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Sample records for aspiration cytology fnac

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  2. Rosai Dorfman disease diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology in a young man with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Sall, Abibatou; Touré, Awa Oumar; Ndiaye, Fatou Samba; Sène, Abdoulaye; Sall, Fatimata Bintou; Faye, Blaise Félix; Seck, Moussa; Diop, Saliou

    2015-10-01

    RDD (Rosai Dorfman disease) is a rare and benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. FNAC (Fine-needle aspiration cytology) is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of RDD, and as such, biopsy is avoidable. PMID:26509029

  3. Cytological and Pathological Correlation of FNAC in Assessing Breast Lumps and Axillary Lymph Node Swellings in a Public Sector Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Vasu Reddy; Yale Guru, Basavanna Goud; Rangappa, Poornima; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Gayathri, devi. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast lumps have varied pathology, and there are different techniques to prove the diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast lesions at our center. Methods. We had retrospectively analysed 854 patients who underwent FNAC for primary breast lumps and 190 patients who underwent FNAC for an axillary lymph node in the year 2010. Results. Of 854 patients, histological correlation was available in 723 patients. The analysis was done for 812 patients as medical records were not available for 42 patients. FNAC was false negative in seven cases; 2 cases of phyllodes were reported as fibroadenoma, and 5 cases of carcinoma were diagnosed as atypical hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity, and false negative value of FNAC in diagnosing breast lumps were 99% (715/723), 100%, and 1%, respectively. Of 190 patients for whom FNAC was performed for axilla, 170 had proven to have axillary lymph node metastases, and the rest had reactive hyperplasia or inflammatory cells. Conclusions. FNAC is rapid, accurate, outpatient based, and less complicated procedure and helps in diagnosis of breast cancer, benign diseases, and axillary involvement in experienced hands with less chance of false results. PMID:24455419

  4. Comparative analysis of detecting cervical lymph node metastasis with fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Mohammed Kamran; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramaniam Vasudevan; Koliyan, Ramadoss; Kumar, Jimsha Vannathan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We correlated the results of cervical lymph node (LN) status by T-tumor size, N-nodal metastasis, M-distant metastasis (TNM) staging, and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in oral cancer patients to assess the discrepancy index (DI) between nodal metastasis (N) and FNAC results of cervicofacial LNs. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 patients (29 females and 34 males) aged from 30 to 85 years were included in our study. Cervical LN status through TNM staging and FNAC results were matched and DI was calculated. Results: DI in case of nodal status was 64.10% and 43.47% for TNMN1 and N2, respectively, indicating that tendency for observation of positive result on FNAC increased from N1 to N2. Conclusion: Hence, we suggest that relying solely on clinical examination and routine diagnostic tests like FNAC may not be appropriate and additional diagnostic imaging modalities should be considered. PMID:26604624

  5. Fibroma of the tendon sheath: A diagnostic dilemma on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra G; Dhruva, Gauravi

    2015-01-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor (STS) of the tendon sheath. Clinical and radiological features are not distinctive enough to clinch the diagnosis preoperatively. Although histological features are well described, diagnostic cytological features of FTS are still lacking. Till date only two reports describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings of FTS. The present case is a 50-year-old female who presented with a slow growing nodule on the right thigh over a period of 2 years. FNAC revealed low cell yield with loose clusters of fibrotic spindle cells and stellate cells intermingled with fibro-collagenous and myxoid matrix. Few cells showed mild degree of nuclear atypia. Necrosis and atypical mitoses were not seen. Cytology findings were suggestive of benign/low-grade fibroblastic or fibromyxoid lesion. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of FTS. This article discusses the diagnostic role of FNAC in FTS with its differential diagnosis

  6. Image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of ovarian tumors: An assessment of diagnostic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Afzal, Sheerin; Ansari, Hena A; Ansari, Maryem

    2010-01-01

    Background: Image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of ovarian lumps is being increasingly used for the successful diagnosis of ovarian tumors, although borderline cases may be difficult to diagnose by this method. Aim: To demonstrate the efficacy of image-guided FNAC in diagnosing ovarian tumors (benign and malignant) and to evaluate the usefulness of cytology as a mode of easy and rapid diagnosis of ovarian lumps. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 42 female patients. Clinical evaluation and relevant investigations were carried out. Diagnosis was established by FNAC performed under image guidance (ultrasonography/computed tomography). The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. Results: Cytological diagnosis was rendered on all the 42 ovarian lesions, with a correct diagnosis in 34 cases, resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 80.9%. Most of the cases with discordant diagnoses were surface epithelial tumors of low malignant potential and required histopathological examination for a final diagnosis. Conclusions: Image-guided FNAC is an inexpensive, rapid and fairly accurate procedure for the diagnosis of ovarian lesions. It provides a safe alternative to the more expensive, time consuming and cumbersome surgical route to diagnosis. PMID:21187883

  7. Rosai Dorfman disease diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology in a young man with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sall, Abibatou; Touré, Awa Oumar; Ndiaye, Fatou Samba; Sène, Abdoulaye; Sall, Fatimata Bintou; Faye, Blaise Félix; Seck, Moussa; Diop, Saliou

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message RDD (Rosai Dorfman disease) is a rare and benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. FNAC (Fine-needle aspiration cytology) is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of RDD, and as such, biopsy is avoidable. PMID:26509029

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and biopsy in the evaluation of lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-García, Antonio Z.; Elwassief, Ahmed; Paquin, Sarto C.; Sahai, Anand V.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and subtyping of lymphoma have important prognostic implications and are generally required for treatment planning. Histological assessment, immunophenotyping, and genetic studies are usually necessary. Endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) is a minimally invasive technique widely used for the evaluation of deep-seated benign and malignant lesions. However, the value of cytological samples in lymphoma diagnosis is still a matter of debate. Endoscopic ultrasound guided-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNAB) can provide tissue core samples that may help overcome the limitations of cytology. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature regarding EUS-FNAC and EUS-FNAB for the diagnosis and subtyping of lymphoma. In addition, we discuss its usefulness in the management of primary extra-nodal lymphomas, as well as technical issues that may influence sample quality. PMID:24949331

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of non-hematological neoplasms in pediatric age group: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Chakrabarti, Indranil; Ghosh, Piyali; Ghosh, Nilanjana; Sinha, Mamata Guha Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of aspiration cytology has largely been ignored in pediatric population. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in non-hematological neoplasms in children in our institution, which is a rural tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: A total of 88 cases of non-hematological pediatric mass lesions were studied in which cytopathological diagnosis could be corroborated with histopathology. Results: Out of all the cases, 70 (80%) cases were benign tumors and 18 (20%) were malignant tumors. Fibroadenoma (37.9%) comprised the majority of cases in the benign category while small round cell tumors (SRCTs) (44.4%) comprised the majority of cases in the malignant category. Definite diagnosis could be offered based on the cytomorphology in 79.5% cases, while in 20.5% of cases only a broad cytological classification could be offered. Among the malignant lesions, FNAC showed 100% sensitivity while a specific diagnosis was made in 90% of cases. Conclusion: FNAC proved to be a rapid and fairly accurate tool in diagnosing non-hematological tumors in the pediatric age group.

  10. Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Fine Needle Nonaspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongming; Wei, Chuankui; Li, Dengfeng; Hua, Kaiyao; Song, Jialu; Maskey, Niraj; Fang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and fine needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC) are useful cost-effective techniques for preoperatively assessing thyroid lesions. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and there is controversy over which method is superior. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between FNAC and FNNAC for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods. Primary publications were independently collected by two reviewers from PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, OALib, and the Cochrane Library databases. The following search terms were used: fine needle, aspiration, capillary, nonaspiration, sampling without aspiration, thyroid, and cytology. The last search was performed on February 1, 2015. Results. Sixteen studies comprising 1,842 patients and 2,221 samples were included in this study. No statistically significant difference was observed between FNAC and FNNAC groups with respect to diagnostically inadequate smears, diagnostically superior smears, diagnostic performance (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, average score of each parameter (background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture), and total score of five parameters. Conclusion. FNAC and FNNAC are equally useful in assessing thyroid nodules. PMID:26491689

  11. Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Fine Needle Nonaspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongming; Wei, Chuankui; Li, Dengfeng; Hua, Kaiyao; Song, Jialu; Maskey, Niraj; Fang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and fine needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC) are useful cost-effective techniques for preoperatively assessing thyroid lesions. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and there is controversy over which method is superior. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between FNAC and FNNAC for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods. Primary publications were independently collected by two reviewers from PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, OALib, and the Cochrane Library databases. The following search terms were used: fine needle, aspiration, capillary, nonaspiration, sampling without aspiration, thyroid, and cytology. The last search was performed on February 1, 2015. Results. Sixteen studies comprising 1,842 patients and 2,221 samples were included in this study. No statistically significant difference was observed between FNAC and FNNAC groups with respect to diagnostically inadequate smears, diagnostically superior smears, diagnostic performance (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, average score of each parameter (background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture), and total score of five parameters. Conclusion. FNAC and FNNAC are equally useful in assessing thyroid nodules. PMID:26491689

  12. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Zarami, A. B.; Satumari, N. A.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries. PMID:26664783

  13. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Sampling in Cytological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pinki, Pandey; Alok, Dixit; Ranjan, Aggarwal; Nanak Chand, Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an established out- patient procedure used in primary diagnosis of palpable thyroid lesions. A modified technique fine needle capillary sampling (FNCS) obviates the need of suction, is less painful, patient friendly and reported to overcome the problem of inadequate and bloody specimens. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and quality of FNCS with that of conventional FNAC in the lesions of thyroid. Methods: One hundred patients, presenting between January 2011 to December 2012 at Cytopathology Department of M M Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, with diffuse and nodular thyroid lesions were enrolled with both the techniques being executed on the patients, beginning with FNA followed by FNCS. The smears were scored using five objective parameters i.e. background blood, cellular material, cellular degeneration, cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture, in a single blind setting by a cyto-pathologist. The results were analyzed using Student’s test for paired data and chi- square analysis. Results: A highly significant differences (P<0.001) in favor of FNCS was observed for the background blood, cellular material and retention of architecture while total score favored FNA for cellular degeneration and degree of cellular trauma. Total scores and average score per case for FNCS was significantly better (P<0.001) than FNA. FNCS technique yielded more diagnostically superior and lesser number of unsatisfactory smears whereas greater number of diagnostically adequate samples was obtained by FNA technique. Conclusion: FNCS offers more number of diagnostically better quality smears. Both techniques could be supplementary on many occasions and substitutive on a few. Combination of the two techniques could offer better diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26516325

  14. Specialized clinical cytology may improve the results of EUS (endoscopic ultrasound)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) from pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Arne R.; Nerlich, Andreas; Topalidis, Theodoros; Schepp, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: A variety of factors (needle type, needle passes, tumor location, cytological assessment, etc.) may influence the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) from pancreatic tumors. Whereas most published studies report a diagnostic accuracy of >?80?% for EUS-FNAC, the results in routine settings are often considerably lower. This retrospective study aimed to define the effect of switching microscopic assessment from a standard pathology department to a highly specialized institute of cytology. Patients and methods: A total of 63 patients underwent EUS-FNAC of solid or semisolid pancreatic masses. Specimens of the first consecutive 20 cases (Phase 1) were assessed by the local department of pathology. Then in Phase 2, involving another 43 subsequent cases, a specialized cytology laboratory examined all aspirates. All EUS-FNACs were performed in the same manner, using a 22-gauge needle. After cytological evaluation, all patients either underwent surgery or were followed up for at least 6 months. Results: Of the tumors, 56 were solid and 7 semisolid; the mean size was 30?mm. Sensitivity (sens.), specificity (spec.), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of EUS-FNAC were 38.5?% (95?%CI [confidence interval] 13.9?–?68.4?%), 100?% (59.0?–?100?%), 100?% (47.8?–?100?%), and 46.7?% (21.3?–?73.4?%) during Phase 1 versus 91.4?% (95?%CI 76.9?–?98.2?%), 100?% (63.1?–?100?%), 100?% (89.1?–?100?%), and 72.7?% (39.0?–?94.0?%) during Phase 2. Conclusion: These results emphasize the considerable impact of a dedicated cytological evaluation on the results of EUS-FNAC. PMID:26135655

  15. Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Its Histopathological Correlation in A Tertiary Care Center of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    C, Akshatha; Masilamani, Suresh; Jonathan, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Background Salivary glands may enlarge either due to inflammation or neoplastic conditions and the diagnosis is possible by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Aim The present study was undertaken to determine utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 186 FNACs of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Of these, 146 cases had follow-up histopathological diagnosis. FNAC diagnoses were compared to histopathological diagnoses. Results The parotid glands were more commonly involved than others. Among the various diagnostic categories used in FNAC reports, Non neoplastic category was seen in 24 (16.4%), benign category in 86 (58.9%) and malignant category in 30 (20.6%) and unsatisfactory category in 6 (4.1%) of 146 cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions were 86.6%, 94.6%, 93.6%, 88.3%, and 94.6% respectively. Conclusion The present study concluded that FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions is highly sensitive, specific and accurate method. Hence, FNAC is a useful, quick and reliable diagnostic tool. It also appears to be a safe, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure, which provides information for management of salivary gland lesions. PMID:26266126

  16. Digital morphometry of cytologic aspirate endometrial samples.

    PubMed

    Mahovli?, Vesna; Ovanin-Raki?, Ana; Skopljanac-Macina, Lada; Barisi?, Ana; Rajhvajn, Sanda; Juric, Danijela; Proji?, Ivana Samija; Ili?-Forko, Jadranka; Babi?, Damir; Skrablin-Kuci?, Snjezana; Bozikov, Jadranka

    2010-03-01

    Unlike cervical cytology, morphological cytology criteria in the differential diagnosis of endometrium have not yet been clearly defined, and methods to allow for more precise evaluation of endometrium status have been searched for. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of morphometric nucleus analysis of cytologic aspirate endometrial samples in proliferative, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium by use of digital image analysis. Morphometric analysis was performed on archival cytologic aspirate endometrial samples (at least 10 per group) stained according to Papanicolaou (n = 77) and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG; n = 80) with the following histopathologic diagnoses: proliferative endometrium, hyperplasia simplex, hyperplasia complex, hyperplasia complex atypica, and adenocarcinoma endometriodes endometrii (grade I, II and III). Interactive image analysis (nuclear area, convex area, perimeter, maximum and minimum radius, length and breadth, as well as nucleus form factor and elongation factor) was performed by use of the SFORM software (VAMSTEC, Zagreb) on at least 50 (Papanicolaou stain) and 100 (MGG stain) well preserved endometrial epithelial cell nuclei without overlapping, at magnification of x1000. Statistical data analysis was done by use of the Statistica Ver. 6 statistical package. Multivariate analysis (ANOVA) distinguished malignant, hyperplastic and proliferative endometrium according to all morphometric variables with both staining methods (p < 0.05). However, on interactive testing of the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test), hyperplasias without atypia yielded no significant differences (p > 0.05) from atypical hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma and proliferative endometrium only according to the nucleus form factor and elongation factor (Papanicolaou stain), whereas malignant and atypical hyperplastic endometrium (MGG stain) differed statistically significantly (p < 0.05) from proliferative and hyperplastic endometrium without atypia according to all study parameters except for the nucleus form factor (p > 0.05). According to the cytologic staining method, morphometric parameters were considerably higher in MGG stained endometrial samples, reaching the level of statistical significance (p < 0.05) except for the nucleus form factor and elongation factor (p > 0.05) in the groups of hyperplasia simplex and complex, well differentiated adenocarcinoma (form factor) and atypical hyperplasia (elongation factor). A combination of cytomorphology and the morphometric variables assessed in this study can yield useful information on the cytologic state of endometrium, with special reference to the possible differentiation of the group of hyperplasia without atypia from the group of adenocarcinoma and atypical hyperplasia. PMID:20437635

  17. Aspiration cytology of primary thyroid paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid paragangliomas are extremely rare tumors arising from the inferior laryngeal paraganglia. Most patients are female and present as asymptomatic thyroid nodule. Diagnosing thyroid paraganglioma can be difficult on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) since it could be misdiagnosed as medullary thyroid carcinoma, calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid gland (CNNETT), metastatic neuroendocrine tumor, and intrathyroid parathyroid proliferation. We describe the cytologic features and immunohistochemical staining pattern of thyroid paraganglioma from a 60-year-old woman with a gradually enlarging neck mass for several months. An ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration was performed which revealed epithelioid, plasmacytoid to occasionally spindle-shaped cells with ovoid to elongated nuclei, fine chromatin pattern and inconspicuous nucleoli. The cells were arranged singly, in sheets, and focally in acinar pattern. Occasional nuclear overlapping, crush artifact, and binucleated cells were identified. Neither colloid nor amyloid was seen. Immunohistochemical stains performed on the cell block showed the tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine markers and negative for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), calcitonin, CEA, thyroglobulin, and TTF-1. There were rare S-100 positive cells. Given the difference in management of paragangliomas compared to its cytology mimics and association with familial cancer syndromes in some cases, awareness of this rare tumor, and use of immunohistochemical stains are critical in arriving at the diagnosis. PMID:26178689

  18. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  19. The value of combined application of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and thyroglobulin measurement for the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jia-hong; Xu, Ying-ying; Pan, Qi-zheng; Sui, Guo-qing; Zhou, Jian-ping; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided (US-guided) fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), thyroglobulin measurement on fine-needle aspiration (FNA-Tg), combined US-guided FNAC, and the ratio between FNA-Tg and serum Tg (FNA-Tg/serum Tg) for patients with cervical lymph node (CLN) metastases from thyroid carcinoma. Methods: We selected 148 patients with thyroid cancer with suspicious CLN metastases who met the inclusion criteria. FNAC findings, FNA-Tg levels, and serum Tg levels were evaluated before surgical treatment. The results of FNAC and FNA-Tg from CLNs were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Ninety-four of 148 cases were metastatic and 54 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNAC were 68.1%, 100.0%, and 79.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNA-Tg/serum Tg were 91.5%, 88.9%, and 90.5%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNA-Tg [10 ng/mL] were 98.9%, 68.5%, and 87.8%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of combined US-guided FNAC and FNA-Tg/serum Tg were 95.7%, 96.3%, and 95.9%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between FNAC and combined US-guided FNAC and FNA-Tg/serum Tg for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The method of FNA-Tg/serum Tg is sensitive enough for diagnosing CLN metastases from thyroid cancer. The combined application of US-guided FNAC and FNA-Tg/serum Tg contributes to improving the accuracy of diagnosing CLN metastases in patients with thyroid cancer.

  20. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ewing's Sarcoma of Thoracic Spine with Extension into the Intradural Space

    PubMed Central

    Bordia, Sandhya; Meena, Sweta; Meena, Bijendar Kumar; Rajak, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a small, round, and blue cell malignancy that occurs most often in bone and soft tissues of children and young adults. The intraspinal manifestation of the disease is rare, and when present, this is often misdiagnosed with other varieties of primary spinal tumors. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays important role in the early diagnosis of these cases. We report such a case of Ewing's sarcoma of thoracic spine with extension into the intradural space, which was initially suspected to be a case of metastatic lesion in an 18-year-old boy. PMID:24847440

  1. [The utility of aspiration cytology for the distinction of aggressive and non-aggressive papillary carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Caprara, G; Collina, G

    2007-06-01

    Preoperative identification of the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by fine needle aspiration (FNAC) has been suggested and different systems for distinguishing them from classical variant of PTC have been employed, including a point-based cytology grading system as suggested by Damiani et al., that we currently use in our Institution. The aim of this paper is to verify if distinction of PTC in aggressive or nonaggressive variants impacts on surgical treatment. In 7 years, from 1998 to 2005, 13586 cases of FNAC of thyroid have been performed; among them 156 PTC. The cytological material of thirty complete thyroidectomies with histology proven papillary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. 11/30 cases were correctly stratified into the appropriate low or high-grade category. The cytological grading system was discordant with the final histopathological diagnosis in 9/30 cases while in 10 cases the grade was not assessed. Eight cases were downgraded and therefore the low grade papillary carcinoma diagnosed at cytological level turned to be high grade at histology. When those cases were reviewed, the histology of seven cases diagnosed as tall cell variant of PTC failed to show a percentage of tumour cells higher than 50% and therefore it would be better to diagnose them as classical variant of PTC. One case was under-graded at FNAC. The case that was cytologically upgraded was a follicular variant of PTC in Hashimoto thyroiditis with a focus of tall cells. All patients underwent thyroidectomy or thyroidectomy plus lymphadenectomy and from our results the pre-operative diagnosis did not effect the surgical treatment. No patient died of the disease. PMID:17987724

  2. Aggressive Lymphoma in a 14 Year Old Indian Boy, Diagnosed on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kurpad, Ramkumar; Narayanan, Manoj; Sasikumar, V K; Jadhav, S S

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma(BL) is a highly aggressive B -cell Lymphoma of childhood with a doubling time of 24 to 48 h. Depending upon the clinical and epidemiological factors it is classified as Epidemic, Sporadic and Immunodeficiency associated Burkitt’s lymphoma. Sporadic Burkitt’s lymphoma has its own characteristics with few differences pertaining to specific geographical location. Here, we present a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with advanced stage disease. On examination he had cervical lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement in the form of nerve palsy.USG revealed multiple well defined solid lesions in liver, both kidneys and pancreas. However, PBS did not show the presence of lymphomatous cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph node and liver lesion showed features suggestive of Burkitt’s lymphoma, which was further confirmed on Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. PMID:25478352

  3. Aggressive lymphoma in a 14 year old Indian boy, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Pathade, Smita C; Kurpad, Ramkumar; Narayanan, Manoj; Sasikumar, V K; Jadhav, S S

    2014-10-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma(BL) is a highly aggressive B -cell Lymphoma of childhood with a doubling time of 24 to 48 h. Depending upon the clinical and epidemiological factors it is classified as Epidemic, Sporadic and Immunodeficiency associated Burkitt's lymphoma. Sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma has its own characteristics with few differences pertaining to specific geographical location. Here, we present a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with advanced stage disease. On examination he had cervical lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement in the form of nerve palsy.USG revealed multiple well defined solid lesions in liver, both kidneys and pancreas. However, PBS did not show the presence of lymphomatous cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph node and liver lesion showed features suggestive of Burkitt's lymphoma, which was further confirmed on Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. PMID:25478352

  4. Orbital aspergillus infection diagnosed by FNAC.

    PubMed

    Kuruba, Sree Lakshmi; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Nagarajappa, A H; Biligi, Dayanand S

    2011-07-01

    Fungal infections of the orbit represent a small minority of orbital infections. However, due to the virulent nature of some of the fungal species, they can have a devastating effect on ocular functions. Most of these fungi are saprophytes, which cause opportunistic infections. Aspergillus is one such fungus that can cause infection at various sites in an immunosuppressed individual. Sinonasal aspergillus infection with orbital extension and orbital aspergillus infection progress relentlessly. They can have a precipitous clinical course resulting in total loss of vision. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is rarely used as a preoperative diagnostic tool in the investigation of orbital mass lesions. Further, fungal infections of orbit are seldom diagnosed on FNAC. Two cases of fungal infection of the orbital and periorbital tissue diagnosed on FNAC are presented. A 50-year-old diabetic male presented with diminishing vision, pain, and forward protrusion of the left eye. On examination, he had upper eye lid fullness. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with a swelling on the right upper eye lid. The patients were evaluated radiologically and then subjected to FNAC. The smears showed giant cells, histiocytes, epithelioid granulomas, and fungal hyphae. A diagnosis of fungal infection was arrived at which was subsequently confirmed by culture and biopsy. Orbital aspergillus infection can have a precipitous course. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit provide crucial information. However, FNAC can help in making an early definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and thus obviate the need for a biopsy. PMID:21695805

  5. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in a rare case of recurrent mucinous carcinoma of skin, displaying psammoma bodies on smears.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Bharat; Deodhar, Kedar K; Ghosh Laskar, Sarbani; D'Cruz, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of skin is an uncommonly documented tumor, especially on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. A 58-year-old gentleman presented with a recurrent swelling over his right zygoma. Earlier, he had undergone surgical resection at the same site, on two occasions, 4 years back. FNAC smears from the recurrent nodule displayed clusters and singly scattered relatively monomorphic, polygonal to plasmacytoid cells with mild nuclear atypia and moderate to abundant cytoplasm, including focal intracytoplasmic vacuoles. At places, tumor cells were arranged around psammoma bodies against a background of mucinous material. Histopathological sections from the subsequent tumor resection revealed tumor cells arranged in the form of islands, nests, cribriform, and papillary arrangements amidst mucinous stroma, along with focal psammomatous calcification, consistent with a recurrent mucinous adenocarcinoma. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were diffusely positive for CK 7, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR), while negative for CDX2, CK20, and TTF1. Diagnosis of a recurrent mucinous carcinoma of skin was offered. Patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy for achieving better loco regional clearance and is disease-free, 4 months after. FNAC is a useful diagnostic tool for timely identification of mucinous carcinoma of skin, including recurrent lesions. Psammomatous calcification can be identified within this uncommon tumor, in recurrent lesions. While surgical resection remains the treatment mainstay, immunohistochemical expression of ER and PR in this tumor perhaps could have therapeutic impact, especially in recurrent cases. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:937-940. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26302739

  6. Aspiration cytology of ameloblastic fibroma: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Jain, Shyama

    2003-08-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma of the jaw is a rare, benign mixed odontogenic tumor, having little tendency for local invasion and a low recurrence rate. Cytologic distinction from ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma, and intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma is necessary, in view of the different biologic behavior. A painful, slow-growing swelling of the jaw in a 5-yr-old child clinicoradiologically considered as a benign cystic lesion was aspirated. Sheets of small monomorphic epithelial cells with peripheral palisading by columnar cells were seen on cytology smears. The striking feature was central hyaline globules in some tubules. A cytologic possibility of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was suggested. Histopathology, however, confirmed it to be an ameloblastic fibroma. PMID:12889050

  7. Cytological diagnosis of small cell osteosarcoma of the bone

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Uma; Mundi, Irneet; Mohan, Harsh; Garg, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Small cell osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare histological variant of OS that poses unique diagnostic difficulties. We present a case of a 10-year-old child who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from a mass in the right thigh. The cytological findings were those of a malignant small round cell tumor, closest to small cell OS. The FNAC findings were confirmed on histopathology. PMID:26229255

  8. Maxillary cementifying fibroma: a case report with fine-needle aspiration cytology highlighting the expanding role of e-medicine in cytopathologist collaborations.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramaniam, Vanathi; Faduyile, Francis; Zarka, Matthew A; Deery, Alastair; Field, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    Cementifying fibroma is an uncommon fibro-osseous lesion presenting in the oral cavity, which may present in children as an aggressive juvenile subtype of either psammomatoid or trabecular variant. Appropriate management, to achieve local control and prevent destructive expansion, requires early diagnosis, which fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can provide rapidly in a minimally invasive manner. The role of FNAC is even more powerful in situations where medical facilities are limited or where surgical biopsy is contraindicated. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy from Lagos, Nigeria, whose initial diagnosis of cementifying fibroma was made on photographed digital images in jpeg format of FNAC slides, which were then e-mailed as attachments to Sydney, Australia and to Scottsdale, USA. The tumor was subsequently confirmed as a juvenile trabecular variant of cementifying fibroma on histopathology on a surgical excision in London, United Kingdom. The ability to electronically send cytopathology images around the world for a definitive second opinion is a practical example of the power of e-medicine to achieve an accurate FNAC diagnosis. PMID:21472866

  9. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:26066407

  10. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  11. Synovial metastasis: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytologic investigation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K S; Reyes, C V; Jensen, J; Gattuso, P; Sacks, R

    1996-11-01

    Synovial metastases are a rare occurrence. Only 28 cases have been reported in the literature, 10 of which were diagnosed by fluid cytologic evaluation. We discuss 2 additional cases in which the diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration cytologic investigation. The first case is of a 47-yr-old man with small-cell carcinoma of the lung metastatic to the right knee joint; the second is of a 71-yr-old man with non-Hodgkin's mixed-cell nodular lymphoma also involving the right knee joint. The clinical features of these cases are similar to previously published instances of secondary synovial tumor, namely in regard to sex distribution (14 male and 16 female patients), age range (13-96 yr, mean 59 yr), and histologic types (adenocarcinoma, 13 cases; squamous-cell carcinoma, 4; lymphoma, 3; renal clear-cell carcinoma, 3; unknown origin, 2; rhabdomyosarcoma, 1; melanoma, 1; chordoma, 1; pulmonary clear-cell carcinoma, 1; and Ewing's sarcoma, 1). The condition usually has poor prognosis, with average patient survival of < 5 mo. PMID:8982591

  12. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of epithelioid leiomyoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K S; Jensen, J; Reyes, C V

    1999-01-01

    Purpose. Epithelioid leiomyoblastomas comprise the majority of gastric sarcomas and are uncommon in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis of this lesion by fine-needle aspiration cytology has been occasionally described in the literature. Two additional cases are herein reported.Subjects . A 66-year old male with an omental mass and a 47-year old male with a perihepatic tumor.Results and Discussion. Cytologic materials in both cases showed predominantly round or epithelioid cells, along with polygonal to spindle cells, occuring singly and in clusters, with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei.The nuclei were monotonous, usually banal, and centrally-located with only focal suggestion of pleomorphism and rare mitosis. Eosinophilic cytoplasm was noted in most of the cells, some demonstrating vacuolation. Electron microscopy supported a primitive smooth cell derivation of the neoplastic cells.Conclusions. The cytomorphology of the tumors of the two cases reported here is not adequately known. More cases need to be collected and studied. PMID:18521258

  13. Hodgkin's lymphoma: diagnostic difficulties in fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Francis, Issam M; Sharma, Prem N; Sathar, Sitara A; John, Bency; George, Sara S; Mallik, Mrinmay K; Sheikh, Zaffar A; Haji, Bahiyah E; Pathan, Shahed K; Madda, John P; Mirza, Kahvic; Ahmed, Mahamoud S; Junaid, Thamradeen A

    2009-08-01

    It is commonly believed that cytodiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is much easier than that of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, recognition of certain NHL subtypes with Reed-Sternberg (R-S)-like cells and results of immunohistochemical studies point to the contrary. To study the limitations of cytology in diagnosis of HL, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears of 130 lymphoma or suspected lymphoma cases were reviewed. Initial and reviewed cytodiagnoses were compared with histopathology in 89 cases. Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies were performed in 56 and 59 cases, respectively. Among histologically diagnosed HL cases, definitive cytodiagnosis of HL (initial as well as reviewed) was significantly less frequent than cytodiagnosis of NHL among histologically diagnosed NHL cases (P = 0.0328 and = 0.0001, respectively). On the other hand, cytologically diagnosed HL/NHL cases were significantly more frequent in the former group (P = 0.0001 and = 0.0018, respectively). ALCL and TCRBCL were the two NHL subtypes which created confusion with HL in FNA smears. Twenty-one cytohistological concordant HL cases and equal number of discordant cases were compared. When compared with discordant group, the patients in concordant group were significantly younger (P = 0.045). Hodgkin/Hodgkin-like cells and typical R-S cells were significantly more frequent in FNA smears of the concordant group (P = 0.0478 and = 0.0431, respectively). Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies showed good correlation with histological diagnosis of HL. It is suggested that proper interpretation of cytologic features, together with use of immunocytochemical parameters can help in reducing the margin of error in cytodiagnosis of HL. PMID:19373880

  14. Use of supravital toluidine blue staining to improve the efficiency of fine-needle aspiration cytology reporting in comparison to papanicolaou stain

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Kanwal; Niazi, Shahida; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Imam, Sardar Fakhar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To see the efficiency, adequacy and accuracy of toluidine blue stained smears of FNAC of Breast thyroid and salivary glands swelling with comparison to conventional stained FNAC smears with Papanicolaou. Methods: A total of 114 aspirates from various sites were included in the study. The smears were stained with toluidine blue and conventional Papanicolaou stain and the cytomorphology of both the smears were compared. The values were tabulated and statistical tests of significance was applied. Results: Of the 114 aspirates included in our study the diagnostic accuracy by using papanicolaou was 78%, while it was upto 100% with supravital toluidine blue stained smears. The percentage of inadequacy was reduced to just 25%. The observations were statistically significant. Breast 37/48 (77%) and Salivary glands 11/48 (23%) respectively. The most commonly used categorization of a five-tier system was used for reporting of breast cytology, with categories ranging from insufficient materials (C1), benign (C2), atypical (C3), suspicious of malignancy (C4), or (C5) frankly malignant. Most of breast lesions were benign 25 (67.56%). There were only 9 (24.32%) malignant cases followed by 2 cases of C-4 and one case of C-3. Benign thyroid lesion were more frequent comprising of 51 (72.27%) cases. One case (1.5%) of papillary carcinoma was found while 13 case were follicular lesions. There were 4 (36.4%) cases of pleomorphic adenoma and 3 (27.3) cases of non-specific sialadenitis. There was one case (9%) of each lesion for mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoidcytic carcinoma and benign cyst. Conclusion: Toluidine blue stained study of FNAC improves the diagnostic accuracy by minimizing the smearing and drying artifact, loss of cell sample during fixation and staining which influences the diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bakhos, R; Andrey, J; Bhoopalam, N; Jensen, J; Reyes, C V

    1998-02-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a round-cell malignancy that manifests most commonly in the paravertebral and intercostal regions. It occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults, between the ages of 10 and 30 yr, and follows an aggressive course with a high recurrence rate. Distant metastasis is also common. The tumor is often confused with other round, small-cell neoplasms, including primitive neuroectodermal tumor, neuroblastoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and lymphoma. This report pertains to a fine-needle aspiration cytologic diagnosis of EES, supported by clinicopathologic and fine structural correlations in a 56-yr-old man who presented with a rapidly growing, massive, right groin mass. The smears showed a diffuse cellular population of malignant round cells composed of two types: one group of larger cell exhibiting a thin-rim, pale cytoplasm, less hyperchromatic nuclei, nucleoli, and diffusely dispersed chromatinic nuclear details; and the second group of smaller and darker cells with highly hyperchromatic and almost smudged nuclei. These are chief cells and dark cells, respectively. Special studies revealed significant intracytoplasmic glycogen and positive vimentin and HBA-71 immunostaining. Cytogenetic findings of chromosomal 11;22 translocation is also supportive of the diagnosis of EES. PMID:9484643

  16. Aspiration biopsy cytology of extraabdominal desmoid tumor concurrently occurring in a patient with tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Husain; Kapadia, Rehana

    2008-09-01

    Extraabdominal fibromatosis or desmoid tumor (DT) is a slow growing locally aggressive soft tissue tumor that can occur anywhere in the body. We report the aspiration biopsy cytology features of a case of DT of the right neck area in a 35-year-old man who had a long standing history of tumoral calcinosis. The aspirate was interpreted as "benign spindle cell lesion" and confirmed as DT on histologic examination of the resected mass. We discuss the possible differential diagnoses of other benign or malignant lesions on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy and especially discuss the aspiration cytology features of DT compared with those of tumoral calcinosis. We also discuss the value of immunohistochemical markers that help in differentiating DT from other entities. PMID:18677759

  17. Cytologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma grades 1 and 2 from reactive follicular hyperplasia: cytologic features of fine-needle aspiration smears with Pap stain and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to detect t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Koji; Kitamura, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Tate, Genshu; Mitsuya, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established technique for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (ML). Generally, Giemsa but not Pap stain is used in FNAC. However, cytologic features obtained from Pap stain are also valuable. Very few studies on the cytologic characteristics of ML, as determined by Pap stain, are available. It is easier to observe nuclear irregularity and to identify nucleoli in ML cells by Pap stain than by Giemsa stain. Here, we applied Pap stain for cytomorphologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) from reactive follicular hyperplasia (RFH). Eighteen biopsy-confirmed cases of FL grades 1 and 2, with available FNAC smears, and six cases of RFH were selected for this study. Low-power magnification showed well-known features, and tingible body macrophages and lymphoid cell aggregates were observed frequently in RFH and FL, respectively. In addition, the so-called two-nuclei-like cleaved cells were observed frequently in FL. These cells showed notably cleaved nuclei, and therefore, appeared to possess two nuclei. Under high-power magnification, the occurrence of cells with nucleoli >1 microm and of cleaved cells was high in FL compared to RFH. It is believed that FL derives from centrocytes and that FL cells are slightly larger than non-neoplastic small lymphocytes. However, analysis of cell diameter in this study indicated that small lymphoma cells were predominant in half the cases of FL grades 1 and 2, and the percentage of these cells was similar to that in RFH, showing why false-negative diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2 occasionally occurs. There are limitations of FNAC in the diagnosis of FL. However, we believe that the appearance of two-nuclei-like cleaved cells and the high percentage of nucleoli-possessing cells, which we describe here, provide significant and valuable clues for the differential diagnosis of FL from RFH. Of 18 cases of FL grades 1 and 2, t(14;18)(q32;q21) was found in 13 cases with the use of destained FNAC smears. Our study suggests that, together with the cytomorphologic findings described earlier, FISH analysis for the chromosomal translocation, t(14;18)(q32;q21), is crucial for final cytologic diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2. PMID:16355396

  18. The validity of testicular aspirate cytology and DNA image-analysis of the aspirate in the assessment of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Abouhashem, Safwat E.; Saba, Isam; Mostafa, Salah; Abdalla, Alaa; Almaramhy, Hamdi; Mostafa, Mohamed; Elsayed, Deyab; Ibrahim, Ehab; Maroof, Aref; Eladl, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the possibility of using cytological examination and DNA image-analysis of testicular fine-needle aspirates instead of open surgical biopsy in the investigation of infertile men, as testicular biopsy has long been used for investigating infertility but the interpretation of histological slides is usually subjective. Patients and methods Thirty-three men (aged 22–36 years) were evaluated for infertility and underwent both open biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of their testes. Subsequently, the needle aspirates were assessed histopathologically and cytologically, and by DNA image cytometry. The percentages of haploid, diploid and tetraploid cells were determined for each patient. Results The cases were divided into four categories: (1) Complete spermatogenesis, with a DNA pattern of 1n > 2n > 4n; (2) Maturation arrest, with a DNA pattern of 2n > 4n with no haploid cells; (3) Sertoli cell-only syndrome, with a DNA pattern of only 2n, with no haploid or tetraploid cells; (4) Hypospermatogenesis, with a variable DNA pattern, i.e. mild with 1n > 2n, moderate with 2n > 1n > 4n, and marked where the DNA pattern was 2n > 4n > 1n. From the cytological and DNA image-analysis of the aspirate a diagnosis was possible that had a strong correlation with the histological diagnosis of the same case. From image analysis we could exclude interstitial cells, Sertoli cells and sperms on the static image, and differentiate between spermatozoa and spermatids based on morphological characteristics in the cytological smear. This technique can therefore be used to quantitatively determine the percentages of various cell types within the seminiferous tubules. By coupling image ploidy analysis and cytological examination of a cytological smear, spermatogenesis can be assessed accurately. Conclusion Image cytometry could be used to exclude interstitial cells, Sertoli cells and sperms on the static image and so produce an accurate assessment of spermatogenesis. A combination of ploidy and cell morphology characteristics in cytological smears provides an accurate, reproducible and easily used alternative to open testicular biopsy.

  19. Aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes of normal breast epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Bondeson, L.

    1987-05-01

    From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue.

  20. Grey zone lesions of breast: Potential areas of error in cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Dey, Pranab

    2015-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast is a rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive procedure to diagnose breast lesions, and was widely employed to diagnose breast lesions in the past. However, in recent times, core needle biopsy of the breast is gaining popularity and acceptability, although FNAC still looms large. There are some intrinsic disadvantages to FNAC, of which the most important is probably difficulty in classification of a significant percentage of breast lesions. Such lesions are usually denoted by the rubric “grey zone lesions of the breast.” This article attempts to review these grey zone lesions and highlight the difficulties in diagnosing them.

