Sample records for aspiration cytology fnac

  1. Malignancy Risk Analysis in Patients with Inadequate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Al Maqbali, Talib; Tedla, Miroslav; Weickert, Martin O.; Mehanna, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    Background Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the standard diagnostic modality for thyroid nodules. However, it has limitations among which is the incidence of non-diagnostic results (Thy1). Management of cases with repeatedly non-diagnostic FNAC ranges from simple observation to surgical intervention. We aim to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in non-diagnostic FNAC, and the success rate of repeated FNAC. We also aim to evaluate risk factors for malignancy in patients with non-diagnostic FNAC. Materials and Methods Retrospective analyses of consecutive cases with thyroid non diagnostic FNAC results were included. Results Out of total 1657 thyroid FNAC done during the study period, there were 264 (15.9%) non-diagnostic FNAC on the first attempt. On repeating those, the rate of a non-diagnostic result on second FNAC was 61.8% and on third FNAC was 47.2%. The overall malignancy rate in Thy1 FNAC was 4.5% (42% papillary, 42% follicular and 8% anaplastic), and the yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. Ultrasound guidance by an experienced head neck radiologist produced the lowest non-diagnostic rate (38%) on repetition compared to US guidance by a generalist radiologist (65%) and by non US guidance (90%). Conclusions There is a low risk of malignancy in patients with a non-diagnostic FNAC result, commensurate to the risk of any nodule. The yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. PMID:23185295

  2. Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma to the orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D’Sa Bouvier; Coimbatore V. Raghuveer

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of metastatic tumor to the left orbit from a sacrococcygeal chordoma.METHODS: A 48-year-old man with a sacrococcygeal chordoma developed left orbit swelling, left eye proptosis with deteriorating vision, and the inability to walk. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the orbital tumor and sacrococcygeal tumor was performed.RESULTS: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed features of

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Parikshaa; Dey, Pranab; Bal, Amanjit

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case. PMID:25745290

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of ovarian tumors with histological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Anjali; Chakraborty, Jayati; Chowdhury, Anadi Roy; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Bhattachrya, Palas; Chowdhury, MK

    2012-01-01

    Background: Till today, there has been some hesitation to accept the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in pelvic mass. We have tried to study the role of ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) guided FNAC as diagnostic and supportive investigation for ovarian tumors. Aim: To evaluate the current status of image-directed percutaneous aspiration of ovarian neoplasm for the purpose of early detection of malignancy. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four fine needle aspirations of ovarian neoplasms were performed between January 2007 and December 2008 by transabdominal approach under USG and CT guidance and correlated with histopathological findings and tumor markers. Results: A total of 47 (63.5%) cases were assessed as malignant and 21 (28.3%) as benign and 6 (8.1%) as inconclusive. The neoplastic lesions were categorized as per World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Conclusion: With the availability of modern techniques, USG and CT guided FNAC can be an optimum modality for the diagnosis of primary and metastatic ovarian neoplasms and evaluation of recurrent malignant tumors, which has great impact on patient management consequently. PMID:22470227

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ostovi?, Karmen Trutin; Haris, Visnja; Mileti?, Zorana; Lambasa, Smiljka; Lajtman, Zoran; Stoos-Vei?, Tajana

    2010-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is uncommon cutaneous malignant neuroendocrine tumour of the elderly people with rapidly growing skin nodules found frequently on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is often an aggressive tumour with high tendency for local recurrence, lymph node involvement and distant metastases. This paper reports a case of metastatic MCC diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), flow cytometric deoxiribonucleated acid (DNA) analysis, pathohistology and electron microscopy. The cytological features in aspirate (stained with Papenheim and Papanicolaou staining) included increased cellularity, discohesive groups of small-to-medium size malignant cells with uniform, round-to-oval nuclei with moulding effect, fine chromatin, multiple micronucleoli and scanty cytoplasm. DNA flow cytometric analysis of the aspirate showed unexpected results for clinically aggressive behaviour of this tumour (the patient died after 21 months), and revealed that tumour contained diploid peak with DNA index of 1.1. The proliferation was high with elevated S-phase fraction (21%). The cytological diagnosis of possible metastatic MCC was confirmed by histological one as well as by electron microscopy presented the pathognomonic features for this tumour: dense-core neurosecretory granules with diameter of 100-250 nm surrounded by whorls of intermediate filaments. MCC provides an enormous challenge for the morphologist because of a wide range of differential diagnosis and for the clinician because this tumour has a highly malignant potential for local recurrence, nodal and distant spread and very often is combined with other tumours. Therefore it is important to perform FNAC of different lesions in the same patient because it can distinguish MCC from the other tumours. PMID:20698156

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of salivary gland lesions: A study with histologic comparison

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ritu; Gupta, Ruchika; Kudesia, Madhur; Singh, Sompal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed in pre-operative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions for many years. Various studies in the existing literature have shown a wide range of sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of cytologic diagnosis. This study was aimed at evaluating salivary gland FNAC for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This study included 80 patients who underwent pre-operative FNAC followed by surgical procedure and histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was considered as the gold standard. FNAC diagnosis was compared with the final histologic impression and concordance assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant lesions were calculated. Results: Of the 80 cases, majority (67.5%) involved the parotid gland. Eight cases (10%) were non-neoplastic lesions, comprised of sialadenitis, retention cyst and sialadenosis. Of a total of 72 neoplasms, 58 were benign and 14 were malignant salivary gland tumors. A cyto-histologic concordance of benign diagnosis was achieved in 85.7% of cases and for malignant lesions in 92.8% of the malignant tumors. FNAC showed a sensitivity of 92.8%, specificity of 93.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.2% and negative predictive value of 98.4% for malignant salivary gland tumors. There was one false-negative diagnosis and four false-positive cases diagnosed on FNAC. Conclusion: FNAC continues to be a reliable diagnostic technique in hands of an experienced cytopathologist. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant lesions is high, though the rate of tumor type-specific characterization is lower, due to variable cytomorphology. In difficult cases, histologic examination may be employed for accurate diagnosis. PMID:23599724

  7. Quality appraisal of diagnostic accuracy studies in fine-needle aspiration cytology: a survey of risk of bias and comparability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Schmidt; R. E. Factor; B. L. Witt; L. J. Layfield

    2013-01-01

    The quality of diagnostic accuracy studies is determined by 2 key factors: risk of bias and comparability. Bias can distort accuracy estimates and poor reporting impairs comparability. While diagnostic accuracy studies for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are frequently published, the methodologic issues associated with this body of literature have never been reviewed.\\\\\\\\ To assess the quality of design and reporting

  8. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Head and Neck Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Hoft; Claus Muhle; Winfried Brenner; Ernst Sprenger; Steffen Maune

    In squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, staging of the neck cannot rule out occult metastatic disease. An improved staging is necessary to avoid elective neck dissection in pa- tients staged as N0. The study was performed to determine the feasibility of the detection of occult metastatic disease by ultra- sound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (USgFNAC) of sentinel lymph

  9. The role of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kassi, Masoom; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Afghan, Abaseen Khan; Marri, Shah Mohammad; Kassi, Mahwash; Tareen, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the skin in humans. The diagnosis of BCC is made clinically, which can then be confirmed microscopically. Biopsy or surgical excision of the lesion provides the specimen for histopathological examination, which is the mainstay for diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) on the other hand is an even simpler procedure, which can provide accurate diagnosis to confirm or exclude the malignancy. Methods. Here, we present our experience on the role of FNAC in diagnosing BCC. We were able to recruit 37 patients, of which 35 had BCC. Both FNAC and biopsy were obtained and then interpreted independently of one another. Results. Cytology correlated with histopathology in all cases except for 2 in which the yield was deemed inadequate. The sensitivity and specificity of fine-needle aspiration cytology for basal cell carcinoma were 94.3% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions. We, therefore, recommend this technique for the initial evaluation of a patient with suspected BCC or in cases of recurrence. The technique is cheap, quick, less invasive, and highly accurate for the diagnosis of BCC. The limitation of the technique is low yield in some of the cases. PMID:22536525

  10. The Role of Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kassi, Masoom; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Afghan, Abaseen Khan; Marri, Shah Mohammad; Kassi, Mahwash; Tareen, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the skin in humans. The diagnosis of BCC is made clinically, which can then be confirmed microscopically. Biopsy or surgical excision of the lesion provides the specimen for histopathological examination, which is the mainstay for diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) on the other hand is an even simpler procedure, which can provide accurate diagnosis to confirm or exclude the malignancy. Methods. Here, we present our experience on the role of FNAC in diagnosing BCC. We were able to recruit 37 patients, of which 35 had BCC. Both FNAC and biopsy were obtained and then interpreted independently of one another. Results. Cytology correlated with histopathology in all cases except for 2 in which the yield was deemed inadequate. The sensitivity and specificity of fine-needle aspiration cytology for basal cell carcinoma were 94.3% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions. We, therefore, recommend this technique for the initial evaluation of a patient with suspected BCC or in cases of recurrence. The technique is cheap, quick, less invasive, and highly accurate for the diagnosis of BCC. The limitation of the technique is low yield in some of the cases. PMID:22536525

  11. Cytologic findings and potential pitfalls in proliferative myositis and myositis ossificans diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Klapsinou, Eirini; Despoina, Proestou; Dimitra, Daskalopoulou

    2012-03-01

    Proliferative myositis (PM) and myositis ossificans (MO) are two uncommon, benign pseudosarcomatous lesions of soft tissue. Despite their benign nature, they are often misdiagnosed for malignant soft tissue tumors because of their alarming clinical presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a quick and simple method that can accurately diagnose such lesions, provided that the cytopathologist is adequately familiar with the cytomorphological features of these lesions as opposed to the features of sarcomas. In this report, we present three cases of PM and one case of MO diagnosed by FNAC. Their cytomorphological features are described, and related literature is reviewed. PMID:20890998

  12. Impact of image guided fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of pediatric hepatic mass and cytohistologic concordance

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chhanda; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Sengupta, Moumita; Saha, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pediatric hepatic mass is a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant lesions. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can be utilized as a diagnostic modality to assess the nature of radiologically demonstrated hepatic lesions and thus facilitate individualized treatment. Aims and Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous FNAC of pediatric liver masses, a procedure that is less invasive than open biopsy. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was carried out in the Department of Pathology in collaboration with Department of Pediatric surgery and Radio-diagnosis including 31 pediatric patients presenting over last two years (June 2011 to May 2013) with focal hepatic lesion on ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan. FNAC was carried out under image guidance and cytodiagnosis was reached after appropriate staining. By comparing with histopathology reports, diagnostic accuracy of cytology was evaluated. Result: Among 31 cases included in the study, 51.6% cases were cytologically benign and hemangioma was the most common benign lesion. Hepatoblastoma was the most accounted malignant tumour (12.9%). FNAC provided 94% sensitivity and 92% specificity in diagnosing benign and malignant tumours. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 93.10%. No significant complication was noted. Conclusion: Percutaneous FNAC under image guidance is an effective diagnostic tool for diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumours of liver in pediatric patients. PMID:24741212

  13. Artificial neural network in breast lesions from fine-needle aspiration cytology smear.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, R M; Dey, Pranab; Nijhawan, Raje

    2014-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied in engineering and certain medical fields. ANN has immense potential and is rarely been used in breast lesions. In this present study, we attempted to build up a complete robust back propagation ANN model based on cytomorphological data, morphometric data, nuclear densitometric data, and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of ductal carcinoma and fibroadenomas of breast cases diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We selected 52 cases of fibroadenomas and 60 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast diagnosed on FNAC by two cytologists. Essential cytological data was quantitated by two independent cytologists (SRM, PD). With the help of Image J software, nuclear morphomeric, densitometric, and GLCM features were measured in all the cases on hematoxylin and eosin-stained smears. With the available data, an ANN model was built up with the help of Neurointelligence software. The network was designed as 41-20-1 (41 input nodes, 20 hidden nodes, 1 output node). The network was trained by the online back propagation algorithm and 500 iterations were done. Learning was adjusted after every iteration. ANN model correctly identified all cases of fibroadenomas and infiltrating carcinomas in the test set. This is one of the first successful composite ANN models of breast carcinomas. This basic model can be used to diagnose the gray zone area of the breast lesions on FNAC. We assume that this model may have far-reaching implications in future. PMID:23908018

  14. Specialized clinical cytology may improve the results of EUS (endoscopic ultrasound)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) from pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Arne R.; Nerlich, Andreas; Topalidis, Theodoros; Schepp, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: A variety of factors (needle type, needle passes, tumor location, cytological assessment, etc.) may influence the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) from pancreatic tumors. Whereas most published studies report a diagnostic accuracy of >?80?% for EUS-FNAC, the results in routine settings are often considerably lower. This retrospective study aimed to define the effect of switching microscopic assessment from a standard pathology department to a highly specialized institute of cytology. Patients and methods: A total of 63 patients underwent EUS-FNAC of solid or semisolid pancreatic masses. Specimens of the first consecutive 20 cases (Phase 1) were assessed by the local department of pathology. Then in Phase 2, involving another 43 subsequent cases, a specialized cytology laboratory examined all aspirates. All EUS-FNACs were performed in the same manner, using a 22-gauge needle. After cytological evaluation, all patients either underwent surgery or were followed up for at least 6 months. Results: Of the tumors, 56 were solid and 7 semisolid; the mean size was 30?mm. Sensitivity (sens.), specificity (spec.), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of EUS-FNAC were 38.5?% (95?%CI [confidence interval] 13.9?–?68.4?%), 100?% (59.0?–?100?%), 100?% (47.8?–?100?%), and 46.7?% (21.3?–?73.4?%) during Phase 1 versus 91.4?% (95?%CI 76.9?–?98.2?%), 100?% (63.1?–?100?%), 100?% (89.1?–?100?%), and 72.7?% (39.0?–?94.0?%) during Phase 2. Conclusion: These results emphasize the considerable impact of a dedicated cytological evaluation on the results of EUS-FNAC.

  15. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Tool to Study NHERF1 Expression as a Potential Marker of Aggressiveness in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Anita; Partipilo, Giulia; Schirosi, Laura; Saponaro, Concetta; Galetta, Domenico; Catino, Annamaria; Scattone, Anna; Simone, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and cytology is often the only diagnostic approach. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is a protein implicated in various cancers. However, the function of NHERF1 in lung cancer has not been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological role of NHERF1 in lung tumors using fine needle aspirates cytology (FNAC) and to verify the utility and reliability of FNACs. We assessed NHERF1 expression by immunohistochemistry on 26 advanced NSCLC FNAC and on 18 surgical NSCLC samples. The relationship of its expression with clinicopathological features including stage and histotype was analyzed. In FNACs, cytoplasmic and nuclear NHERF1 expression was significantly higher than membranous expression. In surgical samples, cytoplasmic NHERF1 was significantly higher than both membranous and nuclear NHERF1 expression. In these tumors, a higher cytoplasmic and lower nuclear NHERF1 expression was observed compared to advanced NSCLCs (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, respectively). In all 44 NSCLCs, a significant correlation was found between cytoplasmic NHERF1 expression and stage (p = 0.001), and between nuclear NHERF1 expression and histotype (p = 0.015). To our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing the immunohistochemical expression of NHERF1 in lung cancer using FNAC samples. We conclude that FNACs provide useful material for detection of NHERF1 localization and expression, and that high nuclear NHERF1 expression may be a potential marker of aggressiveness in NSCLC. PMID:25744438

  16. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  17. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of glycogen-rich carcinoma of breast: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup Kumar; Verma, Kusum; Aron, Manju

    2005-10-01

    Glycogen-rich carcinoma (GRC) of the breast is a rare histological subtype of breast cancer having a poor prognosis. There are very few case reports describing the cytological features of GRC on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In this report we present the case of a 34-yr-old woman who underwent FNAC of a clinically palpable breast lump. The aspirate was cellular showing tumor cells in groups, clusters and lying singly. The tumor cells had abundant eosinophilic, finely granular to vacuolated cytoplasm with moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism. With a cytological diagnosis of carcinoma, a wide local excision was performed. On histology a diagnosis of GRC was made with the tumor cells showing abundant glycogen. The presence of cells with abundant granular to finely vacuolated cytoplasm in a case of breast carcinoma, should point toward the possibility of GRC and other clear cell tumors of the breast. Demonstration of glycogen is required to make a definite diagnosis on cytology. PMID:16138378

  18. Spectrum of male breast lesions diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a 5-year experience at a tertiary care rural hospital in central India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranbeer; Anshu; Sharma, Satish M; Gangane, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the spectrum of lesions in the male breast at a tertiary care rural hospital in central India and explores the role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of these lesions. Male breast lesions formed 5.89% (119 cases) of the 2017 breast lesions which were sent for FNA in the cytology section over a period of 5 years (January 2005-December 2009). Of these, biopsy had been performed only on 37 (31.1%) patients. Benign lesions comprised 102 (85.7%) cases, malignant lesions comprised 14 (11.8%) cases and inflammation/abscess was found in 3 (2.5%) cases. Gynecomastia was the commonest benign lesion in 86 (84.3%) cases. The cytologic features of gynecomastia included mild to moderate cellularity, cohesive sheets of bland cells, bipolar bare nuclei. Mild nuclear atypia was found in 19 cases. The cytologic features of malignancy comprised of dyshesive groups of ductular cells with moderate to severe degree of nuclear atypia and absence of bare nuclei. Histology was done in 37 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for gynecomastia was 100% and for malignancy 85.7%. This study showed that FNAC is a reliable tool for diagnosing male breast lesions. We conclude that FNAC should be performed as a standard procedure in the clinical evaluation of male breast masses. Many unnecessary surgical biopsies for histopathologic diagnosis can thus be avoided. PMID:22246926

  19. Aggressive Lymphoma in a 14 Year Old Indian Boy, Diagnosed on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kurpad, Ramkumar; Narayanan, Manoj; Sasikumar, V K; Jadhav, S S

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma(BL) is a highly aggressive B -cell Lymphoma of childhood with a doubling time of 24 to 48 h. Depending upon the clinical and epidemiological factors it is classified as Epidemic, Sporadic and Immunodeficiency associated Burkitt’s lymphoma. Sporadic Burkitt’s lymphoma has its own characteristics with few differences pertaining to specific geographical location. Here, we present a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with advanced stage disease. On examination he had cervical lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement in the form of nerve palsy.USG revealed multiple well defined solid lesions in liver, both kidneys and pancreas. However, PBS did not show the presence of lymphomatous cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph node and liver lesion showed features suggestive of Burkitt’s lymphoma, which was further confirmed on Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. PMID:25478352

  20. The Role of CD56 in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Pilot Study Performed on Liquid Based Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Marrocco, Carla; D’Amato, Donato; Traini, Emanuela; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Fadda, Guido; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Rossi, Esther Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration Cytology (FNAC) fulfills a reliable role in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Although the majority of nodules are quite easily diagnosed as benign or malignant, 30% of them represent an indeterminate category whereby the application of ancillary techniques (i.e. immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing) has been encouraged. The search for a specific immunomarker of malignancy sheds light on a huge number of ICC stains although none of them attempt to yield 100% conclusive results. Our aim was to define in a pilot study on thyroid FNAC whether CD56 might be a valid marker also in comparison with HBME-1 and Galectin-3. Materials and Methods Inasmuch as this is the largest pilot study using only liquid based cytology (LBC), we selected all the cases only in the categories of benign nodules (BN) and positive for malignancy (PM) for validation purposes. Eighty-five consecutive (including 50 PM and 35 BN) out of 950 thyroid FNACs had surgical follow-up. The ICC panel (HBME-1, Galectin-3 and CD56) was carried out on LBC and histology. Results All BNs and PMs were histological confirmed. CD56 was negative in 96% of the PM while 68.5% of the BNs showed cytoplasmic positivity for this marker, with an overall high sensitivity (96%) but lower specificity (69%). In specific, our 96% of the PMs did not show any follicular cell with CD56 expression. Different ICC combinations were evaluated showing that the panel made up of CD56 plus HBME-1 and Galectin-3 had the highest sensitivity (98%) and specificity (86%). Conclusions Our pilot study suggests that CD56 may be a good marker for ruling out PTC and its variants. The low specificity suggests that an immunopanel including also HBME-1 and Galectin-3 could obtain the highest diagnostic accuracy in thyroid lesions. Our results suggest that CD56 may be a feasible additional marker for identifying malignancies also in the FNs and SMs. PMID:26186733

  1. Molecular Genotyping of Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Correlates with Diagnostic Category of Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology: Values of RAS Mutation Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ryung; Kim, Tae Eun; Bae, Ja Seong; Jung, So Lyung; Choi, Yeong Jin; Kang, Chang Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) presents distinct histologic subtypes and molecular genotyping. The preoperative diagnosis of FVPTC through fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is challenging. Methods We reviewed 59 archival thyroid FNAC specimens of surgically confirmed FVPTC according to histologic subtype: encapsulated FVPTC (n=30) and infiltrative FVPTC (n=29). Galectin-3 immunostaining and molecular analyses for BRAF and three RAS genes (NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS) were performed. Results FNAC diagnoses of FVPTC included benign (5%), atypia of undetermined significance (19%), follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm (14%), suspicious for PTC (29%), and PTC (34%). Galectin-3 immunostaining was positive in 50% of FNAC specimens. A BRAF mutation was found only in 14 (24%) tumors with the FNAC diagnosis of PTC or suspicious for PTC: 13 cases with the usual c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation and 1 case with a 3 base-pair deletion (c.1799_1801delTGA), resulting in a deletion of lysine at codon 601 and a deletion c.1799_1801delTGA that results in a valine-to-glutamate substitution at codon 600 (p.V600_K601>E) while preserving the reading frame. A BRAF K601E mutation was not found. RAS mutations were observed in 18 (33%) tumors (NRAS, 22%; HRAS, 6%; KRAS, 6%). Mutations of the three RAS genes were detected in codon 61 but not in codons 12 and 13. There was a decreasing trend of RAS mutation rates associated with an increasing risk of malignancy in the FNAC diagnostic categories. The triage efficacy of FNAC to make a recommendation for surgery was 73% for encapsulated tumors and 79% for infiltrative tumors. Addition of galectin-3 or the BRAF test to FNAC showed no significant improvement in the triage efficacy. However, RAS mutations significantly improved the triage efficacy of FNAC. There was no significant difference in the triage efficacy of FNAC, galectin-3 expression, and the prevalence of somatic mutations between encapsulated and infiltrative tumors. Conclusion Thyroid FNAC has a low sensitivity for the detection of FVPTC regardless of histologic subtype. Encapsulated FVPTC and infiltrative FVPTC have similar molecular profiles and rates of galectin-3 expression. RAS mutational analysis is more useful than BRAF testing to improve the triage efficacy of FNAC for FVPTC. PMID:23590130

  2. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Endocrine Glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ema A. Dragoescu; Celeste N. Powers

    \\u000a Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a safe, accurate, and minimally invasive technique for sampling of endocrine organs. It is\\u000a widely used for both palpable and non-palpable thyroid nodules. Parathyroid and adrenal glands can be approached with image-guidance,\\u000a preferably with a cytopathologist onsite for preliminary interpretation. The specific information obtained is used for definitive\\u000a diagnosis or to triage patients and avoid

  3. Axillary Lymph Node Echo-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Enables Breast Cancer Patients to Avoid a Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Preliminary Experience and a Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Altomare; Gabriella Guerriero; Rita Carino; Cleonice Battista; Angelo Primavera; Annamaria Altomare; Donata Vaccaro; Alessandro Esposito; Anna Maria Ferri; Carla Rabitti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  For many years, the status of the axillary lymph nodes has been determined by an axillary lymphadenectomy. However, a sentinel\\u000a lymph node biopsy has been shown to effectively replace the need for an axillary lymphadenectomy in order to determine the\\u000a axillary staging. This study presents the preliminary results regarding the efficacy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)\\u000a to identify metastatic axillary

  4. Do tumor characteristics predict risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A Sipos; Matthew D Ringel

    2009-01-01

    The use of ultrasonography-guided, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has enhanced the preoperative characterization of thyroid nodules and reduced the need for diagnostic surgeries. However, complete preoperative characterization is not yet possible for patients with an indeterminate FNAC result. Here, results are discussed from a retrospective study by Banks et al. that aimed to refine preoperative risk assessment of thyroid cancer

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology of nodular fasciitis of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Matsuo, Koji; Koike, Shinya; Tagami, Kouichiro

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of nodular fasciitis (NF) of the breast, which was cytologically diagnosed as a spindle cell proliferation with undetermined malignant potential. Owing to small size of the lesion (5.9 × 3.7 × 4.1 mm), only fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed under ultrasound guidance. The FNA smears were cellular, rich in single/clustered spindle cells but mammary ductal epithelial/myoepithelial cells were absent. These cytologic findings suggested spindle cell growth of mesenchymal origin. Pattern-less arrangement of spindle cells, heterogeneous composition of the stromal matrix, lack of nuclear/cellular atypia, occasional mitosis but no aberrant mitotic figures, and lymphocyte infiltration indicated reactive rather than neoplastic nature of the lesion. Nonetheless, lumpectomy was conducted because the possibility of neoplasm was not completely ruled out. The histologic diagnosis of the resected nodule was NF. FNA specimens were reviewed thoroughly in an attempt to define the key cytomorphologic features of NF that are important for the correct diagnosis. Differential diagnoses from the lesions that show similar cytologic pictures are discussed in detail. Although NF arising from the breast is rare, cytopathologists should be aware of its clinical and cytopathologic characteristics. Knowledge of the possibility of NF in the breast and its cytologic findings may help cytopathologists to discern its reactive, not neoplastic, characteristics of the lesion. If the referring surgeon is alerted NF as a possibility along with other differential diagnoses, close observation would become a management option. In-depth discussion of cytologic features and a review of the pertinent literature are also included. PMID:24862506

  6. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:26066407

  7. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:26066407

  8. Can We Confidently Diagnose Pilomatricoma with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology?

    PubMed Central

    WONG, Yin-Ping; MASIR, Noraidah; SHARIFAH, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical ‘lymphadenopathy’, and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. ‘Ghost cells’ were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic ‘ghost cells’ and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  9. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies. PMID:15754369

  10. Myxoid liposarcoma of the breast in a 25-year-old female as a diagnostic pitfall in fine needle aspiration cytology: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Pant, Ishita; Kaur, Gurjeet; Joshi, Sanjeev Chandra; Khalid, Imran Abdul

    2008-09-01

    Primary sarcomas of the breast are extremely rare comprising less than 1.0% of all malignant tumors of the breast. It is even rarer to be reported in a 25-year-old female. This can cause a diagnostic dilemma not only for the clinician but also for the cytopathologist. A 25-year-old woman presented with a well defined firm, mobile lump in her right breast. With fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and ultrasonography a diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. The patient underwent lumpectomy. Histopathologically it was diagnosed as myxoid liposarcoma. This case is reported to highlight the fact that, even though rare in young females but the possibility of a breast lump being a myxoid liposarcoma does exist. This report discusses a primary myxoid liposarcoma of female breast, considers cytologic differential diagnoses with review of the relevant literature. PMID:18677756

  11. Wide needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Patil, P S; Bem, C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To study the value of wide needle (19 gauge) aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymph node disease in Zambia in the absence of a trained cytologist. METHODS--Patients (n = 304) referred for surgical biopsy of an enlarged peripheral lymph node were studied prospectively. Surgical biopsy was routinely preceded by 19 gauge needle aspiration of the same node; aspirates were stained by haematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl Neelsen stains. RESULTS--Of 232 aspirates, 182 contained sufficient material for cytological characterisation. Tuberculosis was diagnosed or suspected in 122 of 126 aspirates with histologically confirmed tuberculous lymphadenitis; reactive follicular hyperplasia in 31 of 38 patients with primary HIV lymphadenopathy; malignancy in all five patients with malignant nodes; and Kaposi's disease in four of nine patients with this. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was falsely suspected in four patients, as was reactive follicular hyperplasia in four, and Kaposi's disease in four. CONCLUSIONS--Wide needle aspiration cytology is useful in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Central Africa, with the exception of lymphadenopathic Kaposi's disease. PMID:8227428

  12. Yolk sac tumor of cryptorchid testis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Monisha; Sehgal, Shivali; Nangia, Anita; Chadha, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor is the most common germ cell tumor in infants and children. Majority of them arise in the gonads. Yolk sac tumor of undescended testis has been rarely diagnosed. We present a case of yolk sac tumor in right undescended testis in a 2-year-old child primarily diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. PMID:25948949

  13. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mammary fibromatosis: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, P; Jiménez-Heffernan, J A; Vicandi, B; Ortega, L; Viguer, J M

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate cytologically two cases of mammary fibromatosis (MF). Prior to FNAC, clinical and mammographic suspicion of carcinoma and fibroadenoma were present. In both cases cytology disclosed the presence of numerous spindle cells admixed with epithelial cells. In the first case, carcinoma was excluded and the diagnosis of "spindle-cell proliferative lesion" was established. The second case was erroneously diagnosed as "cellular fibroadenoma" due to the presence of monolayered ductal epithelial groups and stromal tissue. In both cases local excision of the lesion was recommended. Although in a strict sense fibromatosis is a pure stromal lesion, the frequent presence of epithelial groups in the smears should raise a differential diagnosis with other more frequent mixed (epithelial and stromal) lesions such as fibroadenoma, cystosarcoma phyllodes, and metaplastic carcinoma. Due to the fact that clinically and mamographically MF is frequently confused with malignancy, preoperative recognition is essential since in many cases it would avoid unnecessary radical surgery. In this sense cytology offers very important preoperative information. PMID:9360049

  14. The usefulness of 99mTc-SestaMIBI scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with oncocytic cytology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Boi; M L Lai; C Deias; M Piga; A Serra; A Uccheddu; S Mariotti

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relevance of 99mTc-SestaMIBI (MIBI) scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyr- oid nodules with oncocytic cytology. Subjects and methods: Twenty-four patients with a single (or prevalent) 'cold' solid nodule with Hurthle cells (HC) at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were studied. Cytological diagnosis of oncocytic metaplasia (OM) or HC tumor (HCT) was made when HC on

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of ameloblastoma and malignant ameloblastoma: a study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Klapsinou, Eirini; Stavros, Archondakis; Smaragda, Angeli; Despoina, Proestou; Dimitra, Daskalopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic tumor with aggressive biological behavior, high recurrence rate, and a complex microscopic appearance with many different histologic patterns. Primary ameloblastoma is also described in extragnathic locations. Because of its wide morphologic spectrum, which is mirrored also in cytologic smears, a thorough study of distinctive features is required to reach a reliable diagnosis. Twelve cases of ameloblastoma were examined both cytologically and histologically. The patients were seven women and five men 24-85 years old, mean age being 64 years. Eleven cases were primary tumors of the mandible and maxilla, and one case was a lung tumor metastatic from the tibia. The epithelial element in the cytologic smears of the various cases was morphologically diverse. The basaloid pattern and minimal nuclear atypia were rather constant findings, and the most helpful features toward reaching a cytological diagnosis. However in most cases, careful consideration of the clinical, radiological, cytological, and occasionally immunocytochemical data was required to rule out other entities with similar cytological findings. In some cases, the final diagnosis was only possible by histologic examination. Due to their variable microscopic morphology, ameloblastomas are quite often misdiagnosed for other entities, both benign and malignant. Nevertheless, when one is aware of their distinctive features, an accurate diagnosis can be made by fine-needle aspiration cytology, in conjunction with clinical and radiological findings. Both the preoperative surgical planning and the postoperative follow-up of the patients benefit significantly from this method. PMID:21965020

  16. Management of patients with intermediate (C3) cytology and a solitary breast lump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Mander; P. A. Beresford; G. Tildsley; T. Qureshi; G. C. Wishart

    2001-01-01

    The records of all patients who had a C3 result on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) over a 3-year period were reviewed. Clinical and mammographic findings at presentation were correlated with histopathological diagnosis. Of 43 patients, 32 patients underwent excision biopsy. Histology was benign in 25 patients, eight patients had an invasive breast carcinoma, two a phyllodes tumour and one

  17. Pediatric lymphoma diagnosis: role of FNAC, biopsy, immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Venkateswaran K

    2013-09-01

    Peripheral lymphadenopathy in the pediatric age group is screened using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Cases found to have features suspicious for lymphoma on FNAC need to undergo biopsy with immunohistochemistry for characterization and typing. In pediatric age group, peripheral lymph nodes are common in Hodgkin's lymphoma for which biopsy is needed for subtyping. Distinction of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma of lymphocyte rich type from nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma needs biopsy evaluation and a panel of immunostains. T lymphoblastic lymphomas and Burkitt's lymphoma are the common types of non Hodgkin's lymphoma seen in the pediatric age group. All lymphomas require a biopsy evaluation with immunohistochemistry and analysis of molecular genetic markers for proper characterization and selection of optimal treatment which are discussed in detail in this review. PMID:23925793

  18. Estimating loss of the wild-type p53 gene by in situ hybridization of fine-needle aspirates from breast carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torill Sauer; Kahsai Beraki; Irene Furu; Eli Ormerod; Peter W. Jebsen

    1999-01-01

    TP53 mutations have been found in 16-64% of breast carcinomas. The aim of our study was to investigate loss of the wild-type TP53 gene by in situ hybridization (ISH) of fine-needle aspirates (FNAC) from breast carcinomas. The material consisted of FNAC from 33 breast carcinomas, with histologic specimens from 19 of the cases. Routine diagnostic smears were used for cytologic

  19. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  20. Multinucleate Giant Cells in FNAC of Benign Breast Lesions: Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    R, Kalyani; Murthy V, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleate giant cells are described in breast aspirates. However, due to its rarity very few cases have been described cytologically. Hence recognition and correct interpretation of their presence is difficult, yet crucial for accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The prospective study of FNAC (fine needle aspirate cytology) of breast lumps was conducted for a period of six months. Direct smears were prepared from the material aspirated. In case of fluid aspirates, centrifuge done and cell sediment was used for making smears. Smears were alcohol fixed and stained with PAP/H&E or air dried smears were stained with Leishman stain. Further smears were subjected to immunocytochemistry using vimentin and CD34 markers to know the origin of multinucleate giant cells. Results: We have reported 11 cases of breast lesions, which showed multinucleate giant cells on FNAC. Out of the 11 cases, Cytologically six cases showed granuloma debris with relative proportion of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleate giant cells. Two cases were diagnosed as acute suppurative granulomatous mastitis. Two cases of fibroadenoma and one case of fat necrosis showed multinucleate giant cells. Immunocytochemistry showed vimentin positivity in both stromal and histiocytic type of multinucleate giant cells and in isolated histiocytes. CD34 was focally positive in histiocytic type of giant cells. Conclusion: An effort is made to distinguish between the stromal and histiocytic type giant cells in non-neoplastic breast lesions. Further molecular studies have to be done to know the exact histogenesis and role of these multinucleate giant cells in benign lesions. PMID:25653953

  1. Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain's) thyroiditis: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonographic characteristics of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Çigdem; Paksoy, Nadir; Gök, Nazl? D; Yazal, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT) is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG) and cytological characteristics of SGT. Materials and Methods: The clinical, USG and cytological findings of 21 cases diagnosed with SGT were reviewed. Results: Ultrasonographic data was available in 20 cases. A hypoechoic thyroid nodule with irregular margins was detected in 12 of the 20 total cases. Of these, 9 cases complained about pain in the thyroid lodge and generally had unilateral lesions, heterogeneous and hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins, rather than nodular lesions, which were seen in 7 cases. Cytologically, the multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) found in all cases were accompanied by a dirty background containing varying numbers of granulomatous structures, including isolated epithelioid histiocytes, proliferated/regenerated follicle epithelium cells and inflammatory cells and colloid. Conclusion: Though hypoechoic and heterogeneous areas with irregular margins are strongly associated with thyroiditis, SGT may also appear as painful or painless hypoechoic, solid nodules and generate challenges in differential diagnosis. Although the most remarkable characteristic observed in FNA cytology was the presence of multiple MNGCs with cytoplasm, a dirty background accompanied by mild-moderate cellularity, degenerated-proliferated follicular epithelium cells, rare epithelioid granulomas and mixed type inflammatory cells are characteristic for SGT. The assessment of these radiological and cytological findings in conjunction with clinical findings will assist in the achievement of an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26085833

  2. A clinical and fine needle aspiration cytology study of gingiva in acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Arul, A. Sri Kennath J.; Verma, Sonika; Ahmed, Shaheen; Arul, A. Sri Sennath J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Oral manifestations are frequently the initial signs of acute leukemia, prompting the patient to consult the dentist first. The gingival tissue is one site commonly involved either by leukemic infiltration or by inflammatory reactive hyperplasia, causing gingival enlargement. The gingival infiltration may also be present without gingival enlargement. Early recognition of clinical findings in the oral cavity leads to its timely diagnosis and management. Since biopsy is highly contraindicated, gingival fine needle aspiration cytology was performed to assess its diagnostic value in detecting gingival infiltration in acute leukemia patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of acute leukemia received clinical and gingival cytological examination. The cases were diagnosed based on bone marrow aspiration findings and classified according to the French–American–British criteria. The absence or presence of intraoral findings was recorded. Site for gingival fine needle aspiration cytology was selected. Results: Leukemic gingival infiltration was found to be more common in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while the characteristic oral findings were seen more commonly in acute myeloblastic leukemia. All the eight cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia that were positive for leukemic gingival infiltration showed no clinical evidence of gingival enlargement. In terms of leukemic gingival infiltration, L2 subtype was the only subtype involved, while M5 was more commonly involved than M4 subtype. Two cases of L2 subtype showed gingival enlargement due to local factors like plaque/calculus rather than due to leukemic infiltration. Conclusion: The technique was found to be safe and of definitive diagnostic value in detecting gingival infiltration in acute leukemia patients. PMID:22363368

  3. Incidental Diagnosis of Filariasis in Superficial Location by FNAC: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Pratima; Jha, Aditi; Chauhan, Nidhi; Chand, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Filariasis, transmitted by the bite of various species of mosquito, is a common disease of tropical belt of the world. In South East Asia, including India, it is a major public health problem. The parasite is primarily confined to Lymphatic channel or lymph nodes where it can remain viable for more than two decades. The most common presentation of the disease is asymptomatic/ subclinical microfilaremia, Hydrocele, acute adeno-lymphangitis (ADL) and chronic lymphatic disease. However, the disease may rarely present as superficial swellings at unusual sites. Incidental findings of microfilaria on fine needle aspiration cytology in these situations, helps in prompt recognition of the disease. Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidental diagnosis of Filariasis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), done for swellings in superficial locations over last ten years at our institute. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted over a period of 10 years from April 2003 to March 2013 on the cases where FNAC was carried out on swellings in superficial locations of the body. Twenty cases of filariasis were diagnosed on routine FNAC material obtained from various superficial sites. Their data was retrieved and analyzed. Results: Among the 20 cases diagnosed as filariasis on FNAC, six cases involved lymph nodes, six involved testiculo-scrotal region, three cases of thyroid swelling, soft tissue swelling in three cases and breast lump in two cases. On FNA smears, microfilariae were seen in all 20 cases, eggs in three cases, adult female worm in two cases and adult male worm in one case. Adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was noticed in 4 cases. Eosinophilia was present in seven cases. Microfilaremia was present in only three cases. Causative agent was Wuchereria bancrofti in all cases. Conclusion: Although not so common, filariasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of a superficial swelling particularly if clear fluid is obtained on FNAC. Careful screening of smears plays a significant role in recognition of the disease even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:25653954

  4. Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma: Morphological Features Causing Diagnostic Dilemma on Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shunyou; Hafez-Khayyata, Said; Xin, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 28 Final Diagnosis: Microcystic/reticular Schwannoma Symptoms: Neck fullness • finger tingling and numbness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgical resection Specialty: Anatomic Pathology Objective: Rare disease Background: Schwannoma is a common, benign, peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has been very useful for diagnosing classic Schwannoma. Recently, a new morphological variant, the so-called microcystic/reticular Schwannoma, has been recognized. Although histological features of microcystic/reticular Schwannoma have been described, there are no available reports on its FNA cytological appearance. Case Report: A 28-year-old male presented with right arm and finger tingling and numbness. Physical examination found a right lower neck mass. He underwent FNA, followed by needle core biopsy. A diagnosis of microcystic/reticular schwannoma was made. In this case report, we focused on the FNA diagnostic features, thoroughly searched the literature, and discussed relevant information for differential diagnosis. Conclusions: Unlike classic Schwannoma, microcystic/reticular variant has unique cytological features which can mimic those of several morphologically similar mass lesions, making the FNA interpretation more challenging. Cytopathologists should be aware of this new variant of Schwannoma when evaluating FNA cytology of mass lesions showing low-grade, paucicellular, and myxoid features. PMID:25472470

  5. Use of Fine-Needle Aspiration in the Evaluation of Breast Lumps

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Arshad, Madiha; Jamal, Shahid; Niazi, Shahida; Bashir, Shahid; Bakhshi, Irfan M.; Shaharyar

    2011-01-01

    Background. A study was designed to see the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in palpable breast lumps. Materials and Methods. Four hundred and twenty five (425) patients came to the Department of Pathology King Edward Medical University, Lahore in four years for FNAC of their palpable breast masses from June 2006 to June 2010. FNAC diagnosis was compared with histological diagnosis to see the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology for neoplastic lesions. Results. There were 271/425 benign, 120/425 malignant, and 32/425 suspicious smears. Inadequate samples were repeated twice or thrice, and the degree of success was improved with consecutive repeating approaches. The frequency of inadequacy declined from 86 to 18, and 2 for first, second and third attempts, respectively. The number of repeats increased the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates which is statistically significant (P = .000). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most commonly reported lesion with maximum incidence in the 4th, 5th, and 6th decades followed by invasive lobular carcinoma and other malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and the positive predictive value of FNAC was 98%, 100%, 98%, 100%, and 97%, respectively. Conclusion. FNAC serves as a rapid, economical, and reliable tool for the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions because the cytopathological examination of these lesions before operation or treatment serves as an important diagnostic modality. PMID:21789264

  6. Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

  7. Oncocytic lipoadenoma of the parotid gland: cytological findings and differential diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Azarpira, Negar; Anbardar, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic lipoadenoma is a rare benign neoplastic lesion of salivary gland. To the best of our knowledge, the detailed cytomorphological findings were described only in two cases. We are reporting a 56-year-old woman who presented with 1-year history of right parotid gland mass. Cytologic examination revealed tight clusters of bland looking oncocytic ductal cells with few aggregates of mature adipose tissue in a lipoid background and a benign oncocytic tumor of parotid gland was rendered. Histologically, a tumor with islands of oncocytic epithelial cells admixed with abundant mature adipose tissue was identified. Oncocytic lipoadenoma despite its rarity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland fine-needle aspirations containing oncocytes especially those which are accompanied by mature adipose tissue and lipoid background. PMID:24591268

  8. Pulmonary hamartoma: Cytological study of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Umashankar, T; Devadas, Acharya K; Ravichandra, G; Yaranal, Parasappa J

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common but rare benign tumor-like lesions of the lung arising from the embryonic rest. They are more common in males and in aged. Majority are asymptomatic and seen as coin lesions with popcorn calcification in the chest radiograph. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps to diagnose and distinguish them from the cancerous lesions of the lung. The cytological material is characterized by fibromyxoid stroma, cartilage, bronchial cells, adipose tissue and bone. Bronchial cells with reactive atypia may be a source of false-positive result. Symptomatic cases need surgical intervention such as enucleation or segmental resection. We report a case of a 74-year-old male who had a lung mass that did not progress over 4-year on chest radiograph. The CT-guided FNAC smears showed benign bronchial epithelial cells, fibro-myxoid spindle cell stroma and fat spaces that aided the diagnosis of pulmonary hamartoma avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:23326033

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of talc granulomatosis in a peripheral lymph node in a case of suspected intravenous drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Housini, I; Dabbs, D J; Coyne, L

    1990-01-01

    A fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimen of an epitrochlear lymph node from a 22-year-old suspected intravenous drug abuser was submitted for cytologic examination, which revealed numerous granulomatous tissue fragments, histiocytes, lymphocytes and giant cells. Polarizing microscopy revealed strongly birefringent material of varying shapes and sizes, including anisotropic crystals with the Maltese cross configuration characteristic of starch. A cytologic diagnosis of talc granulomatosis in the lymph node was made. This case emphasizes the value of FNA biopsy in the differentiation of inflammatory versus neoplastic processes; this appears to be the first case of peripheral talc granulomatosis diagnosed by FNA biopsy. PMID:2343689

  10. The clinical use of fine needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis and management of children with neuroblastic tumours 1 1 Presented in part at the International Symposium on Advances in Neuroblastoma Research, 22–25 May 1996 in Philadelphia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Fröstad; E Tani; P Kogner; S Maeda; O Björk; L Skoog

    1998-01-01

    This study presents the results of fine needle aspiration cytology in a series of 26 consecutive children with neuroblastic tumours. The cytological spectrum varied from undifferentiated small tumour cells to mature ganglion cells in a fibrillar background. In 24 children with neuroblastic tumours at onset the cytological diagnosis was correct in 21 cases, whereas two aspirates yielded nondiagnostic necrotic material

  11. Clinical audit of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration in a general cytopathology service

    PubMed Central

    Mangla, Gunjan; Arora, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Navjeevan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on ultrasonography (USG) guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) have been conducted in specialized settings such as thyroid, breast, and intra-abdominal aspirates. There is a paucity of literature on the practices of guided FNAC in a general cytopathology service. Aim: The aim was to determine prevailing practices of USG guided FNAC in a general cytopathology service of a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Metropolitan hospital, clinical audit. Materials and Methods: Audit of 112 USG guided percutaneous FNAC done over 12 months. Statistical Analysis: Data were coded, entered in an excel spreadsheet and analyzed by translating into percentages and proportions. Results: The 112 guided FNACs included constituted 36 thyroid (32.14%), 45 intra-abdominal (40.17%), 11 breast (9.82%), 10 superficial lymph node (8.92%) and 10 soft tissue and miscellaneous (8.92%) lesions. Previous freehand FNAC was documented on the requisition forms in 14 cases. The reports were: Inadequate 33 (29.46%), nondiagnostic descriptive 35 (31.25%) or diagnostic 44 (39.28%). Inadequacy rates of aspirates from thyroid were 11 (30.56%) breast were 2 (18.18%), and intra-abdominal lesions were 13 (28.88%). Majority of the reports were nonstructured: 108 (96.42%) and nonrecommendatory: 101 (90.17%). Conclusions: Reporting practices varied and did not conform to a uniform structure. The inadequacy rates of breast and thyroid aspirates were comparable to the rates in the literature. Comparable studies were not available for intra-abdominal aspirates. PMID:25948936

  12. Gallbladder carcinoma: An attempt of WHO histological classification on fine needle aspiration material

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajni; Jain, Deepali; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Sharma, Atul; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carcinoma of the gallbladder (CaGB) is common in India and its prognosis depends primarily on the extent of the disease and histological type. We aim to study the role of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of CaGB and to evaluate the feasibility of applying world health organization (WHO) classification on fine needle aspiration (FNA) material to predict the outcome of the tumor. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cytomorphologic analysis was performed in all cases of CaGB diagnosed by ultrasound (US) guided FNAC over a period of 2 years. A specific subtype was assigned according to WHO classification based on characteristic cytologic features. These included papillary or acinar arrangement, intra and extracellular mucin, keratin, rosettes and columnar, signet ring, atypical squamous, small, clear, spindle and giant cells. Correlation with histopathology was performed when available. Results: A total of 541 aspirations with clinical or radiological suspicion of primary CaGB were studied. Of these, 54 aspirates were unsatisfactory. Fifty cases were negative for malignancy. Remaining 437 aspirates were positive for carcinoma. Histopathologic diagnosis was available in 32 cases. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent diagnosis in 86.7% of cases. Mucinous, signet ring, adenosquamous, squamous, small cell, mixed adenoneuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinoma including spindle and giant cell subtypes were diagnosed identifying specific features on FNAC. Correlation with histopathology was present in all, but one case giving rise to sensitivity of 96.8%. No post-FNA complications were recorded. Conclusions: US guided FNAC is a safe and effective method to diagnose CaGB. Although, rare, clinically and prognostically significant variants described in WHO classification can be detected on cytology. PMID:23858322

  13. Foregut duplication of the stomach diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst. In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment. PMID:23374143

  14. Should We Apply Suction During Fine Needle Cytology of Thyroid Lesions? A Prospective Study of 200 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K V Sreedhar; Sachan, Alok; Rukmangdha, N; Patnayak, Rashmi; Radhika, K; Phaneendra, B V; Reddy, M Kumaraswamy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established first line diagnostic tool in evaluating palpable thyroid lesions. However, the technique depends on suction and thus is at times painful, sometimes traumatic and yield haemorrhagic material for cytological study. In more recent times, a modified technique called fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) has come into vogue which obviates the use of suction and therefore is more patient friendly. Aims/Objectives: To investigate whether fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) gives quantitatively and qualitatively superior cytologic material as compared to the conventional technique of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) in thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study of 200 cases carried out in the Department of Pathology during two years period. Both techniques were executed on the same thyroid swelling / nodule in the same clinical session beginning with FNS followed by FNAC. The observation recorded by two pathologists were based on the scoring system proposed by Mair et al., Statistical analysis was done by Student’s paired t-test using SPSS 13 software. Observation/Results: A total of 200 cases were studied. The non-aspiration technique yielded less diagnostically adequate but more diagnostically superior smears when compared with aspiration technique. The average score per case was 5.31 by aspiration technique and 6.35 by non-aspiration technique. Conclusion: Both the techniques have their own merits and demerits and neither is absolutely superior to the other. A combination of both the technique gives better result. PMID:25478349

  15. Subclassification of the “Grey Zone” of Thyroid Cytology; A Retrospective Descriptive Study with Clinical, Cytological, and Histological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Bonzanini, Mariella; Amadori, Pierluigi; Morelli, Luca; Fasanella, Silvia; Pertile, Riccardo; Mattiuzzi, Angela; Marini, Giorgio; Niccolini, Mauro; Tirone, Giuseppe; Rigamonti, Marco; Dalla Palma, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Undetermined thyroid cytology precludes any definitive distinction between malignant and benign lesions. Recently several classifications have been proposed to split this category into two or more cytological subcategories related to different malignancy risk rates. The current study was performed retrospectively to investigate the results obtained separating “undetermined” cytologic reports into two categories: “follicular lesion” (FL) and “atypia of undetermined significance” (AUS). Biochemical, clinical, and echographic features of each category were also retrospectively analyzed. Altogether, 316 undetermined fine-needle aspirated cytologies (FNACs) were reclassified as 74 FL and 242 AUS. Histological control leads to a diagnosis of carcinomas, adenomas, and nonneoplastic lesions, respectively, in 42.2%, 20%, and 37.8% of AUS and in 8.3%, 69.4%, and 22.2% of FL. Among biochemical, clinical, cytological, and echographic outcomes, altered thyroid autoantibodies, multiple versus single nodule, AUS versus FL, and presence of intranodular vascular flow were statistically significant to differentiate adenoma from carcinoma and from nonneoplastic lesions, whereas no significant differences were found between carcinomas and nonneoplastic lesions for these parameters. The results of this retrospective study show that undetermined FNAC category can further be subclassified in AUS and FL, the former showing higher malignancy rate. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. PMID:21760976

  16. [A child of malignant lymphoma diagnosed by transbronchial aspiration cytology under general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask].

