears showed clusters and singly scattered spindle cells along with structures reminiscent of verocay bodies. However, the epithelial elements were absent. A cytological diagnosis of benign mesenchymal spindle cell lesion, suggestive of schwannoma was rendered. Subsequent histopathological examination and strong S-100 positivity of tumor cells on immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis.Breast is an uncommon location for benign schwannoma. The present case describes the unusual clinical picture, highlights cytological features and discusses the differential diagnoses of schwannoma from other benign spindle cells lesions of the breast on cytology smears. PMID:23326032

  5. Solitary intramammary schwannoma mimicking phylloides tumor: Cytological clues in the diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Thejaswini, MU; Padmaja, KP; Srinivasamurthy, V; Rao, M Sudha

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a huge exophytic lobulated mass in the right breast, clinically and radiologically resembling phylloides tumor. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears showed clusters and singly scattered spindle cells along with structures reminiscent of verocay bodies. However, the epithelial elements were absent. A cytological diagnosis of benign mesenchymal spindle cell lesion, suggestive of schwannoma was rendered. Subsequent histopathological examination and strong S-100 positivity of tumor cells on immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis.Breast is an uncommon location for benign schwannoma. The present case describes the unusual clinical picture, highlights cytological features and discusses the differential diagnoses of schwannoma from other benign spindle cells lesions of the breast on cytology smears. PMID:23326032

  6. [Clinical cytology: why and how?].

    PubMed

    Znidarcić, Zeljka

    2013-12-01

    Clinical cytology is a morphological diagnostic profession, which has not been properly utilized in current medicine, primarily due to inadequate awareness among physicians of its diagnostic possibilities and advantages. The purpose of this historical review of clinical cytology and its diagnostic role is to contribute to higher awareness of the current possibilities offered by cytologic diagnosis and its future development in the era of technological progress and medical striking into profitability, with its negative connotations. The main features of cytologic diagnosis, i.e. non-aggressiveness, simplicity, promptness and accuracy, should be maintained while following new technological possibilities. Standard cytomorphology provides a basis for deciding on using additional technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular analysis and cytogenetics) after thorough microscopic analysis, on cytologic samples or/and cytologic smears. The conditio sine qua non for that purpose is appropriate education of cytologists and cytotechnologists as well as appropriate organization of cytology in the healthcare system. As in the historical development of clinical cytology, enthusiasts are necessary to maintain and even improve all its possibilities to the benefit of our patients. PMID:24979879

  7. Correlation of Strain Elastography with Conventional Sonography and FNAC/Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sardessai, Sanjay; Furtado, Renny; Sardessai, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elastography is a new promising technique that can be especially helpful when used as an adjunct to conventional B-mode ultrasound in evaluating breast lesions. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic performance of four interpretation criteria for elastography and to compare the diagnostic performance of sonoelastography with that of conventional sonography in characterising breast lesions as benign or malignant with FNAC/biopsy correlation. Materials and Methods One hundred breast lesions were prospectively evaluated by ultrasound as well as by strain elastography followed by FNAC/ biopsy correlation. The criteria used were Elastography Score, Strain Ratio, Distance Ratio and Area Ratio. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated for each modality. The best cut-off point was calculated for each of the interpretation criteria using the MedCalc version 10.1 software. The diagnostic performance of the interpretation criteria was compared with that of conventional sonography by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve using SPSS software. Results The elastography score was found to have the best performance among the 4 criteria used with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 82.66%, respectively at the best cut-off point between 3 and 4. At a best cut-off point for conventional sonography between BI-RADS categories 4A and 4B, the sensitivity and specificity were found to be 96% and 92% respectively. The area under the curve value was slightly greater for conventional sonography (0.980) than for the elastography score (0.913) using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Conclusion While all interpretation criteria were able to differentiate benign and malignant lesions with statistical significance, the elastography score was found to be the most accurate. While conventional ultrasound remains the primary modality for the characterization of breast masses

  8. Cytological image analysis with a genetic fuzzy finite state machine.

    PubMed

    Estévez, J; Alayón, S; Moreno, L; Sigut, J; Aguilar, R

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this research is to design a pattern recognition system based on a Fuzzy Finite State Machine (FFSM). We try to find an optimal FFSM with Genetic Algorithms (GA). In order to validate this system, the classifier has been applied to a real problem: distinction between normal and abnormal cells in cytological breast fine needle aspirate images and cytological peritoneal fluid images. The characteristic used in the discrimination between normal and abnormal cells is a texture measurement of the chromatin distribution in cellular nuclei. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this method as a pattern classifier is compared with other existing supervised and unsupervised methods and evaluated with Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) methodology. PMID:16520142

  9. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia of the Hard Palate: A Rare Entity of Dilemma on Cytology, Confirmatory on Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chowdappa, Vijaya; Devasamudra, Chidananda R.; Janardhan, Jayalakshmi Valligari