  1. The Utilization of Cytologic Fine-Needle Aspirates of Lung Cancer for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    In this era of precision medicine, our understanding and knowledge of the molecular landscape associated with lung cancer pathogenesis continues to evolve. This information is being increasingly exploited to treat advanced stage lung cancer patients with tailored, targeted therapy. During the management of these patients, minimally invasive procedures to obtain samples for tissue diagnoses are desirable. Cytologic fine-needle aspirates are often utilized for this purpose and are important not only for rendering diagnoses to subtype patients’ lung cancers, but also for ascertaining molecular diagnostic information for treatment purposes. Thus, cytologic fine-needle aspirates must be utilized and triaged judiciously to achieve both objectives. In this review, strategies in utilizing fine-needle aspirates will be discussed in the context of our current understanding of the clinically actionable molecular aberrations underlying non-small cell lung cancer and the molecular assays applied to these samples in order to obtain treatment-relevant molecular diagnostic information. PMID:26076721

  2. Multispectral microscopy and cell segmentation for analysis of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuqing; Thigpen, James; Shah, Shishir K

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs for automated tools to aid in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules based on analysis of fine needle aspiration cytology smears. While conventional practices rely on the analysis of grey scale or RGB color images, we present a multispectral microscopy system that uses thirty-one spectral bands for analysis. Discussed are methods and results for system calibration and cell delineation. PMID:19964406

  3. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  4. Toward improving fine needle aspiration cytology by applying Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.

  5. Impact of Molecular Testing in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: Data from Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui-qin; Zhao, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The molecular work-up of thyroid nodules from fine needle aspiration samples has given clinicians a new level of diagnostic information. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of molecular analysis in thyroid fine needle aspiration samples from a Chinese population. Methods. Specimens were collected from thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration. Cytology diagnosis and genes analysis were performed and correlated with histology outcome. Results. A total of 83 patients with thyroid nodules were enrolled, including 20 benign lesions and 63 papillary carcinomas. BRAF and RAS mutations and RET/PTC gene rearrangements were found in 65.1%, 0%, and 1.6% of papillary carcinomas, respectively. No gene alterations were found in benign lesions. The combination of BRAF testing and cytology improved the accuracy of cytology from 69.9% to 89.2% (P < 0.05). Moreover, BRAF testing confirmed 82.4% of papillary carcinomas with suspicious cytology and identified 33.3% of papillary carcinomas with atypia cytology. Conclusions. Of the three candidate markers, BRAF testing showed diagnostic utility in fine needle aspiration. Combining BRAF testing with cytology improves the accuracy of fine needle biopsy. Those who have positive BRAF and malignant or suspicious malignant cytology can undergo thyroidectomy without a frozen section. PMID:24591770

  6. Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain's) thyroiditis: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonographic characteristics of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Çigdem; Paksoy, Nadir; Gök, Nazl? D; Yazal, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT) is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG) and cytological characteristics of SGT. Materials and Methods: The clinical, USG and cytological findings of 21 cases diagnosed with SGT were reviewed. Results: Ultrasonographic data was available in 20 cases. A hypoechoic thyroid nodule with irregular margins was detected in 12 of the 20 total cases. Of these, 9 cases complained about pain in the thyroid lodge and generally had unilateral lesions, heterogeneous and hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins, rather than nodular lesions, which were seen in 7 cases. Cytologically, the multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) found in all cases were accompanied by a dirty background containing varying numbers of granulomatous structures, including isolated epithelioid histiocytes, proliferated/regenerated follicle epithelium cells and inflammatory cells and colloid. Conclusion: Though hypoechoic and heterogeneous areas with irregular margins are strongly associated with thyroiditis, SGT may also appear as painful or painless hypoechoic, solid nodules and generate challenges in differential diagnosis. Although the most remarkable characteristic observed in FNA cytology was the presence of multiple MNGCs with cytoplasm, a dirty background accompanied by mild-moderate cellularity, degenerated-proliferated follicular epithelium cells, rare epithelioid granulomas and mixed type inflammatory cells are characteristic for SGT. The assessment of these radiological and cytological findings in conjunction with clinical findings will assist in the achievement of an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26085833

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology, histology and MIB-1 proliferative index in a case of dyshormonogenetic goitre.

    PubMed

    Karak, A K; Sahoo, M; Bhatnagar, D

    2001-04-01

    The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic findings along with histology and MIB-1 proliferative index in a case of dyshormonogenetic goitre is presented. A 12-year old female child from non-endemic zone presented with a isotopically cold solitary thyroid nodule with a history of goitre being present since birth. Past history of any neck irradiation or maternal ingestion of any goitrogen during the antenatal period and family history of goitre were negative. FNA cytology revealed an extremely cellular preparation with predominantly microfollicular pattern without colloid. Nuclei were round to oval, slightly enlarged with evenly distributed chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Larger tissue fragments also showed foci of solid cell groups with nuclear crowding, overlapping and loss of polarity in addition to the prevalent microfollicular pattern. Occasional tissue fragments showed solid groups of trapped follicular epithelial cells in the matrix of fibrocollagenous tissue. Histology showed an intensely hyperplastic follicular cells with nodule formation, irregular fibrosis, pseudo capsular or vascular wall invasion mimicking malignancy. Immunohistochemistry for calcitonin was negative but thyroglobulin was positive. MIB-1 (Ki-67) proliferation index varied from 0.05 to 0.26 (mean 0.13) in the hyperplastic nodules versus 0.9 to 2.1 (mean 1.34) in the hyperplastic solid microfoci scattered amidst the grossly normal appearing thyroid tissue. The possible cytologic diagnostic pitfalls in favor of follicular neoplasm is discussed. PMID:11883139

  8. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the breast. A review of the Groote Schuur Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, G M; Hayes, M M; Hacking, A; Gudgeon, A; Dent, D M; Stander, W; Slater, P; Holden, S

    1987-10-17

    The results of the first 1,500 cytological diagnoses of fine-needle breast aspirates performed at Groote Schuur Hospital Breast Clinic are compared with the histological diagnoses of Tru-cut and excision biopsies of the same lesions. A cytological diagnosis of malignant disease was made in 358 cases, 349 of which were confirmed histologically. The 10 false-positive and 1 false-negative diagnoses are discussed. The reliability of diagnosis in the first 500 cases is compared with that in the second and third 500 cases. There were no false-positive diagnoses in the last 500 cases, and only 3 in the second 500 cases compared with 7 in the first 500 cases. Similarly, the 1 false-negative diagnosis was made in the first 500 cases. The results confirm the reliability of fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology as a diagnostic technique. The number of incorrect diagnoses decreases as experience with the technique increases. PMID:3313758

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of minimal breast cancer in Istria County.

    PubMed

    Besser-Silconi, Zana; Lozi?, Alex Anton Bruno; Misljenovi?, Nadia

    2010-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumour and leading cause of death in women aged 35 to 64 years in Istria County. The minimal invasive carcinoma and in situ carcinoma have a better prognosis so we try to find them during preventive exams. The aim of this study was to identify minimal breast cancers in fine needle aspiration biopsies of breast lesions made in Pula General Hospital between the years 2006 and 2008. There were 39 tumours with a maximal diameter of less than 10 mm in 1316 biopsies and 251 cytologically diagnosed breast cancers. In most cases, they were solitary, well differentiated neoplasms (48.7%). They were diagnosed in women aged 39 to 89 years and most frequently found in women aged 60 to 69 years. The most frequent histological type of operated minimal breast carcinomas was invasive ductal carcinoma. In that period, the minimal breast cancer percentage of all cytologically diagnosed breast cancers was 15.5% but in the first 6 months of 2009, the result was 48.7%. PMID:20698136

  10. Pulmonary hamartoma: Cytological study of a case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Umashankar, T; Devadas, Acharya K; Ravichandra, G; Yaranal, Parasappa J

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common but rare benign tumor-like lesions of the lung arising from the embryonic rest. They are more common in males and in aged. Majority are asymptomatic and seen as coin lesions with popcorn calcification in the chest radiograph. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps to diagnose and distinguish them from the cancerous lesions of the lung. The cytological material is characterized by fibromyxoid stroma, cartilage, bronchial cells, adipose tissue and bone. Bronchial cells with reactive atypia may be a source of false-positive result. Symptomatic cases need surgical intervention such as enucleation or segmental resection. We report a case of a 74-year-old male who had a lung mass that did not progress over 4-year on chest radiograph. The CT-guided FNAC smears showed benign bronchial epithelial cells, fibro-myxoid spindle cell stroma and fat spaces that aided the diagnosis of pulmonary hamartoma avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:23326033

  11. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology: a sensitive diagnostic tool for diagnosis of intra-abdominal lesions.

    PubMed

    Islam, T; Hossain, F; Rumpa, A P; Sikder, N H; Bhuiyan, M A; Karim, E; Hossain, A

    2013-04-01

    Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology is widely accepted as a safe diagnostic procedure in various neoplastic and non-plastic disorders. This study was conducted to determine the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of intraabdominal lesions. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh during the period of June 2007 to June 2009. A total 78 patients with intra abdominal lesions were included in this study. Fifty nine (75.6%) were males and 19 (24.4%) were females. Out of total aspirates 29 (37.2%) were categorized as benign, 41 (52.6%) were malignant and 8 (10.3%) were non-representative, as it contained only blood. Most of the benign lesions were liver abscess 19 (24.4%). A diagnosis of primary malignancy was established in 26 (33.3%) and that of secondary in 15 (19.2%). The results showed a sensitivity of 89.7%. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology is a sensitive diagnostic tool in a wide spectrum of intra-abdominal neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders. It is a simple, safe, rapidand inexpensive technique. PMID:23923406

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of uncommon types of lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mayall, F; Darlington, A; Harrison, B

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an accepted means of diagnosing and typing common forms of lymphoma, particularly small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and large B cell lymphoma. However, its usefulness for diagnosing less common forms of lymphoma is not clearly established and this study was designed to examine this. Methods: The study reviewed the FNAs of suspected lymphomas collected over a period of approximately five years. Results: FNA samples were available for 138 definite lymphomas; most were common forms of B cell lymphoma. However, there was also one Burkitt lymphoma (BL), two Burkitt-like large B cell lymphomas, 15 classic Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs), two nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphomas, four mantle cell lymphomas, two mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphomas (MLBCLs), 11 peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and five T cell rich large B cell lymphomas (TCRLBCLs). Conclusions: FNA diagnosis of BL was possible with immunoflow cytometry (IFC), cell block immunohistochemistry (IHC), and cell block fluorescent in situ hybridisation for c-myc alteration. It was difficult to make a definite diagnosis of HL and MLBCL on FNA alone. Both tend to be sclerotic tumours and FNA tends to yield scanty neoplastic cells. The FNA diagnosis of PTCL depended on cell block IHC; IFC was not usually useful. TCRLBCL did not show light chain restriction on IFC of FNA samples, probably because of frequent reactive B cells in the tumour. Thus, HL, MLBCL, and TCRLBCL are often difficult to diagnose accurately on FNA cytology, even when using IFC and cell block IHC. PMID:14600125

  13. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  14. The final outcome of indeterminate cytology of thyroid nodules in a District General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    DODDI, S.; CHOHDA, E.; MAGHSOUDI, S.; SHEEHAN, L.; SINHA, A.; CHANDAK, P.; SINHA, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnostic thyroid lobectomy is performed to resolve the dilemma of indeterminate (Thy3) cytology of thyroid nodules. But on final histology most nodules are benign thereby subjecting this group of patients to surgery with its associated risks. Aim To determine the proportion of cancers in patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. Patients and methods This is a retrospective observational study of 621 patients who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of their thyroid nodules over a 60 month period in a district general hospital. Patient demographics, cytology and final histology results were extracted from the hospital database. Results On final analysis, 48 patients had an indeterminate cytology (7.7%) and 12 patients had cancer in this group (25%) following diagnostic lobectomy. Conclusion Till an alternative robust technology becomes widely available we need to continue to perform diagnostic lobectomy in patients with indeterminate cytology in view of the high incidence of thyroid cancer in this group of patients. PMID:26188757

  15. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology and cell block in diagnosis of scar endometriosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Sashibhusan; Panda, Sasmita; Rout, Niranjan; Samantaray, Sagarika

    2015-01-01

    Presence of endometrial glands and stroma in places other than the uterus is called endometriosis. It can be pelvic or extra-pelvic. Abdominal scar endometriosis is an extra-pelvic endometriosis that can occur after surgery involving the uterus. Post-caesarean section, scar endometriosis is a rare event. The diagnosis is frequently made only after excision of disease tissue. We present a case of post-caesarean section abdominal scar endometriosis presenting as a tumor on the abdominal wall, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by cell block preparation. PMID:25948955

  16. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology and cell block in diagnosis of scar endometriosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sashibhusan; Panda, Sasmita; Rout, Niranjan; Samantaray, Sagarika

    2015-01-01

    Presence of endometrial glands and stroma in places other than the uterus is called endometriosis. It can be pelvic or extra-pelvic. Abdominal scar endometriosis is an extra-pelvic endometriosis that can occur after surgery involving the uterus. Post-caesarean section, scar endometriosis is a rare event. The diagnosis is frequently made only after excision of disease tissue. We present a case of post-caesarean section abdominal scar endometriosis presenting as a tumor on the abdominal wall, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by cell block preparation. PMID:25948955

  17. Aspiration cytology of an ectopic cervical thymoma misinterpreted as a lymphoproliferative lesion of the thyroid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, YI-YING; WANG, WEN-CHING; LI, CHIEN-FENG

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic cervical thymoma is a rare tumor that originates from ectopic thymic tissue trapped during the migration of the embryonic thymus. To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases of ectopic cervical thymoma, which include descriptions of the cytological features based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA), have been reported thus far. The current study describes the case of a 52-year-old male presenting with an enlarging anterior neck mass that been apparent for a number of years and was now accompanied by shortness of breath. FNA cytology revealed large numbers of small lymphocytes admixed with rare groups of large, polygonal cells that were interpreted to be reactive lymphocytes or possible follicular dendritic cells. However, no definite follicular or Hürthle cells were identified. Therefore, the overall cytological features were misinterpreted as a lymphoproliferative lesion. However, subsequent histological analysis of the resected left total lobectomy specimen determined a diagnosis of thymoma, type B1. Thus, awareness of this entity combined with a careful search for thymic epithelial cells may aid in determining a correct diagnosis when FNA is performed for the evaluation of a neck mass.

  18. Axillary apocrine adenocarcinoma in a young male suspected initially on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ranjan; Garg, Cheena; Agarwal, Arjun; Kumar, Parbodh

    2015-01-01

    Primary apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas are a rare entity, with only a few case reports so far. Many of these carcinomas are slow-growing with a high recurrence rate. A distinct cytological diagnosis can be made, and metastatic adenocarcinomas are always considered as a differential diagnosis on cytology. Our case was a 35-year-old male who presented with a discharging axillary sinus and swelling for the past 1 year. A clinical suspicion of tuberculous sinus was raised that however, remained unsupported by laboratory investigations. There was quite a high suspicion of apocrine adenocarcinoma on cytological examination that was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The patient was successfully treated with total excision and a wide margin. We report this case in view of its rarity and its occurrence in a 35-year-old young male, and emphasize that an initial cytological suspicion should be raised for primary apocrine adenocarcinoma in case of an axillary tumor, especially keeping in consideration the poor prognosis of the same and chances of early metastasis.

  19. Cytologic findings and differential diagnoses of primary thyroid MALT lymphoma with striking plasma cell differentiation and amyloid deposition.

    PubMed

    Nobuoka, Yuri; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Kuma, Seiji; Takagi, Nozomi; Higuchi, Miyoko; Masuoka, Hiroo; Miya, Akihiro; Kubota, Sumihisa; Miyauchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with associated amyloid protein deposition. While other primary thyroid neoplasms sush as medullary carcinoma and plasmacytoma with associated amyloid protein are known to occur and have been previously described by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), to our knowledge, the current cases are the first of thyroid MALT lymphoma with amyloid deposition to be detailed in the cytopathology literature. Case 1 was a 73-year-old female with chronic thyroiditis. FNAC suspected MALT lymphoma. The amyloid material was not noticed, nevertheless it existed. Case 2 was a 71-year-old female with a nodule of the thyroid. Malignant lymphoma and medullary carcinoma were suspected by FNAC. The possibility of medullary carcinoma was excluded by a measurement of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. After follow-up for two years, the nodule was diagnosed as MALT lymphoma associated with plasma cell differentiation and amyloidosis by the fourth FNAC. When we encounter small round cell tumors associated with amyloid in thyroid FNAC, we should consider not only medullary carcinoma but also MALT lymphoma. PMID:23636898

  20. The utility of cytology in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma lung: A tertiary care center study

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Saumya; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Husain, Nuzhat; Gupta, Anurag; Anand, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma harbors various molecular abnormalities that include epidermal growth factor mutation, anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene re-arrangement, K-RAS mutations. The availability of targeted therapy against these molecular markers has revolutionized personalized medicine. Accurate cytological diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma will aid in utilising the cytology smears for molecular testing. Objective: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various cytology samples in the diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: The study included a retrospective case series of 50 patients with biopsy proven non small cell lung carcinoma of adenocarcinoma subtype. The corresponding cytology reports of all the 50 cases were analyzed for different samples including broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), bronchial washings, bronchial brush smears, pleural fluid, sputum and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung and metastatic lymph nodes. The overall cyto-diagnosis efficacy as well that of various cytological samples were analyzed. Results: Multiple cytology samples were received in 14 of 50 cases. The overall diagnostic efficacy of the various cytology samples in the diagnosis of malignancy was 78% and 66.6% cases were accurately typed as non small cell lung carcinoma-adenocarcinoma. The best cytological sample for the detection of pulmonary adenocarcinoma was bronchial brush smears which had a detection rate of 70%. In fine needle aspiration cytology samples and bronchial washings the detection rate was 65.5% and 25% respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: In cases where the cytological diagnosis is certain the tissue biopsies can be simultaneously tested for EGRF and ALK gene mutations. Repeat biopsies are often required due to small amount of tumor tissue or necrotic biopsies. Alternate use of cytological specimen for molecular testing can be done when a diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma is established.

  1. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy processed by cytologic smear and cell block techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors: a study of 48 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangning; Qian, Jiang; Yuan, Yifei; Ping, Bo; Feng, Liqing; Bi, Yingwen; Li, Xiaping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) processed by smear cytology and cell block (CB) techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors (LGTs). Study Design: In a prospective study, we enrolled 48 consecutive patients with LGTs. Immediately after excision of LGTs, the tissues were underwent FNAB with 23-gauge needles. The FNAB samples were processed to produce cytologic smears and CB from which slides were cut for immunohistochemical staining. The remainders were submitted for routine histopathologic processing. The diagnostic value of FNAB was assessed by comparing the FNAB diagnoses to those made by routine histopathology. Results: Cytopathologic evaluations based on smear cytology and CB with sections stained immunohistochemically can distinguish non-epithelial lesions from epithelial ones in all cases. The diagnostic sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions were: cytologic smears--76%, 68%, and 71%, respectively; CB with immunohistochemical staining--88%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. The accuracy of the tissue diagnosis compared to routine histopathology was less for cytologic smears (58%) than for CB with immunohistochemistry (81%; P < 0.05). Conclusions: FNAB of LGT processed using a CB technique capable of producing immunohistochemically stained slides results in a greater percentage of accurate tissue diagnoses than do cytologic smears, when compared to routine histopathology. PMID:25120744

  2. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of intraabdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, Swaminathan; Kapoor, Vibhu; Schoedel, Karen

    2003-07-01

    A 55-yr-old female presented with a mass near the left adrenal gland detected on a CT scan performed for breast cancer staging. A CT-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed and showed scattered ciliated cells, compatible with benign respiratory-type epithelial cells. CT-guided needle biopsy also showed fibrocollagenous and fibroadipose connective tissue with focal respiratory type epithelium with subepithelial mucus glands. A final diagnosis of extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) was rendered after surgical resection. This uncommon benign congenital malformation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FNA of an intraabdominal mass in an adult. PMID:12827711

  3. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid fine needle aspirates: A cytologic study with histologic follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Sinha, Simanti; Basak, Bijan; Roy, Dipanwita Nag; Sinha, Swapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology represents a major step towards standardization, reproducibility, improved clinical significance, and greater predictive value of thyroid fine needle aspirates (FNAs). Aims: To elucidate the utility of the Bethesda system in reporting thyroid FNAs. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed thyroid FNAs between April 2009 and March 2012, classified them using the Bethesda system, found out the distribution of cases in each Bethesda category, and calculated the malignancy risk for each category by follow-up histopathology. Results: Of the 1020 FNAs, 1.2% were non-diagnostic, 87.5% were benign, 1% were atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 4.2% were suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 1.4% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 4.7% malignant. Of 69 cases originally interpreted as non-diagnostic, 12 remained non-diagnostic after re-aspiration. In 323 cases, data of follow-up histopathologic examination (HPE) were available. Rates of malignancy reported on follow-up HPE were non-diagnostic 0%, benign 4.5%, AFLUS 20%, SFN 30.6%, SM 75%, and malignant 97.8%. Conclusions: Reviewing the thyroid FNAs with the Bethesda system allowed a more specific cytological diagnosis. In this study, the distribution of cases in the Bethesda categories differed from some studies, with the number of benign cases being higher and the number of non-diagnostic and AFLUS cases being lower. The malignancy risk for each category correlated well with other studies. The Bethesda system thus allows standardization in reporting, improves perceptions of diagnostic terminology between cytopathologists and clinicians, and leads to more consistent management approaches. PMID:23833397

  4. MicroRNA Signature in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Applied to “Atypia of Undetermined Significance” Cases

    PubMed Central

    Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Li, Wei; Wakely, Paul E.; Saji, Motoyasu; Huang, Jie; Nagy, Rebecca; Farrell, Tisha; Ringel, Matthew D.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Kloos, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA (miR) expression signatures are proposed to be able to differentiate thyroid cancer from benign thyroid lesions. We selected eight miRs (miR-146b, -221, -187, -197, -346, -30d, -138, and -302c) to examine the potential use of miRs to supplement diagnostic cytology in cases designated as “atypia of undetermined significance.” Methods : miR expression was measured in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression analyses and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were performed in a training sample set (n=60) to obtain a classification rule to predict FNA cases as benign or malignant. The predictions were cross-validated by comparing with the corresponding histological diagnoses. A validation sample set (n=68) was further tested with the established four-miR LDA classification rule. Results A set of four miRs (miR-146b, -221, -187, and -30d) was identified that could differentiate malignant from benign lesions. A four-miR LDA classification rule was obtained and used to predict FNA cases as benign or malignant. For the training sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 93.3%, sensitivity of 93.2%, specificity of 93.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.98, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.83. For the validation sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 85.3%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 78.3%, PPV of 0.89, and NPV of 0.78. For the 30 atypia cases in the validation sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 73.3%, sensitivity of 63.6%, specificity of 78.9%, PPV of 0.64, and NPV of 0.79. Based on the miR predictions, we classified the atypia cases predicted as “malignant” into “high risk” and those predicted as “benign” into “low risk” categories. While thyroid carcinomas, particularly papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), were relatively enriched in the high-risk category, this particular miR panel is subject to inaccurate results in follicular neoplasias in atypia cases. Conclusions We demonstrate that miR amplification from FNA samples is feasible and that the particular four miR profile in this study can identify PTCs. However, further refinement is required for application to FNA cytology of “atypia of undetermined significance” cases due to low accuracy in classifying follicular neoplasias. PMID:22136206

  5. Clinical usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients less than 20 years old: a 10-year experience at a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunzoo; Jang, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the spectrum of cytological diagnoses and evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) in patients less than 20 years old. The subjects were selected by retrospectively reviewing records from 1999 to 2009. Selected patients less than 20 years old underwent FNA. Cytological and histological slides of samples from the subjects were reviewed. Our study included a total of 909 subjects with a mean age of 14.6 years. The majority of the FNA samples were taken from lymph nodes (n = 448, 49.3%), with the remaining aspirates obtained from the thyroid gland (n = 247, 27.2%), soft tissues of head and neck masses (n = 106, 11.7%), salivary glands (n = 75, 8.3%), breasts (n = 18, 1.9%), skins (n = 9, 1.0%) and soft tissues of extremity (n = 6, 0.7%). The majority (87.6%, n = 796) of the FNA samples were categorized as ‘benign’, with the remaining designated as ‘atypical lesion’ (n = 18, 2.0%), ‘malignant’ (n = 24, 2.6%), or ‘inadequate specimen’ (n = 71, 7.8%). FNA accuracy was 92% for diagnosing cancer. Specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 63%, respectively. Our study first revealed that FNA has a high specificity for diagnosing cancer in various anatomical locations in young patients and can be confidently used as an effective tool for diagnosing malignancies in young individuals with a clinically suspicious lesion. PMID:24294385

  6. Reliability of real-time elastography to diagnose thyroid nodules previously read at FNAC as indeterminate: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Treglia, Giorgio; Sadeghi, Ramin; Romanelli, Francesco; Giovanella, Luca

    2015-11-01

    The main limit of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is represented by indeterminate report. Recently, real-time elastography (RTE) has been described in the management of these cases. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies specifically focused on the use of RTE in indeterminate thyroid nodules. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases was conducted by using the combination of the terms "thyroid" and "indeterminate" and "elastography." Pooled sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of RTE as predictor of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNAC were calculated, including 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). The area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) was also assessed. Databases found 572 papers, and eight were included in the meta-analysis. Of these, six studies had prospective design and two were retrospective. Pooled malignancy rate was 31 %. As common denominator, all studies set the prevalence of hardness within the nodule as risk factor for malignancy of the lesion. Sensitivity of RTE ranged from 11 to 89 % (pooled estimate of 69 %; 95 % CI 55-82 %), specificity varied from 6 to 100 % (pooled estimate of 75 %; 95 % CI 42-96 %), and accuracy was comprised between 35 and 94 % (pooled estimate of 73 %; 95 % CI 54-89 %). The AUC was 0.77. RTE has suboptimal diagnostic accuracy to diagnose thyroid nodules previously classified as indeterminate. Then, RTE alone should not be used for selecting these patients for surgery or not. We advice for further studies using other elastographic approaches and combined RTE and B-mode ultrasonography. PMID:25534701

  7. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E.; Lupo, Mark A.; Manganelli, Monique L.; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Setting: Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Design: Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Results: Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73–97%) and 85% (95% CI, 75–92%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 85–98%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Conclusions: Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve the preoperative risk-based management of benign nodules with AUS/FLUS or FN/SFN cytology. PMID:25965083

  8. Evaluation of endoscopic cytological diagnosis of unresectable pancreatic cancer prior to and after the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    USHIJIMA, TOMOYUKI; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; SUGIYAMA, GEN; SASAKI, YU; KURAOKA, KEI; YASUMOTO, MAKIKO; TAIRA, TOMOKI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; TSURUTA, OSAMU; SATA, MICHIO

    2014-01-01

    With the advances in the multidisciplinary treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC) over the last few years, it is crucial to obtain a histopathological diagnosis prior to treatment. Histopathological diagnosis for unresectable PC is currently performed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in combination with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We retrospectively assessed the results of these two methods and investigated diagnostic performance according to the location of the lesion and the complications. This study was conducted on a series of 263 consecutive cases of unresectable PC diagnosed with endoscopic cytology. Up to 2006, ERCP-guided cytology (group A) was performed as the first choice for the diagnosis of PC. EUS-FNA was introduced in 2007 and became the first choice thereafter (group B), except in cases with obstructive jaundice, in which ERCP-guided cytology during endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) remains the first choice. There were statistically significant differences in the overall cancer-positive rate between groups A and B (60.4 vs. 75.3%, P=0.01). The cancer-positive rate in the pancreatic body and tail was significantly higher in group B (59.5 vs. 83.3%, P=0.005), whereas there were no significant differences regarding cancer of the pancreatic head. The complication rate was 4.95% in group A and 3.09% in group B (P=0.448). The endoscopic cytology cancer-positive rate in unresectable PC cases was increased as a result of the introduction of EUS-FNA. In conclusion, we recommend performing EUS-FNA in combination with ERCP-guided cytology in cases with a lesion in the pancreatic head that requires EBS. PMID:24940503

  9. Discrepancy of target sites between clinician and cytopathological reports in head neck fine needle aspiration: Did I miss the target or did the clinician mistake the organ site?

    PubMed Central

    Khanlari, Mahsa; Daneshbod, Yahya; Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Hanieh; Shirian, Sadegh; Negahban, Shahrzad; Aledavood, Azita; Oryan, Ahmad; Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Field, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of head and neck lesions is relatively high, but cytologic interpretation might be confusing if the sample is lacking typical cytologic features according to labeled site by physician. These errors may have an impact on pathology search engines, healthcare costs or even adverse outcomes. The cytology archive database of multiple institutions in southern Iran and Australia covering the period 2001–2011, were searched using keywords: salivary gland, head, neck, FNAC, and cytology. All the extracted reports were reviewed. The reports which showed discordance between the clinician's impression of the organ involved and subsequent fine needle biopsy request, and the eventual cytological diagnosis were selected. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology or cell block, with assistance from imaging, clinical outcome, physical examination, molecular studies, or microbiological culture. The total number of 10,200 head and neck superficial FNAC were included in the study, from which 48 cases showed discordance between the clinicians request and the actual site of pathology. Apart from the histopathology, the imaging, clinical history, physical examination, immunohistochemical study, microbiologic culture and molecular testing helped to finalize the target organ of pathology in 23, 6, 7, 8, 2, and 1 cases respectively. The commonest discrepancies were for FNAC of “salivary gland” [total: 20 with actual final pathology in: bone (7), soft tissue (5), lymph node (3), odontogenic (3) and skin (2)], “lymph node” [total: 12 with final pathology in: soft tissue (3), skin (3), bone (1) and brain (1)], “soft tissue” [total: 11 with final pathology in: bone (5), skin (2), salivary gland (1), and ocular region (1)] and “skin” [total: 5 with final pathology in: lymph node (2), bone (1), soft tissue (1) and salivary gland (1)]. The primary physician requesting FNAC of head and neck lesions are incorrect in their clinical impression of the actual site in nearly 0.5 percent of cases, due to the overlapping clinical and imaging findings or possibly due to inadequate history taking or physical examination. PMID:26108921

  10. Assessment of a cytology grading system for head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Draper, M R; Pfleiderer, A G; Smith, W

    2003-02-01

    A grading system for Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Cytology (FNAC) has been in routine use in Peterborough since 1994 for reporting on fine needle aspiration biopsies of neck lumps. The records of all 276 patients who had neck lump fine needle aspiration biopsies performed between 1994 and 1999 were reviewed retrospectively. The 193 patients who had definitive histology available were included in the study of whom 154 (80.2%) were considered adequate for grading. A learning curve for adequacy of specimens obtained is demonstrated, with adequacy rate increasing with increasing experience or seniority of the sampler. The grading system produced an overall accuracy rate of 73.3% with a predictive value for malignancy of 88.6% and a predictive value for benign conditions of 67.3%. Individual grades were assessed for predictive value of benign or malignant disease. Grade 5 proved completely reliable, with a predictive value for malignancy of 100%. The shortcomings of the other grades and the difficulties in diagnosing lymphoma by FNAC are discussed. PMID:12580878

  11. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology. PMID:24987443

  12. FNAC diagnosis of medullary carcinoma thyroid: A report of three cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Ansari, Hena A; Sadaf, Lubna; Khan, Mohammad Amanullah

    2010-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is an unusual neoplasm, which is associated with specific supportive diagnostic markers. Despite this, its cytological diagnosis is often difficult. We report herewith three cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis was established on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Plasmacytoid cell pattern was observed in two cases and spindle cell pattern in the third case. PMID:21157553

  13. Comparative study of cytology and immunocytochemistry with trucut biopsy and immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of localized lung lesions: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Shravasti; Nandi, Ayandip; Das, Indranil; Mandal, Palash K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous lung biopsy is now a common procedure in pulmonary medicine, and several different techniques are in use. The most common has been the use of a fine needle under computed tomography (CT) guidance combined with the trucut needle for histology. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and immunocytochemistry in comparison with trucut biopsy and immunohistochemistry in patients with localized intrathoracic lesions suspicious for malignancy. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with localized mass lesions in the lung on imaging (chest radiograph/CT) were selected for this study over a period of 1 year. FNAC was carried out by a 22 G spinal needle after localization of the mass in the CT scan followed by guided trucut biopsy. Immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry were performed as and when required. Results: The mean age of our study population was 57.6 years and the M:F ratio was 4.2:1. Majority of the lesions were peripheral and in the right lung. Adenocarcinoma was most prevalent (49%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Cyto-histopathological concordance was seen in 60 cases (75%). The highest rate of concordance was seen in small cell carcinoma (83.3%). The overall sensitivity of FNAC in distinguishing malignant lung lesions from benign lesions was 84.2% and the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity of cytology in diagnosing small cell carcinoma was 83.3% and of non-small cell carcinoma was 65.38%. Immunocytochemistry was carried out in 34 cases, all of which were followed by immunohistochemistry. Cyto-histopathological concordance was noted in 31 of these cases (91.2%). We used the standard panel of four markers (cytokeratin-7, thyroid transcription factor-1, p63 and CD56) for all selected cases. Conclusion: Cytology along with immunocytochemistry is highly effective in diagnosing and categorizing lung neoplasms, producing comparable results to trucut biopsy and immunohistochemistry. PMID:26229244

  14. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by fine needle aspiration cytology of an isolated cervical lymph node: case report.

    PubMed

    Beljan, Renata; Sundov, Dinka; Luksi?, Boris; Solji?, Violeta; Burazer, Marina Pilji?

    2010-03-01

    A 61-year-old woman presented with an isolated, painless, slightly enlarged right laterocervical lymph node without any other signs and symptoms of disease. Laboratory test including hematological and biochemical parameters were normal. A cervical ultrasonography demonstrated one lymph node (10 mm) on the right laterocervical side and one small reactive lymph node on the left laterocervical side. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears revealed a polymorphic population of cells composed of lymphocytes, histiocytes, epitheloid cells, plasma cell, tingible body macrophages and macrophages infiltrated with Leishmania amastigotes. Treatment was initiated with Stiboglukonat Na (Pentostam) and led to a full recovery. PMID:20432756

  15. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of superficial lymph nodes: an alternative to fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bohelay, Gérôme; Battistella, Maxime; Pagès, Cécile; de Margerie-Mellon, Constance; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Viguier, Manuelle; Kerob, Delphine; Madjlessi, Nika; Baccard, Michel; Archimbaud, Alain; Comte, Christelle; Mourah, Samia; Porcher, Raphael; Bagot, Martine; Janin, Anne; De Kerviler, Eric; Lebbé, Céleste

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) in suspected cases of lymph node metastasis from cutaneous melanoma. All patients with cutaneous melanoma followed in Saint-Louis Hospital between 2006 and 2010 who underwent US-CNB for suspicion of melanoma lymph node metastasis were reviewed retrospectively. Histopathological results of US-CNB samples were classified as melanoma, other malignancy, suspicious, inadequate, or benign. The diagnostic accuracy of US-CNB was assessed by comparison with two reference standards: histopathological examination of the radical lymph node dissection or, when this was not available, clinical and radiological follow-up. The data from 72 US-CNB were analyzed. Forty-four melanomas, 22 benign, three other malignancies, three inadequate samples, and no inconclusive specimens were diagnosed. Seventy-one US-CNB results were confirmed (98.6%). US-CNB achieved high sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (respectively, 97.9, 100, and 100%). No adverse events were reported after the procedure. US-CNB provided a mean tissue volume of 16.7?mm per lymphadenopathy. US-CNB has diagnostic value similar to that of fine-needle aspiration cytology. It represents a reliable alternative method in melanoma lymph node metastasis to avoid surgery in patients who will not benefit from it. US-CNB provides relatively large samples of tissue suitable for comprehensive genomic analyses currently needed for research and personalized care of melanoma patients. PMID:25933210

  16. Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and Ultrasound Elastography: Diagnostic Accuracy as a Tool in Recommending Repeat Fine-Needle Aspiration for Solid Thyroid Nodules with Non-Diagnostic Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-02-01

    The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) has been found to be accurate in the stratification of malignancy risk, and elastography has been found to have a high negative predictive value in non-diagnostic thyroid nodules. Through assessment of 104 solid non-diagnostic thyroid nodules, this study investigated the role of both in recommending repeat ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration for solid thyroid nodules with non-diagnostic cytology. All nodules were classified by TIRADS (categories 4a, 4b, 4c and 5), and elastography scores were assigned according to the Rago and Asteria criteria. The malignancy risks for TIRADS categories 4a, 4b, 4c and 5 were 12.5%, 25.0%, 25.8% and 16.7%, respectively. Elastography revealed the highest diagnostic performance for TIRADS category 4a, with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy of 100%, 85.7%, 100%, 50% and 87.5% for the Asteria criteria. Observation may be considered for non-diagnostic solid nodules that have no other suspicious ultrasonographic features and are also benign on real-time strain elastography using the Asteria criteria. PMID:26614385

  17. Performance Characteristics of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands in Fine-Needle Aspirates: Results From the College of American Pathologists Nongynecologic Cytology Program.