    PubMed

    Sakurada, A; Saito, Y; Sagawa, M; Tsuchiya, S; Aikawa, H; Chen, Y; Endo, C; Sato, M; Takahashi, H; Usuda, K; Takahashi, S; Fujimura, S

    1997-07-01

    A 8-year-old male with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome was admitted to our hospital because of left hilar swelling on a chest roentgeonogram. Bronchofiberscopy and transbronchial aspiration cytology (TBAC) was performed under general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask. The specimen obtained by TBAC was immediately stained and diagnosed as malignant lymphoma. One month later, thoracotomy was performed in order to get more detail diagnosis, which is necessary to determine the regimen of chemotherapy, and the nodal specimen were diagnosed as Hodgkin's disease. The ABVD therapy was performed which induced the complete remission. The laryngeal mask is a useful device for bronchofiberscopy in children. PMID:9223868

  17. Value of ancillary studies in the evaluation of fine-needle aspiration specimens: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Mutreja, D; Nijhawan, Vijay S; Srinivasa, V; Lakhtakia, R; Subramanya, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cytological diagnosis of poorly differentiated tumors is challenging because the tumor cells may have morphologically difficult presentations in materials obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). With the application of FNAC in primary diagnosis of malignant lesions, there has been a significant increase in the use of ancillary studies in the aspirated material. Aims: We evaluated the value of ancillary studies, namely cell blocks, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and electron microscopy (EM), in the final interpretation of FNAC smears. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine cases of neoplastic swellings were subjected to FNAC. Material acquired was divided for ICC, consisting of immunoperoxidase staining of direct smears, and/or cellblocks and EM, in addition to routine light microscopy (LM). Correlation with the available histological material with immunohistochemistry and/or pertinent clinical information was used as a “gold” standard. Results: Five (7.2%) cases were excluded from the study, the material being necrotic or insufficient. Cell blocks were available in 46/64 (71.8%) cases, ICC evaluation was performed in 41/64 cases (64%) and EM studies were done in 57/64 cases (89%). Diagnostic accuracy of LM alone was 32/64 (50%). Cell blocks improved the diagnoses in 8/46 (17%) cases. The ICC data were diagnostic in 18/41 (43.9%) cases, helpful in 8/41 (19.6%) cases and non-helpful in 15/41 (36.5%) cases. EM studies were diagnostic in 22/57 (38.5%) cases, helpful in 18/57 (31.5%) cases and non-helpful in 17/57 (30%) cases. In 34/64 (53.1%) cases, all ancillary techniques (cell blocks, ICC and EM) were applied and their diagnostic accuracy was compared. Conclusions: With appropriate case selection, ancillary studies performed on aspirated material can provide useful information in FNAC. PMID:22787289

  18. Soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma with rhabdoid-like features and EWSR1 rearrangement: Fine needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isidro; López-Soto, María Victoria; Rubio, Luis; Navarro, Lara; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    A new case of soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma (MEC) with rhabdoid-like differentiation is presented including cytologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic features. A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the Hospital with nodular mass involving the lower part of the abdominal wall. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed a round cell tumor with abundant cytoplasm in the myxoid background. The nuclei were uniform, round to ovoid, with finely distributed chromatin, nucleoli, and pale, vacuolated, or eosinophilic cytoplasm with rhabdoid-like appearance resembling a soft tissue malignant rhabdoid tumor. The surgically removed tumor was poorly demarcated, yellow, soft, and myxoid. The histopathology revealed sheets of poorly differentiated round malignant cells with focal myxoid stroma and rhabdoid-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CK (AE1/AE3), EMA, S100, vimentin, CD99, and SMA; however desmin, CD34, and gliofibrilar acid protein (GFAP) were negative. Tumor cells revealed loss of INI1 expression. The EWSR1 gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but molecular biology failed to detect EWSR1/ETS, EWSR1/NR4A3, EWSR1/DDIT3, EWSR1/ATF1, EWSR1-POU5F1, EWSR1/ZNF444, EWSR1-PBX1 gene fusions. The final diagnosis was soft tissue malignant myoepithelioma with rhabdoid changes and EWSR1 gene rearrangement. The differential diagnosis included soft tissue malignant rhabdoid tumor, cellular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, proximal epithelioid sarcoma, and other soft tissue tumor with EWSR1 rearrangement. To our knowledge, this is the first case of MEC with rhabdoid features and description of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:421-426. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25693574

  19. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of spindle-cell argyrophilic mucin-producing carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Burgan, A R; Frierson, H F; Fechner, R E

    1996-05-01

    An unusual breast carcinoma with prominent spindle cells, intracytoplasmic mucin, and argyrophilia in an 82-yr-old woman was sampled preoperatively by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The smears contained highly cellular sheets and fragments of uniform spindle cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. The cells were mucicarmine positive and contained many cytoplasmic argyrophilic granules. The findings were confirmed by histologic examination of the excised tumor, which was also studied with a panel of immunohistochemical stains. A review of the literature indicated that spindle-cell argyrophilic mucin-producing carcinoma (SCAMPC) of the breast is a very rare neoplasm presenting primarily in elderly patients. The FNA cytologic features seem to be unique and should allow distinction from other primary breast lesions. PMID:8732654

  20. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing filarial arm cysts.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Nishi; Bansal, Cherry; Sharma, Richa; Irfan, Sumaiya

    2013-01-01

    Filariasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas and is endemic in regions of India. Lymphatic filariasis in India is caused mainly by two species of nematodes: Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, which invade the human lymphatic system. We report two cases of superficial cystic lesions of the upper limb revealed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) to be clinically unsuspected filariasis. Despite similar aetiologies, both cases revealed variations in aspirate nature, smear morphology and peripheral blood findings. FNA provides definitive diagnosis and is an important tool for diagnosing soft tissue swellings owing to filariasis. PMID:23687368

  1. Pattern of tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cadmus, S I B; Oluwasola, A O; Okolo, C A; Bethrand, A F Ngwu

    2010-09-01

    Nigeria currently carries a high burden of tuberculosis, with an associated increasing incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with the lymph node being one of the most frequently affected sites. This 10 year (1996-2005) retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tuberculous lymphadenitis in patients at the Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Clinic of the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, lbadan, Nigeria. In all, a total of 1,120 lymph node aspirates were examined, out of which 285 (25.45%) were reported as tuberculous lymphadenitis. One hundred and forty-eight (51.9%) were males while 137 (48.1%) were females. The age group of 10-19 years had the highest prevalence of 80 (28.1%), followed by those of 0-9 years with 75 (26.3%) and 20-29 years with 62 (21.8%). The cervical lymph nodes were the most affected sites (63.9%) followed by the supraclavicular (7.7%); submandibular (5.6%); the least affected sites being the clavicular and axillary nodes. The study concludes that tuberculous lymphadenitis is a common clinical presentation in Ibadan and it usually affects children, adolescents and young adults; with the cervical group of lymph nodes being the most commonly affected site. PMID:21416788

  2. Fine-needle aspiration of neurilemoma (schwannoma). A clinicocytopathologic study of 116 patients.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Henryk A; Akerman, Måns; Engellau, Jacob; Gustafson, Pelle; Mertens, Fredrik; Rydholm, Anders

    2006-06-01

    The preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnoses in 116 surgically excised neurilemomas were reviewed and compared with the corresponding histopathologic diagnoses made on surgical specimens and with clinical data. In addition, the utility of adjunctive techniques was analyzed and other spindle-cell lesions in the differential diagnoses were discussed. An unequivocal, benign diagnosis was rendered by FNAC in 80 cases, 67 of which were correctly labelled as neurilemoma in a review of the original cytology reports. There were 6 false-positive malignant diagnoses while 23 smears were considered insufficient and 7 inconclusive as to whether benign or malignant. On reevaluation, the diagnostic smears in most cases contained spindle cells with wavy nuclei embedded in a fibrillar, occasionally collagenous, and/or myxoid matrix and Antoni A/Antoni B tissue fragments. A moderate to abundant admixture of round to oval cells was also frequent. Nuclear palisading was seen in 41 smears with distinctive Verocay bodies in 10. Markedly pleomorphic nuclei were seen in smears from 8 ancient and 6 conventional neurilemomas, and slight to moderate nuclear pleomorphism was observed in 38 additional cases. Thus most neurilemomas have distinct cytomorphologic features that allow correct diagnosis. The major problem in FNAC of neurilemoma is to obtain sufficient material. Furthermore aspirates showing predominantly Antoni A features, nuclear pleomorphism, and/or myxoid changes can easily be confused with other types of benign or malignant soft-tissue tumors. PMID:16680779

  3. S100P and XIAP Expression in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Potential Novel Biomarkers as a Diagnostic Adjunct to Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ognjen Kosarac; Hidehiro Takei; Qihui Jim Zhai; Mary R. Schwartz; Dina R. Mody

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The usefulness of 2 novel biomarkers in pancreatic surgical and cytological specimens that could reliably differentiate non-neoplastic pancreatic duct and benign gut epithelium from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) was evaluated. Study Design: A total of 14 pancreatic resection specimens (RSs), 23 endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNAs) of PDA and 8 benign pancreatic EUS-FNAs were selected. Twelve of 14

  4. Presacral myelolipoma. Report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytology and immunohistochemical and histochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, G C; Coleman, B; Daly, J M; Gupta, P K

    1992-01-01

    The cytomorphologic features of a case of the rare presacral myelolipoma, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, are presented. It occurred in a 40-year-old man on prolonged steroid therapy for bronchial asthma. On the air-dried, Diff-Quik-stained smear, hematopoietic cells of all lineages and fragments of collapsed stroma were seen in a background of fat droplets. Megakaryocytic, myelocytic and eosinophilic lineages were further demonstrated by Factor VIII immunostain, chloroacetate esterase and LUNA-E histochemical stain, respectively. The reticulum stain of the resected tumor demonstrated that the hematopoietic cells and fat were supported by numerous reticulum fibers of varying thickness; that accounted for the collapsed stroma in the aspirated material. Presacral myelolipoma, occurring predominantly in female adults and presenting secondarily as a space-occupying lesion, is best regarded as encapsulated, heterotopic bone marrow supported by a network of reticulum fibers; it has a characteristic image on CT scan and can be diagnosed by FNA. PMID:1449031

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology of primary sphenoid sinus esthesioneuroblastoma metastatic to the skin

    PubMed Central

    Akinfolarin, Josephine; Jazaerly, Tarek; Jones, Kia; Abu-Hamdan, Maher; Lonardo, Fulvio; Folbe, Adam; Giorgadze, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare tumor derived from olfactory neuroepithelium. ENB in a site outside of where olfactory epithelium exists is exceedingly rare with only five cases of ENB isolated to the sphenoid sinuses described in the literature to date. To the best of our knowledge, a skin metastasis of ENB outside the head and neck region has not been reported. We present an unusual case of a 33-year-old male diagnosed with primary sphenoid sinus ENB, who underwent surgical resection of the tumor followed by chemoradiation. About 5 months later, the patient developed a dermal mass in the sternal region, clinically suspicious for metastasis. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) revealed a tumor with morphological features and immunophenotype consistent with the metastasis from patient's known primary sphenoid sinus ENB. Our case demonstrates that the skin may be a rare site of a metastatic ENB, and FNA is a cost-effective and reliable diagnostic method of a suspected cutaneous metastasis. PMID:23210016

  6. Scope of FNAC in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors-A study from a tertiary cancer referral center in India

    PubMed Central

    Rekhi, Bharat; Gorad, Biru D; Kakade, Anagha C; Chinoy, RF

    2007-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) forms one of the first diagnostic tools in the evaluation of tumors. Its role in diagnosing soft tissue tumors (STT) has been fairly documented, as well as debated. Present study was aimed at evaluating its scope in diagnosing 127 cases of soft tissue tumors. Methods Conventional Pap and MGG staining was available in all the cases. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed in 15 cases. Histopathological details were available in 115 cases. Results 50% cases were referred for a primary diagnosis, while 26.8% & 22.8% cases were evaluated for recurrent and metastatic lesions, respectively. Extremities were the commonest sites. On FNAC, 101 cases (79.5%) were labeled as malignant, whereas 10 cases (7.9%) were labeled as benign. The remaining 16 cases (11%) were not categorized and were labeled as 'unsure/not specified'. Histopathological confirmation in 115 cases, gave a diagnostic accuracy of 98%, with a positive predictive value of 98% in malignant cases and a negative predictive value of 100% in benign cases. Two cases were false positive. Among the various cytological categories, 60 cases (47.2%) were of spindle cell type, followed by 32 (25.2%) of round cell type and 14 cases (11%) of lipomatous type. Other 12 cases (9.4%) were of pleomorphic type; 7 (5.5%) cases of epithelioid type and remaining 2 cases were of myxoid type. All the round cell, pleomorphic and myxoid type of tumors were sarcomas, whereas 73.3% cases of spindle cell type were labeled as 'malignant'. Exact cytological sub typing was offered in 58 cases, with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as the most frequently sub typed tumor. The two false positive malignant cases were of fibromatosis and a pigmented schwannoma, on biopsy. Out of 28 metastatic lesions, lymph nodes were the commonest site for metastasis, with epithelioid tumors that formed highest percentage of metastatic cases. Conclusion FNAC is fairly specific and sensitive in STT diagnoses for primary, recurrent and metastatic lesions. The cytological types, especially round cell and pleomorphic sarcomas, can be quickly identified. Clinicopathological correlation with ICC as an adjunct, are valuable in exact sub typing. PMID:17973999

  7. Cytological features of malignant eccrine acrospiroma presenting as a soft tissue mass axilla: A rare sweat gland tumor with histologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Chandra, Subrat; Tanwar, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Malignant eccrine acrospiroma is an infrequent, highly malignant primary skin tumor derived from eccrine sweat glands. Though fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established diagnostic tool, but if a skin adnexal tumor or primary skin lesion is suspected clinically, the usual approach is biopsy due to easy accessibility. Being itself rare, cytologic features of this lesion is hardly encountered in case reports. As a result, very little is known about the appearance of adnexal tumors like malignant eccrine acrospiroma on fine-needle aspiration samples. A 50-year-old man presented with swelling in the left axilla, clinically suspected to be a soft tissue sarcoma. Fine-needle aspiration was advised, and a cytological diagnosis of malignant eccrine acrospiroma was rendered which was later confirmed on histological examination. Rapid, accurate diagnosis of these tumors is imperative as they have very poor prognosis and an aggressive course with recurrence and/or metastasis. FNAC plays a decisive and easy diagnostic modality in these unusual, rare cases of highly malignant primary skin tumor, and awareness of the lesions is indispensable in their management. PMID:26097826

  8. Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washouts vs. cytologic examination for diagnosis of primary or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Maccora, D; Carrozza, C; Canu, G; Fadda, G; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) is able to detect approximately 63% of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The measurement of calcitonin in the needle washout (FNAB-CT) could improve its accuracy. Sixty-two FNAB-C were performed in 38 patients. Serum calcitonin (sCT) was measured before performing FNAB-C. After obtaining a FNAB-C specimen, the needle was washed with 0.5 ml of saline solution to obtain the CT washouts. Receiver operating characteristic (RO C) analysis identified the cut-offs of FNAB-CT and FNAB-CT/sCT. Eighteen MTC were found at final histology. RO C analysis indicated FNAB-CT > 10.4 pg/ml and FNABCT/ sCT > 1.39 as more accurate cut-off values. Overall accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 85%, 100 and 83%, respectively, for FNAB-C, 97%, 100%, 96% for FNAB-CT and 90%, 83% and 93% for FNAB-CT/sCT. The integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT resulted in 98% overall accuracy, 100% PPV and 98% NPV; the integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT/sCT in 90% overall accuracy, 80% PPV and 95% NPV. One of 2 false negative FNAB-CT and one of 3 false negative FNAB CT/sCT were correctly diagnosed by FNAB-C. Eight of 9 non-diagnostic FNAB-C were correctly classified by FNAB-CT and 7 by FNAB CT/sCT. FNAB-CT should integrate but not replace FNAB-C. FNAB-CT is particularly useful in the presence of non-diagnostic FNAB-C. PMID:25762832

  9. Clinical evaluation, imaging studies, indications for cytologic study and preprocedural requirements for duct brushing studies and pancreatic fine-needle aspiration: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Douglas; Schmidt, C. Max; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Barthel, James S.; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Merchant, Nipun B.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Shaaban, Akram M.; Simeone, Diane; Pitman, Martha Bishop; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques for EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature to be used for pancreaticobiliary disease, ancillary testing and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on expertise of the authors, literature review, discussions of the draft document at national and international meetings and synthesis of online comments of the draft document. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. This document summarizes recommendations for the clinical and imaging work-up of pancreatic and biliary tract lesions along with indications for cytologic study of these lesions. Prebrushing and FNA requirements are also discussed. PMID:25191515

  10. Evaluation of endoscopic cytological diagnosis of unresectable pancreatic cancer prior to and after the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    USHIJIMA, TOMOYUKI; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; SUGIYAMA, GEN; SASAKI, YU; KURAOKA, KEI; YASUMOTO, MAKIKO; TAIRA, TOMOKI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; TSURUTA, OSAMU; SATA, MICHIO

    2014-01-01

    With the advances in the multidisciplinary treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC) over the last few years, it is crucial to obtain a histopathological diagnosis prior to treatment. Histopathological diagnosis for unresectable PC is currently performed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in combination with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We retrospectively assessed the results of these two methods and investigated diagnostic performance according to the location of the lesion and the complications. This study was conducted on a series of 263 consecutive cases of unresectable PC diagnosed with endoscopic cytology. Up to 2006, ERCP-guided cytology (group A) was performed as the first choice for the diagnosis of PC. EUS-FNA was introduced in 2007 and became the first choice thereafter (group B), except in cases with obstructive jaundice, in which ERCP-guided cytology during endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) remains the first choice. There were statistically significant differences in the overall cancer-positive rate between groups A and B (60.4 vs. 75.3%, P=0.01). The cancer-positive rate in the pancreatic body and tail was significantly higher in group B (59.5 vs. 83.3%, P=0.005), whereas there were no significant differences regarding cancer of the pancreatic head. The complication rate was 4.95% in group A and 3.09% in group B (P=0.448). The endoscopic cytology cancer-positive rate in unresectable PC cases was increased as a result of the introduction of EUS-FNA. In conclusion, we recommend performing EUS-FNA in combination with ERCP-guided cytology in cases with a lesion in the pancreatic head that requires EBS. PMID:24940503

  11. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology. PMID:24987443

  12. Role of FNAC in the Preoperative Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Clement R S; Khosla, Charu; George, Lovely; Katte, Namitha Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Background: The characteristic cytologic features of the common salivary gland lesions have been well-delineated in literature. However, there also exist cytologic pitfalls and overlapping features that make an accurate diagnosis difficult in few cases. The present study was designed to compare the cytologic findings of salivary gland lesions with the histologic diagnoses, in order to assess the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, with an emphasis on discordant cases. Materials and Methods: Patients with suspected salivary gland enlargements, who were referred for FNAC, were included in this study, which was done over a 3 year period in a medical college hospital. FNAC was performed by using the standard procedure. Smears were stained by using Papanicolaou’s and MGG stains. Cytologic diagnosis was compared with histopathologic diagnosis wherever it was available. Results: Eighty eight patients with salivary gland swellings were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 82 years, with the M:F ratio being 1.6:1. Out of 88 cases, 68 had swellings in parotid gland, 19 had them in submandibular gland and one had them in hard palate. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest neoplasm which was seen in our study. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the only malignant lesion seen in our study. One each of Warthin’s tumour (WT) and MEC were overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed respectively, the reason being squamous metaplasia in WT and subtle nature of malignant cells in low-grade MEC. Conclusion: WT and MEC can pose problems in cytologicdiagnosis. Sampling errors and interpretational errors can lead todiscordant diagnoses. PMID:25386436

  13. Endosonography-guided, fine-needle aspiration cytology extending the indication for organ-preserving pancreatic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Fritscher-Ravens; Jakob R. Izbicki; Parupudi V. J. Sriram; Christina Krause; W. Trudo Knoefel; Theodoros Topalidis; Stefan Jaeckle; Frank Thonke; Nib Soehendra

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Organ preserving pancreatic resections are considered whenever malignant disease is ruled out. In tumors of low malignant potential such as cystadenomas and neuroendocrine tumors, the diagnosis is rarely established preoperatively. We studied the feasibility of cytodiagnosis using endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration in determining the operative approach.METHODS:A total of 78 patients (16 female, 62 male; mean age 61.4 yr, range 31–82 yr)

  14. Phyllodes tumor of the breast with actin inclusions in stromal cells: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Ortega, E; Aranda, F I; Chuliá, M T; Niveiro, M; Payá, A; Seguí, J

    2001-08-01

    The occurrence of hyaline inclusions in stromal cells in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast is very uncommon. These inclusions, characteristic of infantile digital fibromatosis, are comprised of actin filaments. This report illustrates a case of a benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with inclusion bodies, identified by fine-needle aspiration. Histologically, many of the stromal cells contained round intracytoplasmic inclusions, with positivity for smooth muscle actin. PMID:11477716

  15. Diagnosis of renal allograft rejection by analysis of fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens with immunostains and simple cytology.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G A; Hall, B M; Waugh, J; Philips, J; Horvath, J S; Duggin, G G; Johnson, J R; Sheil, A G; Tiller, D J

    1986-09-20

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of renal transplants were analysed by means of commercially available monoclonal antibodies and an immunoperoxidase stain. Three cellular features associated with acute cellular rejection were identified--heavy infiltrates of activated T cells or large mononuclear cells strongly expressing HLA-DR antigens, and HLA-DR expression by renal tubular cells. A combination of semiquantitative scores for these features correctly identified rejection in 32 of 34 cases, with no false positives in cases of cyclosporin nephrotoxicity or stable graft function. PMID:2876134

  16. Tibial bone metastasis as an initial presentation of endometrial carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Boukhar, Sarag Aboujafar; Kaneshiro, Ricky; Schiller, Alan; Terada, Keith; Tauchi-Nishi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. However, bony metastasis is infrequent and exceptionally rare as the initial presentation. We report a case of a 77-year-old female with a clinically silent endometrial carcinoma who presented with a left tibial metastasis as the first manifestation of her disease. Ours is only the third case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, and the first to detail the cytomorphologic features of metastatic endometrial cancer to bone. These microscopic findings, including three-dimensional cohesive clusters with cellular overlapping and cuboidal to columnar cells exhibiting low nuclear: cytoplasmic ratios and partially vacuolated cytoplasm, differ significantly from those of endometrial carcinoma on a Papanicolaou test. The tumor bore similarity to the more commonly encountered metastatic colon cancer, but immunohistochemical staining enabled reliable distinction between these entities. A review of osseous metastases of endometrial cancer demonstrates a predilection for bones of the lower extremity and pelvis with a predominance of the endometrioid histologic subtype. In about a quarter of the cases, the bony metastasis was the first manifestation of the cancer. FNA was an effective diagnostic modality for this unusual presentation of a common malignancy. Awareness of this entity and its differential diagnosis is essential for accurate and timely diagnosis.

  17. Efficiency of Ultrasound and Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Preoperative Assessment of Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran; Akpinar, Meltem Gulsun; Soygur, Is?l; Baykal, Atac; Onder, Sevgen Celik; Uner, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We performed this study to detect preoperative axillary metastases with ultrasound (US)-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), to eliminate the need for time-consuming and costly sentinel lymph node (SLN) scintigraphy and biopsy steps in the treatment of breast cancer patients, and in that of with suspicious US findings, and to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative US-guided FNAB for patients with suspicious lymph node metastases on US. Methods Patients with a suspicious breast lump or histopathologically proven breast cancer underwent breast-axillary US. Increase in lymph node size, cortical thickening, non-hilar cortical flow, and hilar changes were evaluated with gray scale-color Doppler US. FNAB was performed if US results were suspicious for malignancy. Results Thirty-eight axillary lymph nodes (ALN) underwent FNAB. ALN dissection, SLN scintigraphy, and biopsy steps were bypassed in 23 axillas with positive ALN FNAB (60.5%). The sensitivity of ALN FNAB was 88.46%; specificity and positive predictive value were 100%; and negative predictive value was 66.6% (inadequate cytology included; 76.7%, 100%, 100%, 53.3%, respectively). Asymmetrical cortical thickening, non-hilar cortical flow, and increase in hypoechogenity were only detected in metastatic nodes. Cortical thickening, and lymph node and breast mass size was higher in the metastatic group. Conclusion By performing FNAB on suspicious lymph nodes, the routine, high-cost SLN scintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe steps may be skipped, and axilla dissection can be performed directly. This leads to the elimination of the need for SLN investigation in more than half of the patients. The assessment of ALN metastases with preoperative US-guided FNAB is a cost-effective method with high specificity, that eliminates the need for costly and time-consuming SLN scintigraphy and biopsy steps, and helps in preoperative staging. PMID:22807939

  18. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) with overlapping cytomorphological features with T-CLL and T-ALL: a case initially diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Pathan, Shahed K; Joneja, Munish; Al-Musawi, Fatma A; John, Bency; Mirza, Kamran R

    2013-04-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a very unusual form of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, which has rarely been diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. We report one such case with some overlapping cytomorphological features with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A 91-year-old man presented with generalized lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, ascites, and an ulcerated growth in rectum. FNA smears from the left cervical lymph node showed a monotonous population of small lymphoid cells having small but distinct nucleoli that was initially diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Smears from the left axillary lymph node contained both small and medium-sized lymphoid cells with frequent hand-mirror cell appearance, which has been described in acute lymphoblatic leukemia (ALL). Immunocyto/histochemical stainings on smears and cell block preparations of the aspirate showed the following immunophenotype: CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD8-, CD20-, CD23-, and Tdt-. Total peripheral blood leukocyte count was 26.4 × 10(9) /L and total lymphocyte count, 8.3 × 10(9) /L with predominance of small lymphocytes. T-cell nature of the neoplasm was confirmed by biopsies from the cervical lymph node (T-cell lymphoma), bone marrow (T-cell lymphoid neoplasm/chronic lymphocytic leukemia), and the ulcerated rectal lesion (atypical T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder). The patient developed deep vein thrombosis, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding from duodenal ulcer. By the time the reports of all the investigations were ready, the patient succumbed to bronchopneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this T-CLL/T-PLL which was diagnosed initially by FNA cytology with immunocytochemical support is first of its kind to be reported. PMID:21987484

  19. Cytologic-Radiologic Correlation Using Transthoracic CT-Guided FNA for Lung and Mediastinal Masses: Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Piplani, Sanjay; Mannan, Rahul; Lalit, Monika; Manjari, Mridu; Bhasin, Tejinder S.; Bawa, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Thoracic lesions account for various benign and malignant conditions. Of these lung carcinoma (mainly primary) is the most common carcinoma in the world. The present study was undertaken to know the pathological spectrum of thoracic lesions and to correlate cytoradiological findings. Materials and Methods. The present study was conducted in a tertiary care center of North India on 74 patients over an 18-month period. CT guided transthoracic FNAC (TTFNA) was carried out, and aspirates were drawn, examined, and compared with radiological diagnoses. Results. The diagnostic accuracy for FNA in the present study was calculated to be 95.94% (using cytology as the gold standard). The predominant lesion was malignancy (85.1%), followed by suspicions of malignancy and inflammatory pathology (5.40% each). By cytology, the most common malignant lesion was adenocarcinoma (48%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (40%), small cell carcinoma (8%), and undifferentiated carcinoma (4%). Cytoradiological correlation was found to be 89.2% in the present study. Conclusion. Present study thus concludes that TT FNA of thoracic lesions is a simple, safe, economically prudent technique associated with low morbidity and leading to quick and early diagnosis. PMID:25763320

  20. c-erbB2/neu gene and chromosome 17 analysis in breast cancer by FISH on archival cytological fine-needle aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Mezzelani, A; Alasio, L; Bartoli, C; Bonora, M G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F; Pilotti, S

    1999-01-01

    The detection of specific genetic alterations in breast cancer is useful for diagnosing, predicting prognosis and planning preoperative treatment. c-erbB2/neu overexpression is usually detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC), although this technique is neither completely reproducible nor highly reliable, owing to specimen and methodologic variability and antibody sensitivity. Here, we combine two well-established techniques, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to detect c-erbB2/neu amplification in patients candidate to primary chemotherapy and, in part, previously analysed for c-erbB2/neu overexpression. Sixty smears from FNA were used to simultaneously detect c-erbB2/neu and chromosome 17 centromere. FISH was successful in 58 cases and detected 24 amplified cases, three of which were negative by immunophenotyping, 28 negative cases, with evidence of two normal c-erbB2/neu/ signals, two cases with deletion of c-erbB2/neu, and four cases with polysomy, thus providing more reliable and informative results than ICC. This study underlines the advantages offered by the FNA and FISH combination which are two rapid, reliable, simple and informative techniques, to analyse one of the most important genetic markers for predicting prognosis and chemotherapy planning for breast carcinoma in particular in the light of the recently proposed trials of primary chemotherapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408862

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology of histiocytic sarcoma with dendritic cell differentiation: A case of transdifferentiation from low-grade follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Sanjana; Pan, Zenggang

    2015-08-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare malignant tumor, and in extraordinary circumstances it can be transdifferentiated from a low-grade B-cell lymphoma. In our report, a 62-year-old female was initially diagnosed with a low-grade follicular lymphoma, and 2 years later she presented with bilateral lung masses and lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the lung masses revealed solid nests of large pleomorphic epithelioid cells. By immunohistochemical studies, the tumor cells were positive for histiocytic markers (CD68 and CD163) and S100, supporting a diagnosis of HS with dendritic cell differentiation. Further fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses detected IGH@/BCL2 rearrangement in both the previous follicular lymphoma and the current HS, which was highly suggestive of the clonal relationship between these two tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of transformation of follicular lymphoma into HS diagnosed by FNA of lung masses. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:659-663. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25993973

  2. Efficiency of a Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound and Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology to Detect Patients with Extensive Axillary Lymph Node Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Isabella; Deambrogio, Cristina; Muscarà, Francesca; Chiusa, Luigi; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Bussone, Riccardo; Gazzetta, Guglielmo; Macrì, Luigia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) does not affect patient survival, even in those with one or two positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). On the other hand, patients with 3 or more metastatic lymph nodes are eligible for chemotherapy. Therefore, it is crucial to identify a priori patients at risk of having a high number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes for their surgical and/or clinical management. Ultrasound (US) guided Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) has been proven to be a useful and highly specific method for detecting metastatic axillary lymph nodes. However, only one recent study has evaluated the efficiency of this method in identifying patients with high metastatic nodal involvement. Our aim was to validate US-guided FNA as a reliable method to discriminate a priori patients with >3 metastatic lymph nodes. Methods A retrospective series of 1287 breast cancer patients who underwent a simultaneous preoperative breast and axillary US to stage their axilla was collected. A total of 365 patients, with either positive SLNs (278) or positive axillary lymph nodes detected via US-guided FNA (87), underwent ALND. In these two subgroups, we compared the number of metastatic lymph nodes in the axilla. Results The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes in patients who underwent US-guided FNA was significantly higher (63% had >3 metastatic lymph nodes) than that in patients with SLNs positive for micro- or macrometastases (3% and 27%, respectively) (P<0.001, ?2?=?117.897). Conclusions Preoperative axillary US-guided FNA could act as a reliable tool in identifying breast cancer patients with extensive nodal involvement. PMID:25207643

  3. Thin-needle aspiration biopsy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Koss, L G; Woyke, S; Schreiber, K; Kohlberg, W; Freed, S Z

    1984-05-01

    The authors summarize the current status of thin-needle aspiration biopsy of the prostate and evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this method of diagnosis. Historical developments, indications, technique, contraindications, complications, cytology of aspirates, diagnostic efficacy of aspirates, and grading of prostatic carcinomas are discussed. PMID:6203204

  4. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  5. Computerderived Nuclear Features Distinguish Malignant from Benign Breast Cytology.

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    previously encountered. Materials and Methods Patients and Aspirate The benign and malignant cell samples1 Wolberg Computer­derived Nuclear Features Distinguish Malignant from Benign Breast Cytology features. These features are then tested to distinguish between benign and malignant breast cytology

  6. Multicentric Aggressive Mammary Fibromatosis with Cytological Features and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Gupta, Nilakshi; Pant, Prabhat; Thapliyal, Naveen Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Fibromatosis is a fibroblastic lesion composed of uniform fibroblasts and collagen with an infiltrative growth pattern but lacking malignant cytological features. It is a rare entity and is even more unusual when found in the breast. Multicentricity in fibromatosis has been reported in 10% cases. Multicentricity in breast cancer has been defined as the presence of two or more tumor foci within different quadrants of the same breast. Considering this definition of multicentricity for fibromatosis, we herein report a case of recurrent multicentric aggressive mammary fibromatosis and its cytological features with review of literature because of limited literature of (FNAC) in mammary fibromatosis. PMID:24995189

  7. Fat necrosis of the breast: a cytological and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Aqel, N M; Howard, A; Collier, D S

    2001-08-01

    Fat necrosis of the breast is a sterile condition that usually results from trauma to the breast. It may present with a breast lump that, on clinical and mammographic examination, can mimic malignancy. The literature suggests that fat necrosis of the breast can only be diagnosed accurately by histological examinations of breast biopsies. In this paper, we review the findings of a series of 35 patients in whom fat necrosis was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. Repeated fine needle aspiration cytology with close follow-up have proven to be a reliable method of establishing the diagnosis of fat necrosis of the breast, thereby reducing the necessity for open biopsy. PMID:14965606

  8. Isolated musculoskeletal hydatid disease: diagnosis on fine needle aspiration and cell block.

    PubMed

    Hui, Monalisa; Tandon, Ashwani; Prayaga, Aruna K; Patnaik, Sujata

    2015-06-01

    Hydatidosis is a zoonotic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The most common sites of involvement are liver and lungs. Isolated musculoskeletal hydatidosis in absence of visceral involvement is rare and it mimics bone or soft tissue neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration cytology and cell block aids in diagnosis in such unusual location. Here we present one such rare case of isolated musculoskeletal hydatidosis diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology and cell block which was mimicking as fibrous dysplasia on radiology. PMID:26064030

  9. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as “Intramuscular Sarcocystosis” and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management.

  10. Challenges to diagnose metaplastic carcinoma of the breast through cytologic methods: an eight-case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Because metaplastic carcinoma of the breast encompasses a great variety of histopathology, diagnostic challenges abound, especially within the realm of cytology. The authors compiled and studied an eight-case series comprised of metaplastic breast carcinomas and lesions initially suspicious cytologically for metaplastic carcinoma in order to assess the degree of cytologic-histologic correlation and to identify recurring problematic themes surrounding the cytology-based diagnosis of this neoplasm. The cytologic and histologic slides from eight cases suspicious for metaplastic breast carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) were collected and analyzed through a seven-year retrospective search of case files at our institution. Based on cytologic characteristics, the cases were separated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of three cases presenting with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamoid components on FNA. Group 2 was composed of two cases that featured a monophasic, malignant ductal cell population on cytology, while the cytologic specimens for the third group of cases presented with a mesenchymal component with or without a malignant glandular constituent. Cytologic-histologic correlation was present in two of three cases demonstrating a mesenchymal component, and there was 100% sensitivity in the cytologic detection of those mesenchymal elements. However, in only one of three cases was there an accurate cytologic diagnosis of metaplastic carcinoma when squamoid changes were present on FNA. Both cases demonstrating only malignant glandular elements on cytologic specimens revealed an additional component of malignant squamous differentiation upon the examination of mastectomy-derived tissue. These results indicate that squamous-like changes identified on FNA should be interpreted with caution and that sampling error remains a problematic recurrence in cytology. Regardless, there appears to be promise concerning the accurate cytologic diagnosis of metaplastic carcinoma when the lesion is characterized by a mesenchymal component. A study implementing a larger case number is essential in determining the significance of these findings. PMID:21244696

  11. The role of cytology in the era of HPV-related head and neck carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Krishnamurthy, Savitri

    2015-07-01

    Enlarged neck lymph nodes are very often subject to fine needle aspiration biopsy to detect metastatic disease in patients with suspected or proven squamous cell carcinoma in head and neck region. Cytology specimens of metastatic carcinoma in such patients are routinely evaluated for human papilloma virus (HPV) to identify patients with HPV- related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Different types of cytology specimens including smears, cytospins, cell blocks and aspirated material in the rinse can all be used for different types of HPV testing such as immunohistochemistry for p16, HPV-in situ hybridization, and HPV-Polymerase chain reaction. There is currently no consensus regarding the testing of high-risk HPV in cytology specimens. The establishment of standardized HPV testing of cytology specimens is of utmost importance and is eagerly awaited. PMID:25638437

  12. Equine endometrial cytology.

    PubMed

    Roszel, J F; Freeman, K P

    1988-08-01

    The simplicity of collection of material for cytologic preparations belies the complexity of smear interpretation beyond recognition of neutrophils. Knowledge concerning cancer cytology moves rapidly, for cancer is a progressive, often fatal disease so that tissue for comparison and confirmation of interpretation often becomes available. This is not true for cytologic study of the equine endometrium. Lesions detected by means of cytology smears may be transient and regress, offering little information concerning their etiology or consequences. They may be focal and missed in the corresponding biopsy. Such experiences should lead to the abandonment of equine endometrial cytology, but have only strengthened our interest and enthusiasm for this technique in the study of the uterus. We have found it to be useful in a limited number of clinical circumstances in which other techniques have failed. This, plus the growing number of supportive clinicians using cytopathology service and the large number of mares with fertility problems, leads us to believe that further investigation of equine endometrial cytology may prove to be even more helpful as a clinical tool. PMID:3044539

  13. The Cytology of a Thyroid Granular Cell Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Mei Chang; Chang-Kuo Wei; Chih-En Tseng

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none\\u000a of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological\\u000a analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were

  14. Periosteal chondromyxoid fibroma: a case study using imprint cytology.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Villaseñor, E; Cedillo, E Delgado; Martínez, G Rico; Chávez, R Delgado

    2005-12-01

    Bone surface is an exceptional location for chondromyxoid fibroma. Only 14 cases of juxtacortical chondromyxoid fibroma have been reported to date and, to our knowledge, none of these cases are documented with imprint cytology. We report a case of periosteal chondromyxoid fibroma located in the distal tibial metaphysis of a 4-yr-old boy. The clinical diagnosis was metaphyseal fibrous defect. Cytologic examination revealed a mixoid matrix, with stellate and spindle-shaped cells seen singly, focus of chondroid material, and epithelioid cells. Multinucleate giant cells were not seen. The diagnosis of periosteal chondromyxoid fibroma can be made by fine-needle aspiration or imprint cytology with clinico-radiologic correlation. PMID:16299740

  15. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of superficial masses in children.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, L. P.; Russell, L. A.; Howard, P. H.; Teplitz, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an underused diagnostic procedure in children, particularly in the evaluation of superficial masses. A total of 54 FNABs of superficial masses were performed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. Adequate material for diagnosis was obtained in 50 attempts. The cytologic diagnosis increased clinical understanding and provided a guide for treatment in 46 of the 50 cases. The cytologic diagnosis was confirmed in 15 of 19 patients who underwent an operation. Surgical intervention was obviated in 31 patients. There was one false-positive diagnosis of cancer. We describe the role of FNAB in children and its technique, accuracy, and diagnostic problems. Images PMID:1877227

  16. Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Filippo; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano

    2014-04-01

    A cytological grading for mast cell tumours (MCTs) would be highly desirable, allowing to select the most appropriate therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. This study evaluates the applicability on fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the novel Kiupel grading system, based on number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and presence of karyomegaly. Fifty consecutive cases with pre-operative cytological diagnosis were included. In cytological specimens, approximately 1000 cells were evaluated, and the histological grade was assessed on the corresponding resected specimens. On cytology, the above parameters were significantly different between histologically low-grade and high-grade tumours (P?cytology. The cytograding can provide helpful insights to assist clinical decisions in most cases. However, the risk of underestimation in a minority of patients represents a limit to the overall utility of the technique. PMID:24717019

  17. Role of scrape cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis of tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, Sachin S; Satarkar, Rahul N

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rapid diagnosis of surgically removed specimens has created many controversies and a single completely reliable method has not yet been developed. Histopathology of a paraffin section remains the ultimate gold standard in tissue diagnosis. Frozen section is routinely used by the surgical pathology laboratories for intraoperative diagnosis. The use of either frozen section or cytological examination alone has an acceptable rate (93–97%) of correct diagnosis, with regard to interpretation of benign versus malignant. Aim: To evaluate the utility of scrape cytology for the rapid diagnosis of surgically removed tumors and its utilisation for learning cytopathology. Materials and Methods: 75 surgically removed specimens from various organs and systems were studied. Scrapings were taken from each specimen before formalin fixation and stained by modified rapid Papanicolaou staining. Results: Of the 75 cases studied, 73 could be correctly differentiated into benign and malignant tumors, with an accuracy rate of 97.3%. Conclusions: Intraoperative scrape cytology is useful for intraoperative diagnosis of tumor, where facilities for frozen section are not available. The skill and expertise developed by routinely practicing intraoperative cytology can be applied to the interpretation of fine needle aspirate smears. Thus, apart from its diagnostic role, intraoperative cytology can become a very useful learning tool in the field of cytopathology. PMID:21187882

  18. EGFR and KRAS mutation analysis in cytologic samples of lung adenocarcinoma enabled by laser capture microdissection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinchita Roy Chowdhuri; Liqiang Xi; Trinh Hoc-Tran Pham; Jeffrey Hanson; Jaime Rodriguez-Canales; Arlene Berman; Arun Rajan; Giuseppe Giaccone; Michael Emmert-Buck; Mark Raffeld; Armando C Filie

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of activating mutations in EGFR and KRAS in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas was a major advance in our understanding of lung adenocarcinoma biology, and has led to groundbreaking studies that have demonstrated the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Fine-needle aspirates and other cytologic procedures have become increasingly popular for obtaining diagnostic material in lung carcinomas. However,

  19. Cytology of Fungal Infection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Vincelli. (University of Kentucky; )

    2001-06-18

    This resource is a laboratory exercise in plant patholgy. Students become familiar with the cytological events involved in the establishment of infection by a fungal pathogen. Upon completion of this laboratory students should understand the effect of various management practices on particular infection events, and the significance of this to disease management.Instructors and students notes are included, as well as data record sheets and discussion questions.

  20. Aspiration in Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huey-Ju.

    This dissertation studies aspiration in Chinese in these four areas: the temporal relationships between aspiration and the vowel of the syllable, the perception of aspiration, the correlation between pitch and aspiration, and the role of aspiration in a historical change in Chinese. Data based on 144 words with aspiration contrasts were derived from the experiments which involved production and perception by a total of 28 Chinese speakers. On the basis of the measurements of acoustical characteristics of the voice onset time and the lengths of the syllable, a constant ratio model has been proposed to describe the timing relationships among the elements within a syllable. The perceptual experiment tested the cues of aspiration by deleting the portion of the voice onset time from the syllable on the front, back, middle and both ends. The results are reported and discussed. The effects of aspiration on intrinsic tone heights in Mandarin were measured and the significance calculated. Finally some attempts are made to solve the development of aspiration from voiced obstruents under the condition of different tones from Middle Chinese to modern dialects.