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a rare, benign reactive necrotizing lesion, involving sites where salivary gland tissue is usually present. The importance of this lesion is that it mimics malignancy clinically leading to treatments ranging from conservative excision to total maxillectomy. Cytologically and histologically also the lesion is often confused with neoplasms. We present a case of a lady with a hard palatal swelling, which was non – ulcerative unlike typical cases of necrotizing sialometaplsia. FNAC features made us strongly suspect a low grade mucoepidermiod carcinoma, following which the swelling was excised. Histopathology came to the rescue, on which the final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate was made. Necrotizing siaometaplasia is often misdiagnosed by the inexperienced cytologist, with histopathological examination being confirmatory. We also emphasize the fact that lesions like necrotizing sialometaplasia need a high degree of suspicion along with clinical co relation before subjecting the patient to unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:26816899

  10. Multisurface Method of Pattern Separation for Medical Diagnosis Applied to Breast Cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolberg, William H.; Mangasarian, Olvi L.

    1990-12-01

    Multisurface pattern separation is a mathematical method for distinguishing between elements of two pattern sets. Each element of the pattern sets is comprised of various scalar observations. In this paper, we use the diagnosis of breast cytology to demonstrate the applicability of this method to medical diagnosis and decision making. Each of 11 cytological characteristics of breast fine-needle aspirates reported to differ between benign and malignant samples was graded 1 to 10 at the time of sample collection. Nine characteristics were found to differ significantly between benign and malignant samples. Mathematically, these values for each sample were represented by a point in a nine-dimensional space of real variables. Benign points were separated from malignant ones by planes determined by linear programming. Correct separation was accomplished in 369 of 370 samples (201 benign and 169 malignant). In the one misclassified malignant case, the fine-needle aspirate cytology was so definitely benign and the cytology of the excised cancer so definitely malignant that we believe the tumor was missed on aspiration. Our mathematical method is applicable to other medical diagnostic and decision-making problems.

  11. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in pediatric ophthalmic tumors and pseudotumors.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, B J; Ehya, H; Shields, J A; Augsburger, J J; Shields, C L; Eagle, R C

    1993-01-01

    In an eight-year period (1983-1990) approximately 500 fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of eye lesions were processed in our laboratory. Eighty-one of the cases, obtained from 77 pediatric patients (ranging from 4 weeks to 16 years of age), were the subject of this study. The specimens included 73 intraocular and 8 orbital aspirates. Forty-four of the specimens were from diagnostic procedures, whereas 37 were obtained from surgical specimens immediately after enucleation. Eight FNABs (four diagnostic and four postenucleation) were deemed inadequate for cytologic diagnosis. Of the remaining 73 cases, 38 were diagnosed as malignant (34 retinoblastomas, 3 medulloepitheliomas, 1 rhabdomyosarcoma), and all were confirmed upon subsequent histologic examination. Four cases were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy; all of them proved to be malignant (two retinoblastomas, two rhabdomyosarcomas). One orbital aspirate contained cells suggestive of a glial origin and was confirmed histologically as pilocytic astrocytoma. Ten cases were reported as compatible with Coats' disease; all were confirmed to be benign by histologic examination (three cases) or clinical follow-up (seven cases). The remaining 20 benign aspirates (13 with inflammatory cells, 6 with macrophages and 1 with blood) proved to be from benign conditions by histologic examination (4 cases) or clinical follow-up (16 cases). There were no false-positive diagnoses. The overall accuracy of FNAB was 95%, and the accuracy of cytologic interpretation was 100%. We conclude that FNAB is a reliable and accurate diagnostic modality in the assessment of selected pediatric ophthalmic diseases. PMID:8465629

  12. Cytology of canine malignant histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane E.; Thrall, Mary Anna; Getzy, David M.; Weiser, M. Glade; Ogilvie, Gregory K.

    1994-01-01

    Cytologic features of bone marrow, tissue, and abdominal fluid in seven cases of malignant histiocytosis in dogs are described, and histopathology, hematology, and serum biochemistry of the cases are reviewed. Diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis was confirmed by tissue morphology and immunohistochemistry; neoplastic cells in all cases had positive immunoreactivity to lysozyme. This stain can be used to definitively establish the diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis on cytology specimens as well as tissue sections. Cytologic findings included numerous pleomorphic, large, discrete mononuclear cells with abundant, lightly basophilic, vacuolated, granular cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval to reniform with marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis; nucleoli were prominent. Mitotic figures, often bizarre, were occasionally seen. Multinucleated giant cells and phagocytosis of erythrocytes and leukocytes were prominent features in cytologic preparations in four cases. Four dogs were anemic, five dogs were thrombocytopenic, and three dogs were hypercalcemic. Breeds affected included Doberman Pinscher (1), Golden Retriever (2), Flat Coated Retriever (3), and mixed-breed dog (1). PMID:12666013

  13. Significance of nuclear morphometry in benign and malignant breast aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Narasimha, Aparna; Vasavi, B; Kumar, Harendra ML