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, Z Laura; Auger, Manon; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Laser, Alice; Souers, Rhona J; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Barkan, Guliz A; Crothers, Barbara A; Khalbuss, Walid E

    2015-12-01

    Context .- Although the cytomorphology of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) has been well described, the accuracy of this diagnosis in fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of the salivary glands has not been extensively evaluated. Objective .- To assess participants' responses in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Nongynecologic Cytology (NGC) Program to determine the accuracy and false-negative rate of ACC cases in salivary gland FNAs. Design .- A retrospective review of the CAP NGC Program's cumulative data from 2000-2010 was performed for the general and the specific reference diagnosis categories for ACC in salivary gland FNAs according to preparation and participant types. Results .- Of 5156 responses, the overall concordance rates for both the general category of malignancy and the specific category of ACC were 63.6% (3279 of 5156) and 38.6% (1966 of 5088), respectively, with a false-negative rate of 36.4% (1877 of 5156). The most frequent false-negative responses were pleomorphic (1080) and monomorphic (526) adenoma (1614 of 5088, 31.5%), while lymphoma was the most frequent malignant misinterpretation. There was a significant statistical difference in concordance to the reference interpretation between the reader types: 39.9% (1006 of 2521) concordance rate for pathologists compared to 33.8% (503 of 1488) for cytotechnologists. However, there was no significant statistical difference for concordance to the general category or reference interpretation, based on preparation type (Papanicolaou versus modified Giemsa stained). Conclusions .- In this interlaboratory comparison educational program, accurate identification of ACC has shown to be problematic, with ACC representing an important cause of false-negative responses. The most common diagnostic pitfall is distinguishing this entity from pleomorphic and monomorphic adenoma in the benign category and from lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the malignant one. PMID:26619024

  18. Fusion of FNA-cytology and Gene-expression Data Using Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence to Predict Breast Cancer Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Mansoor; Gondal, Iqbal; Green, David; Coppel, Ross L

    2006-01-01

    Decision-in decision-out fusion architecture can be used to fuse the outputs of multiple classifiers from different diagnostic sources. In this paper, Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) has been used to fuse classification results of breast cancer data from two different sources: gene-expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and Fine-Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAc) data. Classification of individual sources is done by Support Vector Machine (SVM) with linear, polynomial and Radial Base Function (RBF) kernels. Out put belief of classifiers of both data sources are combined to arrive at one final decision. Dynamic uncertainty assessment is based on class differentiation of the breast cancer. Experimental results have shown that the new proposed breast cancer data fusion methodology have outperformed single classification models. PMID:17597882

  19. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology: Performance data of neoplastic and malignant cases as identified from 1558 responses in the ASCP Non-GYN Assessment program thyroid fine-needle performance data

    PubMed Central

    Eilers, Stan G; LaPolice, Paula; Mukunyadzi, Perkins; Kapur, Umesh; Wendel Spiczka, Amy; Shah, Ajay; Saleh, Husain; Adeniran, Adebowale; Nunez, Amberly; Balachandran, Indra; Clark, Jennifer J; Lemon, Larry

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid is a common procedure, with an established role in reducing unnecessary thyroid surgery and identifying neoplasms and malignancies. METHODS The study evaluated 1558 responses in the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Non-GYN Assessment program of aspirates of thyroid neoplasms and malignancies and placed them into the following groups: group A (target or correct interpretation), group B (incorrect interpretation as a benign thyroid nodule), group C (incorrect interpretation malignant aspirate as thyroid neoplasm), and group D (malignant diagnosis with incorrect interpretation). In clinical practice, responses in groups A, C, and D would lead to surgical excision, whereas responses in group B would not. RESULTS Of a total of 1558 responses, 78.5% of the responses were in group A, 8.5% in group B, 3.75% in group C, and 9.25% in group D. By individual diagnosis, the group rates were 86.5%, 0%, 11%, and 2.5% for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; 83%, 5.5%, 4.25%, and 7.25% for papillary thyroid carcinoma; 79%, 7%, 6%, and 8% for medullary thyroid carcinoma; 83.5% 6.75%, 0%, and 9.75% for Hürthle cell neoplasm; and 61%, 22%, 0%, and 17% for follicular neoplasm in groups A, B, C, and D respectively. CONCLUSIONS Fine-needle aspiration was effective in diagnosing thyroid neoplasms and malignancies and in separating thyroid nodules into surgical and nonsurgical categories. Data from a large group of cytology professionals showed good performance; however, there is room for improvement, especially in making specific diagnoses. In particular, follicular neoplasm and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma were challenging diagnoses for participants. PMID:24913410

  20. Diagnostic terminology and morphologic criteria for cytologic diagnosis of thyroid lesions: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Asa, Syl L; Rosai, Juan; Merino, Maria J; Randolph, Gregory; Vielh, Philippe; DeMay, Richard M; Sidawy, Mary K; Frable, William J

    2008-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the NCI Thyroid Fine-needle Aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference on October 22-23, 2007 in Bethesda, MD. The two-day meeting was accompanied by a permanent informational website and several on-line discussion periods between May 1 and December 15, 2007 (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov). This document summarizes matters regarding diagnostic terminology/classification scheme for thyroid FNA interpretation and cytomorphologic criteria for the diagnosis of various benign and malignant thyroid lesions. (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/). PMID:18478609

  1. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis diagnosed by conventional cytology and liquid based cytology.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lianqing; Wang, Xinfang; Huang, Zihui; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL; Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) is a rare benign disorder. The diagnosis of HNL is established on recognizing the characteristic histologic findings from biopsy of the enlarged lymph nodes. Though diagnosis of HNL by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was reported, the characteristic fine-needle aspiration cytologic features with conventional cytology and a liquid based cytology test (LCT) have not been well documented. In this study, 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes were subjected to cytology and biopsy diagnosis. The lymph nodes were aspirated using a 10 mL disposable syringe with the percutaneous ultrasound guided. Samples were used for conventional cytology and LCT. Among 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes, 37 of cases were histologically confirmed as HNL; 3 of cases were hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue; 1 case was tuberculosis of lymph node, and 1 case was classical Hodgkin lymphoma (nodular sclerosis type). 31 out of 37 (83.8%) cases of HNL were diagnosed by conventional cytology, 33 out of 37 (89.2%) were diagnosed by LCT. Our results indicate that no significant difference on accuracy rate between conventional cytology and LCT, but LCT has its advantages in the diagnosis of HNL. PMID:25337268

  2. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  3. Meconium Aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Expect Meconium Aspiration KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Lungs & Respiratory System > Meconium Aspiration Print A A A Text Size ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Lungs and Respiratory System Birth Plans Common Diagnoses in the NICU When ...

  4. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Divakar Sullery; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Kakoti, Lopa Mudra

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence. PMID:25948945

  5. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests. PMID:26362326

  6. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. Methods The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4 mm diameter needle attached to a 8 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4 ?m thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Results Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage localized in the different regions, local invasiveness and enlarged nuclei were observed. The samples included 3 tumors of mammary glands mammary tumors were complex carcinomas (n?=?2) and adenocarcinoma (n?=?1). The histological grades of the 3 cases were as follows: grade II, (1/3); grade III, (2/3) with high mitotic index. The preferential localization of mammary neoplasms was in the inguinal lobe (1/3 case) and abdominal lobes (2/3 cases). Furthermore, 1case of the inguinal mass affected the left caudo-inguinal lobe and 2cases right cranio and caudo abdominal lobes. Conclusion The study concluded that cytology could be used as a quick, rapid, field diagnostic technique in combination with histopathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary tumors (FMTs). Our findings in feline MTs indicate that FMTs could be useful as an animal model of human breast cancer. Moreover, because of the similarity of the cytohistopathological findings in the human and feline mammary gland tumours, it is possible to use the same cytopathological criteria applied in human pathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary gland tumours. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2047361423103295 PMID:23941603

  7. Vitreous cytology in asteroid hyalosis and observations on interpretation of cytologic findings in specimens of the posterior (vitreous) compartment of the eye.

    PubMed

    Zaharopoulos, Paul; Schnadig, Vicki

    2003-02-01

    Cytologic methods have been used in the pathologic investigation of the posterior (vitreous) compartment of the eye in specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration, as well as by surgical procedures. The vitreous body, which is in a semiliquid gel state, lends itself to pathologic investigation by cytologic methods. We report on a case of reparative eye surgery for complications of previous cataract extraction; vitrectomy was performed for vitreous opacities, which, by cytologic examination, were diagnostic of asteroid hyalosis, a relatively uncommon condition affecting the elderly. The cytologic findings diagnostic of this disease are described. Observations are made on the cytologic findings commonly encountered in specimens obtained from the posterior (vitreous) compartment of the eye. PMID:12561028

  8. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine cytology ... time, the sample is collected as clean catch urine sample in your doctor's office or at home. ... the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care ...

  9. Cystic prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma: an unusual presentation and cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Sexton, Wade; Zhang, Jingsong; Hakam, Ardeshir; Petrovskyy, Vyacheslav S; Bui, Marilyn M; Chuang, Shang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is an uncommon histological variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma that may present clinically as a cystic mass [1-3]. We report a case of cystic PDA presenting as a cystic perirectal mass in a 61 year old male. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed malignant cells with round-oval to focally elongated nuclei, conspicuous nucleoli, and amphophilic cytoplasm with focal acinar formation. Tumor cells were positive for prostate-specific antigen; however, the cytology was non-specific for site of origin. The radical cystoprostatectomy specimen revealed the true site of origin and showed a cystic PDA adjacent to conventional prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. Our objective is to describe the common cytological features of PDA and to analyze the differential diagnoses associated with cystic masses of the prostate. PMID:22371914

  10. Can sonographic findings predict the results of liver aspirates in dogs with suspected liver disease?

    PubMed

    Guillot, Martin; Danjou, Marc-André; Alexander, Kate; Bédard, Christian; Desnoyers, Michel; Beauregard, Guy; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E

    2009-01-01

    While abdominal ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology are often combined to help determine the type of liver disease in dogs, little is known about the relationship that may exist between the results of these tests. We hypothesized that specific sonographic findings, or combinations of findings, may predict results of liver ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Hepatic and extrahepatic sonographic findings were recorded prospectively using a standardized form in 70 dogs with clinically suspected liver disease and in which liver ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed. The predictive value of sonographic findings in regard to the category of cytology results was assessed with stepwise logistic regression analysis. Sonographic detection of a hepatic mass (> or = 3cm; risk ratio [RR] 3.83, 95% Wald confidence intervals [95% CI] 2.42-3.93, P = 0.0036), ascites (RR 3.82, 95% CI 1.94-4.28, P = 0.0044), abnormal hepatic lymph node(s) (RR 3.01, 95% CI 1.22-4.88, P= 0.0262), and abnormal spleen (RR 3.26, 95% CI 1.20-3.85, P = 0.0274) were the most predictive of liver neoplasia on cytology. Conversely, sonographic detection of hepatic nodules (< 3cm; RR 1.97, 95% CI 0.95-2.96, P = 0.0666) was most predictive of vacuolar hepatopathy on cytology. In dogs with suspected liver disease, several sonographic findings, alone or combined, are thus predictive of liver ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology results. In the light of the fact that ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the liver has limitations, these predictabilities could influence the selection of diagnostic tests to reach a reliable diagnosis. PMID:19788037

  11. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the hollow part of most bones. Bone marrow aspiration is the removal of a small amount of ... tissue in liquid form for examination. Bone marrow aspiration is not the same as bone marrow biopsy . ...

  12. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) Print A A A Text Size ...

  13. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  14. Pleomorphic liposarcoma: a cytologic study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Leslie G; Sara Jiang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Kathleen; Bui, Marilyn M

    2015-02-01

    Pleomorphic liposarcoma represents one of the rarest variants of liposarcoma. It has a poor prognosis and unlike other variants of liposarcoma, lacks a molecular or genetic signature. Histologic studies of pleomorphic liposarcoma have defined this lesion as a high grade sarcoma, which contains a variable number of lipoblasts. We describe the cytologic features of five cases of pleomorphic liposarcoma, all of which had histologic confirmation. We consistently identified numerous lipoblasts as well as micro and macrovesicular fat vacuoles in the background of cellular, pleomorphic sarcomatoid neoplasms. The appearance of the aspirates differs substantially form other variants of liposarcoma. PMID:24652822

  15. A rare association of Sarcina with gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Priyanka; Gupta, Nalini; Kumar, Mahendra; Radotra, Bishan D.; Sinha, Saroj K.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcina is a Gram-positive anaerobic organism, having exclusively fermentative metabolism and has been associated with gastric outlet obstruction. We demonstrate the present case to highlight the presence of Sarcina with a coexisting gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. PMID:25948948

  16. Proper Indication of BRAFV600E Mutation Testing in Fine-Needle Aspirates of Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jieun; Choi, Jong Rak; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the proper indication of adjunctive BRAFV600E mutation analysis at the time of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods This study included 518 nodules in 479 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with BRAFV600E mutation. We calculated and compared the diagnostic performances of cytology and cytology with BRAFV600E mutation analysis to detect malignancy among thyroid nodules according to ultrasound features and size. Results Sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy of cytology with BRAFV600E mutation analysis were significantly higher than those of cytology alone in thyroid nodules with suspicious ultrasound features, regardless of size. Diagnostic performances did not show significant differences between cytology and cytology with BRAFV600E mutation analysis in nodules without any suspicious ultrasound features, regardless of size. Conclusion The BRAFV600E mutation analysis was a useful adjunctive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with suspicious ultrasound features regardless of size. PMID:23717622

  17. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413

  18. Subclassification of Follicular Neoplasms Recommended by the Japan Thyroid Association Reporting System of Thyroid Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kakudo, Kennichi; Kameyama, Kaori; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Katoh, Ryohei; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Japan Thyroid Association recently published guidelines for clinical practice for the management of thyroid nodules, which include a diagnostic system for reporting thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. It is characterized by the subclassification of follicular neoplasms, which is different from other internationally accepted reporting systems. Materials and Methods. This study examined observer variability in the subclassification of follicular neoplasms among 4 reviewers using Papanicolaou-stained smear samples from 20 surgically treated patients with indeterminate cytology. Results. The favor malignant subcategory had high predictive value of malignancy (risk of malignancy: 60–75%) and good agreement among the 4 reviewers (? = 0.7714). Conclusion. These results clearly confirmed that the risk stratification of follicular neoplasms, which was adapted from cytology practice of high-volume thyroid centers in Japan, can provide clinically helpful information to estimate the risk of malignancy and to triage patients for surgery. PMID:25722720

  19. Significance of Charcot Leyden crystals in liver cytology-A case report.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Divya; Agarwal, Pallavi; Saran, Ravindra Kumar; Saluja, Sundeep

    2015-05-01

    Charcot Leyden crystals are colorless, hexagonal, bipyramidal crystals formed from aggregation of material from disintegrating eosinophils. Eosinophilic infiltrate along with the presence of Charcot Leyden crystals is an indirect evidence of parasitic infestation. Here, we report a case where fine-needle aspiration cytology smears prepared from hepatic space occupying lesion showed numerous Charcot Leyden crystals along with eosinophilic infiltrate, indicating parasitic infection. PMID:25350873

  20. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Waiting ... topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer diagnosed? Types ...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  6. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  7. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P.; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  8. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Winey, Mark; Stemm-Wolf, Alexander J; Giddings, Thomas H; Pearson, Chad G

    2012-01-01

    Since their first detection in pond water, large ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila, have captivated school children and scientists alike with the elegance of their swimming and the beauty of their cortical organization. Indeed, cytology - simply looking at cells - is an important component of most areas of study in cell biology and is particularly intriguing in the large, complex Tetrahymena cell. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena is critical for the study of the microtubule cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, complex nuclear movements and interactions, and the cellular remodeling during conjugation, to name a few topics. We briefly review previously reported cytological techniques for both light and electron microscopy, and point the reader to resources to learn about those protocols. We go on to present new and emerging technologies for the study of these marvelous cells. These include the use of fluorescent-protein tagging to localize cellular components in live cells, as well as for tracking the dynamic behavior of proteins using pulse labeling and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. For electron microscopy, cellular and antigenic preservation has been improved with the use of cryofixation and freeze-substitution. The technologies described here advance Tetrahymena cell biology to the cutting-edge of cytological analysis. PMID:22444152

  9. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  10. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Irvine Pregnant? What to Expect Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  11. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a specimen resulted in saving of time. It added a certain amount of objectivity to the process of arriving at a diagnosis. PMID:24250082

  12. Percutaneous Aspiration Lung Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, D. E.; Thompson, D. W.; Pudden, B. J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 182 percutaneous trans-thoracic aspiration biopsies were performed in 164 patients over a three-year period. In malignant neoplasms arising in the lung the diagnostic accuracy rate was 84%. In the non-malignant localized parenchymal lesions the accuracy drops considerably unless the lesion is cystic or cavitary. Some patients with non-parenchymal lesions were selected to assess further the value of this procedure. It proved much less rewarding in lesions of the chest wall, diaphragm and also in diffuse parenchymal disease. These lesions may be more accurately identified by other methods of biopsy. Lesions presenting as a mediastinal mass are an intermediate group and in selected cases helpful information can often be obtained by small-bore needle aspiration, particularly if a pericardial, bronchogenic or thymic cyst is suspected. Recent reports have shown that the aspiration of pulmonary lesions can be utilized to obtain viable tumour cells for chemosensitivity testing. The aspiration of nodular pulmonary lesions should be considered when a diagnosis is not forthcoming from the usual investigative means, since there has been little morbidity and no mortality in the series. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4(a)FIG. 4(b)FIG. 5 PMID:4923390

  13. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  14. A 3 year audit of fine needle aspirates from a symptomatic breast clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Lioe, T. F.; Elliott, H.; Allen, D. C.; Spence, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 2431 fine needle aspirates of symptomatic breast lumps was performed on 2096 patients over the last three years at the weekly head, neck and breast clinic at the Belfast City Hospital Trust. Diagnostic accuracy was achieved within the recommended standards although the "insufficient" rate was high at 31.8%. False negative and positive rates were low and the positive predictive value for malignancy was 99%. Excision biopsy for benign breast disease had decreased by almost a third during this period. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a highly accurate and cost-effective technique for the investigation of symptomatic breast lumps and results in significant savings. PMID:9185486

  15. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Caraway, Nancy P.; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T.; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  16. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  17. Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.

    PubMed

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2013-08-01

    On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

  18. Amyloidoma secondary to insulin injection: Cytologic diagnosis and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Grunes, Dianne; Rapkiewicz, Amy; Simsir, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidomas are rare tumors composed of deposits of amyloid protein not associated with systemic amyloidosis. They can present as an initial manifestation of a systemic disease process or can be a completely localized phenomenon. We present a case of amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site found incidentally in an 80-year-old male with multiple co-morbidities who presented with diverticulitis associated bleeding. A subcutaneous abdominal mass was found on physical examination. Imaging revealed a 5 cm × 1.6 cm homogenous subcutaneous lesion. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core biopsy were performed under ultrasound guidance to reveal amorphous material proven to be amyloidosis at insulin injection sites (AIns) type amyloid. The patient had no treatment for this lesion and has had his care triaged to his more serious health problems. This is the first case of AIns type amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site reported in cytology literature. We highlight the cytologic findings and diagnostic pitfalls. As the incidence of diabetes is increasing, cytopathologists may encounter this lesion more often on FNA. PMID:26288650

  19. Musculoskeletal Aspiration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

    2012-01-01

    With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800

  20. Value of Molecular Tests in Cytologically Indeterminate Lesions of Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinmin

    2015-12-01

    Context .- Fine-needle aspiration has been the initial step in the workup of thyroid nodular lesions and has successfully reduced the number of unnecessary surgeries and improved preoperative malignancy detection. However, up to one-third of cases fall in the diagnostically "indeterminate group," which poses a patient-management challenge. Objective .- To review the characteristics of molecular tests useful for stratifying the malignancy risk of indeterminate thyroid lesions, including their advantages and limitations. Data sources .- PubMed. Conclusions .- Molecular tests are useful for triage of indeterminate thyroid nodules initially diagnosed by using fine-needle aspiration. Immunocytochemistry is readily available with the shortest turnaround time among the molecular tests but suffers from poor reproducibility and low interpretation concordance. Gene mutation analysis is superior in detecting malignancies as a rule-in test, despite low specificity. Next-generation sequencing seems promising but needs more validations before widespread use. Gene expression profiling is more suitable for detecting benign lesions as a rule-out test to avoid unnecessary surgeries but is not reliable in excluding malignancies. MicroRNA profiling has great potential for both risk stratification and predicting prognosis but is limited by significant variations in sensitivity and specificity. Although many questions still need to be answered, taken together, molecular tests are a promising option for classifying cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodular lesions. PMID:26619020

  1. A Case of Significant Endobronchial Injury due to Recurrent Iron Pill Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Joo-Hee; Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric mucosal damage by iron pills is often reported. However, iron pill aspiration is uncommon. Oxidation of the impacted iron pill causes bronchial mucosal damage that progresses to chronic bronchial inflammation, necrosis, endobronchial stenosis and rarely, perforation. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with chronic productive cough and significant left-sided atelectasis. Bronchoscopy revealed substantial luminal narrowing with exudative inflammation of the left main bronchus. Bronchial washing cytology showed necroinflammatory exudate and a small amount of brown material. Mucosal biopsy showed diffuse brown pigments indicative of ferrous pigments, crystal deposition, and marked tissue degeneration. After vigorous coughing, she expectorated dark sediments and her symptoms and radiological abnormalities improved. There are a few such reports worldwide; however, this was the first case reported in Korea. Careful observation of aspiration-prone patients and early detection of iron pill aspiration may prevent iron pill-induced bronchial injury. PMID:26508942

  2. Respiratory Cytology-Current Trends Including Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy and Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy: Analysis of Data From a 2013 Supplemental Survey of Participants in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Charles D; Marshall, Carrie B; Barkan, Guliz A; Booth, Christine N; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Souers, Rhona J; Keylock, Joren B; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Russell, Donna K; Moriarty, Ann T; Doyle, Mary A; Thomas, Nicole; Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z; Collins, Brian T; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Crothers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Context .- Nongynecologic cytology (NGC) practices are expanding in relationship to historical gynecologic cytology screening programs. Bronchopulmonary cytology is experiencing an evolution regarding new procedural types. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) tracks practice patterns in NGC by developing questionnaires, surveying participants, and analyzing respondent data. Objective .- To analyze responses to a 2013 CAP supplemental survey from the Interlaboratoy Comparison Program on bronchopulmonary NGC. Design .- The "NGC 2013 Supplemental Questionnaire: Demographics in Performance and Reporting of Respiratory Cytology" was mailed to 2074 laboratories. Results .- The survey response rate was 42% (880 of 2074) with 90% of respondents (788 of 880) indicating that their laboratories evaluated cytology bronchopulmonary specimens. More than 95% of respondents indicated interpreting bronchial washings (765 of 787) and bronchial brushings (757 of 787). A minority of laboratories (43%, 340 of 787) dealt with endobronchial ultrasound-guided samples, and an even smaller fraction of laboratories (14%, 110 of 787) saw cases from electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy. Intraprocedural adequacy assessments by pathologists (and less often by cytotechnologists or pathologists-in-training) were routinely performed in percutaneous transthoracic aspiration cases (74%, 413 of 560) with less involvement for other case types. Most laboratories reported that newly diagnosed primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas were triaged for molecular testing of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Conclusions .- The parameters examined in this 2013 survey provide a snapshot of current pulmonary cytopathology practice and may be used as benchmarks in the future. PMID:26717056

  3. Men Accessing Education: Gendered Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2006-01-01

    Raising aspirations has been identified as a key strategy for widening educational participation in lifelong learning policy. This article deconstructs the hegemonic discourse of raising aspirations through Economic and Social Research Council-funded research on men, masculinities and higher educational access and participation.The article…

  4. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  5. Correlation of ultrasound findings, liver and spleen cytology, and prognosis in the clinical staging of high metastatic risk canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Book, Alison P; Fidel, Janean; Wills, Tamara; Bryan, Jeffrey; Sellon, Rance; Mattoon, John

    2011-01-01

    Cytologic sampling of the ultrasonographically normal spleen and liver is not implemented routinely in the clinical staging of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and normal ultrasound findings are often accepted as sufficient evidence for ruling out splenic or liver metastasis. Our objective was to define the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound findings for diagnosis of mast cell infiltration when verified with cytologic evaluation, and to define the prognostic role of cytologic evaluation of liver and splenic aspirates. Dogs with a diagnosis of clinically aggressive grade II, or grade III mast cell tumor treated with a combination vinblastine/CCNU chemotherapy protocol, were selected retrospectively based on availability of cytologic evaluation of spleen plus or minus liver for staging. Out of 19 dogs, 10 dogs had a grade II tumor and nine a grade III tumor. Seven dogs had mast cell infiltration of the spleen, liver, or both. The sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting mast cell infiltration was 43% for the spleen and 0% for the liver. Dogs with positive cytologic evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had significantly shorter survival (100 vs. 291 days) than dogs without evidence of mast cell infiltration (P<0.0001). Routine splenic aspiration should be performed regardless of ultrasonographic appearance in dogs with a clinically aggressive mast cell tumor. PMID:21689203

  6. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  11. [Foreign body aspiration in children].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shlomo; Goldberg, Shmuel; Springer, Chaim; Avital, Avraham; Picard, Elie

    2015-03-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs mainly in children under 3 years of age and is one of the most frequent causes of accidental death under 12 months of age. The increased risk of FB aspiration in children is due to the different structure of the pharynx and the upper airways compared to adults. In addition, children have an immature swallowing mechanism and they most commonly aspirate food stuffs. FB aspiration is usually a sudden and dramatic event when the child feels that he is suffocating or choking. After the acute event, the clinical presentation widely ranges from severe respiratory distress to the most minimal symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic modality for FB inhalation. Prevention and rapid diagnosis can be lifesaving. In 2010, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a position paper on prevention of FB aspiration. The association calls for more proactive preventative measures to protect children from FB aspiration and to prevent mortality and morbidity. These include: 1. Raising awareness of parents and caregivers to supervise children and create a safe environment for them. 2. Promoting legislation and enforcing regulations that will prevent dangerous products being sold for children. 3. Changing the design of products, especially food products and toys, that will reduce the risks of choking. In this overview we will show the principles of diagnosis of FB aspiration and a flow chart including when flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is required. PMID:25962247

  12. Current organisation of clinical cytology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milici?-Juhas, Valerija; Loncar, Branka; Mahovli?, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Pajtler, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Current cytological service in Croatia is organised in 46 cytological organisational units in 23 towns with total of 350 employees: 101 specialists of clinical cytology, 20 residents in clinical cytology, 141 cytotechnologists (cytoscreeners), 45 health technicians, and 25 administrators and 18 auxiliary personnel. In spite of employment of significant number of cytotechnologists in the last ten years, there is still an unacceptable ratio of number of cytologists and cytotechnologists (1:1.4) which is the result of unresolved education of cytotechnologists which should be permanent, complete and acknowledged. Education and scientific promotion of cytologists is continuous and today our profession has 31 masters of science and 9 doctors of science, one of which is the assistant professor, and four of them are associate or full professors at medical schools in Zagreb and Osijek. Croatian cytology, in average, is in its "best years", i.e. an average cytologist is 46-years-old and cytotechnologist is averagely 43-years-old, but "suffers" from personnel deficit. With regard to the type of activity, the most numerous are units dealing the entire diagnostic cytology (72%), 13% general cytology without gynaecological cytology, while 15% are engaged in one diagnostic field (gynaecological, pulmological or thyroid cytology). According to accessible data, total of 770996 cytological examinations were done in Croatia in 2008. The increasing application of additional methods (cytochemical, immunocytochemical, molecular, cytogenetics and computer-assisted image analysis) has become a trend in numerous cytological units. Exclusively morphological analysis of standard stained samples is performed in 37% of units, morphological and cytochemical staining methods are used in 17% of units, and additional immunocytochemical methods in 30% of units. According to the long tradition of cytology in Croatia, that has progressed thanks to the enthusiasm and great effort of our teachers, we believe that the following generations of cytologists will continue working on its improvement and will be able to concord the basic cytomorphology and sophisticated diagnostic procedures with other diagnostics, to stay the field of optimal results in the shortest time with the reasonable price. PMID:20437647

  13. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    PubMed

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis. PMID:26596046

  14. Lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas: The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zamil; Walker, Blair; Lam, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions that can appear as a complex cyst or a mass in the pancreas. Cytology from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be helpful in making a diagnosis with the aim of avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. A case involving a 51-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain who was found to have a multiloculated cystic lesion at the junction of the pancreatic body and tail is described. Cytology from EUS-FNA was consistent with a pancreatic LEC. The lesion was managed conservatively and follow-up imaging of the cyst over the following two years was unchanged. The patient remains clinically well. Cytology from EUS-FNA can help distinguish LECs from cystic neoplasms, thus preventing radical surgical resection of this benign pancreatic cyst. PMID:20559575

  15. [Supraclavicular schwannoma with malignant cytologic appearance].

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, A; Fernández-Nogueras Jiménez, F; Rubí Uría, J; Perales Jodar, E

    1992-01-01

    We present the case of a old woman with a supraclavicular mass and sarcomatous cytologic appearance. The final microscopic appearance was schwannoma. We also review the pertinent literature. PMID:1299287

  16. Comparison of nuclear shape in aspirated and histologic specimens of prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tardif, C P; Partin, A W; Qaqish, B; Epstein, J P; Mohler, J L

    1992-12-01

    Nuclear shape analysis of histologic sections of operative specimens has separated patients with clinically localized prostatic carcinoma with good and poor prognoses. In order to become more useful clinically, nuclear shape should be evaluable preoperatively but is distorted by core biopsy. We used nuclear morphometry to compare histologic and cytologic specimens obtained from 20 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostatic carcinoma. Neoplastic nuclei from cytologic aspirates prepared by the Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik techniques and standard histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were digitized. Air-dried nuclei of the Diff-Quik preparation had a nuclear area of 104.2 microns 2 +/- 28.2 SD. These nuclei were nearly twice as large (paired t test, P < .001) as in the Papanicolaou (55.6 +/- 13.0 microns 2) and histologic (55.8 +/- 12.7 microns 2) preparations. However, nuclear shape was not affected. Nuclear roundness factor (deviation from circularity) and boundary curvature were similar (paired t tests, P > .05). All nuclear shape descriptors of cytologic smears fell within intraobserver variations of measurements in histologic sections. Nuclear shape is not altered in Papanicolaou- and Diff-Quik-stained cytologic specimens and should be tested for preoperative assessment of outcome in clinically localized prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1292446

  17. Supersymmetry: aspirations and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tata, Xerxes

    2015-10-01

    The realization in the early 1980s that weak scale supersymmetry stabilizes the Higgs sector of the spectacularly successful Standard Model (SM) led several authors to explore whether low energy supersymmetry could play a role in particle physics. Among these were Richard Arnowitt, Ali Chamseddine and Pran Nath who constructed a viable locally supersymmetric grand unified theory (GUT), laying down the foundation for supergravity GUT models of particle physics. Supergravity models continue to be explored as one of the most promising extensions of the SM. After a quick overview of some of the issues and aspirations of early researchers working to bring supersymmetry into the mainstream of particle physics, we re-examine early arguments that seemed to imply that superpartners would be revealed in experiments at LEP2 or at the Tevatron. Our purpose is to assess whether the absence of any superpartners in searches at LHC8 presents a crisis for supersymmetry. Toward this end, we re-evaluate fine-tuning arguments that lead to upper bounds on (some) superpartner masses. We conclude that phenomenologically viable superpartner spectra that could arise within a high scale model tuned no worse than a few percent are perfectly possible. While no viable underlying model of particle physics that leads to such spectra has yet emerged, we show that the (supergravity-based) radiatively driven natural supersymmetry framework serves as a surrogate for a phenomenological analysis of an underlying theory with modest fine-tuning. We outline the phenomenological implications of this framework, with emphasis on those LHC and electron-positron collider signatures that might point to the underlying natural origin of gauge and Higgs boson masses. We conclude that the supergravity GUT paradigm laid down in 1982 by Arnowitt, Chamseddine and Nath, and others, remains a vibrant possibility.

  18. Supersymmetry: Aspirations and Prospects

    E-print Network

    Xerxes Tata

    2015-06-23

    The realization in the early 1980s that weak scale supersymmetry stabilizes the Higgs sector of the spectacularly successful Standard Model led several authors to explore whether low energy supersymmetry could play a role in particle physics. Among these were Richard Arnowitt, Ali Chamseddine and Pran Nath who constructed a viable {\\em locally} supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory (GUT), laying down the foundation for supergravity GUT models of particle physics. Supergravity models continue to be explored as one of the most promising extensions of the Standard Model. After a quick overview of some of the issues and aspirations of early researchers working to bring supersymmetry into the mainstream of particle physics, we re-examine early arguments that seemed to imply that superpartners would be revealed in experiments at LEP2 or at the Tevatron. Our purpose is to assess whether the absence of any superpartners in searches at LHC8 presents a crisis for supersymmetry. Toward this end, we re-evaluate fine-tuning arguments that lead to upper bounds on (some) superpartner masses. We conclude that phenomenologically viable superpartner spectra that could arise within a high scale model tuned no worse than a few percent are perfectly possible. While no viable underlying model of particle physics that leads to such spectra has yet emerged, we show that the (supergravity-based) Radiatively-driven Natural Supersymmetry (RNS) framework serves as a surrogate for a phenomenological analysis of an underlying theory with modest fine-tuning. We outline the phenomenological implications of this framework, with emphasis on those LHC and electron-positron collider signatures that might point to the underlying natural origin of gauge and Higgs boson masses. We conclude that the supergravity GUT paradigm laid down in 1982 by Arnowitt, Chamseddine and Nath, and others, remains a vibrant possibility.

  19. A spontaneously resolving breast lesion: imaging and cytological findings of nodular fasciitis of the breast with FISH showing USP6 gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Kang, Alexandra; Kumar, Jayant Brij; Thomas, Anitha; Bourke, Anita Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast in a 48-year-old woman who presented with a tender rapidly growing right breast lump. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the solid mass was performed. Cytology was reported as atypical spindle cell neoplasm and the patient was referred to a breast surgeon at a tertiary institution for a definitive diagnosis and further management. Follow-up ultrasound showed partial regression and MRI, mammogram after 2-3?weeks confirmed spontaneous and total resolution of the lesion. Nodular fasciitis of the breast is rarely diagnosed on cytology alone and a histological diagnosis is usually required for a definitive diagnosis. However, in this case, the lesion spontaneously resolved prior to core biopsy or diagnostic open biopsy. The cytological features in conjunction with immunohistochemistry and the clinical history strongly suggest nodular fasciitis, which is further supported by a USP6 FISH positive result. PMID:26698206

  20. Testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy male dromedary camels during rutting and non-rutting periods.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Regassa, Fekadu; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Kassa, Tesfu; Vencato, Juri; Owiny, David Okello; Stelletta, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy dromedary bulls during rutting and non-rutting periods. Pairs of testes from 26 (18 non-rutting and 8 rutting seasons) dromedary bulls 6-12 years old that were slaughtered at Akaki, Addis Ababa abattoir were sampled. A 21 gauge needle attached to 20mL syringe was used to collect Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) samples and five aspiration smears were prepared from each testis. A total of 312 slides (260 Testicular fine Needle Aspiration and 52 imprints) were examined. The modified May-Grunwald Giemsa (mMGG) technique and a light microscope were used to assess cellularity, morphology and quantification of the testicular. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were identified and counted. The spermatic index (SI), Sertoli cell index (SEI) and the relationship between SI and SEI indexes (SSEI) were used to assess the ratio between mature spermatozoa and nursing cells. There were differences (P<0.05) between the rutting and non-rutting seasons among the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. There were no differences between groups for primary spermatocyte numbers, early spermatid numbers and SSEI. There was no differences (P>0.05) between TFNA and imprint smear slides of the testicular cells except for Sertoli cell count and SEI. Filarial worm larvae were present on the TFNA smear slides of four animals. Imprint and TFNA smear slides had comparable cytological profiles in dromedary bulls and significant differences were observed between rutting and non-rutting periods. PMID:26526117

  1. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  2. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Martha B.; Centeno, Barbara A.; Ali, Syed Z.; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-del; Schmidt, C. Max; Brugge, William R.; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the “neoplastic” category separated into “benign” (serous cystadenoma) or “other” (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility for patient management, which has become increasingly conservative for some neoplasms. PMID:25191517

  3. Compact Raman needle probe with fine needle aspiration biopsy for solid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy represents a label-free vibrational spectroscopic technique for studying the biochemical and biomolecular compositions of human body. Raman probe is a key component to facilitate the in vivo diagnosis by using Raman spectroscopy. We investigated a compact Raman needle probe design to be integrated into a device that can also take biopsies of solid tissues for cytological assessment, enabling concurrent Raman spectroscopic interrogation and fine needle aspiration biopsy with a single needle penetration. We described the fabrication of the Raman needle probe and its assembly with the biopsy device. Example Raman spectra of various solid tissues are given.

  4. Correlation of Tissue Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Positron Emission Tomography Results

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Daniel; Herrington, Bruce; Bhargava, Peeyush; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Verstovsek, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans are positive in any condition which increases metabolism in a mass or tissue and are therefore not specific for neoplastic conditions. The use of an SUV cutoff value of 2.5 may not always help discriminate between benign and malignant cases. For a practicing cytopathologist doing adequacy checks during an image-guided procedure, it may be of value to be aware that elevated SUV values are not always indicative of a malignant process, and vice versa. PMID:21559200

  5. Myxoid liposarcoma of the anterior mediastinum. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Attal, H; Jensen, J; Reyes, C V

    1995-01-01

    The mediastinum is an uncommon primary site of liposarcoma, which constitutes < 1% of tumors at that site. We report a case of myxoid liposarcoma evaluated with fine needle aspiration biopsy in a 66-year-old male who presented with cardiac tamponade, superior vena cava syndrome and radiologic evidence of a large anterior mediastinal mass. Cytologically the neoplastic cells were strikingly dyscohesive, with ovoid or spindle-shaped, hyperchromatic nuclei. The cytoplasm was abundant and often finely vacuolated with lipid. They were associated with a prominent myxoid, intercellular substance and distinct, arborized capillary structures. Survival is influenced by the tumor cell type and differentiation. The overall prognosis seems to be poorer than that of liposarcomas occurring in other areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary mediastinal liposarcoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:7762343

  6. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  7. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  8. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  11. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  12. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  13. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  14. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  15. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  18. Aspiring Teachers Take up Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishall

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Teacher Residency program is a yearlong, selective preparation route that trains aspiring teachers, many of them career-changers, to take on jobs in some of the city's highest-needs schools. The program, which fits neither of the two most common types of teacher preparation--alternative routes and traditional teacher education…

  19. Crowning achievement: a case of dental aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Nicholas M.; Lessing, Juan N.; Çoruh, Ba?ak

    2015-01-01

    Aspiration of foreign bodies during dental procedures is a rare but potentially serious complication. We present a case of a 75-year-old man who aspirated a dental crown requiring flexible bronchoscopic retrieval. We discuss the risk factors for aspiration, the radiographic features of diagnosis, and the techniques for management and retrieval. PMID:26649115

  20. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  1. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  2. Post-brushing and fine-needle aspiration biopsy follow-up and treatment options for patients with pancreatobiliary lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kurtycz, Daniel F. I.; Field, Andrew; Tabatabai, Laura; Michaels, Claire; Young, Nancy; Schmidt, C. Max; Farrell, James; Gopal, Deepak; Simeone, Diane; Merchant, Nipun B.; Pitman, Martha Bishop

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology, ancillary testing and post-procedure management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature and discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the PSC web site (www.papsociety.org). This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on the follow-up and treatment options for patients after procedures performed for obtaining cytology samples for the evaluation of biliary strictures and solid and cystic masses in the pancreas. These recommendations follow the six-tiered terminology and nomenclature scheme proposed by committee III. PMID:25191519

  3. [Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) in cytological diagnostics of pulmonary and mediastinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Wohlschläger, J; Darwiche, K; Ting, S; Hager, T; Freitag, L; Schmid, K W; Kühl, H; Theegarten, D

    2012-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become an important tool in the diagnosis and staging of malignant tumors of the lungs and mediastinum. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) denotes a cytomorphological diagnostic procedure that allows assessment of the adequacy and accuracy of the material obtained during bronchoscopy within a few minutes in or near the bronchoscopy suite (on-site) using a quick staining of smears. This results in a significant decrease in the number of repeated bronchoscopy procedures required to recover an adequate biopsy sample and is therefore both time and cost effective. The obtained material can be further assessed as conventional cytological specimens or alternatively using the thin-prep technique for definitive cytopathology diagnosis and/or embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemical or molecular analyses such as DNA sequencing or flow cytometry. PMID:22752354

  4. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign Bodies.

    PubMed

    Green, S Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal and aspirated foreign bodies have important clinical significance, and both should be considered carefully when the history or physical examination findings raise sufficient suspicion. The published evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of foreign body ingestion or aspiration is weighted disproportionately with observational studies, case controls, expert opinion, and systematic reviews. Most of the publications would receive a categorization of C (observational studies including case-control and cohort design) and D (expert opinion, case reports, and clinical reasoning). One of the few prospective studies examining the diagnostic evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children could be considered level B evidence (randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, or diagnostic studies with minor limitations). This study found that the medical history is the most important predictive part of the evaluation. There is evidence for considering bronchoscopy if there is significant history suggestive of foreign body aspiration, even in the setting of normal physical examination findings. (28). Most ingested foreign bodies spontaneously pass without incident. However, special attention should be paid to objects in the esophagus as well as to batteries and magnets. Based on a systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) and the potential for rapid and life-threatening damage, batteries in the esophagus should be removed immediately. (10) Other objects, such as coins, may be observed for passage in an asymptomatic patient. In addition, given the high risk of significant complications, ingestion of high-powered magnets should be quickly and carefully evaluated. Although single magnets are likely to pass without complication, multiple magnets or magnets ingested with other metal objects can cause significant damage and should be removed if there is any concern for mural entrapment, bowel perforation, or failure to progress. (10)(16)(17)(18)(19). Lastly, another systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) about the aspiration of food objects in children suggests that this is a significant public health concern with potentially devastating consequences. Despite clear legislation and regulation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission regarding toys, there is no similar regulation of high-risk foods. The data suggest that there is opportunity for improvement in legislation about the production and packaging of high-risk items as well as in the education of caregivers. (22) PMID:26430203

  5. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of proximal third tibia.