  1. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound–guided, 18-gauge, fine needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas using a 2.8 mm channel convex array echoendoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Binmoeller; Roland Thul; Vipulroy Rathod; Peter Henke; Boris Brand; Hans C. Jabusch; Nib Soehendra

    1998-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported on endoscopic ultrasound–guided, fine needle aspiration biopsy using 22- to 25-gauge needles. We evaluated the histologic and cytologic yield of endoscopic ultrasound–guided, fine needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas using an 18-gauge, Menghini-type core needle. Methods: Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in conjunction with a prototype 2.8 mm channel convex array echoendoscope. The core

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound- guided, 18-gauge, fine needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas using a 2.8 mm channel convex array echoendoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Binmoeller; Roland Thul; Peter Henke; Boris Brand; Hans C. Jabusch; Nib Soehendra

    Background: Previous studies have reported on endoscopic ultrasound- guided, fine needle aspiration biopsy using 22- to 25-gauge needles. We evaluated the histologic and cytologic yield of endoscopic ultrasound- guided, fine needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas using an 18-gauge, Menghini-type core needle. Methods: Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in conjunction with a prototype 2.8 mm channel convex array echoendoscope.

  4. Thyroglobulin detection in fine-needle aspirates of cervical lymph nodes: a technique for the diagnosis of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuno Cunha; Fernando Rodrigues; F atima Curado; Olga Ilheu; Carlos Cruz; Plamen Naidenov; Maria Joao Rascao; Joao Ganho; I. Gomes; Henriques Pereira; Odete Real; Paulo Figueiredo; Beatriz Campos; Frederico Valido

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is frequently used for differential diagnosis of neck masses of unknown origin. Inconclusive and even false-negative results are not uncommon. Aim: To evaluate the utility of thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in fine-needle aspirates (FNA-Tg) for detecting cervical lymph node (CLNs) metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Methods: An ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was done in 67 patients with 83

  5. Meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Yizhen Lim; S. Arulkumaran

    2008-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a rare condition affecting infants who inhale or aspirate meconium-stained liquor during or after labour. It is a serious disease with complications of neonatal respiratory distress, and can lead to the death of infants if it is not detected early or is left untreated.Hypoxia, hypercarbia and chorioamnionitis predispose infants to this condition, and often they

  6. Feasibility of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and its applications in superficial cervical lesion biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Xu, Hai-Miao; Li, Ming-Kui; Chen, Li-Yu; Wang, Li-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility and value of clinical application of fine-needle aspiration histological biopsy via ultrasound-guided thyroid nodule and enlarged cervical lymph node fine-needle aspiration histological biopsy. Fine-needle aspiration cytological and histological biopsies and surgical treatments were performed on 982 patients with thyroid nodule and 1435 patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes. A comparative study of the histological and cytological examination results and post-surgical etiology results was subsequently conducted. Among the 982 thyroid nodule patients, the acquisition rates were 89.8% (882/982) for fine-needle aspiration histological biopsy and 96.2% (945/982) for cytological biopsy, while among the 1435 patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes, the acquisition rate for fine-needle aspiration cytological biopsy was slightly higher than that for histological biopsy, with values of 95.7% (1374/1435) and 91.4% (1312/1435), respectively. For the thyroid nodule patients, when the acquired histological and cytological biopsy results were compared with the post-surgical etiology results, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the histological results were 98.5%, 100%, and 98.9%, respectively, whereas those of the cytological results were 86.8%, 82.9%, and 85.6%, respectively; the differences between the 2 biopsy methods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). For the patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes, when the acquired histological and cytological biopsy results were compared with the post-surgical etiology results, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the histological results were 96.3%, 99.8%, and 97.6%, respectively, whereas the those of the cytological results were 76.8%, 92.1%, and 82.2%, respectively; again, the differences between the 2 methods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Fine-needle aspiration histological biopsy is a reliable and highly accurate examination method. It is simple and feasible, thus facilitating the discrimination of malignant and benign thyroid nodules and enlarged cervical lymph nodes and playing an important role in the establishment of reasonable clinical therapeutic regimens. PMID:25197391

  7. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Gamborino, E; Carrilho, C; Ferro, J; Khan, M S; Garcia, C; Suarez, M C; Yokoyama, H; Schmitt, F C

    2000-11-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed on 15 patients with peripheral lymphadenopathy and/or skin lesions referred to the Department of Pathology of the Hospital Central of Maputo, Maputo, Mozambique. Epitrochlear lymph nodes were the most frequently aspirated site. All aspirates allowed diagnoses of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Smears contained loosely cohesive clusters of bland spindle cells, with a radial arrangement and nuclear crush artifacts. These diagnostic clues have not been described in other spindle-cell intranodal lesions that should be considered in differential diagnoses. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of AIDS and limited resources for diagnosis in Africa, FNA cytology appears to be a useful method for the diagnosis of KS in developing countries, reducing the necessity for surgical lymph node excision. PMID:11074626

  8. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the joint. It is usually due to a bacterial infection in the joint. Joint aspiration helps to diagnose ... at the time of the test. If a bacterial infection such as septic arthritis is suspected, a culture ...

  9. Silicone lymphadenopathy: presentation of a further case containing asteroid bodies on fine-needle cytology sample.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node. PMID:24995825

  10. Clear cell hidradenoma of breast mimicking atypical breast lesion: a diagnostic pitfall in breast cytology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Shelly; Goyal, Prashant; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Mittal, Deepti; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

    2014-05-13

    Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon skin adnexal tumor arising from eccrine glands. Although several kind of skin adnexal tumors arise in the breast tissue, CCH of the breast is an extremely rare entity. Failure to identify its cytomorphologic features and rarity of this tumor may lead to misdiagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology. Hereby we report a case of 30-year-old female who presented with painless lump in left breast since 10 months. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lump yielded fluid material. On May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained smears, a possibility of atypical breast lesion was considered and patient was advised a biopsy examination. Final diagnosis of CCH was made on histopathologic examination. Awareness of cytomorphologic features of breast CCH will prevent misdiagnosis as malignant or atypical breast lesions and will allow for correct management of the patients. PMID:25002948

  11. Description of a new disposable uterine sampler (the Accurette) for endometrial cytology and histology.

    PubMed

    Kriseman, M M

    1982-01-23

    A disposable, collapsible curette made from a special plastic material, devised by the author for obtaining cytological and histological samples of the uterine endometrium, is described. A simple syringe for vacuum aspiration is incorporated with the instrument. Its manifold advantages include simplicity of design and ease of application, making little demand on the operator. No additional apparatus is required for its use in outpatient clinics or as an office procedure. PMID:7058423

  12. Cytologic diagnosis of undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma of breast presenting with brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Indranil; Ghosh, Nilanjana; Giri, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Primary sarcoma of breast are rare. Diagnosis by aspiration cytology is difficult due to nonspecific cytomorphologic features. An initial presentation with neurological symptoms due to metastasis of breast sarcoma to the brain has not been previously reported. Here, we describe a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with headache, dizziness and convulsion and was subsequently diagnosed with undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma of breast with cerebellar metastasis. PMID:23914101

  13. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  14. Asteroid bodies in lymph node cytology: infrequently seen and still mysterious.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Julie M; Knoepp, Stewart M

    2011-01-01

    Granulomatous inflammation is a relatively common finding in routine aspiration cytology of lymph nodes. However, asteroid bodies are very rarely encountered in cytologic preparations, and most morphologic descriptions result from observations made in histologic tissue sections. This brief report describes the cytologic findings in paratracheal aspirate smears from a 74-year-old Caucasian woman with the history of squamous-cell carcinoma of the right ankle metastatic to a right groin lymph node. At the time of removal of the metastatic tumor, the patient was noted to have multiple small, mildly FDG-avid lymph nodes in the supraclavicular, paratracheal, precarinal, pulmonic hilar, and axillary regions. A transbronchial fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of a paratracheal lymph node showed granulomatous inflammation and numerous multinucleated giant cells containing asteroid bodies. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears. Additional patient history elicited at the time of FNAB revealed a diagnosis 6 years previously of disseminated histoplasmosis infection. A concomitant workup for sarcoidosis was negative. PMID:20049975

  15. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  16. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P.; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  17. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable ... Click on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is ...

  18. Diagnóstico de criptococose canina pela citologia aspirativa por agulha fina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danieli Brolo Martins; Anna Laetícia Trindade Barbosa; Ayrton Cavalheiro; Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes; Janio Morais Santurio; João Eduardo Schossler; Alexandre Mazzanti

    2008-01-01

    This paper aimed to described a 1.5 year-old Labrador male, diagnosed with cryptococcosis using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The dog was showing signs of depression and hyporexia. Peripheral lymph nodes and a mass situated between the submandibular lymph nodes were aspirated. The cytology showed yeast-like structures resembling Cryptococcus sp. in all samples examined. These findings were confirmed by culture (C.

  19. Diagnóstico de criptococose canina pela citologia aspirativa por agulha fina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danieli Brolo; MartinsI Anna; Laetícia Trindade; Sonia Terezinha; Janio Morais

    This paper aimed to described a 1.5 year-old Labrador male, diagnosed with cryptococcosis using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The dog was showing signs of depression and hyporexia. Peripheral lymph nodes and a mass situated between the submandibular lymph nodes were aspirated. The cytology showed yeast-like structures resembling Cryptococcus sp. in all samples examined. These findings were confirmed by culture (C.

  20. Religious orientation and life aspirations.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R; Clayton, Spencer; Swinyard, William

    2015-04-01

    The effects of religiosity on well-being appear to depend on religious orientation, with intrinsic orientation being related to positive outcomes and extrinsic orientation being related to neutral or negative outcomes. It is not clear, however, why intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity has the relationships they do. Self-determination theory may provide a useful framework of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations that may help to answer this question. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity would be related to intrinsic and extrinsic life aspirations. We hypothesized that intrinsic religiosity would be positively related to intrinsic life aspirations and negatively related with extrinsic life aspirations, and that extrinsic religiosity would be positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and negatively related to intrinsic aspirations, and that life aspirations would partially mediate the relationships between religious orientation and outcome. To study these hypotheses, a random national sample (total number of 425, average age of 52, 59 % female) completed the measures of religious orientation, life aspirations, affect, and life satisfaction. It was found that intrinsic religiosity was positively related to positive affect, life satisfaction, and intrinsic life aspirations and was negatively related to negative affect and extrinsic life aspirations. Extrinsic religiosity was positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and was not related to the intrinsic life aspirations. When both religious orientation and life aspiration variables were included together in the model predicting outcome, both remained significant indicating that religious orientation and life aspirations are independent predictors of outcome. In conclusion, although religious orientation and life aspirations are significantly related to each other and to outcome, life aspirations did not mediate the effects of religious orientation. Therefore, self-determination theory does not appear to completely account for the effects of religious orientation. PMID:24474550

  1. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

  2. ICH aspiration and thrombolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeraj S. Naval; Paul Nyquist; J. Ricardo Carhuapoma

    2007-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the highest mortality among all forms of stroke. Evolution in the medical management of ICH has not improved patient outcomes while the results of conventional surgery have generally been disappointing. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using stereotactic clot aspiration followed by clot lysis is gaining credibility as an alternative management strategy. We review the published

  3. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  4. Differential expression of jackfruit-lectin-specific glycoconjugates in metastatic adenocarcinoma and reactive mesothelial cells—a diagnostic aid in effusion cytology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sujathan; K. R. Pillai; N. S. Amma; B. Chandralekha; S. Kannan; P. Remani; M. Krishnan Nair

    1996-01-01

    Distinguishing reactive mesothelial cells from adenocarcinoma cells in serous effusions on the basis of morphological criteria alone is often difficult. Interest has therefore been focused on identifying reliable methods to supplement the conventional cytological techniques. Plant lectins have been reported as diagnostic markers for malignant cells. We studied 51 aspirated samples of benign and malignant effusions using horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated jackfruit lectin.

  5. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed. PMID:19352601

  6. Assessment of complications of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dermot O'Toole; Laurent Palazzo; Ramuntçho Arotçarena; Alain Dancour; Alain Aubert; Pascal Hammel; Juan Amaris; Philippe Ruszniewski

    2001-01-01

    Background: EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) permits both morphologic and cytologic analysis of lesions within or adjacent to the GI tract. Despite increasing use of this technique, the safety and overall complication rates remain poorly defined. Methods: During a period of 20 months, 322 consecutive patients underwent EUS-FNA in 2 centers. All procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia.

  7. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Srinivasa; Panduranga, C

    2011-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the oral region is rare. Oral manifestation is present in 3–5% of cases of NHL and oral lesions are rarely the initial manifestations. We describe primary NHL, diffuse, mixed, small and large cell type in a 50-year-old female, who presented with mass lesion primarily involving the base of the tongue; initially diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and later confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Pertinent literature is being reviewed. PMID:21713153

  8. Syphilitic lymphadenitis diagnosed via fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jang, David W; Khan, Alifia; Genden, Eric M; Wu, Maoxin

    2011-08-01

    Syphilis is coming back in the recent a few decades especially in the gay and HIV populations. Since syphilis can be "the great mimic" clinically and pathologically, a case report with updated review can be helpful to the medical community. We report, a case of syphilitic lymphadenitis diagnosed via fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The pitfalls associated with the diagnosis of syphilitic lymphadenitis will be discussed. The patient's medical records were reviewed. The pertinent history, clinical course, and ancillary studies including FNAB cytology with special stains are presented. In addition to the case report, we discuss the diagnosis of syphilitic lymphadenitis and the role of FNAB cytology. This was a 37-year-old man presenting with a two-month history of a growing neck mass, night sweats, and a ten pound weight loss. The patient had been treated one month earlier for primary syphilis. Examination of the head and neck revealed a 3 cm right level II mass. FNAB cytology showed heterogeneous population of lymphocytes and plasma cells suggesting reactive changes. Modified silver staining of the cell block slide was performed and revealed spirochetes, consistent with syphilis. The patient's lymphadenitis resolved with a course of antibiotic treatment. Although lymphadenopathy is a rare presentation of syphilis, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients who offer a suspect history. FNAB with silver staining is an effective, minimally invasive way to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:21761579

  9. Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.

    PubMed

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2013-08-01

    On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

  10. Rare pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma with oncocytic change: a cytologic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Savita; Agarwal, Kiran

    2011-03-01

    Pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma is extremely rare with a prevalence of 0.3 per million. Adrenocortical neoplasms in children usually present with one of the endocrine abnormalities. Adrenocortical neoplasms cannot be easily diagnosed on cytopathology; hence, the cytomorphological features posing diagnostic dilemmas are discussed in a pediatric patient presenting with palpable abdominal mass and virilization. Fine-needle aspiration smears were cellular showing cells in cohesive clusters adhering to central core of capillaries exhibiting an endocrine vascular pattern along with single cells and stripped nuclei. Cells were polygonal in shape and had abundant cytoplasm with well-defined borders and round eccentric nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Marked anisonucleosis was also noted. Few cells showed abundant granular cytoplasm resembling oncocytes. Many bizarre and multinucleated cells, few mitotic figures, and necrosis were also seen. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of tumor biopsy suggested possibility of adrenocortical neoplasm. A panel of immunohistochemical markers were used to exclude possibility of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and pheochromocytoma that showed vimentin (+), cytokeratin (-), inhibin-? (+), neuron-specific enolase (focally +), and chromogranin (-). The Ki67 index was 15%, and P53 was strongly positive. It is difficult to distinguish adrenocortical neoplasm, RCC, and pheochromocytoma on cytology because of overlapping features; hence, important cytological features which help in distinguishing between the three are discussed. PMID:21181300

  11. Pterygopalatine ganglion cytology in monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J E

    1984-01-01

    By the use of dissection and of light and electron microscopy, the normal structure of the pterygopalatine ganglion was studied in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys. A set of cytological features, namely, small cell size, close packing, peripheral distribution of Nissl bodies, eccentricity of the nucleus and rounded cell shape, was identified which may be unique to monkey pterygopalatine cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6386775

  12. Multicentric encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasm of the thyroid: A case diagnosed by a combined cytological, histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Bellevicine, Claudio; Malapelle, Umberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Mossetti, Gennaro; Pettinato, Guido; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2012-05-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of oncocytic lesions is challenging. In fact, oncocytic changes occur in inflammatory, hyperplastic, and neoplastic settings, including both benign and malignant tumors. The rare oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), shows papillae composed by cells with large oncocytic granular cytoplasm featuring clear PTC nuclear features. A morphological similar, but biologically distinct lesion, is the encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasia. Here, we first report on FNA, its cytological features together with histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular correlates. PMID:21965084

  13. Cytological Features of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland in a 15-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Takako; Fukumura, Yuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ohba, Shinichi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yao, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized tumor of salivary glands characterized by the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This tumor is very rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of MASC in a 15-year-old girl, the fifth youngest case so far reported. The patient complained of a left infra-auricular mass that gradually enlarged for a year. Fine-needle aspiration cytology/imprint cytology showed individual tumor cells that had faintly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with secretion granules sometimes seen adjacent to the tumor cells. These cytological features overlapped between those of zymogen granule-poor acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and MASC. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the related literature with a focus on the cytological features of MASC. The differential diagnostic clues are also discussed. PMID:25815230

  14. Cytologic evaluation of otic exudates.

    PubMed

    Chickering, W R

    1988-07-01

    The multifactorial nature of otitis externa requires accurate etiologic information to ensure therapeutic success. The collection and preparation of cytologic samples of otic exudates are simple to perform, and information of immediate diagnostic and therapeutic value can be attained. Evidence of epidermal hyperplasia and increased glandular secretory activity suggests a noninfectious cause. Large numbers of microorganisms and infiltrating leukocytes confirm the presence of infection. The presence of ear mites, particularly O. cynotis, is always significant. Abnormal epithelial cells that appear singly or in sheets and clusters support the diagnosis of neoplasia; the extent of cell differentiation determines malignancy. Inflammatory cells and acantholytic keratinocytes from vesicular otic lesions suggest autoimmune skin disease. PMID:3264954

  15. The importance of intracytoplasmic DPAS positivity in fine needle aspirates of breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S; Wadehra, V

    2001-01-01

    Aims—For many years the presence of strong intracytoplasmic periodic acid Schiff (PAS) positive, diastase resistant (DPAS) staining within atypical cells has been used in this laboratory as a marker for carcinoma in fine needle aspirates from breast lesions. The aim of the current study was to document such DPAS positivity across the spectrum from benign to malignant breast disease and assess its value in the upgrading of cytology reports. Methods—Over a six month period, 315 aspirates were studied, each having sufficient cellular material for DPAS staining to be carried out on one whole slide. DPAS staining was recorded semiquantitatively as negative, equivocal, or positive (+, ++, or +++). The cytology results were correlated with any subsequent histology performed on these patients. Results—DPAS positive material was seen in both intracellular and extracellular locations. Care was needed in its interpretation. Occasional cells with apparently genuine intracytoplasmic positivity (+) were found in both benign and malignant cases. Frequent or particularly strong intracellular DPAS positivity (++, +++) correlated best with malignancy. Two cases were reliably upgraded from immediate reports suspicious of malignancy to final reports diagnostic of malignancy on the basis of the intracytoplasmic DPAS staining. Conclusion—Strict criteria are required for the interpretation of intracytoplasmic DPAS positivity and routine cytological appearances should also be taken into account. Weak positivity in occasional cells, especially in flat epithelial sheets, may be seen in benign lesions and is not reliable as a marker of malignancy. DPAS positivity with internal structure and producing nuclear indentation, especially in dissociated or atypical cells, correlates well with malignant histology and can be reassuring in the cytological diagnosis of malignancy. Key Words: fine needle aspiration of breast • mucin positivity • periodic acid Schiff positive, diastase resistant cells PMID:11215284

  16. Correlation of ultrasound findings, liver and spleen cytology, and prognosis in the clinical staging of high metastatic risk canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Book, Alison P; Fidel, Janean; Wills, Tamara; Bryan, Jeffrey; Sellon, Rance; Mattoon, John

    2011-01-01

    Cytologic sampling of the ultrasonographically normal spleen and liver is not implemented routinely in the clinical staging of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and normal ultrasound findings are often accepted as sufficient evidence for ruling out splenic or liver metastasis. Our objective was to define the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound findings for diagnosis of mast cell infiltration when verified with cytologic evaluation, and to define the prognostic role of cytologic evaluation of liver and splenic aspirates. Dogs with a diagnosis of clinically aggressive grade II, or grade III mast cell tumor treated with a combination vinblastine/CCNU chemotherapy protocol, were selected retrospectively based on availability of cytologic evaluation of spleen plus or minus liver for staging. Out of 19 dogs, 10 dogs had a grade II tumor and nine a grade III tumor. Seven dogs had mast cell infiltration of the spleen, liver, or both. The sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting mast cell infiltration was 43% for the spleen and 0% for the liver. Dogs with positive cytologic evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had significantly shorter survival (100 vs. 291 days) than dogs without evidence of mast cell infiltration (P<0.0001). Routine splenic aspiration should be performed regardless of ultrasonographic appearance in dogs with a clinically aggressive mast cell tumor. PMID:21689203

  17. [Foreign body aspiration in children].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shlomo; Goldberg, Shmuel; Springer, Chaim; Avital, Avraham; Picard, Elie

    2015-03-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs mainly in children under 3 years of age and is one of the most frequent causes of accidental death under 12 months of age. The increased risk of FB aspiration in children is due to the different structure of the pharynx and the upper airways compared to adults. In addition, children have an immature swallowing mechanism and they most commonly aspirate food stuffs. FB aspiration is usually a sudden and dramatic event when the child feels that he is suffocating or choking. After the acute event, the clinical presentation widely ranges from severe respiratory distress to the most minimal symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic modality for FB inhalation. Prevention and rapid diagnosis can be lifesaving. In 2010, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a position paper on prevention of FB aspiration. The association calls for more proactive preventative measures to protect children from FB aspiration and to prevent mortality and morbidity. These include: 1. Raising awareness of parents and caregivers to supervise children and create a safe environment for them. 2. Promoting legislation and enforcing regulations that will prevent dangerous products being sold for children. 3. Changing the design of products, especially food products and toys, that will reduce the risks of choking. In this overview we will show the principles of diagnosis of FB aspiration and a flow chart including when flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is required. PMID:25962247

  18. Diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of tuberculous lymphadenitis involving the peripancreatic lymph nodes: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boujaoude, Joseph-D; Honein, Khalil; Yaghi, Cesar; Ghora, Claude; Abadjian, Gerard; Sayegh, Raymond

    2007-01-21

    Pancreatic tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary disease. The diagnosis preoperatively is difficult because clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings are nonspecific. Published data indicate that these lesions mimic cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and the confirmation of clinical suspicion could only be obtained by an open surgical biopsy. Recently, fine needle aspiration cytology has been shown to be a safe, reliable and cost-effective alternative. We report a new case of a peripancreatic tuberculosis in a 52 year old woman and review the relevant literature, paying special attention to the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:17230623

  19. Elastic fibers in elastofibroma dorsi by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Henryk A

    2014-07-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) features of elastofibroma dorsi (EFD) in a 56-year-old woman were evaluated. The patient presented with 5 cm soft tissue mass located between the inferior part of scapula and the chest wall. FNA smears were hypercellular, characterized by a mixture of uniform spindle cells, mature adipocytes, and collagen tissue fragments in varying proportions. The cytological findings included abundant degenerated elastic fibers presented as linear ("braid-like") and globular bodies with shell-like and stellate appearances with serrate borders, permitting a diagnosis of EFD. Occurrence of degenerated elastic fibers in FNA smears of elastofibroma is a highly diagnostic sign in the typical clinical setting and eliminates the need for preoperative histological examination. PMID:23554149

  20. Primary umbilical endometriosis - Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Hilda; Marla, Nisha J; Pailoor, Kirana; Kini, Reshma

    2011-01-01

    Primary (spontaneous) umbilical endometriosis is very rare with an estimated incidence of 0.5-1% of all patients with endometrial ectopia. Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition, the pelvis being the most common site of the disease. Extrapelvic site is less common and even more difficult to diagnose due to the extreme variability in presentation. A 38-year-old woman presented with a blackish nodule over the umbilicus of 3 years duration. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the lesion showed cells in clusters and sheets with background of scant stromal fragment, hemosiderin laden macrophages and RBCs, leading to a suggestion of umbilical endometriosis. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion confirmed the same. PMID:22090700

  1. Supersymmetry: Aspirations and Prospects

    E-print Network

    Tata, Xerxes

    2015-01-01

    The realization in the early 1980s that weak scale supersymmetry stabilizes the Higgs sector of the spectacularly successful Standard Model led several authors to explore whether low energy supersymmetry could play a role in particle physics. Among these were Richard Arnowitt, Ali Chamseddine and Pran Nath who constructed a viable {\\em locally} supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory (GUT), laying down the foundation for supergravity GUT models of particle physics. Supergravity models continue to be explored as one of the most promising extensions of the Standard Model. After a quick overview of some of the issues and aspirations of early researchers working to bring supersymmetry into the mainstream of particle physics, we re-examine early arguments that seemed to imply that superpartners would be revealed in experiments at LEP2 or at the Tevatron. Our purpose is to assess whether the absence of any superpartners in searches at LHC8 presents a crisis for supersymmetry. Toward this end, we re-evaluate fine-tuning...

  2. Fine-Needle Aspirate CYFRA 21-1, an Innovative New Marker for Diagnosis of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Soo; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-05-01

    To compare the value of cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) concentration in the fine-needle biopsy aspirates (fine needle aspirate [FNA] CYFRA 21-1) with cytopathology of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA cytology) and to assess whether CYFRA 21-1 concentrations from ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) specimens (FNA CYFRA 21-1) is not inferior to FNA cytology in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis of breast cancer patients.This study received institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. US-FNAB was performed in 373 ALNs from 358 patients with invasive breast cancer. Concentrations of CYFRA 21-1 were measured from washouts of the syringe used during US-FNAB (FNA CYFRA 21-1), and ALN metastasis was determined using a cutoff value of 1.93?ng/mL. FNA cytology, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy, and surgical pathology results were reviewed and analyzed. The noninferiority margin for the difference in accuracies between FNA cytology and FNA CYFRA 21-1 was set as 5%.Among 373 ALNs, 136 (36.5%) were benign, and 237 (63.5%) were metastatic. The mean FNA CYFRA 21-1 was significantly higher in metastatic ALNs compared to that in benign ALNs (P?=?0.001). For the diagnosis of ALN metastasis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of FNA CYFRA 21-1 (cutoff value 1.93?ng/mL) were not significantly different from those of FNA cytology (P?>?0.05). FNA CYFRA 21-1 reached statistical noninferiority to FNA cytology in terms of diagnostic accuracy for ALN metastasis. Of the 20 ALNs (8 metastasis, 12 benign) that showed insufficient results on FNA cytology, FNA CYFRA 21-1 accurately diagnosed 15 ALNs (4 metastasis, 11 benign).The diagnostic performance of FNA CYFRA 21-1 is comparable with that of FNA cytology for breast cancer ALN metastasis. Our results indicate that FNA CYFRA 21-1, using an US-FNAB specimen, can be a useful method equal to FNA cytology in terms of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25984666

  3. Fine-needle aspiration of cystic lesions of the kidney. Morphologic spectrum and diagnostic problems in 41 cases.

    PubMed

    Todd, T D; Dhurandhar, B; Mody, D; Ramzy, I; Truong, L D

    1999-03-01

    Although imaging studies show the nature of most cystic lesions of the kidney (RCs), many RCs require fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for accurate diagnosis. Interpretation of the FNAs remains challenging. The FNA specimens of 41 RCs were reviewed and correlated with imaging studies. Final diagnoses for 30 cytologically benign lesions were simple cyst (28), acquired cystic kidney (1), and cystic renal carcinoma (1). The fluid from the benign cysts displayed macrophages, epithelial cells from the cyst lining, tubular cells, neutrophils, and Liesegang rings. Fluid from the acquired cystic kidney and the cystic renal cell carcinoma showed features similar to those of the benign cysts. The 9 cases with "suspicious" cytology included 5 complex cystic lesions displaying rare but atypical epithelial cell clusters, 3 low-grade renal cell carcinomas with many mildly atypical papillary clusters of epithelial cells, and 1 simple benign cyst with many tubular cells. The 2 cytologically malignant lesions were cystic renal cell carcinomas with abundant tumor cells with partially clear cytoplasm and atypical nuclei admixed with abundant macrophages and lymphocytes; 1 case developed in a kidney with acquired cystic disease. Simple cysts remain the most frequently aspirated RCs, but complex cystic lesions are increasingly recognized. Since many RCs are composed of independent loculi, a nonrepresentative sample is a potential problem, and cytologic-radiologic correlation becomes mandatory. The "suspicious" patterns identified in this study should serve as diagnostic guidelines and set the foundation for future validation. PMID:10078106

  4. Supersymmetry: Aspirations and Prospects

    E-print Network

    Xerxes Tata

    2015-06-23

    The realization in the early 1980s that weak scale supersymmetry stabilizes the Higgs sector of the spectacularly successful Standard Model led several authors to explore whether low energy supersymmetry could play a role in particle physics. Among these were Richard Arnowitt, Ali Chamseddine and Pran Nath who constructed a viable {\\em locally} supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory (GUT), laying down the foundation for supergravity GUT models of particle physics. Supergravity models continue to be explored as one of the most promising extensions of the Standard Model. After a quick overview of some of the issues and aspirations of early researchers working to bring supersymmetry into the mainstream of particle physics, we re-examine early arguments that seemed to imply that superpartners would be revealed in experiments at LEP2 or at the Tevatron. Our purpose is to assess whether the absence of any superpartners in searches at LHC8 presents a crisis for supersymmetry. Toward this end, we re-evaluate fine-tuning arguments that lead to upper bounds on (some) superpartner masses. We conclude that phenomenologically viable superpartner spectra that could arise within a high scale model tuned no worse than a few percent are perfectly possible. While no viable underlying model of particle physics that leads to such spectra has yet emerged, we show that the (supergravity-based) Radiatively-driven Natural Supersymmetry (RNS) framework serves as a surrogate for a phenomenological analysis of an underlying theory with modest fine-tuning. We outline the phenomenological implications of this framework, with emphasis on those LHC and electron-positron collider signatures that might point to the underlying natural origin of gauge and Higgs boson masses. We conclude that the supergravity GUT paradigm laid down in 1982 by Arnowitt, Chamseddine and Nath, and others, remains a vibrant possibility.

  5. Kinase genotype analysis of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor cytology samples using targeted next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Ferga C; Kipp, Benjamin R; Kerr, Sarah E; Voss, Jesse S; Graham, Rondell P; Campion, Michael B; Minot, Douglas M; Tu, Zheng J; Klee, Eric W; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Henry, Michael R; Levy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually contain the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit gene (KIT) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) mutations that can be targeted by, or mediate resistance to, imatinib. Diagnostic material often is obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, which often is unsuitable for molecular analysis. We investigated whether targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be used in multiplex genotype analysis of cytology samples collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. We used the Ion AmpliSeq V2 Cancer Hotspot NGS Panel (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) to identify mutations in more than 2800 exons from 50 cancer-associated genes in GIST samples from 20 patients. We identified KIT mutations in 58% of samples (91% in exon 11 and 9% in exon 17) and PDGFRA mutations in 26% (60% in exon 18 and 40% in exon 12); 16% of samples had no mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. No pathogenic alterations were found in PIK3CA, BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, or FGFR3. We predicted that 32% of patients would have primary resistance to imatinib, based on mutations in exon 17 of KIT, exon 18 of PDGFRA (D842V), or no mutation in either gene. Targeted NGS of cytology samples from GISTs is feasible and provides clinically relevant data about kinase genotypes that can help guide individualized therapy. PMID:24997326

  6. Biphasic parapharyngeal synovial sarcoma: a cytologic and immunocytologic report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Yahya; Negahban, Shahrzad; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Kaviani, Massud; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Ashraf, Mohammad J

    2006-01-01

    Background Synovial sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma in the head and neck region and parapharyngeal space. There is no previous cytologic report of synovial sarcoma of parapharynx. The cytologic and immunocytochemical findings of a parapharyngeal biphasic synovial sarcoma together with diagnostic pitfalls are described. Case report A 21-year-old girl presented with a 6-month history of progressive right arm pain, neck mass and upper aerodigestive tract obstruction. On physical examination there was a large painless mass arising from the right-sided parapharyngeal space causing airway obstruction. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor in the right-sided parapharyngeal space. Fine needle aspiration through cervical region was performed and was reported as benign spindle cell tumor. Smears were cellular and composed mostly of tight and loose clusters of spindle cells. Epitheloid cells could also be identified intermingled with them. She underwent near total resection of the tumor. Pathologic report disclosed the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. She then received postoperative adjuvant external radiotherapy. Conclusion Due to rarity of this tumor in this region and nonspecific cytologic features, we could not differentiate this tumor from the other more common spindle cell neoplasms. Considering synovial sarcoma in this region and immunocytochemistry can be helpful in rendering a correct initial diagnosis of this tumor. PMID:16907985

  7. Analysis of bone marrow aspiration fluid using automated blood cell counters.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Zini, Gina

    2015-03-01

    Cytomorphological examination of aspirate smears remains the basic method to diagnose hematologic disorders and to evaluate treatment-related changes. Last-generation hematological analyzers can count, besides cells normally circulating in peripheral blood, some types of immature and abnormal cells, such as erythroblasts and immature granulocytes. The complex nature of bone marrow fluid, however, has prevented until now the routine utilization of blood cell counters in this area. Recent studies have shown the possibility of using bone marrow fluid as a substitute for peripheral blood for clinical tests in particular situations and for repetitive cytologic examinations in specific clinical and research fields. PMID:25676370

  8. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Cystic Pancreatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, James; Hasan, Muhammad K.

    2012-01-01

    Incidental pancreatic cysts are being increasingly recognized recently with incremented concern about health and frequent health check-up. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as the principal modality for imaging pancreas for various pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cyst. But imaging alone cannot accurately identify the exact nature of the pancreatic cyst. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration is a useful adjunctive procedure to differentiate pancreatic cystic lesions. Cystic fluid analysis with cytologic evaluation is important to diagnose etiology of pancreatic cystic lesions, helping the clinician to more accurately assess the presence or potential for malignancy. PMID:22866252

  9. Relationship of Pancreatic Mass Size and Diagnostic Yield of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali A. SiddiquiLauren; Lauren J. Brown; Shih-Kuang S. Hong; Rossitza A. Draganova-Tacheva; Jason Korenblit; David E. Loren; Thomas E. Kowalski; Charalambos Solomides

    Background  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is central to discerning the diagnosis of solid pancreatic tumors\\u000a through tissue acquisition. Test performance is affected by a number of factors including location of mass within the pancreas,\\u000a presence of onsite cytology technologist, and number of passes with the needle. The influence of tumor size has not been well\\u000a studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  The objective of

  10. Compact Raman needle probe with fine needle aspiration biopsy for solid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy represents a label-free vibrational spectroscopic technique for studying the biochemical and biomolecular compositions of human body. Raman probe is a key component to facilitate the in vivo diagnosis by using Raman spectroscopy. We investigated a compact Raman needle probe design to be integrated into a device that can also take biopsies of solid tissues for cytological assessment, enabling concurrent Raman spectroscopic interrogation and fine needle aspiration biopsy with a single needle penetration. We described the fabrication of the Raman needle probe and its assembly with the biopsy device. Example Raman spectra of various solid tissues are given.

  11. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Martha B.; Centeno, Barbara A.; Ali, Syed Z.; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-del; Schmidt, C. Max; Brugge, William R.; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the “neoplastic” category separated into “benign” (serous cystadenoma) or “other” (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility for patient management, which has become increasingly conservative for some neoplasms. PMID:25191517

  12. Diagnosis of primary hydatid cyst of thigh by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Bothale, K A; Kolhe, H; Mahore, S D; Wilkinson, A R

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic infestation caused by larval form of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. Primary hydatid cyst in the skeletal muscles and subcutaneous tissue of thigh without involving thoracic and abdominal organs is an exceptional entity, even in countries where the Echinococcus infestation is endemic. We report an unusual case of primary hydatid cyst of thigh in proximity to skeletal muscles. This case illustrates that echinococcal disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every subcutaneous cystic mass. This case is presented here for its rarity. PMID:25560023

  13. Primary chondrosarcoma of breast--cytology with histopathological correlation: a rare case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sinhasan, Sankappa P; Bharathi, K V; Bhat, Ramachandra V; Dasiah, Simon David

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesenchymal tumors of the breast other than angiosarcoma are extremely rare and comprise <0.5% of breast tumors. Primary chondrosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare entity and only 10 cases are reported as single case reports in literature until date. A diagnosis of primary mammary sarcoma can be established only after excluding metaplastic carcinomas and malignant phyllodes by extensive sampling for evidence of in situ or invasive carcinoma. Here, we report a primary chondrosarcoma of breast in a 55-year-old lady diagnosed precisely on fine-needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathological examination after total mastectomy. We emphasize on diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology smears and discuss differential diagnoses. PMID:24943775

  14. Meconium aspiration syndrome: historical aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A A Fanaroff

    2008-01-01

    The meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a common problem that continues to concern perinatologists and neonatologists. MAS is defined as respiratory distress in an infant born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) whose symptoms cannot be otherwise explained. This disorder may be life threatening, complicated by respiratory failure, pulmonary air leaks and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Approaches to the prevention of MAS

  15. Interstitial pneumonitis after betadine aspiration.

    PubMed

    Chepla, Kyle J; Gosain, Arun K

    2012-11-01

    Disinfection of the face and mucosa lined surfaces of the nose and mouth using a povidone-iodine (PI) or Betadine solution is common practice among head and neck surgeons. Povidone-iodine, which is a highly effective broad-spectrum antibiotic effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, decreases the risk of postoperative surgical wound infection. We report a case of PI aspiration causing an acute chemical pneumonitis after preoperative disinfection of the oral cavity and nasopharynx in preparation for cleft palate repair. As a result of the inflammatory response, the patient required positive pressure mechanical ventilation and a prolonged stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was safely extubated on hospital day 7 and discharged on hospital day 10 without any long-term sequelae on follow-up. We also review the 3 other reported cases of PI aspiration pneumonitis. Based on our case report and literature review, we conclude that PI aspiration is associated with a high rate of morbidity; however, this should not preclude the use of PI before surgery, given its effectiveness as an oral disinfectant and the exceedingly low incidence of aspiration. PMID:23147337

  16. A penetration-aspiration scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Rosenbek; Jo Anne Robbins; Ellen B. Roecker; Jame L. Coyle; Jennifer L. Wood

    1996-01-01

    The development and use of an 8-point, equalappearing interval scale to describe, penetration and aspiration events are described. Scores are determined primarily by the depth to which material passes in the airway and by whether or not material entering the airway is expelled. Intra-and interjudge reliability have been established. Clinical and scientific uses of the scale are discussed.

  17. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  18. The nature of aspiration in psychotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Hymer

    1990-01-01

    This paper underscores the importance of aspiration as an active, progressive striving toward goals. Aspiration is often borne out of new experiences with new objects that differ from the patient's archaic objects. Patients who take inventory of their aspirations start to understand how they consciously and unconsciously work toward or ward off the attainment of goals. Self-discrepancy approaches (e.g., Jacobson,

  19. [Cytology and immunophenotyping of acute promyelocytary leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Gouider, E; Ben Salah, N; Jeddi, R; Belakhal, F; Meddeb, B; Hafsia, R

    2006-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (AML3) is characterized by particular clinical and biological features. We report the cytology and the immunophenotype of 14 AML3 from which 3 were AML3v. A double negativity of HLA-DR and CD34 is found in 12 cases and aberrant expression of CD2 in 2AML3v. Aberrant expression of CD56 and CD22 was shown in, respectively, one case, CD15, CD65 and CD117 expressions were variable. Cytological diagnosis is often evident, although in some cases, it is not typical and immunophenotype will contribute to the diagnosis. PMID:19388597

  20. Diagnostic performance of elastography in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Garino, Francesca; Deandrea, Maurilio; Motta, Manuela; Mormile, Alberto; Ragazzoni, Federico; Palestini, Nicola; Freddi, Milena; Gasparri, Guido; Sgotto, Enrico; Pacchioni, Donatella; Limone, Paolo Piero

    2015-05-01

    Cytological examination of material from fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the mainstay of diagnosis of thyroid nodules, thanks to its remarkable accuracy and scarcity of complications. However, follicular lesions (also called indeterminate lesions or Thy3 in the current classification), a heterogeneous group of lesions in which cytology is unable to give a definitive diagnosis to, represent its main limit. Elastography has been proposed as a potential diagnostic tool to define the risk of malignancy in the aforementioned nodules, but at present there is no conclusive data due to the small number of specifically addressed studies and the lack of concordance among them. The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of real-time elastography (RTE) for refining diagnosis of Thy3 nodules, by integrating diagnostic information provided by traditional ultrasound (US). The study included 108 patients with Thy3 nodules awaiting for surgery, which were evaluated by US (considering hypoecogenicity, irregular margins, microcalcifications, halo sign, and intranodular vascularization) and RTE. Nodules were classified at RTE using a four-class color scale. At histologic examination, 75 nodules were benign and 33 malignant. As expected, none of the ultrasound parameters alone was adequate in predicting malignancy or benignity of the nodules; in the presence of at least two US risk factors, we obtained 61 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity, and 77 % accuracy with 6.8 OR (95 % CI 2.4-20.4). RTE scores 3 and 4 showed 76 % sensitivity, 88 % specificity, 74 % PPV, and 89 % NPV with diagnostic accuracy of 84 %; the data are statistically significant (p < 0.0001) with a OR of 21.9 (95 % CI 7.1-76). By combining RTE with US parameters, the presence of at least 2 characters of suspicion had 88 % sensitivity and 94 % NPV with 23.8 OR (95 % CI 7-106.3). The use of combined RTE and US leads to the identification of two patients subpopulations which have a significantly different malignancy risk (6 vs. 63 %); further studies are needed to verify if it is possible to send only the first group to thyroidectomy and the other to follow-up. PMID:25273318

  1. Cytological Reactions Induced by Inorganic Salt Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Levan

    1945-01-01

    AN investigation has been carried on for some time in this Laboratory into the immediate cytological effect of salt solutions on root meristems of Allium Cepa. Salts, mostly nitrates, of some forty metals were tested. A dilution series of 10-16 concentrations were studied for each substance, covering the whole range from total lethality down to such weak con- centrations that

  2. Management of meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin J. Stenson; Allan D. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) affects 0.43–2.1 in 1000 live births and can be life-threatening. A variety of treatment strategies is used, many of which do not have a solid evidence base to support them, but do appear to be effective. Routine suction of the fetal pharynx prior to delivery of the shoulders is not effective in reducing the incidence of

  3. Pleural fluid cell-free DNA integrity index to identify cytologically negative malignant pleural effusions including mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. DNA integrity index has been reported to be a marker of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid DNA integrity index in the diagnosis of MPE. Methods We studied 75 pleural fluid and matched serum samples from consecutive subjects. Pleural fluid and serum ALU DNA repeats [115bp, 247bp and 247bp/115bp ratio (DNA integrity index)] were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Pleural fluid and serum mesothelin levels were quantified using ELISA. Results Based on clinico-pathological evaluation, 52 subjects had MPE (including 16 mesotheliomas) and 23 had benign effusions. Pleural fluid DNA integrity index was higher in MPE compared with benign effusions (1.2 vs. 0.8; p<0.001). Cytology had a sensitivity of 55% in diagnosing MPE. If cytology and pleural fluid DNA integrity index were considered together, they exhibited 81% sensitivity and 87% specificity in distinguishing benign and malignant effusions. In cytology-negative pleural effusions (35 MPE and 28 benign effusions), elevated pleural fluid DNA integrity index had an 81% positive predictive value in detecting MPEs. In the detection of mesothelioma, at a specificity of 90%, pleural fluid DNA integrity index had similar sensitivity to pleural fluid and serum mesothelin (75% each respectively). Conclusion Pleural fluid DNA integrity index is a promising diagnostic biomarker for identification of MPEs, including mesothelioma. This biomarker may be particularly useful in cases of MPE where pleural aspirate cytology is negative, and could guide the decision to undertake more invasive definitive testing. A prospective validation study is being undertaken to validate our findings and test the clinical utility of this biomarker for altering clinical practice. PMID:23009708

  4. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: does the size limit its efficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Li-Chang; Lu, Feng; Ma, Fang; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Li, Dan-Dan; Guo, Le-Hang; Sun, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The management criterion of thyroid nodules is to evaluate the risk of malignancy, based on cytological examinations. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) has a highly diagnostic value for thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of US-FNAB for thyroid nodules with different sizes. Material and methods: From August 2013 to November 2013, 344patients with thyroid nodules who had undergone US-FNAB were divided into three groups, according to the largest diameter of their nodules (group A, ? 5.0 mm; group B, 5.1-10.0 mm; group C, > 10.0 mm). All the nodules were subsequently verified by histology or follow-up findings. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of aspiration cytology in each group was compared. Results: Among 344 thyroid nodules diagnosed by cytology, the cytology was classified as nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory for 53 (15.4%) lesions, benign for 144 (41.9%) lesions, atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance for 20 (5.8%) lesions, follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm for 26 (7.6%) lesions, suspicious for malignancy for 36 (10.5%) lesions, malignant for 65 (18.9%) lesions. There were 243 benign and 101 malignant nodules confirmed by the pathological or follow-up ultrasound. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were confirmed to be 87.5% (14/16), 92.5% (37/40), 91% (51/56), 82.3% (14/17), and 94.8% (37/39) in group A; 92.3% (36/39), 96.9% (94/97), 95.5% (130/136), 92.3% (36/39), and 96.9% (94/97) in group B; and 91.3% (42/46), 93.4% (99/106), 92.7% (141/152) 85.7% (42/49), and 96.1% (99/103), in group C. There were no statistical differences in accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive accuracy, false negative rate of fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules with different sizes (P > 0.05). Conclusion: US-FNAB has similar diagnostic efficacy to thyroid nodules with different sizes.

  5. From cytology to histology: diagnosis of a relapsed mediastinal lymphoma by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial histological needle

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Bango Álvarez, Antonio; Pérez, Liliana; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fuentes, Nelson; Casan, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is highly accurate in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathies of lung cancer and benign disorders, with the advantage that it is a minimally invasive technique, unlike open surgery and mediastinoscopy. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not well defined. The lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological needles decreases the diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas. We present the first described case in the literature of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma relapsed, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by EBUS-TBNA with the particularity of using a histological needle.