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers occurring in the female population world-wide. Normal cells gradually transform to form the cancer cells through several stages. Nuclear changes occurring during these transformational steps need to be assessed objectively. Hence nuclear morphometry can be used as a diagnostic tool. Aim: To compare the nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant breast aspirates. Study Design: Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from the breast lumps in to malignant (30 cases), and benign (30 cases). Nuclear parameters were calculated using the Image J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analyzed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, compactness, and concave points were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) parameters in differentiating benign, and malignant aspirates. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus, a useful objective tool in the differentiating benign, and malignant breast lesions. PMID:23776836

  14. Rapid KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA Mutation Analysis of Fine Needle Aspirates from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Melanie; Talebian Yazdi, Mehrdad; Ruano, Dina; Forte, Giusi I.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Veselic, Maud; Rabe, Klaus F.; Annema, Jouke T.; Smit, Vincent; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Trans-esophageal Ultrasound Scanning with Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) are important, novel techniques for the diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that have been incorporated into lung cancer staging guidelines. To guide and optimize treatment decisions, especially for NSCLC patients in stage III and IV, EGFR and KRAS mutation status is often required. The concordance rate of the mutation analysis between these cytological aspirates and histological samples obtained by surgical staging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the extent to which allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR with hydrolysis probes could be reliably performed on EBUS and EUS fine needle aspirates by comparing the results with histological material from the same patient. We analyzed a series of 43 NSCLC patients for whom cytological and histological material was available. We demonstrated that these standard molecular techniques can be accurately applied on fine needle cytological aspirates from NSCLC patients. Importantly, we show that all mutations detected in the histological material of primary tumor were also identified in the cytological samples. We conclude that molecular profiling can be reliably performed on fine needle cytology aspirates from NSCLC patients. PMID:21408138

  15. A quick method for concentrating and processing cancer cells from serous fluids and fine-needle nodule aspirates.

    PubMed

    Elequin, F T; Muggia, F M; Ghossein, N A; Schreiber, K

    1977-01-01

    A quick method of concentrating cancer cells and the preparation of cytological slides from body fluids and aspirates is described, using a single Ficoll gradient and cytocentrifuge. The method eliminates the disadvantages of conventional techniques, i.e., excess contamination by red (erythrocytes) or white (leukocytes) blood cells and a scarcity of cancer cells. Because the technique is simple and requires only standard cytotechnological equipment, it can be easily adopted as an aid to diagnostic routine in cancer cytology. PMID:269612

  16. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of sclerosing hemangioma (pneumocytoma): report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dettrick, Andrew; Meikle, Anne; Fong, Kwun M

    2014-03-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma (pneumocytoma) is a rare benign lung tumor with uncertain histogenesis but characteristic histology. Reports of the cytopathology of this tumor are even rarer with only a handful of cases in the literature--many of these incorrectly diagnosed by cytology initially. Herein, we describe a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed prima facie by fine-needle aspiration cytology. A cell block preparation with accompanying immunohistochemistry was instrumental in making the diagnosis. A review of the literature is also presented. PMID:22645055

  17. Aspiration-related lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Prather, Andrew D; Smith, Tristan R; Poletto, Dana M; Tavora, Fabio; Chung, Jonathan H; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

    2014-09-01

    Aspiration is a common but underrecognized clinicopathologic entity, with varied radiographic manifestations. Aspiration represents a spectrum of diseases, including diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonitis, airway obstruction by foreign body, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, and aspiration pneumonia with or without lung abscess formation. Many patients who aspirate do not present with disease, suggesting that pathophysiology is related to a variety of factors, including decreased levels of consciousness, dysphagia, impaired mucociliary clearance, composition of aspirate, and impaired host defenses. In this pictorial essay, we will review the different types of aspiration lung diseases, focusing on their imaging features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24911122

  18. Silicone lymphadenopathy: presentation of a further case containing asteroid bodies on fine-needle cytology sample.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node. PMID:24995825

  19. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324277

  20. Evaluation of the VE1 Antibody in Thyroid Cytology Using Ex Vivo Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Hyunee; Lee, Yong-Hee; Han, Jae Ho; Lee, Kyi Beom; Lee, Jeonghun; Soh, Euy Young; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Kim, Jang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, VE1, a monoclonal antibody against the BRAFV600E mutant protein, has been investigated in terms of its detection of the BRAFV600E mutation. Although VE1 immunostaining and molecular methods used to assess papillary thyroid carcinoma in surgical specimens are in good agreement, evaluation of VE1 in thyroid cytology samples is rarely performed, and its diagnostic value in cytology has not been well established. In present study, we explored VE1 immunoexpression in cytology samples from ex vivo papillary thyroid carcinoma specimens in order to minimize limitations of low cellularity and sampling/targeting errors originated from thyroid fineneedle aspiration and compared our results with those obtained using the corresponding papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues. Methods: The VE1 antibody was evaluated in 21 cases of thyroid cytology obtained directly from ex vivo thyroid specimens. VE1 immunostaining was performed using liquid-based cytology, and the results were compared with those obtained using the corresponding tissues. Results: Of 21 cases, 19 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas had BRAFV600E mutations, whereas two follicular variants expressed wild-type BRAF. VE1 immunoexpression varied according to specimen type. In detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, VE1 immunostaining of the surgical specimen exhibited 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, whereas VE1 immunostaining of the cytology specimen exhibited only 94.7% sensitivity and 0% specificity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen is less specific than that of a surgical specimen for detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, and that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen should be further evaluated and optimized for clinical use. PMID:26657312