    PubMed

    Rao, Arunkumar; Ingle, Sachin B; Rajurkar, Pawan; Goyal, Vishav; Dokrimare, Nikhil

    2015-10-10

    A 16-year-old man had aswelling over the anterior aspect of the proximal third of the tibia for 1 year, which was peanut size initially and progressively increased to its present size of 10 cm × 8 cm. He underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) twice during this period and reported aspindle cell sarcoma. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a malignancy of the connective tissue surrounding the nerves. Previously, MPNST was also known as neurofibrosarcoma, malignant schwannoma, andneurogenic sarcoma. We are reporting this case for its rarity and peculiar mode of presentation. FNAC/core biopsy can be used as an effective tool to achievethe correct pathological diagnosis. PMID:26468455

  6. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of proximal third tibia

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Arunkumar; Ingle, Sachin B; Rajurkar, Pawan; Goyal, Vishav; Dokrimare, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old man had aswelling over the anterior aspect of the proximal third of the tibia for 1 year, which was peanut size initially and progressively increased to its present size of 10 cm × 8 cm. He underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) twice during this period and reported aspindle cell sarcoma. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a malignancy of the connective tissue surrounding the nerves. Previously, MPNST was also known as neurofibrosarcoma, malignant schwannoma, andneurogenic sarcoma. We are reporting this case for its rarity and peculiar mode of presentation. FNAC/core biopsy can be used as an effective tool to achievethe correct pathological diagnosis. PMID:26468455

  7. Evaluation of cetacean and sirenian cytologic samples.

    PubMed

    Varela, René A; Schmidt, Kimberly; Goldstein, Juli D; Bossart, Gregory D

    2007-01-01

    Cytology is a fundamental part of marine mammal veterinary medicine that is involved in preventive medicine programs in captive animals and in the health assessment of wild populations. Marine mammals often exhibit few clinical signs of disease; thus, the cost-effective and widely accessible nature of cytologic sampling renders it one of the most important diagnostic procedures with these species. Many of these mammals are endangered, protected, and located in developing nations in which resources may be scarce. This article can be used as a field guide to advise a veterinarian, biologist, or technician working with cetaceans or sirenians. A simplistic cost-effective staining technique is used, which is ideal for situations in which funds, facilities, or time may be a limiting factor in clinical practice. PMID:17198961

  8. Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

  9. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of thyroid nodules: comparison with cytologic and histologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Tomimori, Eduardo K; Bisi, Helio; Medeiros-Neto, Geraldo; Camargo, Rosalinda Y A de

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate our ultrasonographic classification of thyroid nodules, based on echo structure, echogenicity, calcification, margin and analysis of the surrounding parenchyma. From January 1998 to January 2002, 2,468 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules were referred for thyroid ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (USFNAB) in our Thyroid Unit. Among 1,039 nodules classified as benign on ultrasound, 998 (96.1%) were also benign on cytology, 37 (3.6%) were suspicious and only 4 (0.4%) were malignant. On the other hand, among 153 nodules classified as suspicious on ultrasound, 20 (13.1%) were suspicious and 88 (57,5%) were malignant on cytology. Of the 71 nodules suspicious on ultrasound submitted to surgery, 67 (94.3%) were malignant and 56 (96.6%) of 58 nodules considered benign were benign on pathologic studies. In conclusion, we advocate USFNAB in nodules classified as indeterminate or suspicious. Nodules classified as benign may be followed up at periodic intervals. PMID:15611823

  10. Evaluation of inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases in cytological examination for breast cancer according to histological type

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously investigated the current status of breast cytology cancer screening at seven institutes in our area of southern Fukuoka Prefecture, and found some differences in diagnostic accuracy among the institutions. In the present study, we evaluated the cases involved and noted possible reasons for their original cytological classification as inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive according to histological type. Methods We evaluated the histological findings in 5693 individuals who underwent cytological examination for breast cancer (including inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases), to determine the most common histological types and/or features in these settings and the usefulness/limitations of cytological examination for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Results Among 1152 cytologically inadequate cases, histology revealed that 75/173 (43.6%) cases were benign, including mastopathy (fibrocystic disease) in 38.6%, fibroadenoma in 24.0% and papilloma in 5.3%. Ninety-five of 173 (54.9%) cases were histologically malignant, with scirrhous growing type, invasive ductal carcinoma (SIDC) being significantly more frequent (49.5%) than papillotubular growing type (Papi-tub) (P?aspirates for these histological types of breast disease. In particular, several inadequate, indeterminate and false-negative cases with samples collected by aspiration were diagnosed as SIDC. These findings should encourage the use of needle biopsy rather than aspiration when this histological type is identified on imaging. Namely, good communication between clinicians and pathological staff, and triple assessment (i.e., clinical, pathological and radiological assessment), are important for accurate diagnosis of aspiration samples. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7349809170055423 PMID:22607447

  11. Time for evidence-based cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC) is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed. PMID:17210074

  12. Use of the Afirma® Gene Expression Classifier for Preoperative Identification of Benign Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytopathology

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Z.; Fish, Stephanie A.; Lanman, Richard; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sosa, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Ruling out malignancy in thyroid nodules historically depended on thyroid resection and histopathological evaluation until fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy was introduced into the United States in the 1970's. Thyroid FNA biopsy identified a majority of thyroid nodules as benign, obviating the need for surgery in over half of the patients. However, 15%-30% of thyroid FNAs have indeterminate cytology that still requires operation, even though most of these operated nodules prove to be benign post-operatively. In order to predict which cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules are benign and to potentially avoid surgery on these nodules, a recently described commercially available Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) test (Afirma®, Veracyte, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) has been developed that can be run on the FNA sample. This paper reviews the published literature and technology assessments/guidelines by independent parties and professional groups regarding the clinical utility as well as the analytic and clinical validity of the Afirma GEC. PMID:23437421

  13. Aspiration thrombectomy in concert with stent thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Travis M; Mokin, Maxim; Sorkin, Grant C; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-05-01

    In the SWIFT and TREVO 2 trials, aspiration thrombectomy was not able to be performed. Outside these studies, in post-market application, the interventionist can use aspiration thrombectomy in addition to stent device thrombectomy. This technique is described in detail in the present report. Combined aspiration/stentriever thrombectomy may improve recanalization efforts, simplify a second thrombectomy attempt if necessary and may limit distal embolization. PMID:23868216

  14. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  15. Aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diagnosis of benign lesions. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Subspecialty for Laboratories Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations....

  17. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Subspecialty for Laboratories Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations....

  18. Image-guided fine-needle aspiration of retroperitoneal masses: The role of the cytopathologist

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Afzal, Sheerin; Ansari, Hena A; Ahmad, Ibne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Retroperitoneal tumors constitute a difficult diagnostic category as they are not easily accessible. The advent of image-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has resolved this problem significantly. Aims: We present a short study based on guided aspiration of retroperitoneal tumors, in which we have tried to assess the role of image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology as a tool for pre-operative diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal masses. FNA was performed under image guidance with the help of ultrasonography and/or computed tomography; smears were prepared and meticulously screened according to a fixed protocol. The results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficacy of cytopathological diagnosis using image-guided FNA techniques. Results: We assessed 38 patients with retroperitoneal masses. In all cases, adequate cellular material was obtained. No major complications were encountered. Statistical analysis was carried out in 35 cases; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100% in these cases. Conclusion: FNA under image guidance should be considered a first-line diagnostic approach for retroperitoneal and other abdominal tumors, although caution should be exercised in case selection. In areas where advanced tests are not available, the cytotechnologist and cytopathologist have a very important role to play in ensuring accurate diagnoses. PMID:23661939

  19. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886...Devices § 886.4150 Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is...

  20. MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring nature conservation professionals www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/conservation LONDON'S GLOBAL UNIVERSITY #12;Student fieldwork, Norfolk (Picture: Jan Axmacher) Conservation at UCL The UCL MSc Conservation is widely recognised as the leading course for aspiring nature conservation

  1. Grades, Aspirations, and Postsecondary Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Milla, Joniada; Stengos, Thanasis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we exploit a rich longitudinal data set to explore the forces that, during high school, shape the development of aspirations to attend university and achieve academic success. We then investigate how these aspirations, along with grades and other variables, impact educational outcomes such as going to university and graduating. It…

  2. Hope, Fear and Aspirations Xue Dong He

    E-print Network

    Hope, Fear and Aspirations Xue Dong He and Xun Yu Zhou July 23, 2012 Abstract We propose a rank, fear and aspirations. Hope and fear are modeled through a reversed S-shaped probability weighting. These solutions motivate us to introduce a fear index, a hope index and a lottery-likeness index to quantify

  3. Educational Aspirations in Inner City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Winston, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils' educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below-average examination results and low rates of continuing in…

  4. Pushing the Limits: The Female Administrative Aspirant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edson, Sakre Kennington

    The results of a longitudinal study of women pursuing administrative careers provides a fuller understanding of the motivations of women and assists aspiring women in making informed career choices. The book has five sections. The first covers career stages common to most aspirants, but from a female perspective. In the second section, women…

  5. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  6. Clinical factors predicting risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration among patients with Stroke1

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Morais, Huana Carolina Cândido; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the association of risk factors with the Risk for aspiration nursing diagnosis and respiratory aspiration. Method: cross-sectional study assessing 105 patients with stroke. The instrument used to collect data addressing sociodemographic information, clinical variables and risk factors for Risk for aspiration. The clinical judgments of three expert RNs were used to establish the diagnosis. The relationship between variables and strength of association using Odds Ratio (OR) was verified both in regard to Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. Results: risk for aspiration was present in 34.3% of the patients and aspiration in 30.5%. The following stood out among the risk factors: Dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex, Neurological disorders, and Impaired physical mobility, all of which were statistically associated with Risk for aspiration. Note that patients who develop such a diagnosis were seven times more likely to develop respiratory aspiration. Conclusion: dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex were the best predictors both for Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. PMID:26039291

  7. Collagenous spherulosis: An interesting cytological finding in breast lesion

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Shailja; Mohindroo, Shobha; Gulati, Anchana

    2015-01-01

    Collagenous spherulosis (CS) is a rare and interesting entity associated with benign breast lesions. CS is an incidental finding picked up only on 0.2% of cytology specimen. Typically cytologically of CS of breast consists of central spherical hyaline spherule surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The central hyaline spherule has been found to be basement membrane material histochemically and immunohistochemically. The importance of recognizing CS of breast lies in the fact that similar hyaline globules can occur in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast (ACCB). The two lesions need to be differentiated on cytology failing which inappropriate treatment can be given for either of the two lesions. We present here a case of CS associated with benign breast lesion and a case of ACCB to describe their cytological features and key points to differentiate them cytologically. PMID:26681973

  8. The presence of diatom algae in a tracheal wash from a German Wirehaired Pointer with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Benson, Catherine J; Edlund, Mark B; Gray, Sarah; Powell, Lisa; Paulin-Curlee, Geisa; Armien, Anibal; Overmann, Jed A

    2013-06-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female German Wirehaired Pointer was presented with difficulty breathing after being found seizing in a water-filled drainage ditch while out hunting. Aspirates from a tracheal wash contained numerous degenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, some of which contained basophilic debris, low numbers of extracellular diatoms, and a single intracellular short bacterial rod. As the dog continued to clinically decline and could not be weaned from oxygen support, the owners chose euthanasia. The major necropsy finding was a severe granulomatous bronchopneumonia that was likely due to aspiration of foreign material based on the microscopic presence of plant-like material, bi-refringent crystalline material, non-cellular debris, and occasional fungal structures. Diatoms are a class of algae that live primarily in water. Diatom analysis has been used, with some controversy, in human forensics to assist in documenting drowning as the cause of death. In this case, given the clinical history, the presence of diatoms and inflammation in the tracheal wash were interpreted as a likely result of the aspiration of surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of diatoms observed in a cytologic specimen in a nonhuman mammal with aspiration pneumonia. PMID:23647227

  9. Electron microscopy: cytology of cell fractions.

    PubMed

    NOVIKOFF, A B

    1956-11-16

    It should be evident from this brief account that electron microscopy of thin sections is an invaluable asset in the study of fractions isolated by differential centrifugation. I have tried to indicate how the integrity of particles, purity of fractions, and the existence of new particles can be established through its use. I have also suggested the desirability of a common terminology for all cytology -classic, electron-microscopic, and biochemical. Some have expressed the opinion that neutral terms such as alpha, beta, and gamma membranes (59) are more useful than ergastoplasm, Golgi apparatus, and so forth. As helpful as such neutral terms may be in describing intracellular structures, they do not appear to me to substitute for historically rooted cytological names. Note added in proof: Since this article went to press there has appeared an important article by G. E. Palade and P. Siekevitz (60). These authors consider that the vesicles without granules found in the microsome fraction were "probably derived from the smooth surfaced parts of the endoplasmic reticulum." The latter were found to be continuous with the granule-studded membranes; "the two varieties of profiles represent local differentiation within a common system." The authors confirm the finding of Rouiller (18) and Novikoff et al. (7) of the dense bodies adjacent to the bile canaliculi and describe their presence in the microsome fraction as a "minor component." PMID:13380407

  10. Surgical jejunostomy in aspiration risk patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weltz, C R; Morris, J B; Mullen, J L

    1992-01-01

    One hundred patients underwent laparotomy for independent jejunal feeding tube placement. Neurologic disease was present in 50%, and obtundation (28) and oropharyngeal dysmotility (25) were the most common indications for enteral feeding. The post-pyloric route was chosen because of aspiration risk in almost all (94%) patients. Postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 21%, because of cardiopulmonary failure in most (18). One death resulted directly from aspiration of tube feeds. Two surgical complications required reoperation: one wound dehiscence and one small bowel obstruction. Four wound infections occurred. Two patients underwent reoperation after tube removal, and four tubes required fluoroscopically guided reinsertion for peritubular drainage (2), removal (1), and occlusion (1). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 18 patients preoperatively and in eight postoperatively. None of the patients with feeding-related preoperative aspiration pneumonia (13) had a recurrence while fed by jejunostomy. Three patients developed postoperative aspiration pneumonia before initiation of jejunostomy feedings. Jejunostomy may be performed with low morbidity rate and substantial reduction of feeding-related aspiration pneumonia, and is the feeding route of choice in aspiration risk patients. PMID:1546899

  11. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration: Technique and applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Tharian, Benjamin; Tsiopoulos, Fotios; George, Nayana; Pietro, Salvatore Di; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Since its initial report in 1992, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has now been incorporated into the diagnostic and staging algorithm for the evaluation of benign and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. Its introduction constitutes a major breakthrough in the endoscopic field and has gradually transformed EUS from a pure imaging modality into a more interventional procedure. In addition, the possibility of collecting samples, providing a definitive cytological and/or histological evidence of the presence of malignancy, has strongly contributed to changing EUS from a subjective, highly operator dependant procedure into a more objective one. This article will review the instrumentation, technique and the most important clinical applications of EUS-FNA. PMID:23293723

  13. Management of thyroid nodules: scanning techniques, thyroid suppressive therapy, and fine needle aspiration

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcraft, M.W.; Van Herle, A.J.

    1981-03-01

    For the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroidal disease, ultrasound displays anatomic but not histologic features. Other visualization techniques can be used including isotope scanning (radioiodine, 99m technetium, 241 americium fluorescence, 131 cesium, 67 gallium, 75 selenomethionine, 201 thallium, 32 phosphorus, 99m Tc-bleomycin, 197 mercury, 133 xenon), thermography, x-ray techniques (plain films, computed tomographic scan, xeroradiography, chest x-ray barium swallow, lymphography, angiography), and thyroid hormone suppression. Needle biopsy can be done by core biopsy (Vim-Silverman and drill biopsy), large needle biopsy for histologic processing and fine needle aspiration for cytologic interpretation. The latter is the safest, most reliable, and most cost-effective technique currently available to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroidal disease and has great promise for the future.

  14. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  15. Experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage

    E-print Network

    Schuler, Brian Joseph, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of aspiration on compressor blade design. The pressure ratio can be significantly increased by controlling the development of the blade and endwall boundary layers. This concept is validated ...

  16. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent cesarean section, and (3) The sampling component is covered...

  17. Lung cancer cytology: potential pitfalls and mimics - a review

    PubMed Central

    Idowu, Michael O; Powers, Celeste N

    2010-01-01

    Cytology is increasingly being used in the evaluation of lung lesions. There are several potential pitfalls and mimics encountered in the evaluation of respiratory cytology specimens, making interpretation of respiratory cytology challenging. Familiarity with the mimics and the pitfalls is essential in avoiding a misdiagnosis because a false positive or false negative diagnosis may have significant management implications. This article focuses on the main classification of primary lung carcinoma - small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma - with potential mimics discussed under each tumor category. We have attempted to separate pitfalls from common potential mimics and have suggested general rules when such pitfalls are encountered. PMID:20490328

  18. Urinary cytology in bladder cancer: why is it still relevant?

    PubMed

    Comploj, Evi; Trenti, Emanuela; Palermo, Salvatore; Pycha, Armin; Mian, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy with cytology is currently considered the gold standard for the detection and surveillance of primary tumors and for the follow-up of patients after transurethral resection.Even if cytology has a low sensitivity especially in low-grade bladder carcinomas, the high specificity and the inexpensive nature of the equipment required, justify performing it.The greatest value of cytology for patients with low-grade, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the detection of those lesions that may progress to high-grade urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26219472

  19. Atypia of undetermined significance on thyroid fine needle aspiration: surgical outcome and risk factors for malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Young Jae; Jung, Youn Seung; Yoon, Hyun Chul; Hwang, Min Jung; Shin, Sun Hyoung; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kang, Ho Cheol; Lim, Hyo Soon; Yoon, Jung Han

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to analyze the surgical pathology results of the "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS) category from thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to describe the characteristics to distinguish a malignant from a benign nodule. Methods A retrospective analysis was done on 116 patients who underwent thyroid surgery from December 2008 to December 2012, following a diagnosis of AUS from preoperative thyroid FNA. We investigated the age, gender, size and site of the nodules, ultrasonographic criteria, cytological features, the number of atypia results after repeated FNAs, surgical method, and final pathologic results. Results Sixty-five out of 116 patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the rest had partial thyroidectomy. The final pathologic results were 41 malignancies (35.3%) and 75 benign diseases (64.7%). AUS was divided into group 1: 'cannot rule out malignancy' or group 2: 'cannot rule out follicular neoplasm'. After surgery, group 1 revealed papillary thyroid cancer in most cases and group 2 revealed follicular adenoma in most cases. Age over 40 years, ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy, more than 2 results of atypia from repeated FNAs and nodules less than 2 centimeters were risk factors for malignancy on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy was a significant risk factor for malignancy. Conclusion For proper evaluation of the risk for malignancy in thyroid AUS patients, the ultrasonographic criteria should be considered along with other clinicopathological findings such as age, nodule size, number of atypia, cytologic features. PMID:24761418

  20. Hemithyroidectomy is the preferred initial operative approach for an indeterminate fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Connie G.; Yao, Reina; Chan, Simon K.; Strugnell, Scott S.; Bugis, Samuel; Irvine, Robert; Anderson, Donald; Walker, Blair; Jones, Steven J.; Wiseman, Sam M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration biopsy represents the critical initial diagnostic test used for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Our objectives were to determine the cytological distribution, the utility of clinicopathologic characteristics for predicting malignancy and the true proportion of cancer among individuals who presented with indeterminate cytology and had undergone thyroid surgery for suspicion of cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1040 consecutive primary thyroid operations carried out over an 8-year period at a tertiary care endocrine referral centre. Follicular neoplasm (FN), Hürthle cell neoplasm (HN), neoplasms suspicious for but not diagnostic of papillary carcinoma (IP) and neoplasms with cellular atypia (IA) were reviewed. Results In all, 380 individuals presented with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Of these, 252 (66%) patients had FN, 47 (12%) HN, 44 (12%) IP, 26 (7%) IA and 11 (4%) had mixed diagnoses. Biopsied lesions were found to be malignant on pathological evaluation in 102 (27%) patients: 49 (19%) with FN, 11 (23%) HN, 28 (64%) IP and 9 (35%) with IA. Hemithyroidectomy was adequate definitive treatment in 196 of 225 (87%) patients with FN and 39 of 42 (93%) with HN. Significant associations with a cancer diagnosis were identified for smaller tumour size in patients with FN (p = 0.004) and right thyroid lobe location in patients with IP (p = 0.012), although these factors were nonsignificant in the corrected analyses for multiple comparisons. Conclusion In a review of the experience at a Canadian centre, 4 operations were carried out to identify each cancer, and hemithyroidectomy was the optimal initial and definitive surgical approach for most patients. PMID:22630062

  1. Scrape cytology in rare case of hairy tongue

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rekha; Nayak, Suprita; Munshi, Maitryee; Bobhate, Sudhakar

    2009-01-01

    Hairy tongue (HT) is a benign condition that causes concern over its abnormal appearance. HT is most commonly seen in adults and is seen as an abnormal coating of the tongue due to hyperkeratosis of filiform lingual papillae. Cytological scraping of the lesion on the tongue was done which showed squamous cells, extraneous material, bacterial colonies, fungal bodies, and hair-like projections, which are the hall mark of the disease. We present a case along with its scrape cytology findings. PMID:21938163

  2. To Aspire: A Systematic Reflection on Understanding Aspirations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Aspirations for higher education by people from low socioeconomic status backgrounds are now a focus of government policy in many OECD nations. This is part of a global trend emphasizing the perceived benefits of "raising" aspirations among under-represented groups as a social inclusion strategy to widen university participation, but…

  3. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  4. Next Generation Sequencing Improves the Accuracy of KRAS Mutation Analysis in Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration Pancreatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

  6. MicroRNA as a Diagnostic Tool in Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancer accounts for 1.5% of all malignancies in the U.S., and it is the most common endocrine malignancy. Detection of thyroid cancer mostly relies on evaluation of thyroid nodules, which are very common but only 5%–7% harbor malignancy. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is currently the most important tool for the evaluation of thyroid nodules; however, it is limited in that it provides only a cytology assessment of the aspirated cells, and indeterminate diagnoses are present in up to 30% of FNAB results. This limitation can be overcome by the molecular analysis of FNAB, and more specifically with the use of microRNAs (miRs). miRs constitute a class of endogenous small noncoding RNA fragments that regulate gene expression, and in vitro studies have shown that miRs play a significant role in cancer and regulate major processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Several studies have investigated the miR expression signature in different thyroid cancers, and data support its use as a diagnostic tool that is highly accurate for thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to review the accumulated data on miR dysregulation in the different thyroid cancer types, critically assess its diagnostic utility, and conclude with future study strategies. PMID:22707512

  7. Aspirated tracheobronchial foreign bodies: a Jordanian experience.

    PubMed

    Mahafza, Tareq; Khader, Yousef

    2007-02-01

    We conducted a descriptive study of 524 patients who had been suspected of having aspirated a foreign body and who had been evaluated at one of two major hospitals in Jordan from January 1993 through December 2003. A tracheobronchial foreign body was found in 386 of these patients (73.7%). Most of them (66.8%) were younger than 2 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3 to 2. The mean duration between aspiration and diagnosis was 48 hours. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (90.4% of foreign-body-positive patients), diminished air entry (66.8%), and dyspnea (65.0%). The most frequently aspirated objects were seeds (35.4%), particularly watermelon seeds, nuts (26.8%), and vegetables (25.3%). The most common site of foreign-body impaction was the right bronchus (60.9%). Rigid bronchoscopy was used to remove the foreign body in all cases. The complication rate was 3.4%. Our experience with aspirated tracheobronchial foreign bodies in Jordan was not substantially different from that reported in other countries. The only difference was that the most frequently aspirated foreign body in our study was seeds. PMID:17385621

  8. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  9. Application of PCR methods to evaluate EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations in a small number of tumor cells in cytological material from lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    LEWANDOWSKA, MARZENA ANNA; JÓ?WICKI, WOJCIECH; JOCHYMSKI, CEZARY; KOWALEWSKI, JANUSZ

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in the tyrosine kinase domain is known to be a predictor of the response to gefitinib or erlotinib in lung cancer; thus, a non-surgical procedure of tumor specimen collection is critical for mutation analysis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the EGFR, KRAS and BRAF status in limited cytological material. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the quantitative scale of tumor cells and the percentage of tumor cells in cytological material were evaluated at the early stages of pathomorphological material qualification for EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutation analysis. Our results revealed that even 100–1,000 tumor cells from fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples provided reliable results of mutation analysis when sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used. EGFR mutations were detected in 10% (7/71) and KRAS mutations were detected in 35% (19/54) of the lung adenocarcinoma cases. In addition, we reported the most common inhibiting mutation (p.T790M) found in coexistence with p.L858R in an FNA sample from a patient, for whom short-term improvement after erlotinib treatment was observed before further progression of the disease. Subsequently, mutual exclusion of EGFR and KRAS mutations was observed. Cytological samples with a small number of tumor cells obtained via FNA, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) or brushing are suggested to be used for diagnostic purposes after careful selection by cytopathologists and analysis using a validated, sensitive real-time PCR method. PMID:23817662

  10. GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis on Concentrated Fine Needle Aspirates in High Tuberculosis Burden Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Aragaw, Dossegnaw; Abdella, Kedir; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; de Jong, Bouke C.; Rigouts, Leen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL) remains challenging. The routinely used methods (cytology and smear microscopy) have sub-optimal sensitivity. Recently, WHO recommends GeneXpert to be used as the initial diagnostic test in patients suspected of having extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). However, this was a conditional recommendation due to very low-quality evidence available and more studies are needed. In this study we evaluated the performance of Xpert for the diagnosis of TBL on concentrated fine needle aspirates (FNA) in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods FNA was collected from presumptive TBL cases. Two smears were prepared from each aspirate and processed for cytology and conventional microscopy. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH and centrifuged for 15minutes at 3000g. The concentrated sediment was used for culture and Xpert test. Capilia TB-Neo test was used to differentiate M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Composite bacteriological methods (culture and/or smear microscopy) were considered as a reference standard. Result Out of 143 enrolled suspects, 64.3% (92/143) were confirmed TBL cases by the composite reference standard (CRS). Xpert detected M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in 60.1% (86/143) of the presumptive TBL cases. The sensitivity of Xpert compared to CRS was 87.8% [95% CI: 81.0–94.5] and specificity 91.1% [95% CI: 82.8–99.4]. The sensitivity was 27.8% for smear microscopy and 80% for cytology compared to CRS. Cytology showed the lowest specificity (57.8%). Xpert was positive in 4 out of 45 culture- and smear-negative cases. Among 47 cytomorphologically non-TBL cases, 15 were positive on Xpert. More than half of Xpert-positive cases were in the range of very low cut-off threshold values (28aspirates. PMID:26366871

  11. The Impact of Benign Gene Expression Classifier Test Results on the Endocrinologist–Patient Decision to Operate on Patients with Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytopathology

    PubMed Central

    Duick, Daniel S.; Klopper, Joshua P.; Diggans, James C.; Friedman, Lyssa; Kennedy, Giulia C.; McIver, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Background Seventy-five percent of thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology are found to be benign postoperatively. A novel genomic test, the Afirma® gene expression classifier (AGEC), has been available for clinical use in the United States, since late 2010. In 2010, two modest-sized validation studies showed that the AGEC could identify a benign gene expression signature in indeterminate cytology thyroid FNA samples with a negative predictive value >95%. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the AGEC impacted the joint decision of the endocrinologist and patient to operate when FNA cytology was indeterminate, but the AGEC reading of the nodule was benign. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, data were contributed retrospectively by 51 endocrinologists at 21 practice sites that had previously obtained ?3 benign AGEC readings in ?1?cm nodules with indeterminate FNA cytology readings. Information regarding demographic data, nodule size and location, decision to operate, surgery type (hemithyroidectomy [HT] or total thyroidectomy [TT]), and reason for recommending surgery was retrospectively collected. Results Compared to a 74% previous historical rate of surgery for cytologically indeterminate nodules, the operative rate fell to 7.6% during the period that AGEC were obtained in the clinical practices, a highly significant reduction in the decision to operate (p<0.001). The rate of surgery on cytologically indeterminate nodules that were benign by the AGEC reading did not differ from the historically reported rate of operation on cytologically benign nodules (p=0.41). The four primary reasons reported by the physicians for operating on nodules with a benign AGEC reading, in descending order: large nodule size (46.4%), symptomatic nodules (25.0%), rapidly growing nodules (10.7%), or a second suspicious or malignant nodule in the same patient (10.7%). These reasons are concordant with those typically given for operation on cytologically benign nodules. Conclusions In a substantial group of medical practices, obtaining an AGEC test in patients with cytologically indeterminate nodules was associated with a striking reduction in the rate of diagnostic thyroidectomy. Approximately, one surgery was avoided for every two AGEC tests run on thyroid FNAs with indeterminate cytology. PMID:22873825

  12. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  13. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

  14. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  15. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  16. Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

  17. The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

  18. Longitudinal Analysis of Select Influences on Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Yang, Baiyin

    1997-01-01

    National Education Longitudinal Study data from 18,311 subjects examined occupational aspiration at early, middle, and late adolescence. Aspirations were relatively stable throughout; early aspirations significantly predicated later ones. Socioeconomic status had a significant influence; academic achievement and self-evaluation had modest,…

  19. RAS Mutations in AUS/FLUS Cytology: Does it Have an Additional Role in BRAFV600E Mutation-Negative Nodules?

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study is to evaluate the additional role of RAS mutation in detecting thyroid malignancy among BRAFV600E mutation-negative nodules diagnosed as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) on cytology. From December 2009 to December 2011, 202 BRAFV600E mutation-negative thyroid nodules diagnosed as AUS/FLUS cytology in 201 patients were included in this study. RAS mutation analysis was performed using residual material from ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology testing for K-RAS, N-RAS, and H-RAS codons 12/13 and 61 point mutations. The authors evaluated the association between RAS mutation status and cytopathologic characteristics. Of the 202 BRAFV600E mutation-negative thyroid nodules with AUS/FLUS cytology, 4 were considered insufficient for mutation analysis. Of the 198 thyroid nodules, 148 (74.7%) were confirmed as benign and 50 (25.3%) as malignant. Thirty-one (15.7%) of the 198 thyroid nodules were positive for any RAS mutation, 4 positive for K-RAS 12/13, 26 for N-RAS 61, and 1 positive for H-RAS 61. Seven (22.6%) of the RAS mutation positive nodules were malignant, 1 with K-RAS 12/13, 6 with N-RAS 61. Twenty-four (77.4%) of the 31 nodules positive for K-RAS 12/13 (N?=?3), N-RAS 61 (N?=?20), or H-RAS 61 (N?=?1) mutations were proven benign. None of the 198 thyroid nodules were positive for K-RAS 61, N-RAS 12/13, or H-RAS 12/13 mutations. N-RAS 61 mutation is the most common mutation detected among BRAFV600E mutation-negative nodules with AUS/FLUS cytology. RAS mutation has limited value in predicting malignancy among BRAFV600E mutation-negative thyroid nodules with AUS/FLUS cytology and further, investigation is anticipated to evaluate the true role of RAS mutation in thyroid malignancy. PMID:26166089

  20. Cayenne aspiration: an unusual type of lower airway foreign-body aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lianjun; Wang, Yuchuan; Zha, Xiankui; Tang, Fei; Lv, Liping; Liu, Xinmin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cayenne aspiration is an unusual type of foreign-body aspiration that is usually misdiagnosed. This article analyzes the clinical features of cayenne aspiration in the lower airway. Patients and methods Clinical data on eight adult patients with cayenne aspiration were retrospectively analyzed. Six were elderly patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2010 and August 2014. Results The most common symptoms of cayenne aspiration were cough (eight cases, 100%) and sputum (five cases, 62.5%). Only one patient (12.5%) could supply the history of aspiration on his first visit to doctor and was diagnosed definitely without delay. The other seven cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia and the time to accurate diagnosis was from 1 month to 6 months. The history of aspiration could be recalled after confirmed diagnosis for the other seven cases. The most common presentation shown by chest computed tomography (CT) was pneumonic opacity (eight cases, 100%). The existence of cayenne could not be detected by chest CT in any of the patients. All the patients were diagnosed definitively and managed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. Cayenne was more often lodged in the right bronchus tree (seven cases, 87.5%), especially the right lower bronchus (four cases, 50%). The segment of cayenne was complete in five cases (62.5%) and scattered in three cases (37.5%). Conclusion The clinical features of cayenne aspiration are usually obscure and nonspecific which may lead to delay in diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is safe and useful for early diagnosis and effective management. PMID:25473273

  1. Cytometry: The Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, Supplement 6, 1993: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayall, B.H.; Landay, A.L.; Shapiro, H.M.; Visser, J.W.M.

    1993-12-31

    This contains the 465 presentation and poster abstracts for the XVI Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, March 1993. Plenary Sessions included the following: Industrial Cytometry; Clinical Issues (in Cytology); Molecular Pathology; biotechnology; new biology; temporal cytometry.

  2. Cytological features of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, F; Jiménez-Heffernan, Ja; Salas, C; Pastrana, M; Sanz, E

    2012-07-01

    A case of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) evaluated during an intraoperative pathological consultation is presented. The patient, a 70-year-old woman was being followed because of a tumor in the left buttock. Cytological smears were obtained after scrapping the tumoral cut surface and revealed a myxoid background with fragments composed of a denser, fibrillar metachromatic stroma with accompanying round to oval tumoral nuclei and no vessels. Single cells were predominantly monomorphic with a round to oval morphology and scarce cytoplasm. The most relevant feature of the tumor was its peripheral, plaque-like, calcified consistency. The review of the cytological descriptions of four cases revealed similar findings that can be presumed as those of a low-grade myxoid tumor of round to oval cells. A specific recognition of OFMT based solely on cytological features seems difficult. However, when such features are coupled with characteristic radiological findings (peripheral calcification) this entity must be considered. PMID:23112466

  3. [Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocm?reanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Dr?gan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

  4. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  7. Ultrasonic gas alloy atomization under near-zero aspiration pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Deping; Yan, Biao

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic gas atomization (USGA) of Zn-Al under near-zero aspiration pressure was discussed. The protrusion length of delivery tube was modified to adjust the aspiration pressure. Under near-zero aspiration pressure, melt filming was observed by camera and more fine powders were produced. While under larger subambient aspiration pressure, melt filming was unavailable, corresponding to less fine powders. The results suggest that the position of the wake near the delivery tube can be optimized under near-zero aspiration. Less protrusion of delivery tube reduces the energy loss in gas flow deflection. Both facilitate to produce finer powders.

  8. Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

  9. Diagnostic Thyroidectomy May Be Preferable in Patients With Suspicious Ultrasonography Features After Cytopathology Diagnosis of AUS/FLUS in the Bethesda System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Hyeung Kyoo; Chang, Hojin; Kim, Seok Mo; Kim, Bup-Woo; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a new category in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) for which repeat fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is recommended. The aim of this study was to identify specific ultrasonography and clinical predictors of malignancy in a subset of thyroid nodules associated with cytology diagnoses of AUS/FLUS. Between January 2011 and December 2102, 5440 patients underwent thyroid surgery at our institution. Of these, 213 patients were diagnosed AUS/FLUS at the preoperative cytopathology diagnosis. The frequency of FNAC and ultrasonography images was compared between patients with cancerous and benign tumors based on their final pathology. Of the 213 patients, 158 (74.2%) were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma in their final pathology reports. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the frequency of FNAC was not significantly correlated with the cancer diagnosis. Hypoechogenicity (odds ratio 2.521, P?=?0.007) and microcalcification (odds ratio 3.247, P?=?0.005) were statistically correlated with cancer risk. Although AUS/FLUS in cytopathology is recommended for repeating FNAC in BSRTC, we proposed that thyroid nodules with ultrasonography findings that suggest the possibility of cancer should undergo thyroidectomy with diagnostic intent. PMID:26705204

  10. CT-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Inferior Vena Cava Wall: A Posterior Coaxial Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, Sebastian Bilecen, Deniz; Baumhoer, Daniel; Guillaume, Nicolas; Jacob, Augustinus L.

    2010-02-15

    A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis.

  11. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Diagnosis on Thyroid Aspirate and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Saqi, Anjali; Kuker, Adriana P; Ebner, Susana A; Ausiello, John; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Bhagat, Govind; Giorgadze, Tamar A

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid gland involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis is extremely rare. A 35-year-old woman with a history of a suprasellar mass previously diagnosed as a ganglioglioma and complicated by diabetes insipidus, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and central hypothyroidism presented with acute onset of neck enlargement. On ultrasound examination, almost the entire thyroid appeared replaced by abnormal lobulated hypoechoic tissue with increased vascularity. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid was performed and revealed singly scattered and loosely cohesive large cells with abundant cytoplasm, including some with irregular nuclear contours and nuclear grooves. No thyroid follicular cells were noted. Based on the cytomorphologic findings and ancillary studies (immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis) a cytological diagnosis of "positive for neoplastic cells" with features suggestive of monocytic/histiocytic origin, possibly Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was rendered. Following FNA, the patient underwent an incisional thyroid biopsy that confirmed the cytological impression of LCH. In light of the new diagnosis of LCH, the prior suprasellar mass biopsy slides were re-reviewed and rare cells suspicious for LCH were observed. Appropriate treatment for systemic LCH was initiated successfully. This case demonstrates that the presence of enlarged and loosely cohesive cells, especially those with irregular nuclear contours, in thyroid FNA specimens should raise suspicion for LCH. The diagnosis of LCH in FNA specimens is challenging. Additional material should be allocated for ancillary studies to confirm the morphological impression. In our case, not only was the thyroid FNA crucial in diagnosing LCH, but instrumental in initiating a thorough diagnostic work-up for multisystem involvement and thus unmasking the true etiology of the patient's suprasellar mass and associated endocrinopathies. PMID:25596951

  12. First trimester abortion by vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Borko, E; Breznik, R; Kokos, Z; Edelman, D; Brenner, W

    1975-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and complications of using the 8 mm diameter metal and flexible plastic cannulae for performing abortions of pregnancies of 7--10 menstrual weeks' gestation by vacuum aspiration, a comparative study was conducted. Both types of cannulae were randomly assigned to 300 subjects in a study design where the physician who performed the abortion was not the same person who evaluated the subject after the abortion or at the time of the follow-up visit. All abortions were performed under paracervical block anesthetic after mechanical dilatation of the cervix to 8.6 mm. The rates of specific complications, blood loss and the need for secondary procedures to complete the abortion were not significantly different for the two types of cannulae. The amount of tissue obtained with a routine curette check following the vacuum aspiration, and the incidence of cannula obstruction were similar for the two types of cannulae. PMID:1211837

  13. The sweet lung: Chewing gummi bear aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tavladaki, Theonimfi; Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Spanaki, Anna-Maria; Ilia, Staurula; Geromarkaki, Elissabet; Briassoulis, George

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of foreign bodies, a leading cause of accidental death, is most common in preschool children. In this article we report our experience with a 5-year-old Greek girl who presented with a 24-hour history of sore throat, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Emergency bronchoscopy was performed and multiple small chewing gummi bear (HARIBO) particles impacted in the orifices of the right main bronchus and right lobar and segmentalinic bronchi were successfully removed and aspirated. Aspiration of gummi bears, which is for the first time reported, may cause a silent choking episode leading to life-threatening bronchi obstruction at multiple sites, even in children older than 4 years. PMID:22919167

  14. The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, R?dvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors. PMID:16262899

  15. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. TUFTS ORAL PATHOLOGY SERVICE Liquid-Based Brush Cytology Analysis

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    lesions (e.g., amalgam tattoo, melanotic macule, nevus, etc.) Liquid-Based Brush Cytology Fees / Billing and submits the appropriate ADA CDT code #D7288; the patient may be reimbursed this cost by their dental.636.6780 (F) http://dental.tufts.edu/tops #12;Michael A. Kahn, DDS · Lynn W. Solomon, DDS, MS · J. Michael

  17. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  18. CYTOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF NORMAL AND CLONED BULLS’ MEIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytological and molecular analysis of meiotic cells from two bull clones and three non-clones was performed in order to detect effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNCT) on the meiotic process. Pachytene cells were analyzed by immunohistology using antibodies against the synaptonemal complex pr...