  6. Aspiration thrombectomy in concert with stent thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Travis M; Mokin, Maxim; Sorkin, Grant C; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2013-01-01

    In the SWIFT and TREVO 2 trials, aspiration thrombectomy was not able to be performed. Outside these studies, in post-market application, the interventionist can use aspiration thrombectomy in addition to stent device thrombectomy. This technique is described in detail in the present report. Combined aspiration/stentriever thrombectomy may improve recanalization efforts, simplify a second thrombectomy attempt if necessary and may limit distal embolization. PMID:23853010

  7. Diagnosis of orotracheal aspiration using radionuclide salivagram.

    PubMed

    Akbunar, Ali T; Kiristioglu, Irfan; Alper, Eray; Demiray, Hulya

    2003-07-01

    There are two main Nuclear Medicine techniques, the gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy with late lung imaging and the nuclear salivagram, for diagnosis of pulmonary aspiration. Each of the techniques can document the two different, antegrade and retrograde, routes of pulmonary aspiration. In this report, we presented a patient with recurrent respiratory problems and emphasized the importance of concomitant use of the two techniques in the radionuclide diagnosis of aspiration. PMID:12971643

  8. Evaluation of EGFR mutation status in cytology specimens: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Aisner, D L; Deshpande, C; Baloch, Z; Watt, C D; Litzky, L A; Malhotra, B; Sepulveda, A R; Langer, C; Evans, T; Van Deerlin, V M

    2013-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status has been shown to predict response to anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In patients with advanced-stage NSCLC, evaluation of mutational status is increasingly requested on biopsy or fine-needle aspiration specimens, which often have limited material. There are limited data on the suitability of cytology cell blocks (CB) for EGFR mutation testing. In this study, we report our institutional experience with cytology cell block material for EGFR mutation testing. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR mutation analyses performed on 234 surgical (SP) and cytology (CB) from October 2007 to May 2010. One hundred ninety-two SP specimens and 42 CB specimens were evaluated for EGFR mutation. CB specimens were evaluated for overall specimen size based on aggregate cellularity in comparison to small biopsy specimens, and percent tumor. Of the 192 SP and 42 CB specimens, 31 (16.1%) and 11 (26.2%) were positive for EGFR mutation, respectively; there does not appear to be an association between mutation detection rate and the source of the specimen (P = 0.124). Limited DNA was obtained from 70.0% (29/42), including 81.8% (9/11) of those which were mutation positive. Additionally, 45.4% (5/11) of mutation positive specimens had extremely low DNA yields. Although 16.6% (7/42) of CB specimens had <10% tumor, all 11 mutation positive CB cases had >10% tumor. These data indicate that CB specimens provide an alternative source for molecular evaluation of NSCLC, and that tumor percentage may be more important than specimen size and/or DNA yield in determining the suitability of these specimens for testing. PMID:22102479

  9. Evaluation of cetacean and sirenian cytologic samples.

    PubMed

    Varela, René A; Schmidt, Kimberly; Goldstein, Juli D; Bossart, Gregory D

    2007-01-01

    Cytology is a fundamental part of marine mammal veterinary medicine that is involved in preventive medicine programs in captive animals and in the health assessment of wild populations. Marine mammals often exhibit few clinical signs of disease; thus, the cost-effective and widely accessible nature of cytologic sampling renders it one of the most important diagnostic procedures with these species. Many of these mammals are endangered, protected, and located in developing nations in which resources may be scarce. This article can be used as a field guide to advise a veterinarian, biologist, or technician working with cetaceans or sirenians. A simplistic cost-effective staining technique is used, which is ideal for situations in which funds, facilities, or time may be a limiting factor in clinical practice. PMID:17198961

  10. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti in cytologic smears.

    PubMed

    Walter, A; Krishnaswami, H; Cariappa, A

    1983-01-01

    Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti were observed in cytologic material in 35 cases. The material included cervicovaginal smears (17 cases), effusions (14), urine (2), bronchial washings (1) and ovarian cyst fluid (1). The initial diagnosis was made from the cytologic smear in all cases; none had clinical filariasis. Symptomatic vaginal bleeding in 9 of the 17 cases with microfilaria-positive cervicovaginal smears was reflected in the large numbers of red blood cells found in the smear. Blood eosinophilia was present in 11 of 19 cases investigated. Eosinophils were seen in the smears in 20 cases. In the majority of the cases of effusions with microfilariae the effusions were malignant. Significant adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was present in 7 of the 35 cases. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:6349200

  11. Alternative Certification: Aspirations and Realities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fouad Abd-El-Khalick

    2006-01-01

    Although the number of alternative programs is ever increasing, shortages in the number of qualified science teachers continue. These programs have not solved the teacher shortage problem alone, but they should not bear full responsibility. Numerous societal and financial reasons make teaching a less desirable profession. The more contentious issue is whether alternative programs prepare qualified teachers or, in terms of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), "highly qualified" teachers. Initially, the authors believed that alternative programs did not produce competent teachers when they started their review. However, the limited research appears to indicate otherwise. This chapter discusses the aspirations and realities of alternative certification.

  12. Aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and localized lung disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

  13. Severe meconium aspiration syndrome is not caused by aspiration of meconium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Ghidini; Catherine Y. Spong

    2001-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome can present clinically with different degrees of severity, ranging from a mild form of respiratory compromise to severe forms that may result in perinatal death despite mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. However, advances in our knowledge concerning meconium aspiration syndrome have revealed that most cases of severe meconium aspiration syndrome are not in fact causally related

  14. The cytology of squamous cell carcinomas in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Garma-Aviña, A

    1994-04-01

    A series of 40 tumors with a proven diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma for which both histology and cytology were available were classified according to their histologic appearance as well differentiated, moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated. The Romanowsky-stained cytology specimens were reviewed. When available, Papanicolaou-stained smears were included. The cytologic findings for each of the 3 groups are described, and the most significant findings are photographically illustrated. PMID:8068757

  15. Impact of Mutational Testing on the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Analysis of 1056 FNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ohori, N. Paul; Hodak, Steven P.; Carty, Sally E.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Ferris, Robert L.; Yip, Linwah; Seethala, Raja R.; Tublin, Mitchell E.; Stang, Michael T.; Coyne, Christopher; Johnson, Jonas T.; Stewart, Andrew F.; Nikiforova, Marina N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Thyroid nodules are common in adults, but only a small fraction of them is malignant. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology provides a definitive diagnosis of benign or malignant disease in many cases, whereas about 25% of nodules are indeterminate, hindering most appropriate management. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the clinical utility of molecular testing of thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology. Design: Residual material from 1056 consecutive thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology was used for prospective molecular analysis that included the assessment of cell adequacy by a newly developed PCR assay and testing for a panel of mutations consisted of BRAF V600E, NRAS codon 61, HRAS codon 61, and KRAS codons 12/13 point mutations and RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and PAX8/PPAR? rearrangements. Results: The collected material was adequate for molecular analysis in 967 samples (92%), which yielded 87 mutations including 19 BRAF, 62 RAS, 1 RET/PTC, and five PAX8/PPAR?. Four hundred seventy-nine patients who contributed 513 samples underwent surgery. In specific categories of indeterminate cytology, i.e. atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, and suspicious for malignant cells, the detection of any mutation conferred the risk of histologic malignancy of 88, 87, and 95%, respectively. The risk of cancer in mutation-negative nodules was 6, 14, and 28%, respectively. Of 6% of cancers in mutation-negative nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance cytology, only 2.3% were invasive and 0.5% had extrathyroidal extension. Conclusion: Molecular analysis for a panel of mutations has significant diagnostic value for all categories of indeterminate cytology and can be helpful for more effective clinical management of these patients. PMID:21880806

  16. MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring nature conservation professionals www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/conservation LONDON'S GLOBAL UNIVERSITY #12;Student fieldwork, Norfolk (Picture: Jan Axmacher) Conservation at UCL The UCL MSc Conservation is widely recognised as the leading course for aspiring nature conservation

  17. New therapeutic options in meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Obal Colvero; Aline Pieruccini Colvero; Renato Machado Fiori; Pedro Celiny Ramos Garcia

    Objectives: to review the literature on meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) focusing on clinical aspects, pathophysiology, and treatment with emphasis on surfactant and bronchoalveolar lavage. Methods: review including articles from MEDLINE, SCIELO and abstracts published in the national and international literature, from 1988 to 2004 using the keywords meconium aspiration syndrome, surfactant and bronchoalveolar lavage. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials, case control

  18. Meconium aspiration syndrome — prevention and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Greenough

    1995-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a common neonatal problem and, sadly, results in acute and chronic respiratory morbidity. Although meconium aspiration can occur prior to delivery even in the absence of labour, in many infants this condition could be prevented by appropriate suctioning at birth. More accurate prediction of high risk patients and greater use of amnioinfusion may further reduce

  19. Aspirator increases relief valve poppet stroke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Addition of an aspirator to a relief valve increases the valve poppet stroke under dynamic flow conditions. The aspirator allows poppet inlet dynamic forces to overcome relief valve spring force. It reduces the fluid pressure in the skirt cavity by providing a low pressure sense probe.

  20. Grades, Aspirations, and Postsecondary Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Milla, Joniada; Stengos, Thanasis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we exploit a rich longitudinal data set to explore the forces that, during high school, shape the development of aspirations to attend university and achieve academic success. We then investigate how these aspirations, along with grades and other variables, impact educational outcomes such as going to university and graduating. It…

  1. Clinical factors predicting risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration among patients with Stroke1

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Morais, Huana Carolina Cândido; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the association of risk factors with the Risk for aspiration nursing diagnosis and respiratory aspiration. Method: cross-sectional study assessing 105 patients with stroke. The instrument used to collect data addressing sociodemographic information, clinical variables and risk factors for Risk for aspiration. The clinical judgments of three expert RNs were used to establish the diagnosis. The relationship between variables and strength of association using Odds Ratio (OR) was verified both in regard to Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. Results: risk for aspiration was present in 34.3% of the patients and aspiration in 30.5%. The following stood out among the risk factors: Dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex, Neurological disorders, and Impaired physical mobility, all of which were statistically associated with Risk for aspiration. Note that patients who develop such a diagnosis were seven times more likely to develop respiratory aspiration. Conclusion: dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex were the best predictors both for Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. PMID:26039291

  2. Standardised fluorescence in situ hybridisation in cytological and histological specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludwig Wilkens; Heidrun Gerr; Dorothea Gadzicki; Hans Kreipe; Brigitte Schlegelberger

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) has gained major impact in the detection of chromosomal aberrations. The application of FISH, however, is hampered due to complicated protocols. We therefore designed a FISH protocol that allows the fast and reliable application on cytological and histological specimens. Cytological and histological specimens of bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver and breast were analysed with 14

  3. TUFTS ORAL PATHOLOGY SERVICE Liquid-Based Brush Cytology Analysis

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    TUFTS ORAL PATHOLOGY SERVICE Liquid-Based Brush Cytology Analysis Liquid-based cytology) or mixed red and white (erythroleukoplakia) mucosal lesions for possible premalignant dysplastic changes specimen, the oral pathologist renders a report with a descriptive analysis of the cellular morphology

  4. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F

    2005-01-01

    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism. PMID:15831621

  5. Hypercalcitoninemia and thyroid nodules: when cytology (still) matters.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Giugliano, Gioacchino; Maffini, Fausto A; Chiesa, Fausto; Bongiovanni, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can assume various cytomorphological and architectural forms, mimicking other thyroid and extra-thyroid tumors and rendering the cytological and histological diagnosis challenging. Consequently, measurement of calcitonin (CT) levels is generally considered to be more accurate than cytology in diagnosing MTC. Here, we report on a patient with a multinodular goiter and significantly elevated basal CT levels; based on cytology examination and CT immunocytostains, neither MTC nor C-cell hyperplasia was detected upon final histopathological examination. CT testing has a high false-positive rate and low positive predictive value for detecting clinically relevant MTC. Judicious integration of cytological examination with immunocytochemical stains (when needed) may be useful for selecting the most appropriate therapy and avoiding overtreatment (i.e., central neck lymph node dissection in the present case). This case demonstrates that cytological examination with ancillary techniques is still valuable in patients with thyroid nodules and suspicious MTC. PMID:24550235

  6. Endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration: Technique and applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Tharian, Benjamin; Tsiopoulos, Fotios; George, Nayana; Pietro, Salvatore Di; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Since its initial report in 1992, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has now been incorporated into the diagnostic and staging algorithm for the evaluation of benign and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. Its introduction constitutes a major breakthrough in the endoscopic field and has gradually transformed EUS from a pure imaging modality into a more interventional procedure. In addition, the possibility of collecting samples, providing a definitive cytological and/or histological evidence of the presence of malignancy, has strongly contributed to changing EUS from a subjective, highly operator dependant procedure into a more objective one. This article will review the instrumentation, technique and the most important clinical applications of EUS-FNA. PMID:23293723

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration: Technique and applications in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Tharian, Benjamin; Tsiopoulos, Fotios; George, Nayana; Pietro, Salvatore Di; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2012-12-16

    Since its initial report in 1992, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has now been incorporated into the diagnostic and staging algorithm for the evaluation of benign and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. Its introduction constitutes a major breakthrough in the endoscopic field and has gradually transformed EUS from a pure imaging modality into a more interventional procedure. In addition, the possibility of collecting samples, providing a definitive cytological and/or histological evidence of the presence of malignancy, has strongly contributed to changing EUS from a subjective, highly operator dependant procedure into a more objective one. This article will review the instrumentation, technique and the most important clinical applications of EUS-FNA. PMID:23293723

  8. Comparison of PCR with stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Santos, T R; Carreira, V S; Ferrari, H F; Moreira, M A B; Luvizotto, M C R

    2014-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani complex. Traditionally the definite diagnosis is made by amastigote detection in the tissue. The aim this study was to evaluate the PCR technique in stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis. Slides were selected totaling 62 suspect cases (33 bone marrow samples and 29 lymph node samples) and 17 positive cases (8 bone marrow and 9 lymph node). From 62 suspect cases, 39 (62.90%) were confirmed to be positive being 17 (n=29) lymph node aspirates and 22 (n=33) bone marrow. This finding is in agreement with the higher sensitivity of the PCR assay compared to direct microscopic observation. In conclusion, the findings of this study supports the use of PCR on archive cytological preparation stained slides for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, emphasizing the higher sensitivity of this technique when compared to direct microscopic examination and mostly the use of the suspect status for the cytology samples that presents the previously mentioned particularities with focus on detecting the oligosymptomatic or assymptomatic dogs in endemic areas functioning as potential reservoirs for this disease. PMID:25159534

  9. Fatal aspiration of a makeshift pacifier.

    PubMed

    Millunchick, E W; McArtor, R D

    1986-03-01

    A case is presented of an infant who aspirated the nipple from a makeshift pacifier. The use of makeshift pacifiers is widely practiced at hospital nurseries throughout the United States and should stop immediately. PMID:3951918

  10. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25657850

  11. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for hydrocarbon aspiration.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, A J; Weber, T R; Jaeger, R W; Connors, R H; Thompson, M W

    1990-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a pulmonary bypass procedure that has been employed in adults to provide temporary treatment for reversible acute pulmonary and cardiac insufficiency. The technology of membrane oxygenation has been used since 1977 in neonates with predictably fatal pulmonary failure due to respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, meconium aspiration syndrome, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in older children with other pulmonary disorders has been limited. We report two cases of hydrocarbon aspiration involving petroleum-based products, both successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A 15-month-old male infant who aspirated baby oil (light mineral oil) is particularly unusual owing to the generally expected low risk of aspiration with a hydrocarbon of such viscosity (greater than 60 Saybolt Universal Seconds). The second patient is a 16-month-old male infant who aspirated furniture polish (mineral seal oil). In both children severe intractable hypoxemia developed despite intensive ventilatory support, and they became candidates for alternative therapy. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides a potentially life-saving option when a patient fails to respond to conventional therapy for hydrocarbon aspiration. PMID:2378332

  12. Immunodetection in fine-needle aspirates and multiparametric (SAMBA) image analysis. Receptors (monoclonal antiestrogen and antiprogesterone) and growth fraction (monoclonal Ki67) evaluation in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Charpin, C; Andrac, L; Habib, M C; Vacheret, H; Xerri, L; Devictor, B; Lavaut, M N; Toga, M

    1989-03-01

    Immunocytochemical assays (ICA) using monoclonal antiestrogen receptors (ER ICA), antiprogesterone receptors (PR ICA), and monoclonal antibody Ki67 (Ki67 ICA) were performed in 127 breast carcinomas. The immunostaining procedures were applied on frozen tissue sections, tumour imprints, and fine-needle aspirates in order to compare the variations in the distribution of the antigens detected in the three different types of preparations. Positive reactions detected with peroxidase-antiperoxidase and avidinbiotin-peroxidase, and alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase complexes were evaluated through a computerized system of image analysis referred to as SAMBA 200 (SAMBA TITN, Grenoble, France). Application programs specifically developed for the analysis of tissue sections and of cytologic preparations were applied. This system allowed a multiparametric, accurate, reliable, reproducible and automatized evaluation of the heterogeneity of the antigenic sites in tumors. For each markers positive cell surface (PS), and integrated and mean optical densities (IOD, MOD) and IOD histograms were compared. It was shown that (1) there was no significant variation in optical densities in cell imprints and aspirates whereas PS significantly (P less than 0.01) differed in both preparations; (2) there were significant differences of the optical densities between tissue sections and cytological preparations, either imprints or aspirates, likely due to randomly cut nuclei in tissue sections; and (3) there was a significant difference between the PS of tissue sections and aspirates but no significant difference between tissue sections and imprints. It is concluded that fine-needle aspiration constitutes a convenient method for cell sampling, reliable for the diagnosis of malignancies. However, it may not reflect the heterogeneity of cell subpopulations in tissue. PMID:2644015

  13. Next-generation sequencing-based multi-gene mutation profiling of solid tumors using fine needle aspiration samples: promises and challenges for routine clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Portier, Bryce P; Singh, Rajesh R; Routbort, Mark J; Aldape, Kenneth D; Handal, Brian A; Rahimi, Hamed; Reddy, Neelima G; Barkoh, Bedia A; Mishra, Bal M; Paladugu, Abhaya V; Manekia, Jawad H; Kalhor, Neda; Chowdhuri, Sinchita Roy; Staerkel, Gregg A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Patel, Keyur P

    2014-02-01

    Increasing use of fine needle aspiration for oncological diagnosis, while minimally invasive, poses a challenge for molecular testing by traditional sequencing platforms due to high sample requirements. The advent of affordable benchtop next-generation sequencing platforms such as the semiconductor-based Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) Sequencer has facilitated multi-gene mutational profiling using only nanograms of DNA. We describe successful next-generation sequencing-based testing of fine needle aspiration cytological specimens in a clinical laboratory setting. We selected 61 tumor specimens, obtained by fine needle aspiration, with known mutational status for clinically relevant genes; of these, 31 specimens yielded sufficient DNA for next-generation sequencing testing. Ten nanograms of DNA from each sample was tested for mutations in the hotspot regions of 46 cancer-related genes using a 318-chip on Ion PGM Sequencer. All tested samples underwent successful targeted sequencing of 46 genes. We showed 100% concordance of results between next-generation sequencing and conventional test platforms for all previously known point mutations that included BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, RET and TP53, deletions of EGFR and wild-type calls. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing detected variants in 19 of the 31 (61%) patient samples that were not detected by traditional platforms, thus increasing the utility of mutation analysis; these variants involved the APC, ATM, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, FGFR2, FLT3, KDR, KIT, KRAS, MLH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, SMAD4, STK11 and TP53 genes. The results of this study show that next-generation sequencing-based mutational profiling can be performed on fine needle aspiration cytological smears and cell blocks. Next-generation sequencing can be performed with only nanograms of DNA and has better sensitivity than traditional sequencing platforms. Use of next-generation sequencing also enhances the power of fine needle aspiration by providing gene mutation results that can direct personalized cancer therapy. PMID:23907151

  14. Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: A prospective study on 114 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G; Palermo, G; Zini, E

    2015-08-01

    Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FNA, FNI, and/or IS) were available from the same lesion; ?-agreement and accuracy between cytological and histopathological results were calculated. Eighteen cytological specimens were excluded, with a retrieval rate of 84.2%. Of the 96 samples analysed, FNA, FNI, and IS were available from 80, 76, and 73 animals, respectively. Overall, 60/67 (89.6%) and 21/29 (72.4%) lesions were neoplastic in dogs and cats, respectively, with the remaining being non-neoplastic. For all lesions, ?-values obtained by FNA, FNI, and IS were in dogs 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.84), respectively, and in cats 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of FNA, FNI, and IS in dogs with neoplasia were 98.2%, 98.1%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in cats with neoplasia were 95.6%, 95.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the high agreement with histopathology suggests that cytological examinations by FNI, FNA, and IS are all appropriate methods to correctly diagnose lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats. PMID:25466576

  15. Hemithyroidectomy is the preferred initial operative approach for an indeterminate fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Connie G.; Yao, Reina; Chan, Simon K.; Strugnell, Scott S.; Bugis, Samuel; Irvine, Robert; Anderson, Donald; Walker, Blair; Jones, Steven J.; Wiseman, Sam M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration biopsy represents the critical initial diagnostic test used for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Our objectives were to determine the cytological distribution, the utility of clinicopathologic characteristics for predicting malignancy and the true proportion of cancer among individuals who presented with indeterminate cytology and had undergone thyroid surgery for suspicion of cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1040 consecutive primary thyroid operations carried out over an 8-year period at a tertiary care endocrine referral centre. Follicular neoplasm (FN), Hürthle cell neoplasm (HN), neoplasms suspicious for but not diagnostic of papillary carcinoma (IP) and neoplasms with cellular atypia (IA) were reviewed. Results In all, 380 individuals presented with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Of these, 252 (66%) patients had FN, 47 (12%) HN, 44 (12%) IP, 26 (7%) IA and 11 (4%) had mixed diagnoses. Biopsied lesions were found to be malignant on pathological evaluation in 102 (27%) patients: 49 (19%) with FN, 11 (23%) HN, 28 (64%) IP and 9 (35%) with IA. Hemithyroidectomy was adequate definitive treatment in 196 of 225 (87%) patients with FN and 39 of 42 (93%) with HN. Significant associations with a cancer diagnosis were identified for smaller tumour size in patients with FN (p = 0.004) and right thyroid lobe location in patients with IP (p = 0.012), although these factors were nonsignificant in the corrected analyses for multiple comparisons. Conclusion In a review of the experience at a Canadian centre, 4 operations were carried out to identify each cancer, and hemithyroidectomy was the optimal initial and definitive surgical approach for most patients. PMID:22630062

  16. Note on the cytology of Crocus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kôtarô Karasawa

    1951-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a EightCrocus species were studied cytologically, two of which especially referred to the behaviour of the meiotic chromosomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The somatic chromosome numbers were detected to be 10 inC.ancyrensis, 6 and 12+8f in two strains ofC. hyemalis, and 12 inC. susianus minor, respectively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a The meiotic chromosome numbers were found to be 5 inC. ancyrensis, probably 4 bivalents and

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and useful ancillary methods

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Mario; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Kusec, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in evaluating pancreatic pathology has been well documented from the beginning of its clinical use. High spatial resolution and the close proximity to the evaluated organs within the mediastinum and abdominal cavity allow detection of small focal lesions and precise tissue acquisition from suspected lesions within the reach of this method. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is considered of additional value to EUS and is performed to obtain tissue diagnosis. Tissue acquisition from suspected lesions for cytological or histological analysis allows, not only the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions, but, in most cases, also the accurate distinction between the various types of malignant lesions. It is well documented that the best results are achieved only if an adequate sample is obtained for further analysis, if the material is processed in an appropriate way, and if adequate ancillary methods are performed. This is a multi-step process and could be quite a challenge in some cases. In this article, we discuss the technical aspects of tissue acquisition by EUS-guided-FNA (EUS-FNA), as well as the role of an on-site cytopathologist, various means of specimen processing, and the selection of the appropriate ancillary method for providing an accurate tissue diagnosis and maximizing the yield of this method. The main goal of this review is to alert endosonographers, not only to the different possibilities of tissue acquisition, namely EUS-FNA, but also to bring to their attention the importance of proper sample processing in the evaluation of various lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and other accessible organs. All aspects of tissue acquisition (needles, suction, use of stylet, complications, etc.) have been well discussed lately. Adequate tissue samples enable comprehensive diagnoses, which answer the main clinical questions, thus enabling targeted therapy. PMID:25339816

  18. Modified aspirated internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder; valves for controlling gas entry and exit; ignition for initiating and timing combustion in each combustion chamber; a crankshaft rotatably mounted to the engine block, the crankshaft having at least one crank arm; connecting rod between each piston and the crank arm for translating reciprocation of each piston into rotation of each crankshaft; mounting means for rotatably mounting crankshaft to the engine block, the mounting means at each mounting location comprising: a crankshaft journal located on the crankshaft, the crankshaft journal having a crankshaft cross-section and an off-set portion, the off-set portion having a maximum which is equal to a predetermined off-set, the maximum off-set being located on a predetermined side of the crankshaft, the off-set portion smoothly decreasing from the maximum to a minimum from each side of the maximum, the minimum being equal to a zero off-set, the minimum off-set being located on the crankshaft opposite maximum off-set; and an engine block bearing connected with the engine block, wherein the crankshaft rotates in relation to the engine block about an eccentric centerline passing axially through the crankshaft journal cross-section, the eccentric centerline being displaced from a true centerline passing axially through said crankshaft cross-section by a distance equal to one-half the off-set, wherein the crank arm has a predetermined radial length centered on the eccentric centerline, and wherein the modified crankshaft has at least one output shaft portion axially aligned with the eccentric centerline.

  19. Utility of BRAF V600E mutation detection in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Leslie R; Bentz, Brandon G; Bentz, Joel S

    2006-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is widely utilized for evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules. However, approximately 30% are indeterminate for malignancy. Recently, a mutation in the BRAF gene has been reported to be the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of BRAF V600E mutation detection for refining indeterminate preoperative cytologic diagnoses in patients with PTC. Methods Archival indeterminate thyroid FNAs and corresponding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical samples with PTC were identified in our patient files. DNA extracted from slide scape lysates and 5 ?m FFPE sections were evaluated for the BRAF V600E mutation using LightCycler PCR and fluorescent melting curve analysis (LCPCR). Amplification products that showed deviation from the wild-type genomic DNA melting peak, discordant FNA and FFPE matched pairs, and all benign control samples, underwent direct DNA sequencing. Results A total of 19 indeterminate thyroid FNAs demonstrating PTC on FFPE surgical samples were included in the study. Using BRAF mutation analysis, the preoperative diagnosis of PTC was confirmed in 3/19 (15.8%) FNA samples that could not be conclusively diagnosed on cytology alone. However, 9/19 (47.4%) FFPE tissue samples were positive for the V600E mutation. Of the discordant pairs, 5/6 FNAs contained less than 50% tumor cells. Conclusion When used with indeterminate FNA samples, BRAF mutation analysis may be a useful adjunct technique for confirming the diagnosis of malignancy in an otherwise equivocal case. However, overall tumor cell content of some archival FNA smear slides is a limiting factor for mutation detection. PMID:16606457

  20. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  1. Next Generation Sequencing Improves the Accuracy of KRAS Mutation Analysis in Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration Pancreatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

  2. Next generation sequencing improves the accuracy of KRAS mutation analysis in endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

  3. Intraoperative cytologic diagnosis of suprasellar and sellar cystic lesions.

    PubMed

    Smith, A R; Elsheikh, T M; Silverman, J F

    1999-03-01

    The intraoperative distinction of craniopharyngiomas (CP) and cystic pituitary adenomas (PA) from other intracranial parasellar cystic lesions can significantly modify the extent of surgery and reduce postoperative morbidity. Frozen-section diagnosis may be limited by the scant tissue available for examination. The imprint cytology of six parasellar cystic lesions is examined, along with their radiologic and histologic findings. These include two Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC), three CP, and one cystic PA. RCC showed scattered clusters of cuboidal cells with prominent cilia. Cystic PA demonstrated clusters of monomorphic round cells with minimal cytoplasm. CP displayed "wet" keratin and clusters of squamous cells with a palisaded border. In all six cases, cytology supported the final histologic diagnosis. In one case, the intraoperative diagnosis was based solely on cytologic examination. Cytology can contribute significantly to an accurate intraoperative diagnosis of parasellar cystic lesions and potentially modify surgical management. PMID:10086237

  4. The frequency of malignancy and the relationship between malignancy and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology.

    PubMed

    Tutuncu, Yasemin; Berker, Dilek; Isik, Serhat; Akbaba, Gulhan; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Kucukler, Ferit Kerim; Göcmen, Erdal; Yalc?n, Yavuz; Aydin, Yusuf; Guler, Serdar

    2014-02-01

    Various approaches are available for the management of nodules that are evaluated to be indeterminate according to the results of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. The present study aimed to determine the rate of malignancy and the ultrasonographic features that could be used as predictor of malignant pathologies at the nodules with indeterminate cytology. A total of 201 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and whose fine needle aspiration biopsy results were evaluated to be Hurthle cell lesion (n = 99), follicular neoplasm (n = 61) and [corrected] suspicious for malignancy (n = 41) were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 178 were females (88.6 %) and 23 were males (11.4 %). The rates of malignancy were found to be 33.3 % in the Hurthle cell lesion group, 23.0 % in the follicular neoplasm group and 53.7 % in the suspicious for malignancy group (p = 0.006). The comparison of the ultrasonographic characteristics of the malignant and benign nodules revealed hypoechogenicity and microcalcification to be more common in malignant nodules (34.3 vs. 16.9 %, p = 0.005; 27.1 vs. 13.1 %, p = 0.014; respectively). While 92.3 % of the malignant nodules were ?1 cm, 82.9 % of the benign nodules were ?1 cm (p = 0.042). We believe that as the patients at Hurthle cell lesion group have higher risk of malignancy than the patients with Follicular Neoplasia so total thyroidectomy will be suitable for these patients. [corrected]. In addition, microcalcification and hypoechoic nodules at patients with indeterminate cytology can be related with increased risk of malignancy. [corrected]. PMID:23504651

  5. Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis infestation detected by sputum cytology.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, B; Nanos, S; Soco, J N; McGrew, E A

    1980-01-01

    This case report is of an immunosuppressed patient in whom a diagnosis of disseminated Strongyloides infestation was made by cytologic examination of sputum, bronchial washing and brushing although a negative bronchial biopsy was reported. For those patients receiving steroids or immunosuppressives, the important role of cytology in the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis is emphasized. The morphologic characteristics of this adult intestinal nematode and the differential diagnosis are also described. PMID:6932151

  6. Granular cell tumor of hand presenting as subcutaneous nodule mimicking dermal adnexal tumor: A diagnosis by cytology

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra G.; Chauhan, Sanjaykumar; Dhruva, Gauravi

    2013-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon tumor and is believed to be of schwannian origin. GCT is benign but rare malignant cases are recorded. GCT occurs in almost any part of the body. The common sites are the tongue, skin, and subcutaneous tissue. GCT of hand is an extremely rare. Till date only 17 cases are reported in the literature. Preoperative diagnosis of GCT is important, because GCT mimics dermal adnexal tumor in subcutaneous tissue, other soft tissue tumor or inflammatory lesions. GCT is composed of large polygonal cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and these cells are often immunoreactive for the S-100 protein. Fine-needle aspiration cytology has been suggested to be diagnostic modality of choice and this would undoubtedly aid the correct diagnosis. Excision with wide surgical margins is curative for benign GCT. Recurrence and malignant transformation requires regular follow-up. Here, this communication documents a case of cytological diagnosis of the granular cell tumor of hand in a 21-year-old female, clinically suspected to be a dermal adnexal tumor. PMID:23439997

  7. Immunophenotypic analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in cytologic specimens: a correlative study of immunocytochemical and flow cytometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Simsir, A; Fetsch, P; Stetler-Stevenson, M; Abati, A

    1999-05-01

    Most Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas(NHL) can be accurately diagnosed and classified based on morphologic and immunophenotypic findings on cytologic specimens. Immunophenotyping can be accomplished via immunocytochemistry (IC) or flow cytometry (FC). We reviewed our experience with 98 cytology specimens (70 fine-needle aspirates [FNA] and 28 effusions) that were submitted for immunophenotyping utilizing both IC and FC between January 1992 and December 1997 for the diagnosis of NHL. Eighty-five percent of the cases were immunophenotyped by both techniques. Among these there were only two discrepancies between IC and FC, yielding a 98% correlation rate. Of the 98 cases, 11% could not be immunophenotyped by FC and 4% could not be immunophenotyped by IC. The advantage of IC is the preservation of cytomorphology, which results in the requirement for a lower number of neoplastic cells and a limited, targeted panel of antibodies. This is especially useful in predominantly necrotic lymphomas in which only a few well-preserved neoplastic cells may be present, rendering the specimen inadequate for immunophenotyping by FC. The advantages of FC are in the detection of a small population of monoclonal cells in a background of reactive cells (particularly useful in effusion samples in which the predominant cell population is often reactive T lymphocytes), increased diagnostic precision through evaluation of objective parameters, and the use of multiple markers with dual labelling. We conclude that IC and FC are both excellent methods for immunophenotyping of cytology specimens and can be used interchangeably depending on the institutional expertise and availability. PMID:10319228

  8. Pulmonary vascular disease in fatal meconium aspiration.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J D; Vawter, G F; Reid, L M

    1984-05-01

    Although not proved, it is generally accepted that pulmonary vasospasm is responsible for the persistent pulmonary hypertension frequently associated with meconium aspiration. We have studied the pulmonary vasculature in 11 consecutive infants with fatal meconium aspiration, applying morphometric techniques to pulmonary arteries distended with barium gelatin before fixation. In 10 of the 11 infants, persistent pulmonary hypertension was evident clinically, with right-to-left shunting through the foramen ovale or ductus arteriosus. In all but one, severe structural abnormal muscularization of the smallest intra-acinar arteries was present. These changes must have developed before birth. In only one infant was the structure of the intra-acinar precapillary arteries virtually normal, as would be expected if vasospasm alone had caused the hypertension. The persistent pulmonary hypertension associated with fatal meconium aspiration may be the result of a structurally abnormal pulmonary microcirculation. PMID:6716223

  9. Clear cell variant of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas diagnosed by fine needle aspiration: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Canberk, Sule; Elcin, Bilge Baskir; Uludokumaci, Atay; Uygun, Nesrin; Gulsen, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare tumor of uncertain malignant potential, predominantly affecting young adult females. We report a case of clear cell variant of SPN, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. The aspirate was highly cellular and exhibited delicate branching papillary structures with central capillaries covered with several layers of plasmacytoid tumor cells. Acinar and rosette-like formations, as well as single neoplastic cells were also observed. An unusual cytologic feature was the presence of large, clear cytoplasmic vacuoles. The diagnosis of SPN was confirmed by characteristic immunocytochemical staining pattern including nuclear staining for ?-catenin, cytoplasmic staining for vimentin and lack of reactivity for cytokeratin. PMID:24575146

  10. Clear cell variant of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas diagnosed by fine needle aspiration: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Canberk, Sule; Elcin, Bilge Baskir; Uludokumaci, Atay; Uygun, Nesrin; Gulsen, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare tumor of uncertain malignant potential, predominantly affecting young adult females. We report a case of clear cell variant of SPN, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. The aspirate was highly cellular and exhibited delicate branching papillary structures with central capillaries covered with several layers of plasmacytoid tumor cells. Acinar and rosette-like formations, as well as single neoplastic cells were also observed. An unusual cytologic feature was the presence of large, clear cytoplasmic vacuoles. The diagnosis of SPN was confirmed by characteristic immunocytochemical staining pattern including nuclear staining for ?-catenin, cytoplasmic staining for vimentin and lack of reactivity for cytokeratin. PMID:24575146

  11. Atomic force microscopy in histology and cytology.

    PubMed

    Ushiki, T; Hitomi, J; Ogura, S; Umemoto, T; Shigeno, M

    1996-12-01

    This review briefly introduces the principles of the atomic force microscope (AFM) and shows our own results of AFM application to biological samples. The AFM, invented in 1986, is an instrument that traces the surface topography of the sample with a sharp probe while monitoring the interaction forces working between the probe and sample surface. Thus, the AFM provides three-dimensional surface images of the sample with high resolution. The advantage of the AFM for biologists is that AFM can visualize non-conductive materials in a non-vacuous (i.e., air or liquid) environment. AFM images of the plasmid DNA are comparable to those by transmission electron microscopy using a rotary shadowing technique, and have the advantage of examining directly the molecule without staining nor coating. The surface structure of human metaphase chromosomes and mouse collagen fibrils demonstrated in air by the non-contact mode AFM is comparable to that obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative information on the heights of structures is further obtainable from the AFM images. Embedment-free thin tissue-sections are useful for observing intracellular structures by AFM. The present review also shows AFM images of living cultured cells which have been collected in a contact mode in liquid. This technique afforded us three-dimensional observation of the cellular movement with high resolution. Although there are some innate limitations for AFM imaging, the AFM has great potential for providing valuable new information in histology and cytology. PMID:9037379

  12. Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Rural High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostal, Robert; Bilden, Janet

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 184 rural high school students found no differences in educational aspiration between males and females. Females expressed significantly higher occupational aspirations, in terms of jobs rated highly on the Total Socioeconomic Index 2. (SK)

  13. The Cavitron ultrasonic aspirator in tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Epstein, F

    1983-01-01

    The CUSA Ultrasonic Surgical System fragments and aspirates a wide spectrum of firm tumors of the central nervous system with little transmitted movement to adjacent normal neural structures. The CUSA system is clearly of limited value in removing extremely calcified or dense fibrous tumors. It lacks primary hemostatic properties, and conventional hemostatic techniques are necessary. PMID:6680087

  14. Meconium Staining and Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean C. Blackwell; Carlos A. Carreno; Sonia S. Hassan; Julie Moldenhauer; Honor M. Wolfe; Stanley M. Berry; Michael Kruger; Yoram Sorokin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the incidence of pregnancies complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) or meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) differs with seasonal changes. Methods: An established perinatal database was used to identify all term (?37 weeks) singleton gestations resulting in a live birth from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1999. Patients were divided into groups based on the season

  15. Meconium aspiration syndrome: experiences in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H C Lin; S Y Wu; J M Wu; T F Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is still one of the most challenged diseases for the neonatologists. We reviewed our earlier studies of MAS in an attempt to provide some idea for more understanding of MAS. This study is a retrospective review and summarization of our earlier studies in MAS at two tertiary neonatal centers in Taiwan. Incidence of MAS was decreased

  16. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  17. Three determinants of the level of aspiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Hansche; J. C. Gilchrist

    1956-01-01

    In a design similar to that of Chapman and Volkmann, the effect of reference group was again found to be a significant anchoring point for S's aspiration level. The effects of 2 other dimensions of the design, sample question difficulty and reference score, have also been found to have significant anchoring influences which explain the puzzling portion of Chapman and

  18. Brain tissue aspiration neural tube defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Cesar Peres; Gustavo Henrique T. de Sales Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to find out how frequent is brain tissue aspiration and if brain tissue hetero- topia could be found in the lung of human neural tube defect cases. Histological sections of each lobe of both lungs of 22 fetuses and newborn with neural tube defect were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). There were 15 (68.2%) females

  19. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

  20. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  1. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  2. Appreciating Aspirations in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Aspiration for higher education (HE) is no longer a matter solely for students and their families. With OECD nations seeking to position themselves more competitively in the global knowledge economy, the need for more knowledge workers has led to plans to expand their HE systems to near universal levels. In Australia, this has required the…

  3. Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

  4. THE EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL ASPIRATIONS OF PRISONERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOYLES, GARY

    INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS PRISONERS' VOCATIONAL ASPIRATIONS AND THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK WERE COMPLETED BY 175 INMATES IN NORTH DAKOTA IN THE SPRING OF 1966. UPON RELEASE, 35 PERCENT PLANNED TO GET MORE EDUCATION, 52 PERCENT PLANNED TO GET A JOB, SEVEN PERCENT PLANNED TO WORK AT HOME, AND SIX PERCENT HAD NO DEFINITE PLANS. SATISFACTION WITH…

  5. Nucleated red blood cells in meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaul Dollberg; Sharon Livny; Nina Mordecheyev; Francis B Mimouni

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell (RBC) count is higher in infants who had meconium aspiration with respiratory symptoms compared with infants with asymptomatic meconium aspiration and controls.Methods: We compared the absolute nucleated RBC counts during the first 12 hours of life in three groups of term, vaginally delivered infants, including those who had meconium aspiration

  6. Students’ School Motivation and Aspiration Over High School Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Seeshing Yeung; Dennis M. McInerney

    2005-01-01

    Students from a school in Hong Kong (n?=?199) responded to 22 items asking about their school motivation and aspirations in a survey. Structural equation models found four school motivation factors consistent with the task, effort, competition, and praise scales of the Inventory of School Motivation, one education aspiration factor, one career aspiration factor, and significant relations of the motivation factors

  7. The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

  8. Ultrasonic gas alloy atomization under near-zero aspiration pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Deping; Yan, Biao

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic gas atomization (USGA) of Zn-Al under near-zero aspiration pressure was discussed. The protrusion length of delivery tube was modified to adjust the aspiration pressure. Under near-zero aspiration pressure, melt filming was observed by camera and more fine powders were produced. While under larger subambient aspiration pressure, melt filming was unavailable, corresponding to less fine powders. The results suggest that the position of the wake near the delivery tube can be optimized under near-zero aspiration. Less protrusion of delivery tube reduces the energy loss in gas flow deflection. Both facilitate to produce finer powders.

  9. CD-ROM transnational training program in cervical cytology (CYTOTRAIN).

    PubMed

    Marsan, C; Coleman, D V; Branca, M; Cochand-Priollet, B; Molinié, V

    2001-01-01

    The Transnational Training Programme in Cervical Cytology (CYTOTRAIN) is a 3-yr project funded by the European Commission to harmonize training and quality standards in cervical screening across the European Union. The aim of the program is to develop new approaches in initial and continuing vocational training, particularly in the area of life-long learning with the aim of meeting national, regional, and local needs. We present a new approach to training in cervical cytology, using an interactive program of cytological images. The method used to prepare the program and the problems encountered are described. The authors have the feeling that giving details of the organizational and management structure adopted for the project implementation might help other pathologists realize more or less similar CD-ROM training programs in their own field of activity. PMID:11135473

  10. Cytological mapping of Om mutants of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, H; Matsuda, M; Tomimura, Y; Shibata, M; Tobari, Y N

    1992-06-01

    Semidominant, optic morphology (Om) mutants in Drosophila ananassae have been genetically mapped to at least 25 loci throughout the genome (Hinton, 1984; 1988). Among them, four X-linked Om mutants were proved to be associated with the insertion of a transposable element, tom (Shrimpton et al., 1986; Tanda et al., 1988). In the present study, cytological mapping of autosomal Om mutants was carried out by in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes using a cloned tom element as a probe. The cytological site for each autosomal Om mutant has been determined to a single band of the salivary gland chromosomes. PMID:1445723

  11. [Cytology and immunophenotype feautures of 80 acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Gouider, Emna; Ayari, Sameh; Bouhoula, Selma; Ben Abid, Hela; Ali, Zaher Belhadj; Meddeb, Balkis; Hafsia, Aïcha; Hafsia, Raouf

    2007-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)'s diagnosis is clinical and biological. We report here 80 AML with cytology and immunophenotype features to establish correlations. 21 AML1, 23 AML2, 12 AML3, 2 AML4, 18 AML5 and 3 AML6 were diagnosed by cytology. Only one case of AML0 was diagnosed by immunophenotype. Myelogysplasia is present in 29.8% cases. CD19 and CD56 expression was significantly associated to AML +t(8;21). Additionally, concomitant negativity of CD34 and HLA-DR was discrimininatif to AML3 diagnosis. Prognostic value to expression some CD needs time backwards. PMID:17657925

  12. The predictive value of the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis "suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, hurthle cell type" in patients with hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Michael H; Jo, Vickie Y; Stelow, Edward B; Faquin, William C; Zou, Kelly H; Alexander, Erik K; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen; Benson, Carol B; Frates, Mary C; Gawande, Atul; Moore, Francis D; Cibas, Edmund S

    2011-01-01

    A fine-needle aspiration sample composed exclusively of Hürthle cells is interpreted as "suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type" (SFNHCT). Because some nonneoplastic Hürthle cell proliferations in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) mimic this cytologic pattern, we examined the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of SFNHCT in patients with HT. Between 1992 and 2007, 401 patients with cytologic findings of SFNHCT were identified at 3 institutions. Histologic follow-up was available for 287 (71.6%), and malignancy was diagnosed in 69 (24.0%). Malignancy was present in 2 (PPV = 9.5%) of 21 patients with HT compared with 67 (PPV = 25.2%) of 266 patients without HT (P = .081). Although the difference in the rate of malignancy between the HT and non-HT cohorts did not reach statistical significance, the lower risk of malignancy in the HT cohort more closely approximates the risk of cases interpreted as "atypia of undetermined significance." For this reason, it might be appropriate for Hürthle cell-only aspirates from patients with HT to be categorized as either atypia of undetermined significance or SFNHCT. PMID:21173136

  13. How Useful Is Semen Cytology in the Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Donat; A. Lalak; B. P. C. Lin; A. J. Mitterdorfer; D. J. Handelsman

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Seminal cytology has been reported to show abnormal prostatic epithelial cells in up to 75% of men with prostate cancer on biopsy. We examined the practical value of seminal cytology for non-invasive diagnosis of prostate cancer in 52 unselected men undergoing prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods: Semen samples from 52 men requiring prostate biopsy were examined for cytological abnormalities

  14. Innovative neonatal ventilation and meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod K. Bhutani; Ranjit Chima; Emidio M. Sivieri

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory failure remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal population. Infants with hypoxemic respiratory\\u000a failure because of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), and pneumonia\\/sepsis\\u000a have a potential for increased survival with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Other treatment options previously\\u000a limited to inotropic support, conventional ventilatory management, respiratory alkalosis, paralysis and

  15. Advances in management of meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumen Khatua; Peter R. Serrao; Emil L. Milano

    2000-01-01

    Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) is a leading cause of respiratory distress in the newborn. Antenatal diagnosis of meconium\\u000a stained amniotic fluid and fetal distress is important to reduce morbidity and mortality in the neonates. Amnioinfusion of\\u000a saline and tracheal suctioning of meconium are preventive interventions. Babies with MAS who continue to have respiratory\\u000a distress need to be put on conventional

  16. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Joshi, Rohan; Kuhel, William I.; Tabbara, Sana O.; Rezaei, M. Katayoon; Hoda, Rana S.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA). It may be noninvasive (NI) or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA. PMID:25972908

  17. Role of triple test score in the evaluation of palpable breast lump

    PubMed Central

    Kachewar, Smita Sushil; Dongre, Suryakant Dattatraya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) method is safe, reliable and time saving outdoor procedure with little discomfort to the patient for detecting Carcinoma breast. The efficacy can further be enhanced when physical breast examination, mammography and FNAC (the triple test [TT]) are jointly taken into consideration. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the role of TT score (TTS) in palpable breast masses. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out from May 2010 to April 2012. In the subjects referred to the Department of Pathology for FNAC of the breast mass, the TTS was calculated, and histopathological findings were noted. Results: In the study period TTS score was calculated in 200 cases out of 225 FNAC's of breast. Of 124 benign cases on cytology, only three showed discordant TTS. Out of 62 malignant cases, 61 showed concordant TTS and one case of mastitis on histopathology showed TTS of five. Out of all the benign lesions, two cases of fibrocystic disease and a single case of phylloides tumor gave a TTS ?6. These cases were diagnosed as infiltrating ductal carcinoma and angiosarcoma respectively on histopathology. Histopathological correlation was possible in only 70 patients. Of these 70, 28 were from the benign category and 42 were from the malignant category. TTS of ?6 has a sensitivity of 97.44%, specificity of 100%. FNAC has a sensitivity of 88.37%, specificity of 96.42%. Conclusions: TT reliably guides evaluation of palpable breast masses. Histological correlation indicated TTS to be better diagnostic tool than FNAC alone.