  1. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological diagnosis of an uncommon tumor.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Amoolya; Rao, Madhuri; Geethamani, V; Shetty, Archana C

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland, displaying monomorphic basaloid cells without a myxochondroid component, representing 1-3% of all salivary gland neoplasms seen predominantly in women over 50 years of age. It is uncommon in young adults. Cytodiagnosis of basaloid tumors chiefly basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland, is extremely challenging. The cytological differential diagnoses range from benign to malignant, neoplastic to non- neoplastic lesions. Histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis, as these entities differ in prognosis and therapeutic aspects. We present a 22-years-old male with this uncommon diagnosis with a discussion on the role of cytological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, minimally invasive method for the preoperative diagnosis of various types of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The knowledge of its pitfalls and limitations contributes to a more effective approach to treatment. PMID:26097318

  2. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413

  3. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  4. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  5. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  11. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  12. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a

  13. A robust biomarker of differential correlations improves the diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rueda, Hugo; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Trevino, Victor

    2016-05-01

    The fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules and subsequent cytological analysis is unable to determine the diagnosis in 15 to 30% of thyroid cancer cases; patients with indeterminate cytological results undergo diagnostic surgery which is potentially unnecessary. Current gene expression biomarkers based on well-determined cytology are complex and their accuracy is inconsistent across public datasets. In the present study, we identified a robust biomarker using the differences in gene expression values specifically from cytologically indeterminate thyroid tumors and a powerful multivariate search tool coupled with a nearest centroid classifier. The biomarker is based on differences in the expression of the following genes: CCND1, CLDN16, CPE, LRP1B, MAGI3, MAPK6, MATN2, MPPED2, PFKFB2, PTPRE, PYGL, SEMA3D, SERGEF, SLC4A4 and TIMP1. This 15-gene biomarker exhibited superior accuracy independently of the cytology in six datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) thyroid dataset. In addition, this biomarker exhibited differences in the correlation coefficients between benign and malignant samples that indicate its discriminatory power, and these 15 genes have been previously related to cancer in the literature. Thus, this 15-gene biomarker provides advantages in clinical practice for the effective diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27035928

  14. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  15. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P.; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  16. Transtracheal aspiration in the horse: a photo essay.

    PubMed

    Krpan, M K

    1984-05-01

    Transtracheal aspiration is used to obtain samples for culture and cytologic examination of respiratory tract secretions and exudates. A 15-cm-long area of the ventral midcervical region is surgically prepared, a small site infiltrated SC with 2-3 ml lidocaine, and a stab incision made in the skin. A trocar with cannula is inserted through the incision and annular ligament into the trachea and the trocar removed. An 8-Fr polypropylene catheter is inserted about 35-40 cm down the trachea and attached to a 30-ml syringe, containing 20 ml sterile saline, with a 3-way stopcock . The saline is rapidly injected and a 3- to 4-ml sample is aspirated after the horse coughs and as the catheter is slowly withdrawn. The catheter and cannula are withdrawn, the area covered with antibacterial ointment and gauze sponges, and elastic tape applied. Complications are rare but include SC emphysema or infection, pneumomediastinum and cartilage ring damage. PMID:6738501

  17. Cytological features of "noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" and their correlation with tumor histology.

    PubMed

    Maletta, Francesca; Massa, Federica; Torregrossa, Liborio; Duregon, Eleonora; Casadei, Gian Piero; Basolo, Fulvio; Tallini, Giovanni; Volante, Marco; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Papotti, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Among thyroid papillary carcinomas (PTCs), the follicular variant is the most common and includes encapsulated forms (EFVPTCs). Noninvasive EFVPTCs have very low risk of recurrence or other adverse events and have been recently proposed to be designated as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features or NIFTP, thus eliminating the term carcinoma. This proposal is expected to significantly impact the risk of malignancy associated with the currently used diagnostic categories of thyroid cytology. In this study, we analyzed the fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytology features of 96 histologically proven NIFTPs and determined how the main nuclear features of NIFTP correlate between cytological and histological samples. Blind review of FNAB cytology from NIFTP nodules yielded the diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm" (Bethesda category IV) in 56% of cases, "suspicious for malignancy" (category V) in 27%, "atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (category III) in 15%, and "malignant" (category VI) in 2%. We found good correlation (κ=0.62) of nuclear features between histological and cytological specimens. NIFTP nuclear features (size, irregularities of contours, and chromatin clearing) were significantly different from those of benign nodules but not from those of invasive EFVPTC. Our data indicate that most of the NIFTP nodules yield an indeterminate cytological diagnosis in FNAB cytology and nuclear features found in cytology samples are reproducibly identified in corresponding histology samples. Because of the overlapping nuclear features with invasive EFVPTC, NIFTP cannot be reliably diagnosed preoperatively but should be listed in differential diagnosis of all indeterminate categories of thyroid cytology. PMID:27085556