  19. Meiotic drive and sex determination: molecular and cytological mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Rutkowska, Joanna

    ratio because avian females are heterogametic and because the sex-determining division in avian meiosis occurs prior to ovulation and fertilization. However, despite evidence of strong epigenetic effects. Our review of molecular and cytological mechanisms of avian meiosis uncovers a multitude of potential

  20. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm with expansile invasive carcinoma of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Ayako; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kodama, Yuzo; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Adachi, Souichi; Haga, Hironori

    2014-04-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the pancreas, a novel entity included in the World Health Organization 2010 classification, accounts for <1% of all pancreatic exocrine neoplasms and the number of reported cases is limited in the English literature. Herein we describe the cytologic features of ITPN with invasive carcinoma showing expansile growth on endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology. A 74-year-old male patient is presented with a 6.2 cm irregular mass in the head of the pancreas. Microscopic examination of EUS-FNA material showed abundant branching clusters of cells, with some scattered discohesive cells. High power magnification revealed tubular and cribriform patterns with central lumina, containing mucinous or proteinaceous secretions. The constituent cells were relatively uniform and showed mild to intermediate nuclear atypia. Intracytoplasmic mucin was not identified. On cell-block preparation, luminal spaces of clusters contained wispy luminal mucin. Immunohistochemically, constituent cells were positive for MUC1 and MUC6, and were negative for MUC5AC. The large cribriform and tubular clusters with luminal spaces containing wispy mucin were considered to be diagnostic clues for the cytologic diagnosis of ITPN by EUS-FNA. MUC1, MUC6, and MUC5AC immunohistochemistry for cell-block preparation appears to be a useful adjunctive tool to confirm the diagnosis. On EUS-FNA, ITPN should be included in the differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion showing good circumscription. PMID:24339429

  1. The role of ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes in patients with skin tumours

    PubMed Central

    Solivetti, Francesco Maria; Elia, Fulvia; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Guerrisi, Antonino; Visca, Paolo; Cercato, Maria Cecilia; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US) in the study of superficial lymph nodes during the follow-up of patients surgically treated for skin tumours. The secondary objective was to compare positive cytological results with histological reports. Patients and methods From 2004 to 2011, 480 patients (male/female: 285/195; median age 57 years; prevalent skin tumour: melanoma) underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of suspicious recurrent lymph nodes. An expert radiologist first performed US testing of the lymph nodes, expressing either a negative or positive outcome of the test. Subsequently, US-guided FNAB was performed. FNAB positive patients were subjected to lymphadenectomy; the patients who tested negative underwent the follow-up. Results The size of lymph nodes was ? 2 cm in 90% of cases. Out of the 336 (70%) US “positive” patients, 231 (68.8%) were FNAB positives. Out of the 144 (30%) US “negatives”, 132 (91.7%) were FNAB negatives. The sensitivity and specificity of the US were 95% and 55.7%, respectively; the negative predictive value was 91.7% and the positive predictive value was 68.8%. Definitive histological results confirmed FNAB positivity in 97.5% of lymphadenectomies. Conclusions US is a sensitive method in the evaluation of superficial lymph nodes during the follow-up of patients with skin tumours. High positive predictive value of cytology was confirmed. PMID:24587776

  2. Lung adenocarcinoma and its thyroid metastasis characterized on fine-needle aspirates by cytomorphology, immunocytochemistry, and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bellevicine, Claudio; Vigliar, Elena; Malapelle, Umberto; Carelli, Emanuele; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Santini, Mario; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2015-07-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) share a number of microscopic and immunophenotypical features. Thus, patients presenting with thyroid and lung synchronous neoplasms may be difficult on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples to define the site of origin of the malignancy. In the case reported here, inherent to a 57-years-old man presenting with a right lung mass and a large (44 mm) thyroid nodule, an integrated cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach enabled to clarify the primary nature of the neoplasm. FNA cytology showed in both sites papillary structures and nuclear changes reminiscent of PTC. The lung origin of the neoplasm was suggested on cell-block immunocytochemistry showing thyroid transcription factor-1 positive and PAX8 and TGB negative neoplastic cells. Next generation sequencing performed on the Ion Torrent platforms by the Ion Ampliseq Colon and Lung Cancer panel showed a similar genomic profile in both neoplastic sites with a concurrent KRAS G12C mutation. An integrated approach on FNA biospecimen is safe, cost effective, and may be coupled effectively with modern ancillary molecular techniques that may be useful, besides their predictive value, as a adjunctive diagnostic tool when the synchronous occurrence of lesions featuring overlapping morphologies challenge the cytopathologist. PMID:25900221

  3. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  4. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  5. Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation

    E-print Network

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

  6. Imaging Foreign Bodies: Ingested, Aspirated, and Inserted.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsiang-Jer; Hanna, Tarek N; Shuaib, Waqas; Aized, Majid; Khosa, Faisal; Linnau, Ken F

    2015-12-01

    Foreign bodies can gain entrance to the body through several mechanisms, ie, ingestion, aspiration, and purposeful insertion. For each of these common entry mechanisms, this article examines the epidemiology, clinical presentation, anatomic considerations, and key imaging characteristics associated with clinically relevant foreign bodies seen in the emergency department (ED) setting. We detail optimal use of multiple imaging techniques, including radiography, ultrasonography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography to evaluate foreign bodies and their associated complications. Important imaging and clinical features of foreign bodies that can alter clinical management or may necessitate emergency intervention are discussed. PMID:26320521

  7. A Computer-Assisted Cytology Screening Program for Uranium Miners

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Wm.; Pearson, F.G.P.; Ilves, R.; Thompson, D.W.; Caftel-Turcotte, E.; Basiuk, J.D.; Cooper, J.D.; Todd, T.R.

    1981-01-01

    A sputum cytology screening program was started for uranium miners in Elliot Lake to help in the early recognition of lung cancer in this high risk group. In order for a surveillance program to be successful a well-defined protocol is required. Because of the number of services required to support this program (coordination centre, laboratory, data centre, family physicians, consultants) the need for timely, accurate communications is extremely important and the data processing requirements are quite complex. This paper describes a computer system developed to help in the overall organization of the sputum cytology screening program and facilitate the complex network of communications. As of February, 1981, 491 participants had registered in the program and 1332 samples had been submitted. We believe it is a model for the occupational health programs required to monitor high risk workers.

  8. Building and using a PACS in pathology and cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Drunen, Rudi; van Teylingen, Geert; Boon, Mathilde E.; Kok, Lambrecht P.

    2001-08-01

    Applications of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in Pathology and Cytology are currently hardly used in the diagnostic process. Here we describe a system that, together with existing equipment, stores data from cervix smears, and aids the physician in the diagnostic process. The system comprises of a scanning system for the specimen and a multi-level storage system partly on disk and partly on optical media. The system adds additional benefits in the diagnostic process while at the same time provides a safe long-term storage and archive of the data. Due to the open nature and the cost-effectiveness of this solution applications of this system can be found not only in cervical cytology but also in pathology or other parts of medicine where image processing or storage is a major issue.

  9. T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL): limitations in fine-needle aspiration cytodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Pathan, Shahed K; Mothaffer, Fatma J; John, Bency; Mallik, Mrinmay K; Sheikh, Zafar A; Haji, Bahiyah E; Amir, Thasneem; Francis, Issam M

    2012-11-01

    Exclusive reports on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytodiagnosis of T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) are scarce in literature. This report reflects the diagnostic difficulties associated with cytodiagnosis of this rare variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The study is based on 11 cases with age ranging from 16 to 63 years and a median of 50 years. Male to female ratio was 6:5. Ten cases presented with lymphadenopathy and one had lymphadenopathy as well as extranodal solid tumor. The initial cytodiagnosis was suggestive of TCRBCL in one case, TCRBCL/Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in three cases, TCRBCL/HL/anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in two cases, TCRBCL/ALCL in one case, and TCRBCL/non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) T-cell/ALCL in one case. There was also a cytologically diagnosed HL case, which on review turned out to be HL/TCRBCL. Histopathological diagnosis was HL in all these nine cases. There were two histologically diagnosed TCRBCL cases during this period, with cytodiagnoses of NHL other than TCRBCL in one and HL in the other. While highlighting the difficulties associated with the cytodiagnosis of TCRBCL, this study conveys a word of caution that adequate immunocytochemical studies should be performed before diagnosing this rare neoplasm with a varied cytomorphology. PMID:21472876

  10. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors: an entity in search of cytologic criteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng Cheng; Collins, Brian T; Flint, Andrew; Michael, Claire W

    2013-08-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are histologically subclassified into typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC). The criteria for subclassification in cytological specimens are not well defined. In this study, we reviewed histologically confirmed 18 TC, 8 AC, 10 LCNEC, and 10 SCLC cytologic specimens from 45 patients. The following features were reviewed: small clusters, geographic sheets, trabecular structures, pseudo-rosettes, single cells, doublets, triplets or short cords, papillary-like structures, capillary vasculatures, necrosis, smear background, cell size, cell pleomorphism, amount of cytoplasm, plasmacytoid cells, spindle cells, nuclear atypia, molding, palisading and smearing, chromatin textures, nucleoli, and mitotic figure count. Based on our results, geographic clusters and necrosis were often seen in LCNEC and SCLC; while AC only showed scattered single cell necrosis. TC and AC commonly exhibited trabecular structures. Papillary-like structures and capillary vasculature were only present in TC, AC, and LCNEC. Cells forming doublets, triplets, and short cords were more commonly seen in SCLC and rarely seen in other entities. Plasmacytoid and spindle cells were only seen in TC and AC. Nuclear smearing was not identified in TC, rare in AC, focally present in LCNEC and obvious in SCLC. Mitotic figures were nearly absent in TC, ?5/10 HPF in AT, and ?10/10 HPF in SCLC. LCNEC showed a wide span of mitotic count ranging between 2 and 16/10 HPF. In this study, we propose a set of cytological features that are essential for subclassification of PNETs in cytologic specimens. PMID:23166111

  11. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  12. Ciliated pancreatic foregut cyst: MRI, EUS, and cytologic features.

    PubMed

    Alessandrino, Francesco; Allard, Felicia D; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated foregut cysts are extremely uncommon pancreatic cystic lesions, with-to the best of our knowledge-only five cases previously reported in the English literature. We report herein on a case of a ciliated foregut cyst of the pancreas connected with the duct of Wirsung. The magnetic resonance imaging, endoultrasonographic, and cytologic features are described and a brief review of literature is also presented. PMID:26526788

  13. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  14. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  15. Deformable membrane for the segmentation of cytological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Bredno, Joerg; Lehmann, Thomas M.; Spitzer, Klaus

    1998-06-01

    In clinical cytology quantitative parameters have to be extracted from a large number of biological samples to obtain diagnostically relevant and reproducible information. Computer-assisted microscopy can provide methods that increase the quality and comparability of clinical studies by reducing the subjective influence of human operators on their results. In order to guarantee the correctness of extracted parameters automatic and reliable segmentation of the samples is required. For the detection of cytological objects a novel deformable membrane model is presented which is strictly based on macroscopical mechanics and statics. This is appropriate for modeling physiological membranes, because their shape is determined exclusively by mechanical forces. The self-driven membrane converges iteratively towards a stable state, where the contrary forces are in balance. However, active contours may not yield sufficient detection quality for acquisition of quantitative parameters. Therefore, after convergence a stochastic optimization process corrects the contour according to local graylevel information. This yields a contour that is well- adapted to the local graylevel structure. Additionally, for subsequent cytometric quantifications a local measure of confidence is provided for the contour. this can be used to enhance the robustness of the extracted parameters by incorporating the confidence factors in the quantification process. The method is applied to cytological and histological samples of different magnification.

  16. An improved model of a battery-powered aspirator.

    PubMed

    Perdew, P E; Meek, C L

    1990-12-01

    Detailed instructions are provided to modify a commercially available, battery-powered, leaf/grass blower into a portable, hand-held aspirator for collecting adult mosquitoes and other small dipterans. Directions are given also to convert paper cups into interchangeable collection containers for use with the aspirator. PMID:1983020

  17. A tale of three aspirations: foreign bodies in the airway.

    PubMed

    Pritt, B; Harmon, M; Schwartz, M; Cooper, K

    2003-10-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a serious medical problem, with clinical manifestations ranging from acute asphyxiation to insidious lung damage, as demonstrated by the three presented cases. Patient 1 aspirated during dinner, emergency bronchoscopy retrieved pieces of food, and she fully recovered the following day. Patient 2 presented with recurrent pneumonia and a right lower lobe lung abscess. After right lower lobectomy, pathology revealed a foreign object in the right main stem bronchus, a peanut aspirated one year earlier. Patient 3 became unresponsive several days after spinal surgery. The differential diagnosis included myocardial infarction, stroke, and foreign body aspiration. The patient died and necropsy revealed a foreign body in the right main stem bronchus (cooked meat). Thus, foreign body aspiration is not always suspected clinically, and the pathologist may play an important role in making the diagnosis. Histological identification of the aspirated material may be necessary for definitive diagnosis. Therefore, sections of commonly aspirated foods are presented, together with a 10 year history of aspirated objects received by this institution's surgical pathology department. PMID:14514789

  18. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  19. The Relationship between Gender and Aspirations to Senior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzky, Barrie; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender, work factors, and non-work factors with aspirations to positions in senior management. A process model of senior management aspirations was developed and tested. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via an online survey that resulted in a sample of 368 working…

  20. Stability of Career Aspirations: A Longitudinal Test of Gottfredson's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junk, Kate E.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Gottfredson's theory of the career compromise process was evaluated using a longitudinal data set of 2,353 female and 321 male students recruited for Zuckerman's "Seven College Study," who reported their career aspirations twice over a 1-year period. Expressed career aspirations were coded on the dimensions of sex type, prestige, and the…

  1. Performing Desires: The Dilemma of Aspirations and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf; Benjamin, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The authors critique the mechanistic notion of aspirations running through much research and policy-making on educational and vocational outcomes. They present a performative model, with individuals drawing on limited social resources to express aspirations within constrained contexts. This argument is illustrated by discussion of the findings of…

  2. Success Stories: Aspirational Myth in the Education of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, R.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the influences upon curriculum formation is an ongoing challenge for adult educators. This discussion describes one approach to curriculum analysis--the aspirational myth--based on the notion that instructors and learners co-construct an idealized identity representing the end point of learning. The aspirational myth is described…

  3. Sociological Theory and Youth Aspiration Research: A Critical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; Wells, Richard H.

    Reviewing sociological theories relative to youth aspiration research, the following thesis was presented: "pre-path analysis aspiration research was characterized by a person-centered, middle-range functionalist approach which eventually shifted to a person-centered, functionalist-system approach with the introduction of the path model…

  4. Calculating Student Aspiration: Bourdieu, Spatiality and the Politics of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a recent study of aspirations for higher education by secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds in regional Australia. At the same time, it goes in search of explanations that transcend a Bourdieuian account of aspirations as produced by and reproductive of cultural histories and dominance, given the apparent…

  5. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an...

  7. Interlaboratory variation in the performance of liquid-based cytology: insights from the ATHENA trial.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas C; Stoler, Mark H; Behrens, Catherine M; Sharma, Abha; Sharma, Keerti; Apple, Raymond

    2014-04-15

    Although it is recognized that cervical cytology is highly subjective, and that there is considerable interlaboratory variation in how slides are evaluated, little is known as to how this impacts the performance of cytology. In the ATHENA trial, liquid-based cytology specimens from 46,887 eligible women ?21 years of age were evaluated at four large regional US laboratories, providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of interlaboratory variations on the performance of cervical cytology. All women with abnormal cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or higher) were referred to colposcopy, as were all high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-positive women ?25 years of age and a random subset of those ?25 years of age who were negative by both hrHPV testing and cytology. Sociodemographics, risk factors for cervical disease, and prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were similar across the laboratories. There were considerable differences among the laboratories both in overall cytological abnormal rates, ranging from 3.8 to 9.9%, and in sensitivity of cytology to detect CIN grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), from 42.0 to 73.0%. In contrast, the hrHPV positivity rate varied only from 10.9 to 13.4%, and the sensitivity of hrHPV testing from 88.2 to 90.1%. These observations suggest that hrHPV testing without cytology should be considered as the initial method for cervical cancer screening. PMID:24122508

  8. The Astrophysics Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, J.

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.

  9. Effects of aspiration on public cooperation in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Lu, Pei-Min; Zeng, Yong-Zhi

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a deterministic win-stay-lose-shift rule into the spatial public goods game, according to which a player will change its current strategy only if its payoff is below a predefined aspiration level. Simulation results on the square lattice and scale-free network indicate that the aspiration level greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. For small multiplication factors, the frequency of cooperation increases to 0.5 as the aspiration level increases. For large multiplication factors, intermediate levels of aspiration prove optimal for the successful evolution of public cooperation. Some qualitative analyses are provided to explain the above results. Besides, we have found that there exists a ping-pong vibration of cooperation at some specific values of multiplication factors and aspiration levels.

  10. Acid aspiration-induced airways hyperresponsiveness in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Timothy R.; von Reyn, Jessica; Larrabee, Yuna C.; Cloutier, Mary E.; Irvin, Charles G.; Bates, Jason H. T.

    2009-01-01

    The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH (1.8) equivalent to the upper range of typical gastric contents would lead to AHR in naive mice. We further speculated that modest reductions in aspirate acidity to a level expected during gastric acid suppression therapy (pH 4.0) would impede aspiration-induced AHR. BALB/c female mice were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane and allowed to aspirate 75 ?l of saline with HCl (pH 1.8, 4.0, or 7.4) or underwent sham aspiration. Mice were re-anesthetized 2 or 24 h later, underwent tracheostomy, and were coupled to a mechanical ventilator. Forced oscillations were used to periodically measure respiratory impedance (Zrs) following aerosol delivery of saline and increasing doses of methacholine to measure for AHR. Values for elastance (H), airways resistance (RN), and tissue damping (G) were derived from Zrs. Aspirate pH of 1.8 led to a significant overall increase in peak RN, G, and H compared with pH 4.0 and 7.4 at 2 and 24 h. Differences between pH 7.4 and 4.0 were not significant. In mice aspirating pH 1.8 compared with controls, airway lavage fluid contained more neutrophils, higher protein, and demonstrated higher permeability. We conclude that acid aspiration triggers an acute AHR, driven principally by breakdown of epithelial barrier integrity within the airways. PMID:19797689

  11. Coupling Optimization Design of Aspirated Compressor Airfoil and Aspirated Scheme Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and CST Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xiaodong; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on creating a new design method optimizing both aspirated compressor airfoil and the aspiration scheme simultaneously. The optimization design method is based on the artificial bee colony algorithm and the CST method, while the flow field is computed by one 2D computational program. The optimization process of the rotor tip and stator tip airfoil from an aspirated fan stage is demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the new coupling method. The results show that the total pressure losses of the optimized stator tip and rotor tip airfoil are reduced relatively by 54% and 20%, respectively. Artificial bee colony algorithm and CST method indicate a satisfying applicability in aspirated airfoil optimization design. Finally, the features of aspirated airfoil designing process are concluded.

  12. Foreign body aspiration in children: experience of 1160 cases.

    PubMed

    Eren, Sevval; Balci, Akin Eraslan; Dikici, Bünyamin; Doblan, Mehmet; Eren, Mehmet Nesimi

    2003-03-01

    Hospital records of 1160 children aspiration were reviewed. Bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia was performed on all patients. Foreign bodies were successfully removed in 1068 (92%) children. The majority, 885 (76.3%), presented with a definite history of foreign body aspiration. Bronchoscopy was negative in 85 (7.3%) children. Watermelon seeds, found in 414 (38.7%) children, were the most commonly aspirated foreign bodies. Open surgical procedures were required for 21 (1.8%) children. Bronchial rupture related to bronchoscopy occurred in four children, two of whom died post-operatively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%. PMID:12648322

  13. Coproporphyrin in urine of newborns with meconium aspiration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Francoual, J; Lindenbaum, A; Dehan, M; de Verneuil, H; Nordmann, Y; Leluc, R

    1983-12-01

    We evaluated coproporphyrin in the first urine passed by newborn infants with and without meconium aspiration, by spectrophotometric analysis and thin-layer and "high-performance" liquid chromatography. Urines of newborn infants without meconium aspiration contained only very small quantities of coproporphyrin, detected, after partial purification, by "high-performance" liquid chromatography. Urines of newborn infants with meconium aspiration contained large quantities of coproporphyrin, identified by all three techniques. Urinary coproporphyrin as measured spectrophotometrically correlates well with the "urinary meconium index," and the method is simple, rapid, and reliable, even for samples containing hemoglobin. PMID:6640899

  14. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children. PMID:25890398

  15. Aspiration of barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres by a dog.

    PubMed

    Greci, V; Bissett, S A; Copple, C N; Hawkins, E C

    2010-05-01

    This case report describes an 11-year-old Belgian Malinois dog with acute onset of cough caused by aspiration of barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) and pneumonia following an episode of suspected gastric dilation. Although bronchoscopic retrieval of the BIPS was largely unsuccessful, the dog recovered uneventfully, with most of the BIPS being coughed out and swallowed over a 1-month period. Aspiration of BIPS should be considered a potential complication of their administration. Furthermore, endoscopic removal of aspirated BIPS is challenging and may not be indicated because of their inert nature and possible self-clearance. PMID:20529021

  16. Micropipette aspiration of an inflated fluid-filled spherical membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Touqeer; Tang, Tian; Nadler, Ben

    2012-08-01

    The micropipette technique has been widely used to determine the mechanical response of living cells. Cell is a complex structure and has highly nonlinear behavior when aspirated by the micropipette. Different models exist in the literature to determine the physical properties of the cells from the micropipette aspiration. In this work, we model the cell's response during micropipette aspiration using continuum nonlinear membrane theory. The peripheral surface of the cell is modeled as a nonlinear membrane. The membrane is homogenous, isotropic, and of hyper-elastic material. The cytoplasm of the cell is modeled as an incompressible fluid. Our results show good agreement with the experiments reported in the literature.

  17. University of California Program for Analytical Cytology five-year report, 1982-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, S.; Calkins, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Program for Analytical Cytology (PAC) was created by the Regents of the University of California on June 17, 1982. The purposes of the Program are to encourage research into theoretical, scientific, and engineering aspects of analytical cytology and into its biological and clinical applications.

  18. Cytology of metastatic prostate cancer following orchiectomy and antiandrogen therapy: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Rapkiewicz, Amy; Gorokhovsky, Rimma; Farcon, Eduardo; Das, Kasturi

    2008-07-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy induces apoptosis and decreases both cell proliferation and angiogenesis in prostate adenocarcinoma. The molecular alterations following androgen ablation translate into unique cytologic features in both primary and metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. We describe the cytologic appearance of metastatic prostate carcinoma following both surgical castration and androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:18528888

  19. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.O.L.P.; Heráclio, S.A.; Coelho, A.V.C.; Acioly, V.L.; Souza, P.R.E.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases). The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001). The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (?2=5.28; P=0.02), and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. PMID:26247400

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts by combined cytopathology and cystic content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Amanda K; Zhou, Zhongren

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have resulted in an increase in incidental discoveries of pancreatic cystic lesions. Pancreatic cysts comprise a wide variety of lesions and include non-neoplastic cysts and neoplastic cysts. Because some pancreatic cysts have more of a malignant potential than others, it is absolutely essential that an accurate diagnosis is rendered so that effective care can be given to each patient. In many centers, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has emerged as the modality of choice that enables one to distinguish between mucinous and non-mucinous lesion, diagnose malignancy and collect cyst fluid for further diagnostic studies, such as pancreatic enzyme levels, molecular analysis and other tumor biomarkers. The current review will focus on EUS-guided FNA and the cytological diagnosis for pancreatic cysts. PMID:26504505

  1. Cystic masses of neck: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Malik, Amita; Sureka, Binit; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Cystic masses of neck consist of a variety of pathologic entities. The age of presentation and clinical examination narrow down the differential diagnosis; however, imaging is essential for accurate diagnosis and pretreatment planning. Ultrasound is often used for initial evaluation. Computed tomography (CT) provides additional information with regard to the extent and internal composition of the mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a supplementary role for confirmation of diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging may be needed in some cases for preoperative assessment. PMID:23833426

  2. Solitary fibrous tumour of lacrimal gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Narang, Vikram; Singh, Nagi Anitaraj Rajendra; Bajwa, Gurkirat Singh; Sood, Neena

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumour of mesenchymal origin most commonly encountered in pleura. It can affect the orbital region but SFT of lacrimal gland is rare. We hereby report of a SFT of lacrimal gland in a 50-year-old male presenting with slow growing swelling in left superolateral orbital region. The preliminary fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) could not reveal any definite diagnosis. Excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the diagnosis. Therefore, clinician and pathologist should be aware of this entity and biopsy along with IHC is required to rule out other entities which can mimic it clinically and histopathologically. PMID:25954627

  3. Calvarial tuberculosis presenting as cystic lesion: An unusual presentation in two patients

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Pratima; Gupta, Renu; Chand, Priyanka; Agarwal, Swapnil

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a common disease in developing countries such as India, posing a major public health problem. With human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection being a global endemic, there has been a resurgence of tuberculosis even in developed countries. Tuberculosis may affect almost any part of the body. However, tuberculosis of the calvarium is very rare. Presentation of tuberculosis as a soft tissue swelling on the scalp poses a diagnostic problem. These two cases are being reported here to convey the utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in providing the confirmatory diagnosis obviating the need for invasive surgical procedure.

  4. Brush Cytology with Immunocytochemical Evaluation of VEGF Expression versus Biopsy in Clinically Precancerous Laryngeal Lesions: Can We Diagnose Laryngeal Cancer Only with Brush Cytology?

    PubMed Central

    Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Tsinaslanidou, Zinovia; Valeri, Rozalia; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Constantinidis, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the most common SCC of the head and neck. The high incidence of this malignancy and the low survival rate necessitate the development of novel diagnostic approaches. Aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of laryngeal brush cytology combined with VEGF immunocytochemistry versus histopathology of clinically precancerous lesions of the larynx. Material and Methods. Thirty patients with precancerous or suspected malignant laryngeal lesions underwent microlaryngoscopy, during which samples were taken for cytological, immunocytochemical, and histological analysis. Cytology and histology results were classified as follows: benign lesions, atypia/moderate dysplasia, and malignancy, whereas the expression of VEGF was evaluated as strong, moderate, weak, and zero expression, based on the percentage of cells stained. Results. The cytology results were in accordance with the histology results in 86.7% of the patients. The exfoliative cytology's sensitivity was estimated at 85% and its specificity at 90%. Its positive prognostic value was 94%, while its negative prognostic value was 75%. The additional immunocytochemical evaluation of VEGF expression increased all the noted parameters. Discussion. Exfoliative cytology of laryngeal lesions is a minimal-invasive, easily applicable procedure during microlaryngoscopy and reliable in terms of diagnostic value. Under certain conditions it could be held also in local anesthesia. Concurrent immunocytochemical analysis of VEGF expression further enhances its diagnostic value. PMID:26457244

  5. Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  6. Crush Cytology of Secretory Meningioma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae; Yee, Gie-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Secretory meningioma, a histologic subtype of meningioma of World Health Organization grade 1, is clinically significant because it is frequently accompanied by peritumoral brain edema. The patient was a 53-year-old woman suffering from dysarthria and motor weakness of the right arm. Enhanced magnetic resonance images showed an enhancing mass measuring 2.5 cm in size located in the right parietal convexity. Intraoperative squash cytology showed moderately cellular smears composed mainly of clusters of ovoid cells with scattered whorl formations. The cells had round nuclei and a moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm with ill-defined cell borders. Neither atypia nor mitosis was observed. Some scattered round shaped eosinophilic refractile hyaline globules, measuring from 5 to 25 µm, were observed, and a periglobular halo was occasionally observed. The diagnosis of secretory meningioma should be made as early as possible so that neurosurgeons can prevent postoperative aggravation of peritumoral edema. We emphasize that cytologic findings including eosinophilic, non-fibrillary cytoplasm with eosinophilic refractile hyaline globules are helpful in differentiating secretory meningioma from other subtypes of meningioma, primary and metastatic brain tumors. PMID:26605274

  7. Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility. PMID:25181856

  8. Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  9. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Methods Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40–69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ?70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ?66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. Results There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40–69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ?70. The sensitivity of cytology ? HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355–462) and 226 (95% CI: 177–292) respectively. Women aged ?66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17–22% reduction in case fatality. Conclusions Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. PMID:26346038

  10. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

  11. From Educational Aspirations to College Enrollment: A Road with Many Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Educational aspiration is one of the most important factors influencing an individual's educational attainment. Although students' aspirations are changeable and the stability of their aspirations is important for their goal reaching, previous studies are rather limited in their ability to capture aspiration changes due to their incomplete…

  12. Aerodynamic performance measurements in a counter-rotating aspirated compressor

    E-print Network

    Onnée, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic performances of a counter-rotating aspirated compressor. This compressor is implemented in a blow-down facility, which gives rigorous simulation of the ...

  13. Prevention of suicide: aspirations and evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, D.; Frankel, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Health of the Nation white paper set a target for 15% reduction in overall suicide rates by the year 2000. If the targets are to be achieved interventions must be identified which are of proved effectiveness. This paper examines the evidence on the available interventions and points of access to the population at risk. No single intervention has been shown in a well conducted randomised controlled trial to reduce suicide. The greatest potential seems to arise from limiting the availability of methods. In particular it is likely that the introduction of the catalytic convertor will lead to reduced lethality of care exhausts and reductions in suicide using this method. General practitioner education programmes, the effectiveness of lithium and maintenance antidepressants, and limits on the quantity of medicines available over the counter or on prescription should all be evaluated. Particular high risk groups include people recently discharged from psychiatric hospitals and those with a history of parasuicide. Many social processes affect suicide rates and these rather than specific interventions may help or hinder the ability to realise the Health of the Nation targets. Well conducted trials are essential to distinguish complex social processes from the effects of specific interventions for suicide prevention. This review of the available evidence offers little support for the aspiration that the posited targets can be achieved on the basis of current knowledge and current policy. Images p1229-a p1233-a PMID:8080520

  14. Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M.; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics. PMID:24598208

  15. Lung transplantation for aspiration-induced silicosis of the lung.

    PubMed

    Chida, Masayuki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Araki, Osamu; Tamura, Motohiko; Umezu, Hideo; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    Silicosis, a slowly progressing chronic disease, is rare in lung transplantation patients. Herein, we report a case of single lung transplantation in a 35-year-old man for acute and accelerated silicosis, without a history of inhalation of silicium. A pathology examination of the explanted lung revealed that aspiration of a scouring powder was the cause of lung silicosis. Aspiration-induced lung silicosis is rare. PMID:20349305

  16. Transoesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of pleural effusion for the staging of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Attili, Fabia; Chiappetta, Marco; Leuzzi, Giovanni; Costamagna, Guido; Granone, Pierluigi; Larghi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for evaluating mediastinal adenopathy in lung cancer is nowadays proven. However, its accuracy for detection of malignant pleural effusion per se has not been yet investigated. Herein we report our experience with EUS for detecting pleural effusion during the staging procedure of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS Between January 2009 and December 2011, we performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) on 92 selected NSCLC patients to evaluate the T and N factors and to acquire bioptic material and when this was detected, to sample the pleural effusion. RESULTS In 10 patients (8 males and 2 females, mean age 66.9 ± 9.2 years) a pleural effusion was detected and sampled. In 7 out of the 10 cases, the cytological examination of the fluid obtained by EUS-FNA tested positive for malignant cells, thereby upgrading the case to Stage IV, irrespective of T and N statuses. In 3 cases the cytology on the EUS-FNA material was proven to be negative for malignancy thereby allowing patients to be treated with curative intent without further delay. CONCLUSIONS EUS-FNA of the pleural fluid is a safe and simple procedure. Our data, albeit stemming from a limited study population, show that it can be efficient in selected NSCLC cases for obtaining useful material and information with significant impact on the staging and, therefore, on the planning of the optimum therapeutic strategy. PMID:23615434

  17. Coevolution of aspirations and cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal outcomes are often more acceptable than the best ones when the latter are hard or even impossible to find. In order to describe the emergence of cooperation when suboptimal alternatives prevail, an evolutionary game model is established by considering the effects of aspirations. A win-stay-lose-shift like rule for strategy updating is proposed. The rule prescribes that if the payoff of the current strategy is greater than the aspiration, the strategy remains, otherwise the strategy changes. Aspiration updating allows for individuals to adjust their expected payoff levels. It is shown that suboptimal alternatives can promote the emergence and persistence of cooperation over a wide range of the temptation to defect. Furthermore, a nontrivial phenomenon is found that cooperators prevail as the temptation increases when it is small. The aspirations are stabilized at an intermediate level which can most facilitate cooperation. The obtained results also show that the average level of aspirations decreases as the temptation increases. Furthermore, the variance of aspiration levels is minimized for an intermediate level of temptation.

  18. Cost Impact of Molecular Testing for Indeterminate Thyroid Nodule Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Coreen; Kabaker, Adam S.; Hodak, Steven P.; Nikiforova, Marina N.; McCoy, Kelly L.; Stang, Michael T.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Carty, Sally E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results helps diagnose thyroid cancer, although the additional cost of this adjunct has not been studied. We hypothesized that FNA molecular testing of two indeterminate categories (follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular/Hürthle cell neoplasm) can be cost saving. Methods: For a hypothetical group of euthyroid patients with a 1-cm or larger solitary thyroid nodule, a decision-tree model was constructed to compare the estimated costs of initial evaluation according to the current American Thyroid Association guidelines, either with molecular testing (MT) or without [standard of care (StC)]. Model endpoints were either benign FNA results or definitive histological diagnosis. Results: Molecular testing added $104 per patient to the overall cost of nodule evaluation (StC $578 vs. MT $682). In this distributed cost model, MT was associated with a decrease in the number of diagnostic lobectomies (9.7% vs. StC 11.6%), whereas initial total thyroidectomy was more frequent (18.2% vs. StC 16.1%). Although MT use added a diagnostic cost of $5031 to each additional indicated total thyroidectomy ($11,383), the cumulative cost was still less than the comparable cost of performing lobectomy ($7684) followed by completion thyroidectomy ($11,954) in the StC pathway, when indicated by histological results. In sensitivity analysis, savings were demonstrated if molecular testing cost was less than $870. Conclusions: Molecular testing of cytologically indeterminate FNA results is cost saving predominantly because of reduction in two-stage thyroidectomy. Appropriate use of emerging molecular testing techniques may thus help optimize patient care, improve resource use, and avoid unnecessary operation. PMID:22419727

  19. Diagnostic and prognostic TERT promoter mutations in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rengyun; Xing, Mingzhao

    2014-10-01

    Two promoter mutations, chr5:1?295?228C>T and chr5:1?295?250C>T, in the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have been recently identified in thyroid cancers and shown to be important in thyroid tumor pathogenesis. The diagnostic and prognostic potentials of testing for these mutations on thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) have not been investigated. Herein, we examined the two TERT promoter mutations along with the BRAF V600E mutation by direct DNA sequencing on 308 FNAB specimens preoperatively obtained from thyroid nodules with postoperatively confirmed pathological diagnoses. We found TERT promoter mutations in 0.0% (0/179) of benign thyroid nodules and 7.0% (9/129) of thyroid nodules of differentiated thyroid cancer, representing a 100% diagnostic specificity and 7.0% sensitivity, with the latter rising to 38.0% (49/129) when combined with BRAF V600E testing. Several TERT-promoter-mutation-positive thyroid nodules were cytologically indeterminate on FNAB. Approximately 80% of the TERT promoter mutation-positive thyroid nodules were thyroid cancers with aggressive clinicopathological behaviors, such as extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node metastases, distant metastases, disease recurrence or patient death. Thus, a positive TERT promoter mutation test not only definitively diagnoses a thyroid nodule as cancerous but also preoperatively identifies a cancer with aggressive potential. This is the first study, to our knowledge, of TERT promoter mutations on thyroid FNAB, demonstrating the value of this novel molecular testing in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules and preoperative risk stratification of thyroid cancer. Thus, testing of TERT promoter mutations on FNAB will enhance and improve the current molecular-based approaches to the management of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. PMID:25121551

  20. Diagnostic and Prognostic TERT Promoter Mutations in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rengyun; Xing, Mingzhao

    2014-01-01

    Two promoter mutations, chr5:1,295,228C>T and chr5:1,295,250C>T, in the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have been recently identified in thyroid cancers and shown to be important in thyroid tumor pathogenesis. The diagnostic and prognostic potentials of testing these mutations on thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) have not been investigated. Here, we examined the two TERT promoter mutations along with the BRAF V600E mutation by direct DNA sequencing on 308 FNAB specimens preoperatively obtained from thyroid nodules with postoperatively confirmed pathological diagnoses. We found TERT promoter mutations in 0.0% (0/179) of benign thyroid nodules and 7.0% (9/129) of thyroid nodules of differentiated thyroid cancer, representing a 100% diagnostic specificity and 7.0% sensitivity, with the latter rising to 38.0% (49/129) when combined with BRAF V600E testing. Several TERT promoter mutation-positive thyroid nodules were cytologically indeterminate on FNAB. Nearly 80% of the TERT promoter mutation-positive thyroid nodules were thyroid cancers with aggressive clinicopathological behaviors, such as extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node metastases, distant metastases, disease recurrence or patient death. Thus, a positive TERT promoter mutation test not only definitively diagnoses a thyroid nodule as cancer but also preoperatively identifies a cancer with aggressive potential. This is the first study of TERT promoter mutations on thyroid FNAB, demonstrating the value of this novel molecular testing in the diagnosis of thyroid nodule and preoperative risk stratification of thyroid cancer. Thus, testing of TERT promoter mutations on FNAB will enhance and improve the current molecular-based approaches to the management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. PMID:25121551

  1. Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Toshie; Teramoto, Shinji; Tamiya, Nanako; Okochi, Jiro; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Aspiration pneumonia is a dominant form of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and a leading cause of death among ageing populations. However, the risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in older adults have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia among the elderly. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medical and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76%) who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an episode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL), and major illnesses were compared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample) were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univariate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the following were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16–22.62, p < 0.001), daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39–15.65), feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27–10.48, p < 0.001), and urinary catheterization (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81–5.91, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 subjects each) were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910–5.619), deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948–6.952), dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720–23.643), and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031–2.539). Conclusion The risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were sputum suctioning, deterioration of swallowing function, dehydration, and dementia. These results could help improve clinical management for preventing repetitive aspiration pneumonia. PMID:26444916

  2. Accuracy and survival benefit of cytological prediction of endometrial carcinoma on routine cervical smears.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, H; Giles, G; Medley, G

    1993-01-01

    Among 359 women who received a cytology report of endometrial malignancy from the Victorian Cytology Service during 1982-87, the positive predictive value for a later histological diagnosis of endometrial malignancy was 64%. The positive predictive value was significantly higher for the group of women in whom the cytopathologists made definite predictions of endometrial malignancy as compared to the group where the cytologic features were only suggestive of endometrial malignancy (75% vs. 50%, chi 2 = 23.4; p < 0.001). The sensitivity of cervical cytology performed within two years of the diagnosis of endometrial malignancy was 28%. The odds ratio of death from endometrial cancer among women where the cytology may have allowed for an early diagnosis in comparison to women where cytology did not hasten the diagnosis was 0.78 (95% confidence interval = 0.25-2.47; p > 0.05). We conclude that while cervical cytology can predict the presence of malignancy for a small proportion of women with endometrial cancer, there remains no evidence that a cervical cancer screening program will make a major impact on reducing the morbidity and mortality from endometrial cancer. PMID:8418076

  3. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    SciTech Connect

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  4. CytoBase: an electronic medical record for cervical cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Golabek, J. K.; Brueckner, P. J.; Seidenfeld, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    A partnership of medical laboratories in Ontario, Canada has developed and made operational a centralized interactive database of cervical cytology (Pap) reports. This system automatically registers some 60,000 reports monthly, which are submitted electronically from geographically diverse sources. Patient histories are provided on-line to authorized pathologists to support ongoing diagnoses. A formalized coding system has been developed to represent elements of Pap reports in machine readable format, including diagnosis, clinical information about the patient, specimen adequacy, methods of specimen collection and follow-up recommendations. The system operates over a private network based on Internet standards. A review of operations, which commenced June 1, 1996, provides insights into applied EMR technology. PMID:9357584

  5. Molecular heterogeneity characterizes glioblastoma with lipoblast/adipocyte-like cytology.

    PubMed

    Gessi, Marco; Gielen, Gerrit H; Denkhaus, Dorota; Antonelli, Manila; Giangaspero, Felice; Zur Mühlen, Anja; Japp, Anna Sophia; Pietsch, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, may rarely show among unusual histological patterns lipoblast/adipocyte-like features. The genetic features of such cases are not yet well characterized, and molecular data are available for only few cases. In order to further expand our knowledge about their molecular profile, we analyzed four cases of glioblastoma with adipocyte-like features. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) revealed loss of PTEN and MDM2 amplification in two cases while another case was characterized by CDKN2A deletion. Conversely, we did not find any evidence of EGFR amplification, BRAF (V600E) or IDH1/2 mutations. Our results, along with data published in previous studies, showed that glioblastoma with lipoblast/adipocyte-like cytology present a heterogeneous genetic background and therefore seem to represent more a rare phenotypic variant than a specific tumor subtype. PMID:25896447

  6. DICOM-compatible format for analytical cytology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    1998-04-01

    The addition of a list mode data type to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard, DICOM will enhance the storage and transmission of digital microscopy data and extend DICOM to include flow cytometry data. This would permit the present International Society for analytical Cytology Flow Cytometry Standard to be retired. DICOM includes: image graphics objects, specifications for describing: studies, reports, the acquisition of the data, work list management, and the individuals involved (physician, patient, etc.) The glossary of terms (objects) suitable for use with DICOM has been extended to include the collaborative effort of Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) and Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED) to create a consistent, unambiguous clinical reference terminology. It also appears that DICOM will be a significant part of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture, CORBA.