  18. Reliable EGFR mutation testing in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular lymph node fine-needle aspirates: a cohort study with diagnostic performance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Amir; Tiwari, Sandeep; Sovani, Vishakha; Baldwin, David R; Kumaran, Maruti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 15–30% of patients with lung cancer will have supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy (SCLN). Ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is regarded as an effective diagnostic tool in small size lymph nodes (LNs) and impalpable positron emission tomography detected nodes. We evaluated our diagnostic service performance in relation to the adequacy of samples for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Methods Retrospective data analysis from electronic records, searching for all suspected lung cancer referrals that underwent US of the neck±FNA, over a continuous period of 4?years. Results Of 306 cases with suspected lung cancer referred to our department for US FNA of SCLN, 228 patients underwent the procedure. Of the remaining 78 patients, LNs were not detected in 52 cases and appeared benign in 26. Cytological diagnosis was established in 171 patients (75%) for treatment decisions without further investigations. The remaining 57 patients had further investigations; 45 reconfirmed the US-guided FNA diagnosis. The average LN size was 12.9?mm, and positive cytology was obtained in LNs ranging from 3 to 45?mm. Of 57 adenocarcinoma cases, 34 were tested for EGFR confirming 4 positive, 25 negative and 5 insufficient samples. No complications were recorded. Conclusions US-guided FNA of SCLN remains an important diagnostic tool in lung cancer. Adequate tissue can be obtained for reliable diagnosis from LNs and for EGFR mutational analysis, without the need for more invasive and expensive investigations in more than 80% of cases. PMID:26175906

  19. Lung adenocarcinoma and its thyroid metastasis characterized on fine-needle aspirates by cytomorphology, immunocytochemistry, and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bellevicine, Claudio; Vigliar, Elena; Malapelle, Umberto; Carelli, Emanuele; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Santini, Mario; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2015-07-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) share a number of microscopic and immunophenotypical features. Thus, patients presenting with thyroid and lung synchronous neoplasms may be difficult on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples to define the site of origin of the malignancy. In the case reported here, inherent to a 57-years-old man presenting with a right lung mass and a large (44 mm) thyroid nodule, an integrated cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach enabled to clarify the primary nature of the neoplasm. FNA cytology showed in both sites papillary structures and nuclear changes reminiscent of PTC. The lung origin of the neoplasm was suggested on cell-block immunocytochemistry showing thyroid transcription factor-1 positive and PAX8 and TGB negative neoplastic cells. Next generation sequencing performed on the Ion Torrent platforms by the Ion Ampliseq Colon and Lung Cancer panel showed a similar genomic profile in both neoplastic sites with a concurrent KRAS G12C mutation. An integrated approach on FNA biospecimen is safe, cost effective, and may be coupled effectively with modern ancillary molecular techniques that may be useful, besides their predictive value, as a adjunctive diagnostic tool when the synchronous occurrence of lesions featuring overlapping morphologies challenge the cytopathologist. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:585-589. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25900221

  20. Malignant Leydig-cell tumor of the testis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration using ThinPrep technique.

    PubMed

    Valeri, Rosalia-Maria; Kotakidou, Rodoula; Michalakis, Konstantinos; Andreadis, Charalambos; Kousi-Koliakou, Kokkona; Destouni, Charikleia

    2011-05-01

    Leydig cell tumors (LCT) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that account for 2-3% of all testicular tumors. Approximately 10% of LCTs shows evidence of malignant behavior. We present a case of LCT with severe atypia diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in a 49-year-old man who presented with gynecomastia and right testis enlargement. The FNA material on conventional and ThinPrep smears revealed a hemorrhagic and necrotic background with high cellularity, consisting of large cells, isolated or in small cohesive clusters, abundant, eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei, fine chromatin, and variably conspicuous nucleoli. Occasionally, pleomorphic cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli were seen. Immunocytochemistry was positive against vimentin, inhibin, and calretinin. Histological examination of the surgical specimen was in accordance with the FNA findings. The cytologic diagnosis of LCT of the testis, using FNA, is achievable in a preoperative setting to vitiate the need for more invasive biopsy procedures; malignancy could be considered on cytology when necrosis and marked atypia are evident. PMID:20730900

  1. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  2. 50 CYTOLOGY [4] [4] Immunoelectron Microscopy of Aldehyde-Fixed

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    50 CYTOLOGY [4] [4] Immunoelectron Microscopy of Aldehyde-Fixed Yeast Cells By JON MULHOLLAND, J. Mulholland, C. A. Kaiser, P. Orlean, C. Albright, M. D. Rose, P. W. Robbins, and D. Botstein, Yeast 7, 891 (1991). 8D. Preuss, J. Mulholland, A. Franzusoff, N. Segev, and D. Botstein, Mol. Biol

  3. A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TURKI A. AL-TURKI; SHAFIK A. FILFILAN; SYED F. MEHMOOD

    Al-Turki, T. A., Filfilan, S. A. & Mehmood, S. F.: A cytological study of flowering plants from Saudi Arabia. - Willdenowia 30: 339-358. 2000. - ISSN 000-000. The chromosome numbers of 31 taxa belonging to 14 families of angiosperms collected from dif- ferent regions of Saudi Arabia are reported. These include first chromosome number reports for six species: Anabasis setifera

  4. Cytology of the Common Male Fern in Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Manton

    1939-01-01

    IN a paper which has just come to hand by Döpp1, cytological observations of some importance are given with regard to the genus Dryopteris (= Lastrea = Nephrodium) in Europe. In particular, and among other things, apogamy is reported in ``D. paleacea '' from four localities in Germany and Switzerland and the chromosome number in one of these plants is

  5. The endoskeletal structures in arthropods: cytology, morphology and evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colette Bitsch; Jacques Bitsch

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes an overview of the endoskeletal structures of the head and trunk in the different arthropod groups: Chelicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Hexapoda (=Insecta s.l.). Two major endoskeletal systems are reported with their cytological characteristics: those made up of connective tissue derived from muscular tendons, and those consisting of cuticular rods or plates arising from integumentary ingrowths. The morphological

  6. KRAS testing on colo-rectal carcinoma cytological imprints.

    PubMed

    Malapelle, Umberto; Bellevicine, Claudio; Russo, Anna; Salatiello, Maria; Palombini, Lucio; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2011-04-01

    Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab, and panitumumab, are administrated under the condition that advanced colo-rectal cancer (CRC) carries a wild-type KRAS gene. Thus, clinicians request pathologists to genotype KRAS before treatment. In the near future routine mutation testing at the same time of the surgery may be implemented. The reliability of a rapid KRAS testing on ex vivo cytological samples obtained by direct scraping of the colon tumour tissue is here evaluated. A consecutive series of 20 surgically resected, primary CRC specimens was analysed. Fresh tissue from CRC was scraped with a scalpel blade, smeared on uncoated glass slides, air-dried and Diff-Quik stained to ensure malignant cell presence. The same tissue area was also histologically processed. Exon 2 KRAS gene mutations were evaluated on both cytological and histological specimens by dideoxy sequencing and by the DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit (DxS, Manchester, England). Data obtained on on imprint cytology and matched histological samples showed full concordance; however, the mutation frequency was slightly higher (35%) by the DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit than by the dideoxy sequencing (30%). Thus, colon cancer imprint cytology sample is a reliable biospecimen for both dideoxy-sequencing and DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit analysis and it may be useful to abbreviate the KRAS assay turnaround time. PMID:20607679

  7. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

    PubMed Central

    Beraki, Elsa; Olsen, Thale Kristin; Sauer, Torill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG)-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s) containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC) from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas). There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin) and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark), and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France). Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC). The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4%) was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post fixation in formalin is necessary for ISH. PMID:22574078

  8. Concentration of Lymph Node Aspirate Improves the Sensitivity of Acid Fast Smear Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Result Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. Conclusion The concentration of lymph node aspirates for acid fast smear microscopy had significantly higher sensitivity than direct microscopy. PMID:25184279

  9. Pitfalls in obtaining and interpreting bone marrow aspirates: to err is human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J Bain; Katharine Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Pitfalls relating to bone marrow aspirates and their interpretation start even before the aspirate is obtained. There can be failure to perform an aspiration that is clinically indicated or, conversely, an aspiration may be done that is not actually necessary. Once an aspirate is obtained it may be unhelpful because it is a blood tap or very dilute, or because

  10. Aspiration Levels of Certified Aspiring and Incumbent Female and Male Public School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavan, Barbara Nelson

    To determine if women or men have lower aspiration levels for school administrative positions, male and female administrative certificate holders were asked for their ultimate career goal. The most frequent response was superintendent (36 percent), followed by elementary principal, out of education, and professor (12 percent for each choice). The…

  11. T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL): limitations in fine-needle aspiration cytodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Pathan, Shahed K; Mothaffer, Fatma J; John, Bency; Mallik, Mrinmay K; Sheikh, Zafar A; Haji, Bahiyah E; Amir, Thasneem; Francis, Issam M

    2012-11-01

    Exclusive reports on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytodiagnosis of T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) are scarce in literature. This report reflects the diagnostic difficulties associated with cytodiagnosis of this rare variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The study is based on 11 cases with age ranging from 16 to 63 years and a median of 50 years. Male to female ratio was 6:5. Ten cases presented with lymphadenopathy and one had lymphadenopathy as well as extranodal solid tumor. The initial cytodiagnosis was suggestive of TCRBCL in one case, TCRBCL/Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in three cases, TCRBCL/HL/anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in two cases, TCRBCL/ALCL in one case, and TCRBCL/non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) T-cell/ALCL in one case. There was also a cytologically diagnosed HL case, which on review turned out to be HL/TCRBCL. Histopathological diagnosis was HL in all these nine cases. There were two histologically diagnosed TCRBCL cases during this period, with cytodiagnoses of NHL other than TCRBCL in one and HL in the other. While highlighting the difficulties associated with the cytodiagnosis of TCRBCL, this study conveys a word of caution that adequate immunocytochemical studies should be performed before diagnosing this rare neoplasm with a varied cytomorphology. PMID:21472876

  12. Emergent intrathecal baclofen withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Mithal, Divakar S; Park, Anne; Bohnen, Angela; Adel, Joseph; Rosenow, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) infusion has become a common treatment for severe spasticity. Many complications of these drug delivery systems have been reported such as those related to improper dosing, mechanical failure of the implanted pump or catheter, or post-operative wound issues. We report a case of ITB withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration. A 21 year-old male with spastic quadriparesis due to traumatic brian injury (TBI) presented with a pseudomeningocele surrounding an ITB pump (215 mcg/day, continuous) implanted in the abdomen. The pseudomeningocele was percutaneously aspirated and approximately 15 hours later the patient developed signs and symptoms of acute baclofen withdrawal. As a result, the patient underwent an exploration of the ITB infusion system with an intraoperative epidural blood patch. The symptoms of ITB withdrawal improved over the next 18 hours. The subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection partially recurred 48 hours later, but this resolved after a second epidural blood patch. The case illustrates a unique presentation of a serious complication of ITB infusion. This underscores that timely diagnosis and treatment of acute baclofen withdrawal is key to optimal outcomes. PMID:23511686

  13. Endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsy in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Andreas; von Weyhern, Claus; Fend, Falko; Schneider, Jochen; Neu, Bruno; Meining, Alexander; Weidenbach, Hans; Schmid, Roland M; Prinz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the sensitivity of brush cytology and forceps biopsy in a homogeneous patient group with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Brush cytology and forceps biopsy were routinely performed in patients with suspected malignant biliary strictures. Fifty-eight consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) including forceps biopsy and brush cytology in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995-2005. RESULTS: Positive results for malignancy were obtained in 24/58 patients (41.4%) by brush cytology and in 31/58 patients (53.4%) by forceps biopsy. The combination of both techniques brush cytology and forceps biopsy resulted only in a minor increase in diagnostic sensitivity to 60.3% (35/58 patients). In 20/58 patients (34.5%), diagnosis were obtained by both positive cytology and positive histology, in 11/58 (19%) by positive histology (negative cytology) and only 4/58 patients (6.9%) were confirmed by positive cytology (negative histology). CONCLUSION: Brush cytology and forceps biopsy have only limited sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant hilar tumors. In our eyes, additional diagnostic techniques should be evaluated and should become routine in patients with negative cytological and histological findings. PMID:18286693

  14. FISH molecular testing in cytological preparations from solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many of the exciting new developments in solid tumor molecular cytogenetics impact classical and molecular pathology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify specific DNA target sequences in nuclei of non-dividing cells in solid neoplasms has contributed to the integration of molecular cytogenetics into cytology in spite of the remarkable promiscuity of cancer genes. Indeed, although it is a low-throughput assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization enables the direct disclosure and localization of genetic markers in single nuclei. Gene fusions are among the most prominent genetic alterations in cancer, providing markers that may be determinant in needle biopsies that are negative or suspicious for malignancy, and may contribute to the correct classification of the tumors. In view of the expanding use of fluorescence in situ hybridization in cytology, future challenges include automated sample evaluation and the specification of common criteria for interpreting and reporting results. PMID:25478010

  15. Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) — Where do we go? Research perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pekka O. Kääpä

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenetic cascade of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in newborn infants is complex and still incompletely studied. The variable clinical presentation of MAS is basically connected with variation of the amount and consistency of aspirated meconium and also its distribution within the affected lungs. The contributing role of other factors, like intrauterine fetal compromises, lung maturity at the time of

  16. Obstetric approaches to the prevention of meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Xu; S Wei; W D Fraser

    2008-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is associated with increased risk for perinatal mortality and morbidities. To provide an overview of the advances in our knowledge concerning the obstetric approaches to the prevention of MAS. The evidence of the effectiveness of intrapartum surveillance, amnioinfusion, and delivery room management in the prevention of MAS are reviewed in the present paper. Meconium aspiration syndrome

  17. BIOPHYSICAL AND CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE MECONIUM ASPIRATION SYNDROME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Ortansa Dorohoi; Denise Urzica; Servilia Oancea

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a leading cause of serious illness and death among newborns. Generally, the more meconium a baby inhales, the more serious the condition. In the years 1997-2002, seven infants with the meconium aspiration syndrome were managed. The incidence of meconium staining was 5%. The mean duration of the pregnancies was 39± 2 weeks and the weight

  18. Incidence of aspiration pneumonia in intubated patients receiving activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Moll; William Kerns; Christian Tomaszewski; Rutherfoord Rose

    1999-01-01

    Several case reports and animal studies raise concerns over the risk of aspiration pneumonia when administering activated charcoal (AC) to intubated patients. Therefore, we sought to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in intubated overdose patients who then received AC. We conducted a retrospective review from January 1994 to April 1997 of intubated patients who then received AC. Patients were

  19. Debridement of vaginal radiation ulcers using the surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderburgh, E.; Nahhas, W.A. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine, Dayton, OH (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator (USA) is a fairly new surgical instrument used for an increasingly wide range of procedures. This paper introduces a new application: debridement of vulvovaginal necrotic ulcers resulting from intracavitary radiation therapy. The ultrasonic aspirator allowed removal of the soft, necrotic tissue while preserving underlying healthy, firm tissue and blood vessels.

  20. Expectations, Aspirations, and Achievement Among Latino Students of Immigrant Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dick M. Carpenter II

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between various measures of parental and student expectations and aspirations and math achievement among Latino 12th graders of immigrant parents in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS): 2002 database. Findings indicate parental expectations and aspirations were not significant predictors of student achievement after controlling for an index of covariates. Moreover, neither were student expectations, agreement between

  1. Factors that Influence Persistence in Science and Engineering Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Investigates students' persistence regarding career aspirations in science and engineering (SE) professional careers as a function of race and sex. In a sample of 8th graders, men were more likely to persist in SE career aspirations. Academic proficiency and math self-efficacy were 2 of the strongest predictors of persistence in SE careers.…

  2. Aspiring parents' and teachers' academic beliefs about young children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jupian J. Leung

    1990-01-01

    This study is an attempt to determine whether (a) the gender of a young child would elicit differential academic beliefs from individuals who aspire to become parents and teachers; and (b) male and female individuals who aspire to become parents and teachers have differential academic beliefs about young children. Data from 108 university students who intended to become parents and

  3. Aspirations, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences between American

    E-print Network

    de Gispert, Adrià

    1 Aspirations, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences between American Women and Men;2 Aspirations, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences between American Women and Men Anke C higher; and so too is their overall happiness. In later life these gender differences turn around. Men

  4. COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    was 100%. Tumor size and lymph node status were weak prognosticators compared with nuclear features and lymph node status (p=0.11). Conclusions: Computer technology will improve breast fine­needle aspiration1 COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES William H. Wolberg

  5. Performing Desires: The Dilemma of Aspirations and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf; Benjamin, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The authors critique the mechanistic notion of aspirations running through much research and policy-making on educational and vocational outcomes. They present a performative model, with individuals drawing on limited social resources to express aspirations within constrained contexts. This argument is illustrated by discussion of the findings of…

  6. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Human papillomavirus testing in women with mild cytologic atypia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Bergeron; Dominique Jeannel; Jean-Dominique Poveda; Patricia Cassonnet; Gérard Orth

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing by Hybrid Capture II (Digene Diagnostics Inc., Silver Spring, MD) with regard to detecting biopsy-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or high-grade CIN in women with mild atypia, compared with the efficiencies of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot hybridization, and cytology.Methods: We prospectively studied 378 women with atypical squamous cells

  8. Variations in molecular profile in NSCLC can be analyzed using cytological samples: development of EGFR resistance mutations and coexistence of ALK-EML4 translocation in an EGFR-sensitive patient.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Maria D; Labiano, Tania; Zudaire, Isabel; Subtil, Jose C; Gúrpide, Alfonso; Echeveste, Jose I; Zulueta, Javier J; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Pérez-Gracia, Jose L

    2015-04-01

    As a result of therapeutic advances, a revolution is taking place in the lung cancer field with major implications for pathologic diagnosis and tissue management. We report a case of a non-small cell lung carcinoma patient with coexistence of EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 rearrangements that responded to EGFR inhibitors and in which the development of a new resistance mutation in exon 20 of EGFR-determined treatment resistance. All the molecular determinations were performed in cytological samples. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported with these characteristics, and the 11th case described with coexistence of EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 rearrangements. The EGFR L858R mutation in exon 21 was found at diagnosis, and the patient presented a 4-year response to erlotinib. On progression, the T790M resistance mutation in the EGFR exon 20 was also confirmed in cytological samples. At this point, fluorescence in situ hybridization also detected ALK-EML4 translocation. This case emphasizes the usefulness of cytological samples for molecular analysis in lung adenocarcinoma, as well as the relevance of repeating biopsies/fine-needle aspirations in tumor recurrences to assess the mutation profile of the disease. PMID:24942894

  9. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  10. Effects of aspiration on public cooperation in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Lu, Pei-Min; Zeng, Yong-Zhi

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a deterministic win-stay-lose-shift rule into the spatial public goods game, according to which a player will change its current strategy only if its payoff is below a predefined aspiration level. Simulation results on the square lattice and scale-free network indicate that the aspiration level greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. For small multiplication factors, the frequency of cooperation increases to 0.5 as the aspiration level increases. For large multiplication factors, intermediate levels of aspiration prove optimal for the successful evolution of public cooperation. Some qualitative analyses are provided to explain the above results. Besides, we have found that there exists a ping-pong vibration of cooperation at some specific values of multiplication factors and aspiration levels.

  11. The Astrophysics Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, J.

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.

  12. Pelvic Endometriosis is Rarely Associated with Ovarian Borderline Tumours, Cytologic and Architectural Atypia: A Clinicopathologic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Ali Bedaiwy; Mahmoud Rezk Abd-Elwahed Hussein; Charles Biscotti; Tommaso Falcone

    2009-01-01

    Endometriotic foci, especially ovarian ones, with epithelial cytologic atypia may be precursors of cancer. This study presents\\u000a an overview of the atypical cytological and histopathological findings associated with endometriosis. Six cases of endometriosis,\\u000a with atypical histological and cytological changes, were obtained from the archives of the Department of Pathology at Cleveland\\u000a Clinic Foundation between year 2000 and 2003. The size

  13. Coupling Optimization Design of Aspirated Compressor Airfoil and Aspirated Scheme Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and CST Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xiaodong; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on creating a new design method optimizing both aspirated compressor airfoil and the aspiration scheme simultaneously. The optimization design method is based on the artificial bee colony algorithm and the CST method, while the flow field is computed by one 2D computational program. The optimization process of the rotor tip and stator tip airfoil from an aspirated fan stage is demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the new coupling method. The results show that the total pressure losses of the optimized stator tip and rotor tip airfoil are reduced relatively by 54% and 20%, respectively. Artificial bee colony algorithm and CST method indicate a satisfying applicability in aspirated airfoil optimization design. Finally, the features of aspirated airfoil designing process are concluded.

  14. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  15. Cytological and molecular diagnosis of solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, Giancarlo; Russo, Maria; Malapelle, Umberto; Accardo, Marina; Ferraro, Angelo; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Palombini, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) composed by predominant solid areas is diagnosed as a distinct variant on histological samples. Here we present a case of PTC recognized preoperatively by fine needle cytology as a solid variant. This diagnosis was made by combining cytology with the detection of the BRAFVK600-1E mutation, the molecular hallmark of the solid variant of PTC. Histological and molecular evaluation of the surgical specimen confirmed this pre-operative diagnosis. Thus combining cytology to BRAF molecular analysis is useful to refine the cytological diagnosis of this variant also on FNC specimens. PMID:18353179

  16. An uncommon type of adrenal incidentaloma: a case report of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla with cytological, histological, and ultrastructural correlation.

    PubMed

    Jakowski, Joseph D; Wakely, Paul E; Jimenez, Rafael E

    2008-10-01

    Benign nerve sheath tumors of the adrenal gland are an extremely uncommon cause of an incidentaloma. We report a case of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla in an asymptomatic 51-year-old woman, which was discovered incidentally on a computed tomography scan after routine workup for her degenerative joint diseases of the lumbar spine. Because of the large size and unknown biologic nature of the tumor by clinical and radiographic studies alone, an adrenalectomy was performed. The gross specimen featured a well-circumscribed medullary based tumor with cystic degeneration. The diagnosis of a nerve sheath tumor was based on classic histological findings, supported by S-100 positivity, and ultrastructurally by the finding of typical Schwann cells. The cytological diagnosis from the fine-needle aspiration biopsy material obtained at the time of gross examination was much more challenging on retrospective review. The aspirated material showed a round- to oval-cell predominant smear with occasional striking anisonucleosis, intranuclear inclusions (so-called ancient change), and pigment deposition. A review of the histogenesis and differential diagnosis of this common nerve sheath tumor in this unusual location is discussed. PMID:18774499

  17. Molecular identification of Bartonella species in dogs with leishmaniosis (leishmania infantum) with or without cytological evidence of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Soubasis, Nectarios; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Theodorou, Konstantina; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Saridomichelakis, Manolis; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggest that Bartonella species may cause polyarthritis and lameness in dogs. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a multi-systemic disease often occurring in association with arthritis. We hypothesized that concurrent Bartonella infection may be a contributing factor for the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. Hence the primary objective of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in dogs with naturally occurring CanL, with or without cytologically documented arthritis. Thirty-eight dogs with CanL (31 with neutrophilic arthritis and 7 without arthritis) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four archived clinical specimens from these 38 dogs, including 33 blood samples, 19 bone marrow (BM) samples and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from 22 dogs were tested for Bartonella spp. DNA using the Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Overall, eight (21.1%) dogs were infected with one or two Bartonella species; however, Bartonella spp. infection was not associated with arthritis in dogs with CanL. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine if there is a correlation between Bartonella spp. infection and the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. PMID:25258172

  18. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children. PMID:25890398

  19. Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas by endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Attwell, Augustin; Sams, Sharon; Fukami, Norio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical, endoscopic, sonographic, and cytologic features of ectopic pancreas (EP). METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed at an academic referral center including two hospitals. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Patients referred to the University Hospital or Denver Health Medical Center Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Lab for gastroduodenal subepithelial lesions (SEL) with a final diagnosis of EP between January 2009 and December 2013 were identified. Patients in this group were selected for the study if they underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or deep biopsy. A review of the medical record was performed specifically to review the following information: presenting symptoms, endoscopic and EUS findings, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings, pathology results, procedure-related adverse events, and subsequent treatments after EUS-FNA. EUS with FNA or deep submucosal biopsy was performed in all patients on an outpatient basais by one of two physicians (Attwell A, Fukami N). Review of all subsequent clinic notes and operative reports was performed in order to determine follow-up and final diagnoses. RESULTS: Between July 2009 and December 2013, 10 patients [3 males, 7 females, median age 52 (26-64) years] underwent EUS for a gastroduodenal SEL and were diagnosed with EP. One patient was symptomatic. Six (60%) lesions were in the antrum, 3 (30%) in the body, and 1 (10%) in the duodenum. A mucosal dimple was noted in 6 (60%). Mean lesion size was 17 (8-25) mm. Gastrointestinal wall involvement: muscularis mucosae, 10%; submucosa, 70%; muscularis propria, 60%; and serosa, 10%. Nine (90%) lesions were hypoechoic and 5 (50%) were homogenous. A duct was seen in 5 (50%). FNA was attempted in 9 (90%) and successful in 8 (80%) patients after 4 (2-6) passes. Cytology showed acini or ducts in 7 of 8 (88%). Superficial biopsies in 7 patients (70%) showed normal gastric mucosa. Deep endoscopic biopsies were taken in 2 patients and diagnostic in one. One patient (10%) developed pancreatitis after EUS-FNA. Two patients (20%) underwent surgery to relieve symptoms or confirm the diagnosis. The main limitation of the study was the fact that it was retrospective and performed at a single medical center. CONCLUSION: EUS features of EP include antral location, mucosal dimple, location in layers 3-4, and lesional duct, and FNA or biopsy is accurate and effective. PMID:25741143

  20. Cytological analysis of reproduction in johnsongrass - Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

    E-print Network

    Kaduru, Blaize Ndubuisi

    1982-01-01

    reproduction in sorghum. indian J. of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 2:271-278. 15. Rangaswamy Ayyangar, G. N. , and B. W. X. Ponnaiya. 1941. St d' ' ~Sh A~1*. g . l d' A d. S 13(3):157-162. 16. Raman, V. S. , and D. Krishnaswami. 1959. Aberrant d' ' ' f th... 'ot' h ' S. A~1 Journal Indian Bot. Soc. 38(2):296-298. 17. Raman, V. S. , Meenakshi, K. , Thangam, M. S. , and L Sivagnanam. 1064. The cytological behavior or B- h ' S. ~hl . Md Ag . J. 51: 72-73. 18. Snowden, J. D. 1936. The Cultivated Races...

  1. Isolation of microRNA from conjunctival impression cytology.

    PubMed

    Pilson, Qistina; Jefferies, Caroline A; Gabhann, Joan Ní; Murphy, Conor C

    2015-03-01

    Impression cytology (IC) is an easy and safe technique that has been used in the past for harvesting epithelial cells from the cornea and conjunctiva for various applications including histology, immunohistology and molecular studies. Previous investigations have shown the usage of different types of membranes for the purpose of investigating pathophysiology and staging of diseases. This contributes to a better understanding of ocular surface conditions and helps to provide information for diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis. Recently, there has been a shift of focus in research towards understanding the contribution of microRNAs (miRs) to ocular disease. Thus far, impression cytology has been explored for measuring gene expression but not for quantifying miR expression. This study describes how miRs and mRNA can be isolated from conjunctival epithelial cells obtained by impression cytology and determines the optimum membrane and technique for this purpose. The IC technique was optimized using Biopore, Immobilon-P(SQ) and Millicell Hanging Cell Culture Insert membranes on healthy controls. miRs and mRNAs were isolated from the conjunctival epithelial cells (CEC) obtained and measured. Biopore membrane provided the optimum yield of miRs (38.8 ng/?L ± 10.8) and mRNA (155.3 ng/?L ± 20.1) as well as subjectively found to be best tolerated with minimum discomfort. Appreciable levels of miRs and mRNAs were detected from the CEC from healthy controls, confirming that it is possible to isolate miR and mRNA from CEC. Here, we give a detailed description of the application of conjunctival impression cytology to isolate miRs and the convenience of the technique by using the best membrane available. This method can be readily adopted in both clinical and laboratory settings. This technique will facilitate the measurement of miRs to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular surface conditions as well as potentially identifying novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25584869

  2. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

  3. VALIDITY OF TEACHERS' RATINGS OF ADOLESCENTS' ADJUSTMENT AND ASPIRATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Ausubel; Herbert M. Schiff; Majorie P. Zeleny

    1954-01-01

    Teachers' ratings of adjustment and aspirational traits were obtained for a class of 50 juniors in a University high school and related to various other self-report, objective, and projective measures of the same characteristics.\\

  4. Occupational Prestige and Occupational Aspirations of Nigerian Adolescent Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owuamanam, Donatus O.

    1982-01-01

    Nigerian secondary school students considered engineering, medicine, and university teaching to be highly prestigious occupations. Males had higher occupational aspirations than females, and urban adolescents chose higher careers than rural adolescents. (Author/MJL)

  5. Needle aspiration in the treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Windle, R.; Finlay, D.; Neoptolemos, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of percutaneous needle aspiration of pancreatic pseudocyst using ultrasound imaging as a guide is reviewed. A modification of this technique has been used in a child with a post-traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. PMID:6614775

  6. The role of gestural phasing in Western Andalusian Spanish aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Parrell, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon of post-aspirated voiceless stops in Western Andalusian Spanish in /s/ + voiceless stop sequences. Previous analyses have proposed that the post-aspiration arises through a reorganization of the glottal spreading gesture for /s/ and the oral constriction gesture for the stop. This theory is tested by steadily increasing speakers’ production rate, which has been shown to trigger spontaneous changes in gestural organization in speech and other motor activities. Results from the study support the initial hypothesis. There is a switch from productions with with preaspiration and short VOT to those with long VOT as rate increases. Additionally, there is a tradeoff between VOT and pre-closure aspiration, indicating they may result from the same gesture. Lastly, the variability in production shows a number of hallmarks of phase transitions in human coordination. In sum, a change in gestural organization provides a simple explanation for post-aspirated stops in this dialect. PMID:22745515

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE Protein crystallography for aspiring crystallographers or

    E-print Network

    REVIEW ARTICLE Protein crystallography for aspiring crystallographers or how to avoid pitfalls Dauter6 and Mariusz Jaskolski7 1 Protein Structure Section, Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, NCI, Argonne National

  8. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....

  9. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....

  10. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....

  11. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of cervical vertebra: An uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Sonia; Singh, Sunita; Sethi, Divya; Mahapatra, Qury Sabita

    2014-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor primarily seen in the long bones. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranium is quite uncommon occurring in 1% of the cases. We report the occurrence of this rare lesion in a 24-year-old male presenting with progressively increasing swelling in left mastoid region mimicking a mastoid abscess which was later diagnosed on Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a small round cell tumor as Ewing's sarcoma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed a typical moth eaten appearance in the first and second cervical vertebra. PMID:25126127

  12. Solitary fibrous tumour of lacrimal gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Narang, Vikram; Singh, Nagi Anitaraj Rajendra; Bajwa, Gurkirat Singh; Sood, Neena

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumour of mesenchymal origin most commonly encountered in pleura. It can affect the orbital region but SFT of lacrimal gland is rare. We hereby report of a SFT of lacrimal gland in a 50-year-old male presenting with slow growing swelling in left superolateral orbital region. The preliminary fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) could not reveal any definite diagnosis. Excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the diagnosis. Therefore, clinician and pathologist should be aware of this entity and biopsy along with IHC is required to rule out other entities which can mimic it clinically and histopathologically. PMID:25954627

  13. Solitary Fibrous Tumour of Lacrimal Gland: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nagi Anitaraj Rajendra; Bajwa, Gurkirat Singh; Sood, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumour of mesenchymal origin most commonly encountered in pleura. It can affect the orbital region but SFT of lacrimal gland is rare. We hereby report of a SFT of lacrimal gland in a 50-year-old male presenting with slow growing swelling in left superolateral orbital region. The preliminary fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) could not reveal any definite diagnosis. Excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the diagnosis. Therefore, clinician and pathologist should be aware of this entity and biopsy along with IHC is required to rule out other entities which can mimic it clinically and histopathologically. PMID:25954627

  14. Lung ultrasound findings in meconium aspiration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco; Yousef, Nadya; Brat, Roselyne; Manzoni, Paolo; Mokhtari, Mostafa; De Luca, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a rare and life-threatening neonatal lung injury induced by meconium in the lung and airways. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a quick, easy and cheap imaging technique that is increasingly being used in critical care settings, also for newborns. In this paper we describe ultrasound findings in MAS. Six patients with MAS of variable severity were examined by LUS during the first hours of life. Chest X-rays were used as reference. The following dynamic LUS signs were seen in all patients: (1) B-pattern (interstitial) coalescent or sparse; (2) consolidations; (3) atelectasis; (4) bronchograms. No pattern was observed for the distribution of signs in lung areas, although the signs varied with time, probably due to the changing localisation of meconium in the lungs. LUS images corresponded well with X-ray findings. In conclusion, we provide the first formal description of LUS findings in neonates with MAS. LUS is a useful and promising tool in the diagnosis and management of MAS, providing real-time bedside imaging, with the additional potential benefit of limiting radiation exposure in sick neonates. PMID:25220126

  15. Severe meconium aspiration syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Koigi-Kamau, R; Kungu, E C

    2006-08-01

    This is a case report on severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) that resulted in early neonatal death. Antenatal care was provided at a low-cost non-governmental organization (NGO) clinic. First stage of labour lasted for only 2 hours and 45 minutes. There were no foetal heart rate abnormalities that were noted during the first stage of labour. Artificial rupture of membranes was done in second stage of labour. There was no liquor amnii seen but scanty thick old meconium was noted. Delivery was easy. The baby's skin, nails, umbilical cord, placenta and vernix were deeply stained yellow with old meconium. Resuscitation included suction through direct laryngoscopy, nasotracheal intubation with pulmonary toilet, as well as administration of 100% oxygen. The condition of the baby did not improve. A diagnosis of severe MAS with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH), persistent foetal circulation syndrome (PFCS) and meconium chemical pneumonitis was made. The baby was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for assisted ventilation and critical care. The condition of the baby continued to deteriorate and demise occurred 18 hours after birth. The pathophysiologic processes of intrauterine meconium release, mechanisms of foetal effects and dilemmas in management are discussed. PMID:17153662

  16. Prevention of suicide: aspirations and evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, D.; Frankel, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Health of the Nation white paper set a target for 15% reduction in overall suicide rates by the year 2000. If the targets are to be achieved interventions must be identified which are of proved effectiveness. This paper examines the evidence on the available interventions and points of access to the population at risk. No single intervention has been shown in a well conducted randomised controlled trial to reduce suicide. The greatest potential seems to arise from limiting the availability of methods. In particular it is likely that the introduction of the catalytic convertor will lead to reduced lethality of care exhausts and reductions in suicide using this method. General practitioner education programmes, the effectiveness of lithium and maintenance antidepressants, and limits on the quantity of medicines available over the counter or on prescription should all be evaluated. Particular high risk groups include people recently discharged from psychiatric hospitals and those with a history of parasuicide. Many social processes affect suicide rates and these rather than specific interventions may help or hinder the ability to realise the Health of the Nation targets. Well conducted trials are essential to distinguish complex social processes from the effects of specific interventions for suicide prevention. This review of the available evidence offers little support for the aspiration that the posited targets can be achieved on the basis of current knowledge and current policy. Images p1229-a p1233-a PMID:8080520

  17. Report of committee on the genetics and cytology of tuber-bearing Solanums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Hougas; K. M. Graham; A. E. Kehr; P. Grun; S. J. Peloquin; F. I. Lauer; R. Plaisted; R. W. Buck; D. A. Young; F. L. Haynes; L. A. Dionne

    1959-01-01

    genetics and cytology of the genus Solanum. However, few potato breeding programs have had the advantage of well organized genetic and cytological support. During the past ten years, the potato breeders have been urging the necessity for additional basic information if solutions are to be found to some important breeding problems. Probably as a direct response to this need of

  18. Significance of Noninvasive Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer with Cytologic Examination of Prostatic Fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiwen Chen; Narumi Tsuboi; Yuka Saito; Yukihiro Kondo; Yuichi Sugisaki; Go Kimura

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: While reassessing the value of exfoliative cytologic examination of prostatic fluid (PF) for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, we found that PF is easily obtained with transrectal ultrasonography during prostate biopsy and that cytologic examination of PF is useful for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: The cohort included 53 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy from May

  19. Cytological detection of copper for the diagnosis of inherited copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Teske; BG Brinkhuis; P Bode; TS van den Ingh; J Rothuizen

    1992-01-01

    The reliability of a cytological examination of impression smears of the liver was investigated in 89 Bedlington terriers by using the rubeanic acid staining method for copper and comparing the results with the results of a histological examination. Histological examination revealed copper accumulation in the liver of 24 dogs. The cytological method had a sensitivity of 0.96 for detecting copper

  20. Risk Factors for Abnormal Anal Cytology over Time in HIV-infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BARANOSKI, Amy S; TANDON, Richa; WEINBERG, Janice; HUANG, Faye; STIER, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess incidence of, and risk factors for abnormal anal cytology and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 2–3 in HIV-infected women. Study Design This prospective study assessed 100 HIV-infected women with anal and cervical specimens for cytology and high risk HPV testing over three semi-annual visits. Results Thirty-three women were diagnosed with an anal cytologic abnormality at least once. Anal cytology abnormality was associated with current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, anal HPV infection and history of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Twelve subjects were diagnosed with AIN2-3: four after AIN1 diagnosis and four after ?1 negative anal cytology. AIN2-3 trended towards an association with history of cervical cytologic abnormality and history of STI. Conclusions Repeated annual anal cytology screening for HIV-infected women, particularly for those with increased immunosuppression, anal and/or cervical HPV, history of other STIs, or abnormal cervical cytology, will increase the likelihood of detecting AIN2-3. PMID:22520651

  1. Intelligent Systems to Assist in Cytological Diagnosis and to Train Cytotechnics TIN2004-07236

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Manuel Zurita López

    This project aims at the application of Soft Computing techniques to the development of intelligent systems which assist in the cytological diagnosis and the training of cytotechnics. As an important previous task, suitable knowledge representation must be defined for the Cytology field. Then knowledge extraction methods must be defined for both acquiring knowledge from the experts and deriving knowledge from

  2. Some listener-oriented accounts of hache aspir? in French

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Boersma

    2005-01-01

    This article shows that the usual speaker-based account of h-aspir? in French can explain at most three of the four phonological processes in which it is involved, whereas a listener-oriented account can explain all of them. On a descriptive level, the behaviour of h-aspir? is accounted for with a grammar model that involves a control loop, whose crucial ingredient is

  3. Modeling of bare and aspirated thermocouples in compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda G. Blevins; William M. Pitts

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort to characterize the uncertainties associated with temperature measurements in fire environments, models of bare bead, single-shielded aspirated, and double-shielded aspirated thermocouples were developed and used to study the effects of varying the gas and average effective surroundings temperatures on the thermocouple error of each configuration. The models were developed for steady-state conditions and hence provide

  4. Sudden infant death from atelectasis due to amniotic fluid aspiration.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, N; Yamakawa, M; Imai, Y; Suzuki, T

    1989-12-01

    An infant girl, whose hands showed lobster-claw deformity, was found dead in her bed at 17 days of age. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of the lungs showed fatal atelectasis. The alveolar spaces were filled with fluid, epithelial cells, and squamous debris. These were the constituents of amniotic fluid aspirated before birth. The present case suggested that some sudden unexpected deaths in early infancy are delayed deaths caused by amniotic fluid aspiration. PMID:2589299

  5. Aspiration of enlarged parathyroid glands for parathyroid hormone assay

    SciTech Connect

    Doppmann, J.L. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD); Krudy, A.G.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-07-01

    Enlarged parathyroid glands were percutaneously aspirated under computed tomographic (CT) control in 7 patients, and levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and human thyroglobulin (HTg) were measured. All 7 patients had high levels of PtH in at least 1 specimen. It is concluded that the measurement of high concentrations of PTH in the aspirate from a cervical or mediastinal mass, with CT documentation of needle position, provides absolute localization of parathyroid masses.