  18. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  19. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed. PMID:19352601

  20. Aspirations for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, P. G.; Western, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The first phase of a longitudinal study of effects of social origins, schooling, perceived influence of significant others, and self-concept on college aspiration is more explanatory for men than women but shows parent, teacher, and peer influence to have a major impact for all. The social-psychological theory is criticized. (MSE)

  1. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

  2. Assessing Children's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    In the past several years, "Science and Children" has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations.…

  3. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  4. Aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Lee, Joyce S; Pianosi, Paolo T; Ryu, Jay H

    2015-03-01

    Aspiration of foreign matter into the airways and lungs can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders with various presentations. The type of syndrome resulting from aspiration depends on the quantity and nature of the aspirated material, the chronicity, and the host responses. Aspiration is most likely to occur in subjects with a decreased level of consciousness, compromised airway defense mechanisms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and recurrent vomiting. These aspiration-related syndromes can be categorized into airway disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction, large airway obstruction with a foreign body, bronchiectasis, bronchoconstriction, and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, or parenchymal disorders, including aspiration pneumonitis, aspiration pneumonia, and exogenous lipoid pneumonia. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, aspiration has been implicated in disease progression and acute exacerbation. Aspiration may increase the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in patients who have undergone a lung transplant. Accumulating evidence suggests that a causative role for aspiration is often unsuspected in patients presenting with aspiration-related pulmonary diseases; thus, many cases go undiagnosed. Herein, we discuss the broadening spectrum of these pulmonary syndromes with a focus on presenting features and diagnostic aspects. PMID:25732447

  5. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  6. Cervical cytology biobanking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage. PMID:20872354

  7. Intrathyroidal oxyphilic parathyroid carcinoma: A potential diagnostic caveat in cytology?

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin Ping; Sharifah, Noor Akmal; Tan, Geok Chin; Gill, Anthony James; Ali, Syed Z

    2016-08-01

    Oxyphilic (oncocytic) parathyroid lesions are very uncommon and their cytological features are rarely described. Due to the similarities in anatomical location and indistinguishable cytomorphological features, these lesions are easily confused with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration (FNA). The diagnosis becomes more challenging in cases of unusual intrathyroidal location of the parathyroid lesions in the absence of clinical evidence of hyperparathyroidism, which simulate thyroid nodules clinically. We describe a case of intrathyroidal oxyphilic parathyroid carcinoma in a 66-year-old female, who presented with a dominant left "thyroid" nodule. FNA smears were cellular, comprising predominantly of oxyphilic cells arranged in papillary-like architecture with occasional nuclear grooves, which was mistaken for oncocytic variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The histological diagnosis of oxyphilic parathyroid "adenoma" was made following total thyroidectomy. The tumor, unfortunately, recurred 7 years later with associated multiple lung metastases. When dealing with thyroid lesions comprising predominantly of oncocytic cells, one should consider oxyphilic parathyroid neoplasms as one of the differential diagnosis. In difficult equivocal cases, a panel of immunocytochemical stains (PTH, GATA3, TTF-1, PAX8, and thyroglobulin) can be helpful. In addition, a combination of valuable clinical, radiological, and laboratory data, including serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels are key to arriving at an accurate cytological diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:688-692. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27229757

  8. Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.

    PubMed

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2013-08-01

    On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

  9. Tumor classification by electron microscopy of fine needle aspiration biopsy material.

    PubMed

    Collins, V P; Ivarsson, B

    1981-03-01

    The application of fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology to tumor diagnosis and classification is gaining increased acceptance. The classification of some poorly differentiated tumors may prove particularly difficult for the cytologist as well as for the pathologist. In such cases electron microscopic examination of fine needle aspiration biopsy material can be of great assistance. A simple, yet dependable, technique is described for the study of such material. The method has been shown to be of decisive importance in the classification of 80% of a selected series of cases submitted to ultrastructural analysis. Using this method, a preoperative diagnosis can be obtained in otherwise equivocal cases. PMID:7270154

  10. Parathyroid lesions: Difficult diagnosis on cytology.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Charu; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-08-01

    Cytology of parathyroid lesion (PL) is often confused with that of thyroid lesions. Differentiation between thyroid and PL is very difficult on cytomorphology because of their similar features and close anatomical proximity. Three cases of PLs reported on cytology in last one year were retrieved from archives of cytology department. Their cytomorphological details were studied and were correlated with the available biochemical parameters. Histopathology was available in two cases. Radiological assistance and parathyroid hormone (PTH) assessment in our cases formed the basis of diagnosing PLs on cytology. We discuss the differential diagnosis and pitfalls in cytological diagnosis of PLs. However, histopathology remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Interpretation of PLs on cytology remains problematic due to its rarity and limited available literature. The cytomorphology combined with clinical and biochemical data supported by histopathology are necessary to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of PLs. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:704-709. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27246113

  11. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  12. Getting to the point: indications for fine-needle aspiration of internal organs and bone.