  7. Anatomy and cytology of Taphrina entomospora during infection of Nothofagus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paula V; Bianchinotti, M Virginia; Rajchenberg, Mario

    2007-05-01

    Taphrina entomospora is one of the few species of the genus described on native plants of the Southern Hemisphere and also one of the few leaf pathogens known on Nothofagus species. The anatomical changes it produces on N. pumilio leaves, and its morphology, cytology, and sporogenesis were studied. The fungus is a perennial species that overwinters as mycelium in the foliar buds and infects the developing leaves, so the whole blade develops the disease symptoms. Interveinal areas of the leaves become chlorotic, thickened and rounded. Palisade parenchyma fails to develop, with spongy parenchyma developing as packed, rounded, isodiametric cells with little intercellular space. The mycelium is subcuticular, dikaryotic, and produces ascogenous hyphae, asci, and ascospores as described for other species in the genus. Before ascus discharge, ascospores bud in a regular, unique way. The life-cycle of T. entomospora is compared with other representative taxa in the genus and the distribution of this pathogen is discussed. PMID:17512180

  8. [The value of the cytological exam in the diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Turlea, M; Raica, D; Ciocm?reanu, M; Haidar, A; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    Cytologic investigations was performed in four groups of patients: central group (10 cares), without pathologic lesions; 12 patients were admitted with allergic conjunctivitis (with positive allergy tests, atopic state or clinical manifest allergic diseases), 20 cases with bacterial conjunctivitis; 8 cases with mix allergic and bacterial conjunctivitis (that hardly respond to therapy). Smears from the conjunctivae secretion were air-dried and stained with blue-polycrometanin Dr?gan method. Cytologic lesions characteristic for each group of patients are described. Our results suggest that cytology from the conjunctivae secretion is helpful in the diagnosis of the allergic etiology; also, it accurately the allergic components mix conjunctivitis. PMID:10641100

  9. Development of biopsy gun for aspiration and drug injection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Guy; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2015-04-01

    Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24990254

  10. Decreased Cough Sensitivity and Aspiration in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Okun, Michael S.; Davenport, Paul W.; Hegland, Karen W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death in people with Parkinson disease (PD). The pathogenesis of these infections is largely attributed to the presence of dysphagia with silent aspiration or aspiration without an appropriate cough response. The goal of this study was to test reflex cough thresholds and associated urge-to-cough (UTC) ratings in participants with PD with and without dysphagia. METHODS: Twenty participants with PD were recruited for this study. They completed a capsaicin challenge with three randomized blocks of 0, 50, 100, and 200 ?M capsaicin and rated their UTC by modified Borg scale. The concentration of capsaicin that elicited a two-cough response, total number of coughs, and sensitivity of the participant to the cough stimulus (UTC) were measured. The dysphagia severity of participants with PD was identified with the penetration-aspiration scale. RESULTS: Most participants with PD did not have a consistent two-cough response to 200 ?M capsaicin. UTC ratings and total number of coughs produced at 200 ?M capsaicin were significantly influenced by dysphagia severity but not by general PD severity, age, or disease duration. Increasing levels of dysphagia severity resulted in significantly blunted cough sensitivity (UTC). CONCLUSIONS: UTC ratings may be important in understanding the mechanism underlying morbidity related to aspiration pneumonia in people with PD and dysphagia. Further understanding of decreased UTC in people with PD and dysphagia will be essential for the development of strategies and treatments to address airway protection deficits in this population. PMID:24968148

  11. ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2009-09-09

    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  12. Morphological, cytological, and flavonoid variability of the Arnica angustifolia aggregate (Asteraceae)

    E-print Network

    Downie, Stephen R.

    Morphological, cytological, and flavonoid variability of the Arnica angustifolia aggregate of the Arnica angustifolia aggregate (Asteraceae). Can. J. Bot. 66: 24-39. The Arnica angustifolia aggregate subsp. tomentosa. Arnica angustifolia subsp. angustifolia is polymorphic and varied in ploidy level

  13. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1469 of this subpart, and provides supervision in accordance with § 493.1471 of this...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1469 of this subpart, and provides supervision in accordance with § 493.1471 of this...

  15. The Role of Convex Probe Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Malignant Mediastinal and Hilar Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Caglayan, Benan; Salepci, Banu; Dogusoy, Ilgaz; Fidan, Ali; Sener Comert, Sevda; Kiral, Nesrin; Yavuzer, Dilek; Sarac, Gulsen

    2012-01-01

    Background In the diagnosis of malignant lymph nodes (LNs) and staging of lung cancer, sampling of mediastinal and hilar LNs is essential. Mediastinoscopy is known as the gold standard. Convex probe (CP) endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a noninvasive and highly sensitive diagnostic method in mediastinal and hilar LN sampling. Objectives Evaluating the role of CP-EBUS-guided TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar LNs suspicious of malignancy. Patients and Methods One hundred twenty patients with a known lung malignancy or hilar/mediastinal LNs detected by thoracic computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET)-CT suspicious for malignancy were included in this prospective study. The procedure was performed by Olympus 7.5 MHz CP endoscope and EU C2000 processor by the oral route under topical anesthesia and conscious sedation. After visualization of LNs, their dimensions were recorded. Aspiration was considered as “insufficient” if there were inadequate lymphocytes on the smears. Diagnosis of “malignancy” on cytologic examination was considered as the “final diagnosis”. If diagnosis was negative for malignancy, more invasive procedures were performed to confirm the diagnosis. Results Twenty four females and 96 male patients (mean age, 57.8 ± 9.1) were included. A total of 177 LN stations were aspirated in 120 patients. In 82 patients, the diagnosis was malignant by EBUS-guided TBNA and in the remaining 38; the diagnosis was established by further invasive procedures. Of the 38 EBUS-guided TBNA negative patients, 28 were diagnosed as non-malignant and 10 were malignant. The sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy and negative predictive value of CP EBUS-guided TBNA were 89.1%, 91.6% and 73.6%, respectively. No major complications were seen. Conclusion As an alternative method to mediastinoscopy, EBUS-guided TBNA is a safe and noninvasive procedure with high sensitivity in the diagnosis of malignant mediastinal LNs. PMID:23407664

  16. Aspiration pneumonia in an infant with neurological sequelae - case report.

    PubMed

    Dop, Dalia; Gheonea, Cristian; St?nescu, Georgeta Ligia; Moro?anu, Aritina Elvira; Diaconu, Radu; Niculescu, Elena Carmen; Ognean, Maria Livia; Niculescu, Drago?

    2015-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in children with neurological deficits. We present the case of a 4-month-old infant from the Foster Care Center, with severe psychomotor retardation, blindness, and associated cardiac malformation, who was admitted to the Pediatrics Clinic of the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, Romania, presenting aspiration pneumonia and moderate respiratory insufficiency. Under sustained, early instituted treatment, the evolution was towards death. The chest radiography and histopathological examination of the pulmonary tissue confirmed the diagnosis. The neurological impairment was not only a favoring factor for aspiration, through the deglutition disorders, but it was also an aggravating one, through the bacterial colonization of the lungs. PMID:26662158

  17. “Diesel siphoner's lung”: Exogenous lipoid pneumonia following hydrocarbon aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Venkatnarayan, Kavitha; Madan, Karan; Walia, Ritika; Kumar, Jaya; Jain, Deepali; Guleria, Randeep

    2014-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an unusual and uncommon form of pneumonia caused by aspiration of fatty substances. Hydrocarbon pneumonitis following aspiration of diesel is a form of exogenous lipoid pneumonia wherein, aspirated diesel reaches the alveoli rapidly without evoking any significant cough, but initiates an intense inflammatory reaction in the pulmonary parenchyma. This is a rarely described clinical scenario, although the practice of diesel siphonage from automobiles is a common practice in developing countries. We herein describe a 40-year-old male patient, in whom the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia was delayed for a long duration and highlight the importance of taking a detailed occupational exposure history in patients with non-resolving pneumonia to rule out the underlying possibility of this rare clinical entity. PMID:24669087

  18. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  19. UNCERTAINTY IN EARLY OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS: ROLE EXPLORATION OR AIMLESSNESS?

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2014-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socioeconomic attainment if it signifies “role exploration,” characterized by career development, continued education, and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to “aimlessness,” involving prolonged education without the acquisition of a degree, residential dependence, and frequent job changes. We use nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) to examine how uncertainty in occupational aspirations in adolescence (age 16) affects wage attainments in young adulthood (age 26). Results suggest that youth with uncertain career ambitions earn significantly lower hourly wages in young adulthood than youth with professional and non-professional aspirations, supporting the view that uncertainty heightens the risk of labor-market problems. PMID:25540465

  20. Integration of Tablet Technologies in the e-Laboratory of Cytology: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Although tablet systems are becoming a powerful technology, particularly useful in every application of medical imaging, to date no one has investigated the acceptance and performance of this technology in digital cytology. The specific aims of the work were (1) to design a health technology assessment (HTA) tool to assess, in terms of performance and acceptance, the introduction of tablet technologies (wearable, portable, and non portable) in the e-laboratories of cytology and (2) to test the tool in a first significant application of digital cytology. Materials and Methods: An HTA tool was proposed operating on a domain of five dimensions of investigation comprising the basic information of the product of digital cytology, the perceived subjective quality of images, the assessment of the virtual navigation on the e-slide, the assessment of the information and communication technologies features, and the diagnostic power. Six e-slides regarding studies of cervicovaginal cytology digitalized by means of an Aperio (www.aperio.com) scanner and uploaded onto the www.digitalslide.it Web site were used for testing the methodology on three different network connections. Results: Three experts of cytology successfully tested the methodology on seven tablets found suitable for the study in their own standard configuration. Specific indexes furnished by the tool indicated both a high degree of performance and subjective acceptance of the investigated technology. Conclusions: The HTA tool thus could be useful to investigate new tablet technologies in digital cytology and furnish stakeholders with useful information that may help them make decisions involving the healthcare system. From a global point of view the study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tablet technology in digital cytology. PMID:25290667

  1. Brush cytology in the assessment of pancreatico–biliary strictures: a review of 406 cases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C; Mills, P; Carter, R; O'Donohue, J; Fullarton, G; Imrie, C; Murray, W

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To assess the accuracy of brush cytology in patients investigated for pancreatico–biliary strictures. Methods—All pancreatico–biliary brush cytology specimens submitted from two major teaching hospitals over a 6.5 year period were reviewed. Four hundred and forty eight satisfactory specimens from 406 patients with adequate clinical and/or pathological follow up data were examined in the study period. Results—Two hundred and forty six patients (60.6%) were shown to have neoplastic strictures. One hundred and forty seven tumours were identified cytologically, including 87 of 146 pancreatic carcinomas, 29 of 47 cholangiocarcinomas, one of one bile duct adenoma, four of seven carcinomas of the gallbladder, eight of 13 ampullary carcinomas, two of three ampullary adenomas, 10 of 16 malignancies of undetermined origin, none of two islet cell tumours, one of three hepatocellular carcinomas, and five of eight metastatic tumours. The three adenomas identified on brush cytology could not be distinguished from adenocarcinoma morphologically. One hundred and sixty patients (39.4%) had benign strictures, most often as a result of chronic pancreatitis and bile duct stones. There were three false positive cytological diagnoses mainly as a result of the misinterpretation of cases with relatively scant and/or degenerative atypical epithelial cells. Forty one cases were reported as atypical or suspicious of malignancy on brush cytology, of which 29 were ultimately shown to have carcinoma. The overall diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 59.8% and 98.1%, respectively. The sensitivity increased from 44.3% in the initial third of cases to 70.7% in the final third of cases examined in the series. Conclusions—Brush cytology, in conjunction with other clinical and radiological investigations, is a useful technique in the assessment of patients with suspected pancreatico–biliary neoplasia. Key Words: brush cytology • pancreatico-biliary strictures • pancreatico-biliary neoplasia PMID:11376018

  2. [Possibilities of clinico-cytological diagnosis in contagious equine metritis (CEM)].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, E; Selbitz, H J; Schieck, R; Friedrich, U; Schulz, J

    1991-05-01

    Clinical, bacteriological and serological examinations on a 6 years old pony mare were performed. Cytological alterations in the genital tract were also recorded. A cellular reaction was seen after infection with T. equigenitalis. This reaction is an evidence for infection but it is not specific for this organism. Cytological studies should be performed on mares especially in cases of latent infections to complete bacteriological examination and to prevent false positive or negative results. PMID:1872793

  3. Synovial fluid cytology in experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Petanides, Theodoros; Tsafas, Konstantinos; Harrus, Shimon; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2015-05-15

    Evidence-based information of a cause-and-effect relationship between Ehrlichia canis infection and polyarthritis in naturally- or experimentally-infected dogs is currently lacking. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether synovial fluid cytological evidence of arthritis could be documented in dogs with acute monocytic ehrlichiosis. Direct synovial fluid cytology smears from eight Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were examined prior to, and on 21, 35 and 63 days post-inoculation. The cytological variables assessed included cellularity, percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, macrophage reactivity and evidence of E. canis morulae. The median cellularity and percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils prior to inoculation did not differ when compared to post-inoculation cytological evaluation. Increased cellularity, E. canis morulae or cytological evidence of arthritis or macrophage reactivity were not observed throughout the course of the study. In the present study, no cytological evidence of arthritis was found in dogs with experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, suggesting that E. canis infection should be considered a rather uncommon cause of arthritis in dogs. PMID:25770893

  4. Foreign body aspiration - Sometimes a tough nut to crack.

    PubMed

    Sandhofer, Michael J; Salzer, Hans; Kulnig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening event. We report the case of a 24-month old boy, who was initially presented with an episode of obstructive bronchitis to the family pediatrician. Then, while being treated with empiric antibiotics, he aspirated a peanut. Although resulting in a coughing episode, the mother did initially not ascribe any relevancy to it. Since the diagnosis of obstructive bronchitis had already been established, only an in-depth history taking session with the mother could help figure out, why the boy's symptoms got worse instead of better. This article underlines the importance of accurate history taking and clinical examination. PMID:26236592

  5. Foreign body aspiration – Sometimes a tough nut to crack

    PubMed Central

    Sandhofer, Michael J.; Salzer, Hans; Kulnig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening event. We report the case of a 24-month old boy, who was initially presented with an episode of obstructive bronchitis to the family pediatrician. Then, while being treated with empiric antibiotics, he aspirated a peanut. Although resulting in a coughing episode, the mother did initially not ascribe any relevancy to it. Since the diagnosis of obstructive bronchitis had already been established, only an in-depth history taking session with the mother could help figure out, why the boy's symptoms got worse instead of better. This article underlines the importance of accurate history taking and clinical examination. PMID:26236592

  6. Small hyperechogenic nodules in thyroiditis: usefulness of cytological characterization.

    PubMed

    Solivetti, F M; Bacaro, D; Cecconi, P; Baldelli, R; Marandino, F

    2004-09-01

    Small hyperechogenic nodules occurring in thyroiditis frequently raise the question of their nature requiring additional evaluation. Given the scarcity of the studies addressing this issue, we have investigated whether cytopathological analysis of fine needle aspirates (FNA) of these lesions may be of diagnostic relevance. In this preliminary study, we submitted to cytopathological analysis 10 nodular lesions as well as the normal counter-lateral tissue. In none but one of the cases analyzed, the cytopathology was able to detect differences between the hyperechogenic models and the hypoechogenic parenchyma suggesting that these lesions bear no-clinical relevance. Therefore, FNA of these nodules is not advisable and should be limited to those with defined at risk clinical features. PMID:15595632

  7. The Path Taken: Consequences of Attaining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspirations in Post-College Life

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Life goals, or aspirations, organize and direct behavior over extended periods of time. The present study, guided by self-determination theory, examined the consequences of pursuing and attaining aspirations over a one-year period in a post-college sample. Results indicated that placing importance on either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations related positively to attainment of those goals. Yet, whereas attainment of intrinsic aspirations related positively to psychological health, attainment of extrinsic aspirations did not; indeed, attainment of extrinsic aspirations related positively to indicators of ill-being. Also as predicted, the association between change in attainment of intrinsic aspirations and change in psychological health was mediated by change in the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Discussion focuses on the idea that not all goal attainment is beneficial; rather, attainment of aspirations with different contents relates differentially to psychological health. PMID:20161160

  8. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  9. Potentiation of cigarette smoking and radiation: evidence from a sputum cytology survey among uranium miners and controls.

    PubMed

    Band, P; Feldstein, M; Saccomanno, G; Watson, L; King, G

    1980-03-15

    To assess the effect of cigarette smoking and of exposure to radon daughters, a prospective survey consisting of periodic sputum cytology evaluation was initiated among 249 underground uranium miners and 123 male controls. Sputum cytology specimens showing moderate atypia, marked atypia, or cancer cells were classified as abnormal. As compared to control smokers, miners who smoke had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal cytology (P = .025). For miner smokers, the observed frequencies of abnormal cytology were linearly related to cumulative exposure to radon daughters and to the number of years of uranium mining. A statistical model relating the probability of abnormal cytology to the risk factors was investigated using a binary logistic regression. The estimated frequency of abnormal cytology was significantly dependent, for controls, on the duration of cigarette smoking, and for miners, on the duration of cigarette smoking and of uranium mining. PMID:7357519

  10. Potentiation of cigarette smoking and radiation: evidence from a sputum cytology survey among uranium miners and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Band, P.; Feldstein, M.; Saccomanno, G.; Watson, L.; King, G.

    1980-03-15

    To assess the effect of cigarette smoking and of exposure to radon daughters, a prospective survey consisting of periodic sputum cytology evaluation was initiated among 249 underground uranium miners and 123 male controls. Sputum cytology specimens showing moderate atypia, marked atypia, or cancer cells were classified as abnormal. As compared to control smokers, miners who smoke had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal cytology (P = 0.025). For miner smokers, the observed frequencies of abnormal cytology were linearly related to cumulative exposure to radon daughters and to the number of years of uranium mining. A statistical model relating the probability of abnormal cytology to the risk factors was investigated using a binary logistic regression. The estimated frequency of abnormal cytology was significantly dependent, for controls, on the duration of cigarette smoking, and for miners, on the duration of cigarette smoking and of uranium mining.

  11. [Cytologic and biochemical component in 203 bronchoalveolar lavages. Reference values].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sala, R; Alvarez-Sala, J L; Prados, C; Callol, L; Laguna, R; Blasco, R; Villamor, J; Gómez de Terreros, F J

    1995-01-01

    The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is considered a basic technique as a diagnostic aid in Pneumology. However, one of the main problems faced by the clinician is the lack of standardization of the technique. This has been resolved through the drafting of international standards. The other problem is the lack of what might be called a "reference" BAL. In order to establish a reference BAL, we analyzed 203 BAL divided in two groups: a control group and a pathologic group, make up by extrinsic asthma, intrinsic asthma, pulmonary infections, diffuse interstitial pneumopathies, bronchopulmonary tumors and chronic bronchitis. We have studied both the cytologic and the biochemical component of the BAL. Among the biochemical markers, we have considered; carcinoembrionary antigen (CEA), tissular polypeptidic antigen (TPA), neuronal specific enolase (NSE), ferritin (FER), calcitonin (CT), ACTH, histamin (HIS) and prostaglandin (PGE2). In order to establish the reference values, we have used the modified Baye's theorema. The BAL that we obtained was the following: volume 20 ml, cells 35 x 10(5) cells/ml, macrophages 77%, lymphocytes 22%, neutrophils 4%, eosinophils 2%, CEA 14 ng/mg, TPA 84 U/g PT, NSE 5 ng/mg PT, FER 42 ng/mg PT, CT 15 pg/mg PT, ACTH 51 pg/mg PT, HIS 1.22 ng/mg PT, PGE2 35 pg/mg PT. PMID:7718715

  12. Cytological studies of Brassicaceae burn. (Cruciferae juss.) from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumar, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2013-01-01

    Cytological studies have been carried out on 12 species of Brassicaceae Burn. on population basis from different geographical areas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh in the Western Himalayas. Variable chromosome reports for Barbaraea intermedia (n = 16), Cardamine loxostemonoides (n = 8), Nasturtium officinale (n = 8), Sisymbrium orientale (n = 14) on world-wide basis have been added to the previous reports of these species. The chromosome numbers in seven species as Barbaraea intermedia (n = 8), B. vulgaris (n = 8), Capsella bursa-pastoris (n = 8), Descuriania sophia (n = 10), Rorippa islandica (n = 8), Sisymbrium strictum (n = 7) and Thlaspi alpestre (n = 7) have been worked out for the first time from India. The meiotic course in the populations of seven species such as Barbaraea intermedia, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Coronopus didymus, Descuriania sophia, Nasturtium officinale, Sisymbrium orientale and S. strictum varies from normal to abnormal while all the populations of two species Barbaraea vulgaris and Sisymbrium irio show abnormal meiotic course. Meiotic abnormalities are in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, inter-bivalent connections, formation of laggards and bridges, all resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. Heterogenous sized fertile pollen grains and reduced reproductive potentialities have invariably been observed in all the meiotically abnormal populations. However, the meiotic course in all the populations of Cardamine loxostemonoides, Rorippa islandica and Thalspi alpestre is found to be normal with high pollen fertility. PMID:23427609

  13. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  14. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jana Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at four-year colleges and universities. Using College Choice and College Outcomes models as a theoretical foundation, I examined whether eight good…

  15. CYTOPATHOLOGY Indeterminate Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Breast

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    . Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 1997;81:129­35. 1997 American Cancer Society. KEYWORDS: breast, fine into two categories: 1) ``indeterminate'' and 1997 American Cancer Society / 7303$$1018 03-26-97 11129 CANCER CYTOPATHOLOGY Indeterminate Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Breast Image Analysis

  16. COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    1 COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES William H. Wolberg methods based on linear programming that were applicable to breast cancer diagnosis and prognostic), and 2) improve breast cancer prognostic estimations. The diagnostic accuracy of FNA to diagnose breast

  17. Searching for Autonomy: Young Black Men, Schooling and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Ian; Finney, Sarah; Swann, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between being young and black, and educational and career aspirations, drawing on new research evidence from two recent studies carried out in two urban locations in Northern England. The first of these studies forms part of a wider research project concerned with analysing the connections between aspects of…

  18. Aspiring Principal Development Programme Evaluation in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is to…

  19. Subject Choice and Occupational Aspirations among Pupils at Girls' Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky; Hutchings, Merryn; Archer, Louise; Amelling, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Various studies have found that British girls' curriculum subject preferences and future aspirations have changed and diversified in recent years. Other work has suggested that girls educated in single-sex schools might have a different (perhaps less gender-stereotypical) experience of education in comparison with their contemporaries at…

  20. Bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in patients with acute coma.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Enise; Voss, Frederik; Gerigk, Roland; Lauterbach, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Loss of protective airway reflexes in patients with acute coma puts these patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia complicating the course of the primary disease. Available data vary considerably with regard to bacteriology, role of anaerobic bacteria, and antibiotic treatment. Our objective was to research the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in acute coma patients who were not pre-treated with antibiotics or hospitalized within 30 days prior to the event. We prospectively analyzed 127 patient records from adult patients admitted, intubated and ventilated to a tertiary medical intensive care unit with acute coma. Bacteriology and antibiotic resistance testing from tracheal aspirate sampled within 24 h after admission, blood cultures, ICU scores (APACHE II, SOFA), hematology, and clinical chemistry were assessed. Patients were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The majority of patients with acute coma suffered from acute cardiovascular disorders, predominantly myocardial infarction, followed by poisonings, and coma of unknown cause. In a majority of our patients, microaspiration resulted in overt infection. Most frequently S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were isolated. Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides spec., Fusobacteria, Prevotella spec.) were isolated from tracheal aspirate in a minority of patients, and predominantly as part of a mixed infection. Antibiotic monotherapy with a 2nd generation cephalosporin, or a 3rd generation gyrase inhibitor, was most effective in our patients regardless of the presence of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:25164409

  1. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  2. Aspire Public Schools: Building the Organizational Capacity for Healthy Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Amy; Perigo, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Two years into an aggressive expansion plan, Aspire Public Schools was on track in terms of school openings, but behind on its goals to add a layer of management. The schools were performing well, but the nonprofit's leaders were stretched paper thin and concerned about the organization's ability to perform in the face of more growth. Determined…

  3. Social Factors and Educational Aspirations of Canadian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, P. M.

    The introduction emphasizes the worth of higher education to individuals and society. The author cites social scietists' findings that social class, sex, residential background, parental and peer group interest, I.Q. and academic performance influence educational aspirations and achievement. In this paper, he intends: (1) to verify these…

  4. Educational and Career Aspirations: Views of Business School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Cox, John Lew

    2004-01-01

    A sizeable percentage of undergraduate students enroll in U.S. business schools; yet, there is sparse published research on the educational aspirations and career goals of this select student body. To address this gap in the literature, a survey of undergraduate business students at The University of West Florida was conducted in the Fall semester…

  5. First-Year Student Aspirations: A Multinodal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellier, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the aspirations of first-year university students in a particular socio-geographic context, by juxtaposing this context with those of Western universities in the 1970s. The rhizomatic analysis enables student voices and personal narratives to complement, extend and undercut the words of published researchers and of the…

  6. Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

  7. Infrared Thermal Imaging During Ultrasonic Aspiration of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, D. J.; Woodworth, G.; Gupta, S. V.; Manandhar, P.; Schwartz, T. H.

    Ultrasonic surgical aspirator tips target removal of bone in approaches to tumors or aneurysms. Low profile angled tips provide increased visualization and safety in many high risk surgical situations that commonly were approached using a high speed rotary drill. Utilization of the ultrasonic aspirator for bone removal raised questions about relative amount of local and transmitted heat energy. In the sphenoid wing of a cadaver section, ultrasonic bone aspiration yielded lower thermal rise in precision bone removal than rotary mechanical drills, with maximum temperature of 31 °C versus 69 °C for fluted and 79 °C for diamond drill bits. Mean ultrasonic fragmentation power was about 8 Watts. Statistical studies using tenacious porcine cranium yielded mean power levels of about 4.5 Watts to 11 Watts and mean temperature of less than 41.1 °C. Excessively loading the tip yielded momentary higher power; however, mean thermal rise was less than 8 °C with bone removal starting at near body temperature of about 37 °C. Precision bone removal and thermal management were possible with conditions tested for ultrasonic bone aspiration.

  8. An Unusual Case of Foreign Body Aspiration in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Dias, E

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of foreign body is a serious condition in childhood and may result in acute respiratory distress, lung injury or death. A nine month old baby with history of severe respiratory distress, cyanosis and gasping breathing diagnosed as foreign body aspiration due to a balloon which was recovered post mortem during the removal of the endotracheal tube. PMID:23439996

  9. Mexican-American High School Students: Educational Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Lucila; Sanchez, Arthur R.

    1995-01-01

    Acculturation, academic achievement, and parental expectations were shown to predict the educational aspirations of 71 Mexican American high school students. Acculturation was also shown to mediate attitudes concerning importance placed on future job security and career success. Implications for counselors and educators are discussed. (Author/JBJ)

  10. Adolescent Boys' Science Aspirations: Masculinity, Capital, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Willis, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread international concern about post-16 participation rates in science, with women's under-representation constituting a particular issue. This paper contributes to these debates through a novel, critical examination of the role of masculinity within boys' negotiations of science aspirations. Drawing on a UK longitudinal…

  11. Who Wants a Job in Biology? Student Aspirations and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Danielle; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a questionnaire survey of UK Year 3 biology undergraduates' career aspirations, and their perceptions of employment in teaching, research and conservation. Although most students sought material benefits in their potential careers, even more wished to gain job satisfaction. None of the careers in biology was…

  12. Explanatory Aspirations and the Scandal of Cognitive Neuroscience

    E-print Network

    Levy, Simon D.

    Explanatory Aspirations and the Scandal of Cognitive Neuroscience Ross W. GAYLERa , Simon D. LEVYb of artificial cognitive systems. Most cognitive neuroscience models fail to provide a basis for implementation architectures by simplifying the design task through vertical modularity. Keywords. cognitive neuroscience

  13. Aspirator Gun for High-Throughput Mosquito Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe an innovative aspirator gun designed to transfer anaesthetized mosquitoes directly into glass bioassay tubes. The gun has been used for thousands of transfers with extremely low associated mortality and is the central component of a high-throughput bioassay system. The gun is constructed...

  14. Measurement of membrane elasticity by micro-pipette aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, J. R.; Ipsen, J. H.

    2004-06-01

    The classical micro-pipette aspiration technique, applied for measuring the membrane bending elasticity, is in the present work reviewed and extended to span the range of pipette aspiration pressures going through the flaccid (low pressures) to tense (high pressures) membrane regime. The quality of the conventional methods for analysing data is evaluated using numerically generated data and a new method for data analysis, based on thermodynamic analysis and detailed statistical mechanical modelling, is introduced. The analysis of the classical method, where the membrane bending modulus is obtained from micro-pipette aspiration data acquired in the low-pressure regime, reveals a significant correction from membrane stretching elasticity. The new description, which includes the full vesicle geometry and both the membrane bending and stretching elasticity, is used for the interpretation of micro-pipette aspiration experiments conducted on SOPC (stearoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline) lipid vesicles in the fluid phase. The data analysis, which is extended by detailed image analysis and a fitting procedure based on Monte Carlo integration, gives an estimate of the bending modulus, that agrees with previously published results obtained by the use of shape fluctuation analysis of giant unilamellar vesicles. The obtained estimate of the area expansion modulus, is automatically corrected for contributions from residual thermal undulations and the equilibrium area of the vesicle is resolved.

  15. Effects of coda voicing and aspiration on Hindi vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampp, Claire; Reklis, Heidi

    2001-05-01

    This study reexamines the well-attested coda voicing effect on vowel duration [Chen, Phonetica 22, 125-159 (1970)], in conjunction with the relationship between vowel duration and aspiration of codas. The first step was to replicate the results of Maddieson and Gandour [UCLA Working Papers Phonetics 31, 46-52 (1976)] with a larger, language-specific data set. Four nonsense syllables ending in [open-o] followed by [k, kh, g, gh] were read aloud in ten different carrier sentences by four native speakers of Hindi. Results confirm that longer vowels precede voiced word-final consonants and aspirated word-final consonants. Thus, among the syllables, vowel duration would be longest when preceding the voiced aspirate [gh]. Coda voicing, and thus, vowel duration, have been shown to correlate negatively to vowel F1 in English and Arabic [Wolf, J. Phonetics 6, 299-309 (1978); de Jong and Zawaydeh ibid, 30, 53-75 (2002)]. It is not known whether vowel F1 depends directly on coda voicing, or is determined indirectly via duration. Since voicing and aspiration both increase duration, F1 measurements of this data set (which will be presented) may answer that question.

  16. Uncertainty in Early Occupational Aspirations: Role Exploration or Aimlessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2010-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socio-economic attainment if it signifies "role exploration," characterized by career development, continued education and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to…

  17. The Effect of Community Colleges on Changing Students' Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Duane E.; Gill, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    The education literature provides numerous estimates of community college diversion and democratization effects measured in terms of educational attainment. Kane and Rouse [J Econ Pers 13 (1999) 64] suggest testing for diversion by comparing the impacts of two-year and four-year colleges on the changes in educational aspirations that underlie…

  18. Counseling Implications of Black Women's Market Position, Aspirations and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Pruitt, Anne

    The major premise of this paper is that career and educational counseling for women, and particularly for black women, needs to be based on an understanding of their market position. Data on black women's options and choices in a discriminatory market, on their occupational and educational aspirations, and on the role of expectations in their work…

  19. Long-Term Morbidity and Management Strategies of Tracheal Aspiration in Adults with Severe Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The feeding skills of 73 adults with severe developmental disabilities who aspirated were examined. Mobility, level of mental retardation, or feeding skill did not discriminate those who aspirated. Mealtime respiratory distress (65%) or chronic lung disease (55%), however, were significantly associated with aspiration. (Author/DB)

  20. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  1. Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…

  2. Structural and Socio-Psychological Influences on Adolescents' Educational Aspirations and Subsequent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Arephin, Muna; Klineberg, Emily; Cattell, Vicky; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature indicates that educational aspirations are an important predictor of achievement at school and beyond. This paper examines the factors that are associated with high educational aspirations. It also looks at the relationship between aspirations and achievement at the General Certificate of Secondary Education in a deprived area…

  3. Practical Application of Aspiration as an Outcome Indicator in Extension Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2010-01-01

    Extension educators need simple and accurate evaluation tools for program evaluation. This article explains how to use aspiration as an outcome indicator in Extension evaluation and introduces a practical evaluation tool. Aspiration can be described as the readiness for change. By recording participants' levels of aspiration, we will be able to…

  4. Swiss Adolescents' Career Aspirations: Influence of Context, Age, and Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the content, realism, stability, and coherence of the career aspirations of 262 students in seventh grade in Switzerland (ages 13-15 years). The content analysis revealed that 82% of the participants named at least one realistic career aspiration, and aspirations showed clear resemblance to existing opportunities in the…

  5. Running head: SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF HIGH ASPIRATIONS Do You a Favor?

    E-print Network

    of the goal-setting literature and walk away thinking of high aspirations like a motivational vitamin goal-setting story (Zetik & Stuhlmacher, 2002). While negotiators with high aspirations do tend aspirations for individual performance in negotiation. The goal-setting literature, for instance, generally

  6. Parental Influence on Mainland Chinese Children's Career Aspirations: Child and Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianwei; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Career aspirations developed in childhood may impact on future career development in adolescence and adulthood. Family is an important context in which children develop their career aspirations. This study examined how parents influence children's career aspirations in mainland China from both the parents' and children's perspectives. Eight…

  7. Urine cytology to evaluate urinary urothelial damage of shock-wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mahmoud; Pancaroglu, Kuddusi

    2011-06-01

    Our aim is to study the prospective trial where urine cytology was used to detect the acute urothelial mucosal damage in patients who undergo extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (SWL). The study included 48 consecutive patients (28 male, 20 female) with mean age of 49.02 years (range 18-66) who were treated with SWL due to renal stones (30 patients) or upper ureter stones (18 patients). The mean calculi diameter was 12.44 mm (range 5-20). Urinary cytologic examinations were done for all patients immediately before and after SWL therapy and 10 days latter. The average numbers of transitional cells, red blood cells and myocytes were counted under 40 × magnification. In overall patients the average numbers of transitional cells at the cytologic examinations done immediately before and after SWL therapy were 1.6 and 7.53 cell/field, respectively (p = 0.001). The increment in transitional cells at cytologic examination after SWL was significantly influenced only by number of shock waves applied (p = 0.003). No muscle cell was detected in all cytologic examinations. The cytologic examinations which were done after 10 days of SWL therapy showed recovery from all cytologic abnormalities. The acute increment in number of transitional cells after the SWL is not clinically important and it is a temporary change. Urothelial lesion is limited to mucosal layer and there is no evidence of damage to basal membrane or deeper muscle layer. SWL safety on urothelial and muscular layer was demonstrated. However, evaluation of larger series with use of other lithotripters is necessary before reaching any definitive conclusions. PMID:21063696

  8. Percutaneous aspiration of fluid for management of peritonitis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Nicolaou, S.; Campbell, M. R.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Melton, S.; Beck, G.; Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a medical emergency that can affect even well-screened, healthy individuals, peritonitis developing during a long-duration space exploration mission may dictate deviation from traditional clinical practice due to the absence of otherwise indicated surgical capabilities. Medical management can treat many intra-abdominal processes, but treatment failures are inevitable. In these circumstances, percutaneous aspiration under sonographic guidance could provide a "rescue" strategy. Hypothesis: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid can be performed in microgravity. METHODS: Investigations were conducted in the microgravity environment of NASA's KC-135 research aircraft (0 G). The subjects were anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs weighing 50 kg. The procedures were rehearsed in a terrestrial animal lab (1 G). Colored saline (500 mL) was introduced through an intra-peritoneal catheter during flight. A high-definition ultrasound system (HDI-5000, ATL, Bothell, WA) was used to guide a 16-gauge needle into the peritoneal cavity to aspirate fluid. RESULTS: Intra-peritoneal fluid collections were easily identified, distinct from surrounding viscera, and on occasion became more obvious during weightless conditions. Subjectively, with adequate restraint of the subject and operators, the procedure was no more demanding than during the 1-G rehearsals. CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid collections is feasible in weightlessness. Treatment of intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions in spaceflight might rely on pharmacological options, backed by sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration for the "rescue" of treatment failures. While this risk mitigation strategy cannot guarantee success, it may be the most practical option given severe resource limitations.