  6. Fatal meconium aspiration syndrome occurring despite airway management considered appropriate.

    PubMed

    Davis, R O; Philips, J B; Harris, B A; Wilson, E R; Huddleston, J F

    1985-03-15

    A combined obstetric-pediatric approach to tracheal toilet is said to prevent serious cases of the potentially fatal meconium aspiration syndrome. After delivery of the head a DeLee trap is used to suction the oropharynx and nasopharynx. Immediately following delivery, endotracheal suction is performed in an effort to remove any remaining meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Although routinely using this approach, we continue to have occasional cases of fatal meconium aspiration syndrome. Therefore, we reviewed the outcome of infants born through meconium-stained fluid. During a 5-year period, 1420 (15%) of 9299 live-born infants had meconium-stained fluid. Thirty (2.1%) of these 1420 developed meconium aspiration syndrome and 12 (40%) died; eight received a postmortem examination. Four had unequivocal evidence of meconium aspiration, two had large numbers of intra-alveolar squamous cells, and two had no evidence of aspiration. We conclude that aggressive airway management during and immediately after delivery does not always prevent fatal meconium aspiration syndrome. PMID:3976781

  7. Urine cytology and adjunct markers for detection and surveillance of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Peggy S; Chan, Jessica B; Levin, Mary R; Rao, Jianyu

    2010-01-01

    Urine cytology coupled with cystoscopic examination has been and remains the standard in the initial evaluation of lower urinary tract lesions to rule out bladder cancer. However, cystoscopy is invasive and may miss some flat lesions, whereas cytology has low sensitivity in low-grade papillary disease. Additional lab-based or office-based markers are needed to aid in the evaluation of these lesions. Recently, many such markers have been developed for the purpose of improving the cytologic diagnosis of bladder malignancies. In this review, we will first discuss conventional cytomorphologic analysis of urine cytology followed by a discussion of markers that have been developed in the past for detection and surveillance of urothelial carcinoma. We will focus on how these markers can be used in conjunction with urine cytology in daily practice. PMID:20733951

  8. Histopathological outcomes of women with abnormal cervical cytology: a review of literature in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cytology remains the principal screening method to detect pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions. Management of abnormal cervical cytology depends on the risk of encountering a significant cervical lesion or high-grade cervical disease. These risks may vary in different areas across the country. Thus, determining the rate of significant cervical lesion associated with each type of abnormal cervical cytology in each area is of critical importance for designing area-specific management approach. This review was conducted to evaluate the rate of high-grade cervical disease among Thai women with abnormal cervical cytology. A relatively high incidence of underlying significant lesions including invasive disease was demonstrated even in those having only minimal smear abnormality. This baseline information is crucial and must be taken into consideration in management of women with abnormal cytological screening to achieve the goals of comprehensive cervical cancer control in Thailand. PMID:25169475

  9. Transoesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of pleural effusion for the staging of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Attili, Fabia; Chiappetta, Marco; Leuzzi, Giovanni; Costamagna, Guido; Granone, Pierluigi; Larghi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for evaluating mediastinal adenopathy in lung cancer is nowadays proven. However, its accuracy for detection of malignant pleural effusion per se has not been yet investigated. Herein we report our experience with EUS for detecting pleural effusion during the staging procedure of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS Between January 2009 and December 2011, we performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) on 92 selected NSCLC patients to evaluate the T and N factors and to acquire bioptic material and when this was detected, to sample the pleural effusion. RESULTS In 10 patients (8 males and 2 females, mean age 66.9 ± 9.2 years) a pleural effusion was detected and sampled. In 7 out of the 10 cases, the cytological examination of the fluid obtained by EUS-FNA tested positive for malignant cells, thereby upgrading the case to Stage IV, irrespective of T and N statuses. In 3 cases the cytology on the EUS-FNA material was proven to be negative for malignancy thereby allowing patients to be treated with curative intent without further delay. CONCLUSIONS EUS-FNA of the pleural fluid is a safe and simple procedure. Our data, albeit stemming from a limited study population, show that it can be efficient in selected NSCLC cases for obtaining useful material and information with significant impact on the staging and, therefore, on the planning of the optimum therapeutic strategy. PMID:23615434

  10. Testicular touch preparation cytology in the evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z.; Monaco, Sara E.; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Parwani, Anil V.; Jaffe, Thomas M.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2011-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is traditionally evaluated by tissue core biopsies of the testes. Touch preparations (TP) of these biopsies have been infrequently used. The aim of this study is to report our experience with using testicular biopsy TP for the evaluation of male infertility. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was performed for cases of testes biopsies with concurrent TP. These cases were evaluated for clinical information, specimen adequacy, and cytological–histological correlation. Results: A total of 39 cases were identified from men with a mean age of 34 years (range 23 to 50 years). TP slides were satisfactory for evaluation in 31 (89%) cases, and less than optimal in four due to low cellularity, obscuring blood or air drying artifact. Cytopathology showed concordance with the biopsy in almost all cases. In one discordant case where the biopsies showed no active spermatogenesis, a rare sperm were identified on the TP. Conclusions: TP of the testis is a helpful adjunct to biopsy because of its ability to clearly evaluate all stages of spermatogenesis. These data demonstrate that TP cytopathology of the testes in our experience has an excellent correlation with both normal testicular biopsies and those showing pathological spermatogenesis, and in rare cases may provide added benefit in evaluating the presence of spermatogenesis for male infertility. Albeit uncommon, cytopathologists may be required to identify and evaluate spermatogenic elements in cytology specimens being submitted from men with infertility. PMID:22279493

  11. Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  12. Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility. PMID:25181856

  13. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Co-Test Results Preceding Incident High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ina U.; Wojtal, Nicole; Silverberg, Michael J.; Bauer, Heidi M.; Hurley, Leo B.; Manos, M. Michele

    2015-01-01

    Objective High-risk HPV (hrHPV) and cytology co-testing is utilized for primary cervical cancer screening and for enhanced follow-up of women who are hrHPV-positive, cytology negative. However, data are lacking on the utility of this method to detect pre-cancer or cancer in community-based clinical practice. This study describes cytology and hrHPV results preceding high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer (i.e., CIN2+) in an integrated health system employing routine co-testing among women aged 30 years and older. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adult female members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) with incident CIN2+ between July 2008 and June 2009. The primary outcome was the proportions of cytologic diagnoses and hrHPV co-test results preceding a diagnosis of CIN2+. Cervical cytology and hrHPV testing results were abstracted from electronic medical records. Results Of 1283 CIN2+ cases among adult women, 880 (68.5%) were among women aged 30 years and older and 145/880 (16.5%, 95% CI 14.1–19.1) had only normal cytology during the 12 months prior to diagnosis. Furthermore, 133/880 (15.1%, 95% 12.9–17.7) were preceded by only normal cytology and persistent hrHPV infection (at least 2 positive hrHPV tests) during the 6–36 months preceding CIN2+ diagnosis. Conclusions Incident CIN2+ is frequently preceded by normal cytology and persistent hrHPV infection among women aged 30 years and older; screening strategies that employ HPV testing and cytology may improve the detection of CIN2+ compared with cytology alone. PMID:25793987

  14. Cost Impact of Molecular Testing for Indeterminate Thyroid Nodule Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Coreen; Kabaker, Adam S.; Hodak, Steven P.; Nikiforova, Marina N.; McCoy, Kelly L.; Stang, Michael T.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Carty, Sally E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results helps diagnose thyroid cancer, although the additional cost of this adjunct has not been studied. We hypothesized that FNA molecular testing of two indeterminate categories (follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular/Hürthle cell neoplasm) can be cost saving. Methods: For a hypothetical group of euthyroid patients with a 1-cm or larger solitary thyroid nodule, a decision-tree model was constructed to compare the estimated costs of initial evaluation according to the current American Thyroid Association guidelines, either with molecular testing (MT) or without [standard of care (StC)]. Model endpoints were either benign FNA results or definitive histological diagnosis. Results: Molecular testing added $104 per patient to the overall cost of nodule evaluation (StC $578 vs. MT $682). In this distributed cost model, MT was associated with a decrease in the number of diagnostic lobectomies (9.7% vs. StC 11.6%), whereas initial total thyroidectomy was more frequent (18.2% vs. StC 16.1%). Although MT use added a diagnostic cost of $5031 to each additional indicated total thyroidectomy ($11,383), the cumulative cost was still less than the comparable cost of performing lobectomy ($7684) followed by completion thyroidectomy ($11,954) in the StC pathway, when indicated by histological results. In sensitivity analysis, savings were demonstrated if molecular testing cost was less than $870. Conclusions: Molecular testing of cytologically indeterminate FNA results is cost saving predominantly because of reduction in two-stage thyroidectomy. Appropriate use of emerging molecular testing techniques may thus help optimize patient care, improve resource use, and avoid unnecessary operation. PMID:22419727

  15. Assessing RET/PTC in thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirates: the FISH point of view.

    PubMed

    Caria, Paola; Dettori, Tinuccia; Frau, Daniela V; Borghero, Angela; Cappai, Antonello; Riola, Alessia; Lai, Maria L; Boi, Francesco; Calò, Piergiorgio; Nicolosi, Angelo; Mariotti, Stefano; Vanni, Roberta

    2013-08-01

    RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF(V600E) mutation are the two prevalent molecular alterations associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and their identification is increasingly being used as an adjunct to cytology in diagnosing PTC. However, there are caveats associated with the use of the molecular approach in fine-needle aspiration (FNA), particularly for RET/PTC, that should be taken into consideration. It has been claimed that a clonal or sporadic presence of this abnormality in follicular cells can distinguish between malignant and benign nodules. Nevertheless, the most commonly used PCR-based techniques lack the capacity to quantify the number of abnormal cells. Because fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most sensitive method for detecting gene rearrangement in a single cell, we compared results from FISH and conventional RT-PCR obtained in FNA of a large cohort of consecutive patients with suspicious nodules and investigated the feasibility of setting a FISH-FNA threshold capable of distinguishing non-clonal from clonal molecular events. For this purpose, a home brew break-apart probe, able to recognize the physical breakage of RET, was designed. While a ?3% FISH signal for broken RET was sufficient to distinguish nodules with abnormal follicular cells, only samples with a ?6.8% break-apart FISH signal also exhibited positive RT-PCR results. On histological analysis, all nodules meeting the ?6.8% threshold proved to be malignant. These data corroborate the power of FISH when compared with RT-PCR in quantifying the presence of RET/PTC in FNA and validate the RT-PCR efficiency in detecting clonal RET/PTC alterations. PMID:23722226

  16. Malignancy Rate in Sonographically Suspicious Thyroid Nodules of Less than a Centimeter in Size Does Not Decrease with Decreasing Size

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Yul Hwang; Ahn, Hwa Young; Lee, Yun Hee; Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Jung Hee; Ohn, Jung Hun; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, Kyung Won; Jeong, In Kyung; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Oh, Byung-Hee; Cho, Bo Youn

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the malignancy and nondiagnostic rates using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results in thyroid nodules smaller than 1 cm according to the subdivided size. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all subjects underwent FNAC from 2003 to 2009 in our hospital, and 2,756 patients of subcentimeter thyroid nodules with one or more suspicious sonographic features and 7,105 with nodule sized 1 cm or more were included. The malignancy rate was higher in those subcentimeter nodules with suspicious sonographic findings than the nodule sized 1cm or more (19.7% vs 7.8%, P < 0.001). We grouped the nodules based on size with mm interval and observed that the malignancy rate did not decrease but the nondiagnostic results increased its size decrement. When we divided the subjects arbitrarily into a 5 mm or smaller and a 6-9 mm sized group, nondiagnostic cytology findings were reported more frequently in the smaller group (24.3% vs 18.1%, P = 0.001), while the rate of "malignant" was similar (18.3% vs 15.5%, P = 0.123) and the rate of "suspicious for malignancy" was higher (6.8% vs 2.9%, P < 0.001). Therefore when we decide to perform FNAC or not in subcentimeter-sized nodules, we should consider sonographic findings and other clinical risk factors but not the nodular size itself. PMID:21286015

  17. Can elastography replace fine needle aspiration?

    PubMed

    Popescu, Alexandru; S?ftoiu, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is one of the best diagnostic methods for diseases of the digestive tract and surrounding organs. Whereas EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been very useful for providing histological confirmation for previously hard to reach lesions, elastography is aiming to obtain a "virtual biopsy" by assessing differences in elasticity between the normal and pathological - usually malignant - tissue. A question that arises is whether EUS-elastography has reached a stage where it might successfully supplant the use of EUS-FNA in some of its clinical indications. The main indications of EUS-guided FNA are listed in this article and published data on the usage of elastography in these settings is reviewed for each one. In some of the indications, a plethora of studies have been published, notably for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses and lymph nodes, while in others there is little relevant data (submucosal masses, left liver lesions, left adrenal masses), or elastography simply is not suitable as a diagnostic means (cystic lesions). Our conclusion is that elastography is not yet ready to replace EUS-FNA in its indications, but should complement it in various settings, especially for the assessment of lymph nodes. It can only be considered an alternative on a case-by-case basis, in situations where FNA is regarded as a contraindication. Furthermore, it could be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced EUS, in order to further improve the accuracy of non-invasive EUS assessment, possibly making the case for a more limited or targeted use of EUS-FNA in selected cases. PMID:24955340

  18. Can elastography replace fine needle aspiration?

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Alexandru; S?ftoiu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is one of the best diagnostic methods for diseases of the digestive tract and surrounding organs. Whereas EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been very useful for providing histological confirmation for previously hard to reach lesions, elastography is aiming to obtain a “virtual biopsy” by assessing differences in elasticity between the normal and pathological – usually malignant – tissue. A question that arises is whether EUS-elastography has reached a stage where it might successfully supplant the use of EUS-FNA in some of its clinical indications. The main indications of EUS-guided FNA are listed in this article and published data on the usage of elastography in these settings is reviewed for each one. In some of the indications, a plethora of studies have been published, notably for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses and lymph nodes, while in others there is little relevant data (submucosal masses, left liver lesions, left adrenal masses), or elastography simply is not suitable as a diagnostic means (cystic lesions). Our conclusion is that elastography is not yet ready to replace EUS-FNA in its indications, but should complement it in various settings, especially for the assessment of lymph nodes. It can only be considered an alternative on a case-by-case basis, in situations where FNA is regarded as a contraindication. Furthermore, it could be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced EUS, in order to further improve the accuracy of non-invasive EUS assessment, possibly making the case for a more limited or targeted use of EUS-FNA in selected cases. PMID:24955340

  19. The predictive value of elastography in thyroid nodules and its comparison with fine-needle aspiration biopsy results

    PubMed Central

    K?z?lkaya, Mehmet Celal; Erözgen, Fazilet; Ak?nc?, Muzaffer; Kaplan, Rafet; Tüzün, Sefa; Ç?tlak, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of elastography in determining malignancy during preoperative investigation of thyroid nodules and to compare its results with preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and postoperative histopathology results. Material and Methods: Among the group of patients who had indications for thyroidectomy between January 2013– September 2013 in the department of general surgery 86 euthyroid patients were prospectively included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. All patients received simultaneous thyroid ultrasonography and elastography by an experienced radiologist. The patients were classified into five scores according to Tsukuba scoring. Score 1 and 2 were evaluated as soft nodules (benign), score 3 as medium consistency (usually benign), and scores 4 and 5 as hard nodules (malignant). For statistical purposes, the FNA results were classified as benign, probably benign or malignant. The histopathological results were classified as benign or malignant. The results were compared with FNA and elastography findings. Results: The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the nodules revealed 60.5% benign, 17.4% high probability of benign, and 22.1% malignant cases; and the elastography diagnosed 38.4% benign, 23.3% high probability of benign, and 38.4% malignant nodules. The postoperative pathology evaluation diagnosed 67.4% of patients as benign, and 32.6% as malignant. The rate of detection of thyroid cancer cases (sensitivity) by elastography was 67.9%, the ability to distinguish healthy individuals (specificity) was 75.9%, and the overall adequacy of the method (accuracy) was determined as 73.3%. Conclusion: Elastography overlaps with especially benign cytology-pathology at a high rate, and provides definite diagnosis in 58% of malignant cases. In our study, elastography provided more reliable results than FNA, in terms of diagnosing malignancy. PMID:25931916

  20. Five-Year Cervical (Pre)Cancer Risk of Women Screened by HPV and Cytology Testing.

    PubMed

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Van Kemenade, Folkert J; Van Den Haselkamp, Sander; Witte, Birgit I; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-06-01

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical screening will be introduced in the Netherlands in 2016. We assessed the 5-year cervical (pre)cancer risk of women with different combinations of HPV and cytology test results. Special attention was paid to risks for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and 2 or more (CIN3+/2+) of HPV-positive women with a negative triage test, because this determines the safety of a 5-year screening interval for HPV-positive, triage test-negative women. In addition, age-related effects were studied. A total of 25,553 women were screened by HPV testing and cytology in a screening setting. Women were managed on the presence of HPV and/or abnormal cytology. Five-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+/2+ were calculated. Five-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 10.0% (17.7%) among HPV-positive women. When stratified by cytology, the CIN3+(CIN2+) risk was 7.9% (12.9%) for women with normal cytology and 22.2% (45.3%) for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal (i.e., BMD) cytology. For HPV-negative women, the 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 0.09% (0.21%). Additional triage of HPV-positive women with normal cytology by repeat cytology at 12 months showed a 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk of 4.1% (7.0%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal cytology at baseline had comparable risks of 3.5% (7.9%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal baseline cytology and normal repeat cytology had a 5-year CIN3+ risk of 0.42%. No age-related effects were detected. In conclusion, HPV-positive women with normal cytology and a negative triage test, either repeat cytology after 12 months or baseline HPV 16/18 genotyping, develop a non-negligible CIN3+ risk over 5 years. Therefore, extension of the screening interval over 5 years only seems possible for HPV screen-negative women. Cancer Prev Res; 8(6); 502-8. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25776933

  1. Triaging HPV-positive women with normal cytology by p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology testing: baseline and longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Witte, Birgit I; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Balfoort-van der Meij, G A M A; Ridder, Ruediger; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-05-15

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening results in a 2-5% lower specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) compared to Pap cytology. To identify HPV-positive women with CIN2+, we retrospectively evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal performance of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology in HPV-positive women with normal cytology participating in population-based cervical screening. Conventional Pap cytology specimens of 847 of these women derived from the VUSA-Screen study were dual-stained for p16/Ki-67. Cross-sectional clinical performance in detecting CIN3 or worse (CIN3+), and CIN2+ was compared to that of baseline HPV genotyping. Moreover, 5-year cumulative incidence risks (CIR) for CIN3+ (CIN2+) were determined. The sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology for CIN3+ (CIN2+) was 73.3% (68.8%) with a specificity of 70.0% (72.8%). HPV16/18 genotyping showed a sensitivity for CIN3+ (CIN2+) of 46.7% (43.8%), with a specificity of 78.3% (79.4%). The 5-year CIR for CIN3+ in HPV-positive women with normal cytology was 6.9%. Testing these women with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology resulted in a significantly lower CIN3+ 5-year CIR of 3.3% (p = 0.017) in case of a negative test result. A negative HPV16/18 genotyping test result also led to a lower 5-year CIN3+ CIR of 3.6%. p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology detects more than 70% of underlying CIN3+ lesions in HPV-positive women with normal cytology at baseline and is therefore suitable for triaging these women to colposcopy. Furthermore, the CIN3+ 5-year CIR of 3.3% after a negative dual-stain result is significantly lower compared to the 5-year CIR of 6.9% in women without p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology triage. PMID:25345358

  2. Limitation of the Cavitron technique by conifer pit aspiration.

    PubMed

    Beikircher, B; Ameglio, T; Cochard, H; Mayr, S

    2010-07-01

    The Cavitron technique facilitates time and material saving for vulnerability analysis. The use of rotors with small diameters leads to high water pressure gradients (DeltaP) across samples, which may cause pit aspiration in conifers. In this study, the effect of pit aspiration on Cavitron measurements was analysed and a modified 'conifer method' was tested which avoids critical (i.e. pit aspiration inducing) DeltaP. Four conifer species were used (Juniperus communis, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Larix decidua) for vulnerability analysis based on the standard Cavitron technique and the conifer method. In addition, DeltaP thresholds for pit aspiration were determined and water extraction curves were constructed. Vulnerability curves obtained with the standard method showed generally a less negative P for the induction of embolism than curves of the conifer method. Differences were species-specific with the smallest effects in Juniperus. Larix showed the most pronounced shifts in P(50) (pressure at 50% loss of conductivity) between the standard (-1.5 MPa) and the conifer (-3.5 MPa) methods. Pit aspiration occurred at the lowest DeltaP in Larix and at the highest in Juniperus. Accordingly, at a spinning velocity inducing P(50), DeltaP caused only a 4% loss of conductivity induced by pit aspiration in Juniperus, but about 60% in Larix. Water extraction curves were similar to vulnerability curves indicating that spinning itself did not affect pits. Conifer pit aspiration can have major influences on Cavitron measurements and lead to an overestimation of vulnerability thresholds when a small rotor is used. Thus, the conifer method presented here enables correct vulnerability analysis by avoiding artificial conductivity losses. PMID:20551085

  3. Conjunctival impression cytology in non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Citirik, Mehmet; Berker, Nilufer; Haksever, Hulya; Elgin, Ufuk; Ustun, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the integrity of the ocular surfaces of subjects with and without diabetes with no conjunctival and dry eye signs and symptoms and compare conjunctival impression cytology findings in diabetics with non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS Conjunctival impression cytology was performed on 43 eyes of 43 subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 42 eyes of 42 subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and 30 eyes of 30 control subjects. Impression cytology specimens of each group were graded and scored in the range 0-3 according to Nelson's method. RESULTS There were 45 (52.9%) women and 40 (47.1%) men. The mean age of the patients was 59.6±9.3y (range, 43-76y) in NPDR group and 58.0±8.8y (range, 41-85y) in PDR group. Cases with NPDR and PDR showed statistically significant higher impression cytology scores than control group (P<0.05). There was no difference between the NPDR and PDR patients for impression cytology grading scores. CONCLUSION It is determined that impression cytology grades are altered in patients with NPDR and PDR. Consequently, we suggest that there might be an association between the impression cytology grading scores and the severity of diabetic retinopathy PMID:24790878

  4. Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Netta; Przybylski, Andrew K; Ryan, Richard M

    2009-10-01

    Four studies examined the effects of nature on valuing intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. Intrinsic aspirations reflected prosocial and other-focused value orientations, and extrinsic aspirations predicted self-focused value orientations. Participants immersed in natural environments reported higher valuing of intrinsic aspirations and lower valuing of extrinsic aspirations, whereas those immersed in non-natural environments reported increased valuing of extrinsic aspirations and no change of intrinsic aspirations. Three studies explored experiences of nature relatedness and autonomy as underlying mechanisms of these effects, showing that nature immersion elicited these processes whereas non-nature immersion thwarted them and that they in turn predicted higher intrinsic and lower extrinsic aspirations. Studies 3 and 4 also extended the paradigm by testing these effects on generous decision making indicative of valuing intrinsic versus extrinsic aspirations. PMID:19657048

  5. Promoting safe swallowing when puree is swallowed without aspiration but thin liquid is aspirated: nectar is enough.

    PubMed

    Leder, Steven B; Judson, Benjamin L; Sliwinski, Edward; Madson, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    The use of thickened liquids is a common compensatory strategy to improve swallow safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal liquid viscosity to use to promote successful swallowing in a specific subset of dysphagic patients who swallow puree without aspiration but thin liquid with aspiration. A referral-based sample of 84 consecutive inpatients from a large, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital who met the study criteria was analyzed prospectively. Inclusion criteria were no preexisting dysphagia, a successful pharyngeal swallow without aspiration with puree consistency but pharyngeal dysphagia with aspiration of thin liquid consistency, and stable medical, surgical, and neurological status at the time of transnasal fiberoptic swallow testing and up to 24 h after recommendations for oral alimentation with a modified diet consisting of nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids. Success with ingesting both nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids and clinically evident aspiration events were recorded. Care providers were blinded to the study's purpose. All 84 patients were successfully ingesting nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids at the time of swallow testing and up to 24 h after testing. A specific subset of dysphagic patients who swallowed puree without aspiration but aspirated thin liquid demonstrated 100 % successful swallowing of both nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids. Therefore, a nectar-like thickened liquid appears to be adequate to promote safe swallowing in these patients and, because of patient preference for the least thick liquid, may enhance compliance and potentially contribute to maintenance of adequate hydration requirements. PMID:22736260

  6. Development of biopsy gun for aspiration and drug injection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Guy; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2015-04-01

    Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24990254

  7. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during routine endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    La France, N.D.; Cole, P.; Wolfe, E.; Giardello, F.; Wagner, H.N.

    1985-05-01

    Radioactive tracer studies are a sensitive means to detect occult pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. A complication of diagnostic endoscopy is aspiration of contents even in fasted patients. The authors have studied 21 hospitalized patients who underwent elective endoscopy (END) for suspected UGI pathology. Fifteen minutes before END, and prior to pharygeal anesthesia, 1 mCi Tc-99m-sulfur colloid, added to the usual 30cc of simethicone routinely administered before END, was given orally. END was performed as usual and 2 hours later anterior 100,000 count images of the chest were obtained. All the studies were interpreted without history or clinical information. Fever developed within 24 hours (and septic shock in 1) in both patients with positive studies while no fever occurred in the remaining patients with negative studies (rho<.001). The authors conclude that oral radionuclide pulmonary aspiration studies may; detect aspiration not recognized by the endoscopist, reveal evidence of aspiration that preceeds adverse clinical signs and symptoms, and be influenced by systemic pre-END drugs known to affect GI secretions and motility.

  8. Molecular heterogeneity characterizes glioblastoma with lipoblast/adipocyte-like cytology.

    PubMed

    Gessi, Marco; Gielen, Gerrit H; Denkhaus, Dorota; Antonelli, Manila; Giangaspero, Felice; Zur Mühlen, Anja; Japp, Anna Sophia; Pietsch, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, may rarely show among unusual histological patterns lipoblast/adipocyte-like features. The genetic features of such cases are not yet well characterized, and molecular data are available for only few cases. In order to further expand our knowledge about their molecular profile, we analyzed four cases of glioblastoma with adipocyte-like features. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) revealed loss of PTEN and MDM2 amplification in two cases while another case was characterized by CDKN2A deletion. Conversely, we did not find any evidence of EGFR amplification, BRAF (V600E) or IDH1/2 mutations. Our results, along with data published in previous studies, showed that glioblastoma with lipoblast/adipocyte-like cytology present a heterogeneous genetic background and therefore seem to represent more a rare phenotypic variant than a specific tumor subtype. PMID:25896447

  9. Isozyme and cytological markers of some Psathyrostachys juncea accessions.

    PubMed

    William, M D; Mujeeb-Kazi, A

    1992-08-01

    Psathyrostachys juncea (synonymous to Elymus junceus; 2n=2x=14, NN) has unique biotic and abiotic attributes that could contribute towards wheat improvement. The effectiveness of such an intergeneric hybridization program depends greatly on being able to establish diagnostic markers of the alien chromosomes. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) analyses of six enzyme systems have identified five biochemical markers - malate dehydrogenase (MDH), esterase (EST), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and ?-amylase (?-AMY) - to be of positive diagnostic value; glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) banding profiles were of no definite value in the background of Triticum aestivum cvs 'Chinese Spring' and 'Seri-82', the potential recipients of Ps. juncea chromosomes. The Giemsa C-banding karyotype distinctively separates the Ps. Juncea chromosomes from each other and from those of T. aestivum with little banding site polymorphisms prevalent among its accessions analyzed, indicating the usefulness of C-bands as cytological markers. PMID:24201337

  10. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M. (Univ. Health Center of Pittsburgh, PA); Reigel, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy.

  11. Quantitative Risk Stratification of Oral Leukoplakia with Exfoliative Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xudong; Khawar, Waqaar; Zhang, Xinyan; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Test outcome is reported as “negative”, “atypical” (defined as abnormal epithelial changes of uncertain diagnostic significance), and “positive” (defined as definitive cellular evidence of epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma). The major challenge is how to properly manage the “atypical” patients in order to diagnose OSCC early and prevent OSCC. In this study, we collected exfoliative cytology data, histopathology data, and clinical data of normal subjects (n=102), oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients (n=82), and OSCC patients (n=93), and developed a data analysis procedure for quantitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This procedure involving a step called expert-guided data transformation and reconstruction (EdTAR) which allows automatic data processing and reconstruction and reveals informative signals for subsequent risk stratification. Modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Among the several models tested using resampling methods for parameter pruning and performance evaluation, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to be optimal with a high sensitivity (median>0.98) and specificity (median>0.99). With the SVM model, we constructed an oral cancer risk index (OCRI) which may potentially guide clinical follow-up of OLK patients. One OLK patient with an initial OCRI of 0.88 developed OSCC after 40 months of follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed a statistical method for qualitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This method may potentially improve cost-effectiveness of clinical follow-up of OLK patients, and help design clinical chemoprevention trial for high-risk populations. PMID:25978541

  12. [Health technology assessment report. Use of liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer precursors screening].

    PubMed

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Confortini, Massimo; Maccallini, Vincenzo; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Sideri, Mario; Zappa, Marco; Zorzi, Manuel; Calvia, Maria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT: Purpose of this Report is to evaluate the impact of the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in cervical cancer screening in terms of efficacy, undesired effects, costs and implications for organisation. EFFICACY AND UNDESIRED EFFECTS: LBC WITH MANUAL INTERPRETATION: The estimates of cross-sectional accuracy for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or more severe and CIN3 or more severe) obtained by a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2008 were used. This review considered only studies in which all women underwent colposcopy or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with complete verification of test positives. A systematic search of RCTs published thereafter was performed. Three RCTs were identified. One of these studies was conducted in 6 Italian regions and was of large size (45,174 women randomised); a second one was conducted in another Italian region (Abruzzo) and was of smaller size (8,654 women randomised); a third RCT was conducted in the Netherlands and was of large size (89,784 women randomised). No longitudinal study was available. There is currently no clear evidence that LBC increases the sensitivity of cytology and even less that its introduction increases the efficacy of cervical screening in preventing invasive cancers. The Italian randomised study NTCC showed a decrease in specificity, which was not observed in the other two RCTs available. In addition, the 2008 meta-analysis observed a reduction - even if minimal - in specificity just at the ASC-US cytological cut-off, but also a remarkable heterogeneity between studies. These results suggest that the effect of LBC on specificity is variable and plausibly related to the local style of cytology interpretation. There is evidence that LBC reduces the proportion of unsatisfactory slides, although the size of this effect varies remarkably. LBC WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED INTERPRETATION: An Australian study, based on double testing, showed a statistically significant increase of the sensitivity for CIN2 or more of LBC with computer-assisted interpretation vs. conventional cytology with manual interpretation. However, an English RCT estimated that LBC with computer-assisted interpretation has a lower sensitivity than LBC with manual interpretation. COST AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION: In the current Italian situation the use of liquid-based cytology for primary screening is estimated to increase the costs of cytological screening. Liquid-based cytology needs shorter time for interpretation than conventional cytology. However, in the Italian situation, savings obtained from this time reduction and from the decreased number of repeats due to unsatisfactory slides are not currently sufficient to compensate the cost increase due to the prices currently applied by producers and to a possible greater number of colposcopies caused by LBC. In any case, at current prices, cost is estimated to increase even when assuming a referral rate to colposcopy with LBC similar or slightly lower than that with conventional cytology. For the costs of computer-assisted interpretation of liquid-based cytology, readers are referred to the relative HTA report (Epidemiol Prev 2012;36(5) Suppl 3:e1-43). ORGANISATIONAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS: Ethical, legal and communication problems are judged to remain unchanged when compared to screening with conventional cytology. After having used the test for some time, interpreters prefer liquid-based to conventional cytology. Reduced time for interpretation makes the adoption of LBC a possible approach to deal with shortenings of cytology interpreters which is happening in Italy. However, alternative solutions, such as computer-assisted interpretation of cytology and the use of HPV as primary screening test, should be considered. Liquid-based cytology allows performing molecular tests, in particular the HPV test. This property allows triaging women with borderline or mild cytology by "reflex" molecular or immunocytochemical tests with no need to recall them. LBC sampling can be used also if HPV is app

  13. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry of fine needle aspirates in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Henrique, R M; Sousa, M E; Godinho, M I; Costa, I; Barbosa, I L; Lopes, C A

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine the value of flow cytometric (FCM) immunophenotyping of fine-needle aspirates (FNA) in the diagnosis and classification of lymphoproliferative diseases, 61 tissue samples were studied and compared with the cytologic/histological results. In vivo and ex vivo FNA biopsy yielded the material for FCM, which comprised an extensive number of lymphoid cell markers. In all but three cases sufficient cells were collected. Overall, malignancy was diagnosed in 33 cases from a total of 47 (70.2%), and in the remaining cases malignancy was not detected. Eleven cases were correctly diagnosed as reactive processes (11/11). There were no false positive cases of malignancy, as diagnosed by FCM-FNA. The best accuracy was achieved in the low-grade B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia. We conclude that in a significant number of cases, FCM-FNA permits the separation between lymphoid malignancies and reactive processes without false positive results. It was found to be particularly useful in the differential diagnosis of mantle-cell and small-lymphocytic lymphoma and in the identification of lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia. PMID:10494131

  14. Ability and personality correlates of children's attitudes and aspirations.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, K

    1992-12-01

    This study examined to what extent personality types are related to children's attitudes and aspirations after taking into account relationships between ability and the attitude and aspiration measures. Data were collected from 500 12-yr.-old Australian children. In the analysis the children were classified into four personality groups who were labeled as extravert-adjusted, extravert-anxious, introvert-adjusted, and introvert-anxious. The findings suggest the general proposition that children's personality types have strong associations with school-related attitudes after taking into account associations between children's intellectual ability and their attitudes. In contrast, children's personalities tended not to be related to measures of educational and occupational aspirations. PMID:1454933

  15. Conservative treatment of persistent periradicular lesions using aspiration and irrigation.

    PubMed

    Hoen, M M; LaBounty, G L; Strittmatter, E J

    1990-04-01

    Aspirating the unknown contents of a bony cavity and saline irrigation of a body wound are both basic surgical techniques. These two techniques have been combined in treating persistent periradicular pathosis in two cases. The cases demonstrate significant bony healing of extensive periradicular defects after the use of the combined procedure. Both cases were nonresponsive to nonsurgical root canal treatment. The use of aspiration and irrigation may initiate healing in cases of uninfected apical cysts which heretofore would require surgical intervention. The conservative nature of these procedures has advantages of reduced treatment time, avoidance of iatrogenic problems, and elimination of some conventional apical surgery. PMID:2074410

  16. Morphologic-cytologic characteristics and drought resistance of selected strains of hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. 

    E-print Network

    Landers, Roger Q

    1955-01-01

    and between biotypes within species are often oor- related with such cytological phen(m)ena as polyploidy, ansuploidy and parthenogenesis, Stebbins (1950) has indioated that chromosome behavior at meiosis often provides additional systematic characters...

  17. Imprint Cytology for Detecting Metastasis of Lung Cancer in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Okubo; Tatsuo Kato; Akira Hara; Naoki Yoshimi; Keiichi Takeda; Fumihiko Iwao

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundLymph node metastasis of lung cancer has been evaluated with histologic examination. We studied the usefulness of cytologic diagnosis for detecting metastasis of lung cancer in mediastinal nodes.

  18. [Comparative evaluation of clinical, cytological and cell culture methods of candida vulvovaginitis diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Lipova, V A; Ermolova, T P; Kotov, V A

    2001-01-01

    98 patients with Candida vulvovaginitis (CVV) were examined clinically, cytologically and culturally. Three clinical forms of CVV were distinguished: acute and subacute (26 and 23 patients, respectively)--before treatment, and remission (49 patients)--after treatment. The clinical diagnosis of CVV before the treatment was confirmed cytologically and/or in cultures (87.7%), in remission cytologically (4%), by cultures (20 patients). Candida in the phase of budding and pseudomycelium were prevalent in acute CVV (84.4%). In a subacute form Candida occurred in 30.3%, while in the remaining cases blastospores were observed. Significant correlation between the intensity of Candida colonies growth and phase of development on the mucous membrane was not found. Compared to the cultural method, the cytological technique is more cost effective, faster and simpler. PMID:11452655

  19. Cytological detection of copper for the diagnosis of inherited copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers.

    PubMed

    Teske, E; Brinkhuis, B G; Bode, P; van den Ingh, T S; Rothuizen, J

    1992-07-11

    The reliability of a cytological examination of impression smears of the liver was investigated in 89 Bedlington terriers by using the rubeanic acid staining method for copper and comparing the results with the results of a histological examination. Histological examination revealed copper accumulation in the liver of 24 dogs. The cytological method had a sensitivity of 0.96 for detecting copper toxicosis and a specificity of 1.0. When a grading system for the amount of copper was applied, the coefficient of correlation (r) between the cytological and histological techniques was 0.917 (P less than 0.0001). It was concluded that a cytological examination of impression smears stained with rubeanic acid for copper offers a rapid and reliable method for the detection of copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers. PMID:1380748

  20. Cytology, morphology, and method of reproduction of some diverse buffelgrass morphotypes 

    E-print Network

    Hignight, K. W

    1988-01-01

    CYTOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND METHOD OF REPRODUCTION OF SOME DIVERSE BUFFELGRASS MORPHOTYPES A Thesis by KENNETH IJ ILL I AM H I GN IGHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Plant Breeding CYTOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND METHOD OF REPRODUCTION OF SOME DIVERSE BUFFELGRASS MORPHOTYPES A Thesis by KENNETH VILL!AM HIGNIGHT Approved as to style and content...

  1. An investigation of the morphology, cytology, and mode of reproduction of Cenchrus setigerus Vahl 

    E-print Network

    Bashaw, Elexis Cook

    1954-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MORPHOLOGY, CYTOLOGY AND MODE OF REPRODUCTION OF CENCHRUS vSETIGERUS VAHL A Dissertation By Elexis Cook Bashaw Approved as to style and content by: (?.C Chairman of Committee Head or the Department of Agronomy August..., 1953 LIB k A R V A &M COLLEGE OF TEXAS AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MORPHOLOGY, CYTOLOGY AND MODE CEF REPRODUCTION OF CENCHRUS SETIGERUS VML By Elexis Cook Bashaw A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mschanical...

  2. A study of the morphology, cytology and breeding behavior of Pennisetum ciliare 

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Warner D.

    1954-01-01

    A STUDY OP THE MORPHOLOGY, CYTOLOGY, AND BREEDING BEHAVIOR OP PENNISETUM CILIARE A Dissertation By Warner D. Pisher Approved as to style and content by: (p.r /Q & y ________ _ Chairman of Committee ?....... ? - ........... ....H e ad ^ or.../Dep ar t ment August 1953 A STUDY OP THE MORPHOLOGY, CYTOLOGY, AND BREEDING BEHAVIOR OP PENNISETUM ClLIARE By Warner D. FisherHI Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

  3. Follow-up care of women with an abnormal cytology in a low-resource setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia C Gage; Catterina Ferreccio; Miguel Gonzales; Raul Arroyo; Militza Huiv??n; Sylvia C Robles

    2003-01-01

    Study purpose: We ascertained the follow-up care after an abnormal cytology (Papanicolaou) screening in the San Mart??n region of Perú and assessed the status of women who had not received adequate care. Basic procedures: We identified women with an abnormal cytology and assessed their medical records, laboratory registries, death certificates and interviewed them at home. Re-screening, diagnosis and treatment were

  4. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53... § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized,...

  5. Ecological Factors Affecting Hispanic Urban Middle School and High School Adolescents’ College and Career Aspirations 

    E-print Network

    Hostrup, Judy Ann

    2011-08-08

    This mixed methods study investigates how ecological factors influence the decisions urban Hispanic middle school and high school adolescents make concerning their college and career aspirations. I examine the academic aspirations, career...

  6. Sex-Role Stereotyping: Occupational Aspirations of Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlin, Frances-Dee

    1976-01-01

    Examines the occupational aspirations of adolescent women. Subjects were 149 eleventh graders. Results indicate that many teenage females still subscribe to traditional sex-role values in their occupational aspirations. (Author)

  7. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  8. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study.

    PubMed

    Jaitley, Shweta; Agarwal, Pankaj; Upadhyay, Ramballabh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with an aim of determining the cytological features observed in mucosal smears of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients and comparing them with that of features of normal mucosal cells. The observed features were than analyzed for their reliability in detecting malignant changes in this premalignant condition. Objective of the study was to conduct an oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) study on 30 clinically diagnosed cases of OSF and 30 cases of clinically normal mucosa with no other systemic disease. We observed that all the smears from clinically normal buccal mucosa showed Class I cytology. The exfoliated cells were of normal size and shape with normal staining intensity and normal nuclear characteristics. All the 30 cases of our study group showed features suggestive of benign atypical cytological changes (Class II cytology). In the present study, despite the small number of cases, cytological features consistently observed in all the cases, were indicative of a premalignant change and emphasized a regular follow-up of patients. Early detection of a premalignant oral lesion promises to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from these conditions. PMID:26148621

  9. Microsatellite Analysis of Pleural Supernatants Could Increase Sensitivity of Pleural Fluid Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Woenckhaus, Matthias; Grepmeier, Ulrike; Werner, Bernhard; Schulz, Christian; Rockmann, Felix; Wild, Peter J.; Röckelein, Georg; Blaszyk, Hagen; Schuierer, Marion; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Hartmann, Arndt; Dietmaier, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Pleural effusions may result from various inflammatory, hemodynamic, or neoplastic conditions. A common diagnostic problem lies in distinguishing malignant from benign pleural effusions using routine cytological evaluation. We studied pleural fluid samples obtained from 14 patients with histologically confirmed malignancy and from 6 patients with benign pleural effusions using 12 microsatellite markers from 8 different chromosomal regions. Supernatants and cellular sediments of all 20 pleural fluid samples were analyzed. Routine cytological examination was 100% specific for malignancy but was only 57% sensitive. Microsatellite analyses of pleural fluid supernatants showed genetic alterations in tumor patients only. However, 50% of pleural effusions that were considered negative for malignancy by routine cytological analysis showed either loss of heterozygosity or microsatellite instability. The sensitivity of pleural fluid examination rose to 79% when routine cytological assessment was supplemented by molecular studies. Our data suggest that microsatellite analysis increases the sensitivity of cytological pleural fluid examination in assessing potential malignancy and that combining cytological and molecular methods may improve yield and certainty in diagnostically challenging cases. PMID:16237222

  10. The Diagnostic Value of Brush Cytology Alone and in Combination with Tumor Markers in Pancreaticobiliary Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Kuzu, Ufuk Bar??; Ödemi?, Bülent; Turhan, Nesrin; Parlak, Erkan; Di?ibeyaz, Selçuk; Suna, Nuretdin; Özta?, Erkin; Akp?nar, Muhammet Yener; Aksoy, Adem; Torun, Serkan; Y?ld?z, Hakan; Kayaçetin, Ertu?rul

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Differentiation of malignant and benign strictures constitutes a problem despite the increasing experience of the endoscopists, radiologists, and pathologists. The aim of our study is to determine the factors that affect the efficacy of the ERCP guided brush cytology in PBS and to evaluate its diagnostic success when used alone and together with tumor markers. Method. The data from brush cytologies of 301 PBS patients were collected retrospectively and analyzed. The final diagnosis was approved based on the histological examination of the tissue taken surgically or by other methods. In the absence of a histological diagnosis, the final diagnosis was based on radiological studies or the results of a 12-month clinical follow up. Results. A total of 28 patients were excluded from the study. From the remaining 273 patients 299 samples were analyzed. The sensitivity and the specificity of brush cytology in diagnosing malignancy are 62.4% and 97.7, respectively. The sensitivity of brush cytology increased to 94.1% when combined with CA-19.9 and CA-125. Conclusion. Brush cytology is a useful method in diagnosing pancreaticobiliary strictures. Advanced age, stricture dilatation before sampling, the presence of a mass identified by radiological studies, high levels of CA-19.9, ALT, and total bilirubin increase the sensitivity of brush cytology. PMID:25883643

  11. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland) and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Environics Ltd., Graanintie 5, P.O. Box 349, FI-50101, Mikkeli (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland) and Drug Discovery and Development Technology Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland) and Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2007-04-15

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

  12. The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Niemiec; Richard M. Ryan; Edward L. Deci

    2009-01-01

    Life goals, or aspirations, organize and direct behavior over extended periods of time. The current study, guided by self-determination theory, examined the consequences of pursuing and attaining aspirations over a 1-year period in a post-college sample. Results indicated that placing importance on either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations related positively to attainment of those goals. Yet, whereas attainment of intrinsic aspirations

  13. Searching for Autonomy: Young Black Men, Schooling and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Ian; Finney, Sarah; Swann, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between being young and black, and educational and career aspirations, drawing on new research evidence from two recent studies carried out in two urban locations in Northern England. The first of these studies forms part of a wider research project concerned with analysing the connections between aspects of…

  14. Travel behaviour, experiences and aspirations of disabled people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarissa Penfold; Nicky Cleghorn; Chris Creegan; Hayley Neil; Stephen Webster

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a qualitative study commissioned by the Department for Transport (DfT) exploring the travel behaviour, experiences and aspirations of disabled people. The study involved qualitative in-depth interviews with a sample of 45 disabled people. In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) defines a disabled person as someone who has a physical or mental impairment

  15. Critical Issues as Identified by Aspiring, Novice and Experienced Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Thelma; Schweinle, William; Styron, Ron

    In spring 2003, more than 130 aspiring, novice, and experienced K-12 principals from public, private, and parochial schools were asked to identify in rank order the top 10 most critical issues facing schools. The issue most frequently identified as most critical was accountability, with staffing next, followed by discipline, time, funding,…

  16. Subject Choice and Occupational Aspirations among Pupils at Girls' Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky; Hutchings, Merryn; Archer, Louise; Amelling, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Various studies have found that British girls' curriculum subject preferences and future aspirations have changed and diversified in recent years. Other work has suggested that girls educated in single-sex schools might have a different (perhaps less gender-stereotypical) experience of education in comparison with their contemporaries at…

  17. Amnioinfusion for the Prevention of the Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Fraser; Justus Hofmeyr; Roberto Lede; Giilles Faron; Sophie Alexander; Arne Ohlsson; Lucile Turcot-Lemay; Walter Prendiville; Sylvie Marcoux; Chantal Roy; Stavros Petrou; Hai-Rong Xu; Bin Wei

    2005-01-01

    background It is uncertain whether amnioinfusion (infusion of saline into the amniotic cavity) in women who have thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid reduces the risk of perinatal death, moderate or severe meconium aspiration syndrome, or both. methods We performed a multicenter trial in which 1998 pregnant women in labor at 36 or more weeks of gestation who had

  18. Surfactant and surfactant inhibitors in meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Dargaville; Michael South; Peter N. McDougall

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant indices and inhibitors were measured in lung lavage fluid from 8 infants with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) who were receiving mechanical ventilation and 11 healthy control subjects. Surfactant phospholipid and surfactant protein A content in MAS was not different from that of control subjects, but concentrations of total protein, albumin, and membrane-derived phospholipid were elevated. All infants with MAS

  19. Surfactant Lavage for the Management of Severe Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C. C. Lam

    1999-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Recent studies on the pathophysiology of MAS showed that the meconium is more potent and toxic than we had previously appreciated. On the basis of animal experiences and a clinical pilot study, we propose that early tracheobronchial lavage with diluted surfactant is an

  20. Pulmonary function in children after neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P I Macfarlane; D P Heaf

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen children aged 6 to 11 years old who fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome were investigated to find out the prevalence of previous and current respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function tests, chest radiographs, and ventilation scans. Eleven of the 18 had no respiratory symptoms and eight of these had normal pulmonary function on testing.

  1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: use in meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B L Short

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been successful as a rescue therapy for infants with respiratory failure with some diagnoses such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) having a survival rate of more than 94%. New therapies have allowed many infants who would have required ECMO to be kept off ECMO, but at what cost. The survival rate for the neonatal ECMO

  2. Mobility of Assistant Principals: Examining Their Roles, Accomplishments, and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Carole-Ann Sheils

    2011-01-01

    The central question of this dissertation was whether assistant principals aspired to the principalship, or had plateaued in their career. This arose from the dearth of research on the assistant principal in the literature on educational leadership. An original survey was distributed through SAANYS, the School Administrators Association of New…

  3. Aspiration Levels and Educational Choices: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lionel; Garboua, Louis Levy; Montmarquette, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The explanation of social inequalities in education is still a debated issue in economics. Recent empirical studies tend to downplay the potential role of credit constraint. This article tests a different potential explanation of social inequalities in education, specifically that social differences in aspiration level result in different…

  4. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jana Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at four-year colleges and universities. Using College Choice and College Outcomes models as a theoretical foundation, I examined whether eight good…

  5. Aspiring Principal Development Programme Evaluation in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is to…

  6. Haematoma caused by bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sarigianni, Maria; Vlachaki, Efthymia; Chissan, Sofia; Klonizakis, Filippos; Vetsiou, Evaggelia; Anastasiadou, Kyriaki I.; Ioannidou-Papagiannaki, Elissavet; Klonizakis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy (BMATB) associated haematoma in an 85-years old male without any predisposing risk factors. Six days after BMATB, he suffered from a massive thigh and buttock haematoma and a fall in haematocrit. It is important to know that BMATB can have complications aiding early recognition and therapy. PMID:22593816

  7. First-Year Student Aspirations: A Multinodal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellier, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the aspirations of first-year university students in a particular socio-geographic context, by juxtaposing this context with those of Western universities in the 1970s. The rhizomatic analysis enables student voices and personal narratives to complement, extend and undercut the words of published researchers and of the…

  8. Antecedents of Sex Segregation at Work: Students' Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Jennie

    1981-01-01

    Compared the career aspirations of undergraduates at six institutions by sex, race, and college setting. Results uncovered substantial sex differences that may be occupationally crippling to women. These differences may be both a cause and an effect of having a sex-segregated occupational structure. (Author)

  9. College Aspirations and Preparation: How AVID Students Beat the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Dana

    2013-01-01

    A study of "at risk" high school youth revealed how student participation in the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) program positively affected student achievement and increased college aspirations and entrance rates. The experiences of the students, teachers, and administrators were examined using a case study approach…

  10. Can bedside assessment reliably exclude aspiration following acute stroke?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID G. SMITHARD; PAUL A. O'NEILL; CLARE PARK; RUTH ENGLAND; DEBORAH S. RENWICK; ROSEMARY WYATT; JULIE MORRIS; DERICK F. MARTIN

    1998-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the ability of a bedside swallowing assessment to reliably exclude aspiration following acute stroke. Subjects: consecutive patients admitted within 24 h of stroke onset to two hospitals. Methods: a prospective study. Where possible, all patients had their ability to swallow assessed on the day of admission by both a doctor and a speech and language therapist using

  11. Career Aspirations of Undergraduate Mathematics Majors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Hemasinha, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    There has been much research attention on ability level, motivation, and self-efficacy of students at schools of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). However, there is scant research on vocational choice, career development and aspirations of these students. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by asking…

  12. Supporting High School Graduation Aspirations among Latino Middle School Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Diana B. Lys

    2009-01-01

    Eighth grade Latino students, particularly female students, are eager and excited to transition to high school, but they perceive challenges from the school social and cultural environment and a disconnect between their home and school lives. Ideas for supporting the aspirations of Latino students transitioning to high school are presented.

  13. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  14. Equipping Aspiring Principals for the Principalship in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2013-01-01

    The quality of school principals is of paramount importance for quality education. This article examines the leadership capacities of a group of 228 aspiring principals who participated in a training programme for the principalship in four cohorts. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions in six core areas of leadership was constructed and…

  15. Les nouvelles aspirations et propositions des jeunes agriculteurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lauga

    1975-01-01

    [eng] Young farmers' new aspirations and proposals - The young farmers of 1960 were the pioneers of a renewal of agricultural policy. Those of today would like to correct it and adapt it according to their present needs. A study carried out in 1972 shows that, like their elders, they are still in favour of the family farm, but that

  16. Aspirating Seal Development: Analytical Modeling and Seal Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagepalli, Bharat

    1996-01-01

    This effort is to develop large diameter (22 - 36 inch) Aspirating Seals for application in aircraft engines. Stein Seal Co. will be fabricating the 36-inch seal(s) for testing. GE's task is to establish a thorough understanding of the operation of Aspirating Seals through analytical modeling and full-scale testing. The two primary objectives of this project are to develop the analytical models of the aspirating seal system, to upgrade using GE's funds, GE's 50-inch seal test rig for testing the Aspirating Seal (back-to-back with a corresponding brush seal), test the aspirating seal(s) for seal closure, tracking and maneuver transients (tilt) at operating pressures and temperatures, and validate the analytical model. The objective of the analytical model development is to evaluate the transient and steady-state dynamic performance characteristics of the seal designed by Stein. The transient dynamic model uses a multi-body system approach: the Stator, Seal face and the rotor are treated as individual bodies with relative degrees of freedom. Initially, the thirty-six springs are represented as a single one trying to keep open the aspirating face. Stops (Contact elements) are provided between the stator and the seal (to compensate the preload in the fully-open position) and between the rotor face and Seal face (to detect rub). The secondary seal is considered as part of the stator. The film's load, damping and stiffness characteristics as functions of pressure and clearance are evaluated using a separate (NASA) code GFACE. Initially, a laminar flow theory is used. Special two-dimensional interpolation routines are written to establish exact film load and damping values at each integration time step. Additionally, other user-routines are written to read-in actual pressure, rpm, stator-growth and rotor growth data and, later, to transfer these as appropriate loads/motions in the system-dynamic model. The transient dynamic model evaluates the various motions, clearances and forces as the seals are subjected to different aircraft maneuvers: Windmilling restart; start-ground idle; ground idle-takeoff; takeoff-burst chop, etc. Results of this model show that the seal closes appropriately and does not ram into the rotor for all of the conditions analyzed. The rig upgrade design for testing Aspirating Seals has been completed. Long lead-time items (forgings, etc.) have been ordered.