    PubMed

    Wypij, Jackie M

    2011-05-01

    The technique of fine-needle biopsy (fine-needle aspiration or fine-needle fenestration) for cytologic evaluation can be extended to many sites beyond the traditional lymph node and skin. Intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and bone lesions can be easily and rapidly evaluated cytologically. Percutaneous fine-needle aspiration and fine-needle fenestration are useful, accurate, and inexpensive techniques with a rapid turnaround time, and outpatient applicability. For most pets, these minimally invasive techniques do not require anesthesia or analgesia. Although risks are inherent with any invasive procedure, complications are uncommon even with visceral and intrathoracic fine-needle biopsy. Attention to appropriate technique and close patient monitoring minimize the morbidity and improve the diagnostic utility. The low cost, low risk, minimal invasiveness, and high diagnostic yield make fine-needle biopsy particularly attractive to clients. In combination with ultrasound guidance and newer staining techniques, these diagnostic procedures are invaluable to the veterinary clinician. PMID:21596347

  13. CSF cytology versus immunocytochemistry in meningeal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Boogerd, W; Vroom, T M; van Heerde, P; Brutel de la Rivière, G; Peterse, J L; van der Sande, J J

    1988-01-01

    CSF immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies was compared with conventional cytology to determine its sensitivity in detecting malignant cells in patients with meningeal carcinomatosis. One hundred and eighteen samples were investigated. Cytology was tumour positive in 83 samples and immunocytochemistry in 85. Dissimilar results between the two diagnostic methods were noted in 12 specimens, invariably occurring in samples with a low cell count and obtained from treated patients. Combined use of the two methods led to a 9% increase of sensitivity in detecting malignant cells compared with cytology alone. It is concluded that immunocytochemistry is of minor help in the problem of false-negative cytology in meningeal carcinomatosis. PMID:2832546

  14. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

  15. Fine Needle Aspiration in Thyroid Nodules - One Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ahmeti, Irfan; Simonovska, Lliljana; Krstevska, Branka; Ristevska, Nevena

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To estimate suspect nodule for benign or malignant characteristics, and to verify cytological features of the node with the fine needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasound. DESIGN: A total of 106 patients were analyzed. FNA biopsy was performed at outpatient clinic via ultrasound. Inform consent was signed for each patient. Preparation of procedure with local anaesthesia was made by assistant nurse. PROCEDURE: Parallel approach of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (USGFNA) was used for each patient. This approach allows the operator to observe needle penetration, location and pathway of the entire needle within the neck, thyroid and nodule, which remain visible on the monitor. As a side effect commonly noticed mild pain and dizziness were recorded. RESULTS: General findings: According the gender, 96 (90.5%) of them were women and 10 (9.5%) men. Median age was 47 ± 9 years. Cytological findings: 5 patients were with papillary carcinoma, 3 with Hurtle cell metaplasia, 1 follicular tumour and 1 with unclear differentiation. CONCLUSION: Close collaboration between endocrinologists, morphologists and surgeons in a multidisciplinary frame is the key to correct preoperative thyroid cancer diagnosis and optimal treatment. FNA biopsy remains the most accurate diagnostic method in detecting thyroid cancer.

  16. Influence of secondary aspiration on human aspiration efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K.R.; Anthony, T. Renee

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the contribution of secondary aspiration to human aspiration efficiency estimates using a humanoid model with realistic facial features. This study applied coefficient of restitution (CoR) values for working-aged human facial skin to the facial regions on the humanoid CFD model. Aspiration efficiencies for particles ranging from 7 to 116 μm were estimated for bounce (allowing for secondary aspiration) and no-bounce (CoR=0) simulations. Fluid simulations used the standard k–epsilon turbulence model over a range of test conditions: three freestream velocities, two breathing modes (mouth and nose breathing, using constant inhalation), three breathing velocities, and five orientations relative to the oncoming wind. Laminar particle trajectory simulations were used to examine inhaled particle transport and estimate aspiration efficiencies. Aspiration efficiency for the realistic CoR simulations, for both mouth- and nose-breathing, decreased with increasing particle size, with aspiration around 50% for 116 μm particles. For the CoR=0 simulations, aspiration decreased more rapidly with increasing particle size and approached zero for 116 μm compared to realistic CoR models (differences ranged from 0% to 80% over the particle sizes and velocity conditions). Differences in aspiration efficiency were larger with increasing particle size (>52 μm) and increased with decreasing freestream velocity and decreasing breathing rate. Secondary aspiration was more important when the humanoid faced the wind, but these contributions to overall aspiration estimates decreased as the humanoid rotated through 90°. There were minimal differences in aspiration between uniform CoR values of 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 and realistic regionally-applied CoR values, indicating differences between mannequin surfaces and between mannequin and human skin will have negligible effect on aspiration for facing-the-wind orientation. PMID:26778849

  17. Musculoskeletal Aspiration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

    2012-01-01

    With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800

  18. Prognostic impact of cytological fluid tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Lee, Jae Seok; Shim, Hyo Sup; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-03-01