  9. The Values Adolescents Aspire to, Their Well-Being and the Values Parents Aspire to for Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Ferran; Figuer, Cristina; Gonzalez, Monica; Malo, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between the psychological well-being of Spanish adolescents from 12 to 16 years old and the values they aspire to for the future (N = 1,618). Adolescents' well-being is explored through (a) their satisfaction with 19 specific life domains, (b) the Personal Well-Being Index (Cummins, "Social…

  10. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology*

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00), as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99), whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively). Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples. PMID:25029648

  11. Salivary duct carcinoma cytologically diagnosed distinctly from salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akihiko; Harada, Hiroshi; Akiba, Jun; Kage, Masayoshi

    2008-07-01

    It has been difficult cytologically to distinguish salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) from high-grade carcinoma. We investigated the microscopic cytological findings, morphometric image analyses, and immunohistochemical features of SDC, focusing on how we achieved an accurate differential diagnosis distinguishing SDC from salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for androgen receptor (AR), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP15), mammaglobin, human gastric mucin, MUC1, MUC2, p63, and cytokeratin high molecular weight. Of the 13 cases of SDC, 9 cases showed typical cytological findings of sheet clusters with polygonal granular cytoplasm with fine chromatin. The other 4 cases showed unusual cytological findings of a pseudo-papillary cluster or scattered cells only, and the tumor cells showed coarse chromatin. Morphometric image analysis showed that the nucleus area was statistically different between SDC and salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation. AR-positive expression (P = 0.008), GCDFP15-positive expression (P = 0.005) and p63-negative expression (P = 0.001) were effective as SDC-specific markers in immunohistochemistry. An accurate cytological diagnosis of SDC can be determined by immunostaining with AR, GCDFP15, and p63, based on the nuclear findings. PMID:18528886

  12. Impact of the Multi-Gene ThyroSeq Next-Generation Sequencing Assay on Cancer Diagnosis in Thyroid Nodules with Atypia of Undetermined Significance/Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Sally E.; Chiosea, Simon I.; Coyne, Christopher; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Ferris, Robert L.; Gooding, William E.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Ohori, N. Paul; Seethala, Raja R.; Tublin, Mitchell E.; Yip, Linwah; Nikiforova, Marina N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a common approach to evaluate thyroid nodules. It offers definitive diagnosis of a benign or malignant nodule in the majority of cases. However, 10–25% of nodules yield one of three indeterminate cytologic diagnoses, leading to suboptimal management of these patients. Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a common indeterminate diagnosis, with the cancer risk ranging from 6% to 48%. This study assessed whether a multi-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay can offer significant improvement in diagnosis in AUS/FLUS nodules. Methods: From May 2014 to March 2015, 465 consecutive FNA samples with the cytologic diagnosis of AUS/FLUS underwent prospective molecular testing using the ThyroSeq v2.1 panel. The panel included 14 genes analyzed for point mutations and 42 types of gene fusions occurring in thyroid cancer. In addition, eight genes were assessed for expression in order to evaluate the cell composition of FNA samples. Ninety-eight (21%) of these nodules had definitive surgical (n?=?96) or nonsurgical (n?=?2) follow-up and were used to determine the assay performance. Results: Among 465 AUS/FLUS nodules, three were found to be composed of parathyroid cells and 462 of thyroid follicular cells. Of the latter, 31 (6.7%) were positive for mutations. The most frequently mutated genes were NRAS and HRAS, and overall point mutations in seven different genes and five types of gene fusions were identified in these nodules. Among 98 nodules with known outcome, histologic analysis revealed 22 (22.5%) cancers. ThyroSeq v2.1 was able to classify 20/22 cancers correctly, showing a sensitivity of 90.9% [confidence interval (CI) 78.8–100], specificity of 92.1% [CI 86.0–98.2], positive predictive value of 76.9% [CI 60.7–93.1], and negative predictive value of 97.2% [CI 78.8–100], with an overall accuracy of 91.8% [CI 86.4–97.3]. Conclusions: The results of the study demonstrate that the ThyroSeq v2.1 multi-gene NGS panel of molecular markers provides both high sensitivity and high specificity for cancer detection in thyroid nodules with AUS/FLUS cytology, which should allow improved management for these patients. PMID:26356635

  13. Familial and Economic Influences on the Gender-Related Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Meece, Judith L.; Askew, Karyl J. S.; Agger, Charlotte A.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2015-01-01

    Economic, occupational, and social shifts in rural economies have influenced nuanced changes in the educational and occupational aspirations of rural adolescent women and men. However, there is limited contemporary research that examines the aspirations of rural adolescents at the beginning of the 21st century. Drawing on a sample of 8,756 rural adolescents in the United States, we examine how familial, geographic, and economic variables influence gender-related differences in educational and occupational aspirations. Findings revealed significant gender differences, favoring girls, in youth's educational aspirations, occupational aspirations, and aspirations for nontraditional careers. Results highlight the importance of contextual variables such as parental expectations, family income, and motivation variables in predicting gender-related aspirations of rural youth.

  14. Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in papillary thyroid cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fnais, Naif; Soobiah, Charlene; Al-Qahtani, Khalid; Hamid, Jemila S; Perrier, Laure; Straus, Sharon E; Tricco, Andrea C

    2015-10-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) with cytologic analysis is an initial step in diagnosing thyroid nodules that are suspicious for cancer. We systematically reviewed the test accuracy of B-type Raf kinase (BRAF(V600E)) gene mutation analysis plus conventional FNA in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer. We identified studies reporting BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis after FNA for evaluation of thyroid nodules through searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, scanning reference lists of relevant studies, and contacting experts. Two independent reviewers screened literature results, abstracted data, and appraised study quality. When appropriate, bivariate and univariate random-effects meta-analyses of sensitivity and specificity were considered for all outcomes. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria after screening 1560 citations and 169 full-text articles. The included studies enrolled approximately 16170 patients with 9924 FNA samples evaluated for BRAF(V600E) mutation. Univariate pooled sensitivity was 69% (95% confidence interval, 61%-76%) for papillary thyroid cancer. For thyroid nodules that were diagnosed cytologically as suspicious for papillary thyroid cancer, univariate pooled sensitivity using FNA and BRAF(V600E) results was 52% (95% confidence interval, 39%-64%). Despite its high specificity, our meta-analysis shows that BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis has a low sensitivity in diagnosing papillary thyroid cancer in thyroid nodules. The feasibility of this test as a single molecular tool is not well established, which indicates the need for well-designed prospective clinical studies. PMID:26232865

  15. Impact of At-Risk Behavior on the Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Male and Female Adolescents in Rural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1995-01-01

    Data from 129 rural adolescents ranked as minimal, moderate, or substantial risk showed the following: substantially at-risk males had lower aspirations than similar females, females had higher occupational expectation and aspiration, 50% expected occupations significantly lower in prestige than aspired careers; and aspiration and expectation of…

  16. Behavior of liquid metal droplets in an aspirating nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Mason, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of particle size, velocity, and relative mass flux were made on spray field produced by aspirating liquid tin into 350{degrees}C argon flowing through a venturi nozzle via a small orifice in the throat of the nozzle. Details of the aspiration and droplet formation process were observed through windows in the nozzle. The spatial distribution of droplet size, velocity, and relative number density were measured at a location 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Due to the presence of separated flow in the nozzle, changes in nozzle inlet pressure did not significantly effect resulting droplet size and velocity. This suggests that good aerodynamic nozzle design is required if spray characteristics are to be controlled by nozzle flow. 5 refs.

  17. Behavior of liquid metal droplets in an aspirating nozzle. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Mason, T.A.

    1990-12-31

    Measurements of particle size, velocity, and relative mass flux were made on spray field produced by aspirating liquid tin into 350{degrees}C argon flowing through a venturi nozzle via a small orifice in the throat of the nozzle. Details of the aspiration and droplet formation process were observed through windows in the nozzle. The spatial distribution of droplet size, velocity, and relative number density were measured at a location 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Due to the presence of separated flow in the nozzle, changes in nozzle inlet pressure did not significantly effect resulting droplet size and velocity. This suggests that good aerodynamic nozzle design is required if spray characteristics are to be controlled by nozzle flow. 5 refs.

  18. Suicidal Ideation and Migration Aspirations among Youth in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  19. Heterogeneous Aspirations Promote Cooperation in the Public Goods Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Yang, Han-Xin; Chen, Shao-Min; Chen, Ya-Shan

    2013-12-01

    We study the impact of heterogeneous aspirations on the spatial public goods game (PGG) in a square lattice. An aspiration parameter u is introduced to decide who will be more probably to become the potential strategy source in structured population. Individuals are divided into two groups A(u > 0) and B(u = 0) by fraction v and 1 - v. We study how u and v affect cooperation in the PGG. For low values of u, the cooperation level monotonously increases as v increases. However, for large values of u, there exist an intermediate v ? 0.5 for which cooperation thrives best. The influence of noise is also investigated. We find that the highest threshold of phase transition is reached at the middle value of noise.

  20. Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Zevin, D.; Thrall, L.; Croft, S.; Raftery, C.; Shackelford, R.

    2015-11-01

    Led by U.C. Berkeley's Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory in partnership with U.C. Berkeley Astronomy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the YMCA of the Central Bay Area, Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE) is a NASA EPOESS-funded program mainly for high school students that explores NASA science through art and highlights the need for and uses of art and visualizations in science. ASPIRE's aim is to motivate more diverse young people (especially African Americans) to learn about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) topics and careers, via 1) Intensive summer workshops; 2) Drop-in after school workshops; 3) Astronomy visualization-focused outreach programming at public venues including a series of free star parties where the students help run the events; and 5) A website and a number of social networking strategies that highlight our youth's artwork.

  1. Cervical cytological abnormalities and HPV infection in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ananworanich, J; Prasitsuebsai, W; Kerr, S J; Hansudewechakul, R; Teeratakulpisarn, N; Saisawat, K; Ramautarsing, R; Achalapong, J; Pussadee, K; Keadpudsa, S; Mackay, T; Pankam, T; Rodbamrung, P; Petdachai, W; Chokephaibulkit, K; Sohn, A H; Phanuphak, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Behaviourally HIV-infected adolescent females are at higher risk for abnormal cervical cytology and HPV infection compared to those who are uninfected, but data on perinatally HIV-infected adolescent females are lacking. Methods Cervical cytology, HPV infection and E6/E7 mRNA were assessed in sexually active 12–24-year-old adolescent females: perinatally HIV-infected (group 1, n = 40), behaviourally HIV-infected (group 2, n = 10), and HIV-uninfected (group 3, n = 10). Results Median age was lower in group 1 (18 years) than in groups 2 (24 years) and 3 (20.5 years) (P < 0.001), and median time since sexual debut was shorter: 2 vs 5 vs 4 years (P < 0.001). More trial participants in group 1 than group 2 were on antiretrovirals (90% vs 70%; P <0.001). Abnormal cervical cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and higher) was observed in 30% (group 1), 40% (group 2) and 30% (group 3) (P = 0.92), whereas high-risk HPV infection was observed in 45%, 45% and 40%, respectively (P = 1.00). Positive E6/E7 mRNA was found in 28% of group 1, but not in other groups. High-risk HPV infection predicted abnormal cytology in all groups [OR 6.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.99–23.0; P = 0.001). Additionally, plasma HIV RNA ?50 copies/mL (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.16–153.06; P = 0.04) predicted abnormal cytology in HIV-infected adolescent females. Conclusions Despite the younger age and shorter time since sexual debut, cervical cytological abnormalities and HPV infection were as common in perinatally HIV-infected as in behaviourally infected and uninfected adolescents. HPV vaccination, pre-cancer screening and antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected female adolescents should be implemented to minimise the risk of cervical cancer. PMID:26005716

  2. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-11-01

    We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively.

  3. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  4. Pleural fluid tumour markers in malignant pleural effusion with inconclusive cytologic results

    PubMed Central

    Antonangelo, L.; Sales, R.K.; Corá, A.P.; Acencio, M.M.P.; Teixeira, L.R.; Vargas, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of tumour cells in pleural fluid or tissue defines an effusion as malignant. Cytology analysis of the pleural fluid has about 60% diagnostic sensitivity. Several tests have been proposed to improve diagnosis—among them, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid. We evaluated whether the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid could improve the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (mpe) when cytology is doubtful. Methods Lymphocytic pleural fluids secondary to tuberculosis or malignancy from 156 outpatients were submitted for cytology and tumour marker quantification [carcinoembryonic antigen (cea), cancer antigen 15-3 (ca15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (ca19-9), cancer antigen 72-4 (ca72-4), cancer antigen 125 (ca125), and cyfra 21-1). Oneway analysis of variance, the Student t-test or Mann–Whitney test, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used in the statistical analysis. Results Concentrations of the tumour markers cea, ca15-3, ca125, and cyfra 21-1 were higher in mpes than they were in the benign effusions (p < 0.001), regardless of cytology results. The markers ca19-9 and ca72-4 did not discriminate malignant from benign effusions. When comparing the concentrations of tumour markers in mpes having positive, suspicious, or negative cytology with concentrations in benign effusions, we observed higher levels of cea, ca15-3, cyfra 21-1, and ca125 in malignant effusions with positive cytology (p = 0.003, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001 respectively). In pleural fluid, only ca125 was higher in mpes with suspicious or negative cytology (p = 0.001) than in benign effusions. Conclusions Given high specificity and a sensitivity of about 60%, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural effusions could be evaluated in cases of inconclusive cytology in patients with a high pre-test chance of malignancy or a history of cancer. PMID:26628873

  5. Cytological detection of a peripheral lung carcinoma in a coke oven worker

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, R.L.; Belman, M.J.; Nathwani, B.; Valco, Z.; Yokota, S.

    1980-06-01

    OSHA mandated programs of pulmonary cytology among coke oven workers have resulted in detection of a number of unsuspected tumors. While it is too early to determine the eventual impact of these programs, this report describes the detection of a 0.3 cm peripheral lesion, believed to be the smallest identified by cytology. In addition to being diminutive, the tumor proved to be of the epidermoid type, unusual for the location. Further investigation is required to determine whether peripheral epidermoid neoplasms are associated with exposure to coke vapors.

  6. PCR-based forensic testing of DNA from stained cytological smears.

    PubMed

    Dimo-Simonin, N; Grange, F; Brandt-Casadevall, C

    1997-05-01

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of PCR-STR (Short Tandem Repeats) and PCR-sequence polymorphisms for the identification of stained pap smears and postcoital slides stained with cytological and forensic techniques. HLA-DQA1, PolyMarker, Amelogenin, HUMTH01, HUMVWFA31, HUMF13B, and HUMFES/FPS were determined. With the exception of the forensic Baecchi stain, all the PCR-systems gave consistent results in comparison with the reference blood from the donors. Cytological stained smears can be important evidence for identification in sexual assault cases and in missing person cases. PMID:9144941

  7. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tashtoush, Basheer; Schroeder, Jonathan; Memarpour, Roya; Oliveira, Eduardo; Medina, Michael; Hadeh, Anas; Ramirez, Jose; Smolley, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of steak from the airway, the patient remained hypotensive and required continued hemodynamic support. Repeated laboratory tests within 24?hrs of aspiration showed a significant decline in the hemoglobin level. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a lacerated liver with a large subcapsular hematoma draining into the pelvis. Conclusion. Hepatic rupture is a rare complication of Heimlich maneuver; this paper represents the second case report in the literature. It emphasizes the necessity of early identification and surveillance of fatal Heimlich maneuver complications in a high risk population. PMID:26090241

  8. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, S.; Ennico, K.; Abe/Aspire Science Team

    The AstroBiology Explorer ABE and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer ASPIRE Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions 1 Where do we come from and 2 Are we alone as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity abundance and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to 1 Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions and the young stellar planetary systems that form in them 2 Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows 3 Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids comets and the planets and their satellites 4 Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution abundance and change with environment 5 Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type and 6 Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE s core mission and adds tasks that 7 Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry and 8 Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials ABE ASPIRE achieves these goals using a highly sensitive cryogenically-cooled telescope in an

  9. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan; Memarpour, Roya; Oliveira, Eduardo; Medina, Michael; Smolley, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of steak from the airway, the patient remained hypotensive and required continued hemodynamic support. Repeated laboratory tests within 24?hrs of aspiration showed a significant decline in the hemoglobin level. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a lacerated liver with a large subcapsular hematoma draining into the pelvis. Conclusion. Hepatic rupture is a rare complication of Heimlich maneuver; this paper represents the second case report in the literature. It emphasizes the necessity of early identification and surveillance of fatal Heimlich maneuver complications in a high risk population. PMID:26090241

  10. Papillary proliferation of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of 59 cases of simple and complex papillae without cytologic atypia.

    PubMed

    Ip, Philip P C; Irving, Julie A; McCluggage, W Glenn; Clement, Philip B; Young, Robert H

    2013-02-01

    Papillary proliferation of the endometrium (PPE) without cytologic atypia is uncommon and has only been studied in detail by Lehman and Hart in 2001. On histologic examination, PPE ranges from simple papillae with fibrovascular cores, often involving the surface of endometrial polyps, to complex intracystic proliferations; some consider the latter to be analogous to nonatypical complex hyperplasia. To further characterize PPE, with emphasis on the risk of and features associated with concurrent or subsequent neoplasia, the clinicopathologic features of 59 cases without cytologic atypia were studied. The cases were classified into 2 groups according to the degree of architectural complexity and extent of proliferation. Group 1 consisted of those with localized simple papillae. Simple papillae were defined as those with short, predominantly nonbranching stalks; those with occasional secondary branches and/or detached papillae were also included in this group. Localized proliferations were those with 1 or 2 foci involving the surface or the subjacent glands of polyps or nonpolypoid endometrium. Group 2 consisted of those with complex papillae and/or those with diffuse and crowded intracystic papillae. Complex papillae were those with either short or long stalks, with frequent secondary and complex branches. Diffuse proliferation was defined as presence of 3 or more foci within a specimen or involvement of >50% of the endometrial polyp by simple or complex PPE. Any coexistent or subsequent hyperplasia of conventional type (World Health Organization classification) or adenocarcinoma was recorded. The age of patients ranged from 23 to 82 years (median, 53 y); 36 (61%) were postmenopausal. The majority presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Sixteen patients (27%) were receiving hormonal preparations including 5 who were treated with a progestogen for preexisting endometrial hyperplasia or low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The histologic diagnosis of PPE was made in 49 biopsies and in 10 hysterectomy specimens. Thirty-six cases (61%) were classified as group 1 and 23 (39%) as group 2. In 47 cases (80%), there was a coexisting endometrial polyp, 39 (66%) of which were involved by the PPE. Fifty-three cases (90%) had coexisting epithelial metaplastic changes, 41 (77%) of which were involved by the PPE. The most common type of metaplasia was mucinous (41 of 59 cases, or 69%). Follow-up information was known for 46 patients (78%). Coexistent or subsequent nonatypical and atypical hyperplasia was found in 8 (17%) and 6 cases (13%), respectively. In 6 of the 46 cases (13%), a low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma was present either in the original specimen or during follow-up. In contrast to group 1 PPE, those with group 2 features were significantly associated with concurrent or subsequent premalignant lesions (nonatypical and atypical hyperplasia) or carcinoma (P<0.0001). This study indicates that localized and architecturally simple PPEs confined to a completely removed polyp are usually associated with a benign outcome and may be appropriately labeled as "benign papillary proliferation of the endometrium." Lesions with architecturally complex papillae, especially when extensive, have an increased risk of concurrent or subsequent endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma and should probably be regarded as analogous to atypical complex hyperplasia, and the term "complex papillary hyperplasia" is appropriate. As the distinction between simple and complex PPE may be difficult in small endometrial aspirational samples, consideration for curettage should be given to ascertain whether the lesion has been completely removed. PMID:23211295

  11. Splenic and hepatic ultrasound and cytology in canine lymphoma: effects of findings on stage migration and assessment of prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nerschbach, V; Eberle, N; Joetzke, A E; Hoeinghaus, R; Hungerbuehler, S; Mischke, R; Nolte, I; Betz, D

    2014-12-01

    Stage migration is described in humans and dogs as a sequel of using more sensitive diagnostic methods. One hundred eighty-six dogs with multicentric lymphoma were enrolled with results of conventional staging as well as ultrasonographic and cytological examination of liver and spleen being available. The addition of splenic respective hepatic ultrasound and cytology findings resulted in slightly lower number of dogs classified as having liver and spleen involvement. In dogs with multicentric lymphoma, addition of cytology led to a significant shift of individuals from stage IV to stage III. Findings of hepatic and splenic ultrasound and cytology exerted no significant influence on complete remission and survival durations in dogs with combination chemotherapy. Staging methodology in canine lymphoma should be redefined, considering that the prognostic significance of splenic and hepatic ultrasound and cytology warrants further investigation. PMID:25470748

  12. Sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting with distinctive magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kodama, Kozue; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-06-18

    A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US), MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor. PMID:25332766

  13. A novel cytologic sampling technique to diagnose subclinical endometritis and comparison of staining methods for endometrial cytology samples in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pascottini, O B; Dini, P; Hostens, M; Ducatelle, R; Opsomer, G

    2015-11-01

    The present article describes a study of the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows having two principal aims: first, to validate a novel technique for taking endometrial cytology samples to diagnose subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Second, to compare the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in cytology samples stained with Diff-Quik versus a specific staining method for PMNs, naphthol-AS-D-chloroacetate-esterase (CIAE). In the first experiment, Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 204) were used to take two cytology samples at the same time using the conventional cytobrush (CB) and the new cytotape (CT). Both devices were assembled within the same catheter allowing sampling at the same time, and approximately at the same location. Cytotape consisted of a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape rolled on the top of an insemination catheter covered with a double guard sheet. Parameters used to evaluate both methods were: PMNs percentage, total cellularity, quality of the smears, and red blood cell contamination. The concordance correlation coefficient analysis was used to assess agreement between continuous and Pearson chi-square tests for categorical variables. Agreement between the percentage of PMNs in both methods was good ? = 0.84 (0.79, 0.87) with a minor standard error of 2%. Both methods yielded similar total cellularity (P = 0.62). Cytotape yielded better quality smears with more intact cells (P < 0.01) while samples that were taken by CB were more likely to be bloody (P < 0.01). Hence, CT and CB methods yielded smears with a similar PMNs percentage and a total number of cells, but CT provided smears with higher quality and significantly less blood contamination. For the second experiment, 114 duplicate cytology slides were stained using both Diff-Quik and CIAE. Agreement between PMNs percentage in both staining techniques was good ?c = 0.84 (0.78, 0.89) with a standard error of only 2%. Hence, Diff-Quik was confirmed as an easy, fast, and high-quality staining technique, which can be routinely used to stain endometrial cytology samples satisfactorily. PMID:26300274

  14. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  16. Cytologically, prokaryotes appear simpler and thus evolutionarily `older' than eukaryotes. In terms of RNA

    E-print Network

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    and could have had many features of the eukaryote genome, but its cytology is unknown. Addresses *Institute. The starting point for the tree of life has been the tripartite division into the domains archaea, bacteria, the question of the nature of the LUCA is two-fold: identifying the position of the root of the tree of life

  17. Cytological diagnosis of typical carcinoid on bronchoscopic brush smears in an HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Neeta; Sayed, Shahin; Das, Swati

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of typical carcinoid of the lung in a 60-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive man diagnosed on brush cytology smears. Bronchial carcinoids are rare tumors, accounting for 1% to 2% of all lung tumors. Although the exact incidence in HIV-infected individuals is not known, the paucity of their documentation in the literature indicates that they may be equally rare. Cytological diagnosis on brush smears is rarely documented as the tumor is covered with mucosa and cellular yield is often not good. In this case, bronchial brushings showed distinctive cytological features of typical carcinoid. The awareness of its characteristic cytological features and differential diagnosis is required for an accurate diagnosis. Clinical awareness that non–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers can also occur in HIV-infected individuals in the context of the prolonged survival in the antiretroviral era is equally important. This case emphasizes the clinical importance of a broad differential diagnosis for lung lesions in HIV-positive patients. PMID:21897551

  18. Brief report: a growth mixture model of occupational aspirations of individuals with high-incidence disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W

    2013-02-01

    A previous longitudinal study of the occupational aspirations of individuals with high-incidence disabilities revealed multiple longitudinal patterns for individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavioral disorders. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether individuals in these two high-incidence disabilities groups (N = 585) possessed heterogeneous aspirations trajectories. Two distinct classes emerged. Among selected covariates (inc., gender, SES, locus of control, self-concept, mathematics achievement), only gender and SES significantly distinguished group membership. While no covariates were significantly related to the growth factors for latent class 2 (low aspirations), math achievement and SES were significantly related to initial aspirations in latent class 1 (high aspirations). Moreover, for latent class 1, the occupational aspirations of individuals with learning disabilities became increasingly lower than adolescents with emotional-behavior disorders after high school. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are considered. PMID:23219251

  19. Equine endometrial cytology and bacteriology: effectiveness for predicting live foaling rates.

    PubMed

    Davies Morel, M C G; Lawlor, O; Nash, D M

    2013-10-01

    Endometritis is an important cause of sub-fertility in mares. The critical indicator of reproductive success and financial return for commercial studs is live foaling rate. Endometrial bacteriology and/or cytology are used to diagnose endometritis and thus identify mares at risk of early embryonic death. However, mares with endometritis may conceive but then abort in late gestation. The aims of this study were to establish, as part of a standard breeding examination (1) whether a threshold percentage of uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) exists above which a significant reduction in live foaling rate is evident; (2) the relationship of a positive bacteriology result to live foaling rate, and (3) the relationship of a combination of positive cytology and bacteriology result to live foaling rate. Guarded endometrial swabs (n=2660) were collected from 1621 Thoroughbred mares on 17 commercial stud farms by five veterinarians during a single breeding season. All mares were included regardless of age, history or parity. Cytological and bacteriological analyses were performed on each swab and subsequent live foaling rates recoded. Data were analysed by comparing 0%, ? 1%, ? 2%, ? 5% or ? 25% PMNs of total cells counted, or categories of bacterial growth to live foaling rates, using Pearson's chi-squared test. A threshold value of ? 1% PMNs, culture of a single bacterial isolate and a combination of both these parameters were associated with significantly reduced live foaling rates. Positive cytology alone, positive bacterial culture alone, or combined positive cytology and bacteriology were equally indicative of the likelihood of a mare producing a live foal. PMID:24035467

  20. Heterogeneous aspirations promote cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Perc, Matjaž; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    To be the fittest is central to proliferation in evolutionary games. Individuals thus adopt the strategies of better performing players in the hope of successful reproduction. In structured populations the array of those that are eligible to act as strategy sources is bounded to the immediate neighbors of each individual. But which one of these strategy sources should potentially be copied? Previous research dealt with this question either by selecting the fittest or by selecting one player uniformly at random. Here we introduce a parameter u that interpolates between these two extreme options. Setting u equal to zero returns the random selection of the opponent, while positive u favor the fitter players. In addition, we divide the population into two groups. Players from group A select their opponents as dictated by the parameter u, while players from group B do so randomly irrespective of u. We denote the fraction of players contained in groups A and B by v and 1 - v, respectively. The two parameters u and v allow us to analyze in detail how aspirations in the context of the prisoner’s dilemma game influence the evolution of cooperation. We find that for sufficiently positive values of u there exist a robust intermediate v ? 0.5 for which cooperation thrives best. The robustness of this observation is tested against different levels of uncertainty in the strategy adoption process K and for different interaction networks. We also provide complete phase diagrams depicting the dependence of the impact of u and v for different values of K, and contrast the validity of our conclusions by means of an alternative model where individual aspiration levels are subject to evolution as well. Our study indicates that heterogeneity in aspirations may be key for the sustainability of cooperation in structured populations. PMID:21151898

  1. Foreign Body Aspiration of a Dental Bridge in the Left Main Stem Bronchus

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Monay; Imam, Syed; Patel, Hetalben; King, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Aspiration of tracheobronchial foreign bodies is a life-threatening event that occurs mainly in children. Occurrence in adults is rare and usually has a subtle presentation as most adults are unaware of aspiration of any foreign material. Decreased levels of consciousness, sedation, and neuromuscular diseases are major risk factors for foreign body aspiration in adults. Prompt diagnosis and intervention through foreign body retrieval are critical to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. Retrieval procedure is risky, and sudden decompensation of the patient can occur anytime. We are presenting an adult who accidentally aspirated his dental prosthesis during sleep and underwent successful retrieval of the dental bridge using flexible bronchoscopy. PMID:23093974

  2. Efficacy of Thickened Liquids for Eliminating Aspiration in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barbon, Carly E.A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To appraise the current videofluoroscopic evidence on the reduction of aspiration using thickened liquids in the head and neck cancer population. Data Sources Search terms relating to deglutition or dysphagia or swallow and neoplasms and oncology or head and neck cancer and viscosity or texture and apira or residu* were combined with honey or nectar, xerostomia, respiratory aspiration using Boolean operators. Review Methods A multi-engine literature search identified 337 non-duplicate articles of which 6 were judged to be relevant. These underwent detailed review for study quality and qualitative synthesis. Results The articles reviewed in detail predominantly described heterogeneous study samples with small sample sizes, making for difficult interpretation and generalization of results. Rates of aspiration were typically not reported by bolus consistency, despite the fact that a variety of stimulus consistencies was used during VFSS. Studies confirmed that aspiration is a major concern in the head and neck cancer population and reported a trend towards more frequent aspiration post-(chemo)radiotherapy. Conclusion Overall, the literature on thickened liquids as an intervention to eliminate aspiration in the head and neck cancer population is limited. Because aspiration is known to be prevalent in the head and neck cancer population and thickened liquids are known to eliminate aspiration in other populations, it is important to determine the effectiveness of thickened liquids for reducing aspiration in the head and neck cancer population. PMID:25358345

  3. Elemental mercury toxicity due to aspiration following intentional massive ingestion.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Alison J; Iliopoulou, Amalia; Gonzalez, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Deliberate poisoning with intentional ingestion of elemental mercury is reported not to result in systemic toxicity due to minimal absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 43 year old male who intentionally ingested 200 ml elemental mercury which resulted in abdominal pain and vomiting. The patient subsequently aspirated globules of mercury which was confirmed on chest x-ray and his blood mercury levels were markedly raised. He was treated with chelating agents and managed in a negative pressure room to reduce the risk of staff being exposed to exhaled mercury vapour from the patient. PMID:23732132

  4. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723

  5. Spheres of Influence: What Shapes Young People's Aspirations at Age 12/13 and What Are the Implications for Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Wong, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Young people's aspirations remain an enduring focus of education policy interest and concern. Drawing on data from an ongoing five-year study of young people's science and career aspirations (age 10-14), this paper asks what do young people aspire to at age 12/13, and what influences these aspirations? It outlines the main aspirations

  6. Histological diagnosis of gastric submucosal tumors: A pilot study of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy vs mucosal cutting biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Hisatomo; Li, Zhaoliang; Watari, Jiro; Taki, Masato; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Ohda, Yoshio; Tomita, Toshihiko; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Ikuo; Hirota, Seiichi; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) without cytology and mucosal cutting biopsy (MCB) in the histological diagnosis of gastric submucosal tumor (SMT). METHODS: We prospectively compared the diagnostic yield, feasibility, and safety of EUS-FNAB and those of MCB based on endoscopic submucosal dissection. The cases of 20 consecutive patients with gastric SMT ? 1 cm in diameter. who underwent both EUS-FNAB and MCB were investigated. RESULTS: The histological diagnoses were gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 7), leiomyoma (n = 6), schwannoma (n = 2), aberrant pancreas (n = 2), and one case each of glomus tumor, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and no-diagnosis. The tumors’ mean size was 23.6 mm. Histological diagnosis was made in 65.0% of the EUS-FNABs and 60.0% of the MCBs, a nonsignificant difference. There were no significant differences in the diagnostic yield concerning the tumor location or tumor size between the two methods. However, diagnostic specimens were significantly more frequently obtained in lesions with intraluminal growth than in those with extraluminal growth by the MCB method (P = 0.01). All four SMTs with extraluminal growth were diagnosed only by EUS-FNAB (P = 0.03). No complications were found in either method. CONCLUSION: MCB may be chosen as an alternative diagnostic modality in tumors showing the intraluminal growth pattern regardless of tumor size, whereas EUS-FNAB should be performed for SMTs with extraluminal growth. PMID:26468338

  7. Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Ying; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chou, Pesus; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Chu, Dachen

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine gland malignancy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy is widely used for thyroid nodule evaluation. Repeated aspiration biopsies are needed due to plausible false-negative results. This study aimed to investigate the overall relationship between aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis, and to explore factors related to shorter diagnostic time. Methods This nationwide retrospective cohort study retrieved data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Subjects without known thyroid malignancies and who received the first thyroid aspiration biopsy after 2004 were followed-up from 2004 to 2009 (n = 7700). Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards model were used for data analysis. Results Of 7700 newly-aspirated patients, 276 eventually developed thyroid cancer (malignancy rate 3.6%). Among the 276 patients with thyroid cancer, 61.6% underwent only one aspiration biopsy and 81.2% were found within the first year after the initial aspiration. Cox proportional hazards model revealed that aspiration frequency (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.08), ultrasound frequency (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), older age, male sex, and aspiration biopsies arranged by surgery, endocrinology or otolaryngology subspecialties were all associated with shorter time to thyroid cancer diagnosis. Conclusions About 17.4% of thyroid cancer cases received more than two aspiration biopsies and 18.8% were diagnosed one year after the first biopsy. Regular follow-up with repeated aspiration or ultrasound may be required for patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules. PMID:26020790

  8. Mechanosensitive shivering of model tissues under controlled aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Guevorkian, Karine; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Carlier, Camille; Dufour, Sylvie; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development and wound healing, the mechanical signals transmitted from cells to their neighbors induce tissue rearrangement and directional movements. It has been observed that forces exerted between cells in a developing tissue under stress are not always monotonically varying, but they can be pulsatile. Here we investigate the response of model tissues to controlled external stresses. Spherical cellular aggregates are subjected to one-dimensional stretching forces using micropipette aspiration. At large enough pressures, the aggregate flows smoothly inside the pipette. However, in a narrow range of moderate aspiration pressures, the aggregate responds by pulsed contractions or “shivering.” We explain the emergence of this shivering behavior by means of a simple analytical model where the uniaxially stretched cells are represented by a string of Kelvin–Voigt elements. Beyond a deformation threshold, cells contract and pull on neighboring cells after a time delay for cell response. Such an active behavior has previously been found to cause tissue pulsation during dorsal closure of Drosophila embryo. PMID:21771735

  9. Management of pediatric pyocele using percutaneous imaging-guided aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, Daniel T.; Cheng, Earl Y.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pyocele of the scrotum is a rare clinical entity not well-described in the pediatric literature. With the exception of those patients who cannot undergo surgery, all published cases have been treated definitely with surgical drainage with severe cases leading to orchiectomy. Presentation of case A 12 day-old full-term boy with no significant medical history presented to the emergency department with a two-day history of fever, right hemiscrotal redness, swelling and discomfort. Scrotal ultrasound revealed findings consistent with an acute pyocele of the tunica vaginalis also known as an infected hydrocele. The infection was successfully managed with ultrasound-guided transcutaneous aspiration under local anesthesia. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of percutaneous aspiration of infant pyocele Pediatric patients diagnosed with acute pyocele require immediate urologic evaluation, with a consideration for surgical exploration and drainage. Unfortunately, orchiectomy may be required at the time of surgical exploration in severe cases. Percutaneous drainage is a non-operative, minimally invasive treatment modality that avoids orchiectomy and the risks of general anesthesia. Conclusion Percutaneous drainage avoids open surgical exploration, expedites recovery, and is performed in the absence of general anesthesia in select cases. PMID:26453938

  10. Critical evaluation of the present experience on microsurgical sperm aspiration.

    PubMed

    Monseny, J M; Barri, P; Viscasillas, P; Bassas, L; Veiga, A; Garcia, A; Calderon, G; Garcia, F; Ruiz-Romero, J; Navas, M

    1994-01-01

    Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) and IVF techniques are indicated in those cases of bilateral congenital absence of the vas deferens (BCAVD) and in cases of epididymal obstruction (EO) of other aetiologies were vasoepididymostomy is not possible or has failed. Microsurgical deferential sperm aspiration (MDSA) is indicated in those cases where spermatogenesis and epididymal permeability are conserved but spermatozoa, for different causes, cannot reach the ejaculate and other therapies have failed. We have performed this procedure in 70 patients by two different human reproduction teams. Both teams achieved very similar results regarding fertilization rate: 5.5 and 7.2% in cases of BCAVD, 6.5 and 8.8% in cases of EO and 33.3 and 26.7% in cases of non-epididymal pathology (NEP). However, the fertilization rate per patient presents differences between both teams: 27 and 44.4% in BCAVD, 31 and 11% in EO and 80 and 100% in NEP. In spite of a better fertilization rate per patient in team two, it was in the other where pregnancies were achieved (7% in BCAVD, 15% in EO and 20% in NEP). One pregnancy in EO group was achieved by intracytoplasmatic sperm injection. The pregnancy rates per transfer were 25% in BCAVD, 50% in EO and 25% in NEP. PMID:7618379

  11. Iatrogenic Aspiration of Custom-Made Keel: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharouny, Hadi; Omar, Rahmat Bin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Laryngeal stenosis has various causes and treatment options. Endoscopic resection of the stenotic part with CO2 laser is one of the treatment options of laryngotracheal stenosis. Keels are useful for preventing adhesion formation, restenosis and web formation, which may happen during the later stage. They can be put in place either via the endoscopic approach or through a micro thyroidotomy and are held in place with a heavy suture through cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. They are left in place for two to four weeks, and then removed through the endoscopic approach under general anesthetics. Case Presentation: We report on a case of anterior glottis stenosis with keel aspiration for two weeks, after endoscopic CO2 laser resection of the stenotic section and keel placement. The patient was admitted to our center, where bronchoscopy was performed and the keel was removed. A new custom-made silastic keel was properly placed in raw areas and fixed to the skin with suture through the cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. The keel was removed three weeks later. Conclusions: Endoscopic keel placement should be done with heavy suture through cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. Surgeons should suture the keel to the anterior laryngeal wall with specially designed Lichtenberger’s needle-carriers to prevent complications such as keel aspiration, adhesion formation and imposing a second trip under general anesthetics, which put the patient at increased risk. The false vocal cord microflaps, as biological keels and a relatively new method may replace silastic keel placement in the future. PMID:25763237

  12. [THE VIRTUAL CYTOLOGIC SLIDES FOR EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF CYTOLOGIC ANALYSES IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORIES: POSSIBILITIES AND PERSPECTIVES].