  17. Validity of Vocational Aspirations and Interest Inventories: Extended, Replicated, and Reinterpreted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Found classified vocational aspirations of 467 male and 250 female Navy recruits superior to Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI). Predictions for subjects with coherent vocational aspirations were very predictive over short time interval. Hypothesized links between coherence of vocational aspirations and Identity Scale, NEO Personality Inventory…

  18. Swiss Adolescents' Career Aspirations: Influence of Context, Age, and Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the content, realism, stability, and coherence of the career aspirations of 262 students in seventh grade in Switzerland (ages 13-15 years). The content analysis revealed that 82% of the participants named at least one realistic career aspiration, and aspirations showed clear resemblance to existing opportunities in the…

  19. Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…

  20. Parental Influence on Mainland Chinese Children's Career Aspirations: Child and Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianwei; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Career aspirations developed in childhood may impact on future career development in adolescence and adulthood. Family is an important context in which children develop their career aspirations. This study examined how parents influence children's career aspirations in mainland China from both the parents' and children's perspectives. Eight…

  1. April 19, 2010 1 MIE 439 Introductory Biomechanics Micropipette Aspiration Lab

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    , micropipette aspiration and magnetic bead microrheometry. In this lab, the cellular modulus will be determined 19, 2010 2 is brought in contact with a floating cell (expanded view shown in Figure 2). A pressure column aspirates the floating cell into the micropipette, as shown in Figure 3. The aspiration length (LA

  2. Methylprednisolone attenuates the pulmonary hypertensive response in porcine meconium aspiration.

    PubMed

    Soukka, H; Halkola, L; Aho, H; Rautanen, M; Kero, P; Kääpä, P

    1997-08-01

    Severe neonatal aspiration of meconium is frequently complicated by fatal pulmonary hypertension. The protective effect of an i.v. bolus of methylprednisolone on meconium aspiration-induced hypertensive lung injury was studied in anesthetized pigs with adapted lung circulation. Eleven 10-wk-old pigs received 3 mL/kg 20% human meconium via the endotracheal tube. Five of them were pretreated with 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone 30 min before aspiration. Ventilator settings were adjusted to keep arterial PO2 above 8 kPa and arterial PCO2 below 5 kPa. Meconium insufflation induced a biphasic pulmonary pressor response during the 6 h follow-up. Methylprednisolone tended to prevent the early (0-1 h) increase in pulmonary artery pressure and inhibited significantly the second phase (1-6 h) progressive rise in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. This inhibition of resistance increase was most profound in the postarterial segment of the lung circulation, as determined by pulmonary artery occlusion. Additionally, the methylprednisolone pretreated group demonstrated a significant decrease in venous admixture together with improved oxygenation during the late phase after the insult, and further showed evidence of diminished lung edema formation. Although meconium aspiration-induced fall in blood leukocyte concentration was inhibited by methylprednisolone pretreatment, no histologic difference was found in pulmonary leukocyte sequestration. Our results thus show that in adapted porcine lungs methylprednisolone pretreatment improves oxygenation and attenuates the meconium aspiration-induced pulmonary hypertensive response by preventing the increase in the postarterial resistance. PMID:9262214

  3. Results of bacteriological and cytological examinations of the endometrium of subfertile mares in stud farms in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Urosevic, Miroslav; Lako, Branislav; Milanov, Dubravka; Urosevic, Ivana; Aurich, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Uterine microbiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and endometrial cytology were investigated in a total of 51 mares with fertility problems from 16 different stud farms in Serbia. Uterine cultures were performed after collection with a double guarded uterine swab, and endometrial cytology was evaluated after collection of endometrial cells with a special device (cytology brush). In 21 of 51 mares, at least one bacterial species was isolated from the uterus; the most frequent were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (13 isolates) and E. coli (four isolates). All isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were susceptible to penicillin. Results from endometrial cytology were inconsistent; in 17 animals with positive bacteriological culture, cytology was not altered. It can be concluded that in Serbia, as in many other contries, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is the main cause for equine endometritis. It can be easily diagnosed by uterine culture but endometrial cytology does not always prove the existence of an endometrial infection with this agent. PMID:21038807

  4. Integrating a FISH imaging system into the cytology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. Denice; Riding, Matt; Oswald, Kim

    2010-01-01

    We have implemented an interactive imaging system for the interpretation of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to improve throughput, productivity, quality control and diagnostic accuracy. We describe the Duet imaging system, our experiences with implementation, and outline the financial investment, space requirements, information technology needs, validation, and training of cytotechnologists needed to integrate such a system into a cytology laboratory. Before purchasing the imaging system, we evaluated and validated the instrument at our facility. Implementation required slide preparation changes, IT modifications, development of training programs, and revision of job descriptions for cytotechnologists. A darkened room was built to house the automated scanning station and microscope, as well as two imaging stations. IT changes included generation of storage for archival images on the LAN, addition of external hard drives for back-up, and changes to cable connections for communication between remote locations. Training programs for cytotechnologists, and pathologists/fellows/residents were developed, and cytotechnologists were integrated into multiple steps of the process. The imaging system has resulted in increased productivity for pathologists, concomitant with an expanded role of cytotechnologists in multiple critical steps, including FISH, scan setup, reclassification, and initial interpretation. PMID:20436794

  5. Cytological Ki-67 in pancreatic endocrine tumors: a new "must"?

    PubMed

    Franchi, Giulia; Manzoni, Marco F

    2014-11-01

    In the last decades, the incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has been rising and this might be due to more awareness, improved diagnostic tools and a change in definition. The histopathological type of the tumor, its Ki-67 or MIB-1 proliferation index, size and location, as well as the age of the patient, seems to be the most important factor that affects prognosis and survival. In 2008, in one of our studies, we concluded that the cytological Ki-67 may improve the preoperative assessment of pancreatic NETs (pNETs), helping the clinician choosing the optimal therapeutical approach". Although the literature reports discordant opinions on the value of tumor proliferation markers in predicting a patient's prognosis, many studies have then reinforced the idea that Ki-67 expression in histological sections obtained from pNETs is an important predictor of their biological behaviour. The WHO classification of pNETs includes Ki-67 expression in the list of parameters (together with distant metastases, organ infiltration, dimension, angio/neuroinvasion, number of mitosis) determining the patient's prognosis. In conclusion we think that any study aimed to assess the correct biology and proliferative pattern of NETs contributes to the already known but still unclear attempt to define the correct individualized therapeutic strategy for each patient before surgery or any other therapeutic approach. PMID:25493251

  6. Breast spindle cell tumours: about eight cases

    PubMed Central

    Abd El All, Howayda S

    2006-01-01

    Background Breast spindle cell tumours (BSCTs), although rare, represent a heterogeneous group with different treatment modalities. This work was undertaken to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in differentiating BSCTs. Methods FNAC of eight breast masses diagnosed cytologically as BSCTs was followed by wide excision biopsy. IHC using a panel of antibodies against vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, s100, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD34, and CD10 was evaluated to define their nature. Results FNAC defined the tumors as benign (n = 4), suspicious (n = 2) and malignant (n = 3), based on the cytopathological criteria of malignancy. Following wide excision biopsy, the tumors were reclassified into benign (n = 5) and malignant (n = 3). In the benign group, the diagnosis was raised histologically and confirmed by IHC for 3 cases (one spindle cell lipoma, one myofibroblastoma and one leiomyoma). For the remaining two cases, the diagnosis was set up after IHC (one fibromatosis and one spindle cell variant of adenomyoepithelioma). In the malignant group, a leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed histologically, while IHC was crucial to set up the diagnosis of one case of spindle cell carcinoma and one malignant myoepithelioma. Conclusion FNAC in BSCTs is an insufficient tool and should be followed by wide excision biopsy. The latter technique differentiate benign from malignant BSCTs and is able in 50% of the cases to set up the definite diagnosis. IHC is of value to define the nature of different benign lesions and is mandatory in the malignant ones for optimal treatment. Awareness of the different types of BSCTs prevents unnecessary extensive therapeutic regimes. PMID:16859566

  7. Switch from cytology-based to human papillomavirus test-based cervical screening: implications for colposcopy.

    PubMed

    Porras, Carolina; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Rodríguez, Ana C; Morales, Jorge; Burk, Robert D; Alfaro, Mario; Hutchinson, Martha; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Sherman, Mark E; Wacholder, Sholom; Solomon, Diane; Schiffman, Mark

    2012-04-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology; some cervical cancer prevention programs will switch from cytology to carcinogenic HPV test-based screening. The objective of our study is to evaluate the clinical implications of a switch to HPV test-based screening on performance and workload of colposcopy. Women in the population-based, 7-year Guanacaste cohort study were screened at enrollment using cytology. We also took another specimen for HPV DNA testing and collected magnified cervical photographic images (cervigrams). A final case diagnosis (?cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 3, CIN2, cytology to carcinogenic HPV testing on the distribution of enrollment colposcopic impression and on the predictive values of positive and negative colposcopic impressions for the cumulative 7-year detection of ?CIN2 and ?CIN3. A program based on immediate colposcopic referral after positive HPV would immediately identify as high risk more of the cumulative ?CIN2 cases than conventional cytology, because of an increased number of referrals. However, the proportion of women that would have visible lesions at referral to colposcopy and the sensitivity versus specificity trade-off of the colposcopic impressions would be similar to programs using cytology (? atypical squamous cells of unknown significance [ASCUS]) for referral. The major concern with switching from cytology to more sensitive HPV screening is management of the many HPV-positive women, including those with still nonvisible ?CIN2 lesions. Our data support the need for a nonvisual diagnostic method to guide management and treatment of HPV-positive women. PMID:21607948

  8. A survey of manual vacuum aspiration’s experiences among the new medical graduates in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite Thai laws permitting abortion conducted by registered medical practitioners, unsafe abortion still kills and maims Thai women as a result of inadequate access to safe abortion services. Surgical evacuation of the uterus by manual vacuum aspirator (MVA) is a safe and effective technique recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. This study assessed new medical graduates’ MVA experiences during their clinical years in medical schools. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys on all new medical graduates participating in the annual assembly arranged by the Ministry of Public Health in 2010 and 2012 were applied. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. Results The significant minority of new graduates (44% and 43% in 2010 and 2012 batches) had seen but never used MVA. The proportion of graduates who had ‘never seen’ reduced from 32% in 2010 to 23% in 2012 while the proportion of ‘ever used’ had noticeably increased from 24% to 34% in corresponding years. Graduates from medical schools outside Bangkok and vicinity and those reporting confidence in their surgical skills tended to have more MVA experience. The 2012 graduation year was also positively related to higher experience on MVA. Conclusion Though the proportion of graduates who had ever used MVA was still low in 2012, a positive change from that in 2010 was observed. Medical schools outside Bangkok and vicinity provided more opportunities for learning MVA. It is recommended that medical schools, especially in Bangkok and vicinity should provide more MVA learning opportunities for students. Adequate training and regular hands-on MVA practice should be incorporated into a wide range of clinical practice. PMID:24025699

  9. Is an increase in CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio in lymph node fine needle aspiration helpful for diagnosing Hodgkin lymphoma? A study of 85 lymph node FNAs with increased CD4/CD8 ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Osvaldo; Oweity, Thaira; Ibrahim, Sherif

    2005-01-01

    Background An elevated CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio on flow cytometry (FCM) analysis has been reported in the literature to be associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The purpose of our study was to determine the diagnostic significance of an elevated CD4/CD8 ratio in lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. Design Between 1996 and 2002, out of 837 lymph node FNAs submitted for flow cytometry analysis, 85 cases showed an elevated CD4/CD8 ratio, defined as greater than or equal to 4, without definitive evidence of a lymphoproliferative disorder. The cytologic diagnoses of these 85 cases were grouped into four categories: reactive, atypical, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Histologic follow-up was available in 17/85 (20%) of the cases. Results 5 of the 64 cases in which FCM and cytology did not reveal evidence of a lymphoproliferative disease had tissue follow-up because of persistent lymphadenopathy and high clinical suspicion. 3/5 (60%) confirmed the diagnosis of reactive lymphadenopathy. The two remaining cases (40%) were positive for lymphoma (1HL, 1NHL). 8/15 cases called atypical on cytology had histologic follow-up. 7/8 (87.5%) cases were positive for lymphoma (3HL, 4NHL). 3/4 cases called HL on cytology had tissue follow-up and all 3 (100%) confirmed the diagnosis of HL. One case diagnosed as NHL on cytology was found to be a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In summary, out of 17 cases with histologic follow-up 4/17 (24%) were reactive with CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio of 4.1–29, 7/17 (41%) were HLs with CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio of 5.3 – 11, and 6/17 (35%) were NHLs with CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio of 4.2 – 14. Conclusion An elevated CD4/CD8 ratio on FCM is a nonspecific finding which may be seen in both reactive and lymphoproliferative disorders. The cytomorphologic features of the smear are more relevant than the sole flow cytometric finding of an elevated CD4/CD8 ratio. PMID:16153296

  10. A quality-control procedure on cervical lesions for the comparison of cytology and histology.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, M; Alenghat, E; Bahr, G F; Bartels, P H; Dytch, H E; Herbst, A L; Keebler, C M; Pishotta, F T; Wied, G L

    1983-12-01

    A new method for the quality control of cytologic and histologic diagnoses of cervical lesions is based on the automated high-resolution scanning, image processing and computer analysis of cytometric data by the TICAS system. It determines and then compares optical-density-based ploidy patterns of cells in cytologic smears and the corresponding histologic sections, with the results available both as computer-graphic displays and printouts. Examples of the former appear for an "agreement case," in which the cytologic and histologic patterns corresponded, and a noncorrespondence (nonrepresentative) case, in which the tissue sample had been nonrepresentative of the lesion sampled by cytology. Computergraphic examples concern one case of condyloma and one of tissue repair, in both of which both the cytologic and histologic diagnoses had been overcalled. A further example shows the method's use in monitoring response to therapy. The DNA ploidy patterns on which this method is based can give diagnostic and prognostic clues when morphology alone may be equivocal or insufficient. The utility of ploidy pattern determinations of material from other body sites is also well established. With the use of microprocessors, the system described could be made inexpensive and operationally simple for the routine quality control of many cytopathologic studies as well as for the clinical follow-up of patients. PMID:6663582

  11. Suicidal Ideation and Migration Aspirations among Youth in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  12. Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.

    PubMed

    Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

    2015-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance. PMID:25415397

  13. Meconium aspiration syndrome complicated by massive intravascular thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sergi, C; Stein, K M; Beedgen, B; Zilow, E; Linderkamp, O; Otto, H F

    1998-06-01

    Fetal aspiration of meconium in amniotic fluid during fetal distress by newborn infants can induce the meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), a form of neonatal respiratory distress. Should this event occur, admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and vigorous airway management and monitoring are required. We present a term gestation resulting in MAS complicated by a massive intravascular thrombosis. Despite airway management considered appropriate, the infant developed respiratory distress a few hours after birth and died 5 days later. Postmortem examination showed a diffuse alveolar damage of the lungs with alveoli filled with meconium and amniotic epithelial cells as well as disseminated thrombi in the pulmonary vascular tree, portal system, suprahepatic veins, and peripheral arterial vascular tree. PMID:9722058

  14. Suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among youth in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  15. [ARDS after Incidental Aspiration of Petroleum in an Adult].

    PubMed

    Horvath, C M; Schneider, T; Kluckert, T; Brutsche, M H

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum aspiration as a reason for lipid pneumonia is a rare complication. Mostly children are affected and mortality rates are low. In most case series, virtually every subject survived.We describe here the case of a patient who developed ARDS and pneumatoceles with a fatal outcome. Due to the undulant nature of the disease, multipe thoracic CT were performed, enabling us to describe the precise radiologic course of the disease. PMID:25629261

  16. Modified Protocols for Surfactant Therapy in Experimental Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Tashiro; Xiao-Guang Cui; Tsutomu Kobayashi; Tore Curstedt; Bengt Robertson

    2003-01-01

    In adult rats with experimental meconium aspiration syndrome, we investigated whether the therapeutic effect of exogenous surfactant was increased by addition of dextran or preceding airway lavage with diluted surfactant. Animals (n = 72) ventilated with pure oxygen were given human meconium suspension (50–75 mg kg–1) through the airways. When the PaO2 had decreased to <20 kPa (mean ± SD

  17. Selective tracheal suctioning to prevent meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. B. Al Takroni; C. K. Parvathi; K. B. L. Mendis; S. Hassan; I. Reddy; H. A. Kudair

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the incidence and outcome of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) at Al-Yamamah Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, where meconium-stained babies have intrapartum obstetrical cleansing of the upper airways, following which depressed\\/asphyxiated babies are intubated and vigorous babies are observed for 24 h. Method: The total live births, records of meconium-stained neonates who had intubations and of those observed, during

  18. Glucocorticoids in the treatment of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Mokra; Juraj Mokry

    Meconium aspiration syndrome is a serious neonatal disease with complex pathophysiology. With respect to the contribution\\u000a of meconium-induced lung edema, inflammation and vasoconstriction on the course of the disease, glucocorticoids are increasingly\\u000a used in the treatment of MAS despite the fact that principal questions on the choice of GCs derivative, mode of delivery and\\u000a dosing have not been answered yet.

  19. Do neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome require antibiotics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Shankar; Vinod K. Paul; Ashok K. Deorari; Meharban Singh

    1995-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the utility of antibiotics in the routine management of Meconium Aspiration\\u000a Syndrome (MAS). Neonates diagnosed to have MAS were randomly allocated to either the antibiotic group (n=20) receiving gentamicin\\u000a for 7 days, or the control group (n=20), receiving no antibiotic. All infants were given identical supportive care. The two\\u000a groups were comparable

  20. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  1. Percutaneous renal cyst aspiration and treatment with alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ozgür, S; Cetin, S; Ilker, Y

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two simple renal cysts of 16 patients were aspirated under guidance of ultrasound, with a 20-gauge needle with stylet. Sixteen of those cysts were treated with 96% alcohol. All cysts that were not treated with alcohol recurred within 10 weeks. Treatment with alcohol revealed no recurrences in 3 months follow-up for 12 patients and 6 months follow-up for 4 patients. No major complications were encountered. PMID:3069773

  2. Perfectionism and life aspirations in intrinsically and extrinsically religious individuals.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R

    2014-08-01

    Religiosity is related to positive health and life satisfaction but the pathways through which this occurs have not been clearly delineated. The purpose of this study was to examine potential mediators of the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Perfectionism and life aspirations are two possible pathways through which religious orientation is related to outcome. It was hypothesized that adaptive perfectionism and intrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between intrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction, and that maladaptive perfectionism and extrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between the extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Two consecutive samples of religious college students (N = 540 and N = 485) completed measures of the Age Universal Religious Orientation Index, the Frost Multi-Dimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Aspiration Index, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Intrinsic religiosity had a direct negative relationship with negative affect and positive relationship with life satisfaction. Contrary to the hypotheses, intrinsic religiosity had its strongest indirect effect via maladaptive perfectionism such that increased intrinsic religiosity was related to decreased maladaptive perfectionism which in turn lead to better negative affect and life satisfaction. Extrinsic religiosity was related to increased maladaptive perfectionism and thereby indirectly contributed to worse negative affect and life satisfaction. Interestingly, when the effects of maladaptive perfectionism were controlled, the direct effects of extrinsic religiosity were related to reduced negative affect and increased life satisfaction. Overall, the strongest mediator in this study of both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity was maladaptive perfectionism, with intrinsic religiosity related to decreased maladaptive perfectionism and extrinsic religiosity related to increased maladaptive perfectionism. PMID:23435828

  3. Primary pulmonary botryomycosis: a late complication of foreign body aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tuggey, J; Hosker, H; DaCosta, P

    2000-01-01

    Primary pulmonary botryomycosis is a rare cause of haemoptysis and can enter the differential diagnosis of a mass on the plain chest radiograph. The case history is presented of a 63 year old man with botryomycosis which was initially thought to be a bronchial carcinoma. When the diagnosis was made several years later it was found to be secondary to persisting vegetable material in the bronchial tree following previous aspiration.?? PMID:11083895

  4. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation. PMID:17112531

  5. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan; Memarpour, Roya; Oliveira, Eduardo; Medina, Michael; Smolley, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of steak from the airway, the patient remained hypotensive and required continued hemodynamic support. Repeated laboratory tests within 24?hrs of aspiration showed a significant decline in the hemoglobin level. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a lacerated liver with a large subcapsular hematoma draining into the pelvis. Conclusion. Hepatic rupture is a rare complication of Heimlich maneuver; this paper represents the second case report in the literature. It emphasizes the necessity of early identification and surveillance of fatal Heimlich maneuver complications in a high risk population.

  6. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tashtoush, Basheer; Schroeder, Jonathan; Memarpour, Roya; Oliveira, Eduardo; Medina, Michael; Hadeh, Anas; Ramirez, Jose; Smolley, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of steak from the airway, the patient remained hypotensive and required continued hemodynamic support. Repeated laboratory tests within 24?hrs of aspiration showed a significant decline in the hemoglobin level. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a lacerated liver with a large subcapsular hematoma draining into the pelvis. Conclusion. Hepatic rupture is a rare complication of Heimlich maneuver; this paper represents the second case report in the literature. It emphasizes the necessity of early identification and surveillance of fatal Heimlich maneuver complications in a high risk population. PMID:26090241

  7. Fine-needle aspiration of primary and recurrent dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, Jerzy; Caillaud, Jean-Michel; Lagacé, Réal

    2004-04-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a nodular cutaneous mesenchymal tumor of intermediate malignancy. Studies on fine-needle aspiration of DFSP are extremely rare; to our knowledge, only 33 cases have been reported. We have reviewed 14 examples of DFSP in 13 patients. Ten primary tumors were aspirated before surgical biopsy and four recurrent lesions (all from superficial lesions) were also investigated by fine-needle aspiration. All smears were surprisingly homogeneous and composed of isolated spindle cells in all cases (one unsatisfactory smear is excluded). Tissue fragments with a stroriform pattern were seen in 11 cases, fibrillary stromal fragments in 10 cases, naked nuclei in 8 cases, slight to moderate cytonuclear atypia in 5 cases. Mitotic figures, myxoid background, mast cells, and dispersed adipocytes were rare. Giant cells, necrosis, or marked cytonuclear atypia were not seen. DFSP shares morphological characteristics of some low-grade spindle-cell neoplasms. It should be differentiated from other benign low- and intermediate-grade spindle neoplasm such as low-grade fibrosarcoma, fibromyxosarcoma, low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, nodular fasciitis, and fibrous histiocytoma. PMID:15048962

  8. Parents' roles in shaping early adolescents' occupational aspirations.

    PubMed

    Jodl, K M; Michael, A; Malanchuk, O; Eccles, J S; Sameroff, A

    2001-01-01

    Relations among dimensions of parenting and adolescents' occupational aspirations were examined in two specific domains: academics and sports. The sample consisted of 444 seventh graders, with approximately equal numbers of African American and European American males and females, from two-parent nondivorced families. Multiple measures were used as indicators of parents' values and behaviors, youths' values and beliefs, positive identification with parents, and adolescents' occupational aspirations. In the academic domain, parents' values predicted youths' values directly rather than indirectly through their behaviors. In contrast, fathers' behaviors mediated the relation between parents' and youths' values in the sports domain. Positive identification was directly related to adolescents' values (especially about academics); however, positive identification did not moderate the transmission of values from parent to child in either domain. Parents' values predicted adolescents' occupational aspirations via both direct and indirect pathways. Similar results were obtained for African American and European American males and females. These findings highlight the potential role of parents as socializers of achievement-related values, and, ultimately, adolescents' occupational visions of themselves in the future. PMID:11480945

  9. Numerical determination of personal aerosol sampler aspiration efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lo Savio, Simone; Paradisi, Paolo; Tampieri, Francesco; Belosi, Franco; Morigi, Maria Pia; Agostini, Sergio

    2003-04-01

    In this work the determination of the aspiration efficiency of personal aerosol samplers, commonly used in occupational exposure assessment, is investigated by means of CFD techniques. Specifically, it will be described a code to calculate the particle trajectories in a given flow field. At the present state the code considers only the effects of the mean flow field on the particle motion, whereas the turbulent diffusion effects are neglected. Comparisons with experimental measurements are also given in the framework of a research contract, supported by the European Community, with several experimental contributions from the participants. The main objective of the European research is to develop a new approach to experimentation with airborne particle flows, working on a reduced scale. This methodology has the advantage of allowing real-time aerosol determination and use of small wind tunnels, with a better experimental control. In this article we describe how the methodology has been verified using computational fluid dynamics. Experimental and numerical aspiration efficiencies have been compared and the influence of gravity and turbulence intensity in full and reduced scale has been investigated. The numerical techniques described here are in agreement with previous similar research and allow at least qualitative predictions of aspiration efficiency for real samplers, taking care of orientation from the incoming air flow. The major discrepancies among predicted and experimental results may be a consequence of bounce effects, which are very difficult to eliminate also by greasing the sampler surface. PMID:12637235

  10. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, S.; Ennico, K.; Abe/Aspire Science Team

    The AstroBiology Explorer ABE and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer ASPIRE Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions 1 Where do we come from and 2 Are we alone as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity abundance and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to 1 Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions and the young stellar planetary systems that form in them 2 Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows 3 Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids comets and the planets and their satellites 4 Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution abundance and change with environment 5 Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type and 6 Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE s core mission and adds tasks that 7 Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry and 8 Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials ABE ASPIRE achieves these goals using a highly sensitive cryogenically-cooled telescope in an

  11. Neutrophil extracellular traps in bronchial aspirates: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Hirose, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Naoya; Akeda, Yukihiro; Irisawa, Taro; Seki, Masafumi; Hosotsubo, Hideo; Yamamoto, Kouji; Tasaki, Osamu; Oishi, Kazunori; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tomono, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of DNA and granular proteins, which rapidly trap and kill pathogens. The formation of NETs has been detected during infection in animal experiments, but their role in humans is unclear. The purposes of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the production of NETs during acute respiratory infection and to study the relationship between the NET length and various inflammatory mediators. We examined bronchial aspirates collected from nine intubated patients in an intensive care unit. Samples were collected at the onset of acute respiratory infection (day 0) and on days 1, 3-5, and 6-8. The NET length was visualised by immunohistochemistry and quantified using computer tracing software. The NET length was measured and compared at each time point. The length differed significantly between time points (p<0.001). NETs were significantly longer on day 1 than on day 0 (p<0.001). Neutrophils released NETs abundantly in response to respiratory infection and regression analysis showed that NET length correlated with six clinical parameters (white blood cells, platelets, lactate, CXC ligand-2, interleukin-8, and procalcitonin) as the explanatory variables. NETs in bronchial aspirates may reflect disease progression of respiratory infections. Quantification of NETs in bronchial aspirates may provide a new indicator of inflammation. PMID:24603817

  12. Factors in Educational Aspirations. A Study of Educational Aspiration of High School Seniors in Prince Edward Island, Canada. P.E.I. Community Studies Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Satadal; Nagarajan, P.

    To identify personal, economic, educational, and social factors influencing students' educational aspirations, data were collected from 1,004 seniors in Prince Edward Island, Canada, in 1971; analysis included male-female and urban-rural differences. From 960 usable questionnaires, level of educational aspiration was determined by respondents'…

  13. [Echography and cytology in the study of spreading pathology of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Gozzi, G; Di Bonito, L; Bazzocchi, M; Vasciaveo, A; Bassini, A; Bellis, G B

    1990-09-01

    The contribution of the combined use of US and cytology is evaluated in the diagnosis of masses in the salivary glands and adjacent structures. US had 87.2% sensitivity in locating the mass; its accuracy in defining both physical structure and benign/malignant nature of the lesion was 91% and 74%, respectively. Thus US, after demonstrating a lesion, does not always allow the exact definition of its characteristic. In many of these cases, other imaging modalities do not help either. In our series of cases, cytology allowed an unquestionable diagnosis to be made in 87.2% of cases, and the combined use of US and cytology rose the figure to 97%. The only limitation is the evaluation of the deep extent of large masses: in such cases CT or, if available, MR imaging are recommended. PMID:2236685

  14. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  15. Cervical cytological abnormalities and HPV infection in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ananworanich, J; Prasitsuebsai, W; Kerr, S J; Hansudewechakul, R; Teeratakulpisarn, N; Saisawat, K; Ramautarsing, R; Achalapong, J; Pussadee, K; Keadpudsa, S; Mackay, T; Pankam, T; Rodbamrung, P; Petdachai, W; Chokephaibulkit, K; Sohn, A H; Phanuphak, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Behaviourally HIV-infected adolescent females are at higher risk for abnormal cervical cytology and HPV infection compared to those who are uninfected, but data on perinatally HIV-infected adolescent females are lacking. Methods Cervical cytology, HPV infection and E6/E7 mRNA were assessed in sexually active 12–24-year-old adolescent females: perinatally HIV-infected (group 1, n = 40), behaviourally HIV-infected (group 2, n = 10), and HIV-uninfected (group 3, n = 10). Results Median age was lower in group 1 (18 years) than in groups 2 (24 years) and 3 (20.5 years) (P < 0.001), and median time since sexual debut was shorter: 2 vs 5 vs 4 years (P < 0.001). More trial participants in group 1 than group 2 were on antiretrovirals (90% vs 70%; P <0.001). Abnormal cervical cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and higher) was observed in 30% (group 1), 40% (group 2) and 30% (group 3) (P = 0.92), whereas high-risk HPV infection was observed in 45%, 45% and 40%, respectively (P = 1.00). Positive E6/E7 mRNA was found in 28% of group 1, but not in other groups. High-risk HPV infection predicted abnormal cytology in all groups [OR 6.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.99–23.0; P = 0.001). Additionally, plasma HIV RNA ?50 copies/mL (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.16–153.06; P = 0.04) predicted abnormal cytology in HIV-infected adolescent females. Conclusions Despite the younger age and shorter time since sexual debut, cervical cytological abnormalities and HPV infection were as common in perinatally HIV-infected as in behaviourally infected and uninfected adolescents. HPV vaccination, pre-cancer screening and antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected female adolescents should be implemented to minimise the risk of cervical cancer. PMID:26005716

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of hTERT in urothelial lesions: a potential adjunct to urine cytology

    PubMed Central

    Khalbuss, Walid; Goodison, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Background Urine cytology has a critical role in evaluation for bladder carcinoma. Due to the low sensitivity of this technique, ancillary modalities such as the detection of markers of malignancy by immunochemistry are desirable. Promising factors in this context are components of the human telomerase enzyme complex. Telomerase repairs and extend telomeres, which when eroded beyond a critical limit trigger a senescence checkpoint. Accordingly, while absent in normal somatic cells, telomerase activity has been detected in the great majority of malignant tumor specimens tested, and so has potential value for the recognition of malignant cells in clinical specimens. Methods In this study, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical detection of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) can aid cytology in the diagnosis of bladder lesions. Findings from the retrospective evaluation of over 100 cell blocks, including urine sediments from confirmed malignant and benign conditions, were compared with routine urine cytology data. Results The presence of hTERT protein was indicative of the transformation of urothelia to a malignant phenotype. Nucleolar hTERT was expressed in 27 (93%) of 29 samples obtained from patients with confirmed primary bladder cancer. Conversely, hTERT was detectable in only 3 (0.8%) of 39 samples from benign conditions. The hTERT assay showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (84.8%) than published urine cytology data (~65%) for confirmed bladder carcinoma, however, the hTERT assay was less specific than cytology (65.2% vs. ~95% respectively). Conclusion As a highly sensitive marker, immunohistochemical hTERT detection in urine sediments represents a reliable adjunct to cytology in the accurate diagnosis of urothelial neoplasms. PMID:16901344

  17. Evaluation of diagnostic cytology via endoscopic naso-pancreatic drainage for pancreatic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Tomoyuki; Kitamura, Katsuya; Yamamiya, Akira; Ishii, Yu; Sato, Yoshiki; Nomoto, Tomohiro; Ikegami, Akitoshi; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of cytology of the pancreatic juice obtained via the endoscopic naso-pancreatic drainage tube (ENPD-C). METHODS: ENPD was performed in cases where a diagnosis could not be made other than by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and in cases of pancreatic neoplasms or cystic tumors, including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) suspected to have malignant potential. 35 patients (21 males and 14 females) underwent ENPD between January 2007 and June 2013. The pancreatic duct was imaged and the procedure continued in one of ENPD-C or ENPD-C plus brush cytology (ENPD-BC). We checked the cytology result and the final diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 69 years (range, 48-86 years). ENPD-C was performed in 24 cases and ENPD-C plus brush cytology (ENPD-BC) in 11 cases. The ENPD tube was inserted for an average of 3.5 d. The final diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of the resected specimen in 18 cases and of follow-up findings at least 6 mo after ENPD in the 18 inoperable cases. Malignancy was diagnosed in 21 cases and 14 patients were diagnosed as having a benign condition. The ratios of class V/IV:III:II/I?findings were 7:7:7 in malignant cases and 0:3:11 in benign cases. The sensitivity and specificity for all patients were 33.3% and 100%, respectively. The cytology-positive rate was 37.5% (6/16) for pancreatic cancer. For IPMN cases, the sensitivity and specificity were 33% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Sensitivity may be further increased by adding brush cytology. Although we can diagnosis cancer in cases of a positive result, the accuracy of ENPD-C remains unsatisfactory. PMID:25132920

  18. Cytologic evaluation of experimental type 2 herpes simplex infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Whitney, J E; Harding, M; Bodfish, K; Skinner, G R

    1978-01-01

    The nature and frequency of cytopathologic changes in female mice genitally infected with type 2 herpes simplex virus have been investigated. The extent of virus infection in an individual mouse was assessed by a system of "plus scoring". Exfoliative cytology clearly provided a reliable evaluation of the extent of virus infection and a reliable prognostic index of mouse mortality. A composite index combining both cytologic and virologic information ('vircyt' value) was derived and shown to provide a convenient and precise prognostic index of mouse mortality. PMID:214984

  19. Cytopathological features of scar endometriosis mimicking an adenocarcinoma: A diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Rekhi, Bharat; Sugoor, Pawan; Patil, Asawari; Shylasree, T S; Kerkar, Rajendra; Maheshwari, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Scar endometriosis can be a diagnostic challenge in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears that at times, is the first diagnostic modality in such cases. The challenge is amplified when the clinical details are limited and cytopathological features reveal nuclear atypia. A 33-year-old lady presented with an abdominal swelling that she noticed after she met with a scald. Clinically, the swelling was located lateral to her 3-year-old pfannenstiel incision scar. The initial diagnosis on FNAC was metastatic adenocarcinoma. On review, smears were hypercellular, comprising epithelial cells in groups and focally, regular glandular arrangements, imperceptibly admixed with numerous, relatively smaller, short spindly cells. Epithelial cells exhibited mild to focally, moderate nuclear enlargement/atypia. Subsequent biopsy and excision revealed endometrial glands exhibiting focal nuclear atypia with adjacent stroma. Diagnosis of endometriosis was offered. The results were reinforced with positive estrogen receptor staining in the glands and stroma, along with CD10 positivity in the stroma. The patient was recommended gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs and is presently free of disease a year after her diagnosis. FNAC can be a pitfall in the diagnosis of endometriosis. Correct diagnosis has significant therapeutic implications. Although presence of atypia in such cases should not delude the diagnosing cytopathologist for consideration of endometriosis, it should be documented. The value of clinical history in such cases cannot be overemphasized. PMID:24648677

  20. A daunting challenge: Human Papillomavirus assays and cytology in primary cervical screening of women below age 30years.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Ejegod, Ditte; Preisler, Sarah; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-07-01

    We compared cytology with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays in primary cervical screening at age 23-29years based on data from the Danish Horizon study. SurePath samples were collected from 1278 women undergoing routine cytology-based screening. Abnormal cytology was managed according to the routine recommendations, and women with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5years. Loss to follow-up was similar between HPV assays. ?CIN3 was detected in 44 women. The sensitivity of HC2 for ?CIN3 was 95% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85-99), of cobas 98% (95% CI: 88-100), of CLART 100% (95% CI: 92-100), of APTIMA 82% (95% CI: 67-92), and of cytology 59% (95% CI: 43-74). Specificity for ?CIN3 varied between 61% (95% CI: 59-64) for cobas and 75% (95% CI: 73-78) for APTIMA, and was 94% (95% CI: 93-96) for cytology. Similar results were observed for ?CIN2 (N=68). HPV screening with cytological triage doubled the number of colposcopies compared to cytology screening, and increased the frequency of repeated testing by four (APTIMA) to seven (cobas) times. The positive predictive value of a referral for colposcopy was relatively high for all screening tests (?30% for ?CIN3, and ?50% for ?CIN2). CIN1 was detected by cytology in ?1% of women, and in ?2% by any of the four HPV assays. Although highly sensitive, HPV-based screening of young Danish women should be approached cautiously, as it resulted in large reductions in specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:25979832

  1. The relationship between positive peritoneal cytology and the prognosis of patients with FIGO stage I/II uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Yasuyuki; Komeda, Satomi; Tanaka, Aki; Abe, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobutaka; Takekuma, Munetaka

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess whether peritoneal cytology has prognostic significance in uterine cervical cancer. Methods Peritoneal cytology was obtained in 228 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stages IB1-IIB) between October 2002 and August 2010. All patients were negative for intraperitoneal disease at the time of their radical hysterectomy. The pathological features and clinical prognosis of cases of positive peritoneal cytology were examined retrospectively. Results Peritoneal cytology was positive in 9 patients (3.9%). Of these patients, 3/139 (2.2%) had squamous cell carcinoma and 6/89 (6.7%) had adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. One of the 3 patients with squamous cell carcinoma who had positive cytology had a recurrence at the vaginal stump 21 months after radical hysterectomy. All of the 6 patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma had disease recurrence during the follow-up period: 3 with peritoneal dissemination and 2 with lymph node metastases. There were significant differences in recurrence-free survival and overall survival between the peritoneal cytology-negative and cytology-positive groups (log-rank p<0.001). Multivariate analysis of prognosis in cervical cancer revealed that peritoneal cytology (p=0.029) and histological type (p=0.004) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion Positive peritoneal cytology may be associated with a poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Therefore, the results of peritoneal cytology must be considered in postoperative treatment planning. PMID:24761211

  2. 25-gauge histology needle versus 22-gauge cytology needle in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided sampling of pancreatic lesions and lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mavrogenis, Georgios; Weynand, Birgit; Sibille, Alain; Hassaini, Hocine; Deprez, Pierre; Gillain, Cédric; Warzée, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: A new 25-gauge (G) endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) device (EchoTip ProCore; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, USA) has been developed, which features a hollowed-out reverse bevel to trap core samples. However, data on the differences between the diagnostic yield of the 25G EchoTip ProCore and that of a 22G standard needle are limited. Patients and methods: This pilot study included 27 patients referred during an 11-month period for EUS-FNA of pancreatic masses and enlarged lymph nodes adjacent to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Each lesion was punctured once by both a 25G EchoTip ProCore needle and a 22G standard needle (EchoTip; Cook Medical) with capillary sampling. Blinded histocytologic analyses were conducted. The final diagnosis was based on FNA findings of malignant cells, pathologic analysis of the surgical specimen, and/or radiologic and clinical follow-up of at least 7 months. Results: A total of 28 EUS-FNA procedures targeting masses of the pancreas (n?=?19) and lymph nodes (n?=?9) were performed. No complications were encountered. Single-pass sensitivity rates for pancreatic and lymph node malignancy were equal for the needle types: 89.5?% (95?%CI 66.82?–?98.39) and 66?% (95?%CI 24.1?–?94), respectively. There were no significant differences between the needles in terms of EUS visualization (P?=?0.125), amount of blood contamination (P?=?0.705), macroscopic quantity of the material (P?=?0.858), quality of the cytology (P?=?0.438), and adequacy and accuracy of the cell block material (P?=?0.220). Conclusions: Both needles were safe and successful in terms of a high diagnostic yield, with similar histocytologic results. The results of this study were presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2014, Chicago, Illinois. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (B027201316271).

  3. Videofluoroscopic evidence of aspiration predicts pneumonia and death but not dehydration following stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Schmidt; Marlene Holas; Kathryn Halvorson; Michael Reding

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the risk of pneumonia, dehydration, and death associated with videofluoroscopic evidence of aspiration following stroke, the clinical records of 26 patients with aspiration and 33 randomly selected, case-matched, dysphagic controls without videofluoroscopic evidence of aspiration were reviewed. The videofluoroscopic modified barium swallow technique included 5 ml-thin and thick liquid barium, 5 ml barium pudding, and 1\\/4

  4. [High frequency oscillation in meconium aspiration and bronchopulmonary dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Herterich, R; Fackeldey, E; Hofweber, K; Steck, W; Neumaier, F; Arends, H

    1994-01-01

    Within one year 3 newborns with meconium-aspiration and 4 infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were treated with HFP, synchronous with conventional ventilation (CMV). The entrance criteria were insufficient oxygenation (PO2/FiO2 < 50 mmHg) and/or CO2-elimination (> 60 mmHg), respectively peak inspiratory pressure Pi > 40 mmHg and mean airway pressure MAP > 20 mbar during CMV. All three cases of meconium-aspiration have shown a striking improvement in oxygenation and ventilation, in one case starting from a disastrous situation with PCO2 > 90 mmHg, PO2 30 mmHg (FiO2 100%). After a HFO period of 9 to 10 hours Pi, MAP and CMV-frequency could be reduced. The patients could be extubated after 1-2 weeks. In severe BPD only in one case continuous improvement and extubation in the 4. week of life were possible. Here the pulmonary artery pressure in doppler-echocardiography slightly was elevated (30-35 mmHg). In a further case extubation was possible after several trials with HFO. Indeed chronic respiratory insufficiency, progredient pulmonary emphysema on x-ray and clearly elevated pulmonary artery pressure (> 40 mmHg) persisted. In 2 further cases there was no longstanding improvement of ventilation. One child died after 8 months, one after 6 months. In both cases there was a right-to-left shunt over foramen ovale and pulmonary artery pressures at systemic level. HFO led to an improvement in oxygenation and ventilation in all three cases of meconium-aspiration and probably prevented a fatal outcome in one case. The effect seems to depend on improved secretolysis and gas exchange.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8196311

  5. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723

  6. Treatment of severe meconium aspiration syndrome with porcine surfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry L. Halliday; Christian P. Speer; Beng Robertson

    1996-01-01

    Abstract  This study is based on clinical data from a retrospective series of 54 infants with meconium aspiration syndrome treated with\\u000a porcine surfactant at a median age of 14 h (range 1–176 h). Median arterial\\/alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a\\/APO2 ratio) before treatment was 0.08 (range 0.02–0.23) and oxygenation index 25 (range 6–110). After treatment with surfactant\\u000a at an initial dose of

  7. Building up a computerized follow-up register and information system for cervical cytology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Terpos; M. Efstratiadou; H. Symiakaki; A. Tsiveleka; P. Mentzelopoulou; A. Linos; I. Mantas

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection are closely related to cervical cancer. The cervical cytology examination (pap-test), followed by a colposcopic examination and a biopsy are the common tools for the early detection and the establishment of diagnosis of the cervical precancerous lesions. The monitoring and surveillance of those precancerous lesions

  8. Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to,

    E-print Network

    Broman, Karl W.

    Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences

  9. Prevalence and determinants of HPV infection among Colombian women with normal cytology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Molano; H Posso; E Weiderpass; A J C van den Brule; M Ronderos; S Franceschi; C J L M Meijer; A Arslan; N Munoz; AJC van den Brule

    2002-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is the principal risk factor associated with cervical cancer, the most common malignancy among women in Colombia. We conducted a survey, aiming to report type specific prevalence and determinants of human papillomavirus infection in women with normal cytology. A total of 1859 women from Bogota, Colombia were interviewed and tested for human papillomavirus using a general primer GP5+\\/GP6+

  10. Digital Cytology: Current State of the Art and Prospects for the Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Wilbur

    2011-01-01

    The growth of digital methods in pathology is accelerating. Digital images can be used for a variety of applications in cytology, including rapid interpretations, primary diagnosis and second opinions, continuing education and proficiency testing. All of these functions can be performed using small static digital images, real-time dynamic digital microscopy, or whole-slide images. This review will discuss the general principles

  11. Stages of oogenesis in the snail, Helix aspersa : cytological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stages of oogenesis in the snail, Helix aspersa : cytological, cytochemical and ultrastructural, France. Summary. Oogenesis was studied in adult Helix aspersa using light and electron micros- copy recently reexamined oogenesis in Helix aspersa. The aim of the present work was to deter- mine by some

  12. The comparative evaluation of uterine and cervical mucosa cytology with endometrial histopathology in cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Ahmadi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; S. Nazifi; H. R. Ghaisari

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract abnormalities especially in the uterus and ovaries of cows often results in infertility. The object of this study was to determine the relationship between the cytology of uterine and cervical mucosa and endometrial histopathology in normal and endometritic cows. In this study, the genital tracts of 131 slaughtered cows were collected. According to macroscopic appearances and histopathological evaluation,

  13. A karyological study of Accipitridae (Aves: Falconiformes), with karyotypic descriptions of 16 species new to cytology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. M. Boer; R. P. Sinoo

    1984-01-01

    Karyotypic descriptions are given of 16 species of Accipitridae new to cytology, viz. Accipiter novaehollandiae, Aegypius monachus, Aquila rapax, Circaetus gallicus, Circus aeruginosus, C. cyaneus, C. pygargus, Geranoaetus melanoleucos, Gyps bengalensis, G. rueppellii, Haliaeetus leucogaster, H. leucorhyphus, Lophoaetus occipitalis, Necrosyrtes monachus, Stephanoaetus and Torgos tracheliotus. For reasons of comparison the karyotypes are included of 5 species that have been previously

  14. Cytological analysis of hybrids between Papaver somniferum L. and Papaver bracteatum Lindl. ;

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cytological analysis of hybrids between Papaver somniferum L. and Papaver bracteatum Lindl, hybrids between Papaver somniferum L. (2 n = 22) and Papaver bracteatum Papaver, Lindi. (2 n = 14 cytogénétique des hybrides entre Papaver somniferum L. et P. bracteatum Lindl. Papaver, Relations

  15. Cytologic features of papillary-cystic variant of acinic-cell adenocarcinoma: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torill Sauer; Peter Wilhelm Jebsen; Reidar Olsholt

    1994-01-01

    A case ofpapillary-cystic variant of acinic-cell adenocarcinoma is described. The cytologic findings diflerrd significantly from the clmsic features of' this tumor with smears showing lurge monolayer sheets and small papillary groups, no acinic structures or naked tumor cell nuclei, sparse ceN dkwciation and many

  16. Glioblastoma multiforme with epithelial differentiation: A potential diagnostic pitfall in cerebrospinal fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simpal K; Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi; Hickey, William F; Marotti, Jonathan D

    2015-08-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and remains the gold standard for the detection of neoplastic meningitis. Metastatic involvement of the CSF by non-CNS neoplasms far surpasses that of primary brain tumors, although conventional glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can occasionally be identified in the CSF. GBM with epithelial differentiation is an uncommon variant that may contain features such as adenoid structures, signet ring cells, or squamous metaplasia. Herein, we present a case of GBM with epithelial differentiation to highlight a potential diagnostic pitfall in CSF cytology. A 55-year-old man presented with neurological symptoms and a 6.4 cm left temporal lobe cystic mass. Primary resection revealed GBM with focal epithelial differentiation confirmed by cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemical studies. Four months following primary resection, the patient developed severe headache for which a lumbar puncture with CSF cytologic evaluation was performed. The cytospin preparation showed numerous malignant epithelioid cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles resembling metastatic carcinoma. However, the lesional cells were cytomorphologically identical to the epithelial component present in the patient's recently diagnosed GBM. This case illustrates the potential for GBM with epithelial differentiation to closely mimic metastatic carcinoma from a non-CNS site in CSF cytology, which expands the differential diagnosis and emphasizes the necessity of clinical correlation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:638-641. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25913842

  17. COMPUTER-AIDED DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST CANCER USING GAUSSIAN MIXTURE CYTOLOGICAL IMAGE SEGMENTATION 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek KOWAL; Andrzej OBUCHOWICZ; Józef KORBICZ

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic computer system to breast cancer diagnosis. System was designed to distinguish benign from malignant tumors based on fine needle biopsy microscope images. Studies conducted focus on two different problems, the first concern the extra ction of morphometric and colorimetric parameters o f nuclei from cytological images and the other concentrate on bre ast cancer classification.