    The serum tumor markers CYFRA 21-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are useful in diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cytologic tumor markers obtained during needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of lung lesions are useful for NSCLC diagnosis. This study investigated the incremental prognostic value of cytologic tumor markers compared to serum tumor markers. This prospective study included 253 patients diagnosed with NSCLC by NAB with cytologic tumor marker analysis. Levels of cytologic CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCCA, and their serum counterparts were followed up for survival analysis. Optimal cutoff values for each tumor marker were obtained for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses. All patients were followed up for a median of 22.8 months. Using cutoff values of 0.44 ng/ml for C-SCCA, 2.0 ng/ml for S-SCCA, and 3.3 ng/ml for S-CYFRA, a multivariate analysis revealed that high S-SCCA (hazard ratio, HR, 1.84) and high C-SCCA (HR, 1.63) were independent predictive factors of OS. The 3-year overall survival rate was 55 vs. 80 % for high and low C-SCCA, respectively. Cytologic tumor marker level detection is easily obtainable and provides prognostic information for NSCLC. Cytologic tumor markers provide comparable prognostic information relative to serum tumor markers, with C-SCCA acting as a strong prognostic factor of overall survival and PFS. PMID:26432331

  19. Syphilitic lymphadenitis diagnosed via fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jang, David W; Khan, Alifia; Genden, Eric M; Wu, Maoxin

    2011-08-01

    Syphilis is coming back in the recent a few decades especially in the gay and HIV populations. Since syphilis can be "the great mimic" clinically and pathologically, a case report with updated review can be helpful to the medical community. We report, a case of syphilitic lymphadenitis diagnosed via fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The pitfalls associated with the diagnosis of syphilitic lymphadenitis will be discussed. The patient's medical records were reviewed. The pertinent history, clinical course, and ancillary studies including FNAB cytology with special stains are presented. In addition to the case report, we discuss the diagnosis of syphilitic lymphadenitis and the role of FNAB cytology. This was a 37-year-old man presenting with a two-month history of a growing neck mass, night sweats, and a ten pound weight loss. The patient had been treated one month earlier for primary syphilis. Examination of the head and neck revealed a 3 cm right level II mass. FNAB cytology showed heterogeneous population of lymphocytes and plasma cells suggesting reactive changes. Modified silver staining of the cell block slide was performed and revealed spirochetes, consistent with syphilis. The patient's lymphadenitis resolved with a course of antibiotic treatment. Although lymphadenopathy is a rare presentation of syphilis, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients who offer a suspect history. FNAB with silver staining is an effective, minimally invasive way to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:21761579

  20. Vanishing tumors of thyroid: histological variations after fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Deniwar, Ahmed; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Sholl, Andrew; Murad, Fadi; Aslam, Rizwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration (FNA) can lead to changes that extensively replace cytological confirmed thyroid lesions. These lesions, so called “vanishing tumors” can be diagnostically challenging to pathologists and therapeutically challenging for endocrinologists and surgeons. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify these tumors. Methods Data of 656 patients referred for thyroid surgery was reviewed. Patients with suspicious lesions on neck ultrasound (US) underwent FNA. We compared FNA cytological and surgical pathological findings to identify vanishing tumors. FNA-induced changes such as cystic degeneration, hemorrhage, calcification, cholesterol crystals, fibrosis and granulation tissue were identified. Results Seventeen patients (2.5%) were identified with vanishing tumors. FNA cytology was indeterminate in seven (41.1%) and benign in ten (58.8%) patients. Surgical pathology in all nodules showed regressive changes partially or entirely replacing the tumor. The mean size of vanishing tumors was 2.4±1.5 cm in greatest dimension. Seven nodules (41.1%) were entirely replaced while remaining ten nodules showed partial replacement of tumors. Three (17.6%) nodules had focal areas of optically clear nuclei suspicious of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); one showed an additional focus of follicular neoplasm (FN) of uncertain malignant potential. Conclusions FNA-induced changes can lead to obliteration of nodules rendering pathological diagnosis with no evidence of confirmed lesions. Pathologists and surgeons should be aware of this challenging scenario. PMID:27294033

  1. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy. PMID:26730066

  2. Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

    2013-01-11

    A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

  3. Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

  4. [Value and risks of percutaneous cytological puncture in the preoperative assessment of pancreas tumors].