  18. Cytological assessment of the epithelial cells of the nasal mucous membrane after local fluticasone therapy.

    PubMed

    Trybus, E; Krol, T; Obarzanowski, T; Trybus, W; Kopacz-Bednarska, A; Obarzanowski, M

    2015-02-01

    The majority of cytological studies concern the influence of glucocorticosteroids on cells involved in creating and sustaining inflammation, such as eosinophils or neutrophils. Much less attention is devoted to epithelial cells. It should also be noticed that glucocorticosteroid drugs administered nasally for local action can significantly change the cytological image of the nasal mucous membrane. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to cytologically assess the influence of topical fluticasone therapy on the nasal mucous membrane cells, with special attention for the changes in the morphology of epithelial cells. The research samples were taken from patients with symptoms of chronic rhinitis and suspected allergies. The research was a two-step process. In the first step, a smear was taken from the surface of the nasal mucous membrane of the above-mentioned patients before the start of therapy and the obtained cytological image was compared with a control image of the nasal mucous of healthy people. Step two involved the cytology of the same patients after 4 weeks of fluticasone therapy, applied as a nasal aerosol in two doses of 50 ?g to each nostril once per day, in the combined daily dose of 200 ?g (for adults and children aged 12 or more). Children aged between 4 and 12 were given a single dose of 50 ?g to each nostril once per day, in a daily dose of 100 ?g. Based on smears stained according to the Papanicolaou and Pappenheim method, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of changes in the mucous membrane of nasal cells was performed. The cytological assessment of nasal mucous membrane stains of patients with chronic rhinitis before fluticasone treatment enabled a diagnosis of chronic infectious rhinitis, compared through the presence of numerous neutrophils and bacteria. The studied samples did not show significant changes in the morphology of epithelial cells, only a few cells with mild vacuolation changes of the cytoplasm were found. The use of fluticasone, however, caused a significant decrease in the neutrophilia and the appearance of numerous epithelial cells with intensified cytoplasm vacuolation in the sample. The results obtained allow us to conclude that standard fluticasone therapy as administered nasally in aerosol form to patients with diagnosed nonallergic nasal mucous membrane inflammation caused a significant reduction in the inflammation without showing cytological characteristics of damage to the epithelium of the nasal mucous membrane. The intensified vacuolation observed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, most prominently in the columnar cells, might suggest the stimulation of autophagic processes. PMID:25716973

  19. Equine endometrial cytology and bacteriology: effectiveness for predicting live foaling rates.

    PubMed

    Davies Morel, M C G; Lawlor, O; Nash, D M

    2013-10-01

    Endometritis is an important cause of sub-fertility in mares. The critical indicator of reproductive success and financial return for commercial studs is live foaling rate. Endometrial bacteriology and/or cytology are used to diagnose endometritis and thus identify mares at risk of early embryonic death. However, mares with endometritis may conceive but then abort in late gestation. The aims of this study were to establish, as part of a standard breeding examination (1) whether a threshold percentage of uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) exists above which a significant reduction in live foaling rate is evident; (2) the relationship of a positive bacteriology result to live foaling rate, and (3) the relationship of a combination of positive cytology and bacteriology result to live foaling rate. Guarded endometrial swabs (n=2660) were collected from 1621 Thoroughbred mares on 17 commercial stud farms by five veterinarians during a single breeding season. All mares were included regardless of age, history or parity. Cytological and bacteriological analyses were performed on each swab and subsequent live foaling rates recoded. Data were analysed by comparing 0%, ? 1%, ? 2%, ? 5% or ? 25% PMNs of total cells counted, or categories of bacterial growth to live foaling rates, using Pearson's chi-squared test. A threshold value of ? 1% PMNs, culture of a single bacterial isolate and a combination of both these parameters were associated with significantly reduced live foaling rates. Positive cytology alone, positive bacterial culture alone, or combined positive cytology and bacteriology were equally indicative of the likelihood of a mare producing a live foal. PMID:24035467

  20. Quantitation of immunocytochemical estrogen and progesterone receptor content in fine needle aspirates of breast carcinoma using the SAMBA 4000 image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Auger, M; Katz, R L; Johnston, D A; Sneige, N; Ordonez, N G; Fritsche, H

    1993-08-01

    Evaluation of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in breast carcinoma using ER and PR immunocytochemical assays (ER-ICA and PR-ICA) has traditionally been semiquantitative at best. We investigated the use of the SAMBA 4000 image analysis system for quantitation of immunocytochemical ER content in 23 cases and PR content in 20 cases of breast carcinoma after obtaining cytology specimens by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We compared the quantitative assessment obtained by image analysis, the quick score (QS), to the biochemical assay as well as to the ER-ICA and PR-ICA semiquantitative visual histochemical score (H-score). Using Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, we demonstrated that for both ER and PR, the QS obtained by the "area" or "nuclear" programs correlated significantly with the H-scores. However, while the QS obtained on the area program for both ER and PR correlated significantly with the biochemical assay, the QS obtained on the nuclear program did not. The discrepancy might reflect the smaller number of cells evaluated with the nuclear program as compared to the area one. These results show that the SAMBA 4000 system provides an objective means of quantitating ER and PR content by immunocytochemical methods. PMID:8397648

  1. High frequency of MYD88 mutations in vitreoretinal B-cell lymphoma: a valuable tool to improve diagnostic yield of vitreous aspirates.

    PubMed

    Bonzheim, Irina; Giese, Sabrina; Deuter, Christoph; Süsskind, Daniela; Zierhut, Manfred; Waizel, Maria; Szurman, Peter; Federmann, Birgit; Schmidt, Janine; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Coupland, Sarah E; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Fend, Falko

    2015-07-01

    Vitreoretinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a rare disorder, occurring as primary ocular disease or as secondary involvement by primary central nervous system lymphoma. It is usually diagnosed by cytologic, immunocytochemical, and molecular examination of vitreous aspirates. However, distinguishing vitreoretinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from uveitis remains difficult, and clonality analysis may be either unsuccessful or misleading. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising in immune-privileged sites (eg, the central nervous system) shows a high frequency of MYD88 mutations. Therefore, we retrospectively assessed the frequency of MYD88 mutations in vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) and their diagnostic potential in 75 vitrectomy samples of 69 patients, and validated our results in a separate cohort (n = 21). MYD88 mutations were identified in 20 of 29 (69%) clinically, histologically, and molecularly confirmed VRL, including 6 cases of the test cohort initially diagnosed as reactive (3/6) or suspicious (3/6) for lymphoma. MYD88 mutations, especially L265P, are very frequent in VRL and their detection significantly improves the diagnostic yield of vitrectomy specimens. PMID:25900979

  2. Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Ying; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chou, Pesus; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Chu, Dachen

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine gland malignancy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy is widely used for thyroid nodule evaluation. Repeated aspiration biopsies are needed due to plausible false-negative results. This study aimed to investigate the overall relationship between aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis, and to explore factors related to shorter diagnostic time. Methods This nationwide retrospective cohort study retrieved data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Subjects without known thyroid malignancies and who received the first thyroid aspiration biopsy after 2004 were followed-up from 2004 to 2009 (n = 7700). Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards model were used for data analysis. Results Of 7700 newly-aspirated patients, 276 eventually developed thyroid cancer (malignancy rate 3.6%). Among the 276 patients with thyroid cancer, 61.6% underwent only one aspiration biopsy and 81.2% were found within the first year after the initial aspiration. Cox proportional hazards model revealed that aspiration frequency (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.08), ultrasound frequency (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), older age, male sex, and aspiration biopsies arranged by surgery, endocrinology or otolaryngology subspecialties were all associated with shorter time to thyroid cancer diagnosis. Conclusions About 17.4% of thyroid cancer cases received more than two aspiration biopsies and 18.8% were diagnosed one year after the first biopsy. Regular follow-up with repeated aspiration or ultrasound may be required for patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules. PMID:26020790

  3. “Curettage and aspiration dissection technique” using PMOD for liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Peng, S. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims. To introduce a special dissection technique named “Curettage and Aspiration Dissection Technique” (CADT) using a versatile instrument called Peng's Multifunction Operative Dissector (PMOD) for liver resection. PMOD is an electrosurgical pencil with an inline suction, bearing four functions: electric cutting, coagulation, aspiration and dissection, The above-mentioned functions can be achieved simultaneously or sequentially during liver resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this technique and the special electrosurgical device in hepatic surgery. Patients and methods. From June 2005 to December 2006, 70 consecutive patients with segmentectomy or major hepatectomy were performed with this dissection technique by the same surgeon. Peri-operative data and the technical aspect of this device and dissection technique for various types of liver resection were summarised. Results. Forty-nine of 70 cases with various degrees of cirrhosis. Median blood loss were 470 ml (100–2400 ml), the bleeding and mortality within one month postoperatively was zero. There were postoperative complications in 20 patients: bile leak occurred in five cases, nine cases with right pleural effusion and six with ascites. No relative complications with this method were found. Conclusion. The CADT and PMOD can achieve better dissection and hemostasis. It possible is a much more valuable alternative to other devices currently used for liver surgery. PMID:18773106

  4. Meconium aspiration syndrome: possible pathophysiological mechanisms and future potential therapies.

    PubMed

    Lindenskov, Paal Helge Haakonsen; Castellheim, Albert; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Does meconium cause meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) or is meconium discharge only a marker of fetal hypoxia? This dispute has lasted for centuries, but since the 1960s, detrimental effects of meconium itself on the lungs have been demonstrated in animal experiments. In clinical MAS, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is the leading cause of death in MAS. Regarding the complex chemical composition of meconium, it is difficult to identify a single agent responsible for the pathophysiology. However, considering that meconium is stored in the intestines, partly unexposed to the immune system, aspirated meconium could be recognized as ‘danger', representing damaged self. The common denominator in the pathophysiology could therefore be activation of innate immunity. Thus, a bulk of evidence implies that meconium is a potent activator of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, complement, prostaglandins and reactive oxygen species. We hypothesize that the two main recognition systems of innate immunity, the Toll-like receptors and the complement system, recognize meconium as ‘danger', which leads not only to lung dysfunction but also to a systemic inflammatory response. This might have therapeutic implications in the future. PMID:25721501

  5. Aspiring to leadership--identifying teacher-leaders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John

    2005-11-01

    Educational institutions need effective leaders at many levels. This paper explores the applicability of the Porter/Mazlow need-priority and Herzberg maintenance-motivation models to the challenge of identifying individuals who aspire to leadership. The review includes literature from teaching, engineering, medicine, astronomy, business, and the military. Autonomy need and achievement motivation consistently distinguished leaders from non-leaders in several studies. Affiliation and esteem needs also characterized leaders in two studies. These empirical data support the use of these theoretical models, which are intuitively appealing and have potential for practical applications. One such application could be the identification and recruitment of education "champions" who would be teacher-leaders at dispersed sites. Through self-reflection faculty members could become aware of their needs and motivations and may realize their leadership aspirations and accept the teacher-leader role. For an education "champions" program to be successful, the department leadership would need to attend to the organizational culture and provide release time for the teacher-leaders. A blueprint for the development of teacher-leaders is outlined. PMID:16332556

  6. Iatrogenic Aspiration of Custom-Made Keel: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharouny, Hadi; Omar, Rahmat Bin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Laryngeal stenosis has various causes and treatment options. Endoscopic resection of the stenotic part with CO2 laser is one of the treatment options of laryngotracheal stenosis. Keels are useful for preventing adhesion formation, restenosis and web formation, which may happen during the later stage. They can be put in place either via the endoscopic approach or through a micro thyroidotomy and are held in place with a heavy suture through cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. They are left in place for two to four weeks, and then removed through the endoscopic approach under general anesthetics. Case Presentation: We report on a case of anterior glottis stenosis with keel aspiration for two weeks, after endoscopic CO2 laser resection of the stenotic section and keel placement. The patient was admitted to our center, where bronchoscopy was performed and the keel was removed. A new custom-made silastic keel was properly placed in raw areas and fixed to the skin with suture through the cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. The keel was removed three weeks later. Conclusions: Endoscopic keel placement should be done with heavy suture through cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. Surgeons should suture the keel to the anterior laryngeal wall with specially designed Lichtenberger’s needle-carriers to prevent complications such as keel aspiration, adhesion formation and imposing a second trip under general anesthetics, which put the patient at increased risk. The false vocal cord microflaps, as biological keels and a relatively new method may replace silastic keel placement in the future. PMID:25763237

  7. Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Pierotti, Paola; Cariaggi, Maria Paola; Palma, Paolo Dalla; Naldoni, Carlo; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Parisio, Franca; Pojer, Ada; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Sintoni, Catia; Zorzi, Manuel; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of conventional cytology with liquid based cytology for primary screening of cervical cancer. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Nine screening programmes in Italy. Participants Women aged 25-60 attending for a new screening round: 22?466 were assigned to the conventional arm and 22?708 were assigned to the experimental arm. Interventions Conventional cytology compared with liquid based cytology and testing for human papillomavirus. Main outcome measure Relative sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more at blindly reviewed histology, with atypical cells of undetermined significance or more severe cytology considered a positive result. Results In an intention to screen analysis liquid based cytology showed no significant increase in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more (relative sensitivity 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.56) whereas the positive predictive value was reduced (relative positive predictive value v conventional cytology 0.58, 0.44 to 0.77). Liquid based cytology detected more lesions of grade 1 or more (relative sensitivity 1.68, 1.40 to 2.02), with a larger increase among women aged 25-34 (P for heterogeneity 0.0006), but did not detect more lesions of grade 3 or more (relative sensitivity 0.84, 0.56 to 1.25). Results were similar when only low grade intraepithelial lesions or more severe cytology were considered a positive result. No evidence was found of heterogeneity between centres or of improvement with increasing time from start of the study. The relative frequency of women with at least one unsatisfactory result was lower with liquid based cytology (0.62, 0.56 to 0.69). Conclusion Liquid based cytology showed no statistically significant difference in sensitivity to conventional cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more. More positive results were found, however, leading to a lower positive predictive value. A large reduction in unsatisfactory smears was evident. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81678807. PMID:17517761

  8. Educational Aspirations as a Stochastic Process. Working Paper RID 73.16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Brian D.

    The purposes of this study were to test the predictability of the aspirational changes using the simple, two-state, discrete-time Markov model and to test for differences in selected background characteristics for students with different aspirational patterns. Data were from an ongoing study of an industrialized rural area. High School students…

  9. Growing Up at the "Margins": Concerns, Aspirations, and Expectations of Young People Living in Nairobi's Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…

  10. Educational Aspirations in an Urban Community College: Differences between Immigrant and Native Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the educational aspirations of immigrant and native students in an urban community college. Using Burton Clark's cooling-out theory as a framework, the study looked at choices students make when applying to college and the extent to which students later change their aspirations. Immigrant students who were educated in United…

  11. Student Equity and Disabilities UnitNever Stand Still ASPIRE Annual

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations and a donation by Citi information about ASPIRE please contact: Ann Jardine, ASPIRE Project Director Telephone: (02) 9385 4734 Email early to the hope of higher education, he has already established a limited view of his own potential

  12. Developing Conceptual Understandings of the Capacity to Aspire for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prodonovich, Samuel; Perry, Laura B.; Taggart, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research and theory relating to aspirations for higher education as a cultural capacity. Understanding the social and cultural dimensions of aspirations for higher education is important as they are increasingly becoming part of social commentary and more recently educational policy, research and practice. This paper synthesises…

  13. Bronchoalveolar Lavage plus Surfactant in a Piglet Model of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Obal Colvero; Humberto Holmer Fiori; Renato Machado Fiori; Jorge Hecker Luz; Davi de Paula; Christina Oppermann; Paulo Márcio Pitrez; Vinícius Duval da Silva; Aline Pieruccini Colvero

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Meconium aspiration produces airway obstruction and surfactant inhibition. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and surfactant replacement have been proposed as treatments for the syndrome. Objective: To evaluate the effect of BAL with normal saline followed by a supplementary dose of surfactant in a piglet model of meconium aspiration syndrome. Methods: 15 newborn piglets were used in the study. The animals were

  14. Serum Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Neonates With Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaoru Okazaki; Masatoshi Kondo; Masahiko Kato; Ryota Kakinuma; Akira Nishida; Masahiro Noda; Kiyosu Taniguchi; Hirokazu Kimura

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES.Various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are thought to be associ- ated with the pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome. To clarify any such association, we compared various serum cytokine and chemokine profiles in patients with and without meconium aspiration syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS.Using a highly sensitive fluorescence microsphere method, 17 types of cytokines and chemokines in sera were measured in 11

  15. ForPeerReview Gifted girls and non-mathematical aspirations: A

    E-print Network

    Bardsley, John

    ForPeerReview Gifted girls and non-mathematical aspirations: A longitudinal case study of two gifted Korean girls Journal: Gifted Child Quarterly Manuscript ID: Draft Manuscript Type: Original Korean girls choice of non-mathematical fields Gifted girls and non-mathematical aspirations

  16. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important for predicting rural youths' educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic…

  17. Understanding Mentoring in Leadership Development: Perspectives of District Administrators and Aspiring Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Jennifer K.; Sanzo, Karen L.; Myran, Steve

    2013-01-01

    According to Daresh, collaboration between veteran and new or aspiring leaders can promote an environment that is conducive to high levels of student achievement. This study sought to understand the mentoring relationship between veteran school leaders and aspiring leaders within a district that is in Year 2 of a School Leadership Program grant.…

  18. Motivation and Career Aspirations of Female Students Studying Science at Achimota School in Accra, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh, Paul K.; Bosiakoh, Thomas Antwi; Afranie, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines science education for girls in Achimota School, a second cycle institution in Accra, in terms of their motivations for pursuing science and future aspirations. It explores parental backgrounds and how they impacted on the motivations and aspirations of the girls. The survey method was adopted in this study, which involved a…

  19. Future Aspirations of Urban Adolescents: A Person-in-Context Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk; Diemer, Matthew; Jackson, Lisa; Gonsalves, Lisa; Howell, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Recognizing the importance future aspirations play in the developmental outcomes of adolescents, this study illuminates the role that individual and contextual factors play in the formation of future aspirations among urban youth. The data for this study were collected prior to the implementation of an intervention program at an urban high school.…

  20. Differences in Development of Bovine Ooc tes Recovered by Aspiration or by Mincing Y

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Takagi; K. Morit; T. Takahashi; S. Sugawara; J. Masaki

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed to clarify relationships between conditions of bovine ovaries and developmental capacity of the follicu- lar oocytes recovered from them and to compare two methods of oocyte collection, aspiration and mincing. Follicular oocytes with surrounding in- tact, unexpanded cumulus recovered by follicular aspiration or by mincing of tissue from 24 pairs of ovaries were matured and fertilized

  1. Promise and Possibility for Aspiring Principals: An Emerging Leadership Identity through Learning to Do Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batagiannis, Stella C.

    2011-01-01

    This case study explored the promise and possibility of doing action research both for aspiring principals engaged in such research and for professors using it as pedagogy for teaching educational leadership. The study of a class of graduate students aspiring to be principals had a constructivist theoretical framework. The research design…

  2. Reliability and Validity of Scores on Scales to Measure Managerlal Aspirations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis Tharenou; Deborah J. Terry

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation assessed the reliability and validity of the scores of a subjective measure of desired aspirations and a behavioral measure of enacted aspirations. A sample of 5,655 employees was randomly split into two halves. Principal components analysis on Sample 1, followed by confirmatory factor analysis on Sample 2, confirmed the desired and enacted scales as distinct but related

  3. ASPIRE (Awareness of Sexual Prejudice Is the Responsibility of Educators) Module 2: Sexism in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livonia Public Schools, MI.

    This second of four workshop modules in the Project ASPIRE (Awareness of Sexual Prejudice is the Responsibility of Educators) series deals with developing awareness of how sex-role stereotyping affects the vocational and life-style aspirations and decisions of students. (See Note about other modules.) The module helps workshop participants (1)…

  4. The Realism and Sex Type of Four- to Five-Year-Old Children's Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Care, Esther; Deans, Jan; Brown, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Research on career development has focused primarily on adolescents and adults. However, in Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise (2002) it is proposed that career aspirations originate in the preschool years and that the earliest work aspirations of children are sex typed in relation to the activities of same sex adults. This…

  5. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  6. The influence of parental aspirations on students' dispositions to study further mathematics in Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Kleanthous; Julian Williams

    The influence of parental aspirations on adolescent students' dispositions to study further mathematics in Higher Education (HE) has not been investigated thoroughly. The aim of this PhD study is to investigate students' perceptions of parental influence on their dispositions to study further maths both quantitatively and qualitatively. A scale was designed to measure students' perceived parental aspirations, motivation to learn

  7. Using aspiration levels in an interactive interior multiobjective linear programming algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ami Abel; Pekka Korhonen

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of an interior-point linear programming algorithm for multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) problems. At each iteration, a Decision Maker (DM) is asked to specify aspiration levels for the various objectives, and an achievement scalarizing function is applied to project aspiration levels onto the nondominated set. The interior-point algorithm is used to find an

  8. Development Patterns of Occupational Aspirations in Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gregg, Noel; Gemici, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the longitudinal development of occupational aspiration prestige scores over a 12-year period (Grade 8 to 8 years postsecondary) to better understand this aspect of career choice from adolescence into adulthood for people with high-incidence disabilities. A curvilinear trajectory was detected where aspirations increased during…

  9. Radioselenium in duodenal aspirate as an assessment of pancreatic exocrine function.

    PubMed

    Youngs, G R; Agnew, J E; Levin, G E; Bouchier, I A

    1971-05-01

    A new test of pancreatic exocrine function is described in which radioselenium is measured in duodenal aspirate after an intravenous injection of (75)Se-selenomethionine and administration of a Lundh test meal. Duodenal (75)Se activity gave good separation between normals and subjects with disease of the exocrine pancreas and correlated well with trypsin levels in the aspirate. PMID:5572384

  10. African American Adolescent Mothers' Vocational Aspiration-Expectation Gap: Individual, Social And Environmental Influences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Hellenga; Mark S. Aber; Jean E. Rhodes

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the vocational aspirations and expectations of 160 African American adolescent mothers living in urban poverty. Discriminant function analysis was used in an attempt to distinguish between participants with, and those without, a discrepancy between their vocational aspirations and expectations. The two groups were found to be distinct in several ways. Depressive and anxious symptoms along with childcare

  11. Longitudinal Influences of Educational Aspirations and Romantic Relationships on Adolescent Women's Vocational Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinster, Martha O.; Rose, Karen C.

    2001-01-01

    A 4-year study followed 92 female students from private, single-sex high schools. Over time, all increased their interest in traditional female occupations. Those with lower educational aspirations who dated more had a lower and less-differentiated interest profile. Those with higher aspirations valued career over family. Dating was unrelated to…

  12. MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES TO DIAGNOSE BREAST CANCER FROM IMAGEPROCESSED NUCLEAR FEATURES OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    1 MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES TO DIAGNOSE BREAST CANCER FROM IMAGE­PROCESSED NUCLEAR FEATURES accuracy of breast fine needle aspirates. Keywords: Breast cancer, digital morphometry, image analysis of fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer. PATIENTS: A consecutive series of 569

  13. Contribution of cervical ultrasound and ultrasound fineneedle aspiration biopsy to the staging of thoracic oesophageal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bonvalot; N. Bouvard; P. Lothaire; J. Maurel; F. Galateau; P. Ségol; M. Gignoux

    1996-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the use of cervical ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pretherapeutic staging of oesophageal cancer. 50 patients with a thoracioesophageal cancer (upper third = 8, middle = 36, lower = 6), previously untreated, underwent cervical ultrasonography to detect supraclavicular lymph node metastases (LN). An ultrasound fine-needle aspiration biopsy was attempted in 12 cases of

  14. Silver Bullet or Red Herring? New Evidence on the Place of Aspirations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf; Kintrea, Keith; Houston, Muir

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study of student aspirations at the ages of 13 and 15 in three schools in the United Kingdom, where there has been a great deal of emphasis placed on aspirations in recent policy making. The data, based on individual interviews with 490 students in areas with significant deprivation as well as interviews with…

  15. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63 Section...5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a) Overview...aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized,...

  16. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63 Section...5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a) Overview...aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized,...

  17. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63 Section...5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a) Overview...aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized,...

  18. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63 Section...5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a) Overview...aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized,...

  19. Laryngotracheal Closure and Cricopharyngeal Myotomy for Intractable Aspiration and Dysphagia Secondary to Cerebrovascular Accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen-Hong Qu; Min Li; Jian-Ping Liang; Zheng-Zhong Su; Shi-Qiang Chen; Xiao-Guang He

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value, technique, indications and contraindications of laryngotracheal closure (LTC) and cricopharyngeal myotomy (CPM) for intractable aspiration and dysphagia secondary to a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Materials and Methods: Patients (n = 45) with intractable aspiration and dysphagia secondary to a CVA were treated with LTC and CPM. The LTC was performed by suturing the double cords,

  20. Career Aspirations of Youth: Untangling Race/Ethnicity, SES, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…

  1. Racial disparity in meconium-stained amniotic fluid and meconium aspiration syndrome in the United States, 1989–2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhir Sriram; Stephen N Wall; Babak Khoshnood; Jaideep K Singh; Hui-Lung Hsieh; Kwang-Sun Lee

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveTo estimate the prevalence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid and meconium aspiration syndrome, as well as the differences in case fatality from meconium aspiration syndrome, between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white infants.

  2. [Cytological and histological effects of regional hyperthermia and radiation in cancer of the uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Kinugasa, M; Nishino, R; Kimura, A; Yukimura, N; Ohtsu, F; Takeuchi, K

    1989-08-20

    Hyperthermia is known to produce tumor-specific effect. Its combination with radiotherapy has been found to enhance antitumor effect and hyperthermia is a new modality of cancer treatment. Here, we report a cytological and histopathological study of the effects of hyperthermia on uterine cervical cancer. Our subject cases were 63 patients with cervical cancer (squamous cell carcinoma). Thirteen cases were treated with hyperthermia. Of these, the clinical stage was I b in 2, stage II in 10, stage III in 1. Before radical operation, external irradiation was given at 40Gy. with Lineac. During this period, the lesion was treated with hyperthermia at 42-45 degrees C for 30-60 min. with a 13.56 MHz RF capacitive heating system "Endoradiotherm 100A" (Kureha Chemical Industry CO. Ltd.) and an intraluminal applicator designed for uterine cervix. The control cases received radiotherapy alone before radical operation. There were 15 cases in Stage I b, 19 in stage II, and 16 in stage III. After the completion of radiotherapy, radical hysterectomy was performed in all cases. The effects of irradiation on the lesion were compared cytologically and histologically for different doses. The evaluation of the irradiation damage in cancer cells in the cytological study was based on findings such as intracytoplasmic vacuolation, the formation of giant nuclei, intranuclear vacuolation and formation of polynuclei. The degree of irradiation damage was classified into 5 grades from Do (little irradiation effect) to Dx (no viable cancer cells remaining), and the irradiation effect in the histopathological study was classified in to 8 grades from Grade 0 to Grade IVC according the Oboshi and Shimosato's classification. Cytological changes at 10Gy. were rated as D3 (relatively extensive irradiation damage in cancer cells) in 38.5% of the hyperthermia group, as compared to about 20% in the control groups. The cases rated Grade II B histologically made up 38.5% of the hyperthermia group: this grade was about 10% in the control groups. This suggests that radiation was more effective in the hyperthermia group than in the control groups, as was also suggested by the cytological results. With irradiation at 30Gy., cytological changes were rated as Dx in 61.5% of the hyperthermia group, as compared to 25.0-26.7% of the control groups. Histological results were Grade III, with only cancer cells regarded as non-viable observed, in 38.5% of the hyperthermia group and Grade IV, with no cancer cells, in another 23.1%. In the control groups, there were no cases with Grade IV, and those with Grade III totalled 12.5-26.7%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2809379

  3. Archosaurian respiration and the pelvic girdle aspiration breathing of crocodyliforms.

    PubMed Central

    Claessens, Leon P. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Birds and crocodylians, the only living archosaurs, are generally believed to employ pelvic girdle movements as a component of their respiratory mechanism. This in turn provides a phylogenetic basis for inferring that extinct archosaurs, including dinosaurs, also used pelvic girdle breathing. I examined lung ventilation through cineradiography (high-speed X-ray filming) and observed that alligators indeed rotate the pubis to increase tidal volume, but did not observe pelvic girdle movement contributing to lung ventilation in guinea fowl, emus or tinamous, despite extensive soft-tissue motion. Re-examination of fossil archosaurs reveals that pubic rotation evolved in basal crocodyliforms and that pelvic girdle breathing is not a general archosaurian mechanism. The appearance of pelvic aspiration in crocodyliforms is a striking example of the ability of amniotes to increase gas exchange or circumvent constraints on respiration through the evolution of novel accessory breathing mechanisms. PMID:15306317

  4. Foreign-body aspiration in the adult: Presentation and management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Alexandra; Barthos, Althea; Hoffstein, Victor; Batt, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Nonasphyxiating foreign-body aspiration in adults can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are nonspecific and chest x-rays may be normal due to organic composition of the foreign bodies. The diagnosis is often made via flexible bronchoscopy; however, debate remains as to whether rigid or flexible bronchoscopy is the optimal method of extraction. The authors describe a patient who was initially referred for assessment of a calcified left mainstem bronchus mass identified only on computed tomography scan of the thorax. The patient underwent flexible bronchoscopy and was discovered to have a bone fragment wedged in the bronchus for a duration of 22 years, which was successfully removed via rigid bronchoscope. PMID:24137576

  5. Rotor and stator assembly configured as an aspirating face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman Arnold (Inventor); Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Inventor); Reluzco, George (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A rotor and stator assembly having a rotor and a stator with opposing surfaces defining an air bearing and an air dam of an aspirating face seal. In a first embodiment, the air bearing and the air dam are axially offset. In a second embodiment, the rotor has an axially extending protuberance located radially between the air bearing and the air dam. The axial offset and the protuberance each act to divert the air flow (e.g., compressed gas or combustion gases in a gas turbine or steam in a steam turbine) in a direction transverse to the air flow direction through the air bearing and the air dam, thus isolating the air flows from the air bearing and the air dam which improves seal performance.

  6. ASPIRE - Cloud Chambers as an Introduction to Cosmic Ray Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Julie; Matthews, John; Jui, Charles

    2012-03-01

    ASPIRE is the K12 - Education & Public Outreach program for the Telescope Array ultra-high energy cosmic ray research project in Utah. The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra-high energy cosmic rays with an array of ˜500 surface scintillator detectors and three fluorescence telescope stations observing over 300 square miles in the West Desert of Utah. Telescope Array is a collaboration of international institutions from the United States, Japan, Korea, Russia and Belgium. Cloud chambers are an inexpensive and easy demonstration to visually observe evidence of charged particles and cosmic ray activity both for informal events as well as for K12 classroom activities. Join us in building a cloud chamber and observe cosmic rays with these table-top demonstrations. A brief overview of the Telescope Array project in Millard County, Utah will also be presented.

  7. Archosaurian respiration and the pelvic girdle aspiration breathing of crocodyliforms.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Leon P A M

    2004-07-22

    Birds and crocodylians, the only living archosaurs, are generally believed to employ pelvic girdle movements as a component of their respiratory mechanism. This in turn provides a phylogenetic basis for inferring that extinct archosaurs, including dinosaurs, also used pelvic girdle breathing. I examined lung ventilation through cineradiography (high-speed X-ray filming) and observed that alligators indeed rotate the pubis to increase tidal volume, but did not observe pelvic girdle movement contributing to lung ventilation in guinea fowl, emus or tinamous, despite extensive soft-tissue motion. Re-examination of fossil archosaurs reveals that pubic rotation evolved in basal crocodyliforms and that pelvic girdle breathing is not a general archosaurian mechanism. The appearance of pelvic aspiration in crocodyliforms is a striking example of the ability of amniotes to increase gas exchange or circumvent constraints on respiration through the evolution of novel accessory breathing mechanisms. PMID:15306317

  8. Anal cytological abnormalities and anal HPV infection in men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, J M; Holly, E A; Ralston, M L; Arthur, S P; Hogeboom, C J; Darragh, T M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise risk factors for abnormal and cytology and anal human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in homosexual/bisexual men with advanced HIV related immunosuppression. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease. SETTING: The University of California San Francisco, AIDS Clinic. PATIENTS: 129 homosexual or bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered detailing tobacco, alcohol and recreational drug use, medical history, and sexual practices. Anal swabs for cytology and HPV studies were obtained, as was blood for CD4 levels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal anal cytology and anal HPV infection. RESULTS: Abnormal anal cytology was detected in 39% of subjects and anal HPV infection in 93% as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Risk factors for abnormal cytology in multivariate analysis included HPV 16/18 infection (measured by PCR, RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5) and intravenous drug use (RR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7). Infection with HPV 6/11 also had significantly elevated RRs in a separate model. Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, recreational drug use, and low CD4 level were associated with abnormal anal cytology in univariate analysis, as was infection with multiple HPV types and high levels of hybrid capture group B viral DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Anal cytological abnormalities and HPV infection are common among homosexual/bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. In this study population, the main risk factors for abnormal cytology were HPV infection and intravenous drug use. Images PMID:9306896

  9. Hyperplastic epithelial lesions of the vocal folds: combined use of exfoliative cytology and laryngostroboscopy in differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, M; Kiesler, K; Beham, A; Rechenmacher, J; Friedrich, G

    2008-07-01

    The mainstay of successful tumor therapy is early detection of neoplastic tissue. Although exfoliative cytology has proven to be a reliable tool, its importance is still underestimated. Laryngostroboscopy is the most important tool for functional investigation in laryngological and phoniatric diagnosis. Stroboscopic evaluation allows early detection of infiltrative processes of the vocal folds. Aim of our study was to demonstrate that combination of both, exfoliative cytology and stroboscopy, provides a highly sensitive and easy to perform method in differential diagnosis of epithelial hyperplastic lesions of the vocal folds. In 130 patients with varying degrees of vocal fold keratosis up to glottic cancer, preoperative layngostroboscopy was performed. Stroboscopy was classified pathological in case of reduced or abolished amplitude of vocal fold vibration and/or reduced or abolished mucosal wave propagation. Under general anaesthesia histology with corresponding cytological specimens were obtained. The latter were classified in three groups reaching from normal (I), dysplastic (II), up to malignant (III) cytology. Invasive carcinoma was diagnosed in 32 cases by histology, corresponding malignant cytology was found in 21 specimens (sensitivity: 74%). By certain combination of cytology with pathological stroboscopy, a sensitivity of more than 97% can be achieved. Combination of cytology and stroboscopy allows detection of glottic cancer with a sensitivity of 97%, in contrast to 74% as found by cytology alone. This combination can be used as preliminary or sorting procedure and gives the opportunity of early detection, as well as for follow-up examinations. For repeated biopsies can cause scars with consecutive voice impairment, this procedure is very smooth but nevertheless reliable method. PMID:18057948

  10. A comparison of scores on the Index of Adjustment and Values with behavior in level-of-aspiration tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Bills

    1953-01-01

    30 volunteer, female subjects were tested with the Index of Adjustment and Values and 5 level-of-aspiration tasks. It was concluded that Index scores were, to a low degree, related to level of aspiration, as measured by the experimental tasks, that the variability of the level of aspiration set by groups selected by the Index was significantly different, and that acceptance

  11. Increasing faculty diversity: How institutions matter to the PhD aspirations of undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deangelo, Linda Teresa

    This study used a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model (HGLM) to investigate how the experiences a student has in college and the college they attend affects the likelihood that they will aspire to the PhD at the completion of college. This study was particularly interested in ascertaining in what ways postsecondary institutions support or thwart the PhD aspirations of underrepresented racial minority students, and how institutions might improve PhD aspiration outcomes for underrepresented racial minority students, thereby increasing faculty diversity. A three-pronged theoretical lens was used. Status attainment was used to examine how students background characteristics and significant others such as faculty influence PhD aspirations. Relative deprivation and anticipatory socialization were used to explore how institutional characteristics affect PhD aspirations. The longitudinal data came from the Higher Education Research Institute's (HERI) 1994 freshmen and 1998 follow-up survey. Five sample groups -- All Students, underrepresented racial minority students, Caucasian students, initial PhD aspirants, and other initial degree aspirants -- were derived from this dataset. Frequent faculty encouragement for graduate study was the single most important determinant of who aspires to the PhD for all of the student groups, but was particularly important to underrepresented racial minority students and students who begin college as PhD aspirants. Underrepresented racial minority students are more likely to be encouraged frequently at low selectivity institutions, and the encouragement for graduate study they receive at low selectivity institutions is a sort of equalizer that makes up for effects of attending this institutional type. The mean level of initial degree aspirations was the strongest factor at the institutional level for all of the student groups, and the magnitude of the effect was largest for underrepresented racial minority students. Attending a high selectivity institution was significant with PhD aspirations for all of the groups, with the exception of the underrepresented racial minority student and the initial PhD aspirant groups. The reason attending a high selectivity institution was not significant with PhD aspirations for these groups was a function of the distribution of students across selectivity types and the amount of encouragement for graduate study received by selectivity.

  12. Cytological changes in the oral mucosa after use of a mouth rinse with alcohol: A prospective double blind control study

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Marzal, Cristina; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Ezequiel; Bagan, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol. Material and Methods: A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine®] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus. Results: We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients. Key words:Mouth wash, oral mucosa, cytological change, alcohol. PMID:23085712

  13. Liquid-based cytology--new possibilities in the diagnosis of cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Juric, Danijela; Mahovli?, Vesna; Rajhvajn, Sanda; Ovanin-Raki?, Ana; Skopljanac-Macina, Lada; Barisi?, Ana; Proji?, Ivana Samija; Babi?, Damir; Susa, Martina; Corusi?, Ante; Oreskovi?, Slavko

    2010-03-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) enables the use of supplementary methods in the diagnosis and prognosis of cervical lesions. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between p16-INK4a immunoexpression in ThinPrep cervical cytologic samples and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the same sample. LBC-ThinPrep (Cytyc, USA) cervical cytology samples, prepared and stained by Papanicolaou method, were analyzed using modified Bethesda cytologic classification named "Zagreb 2002". A second ThinPrep slide, prepared from the same sample, was immunostained for p16INK4a using CINtec p16INK4a Cytology Kit (DakoCytomation, Denmark). Increased expression of the high-risk (HR) HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes results in a highly specific increase in p16 protein expression and overexpression of p16INK4a acts as a potential biomarker for cervical cancer progression from premalignant lesions. Brown nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining of abnormal cells was considered a positive result. Residual material was used for 13 HR HPV-DNA detection by the PCR based AMPLICOR HPV test (Roche Molecular Systems). A total of 120 ThinPrep Pap tests with the following cytologic diagnoses: 17 within normal limits, 17 atypical squamous cell (ASC) (7 ASC of undetermined significance /ASCUS/ and 10 ASC of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions cannot be excluded /ASC-H/), 26 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) corresponding cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, 57 high-grade SIL (HSIL) i.e. 24 CIN II and 33 CIN III and 3 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were included in the study. All CIN III (n = 33) and SCC (n = 3) specimens expressed p16INK4a immunoreactivity, whereas the HR HPV test was positive in 97% (32/33) of CIN III and 100% (3/3) of SCC specimens. The p16INK4a biomarker was positive in 87.5% (21/24) of CIN II and 69% (18/26) of CIN I, while the HR HPV was positive in 75% (18/24) of CIN II and 50% (13/26) of CIN I. In ASCUS cytology, p16INK4a and HR HPV showed the same rate of positivity (28.5%; 2/7). Expression of p16INK4a was detected in all cytologic (10/10) ASC-H lesions, in contrast to HR HPV detected in only 20% (2/10) of ASC-H cases. These data suggest the p16INK4a evaluation in ThinPrep cervical samples to be significantly associated with HR HPV testing by PCR in the same sample for the diagnosis of HSIL lesions and cervical carcinomas. A prospective study with longer follow up may clarify the predictive values in the management of LSIL and ASC diagnosis. PMID:20432728

  14. Early lung cancer detection in uranium miners with abnormal sputum cytology

    SciTech Connect

    Saccomanno, G.

    1992-08-01

    This work supported by the United States of Energy, continues to add data on the health affects of cigarette smoking and radon exposure on uranium miners. Since the last Technical Progress Report in July or 1991, 537 sputum cytology samples have been collected on the 300 uranium workers in the surveillance study. To date there are 436 lung cancer cases in the Uranium Miner Tumor Registry with diagnostic slides from surgery and/or autopsy; an additional 40 cases have been diagnosed with sputum cytology only. In March of 1991 the Geno Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive was established at St. Mary's Hospital and Medical Center as a depository for biological specimens and epidemiological data from the 17,700 uranium miners who have been a part or the study.

  15. Diagnostic cytologic sample profiles in patients with bladder cancer using TICAS system.

    PubMed

    Koss, L G; Bartels, P H; Sychra, J J; Wied, G L

    1978-01-01

    Computer analysis of digitized cell images was applied to consecutively encountered, well preserved urothelial cells in the urinary sediment of 12 patients with bladder cancer. It was shown that the composition of the cell sample, and notably the proportion cells classified in the ATY II and POS (malignant) categories, were of diagnostic significance. This work indicated that a computer-generated diagnosis based on the cells in a urinary sample could probably be achieved with a relatively small number of urothelial cells. The study also suggested that computer-generated cytologic profiles of patients with non-papillary carcinoma in situ can be distinguished from other forms of urothelial cancer. The atypicality indices computed for all cells from each patient provided important information but were per se insufficient for diagnostic purposes. This preliminary study, based on a small group of patients, suggests that high resolution scanning offers a promising approach to automation of cytology of the urinary sediment. PMID:364909

  16. Cyclosporine Effects on Clinical Findings and Impression Cytology Specimens in Severe Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avni Murat Avunduk; Mustafa Cihat Avunduk; Hidayet Erdöl; Zerrin Kapicioglu; Nurettin Akyol

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possible effects of topical cyclosporine eye drops 2% (CsA) on conjunctival immune cells obtained by impression cytology technique and to determine the clinical relevance of this effect if present. Methods: Ten consecutive patients with severe, resistant, and active vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) were included in this study. All of them were treated with 2% of topical CsA

  17. Cytological mechanisms of 2n egg formation in a diploid genotype of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tavoletti

    1994-01-01

    Gametes formed without meiosis in alfalfa would be useful in basic and applied research. Therefore, the cytological analysis of macrosporogenesis of a diploid plant of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli (named PG-F9), previously selected as a good 2n egg producer, was conducted. A stain-clearing technique was applied which also allowed the analysis of microsporogenesis to be performed. Two mechanisms

  18. Rocky Mountain species of Paronychia (Caryophyllaceae): A morphological, cytological, and chemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Hartman

    1974-01-01

    Data derived from a morphological, cytological, flavonoid, and greenhouse study indicate thatParonychia pulvinata (2n = 32) andP. sessiliflora (2n = 64) should be distinguished in specific rank rather than in subspecific rank as recently proposed. Additionally, new evidence\\u000a is brought to bear onP. depressa var.brevicuspis, which is shown to be synonymous withP. sessiliflora.

  19. Nasal cytological assessment after crenotherapy in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cantone, E; Marino, A; Ferranti, I; Castagna, G; Maione, N; Di Rubbo, V; Iengo, M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) determines irreversible alterations of the nasal mucosa with consequent impairment of ciliary movements and, therefore, mucociliary clearance (MCC). People of all ages can be affected by CRS but the elderly are subjects at the highest risk. CRS in the elderly with an age-related physiological impairment of nasal respiratory function, often accompanied by other chronic diseases, requires additional therapies to be added to the numerous daily medications. Since the currently available therapies for CRS include the use of drugs that can have adverse effects and contraindications, crenotherapy could represent a therapeutic option. Indeed, because the adverse effects and contraindications of crenotherapy are scarce, it can be safely used in elderly patients with comorbidities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nasal cytological assessment after crenotherapy in elderly subjects with CRS. Two groups, comprising a total of 84 elderly subjects with CRS, were treated with crenotherapy with sodium chloride sulphate hyperthermal water rich in mineral salts (group I, n=49) and saline solution (group II n=35). Cytological assessment for both groups took place at baseline (T0) and 1 month after treatment (T30). At T30 the nasal cytological assessment showed statistically significant improvements in the ciliary motility and in the count of neutrophils and spores in group I, but not in group II. Conversely, there were no significant differences in the count of eosinophils, mast cells, bacteria and biofilm in either group. Our data for the first time focused on the role of crenotherapy in the improvement of cytological assessment of CRS in the elderly. PMID:25572751

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a cytology-histology-human papillomavirus correlation in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross A; Waters, Lindsay L; Mody, Dina R; Tams, Kimberlee C

    2015-06-01

    Context .- Cervical cancer mortality has declined by 74% in the United States since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Nevertheless, more than 12?000 US women annually develop cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCa) remains the predominant cervical malignancy. Objective .- To evaluate screening techniques used in the detection of SqCa of the cervix and provide insights regarding which technique(s) is (are) most efficacious in our study population. Design .- We retrospectively reviewed all available cytologic, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy burden data from patients diagnosed with SqCa. The clinical data were collected from 2 geographically and socioeconomically diverse hospital systems. Cases in which identified patients had a Pap test with a negative result/unsatisfactory specimen within 5 years of SqCa tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Cases in which patients were diagnosed with HPV-negative SqCa were considered HPV screening failures. Results .- Eighty-eight cases (patients' ages ranging from 19 to 73 years) were identified. Of those, cytologic history was available for 64 cases present in our electronic medical history record. Three cases were cytology screening failures (one being an unsatisfactory specimen) and 3 cases were HPV screening failures (one being the cytologic unsatisfactory case). Although measuring sensitivity in practice has limitations, we calculated the SqCa detection sensitivity at 95.3% by Pap test alone and 97% when HPV DNA testing was incorporated. Conclusions .- Our results highlight the necessity of combining Pap and HPV testing. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest detection failures will decrease as the practice of combining HPV and Pap testing increases. PMID:26030246