    PubMed

    Elsman, B H; de Graaf, P W; van Leeuwen, M S; Obertop, H

    1992-07-25

    In a period of a little over two years 34 preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsies were performed in 32 patients with a possible malignant lesion of the pancreas. A cytological diagnosis of cancer was obtained in 22 patients. On follow-up 27 patients, in whom 28 biopsies were performed, proved to have a malignant tumour. The overall sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing a malignancy was 77.8%. There were no false positive results (specificity: 100%). Three patients developed serious biopsy-related complications. This relatively low sensitivity and the fact that a biopsy is not without risk leads to the advice not to perform preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsies as a routine in patients in whom curative or palliative surgery is indicated. Percutaneous biopsy is advised and can be useful if no indication for surgery is present because of the patient's condition or the extent of the disease and non-surgical palliation is the treatment of choice. PMID:1436162

  5. Cytological patterns of primary malignant uterine fibrous histiocytoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, A; Giorgino, F; Onnis, G L; Minucci, D

    1990-01-01

    The Authors have reported the cytological patterns of malignant primitive uterine fibrous histiocytoma of a 57 year old woman. The endometrial cytological sampling was performed by an aspiration technique using a feeding-tube; a necrotic-haemorrhagic background filled with hymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and a mixture of highly anaplastic histiocytic and fibroblastic type cells, associated with undifferentiated small round cells, has been described. The result of the histological examination performed on the surgical specimen was the following: polymorphic malignant neoplasia characterized by spindle-like and giant plurinucleated cells, phagocytosis features, endoluminal polypoid growth, wide infiltration of the miometrium two thirds deep, vascular space invasion of the uterine wall and the hilus of the ovaries. The histological features and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the pleomorphic variety. PMID:1965802

  6. Painless giant cell thyroiditis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration and associated with intense thyroidal uptake of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, L.R.; Moreno, A.J.; Pittman, D.L.; Jones, J.D.; Spicer, M.J.; Tracy, K.P.

    1986-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with fever, goiter, and no evidence of pain or tenderness in the thyroid. A diagnosis of silent thyroiditis was made after obtaining evidence of biochemical thyrotoxicosis, intense gallium-67 citrate thyroidal localization, and cytologic thyroiditis. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid revealed numerous giant cells in all areas of the thyroid, typical of subacute thyroiditis. This is believed to be the first time painless thyroiditis is reported with the classic cytologic feature of painful subacute thyroiditis.

  7. Management of ovarian cysts with percutaneous aspiration and methotrexate injection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate ultrasonographic-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from November 2007 to October 2009. It included 132 female patients (age range, 15–72 years; mean, 38.7 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0–10.6 cm) at ultrasonic examinations. We performed puncture and aspiration followed by methotrexate injection into the cyst. All patients were followed for 12 months. None was lost to follow-up. Results: At follow-up ultrasonography, cysts had disappeared in 120 patients (90.90%) and persisted in 12 patients (9%). No major complications were observed in our study population during or after the procedure. Only 10 patients reported mild pelvic pain, and four others reported dizziness or nausea during or after the procedure. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. We did not observe any cases of infection after the procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases. PMID:27185974

  8. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy in children: experience in 70 cases.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, A; Castel, V; Torres, V; Olagüe, R; Ferris, J; Esquembre, C; Vallcanera, A; Muro, M D

    1988-01-01

    Results of 70 fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) were evaluated retrospectively in 61 pediatric patients. Over a period of 9 months all mass lesions suspected being malignant were aspirated. Twelve of the 70 aspirations were performed in children having known tumours, in order to exclude recurrence or metastasis. The others were carried out to obtain a diagnosis. Satisfactory specimens were obtained from 58 (83%). There were 21 benign diagnoses, 36 malignant diagnoses, and 1 with suspected malignancy. Correlation of histologic and cytologic diagnoses was possible in 45 cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 80%, respectively. We have found FNAB more accurate in the diagnosis of malignancies than in benign lesions. The results suggest that this is a useful technique for obtaining a first diagnosis of malignancy, as well as for excluding recurrence or metastatic disease. PMID:3352542

  9. A Case of Significant Endobronchial Injury due to Recurrent Iron Pill Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Joo-Hee; Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric mucosal damage by iron pills is often reported. However, iron pill aspiration is uncommon. Oxidation of the impacted iron pill causes bronchial mucosal damage that progresses to chronic bronchial inflammation, necrosis, endobronchial stenosis and rarely, perforation. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with chronic productive cough and significant left-sided atelectasis. Bronchoscopy revealed substantial luminal narrowing with exudative inflammation of the left main bronchus. Bronchial washing cytology showed necroinflammatory exudate and a small amount of brown material. Mucosal biopsy showed diffuse brown pigments indicative of ferrous pigments, crystal deposition, and marked tissue degeneration. After vigorous coughing, she expectorated dark sediments and her symptoms and radiological abnormalities improved. There are a few such reports worldwide; however, this was the first case reported in Korea. Careful observation of aspiration-prone patients and early detection of iron pill aspiration may prevent iron pill-induced bronchial injury. PMID:26508942

  10. Differential cytology of cervical neoplasias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Rainer; Bergander, S.

    1990-11-01

    In the context of the early recognition of cervical cancer the cytology has to detect tumor positive cases among a bulk of un suspicious specimens. Unfortunately there is a group of cases with a vague diaxosis, the so called PAP-ill-group. There are many reasons for the recent impossibility of a safe conclusion from the PAP-Ill-smears to their histological diagnoses (Pig. 1). Today for an exact statement a cone biopsy and a microscopical investigation of its histological sections for such caseS are necessary. That results in a high medical and economical expense and, last not least, that means a higher risk of complications and of future family planning problems for the women affected.