    PubMed

    Djangirova, T V; Shabalova, I P; Pronichev, A N; Polyakov, E V

    2015-08-01

    The article considers application of technology of analysis of cytological slides in external quality control of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The advantages of virtual slides are demonstrated against other applied technologies of external evaluation of quality i.e. slide plate and digital micro-photography. The conditions of formation of virtual slides for external evaluation of quality of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The technology of their application is described. The success of practical application of considered technology in the Federal system of external evaluation of quality is emphasized. PMID:26596044

  13. Cytological diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis presented as a subcutaneous swelling in the cubital fossa: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Chandra, Subrat; Tanwar, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a disabling parasitic disease and the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is quite high in India. However, W. bancrofti presenting as a subcutaneous swelling and a demonstration of microfilariae in cytological smears from upper extremity lesions is extremely rare. We report a case of 20-year-old male who presented with a small subcutaneous swelling near medial aspect of the left cubital fossa. The wet mount preparation showed many motile microfilariae. Cytology smears revealed a large number of sheathed microfilariae with the tail tip free of nucleus, identified as W. bancrofti without significant inflammatory cell infiltrate. Indirect ELISA was highly positive for specific recombinant W. bancrofti filarial antigen (WL-L2). The role of cytology cannot be underestimated in clinically unanticipated cases of bancroftian filariasis, especially with the amicrofilaremic state. Filariasis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis during cytological evaluation of any swelling, especially in endemic areas. PMID:26634138

  14. Value of biopsy and brush cytology in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Shanghai Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Cooperative Group, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the diagnostic value of brush cytology in gastric cancer. Gastric biopsies and brush cytology were performed in 155 patients with gastric cancer and 48 with benign gastric disease. The positive rate for biopsy and brush cytology in cancer patients (including 11 cases of early gastric cancer) was 74.2% and 76.8% respectively. The positive rate of biopsy with concomitant brush cytology was 87.7, which was superior to that of biopsy or brush cytology alone (p less than 0.01). In 29 cases of gastric cancer involving the cardiac region. 20 were biopsy positive (69%) and 22 were brush cytology positive (75.9%). Biopsy with brush cytology was positive in 27 cases (93.1%) and gave better results than biopsy alone (p less than 0.01). The positive rate of biopsy with concomitant brush cytology in Borrmann type I, II, and III lesions (89.7%) was significantly higher than in Borrmann type IV lesions (50%). In the 48 patients with benign gastric lesion, biopsy and brush cytology each provided two false positives. The study shows that the combination of biopsy and brush cytology increases diagnostic accuracy for gastric cancer. PMID:7106623

  15. Constructing New Identities? The Role of Gender and Education in Rural Girls' Life Aspirations in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on rural and indigenous girls and their mothers in Peru, examining how they position schooling and education in their current life and future aspirations, in order to better understand girls' increasing participation in education. It is argued here that the high educational aspirations girls and their families have are not only…

  16. Image Theory and Career Aspirations: Indirect and Interactive Effects of Status-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Dahling, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study applied Image Theory (Beach, 1990) to test how different components of a person's value image (i.e., perceived social status identity and conformity to masculine and feminine gender role norms) interact to influence trajectories toward high career aspirations (i.e., high value for status in one's work and aspirations for…

  17. Promise and Possibility for Aspiring Principals: An Emerging Leadership Identity through Learning to Do Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batagiannis, Stella C.

    2011-01-01

    This case study explored the promise and possibility of doing action research both for aspiring principals engaged in such research and for professors using it as pedagogy for teaching educational leadership. The study of a class of graduate students aspiring to be principals had a constructivist theoretical framework. The research design…

  18. The Realism and Sex Type of Four- to Five-Year-Old Children's Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Care, Esther; Deans, Jan; Brown, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Research on career development has focused primarily on adolescents and adults. However, in Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise (2002) it is proposed that career aspirations originate in the preschool years and that the earliest work aspirations of children are sex typed in relation to the activities of same sex adults. This…

  19. Understanding the Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents: Child, Family, and Community Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…

  20. Cloning Their Own: Aspirant Principals and the School-Based Selection Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter; Lacey, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we report data from two projects concerned with the aspirant principals' perspectives about school principal recruitment in three Australian states. In particular, we consider what our informants perceive as factors that inhibit the realisation of their aspirations. These factors include aspects of the operation of school-based…

  1. Giving It the Old College Try: Understanding Degree Commitment among Division I FBS NFL Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe Federico.

    2012-01-01

    Building on sociological studies regarding college choice and persistence, this qualitative study investigates the college and post college experiences of 15 current students with NFL aspirations and 13 former students who held NFL aspirations, all from Division I Football Bowl Series (FBS) programs. A phenomenological design is implemented to…

  2. The Effects on Motor Performance of Setting an Overt Level of Aspiration by Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Bill

    This study investigates the effects of setting an overt level of aspiration on the standing long jump performance of mildly and moderately retarded institutionalized children. Thirty-three mildly retarded and seven moderately retarded students were randomly assigned to either an overt level of aspiration (OLA) group or a control group. Each…

  3. "There Was Something about Aspiration": Widening Participation Policy Affects in England and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Storan, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the emergence of aspiration as a keyword linked to higher education equity policy in England and Australia since 1997. Aspiration serves multiple purposes when constructed as a problematic site in which policy must intervene. For example, it can be understood as a vector for new technologies of governance that operate through…

  4. Educational Aspirations as a Stochastic Process. Working Paper RID 73.16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Brian D.

    The purposes of this study were to test the predictability of the aspirational changes using the simple, two-state, discrete-time Markov model and to test for differences in selected background characteristics for students with different aspirational patterns. Data were from an ongoing study of an industrialized rural area. High School students…

  5. Structuring Opportunity: The Role of School Context in Shaping High School Students' Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Perna, Laura W.; Swan, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the occupational aspirations of high school students planning to attend college by drawing on a multilayered model of college enrollment, social cognitive career theory, and multiple descriptive case studies of 15 high schools. Students' occupational aspirations and their understanding of the education required to achieve these…

  6. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  7. Adolescent Occupational Aspirations: Test of Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription and Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Daria B.; Wang, Eugene W.; Stevenson, Sarah J.; Johnson, Leah E.; Crews, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between adolescent occupational aspirations and midlife career success. The model for adolescent occupational aspirations was derived from Gottfredson's (1981) theory of circumscription and compromise. The authors hypothesized that parental socioeconomic status (SES), ability, and gender predict adolescent…

  8. Silver Bullet or Red Herring? New Evidence on the Place of Aspirations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf; Kintrea, Keith; Houston, Muir

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study of student aspirations at the ages of 13 and 15 in three schools in the United Kingdom, where there has been a great deal of emphasis placed on aspirations in recent policy making. The data, based on individual interviews with 490 students in areas with significant deprivation as well as interviews with…

  9. The Effect of Social Programs and Exposure to Professionals on the Educational Aspirations of the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiapa, Carlos; Garrido, Jose Luis; Prina, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Investment in human capital is an important tool for reducing poverty. However, the poor may lack the capacity to aspire, which often results in underinvestment in their children's education. This paper studies the effect of a social program on the educational aspirations poor parents have for their children, and explores the role of exposure to…

  10. The Impact of the Kalamazoo Promise on Student Attitudes, Goals, and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Gary; Jones, Jeffrey N.; Kelaher-Young, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    Student goals and aspirations are an important determinant of success in secondary schools and promote access to post-secondary education. This paper reports on changes in student attitudes, goals, and aspirations that result from the implementation of a universal scholarship program. The Kalamazoo Promise is an innovative reform effort that…

  11. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important for predicting rural youths' educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic…

  12. The Role of Educational Aspirations and Expectations in the Discontinuity of Intergenerational Low-Income Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated one potential mechanism mediating continuity and discontinuity in low-income status across generations: children's educational aspirations and expectations. Data were drawn from a community sample of 808 participants who were followed from age 10 to 30. Four trajectory groups of children's educational aspirations and…

  13. Growing Up at the "Margins": Concerns, Aspirations, and Expectations of Young People Living in Nairobi's Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…

  14. Development of Occupational Aspirations in Early Korean Adolescents: A Multiple-Group Latent Curve Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    The complex phenomenon of intraindividual and interindividual differences in the development of occupational aspirations and factors influencing this development were examined in a longitudinal sample of 5,727 Korean adolescents over a 4-year period. A downward trajectory of occupational aspirations from junior high school to the first year of…

  15. The Effect of Neighborhood Context on the College Aspirations of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Endya B.; Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on educational aspirations has focused almost exclusively on micro-level predictors of educational aspirations. Notably absent from these studies are measures reflecting the neighborhood context in which adolescents live. Drawing on Wilson's theory of neighborhood effects, the present study examines the extent to which…

  16. Development Patterns of Occupational Aspirations in Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gregg, Noel; Gemici, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the longitudinal development of occupational aspiration prestige scores over a 12-year period (Grade 8 to 8 years postsecondary) to better understand this aspect of career choice from adolescence into adulthood for people with high-incidence disabilities. A curvilinear trajectory was detected where aspirations increased during…

  17. Using Propensity Score Matching to Determine the Efficacy of Secondary Career Academies in Raising Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gemici, Sinan

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 database was used to determine the effects of career academy participation in grades 9 or 10 on educational aspirations. Propensity score matching was used to obtain initially equivalent groups for analysis. No statistically significant differences in postsecondary educational aspirations were…

  18. Career Aspirations and Expectations of College Students: Demographic and Labor Market Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, A. J.; Fouad, Nadya; Ihle-Helledy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    Replicating previous research, this study examined differences in 677 diverse college students' career aspirations and expectations based on gender and ethnicity, and compared their career expectations to the U.S. workforce. This study extended the literature base by exploring discrepancies between occupational aspirations and expectations…

  19. A Comparison Study of 12th Grade Hispanic Students' College Anticipations, Aspirations, and College Preparatory Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Aliber; Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the differences in educational aspirations and educational anticipations between four groups (AVID, GEAR UP, AVID/GEAR UP, and Control) of high school seniors who participated in a previous study as 10th graders (Watt, Huerta, & Lozano, 2007). It also measured whether any change in aspirations and anticipations occurred within…

  20. The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

  1. Self-Esteem, Academic Competence, Educational Aspiration, and Curriculum Choice of Urban Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Karen J.; Freeman, Arthur

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between educational aspiration, self-esteem, and academic performance in nontraditional college students. No significant relationship was found between self-esteem scores and one measure of educational aspiration, the difficulty level of the two-year college curriculum. Implications for college counselors working with…

  2. Career Aspirations of Youth: Untangling Race/Ethnicity, SES, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…

  3. Educational Aspirations in an Urban Community College: Differences between Immigrant and Native Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the educational aspirations of immigrant and native students in an urban community college. Using Burton Clark's cooling-out theory as a framework, the study looked at choices students make when applying to college and the extent to which students later change their aspirations. Immigrant students who were educated in United…

  4. School-Related Factors and the Aspiration Levels of Manitoba Senior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forcese, Dennis P.; Siemens, Leonard B.

    One of a series of studies based on data collected from 1,844 eleventh and twelfth grade students in Canada examined educational and occupational aspiration levels of youth relative to selected school-related factors. Rural and suburban youth were compared. An attempt was made to assess the utility of the variables as predictors of aspiration

  5. Developing Conceptual Understandings of the Capacity to Aspire for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prodonovich, Samuel; Perry, Laura B.; Taggart, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research and theory relating to aspirations for higher education as a cultural capacity. Understanding the social and cultural dimensions of aspirations for higher education is important as they are increasingly becoming part of social commentary and more recently educational policy, research and practice. This paper synthesises…

  6. Trajectories of Educational Aspirations through High School and beyond: A Gendered Phenomenon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapka, Jennifer D.; Domene, Jose F.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Growth curve modeling was utilized to examine change in the educational aspirations of adolescents from early high school through to three years beyond high school, as a function of gender and other adolescent characteristics. Significant gender effects were found for level of education aspired to, rate of growth, and degree of acceleration: boys'…

  7. Training Your Own: The Impact of New York City's Aspiring Principals Program on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Weinstein, Meryle

    2012-01-01

    The New York City Leadership Academy represents a unique experiment by a large urban school district to train and develop its own school leaders. Its 14-month Aspiring Principals Program (APP) selects and prepares aspiring principals to lead low-performing schools. This study provides the first systematic evaluation of achievement in APP-staffed…

  8. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63...PM 2.5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses...

  9. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63...PM2.5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses...

  10. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63...PM2.5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses...

  11. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63...PM2.5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses...

  12. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. 53.63...PM 2.5 § 53.63 Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test. (a...extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses...

  13. Motivation and Career Aspirations of Female Students Studying Science at Achimota School in Accra, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh, Paul K.; Bosiakoh, Thomas Antwi; Afranie, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines science education for girls in Achimota School, a second cycle institution in Accra, in terms of their motivations for pursuing science and future aspirations. It explores parental backgrounds and how they impacted on the motivations and aspirations of the girls. The survey method was adopted in this study, which involved a…

  14. ''Fake It 'Til You Make It'': Why Community College Students' Aspirations ''Hold Steady''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Sociologists of education have explored the relationship between students' postsecondary aspirations and their propensity to get "cooled out" in community colleges. However, researchers have directed little attention to students whose aspirations remain stable over long periods of time or to the different roles that college degree goals…

  15. Anal cytological abnormalities and anal HPV infection in men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, J M; Holly, E A; Ralston, M L; Arthur, S P; Hogeboom, C J; Darragh, T M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise risk factors for abnormal and cytology and anal human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in homosexual/bisexual men with advanced HIV related immunosuppression. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease. SETTING: The University of California San Francisco, AIDS Clinic. PATIENTS: 129 homosexual or bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered detailing tobacco, alcohol and recreational drug use, medical history, and sexual practices. Anal swabs for cytology and HPV studies were obtained, as was blood for CD4 levels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal anal cytology and anal HPV infection. RESULTS: Abnormal anal cytology was detected in 39% of subjects and anal HPV infection in 93% as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Risk factors for abnormal cytology in multivariate analysis included HPV 16/18 infection (measured by PCR, RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5) and intravenous drug use (RR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7). Infection with HPV 6/11 also had significantly elevated RRs in a separate model. Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, recreational drug use, and low CD4 level were associated with abnormal anal cytology in univariate analysis, as was infection with multiple HPV types and high levels of hybrid capture group B viral DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Anal cytological abnormalities and HPV infection are common among homosexual/bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. In this study population, the main risk factors for abnormal cytology were HPV infection and intravenous drug use. Images PMID:9306896

  16. Cytological changes in the oral mucosa after use of a mouth rinse with alcohol: A prospective double blind control study

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Marzal, Cristina; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Ezequiel; Bagan, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol. Material and Methods: A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine®] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus. Results: We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients. Key words:Mouth wash, oral mucosa, cytological change, alcohol. PMID:23085712

  17. The reporting of anal cytology and histology samples: establishing terminology and criteria.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer Margaret; Ekman, Deborah

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the human papillomavirus (HPV) related cytomorphology and histopathology of the anal canal is underpinned by our knowledge of HPV infection in the cervix. In this review, we utilise cervical reporting of cytological and histological specimens as a foundation for the development of standardised and evidence-based terminology and criteria for reporting of anal specimens. We advocate use of the Australian Modified Bethesda System 2004 for reporting anal cytology. We propose the use of a two-tiered histological reporting system for noninvasive disease - low-grade and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. These classification systems reflect current understanding of the biology of HPV and enhance diagnostic reproducibility. Biomarkers such as p16(INK4A) may prove useful in further improving diagnostic accuracy. Standardisation is important because it will increase the value of the data collected as Australian centres develop programs for screening for anal neoplasia. PMID:22951231

  18. Lyme borreliosis mimicking central nervous system malignancy: the diagnostic pitfall of cerebrospinal fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Kieslich, M; Fiedler, A; Driever, P H; Weis, R; Schwabe, D; Jacobi, G

    2000-09-01

    We report two children with acute loss of neurological functions and signs of an increased intracranial pressure. Imaging techniques ruled out space occupying lesions, whereas CSF cytology indicated CNS involvement of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the form of abnormal lymphocytic pleocytosis with malignancy criteria fulfilling lymphoid cells. CSF protein electrophoresis and Borrelia burgdorferi serology revealed neuroborreliosis which was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy. The malignancy mimicking cytology is based on a blastoid transformation of B- and T-lymphocytes due to the antigenic stimulus of B. burgdorferi infection. Lymphoid cells in the CSF of a patient with acute or chronic neurological symptoms raise the differential diagnosis of inflammatory etiology versus CNS lymphoma. Monomorphism and higher quantity of the lymphoid cells point to CNS lymphoma. A lower quantity and polyclonal pattern of lymphoid cells associated with an elevated protein fraction caused by intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis suggest an inflammatory etiology. PMID:11185583

  19. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  20. Early lung cancer detection in uranium miners with abnormal sputum cytology

    SciTech Connect

    Saccomanno, G.

    1992-08-01

    This work supported by the United States of Energy, continues to add data on the health affects of cigarette smoking and radon exposure on uranium miners. Since the last Technical Progress Report in July or 1991, 537 sputum cytology samples have been collected on the 300 uranium workers in the surveillance study. To date there are 436 lung cancer cases in the Uranium Miner Tumor Registry with diagnostic slides from surgery and/or autopsy; an additional 40 cases have been diagnosed with sputum cytology only. In March of 1991 the Geno Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive was established at St. Mary's Hospital and Medical Center as a depository for biological specimens and epidemiological data from the 17,700 uranium miners who have been a part or the study.

  1. Retraction halos: nature's dotting pen in effusion cytology processed by ultrafast Papanicolaou stain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Grace C H; Papellas, Julianna

    2008-09-01

    Effusion cytology is challenging when solitary adenocarcinoma cells resemble histiocytes or mesothelial cells, and when adenocarcinomas look like histiocytic hyperplasia. It is also challenging to locate rare tumor cells in markedly inflammatory background. Over a period of 9 years, 9,474 cases of body cavity fluids including 3,642 cases of pleural, 1,900 cases of peritoneal and 345 cases of pericardial effusions and 3,587 cases of pelvic washes were processed with Ultrafast Papanicolaou stain. Retraction halos around spherical solitary cells and tissue fragments were observed whenever the background was inflammatory, whereas absent around histiocytes or histiocytic aggregates, and inconspicuous around solitary mesothelial cells. Retraction halos were helpful when the tumor fragments are obscured by marked inflammation, the quantity of tumor fragments is sparse, or the tumor cells resemble histiocytes or mesothelial cells. In short, retraction halos are nature's dotting pen for effusion cytology and are particularly useful in challenging cases. PMID:18677763

  2. Ultrasonic aspiration hepatectomy for 136 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Lin, Xin-Bao; Qian, Jian-Min; Ji, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Zao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the operative injury, post-operative complications, the hospitalization time, the post-operative survival rate of ultrasonic aspiration hepatectomy with a domestic new type of ultrasonic surgical device in comparison with that of conventional techniques of hepatectomy. METHODS: A total 136 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, including 12 patients in 1991 and 124 consecutive patients from July 1995 to December 2000) underwent ultrasonic aspiration in liver resection (group T) and 179 HCC patients received conventional hepatectomy during the corresponding period (group C). The results of the two groups were compared statistically. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean operation time between group T (152 ± 11 min) and C (144 ± 11 min). No operation or hospital death occurred in both groups. In group T, the mean volumes of bleeding (463 ± 15 mL) and blood transfusion (381 ± 12 mL) were markedly less than those in group C (557 ± 20 mL, and 507 ± 18 mL, respectively, P < 0.05). The mean hospitalization time of group T (8.9 ± 0.6 d) was markedly shorter than that of group C (11.7 d ± 0.6 d) (P < 0.05). The incidence of complications in group T was markedly lower than in group C, post-operative jaundice occurred in 4/136 and 31/179, respectively (P < 0.05), liver failure in 0/136 and 2/179, cholorrhea in 0/136 and 6/179, hydrothorax in 21/136 and 39/179 (P < 0.05), ascices in 9/136 and 54/179, respectively (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the 1-year survival rate between the two groups (P > 0.05), while the 3-year survival rate of group T (64.2%) increased markedly as compared with that of group C (55.7%) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The ultrasonic aspiration hepatectomy with a domestic new type of ultrasonic surgical device could evidently reduce the operative injury and post-operative complications, shorten the hospitalization time and prolong the survivals of HCC patients. PMID:12174393

  3. Molecular Typing of Lung Adenocarcinoma on Cytological Samples Using a Multigene Next Generation Sequencing Panel

    PubMed Central

    Fassan, Matteo; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; Cappellesso, Rocco; Antonello, Davide; Amato, Eliana; Mafficini, Andrea; Lambiase, Matilde; Esposito, Claudia; Bria, Emilio; Simonato, Francesca; Scardoni, Maria; Turri, Giona; Chilosi, Marco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fassina, Ambrogio; Normanno, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Identification of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to development of targeted agents that are already approved for clinical use or are in clinical trials. Therefore, the number of biomarkers that will be needed to assess is expected to rapidly increase. This calls for the implementation of methods probing the mutational status of multiple genes for inoperable cases, for which limited cytological or bioptic material is available. Cytology specimens from 38 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the simultaneous assessment of 504 mutational hotspots of 22 lung cancer-associated genes using 10 nanograms of DNA and Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. Thirty-six cases were successfully sequenced (95%). In 24/36 cases (67%) at least one mutated gene was observed, including EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, TP53, PTEN, MET, SMAD4, FGFR3, STK11, MAP2K1. EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively found in 6/36 (16%) and 10/36 (28%) cases, were mutually exclusive. Nine samples (25%) showed concurrent alterations in different genes. The next-generation sequencing test used is superior to current standard methodologies, as it interrogates multiple genes and requires limited amounts of DNA. Its applicability to routine cytology samples might allow a significant increase in the fraction of lung cancer patients eligible for personalized therapy. PMID:24236184

  4. Cytologic features of pigmented atypical meningioma mimicking melanoma on intraoperative crush preparations.

    PubMed

    Han, Song-Hee; Joo, Mee; Lee, Byung Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-02-01

    Pigmented tumors rarely arise in the meninges, and when they do, these are mainly melanocytomas or melanomas. We describe the cytologic findings of atypical meningioma with intratumoral hemosiderin pigment mistaken for spindle cell melanoma in a 33-year-old male patient during intraoperative consultation. Preoperative radiologic images revealed a cystic meningeal mass with intratumoral hemorrhage. The crush preparation demonstrated cellular smears of syncytial clusters as well as fascicles of large pleomorphic spindle cells with discrete cytoplasmic brown pigment. Detection of cytoplasmic brown pigment and a preponderance of large spindle cells with nuclear pleomorphism led to a diagnosis of spindle cell melanoma on intraoperative cytology. Histopathologic examination displayed high cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism with prominent nucleoli, and foci of spontaneous necrosis. In addition, there were areas showing classic meningotheliomatous meningioma features. Altogether, the histologic findings were consistent with atypical meningioma. The cytoplasmic pigment in the tumor cells was confirmed to be hemosiderin using special stains and immunohistochemistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing cytomorphology of atypical pigmented meningioma. We discuss the differential diagnosis in intraoperative cytology and a possible mechanism related to intratumoral hemosiderin deposition in meningiomas. PMID:24692367

  5. Cytological features of pure micropapillary carcinoma of various organs: A report of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Huq, Gülben Erdem; Canberk, Sule; Oznur, Meltem; Yildiz, Pelin; Bahadir, Burak; Behzato?lu, Kemal

    2014-08-01

    Micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) is a rare aggressive tumor, which generally accompanies the primary carcinoma of the organ of its origin, while the pure form is extremely uncommon. Angiolymphatic involvement is widespread and a considerable proportion of the cases present with metastases. The current study presents eight pure MPC cases arising from the breast (n=3), urinary bladder (n=3), parotid gland (n=1) and lung (n=1, presenting with pericardial effusion), with the cytological findings. The eight patients included three female and five male cases aged between 48 and 74 years. The most common cytological findings were three-dimensional aggregates, cell clusters with angulated or scalloped borders, single cells with a columnar configuration and eccentric nuclei, and high-grade nuclear features. Histopathological sections showed accompanying in situ ductal carcinoma in the cases of MPC arising in the parotid gland and breast (n=3), and one case in the bladder exhibited only in situ MPC. The average follow-up period was 20 months (range, 6-54 months) and, during this period, three patients succumbed to the disease. At present, four patients are alive with disease and one patient is alive and disease-free. In conclusion, cytology is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of MPC. PMID:25013488

  6. Cytological features of pure micropapillary carcinoma of various organs: A report of eight cases

    PubMed Central

    HUQ, GÜLBEN ERDEM; CANBERK, ?ULE; ÖZNUR, MELTEM; YILDIZ, PELIN; BAHADIR, BURAK; BEHZATO?LU, KEMAL

    2014-01-01

    Micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) is a rare aggressive tumor, which generally accompanies the primary carcinoma of the organ of its origin, while the pure form is extremely uncommon. Angiolymphatic involvement is widespread and a considerable proportion of the cases present with metastases. The current study presents eight pure MPC cases arising from the breast (n=3), urinary bladder (n=3), parotid gland (n=1) and lung (n=1, presenting with pericardial effusion), with the cytological findings. The eight patients included three female and five male cases aged between 48 and 74 years. The most common cytological findings were three-dimensional aggregates, cell clusters with angulated or scalloped borders, single cells with a columnar configuration and eccentric nuclei, and high-grade nuclear features. Histopathological sections showed accompanying in situ ductal carcinoma in the cases of MPC arising in the parotid gland and breast (n=3), and one case in the bladder exhibited only in situ MPC. The average follow-up period was 20 months (range, 6–54 months) and, during this period, three patients succumbed to the disease. At present, four patients are alive with disease and one patient is alive and disease-free. In conclusion, cytology is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of MPC. PMID:25013488

  7. Cytologic features of ovarian granulosa cell tumors in pleural and ascitic fluids.

    PubMed

    Omori, Makiko; Kondo, Tetsuo; Yuminamochi, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Kumiko; Ishii, Yoshio; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Hashi, Akihiko; Hirata, Shuji

    2015-07-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is an uncommon neoplasm of the ovary with potential for aggressive behavior and late recurrence. The most important prognostic factor for AGCT is tumor stage. Thus, cytological assessment of pleural or ascitic fluids is crucial for initial staging and subsequent patient management. We report herein two cases of ovarian AGCT presenting with exfoliated tumor cells in pleural and ascitic fluid. The first case involved a 61-year-old woman who presented with stage Ic (a) AGCT. Seven years after initial diagnosis, pleural effusion and pleural dissemination were identified. The second case involved a 50-year-old woman who presented with stage IV AGCT with massive ascites and right pleural effusion. Fluid cytology from both cases showed cohesive or loose clusters of small uniform neoplastic cells with round-to-oval nuclei, coffee-bean-shaped nuclear grooves, small nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. Call-Exner bodies were also observed in these cytologic specimens. In the differential diagnosis of small monomorphic tumor cells in pleural effusion or ascites, coffee-bean-shaped nuclear grooves and cell clusters forming Call-Exner bodies are diagnostic clues of AGCT. PMID:25605680

  8. Cytologic features of metastatic and recurrent melanoma in patients with primary cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Murali, Rajmohan; Loughman, Noel T; McKenzie, Paul R; Watson, Geoffrey F; Thompson, John F; Scolyer, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare subtype of melanoma characterized by malignant spindle cells associated with prominent fibrocollagenous stroma. Primary melanomas may be entirely desmoplastic ("pure" DM) or exhibit a desmoplastic component admixed with a nondesmoplastic component ("combined" DM). The cytologic features of only 5 cases of DM have been reported previously. Fine-needle biopsy (FNB) specimens from 20 recurrent or metastatic lesions in patients with cutaneous DM and 20 recurrent or metastatic lesions from patients with primary cutaneous non-DM were examined and compared. FNB specimens of patients with DM were less cellular (P = .009) and less often exhibited intranuclear cytoplasmic invaginations (P = .008) and mitotic figures (P = .006) than specimens from patients with non-DM. "Combined" DMs were more commonly composed of epithelioid cells (P = .017) and less often contained bizarre/giant tumor cells (P = .010) than did "pure" DMs. Recurrent and metastatic DM has a range of cytologic appearances. Awareness of the cytologic features and careful clinicopathologic correlation will assist in accurate FNB diagnosis. PMID:18854263

  9. DICOM-compatible format for analytical cytology data that can be expressed in XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2001-05-01

    Flow cytometry data can be directly mapped to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, DICOM standard. A preliminary mapping of list-mode data to the DICOM Waveform information Object will be presented. This mapping encompasses both flow and image list-mode data. Since list- mode data is also produced by digital slide microscopy, which has already been standardized under DICOM, both branches of Analytical Cytology can be united under the DICOM standard. This will result in the functionality of the present International Society for Analytical Cytology Flow Cytometry Standard, FCS, being significantly extended and the elimination of the previously reported FCS design deficiencies. Thus, the present Flow Cytometry Standard can and should be replaced by a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, DICOM, standard. Expression of Analytical Cytology data in any other format, such as XML, can be made interoperable with DICOM by employing the DICOM data types. A fragment of an XML Schema has been created, which demonstrates the feasibility of expressing DICOM data types in XML syntax. The extension of DICOM to include Flow Cytometry will have the benefits of 1) retiring the present FCS, 2) providing a standard that is ubiquitous, internationally accepted, and backed by the medical profession, and 3) inter-operating with the existing medical informatics infrastructure.

  10. ASPIRE - Cloud Chambers as an Introduction to Cosmic Ray Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Julie; Matthews, John; Jui, Charles

    2012-03-01

    ASPIRE is the K12 - Education & Public Outreach program for the Telescope Array ultra-high energy cosmic ray research project in Utah. The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra-high energy cosmic rays with an array of ˜500 surface scintillator detectors and three fluorescence telescope stations observing over 300 square miles in the West Desert of Utah. Telescope Array is a collaboration of international institutions from the United States, Japan, Korea, Russia and Belgium. Cloud chambers are an inexpensive and easy demonstration to visually observe evidence of charged particles and cosmic ray activity both for informal events as well as for K12 classroom activities. Join us in building a cloud chamber and observe cosmic rays with these table-top demonstrations. A brief overview of the Telescope Array project in Millard County, Utah will also be presented.

  11. Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Fundakowski, Christopher; Khurana, Jasvir S; Jhala, Nirag

    2015-12-01

    Context .- Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-established diagnostic approach for salivary gland lesions; however, lack of a standard system of terminology for classification of salivary gland neoplasms collected by FNA and the relatively high frequency of uncertainty of diagnosis are likely partly responsible for current confusion in the interpretation of these FNA samples. Objective .- To propose a novel classification system for reporting salivary gland FNA samples and summarize recent progress in application of molecular and immunohistochemical markers in selected salivary gland neoplasms. Data Sources .- Literature review and authors' personal practice experience. Conclusions .- The new classification system provides a more succinct, standardized interpretation of results and will ultimately assist in communication between clinicians, clinical decision making, and preoperative patient counseling. Impressive advances have been made in recent years in the understanding of molecular pathogenesis of salivary gland tumors. With the newly acquired diagnostic tools, significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy of salivary gland FNA can certainly be expected. PMID:26619021

  12. Rotor and stator assembly configured as an aspirating face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman Arnold (Inventor); Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Inventor); Reluzco, George (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A rotor and stator assembly having a rotor and a stator with opposing surfaces defining an air bearing and an air dam of an aspirating face seal. In a first embodiment, the air bearing and the air dam are axially offset. In a second embodiment, the rotor has an axially extending protuberance located radially between the air bearing and the air dam. The axial offset and the protuberance each act to divert the air flow (e.g., compressed gas or combustion gases in a gas turbine or steam in a steam turbine) in a direction transverse to the air flow direction through the air bearing and the air dam, thus isolating the air flows from the air bearing and the air dam which improves seal performance.

  13. Training in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Paquin, Sarto C.

    2014-01-01

    Like any other technique, fine needle aspiration (FNA) proficiency requires adequate experience. Although this technique is not difficult to master, formal training will allow endosonographers to achieve better results. The following article is derived in two parts: (1) To review current knowledge on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-FNA training, discuss the current recommendations on training guidelines, explore other training adjuncts and review the latest studies evaluating the validity of current recommendations; and (2) to provide some basic grounds on the EUS-FNA technique. EUS-FNA can be broken down into a series of steps. Proper execution of each step will make FNA easier and likely increase its diagnostic yield. Adequate positioning of the lesion in regards to the ultrasound probe is a key factor to obtain best results. The following will discuss useful tips in order to achieve maximal success rates. PMID:24949405

  14. Increasing faculty diversity: How institutions matter to the PhD aspirations of undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deangelo, Linda Teresa

    This study used a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model (HGLM) to investigate how the experiences a student has in college and the college they attend affects the likelihood that they will aspire to the PhD at the completion of college. This study was particularly interested in ascertaining in what ways postsecondary institutions support or thwart the PhD aspirations of underrepresented racial minority students, and how institutions might improve PhD aspiration outcomes for underrepresented racial minority students, thereby increasing faculty diversity. A three-pronged theoretical lens was used. Status attainment was used to examine how students background characteristics and significant others such as faculty influence PhD aspirations. Relative deprivation and anticipatory socialization were used to explore how institutional characteristics affect PhD aspirations. The longitudinal data came from the Higher Education Research Institute's (HERI) 1994 freshmen and 1998 follow-up survey. Five sample groups -- All Students, underrepresented racial minority students, Caucasian students, initial PhD aspirants, and other initial degree aspirants -- were derived from this dataset. Frequent faculty encouragement for graduate study was the single most important determinant of who aspires to the PhD for all of the student groups, but was particularly important to underrepresented racial minority students and students who begin college as PhD aspirants. Underrepresented racial minority students are more likely to be encouraged frequently at low selectivity institutions, and the encouragement for graduate study they receive at low selectivity institutions is a sort of equalizer that makes up for effects of attending this institutional type. The mean level of initial degree aspirations was the strongest factor at the institutional level for all of the student groups, and the magnitude of the effect was largest for underrepresented racial minority students. Attending a high selectivity institution was significant with PhD aspirations for all of the groups, with the exception of the underrepresented racial minority student and the initial PhD aspirant groups. The reason attending a high selectivity institution was not significant with PhD aspirations for these groups was a function of the distribution of students across selectivity types and the amount of encouragement for graduate study received by selectivity.

  15. Utility of BAP1 Immunohistochemistry and p16 (CDKN2A) FISH in the Diagnosis of Malignant Mesothelioma in Effusion Cytology Specimens.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Harry C; Sheffield, Brandon S; Rodriguez, Stephanie; Thompson, Kim; Tse, Christopher H; Gown, Allen M; Churg, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma in effusion cytology specimens is controversial. BAP1 immunohistochemistry and p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have recently been reported as reliable markers of malignancy in biopsies of mesothelioma. To determine whether these markers, singly or in combination, might also be useful in effusion cytology specimens, we examined 15 biopsies of epithelial mesotheliomas and 3 benign mesothelial reactions and corresponding effusion cytology paraffin-embedded cell blocks. Four cytology specimens were too scanty for p16 FISH analysis but were interpretable for BAP1 immunohistochemistry. Overall, loss of BAP1 and/or deletion of p16 was seen in 11/11 (100%) of matched cytology and tissue biopsy specimens. BAP1 loss alone was seen in 10/15 (67%) biopsies and 10/15 (67%) cytology specimens. Homozygous deletion of p16 by FISH was found in 12/15 (80%) biopsy specimens and 8/11 (73%) evaluable cytology specimens. Seven of 15 (47%) biopsies and 5/11 (42%) cytology specimens showed loss of both markers. All mesothelioma biopsy/cytology pairs showed exactly the same pattern of BAP1 or p16 retention or loss in the biopsy and cytology specimens. The 2 peritoneal mesothelioma cases demonstrated loss of BAP1 but not p16. None of the benign mesothelial reactions or corresponding cytology specimens showed loss of either marker. We conclude that both BAP1 immunohistochemistry and p16 FISH analysis provide reliable markers of mesothelial malignancy in effusion cytology specimens, especially where the atypical mesothelial proliferation is well sampled. BAP1 is easier to interpret with scanty specimens. On the basis of small numbers of cases, use of both markers appears to increase sensitivity. PMID:26448191

  16. Thyroiditis: a Clinico-cytomorphological Study with a Reference to the Ethnic Groups of Northeast Regions of India.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Abhijit; Baruah, Ronica

    2015-12-01

    Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Patients underwent FNAC and smears were studied for cytomorphology. A correlation with clinical features and thyroid function, including antithyroid antibody estimation, was done, wherever possible. 792 thyroid lesions were encountered during the study, of which 213 (26.89 %) were cases of thyroiditis (70.43 % CLT/HT, 24.9 % SAT and 3.76 % having overlapping features of CLT/HT and SAT); 2 cases (0.9 %) of CLT showed suspicion of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), which was confirmed on histopathology. 24 cases (11.26 %) belonged to different ethnic tribal groups of Northeast India. CLT/HT presented predominantly with diffuse thyroid enlargement, but 12 cases (8 % of CLT/HT cases) had nodular enlargement. Patients presented with predominantly hypothyroidism; however occasional hyperthyroid cases were also seen. SAT showed signs of inflammation and presented with hyperthyroidism. Overlap cases of CLT/HT and SAT showed combined clinico-cytomorphological features of both lesions. 37.5 % cases with overlapping features belonged to tribal communities. A rise in incidence of thyroiditis, particularly CLT/HT, was seen. Overlap features of CLT/HT and SAT was noticed in significant percentage. No bias was noticed amongst any specific tribal community. FNAC, coupled with clinico-serological study, helps to diagnose thyroiditis at early stage. PMID:26693459

  17. Capsule Endoscope Aspiration after Repeated Attempts for Ingesting a Patency Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Mannami, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Genyo; Seno, Satoru; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Nobukiyo; Komoda, Minori; Edahiro, Satoru; Ohtawa, Yasuyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshimi; Sato, Naohiro; Kambara, Takeshi; Waku, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Capsule endoscope aspiration into the respiratory tract is a rare complication of capsule endoscopy. Despite the potential seriousness of this complication, no accepted methods exist to accurately predict and therefore prevent it. We describe the case of an 85-year-old male who presented for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia. He complained of dysphagia while ingesting a patency capsule, with several attempts over a period of 5 min before he was successful. Five days later, he underwent capsule endoscopy, where he experienced similar symptoms in swallowing the capsule. The rest of the examination proceeded uneventfully. On reviewing the captured images, the capsule endoscope was revealed to be aspirated, remaining in the respiratory tract for approximately 220 s before images of the esophagus and stomach appeared. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a patient who experienced capsule endoscope aspiration after ingestion of a patency capsule. This case suggests that repeated attempts required for ingesting the patency capsule can predict capsule endoscope aspiration. We presume that paying sufficient attention to the symptoms of a patient who ingests a patency capsule could help us prevent serious complications such as aspiration of the capsule endoscope. In addition, this experience implies the potential risk for ingesting the patency capsule. We must be aware that the patency capsule could also be aspirated and there may be more unrecognized aspiration cases. PMID:26600772

  18. Trends in Cervical Cytology Screening and Reporting Practices: Results From the College of American Pathologists 2011 PAP Education Supplemental Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Crothers, Barbara A; Darragh, Teresa M; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Nayar, Ritu; Barkan, Guliz A; Zhao, Chengquan; Booth, Christine Noga; Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Souers, Rhona J; Thomas, Nicole; Wilbur, David C; Moriarty, Ann T

    2016-01-01

    Context .- The College of American Pathologists periodically surveys laboratories to determine changes in cytopathology practices. We report the results of a 2011 gynecologic cytology survey. Objective .- To provide a cross-sectional survey of gynecologic cytology practices in 2010. Design .- In 2011, a survey was sent to 1604 laboratories participating in the College of American Pathologists gynecologic cytology interlaboratory comparison education program and proficiency testing programs requesting data from 2010 on the following topics: terminology/reporting, cytotechnologist workload, quality assurance, reagents, and ancillary testing. Results .- Six hundred and twenty-five laboratories (39%) replied to the survey. The nonstandard use of "low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" is used by most laboratories to report the presence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with possibility of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Most laboratories also report the presence or absence of cells from the transformation zone. Most respondents do not limit cytotechnologist screening workload during the work shift. Only about one-third of laboratories (188 of 582; 32%) use image-assisted screening devices. Rapid prescreening as a quality assurance measure is used by only 3.5% (21 of 594) of the laboratories. When used for screening, most laboratories use the imager for retrospective review of slides to detect human locator and interpretive errors. Most laboratories receive both liquid-based cytology samples (mainly ThinPrep, Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts) and conventional Papanicolaou tests. Expiration dates of liquid-based cytology test vials are not usually recorded. Conclusions .- The field of gynecologic cytology is evolving rapidly. These survey results offer a snapshot of national gynecologic cytology practices in 2010. PMID:26046490

  19. Transvaginal Aspiration of Ovarian Cysts: Long-Term Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, D.; Colville, J.; Keeling, A.; Broe, D.; Fotheringham, T.; Lee, M.J.

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose. Transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts has been advocated as a viable alternative to surgery in patients who are high-risk surgical candidates. We describe a retrospective study evaluating the results of transvaginal aspirations of benign ovarian cysts in patients at increased surgical risk, focusing on long-term follow-up for recurrence of the cyst and/or development of malignancy. Methods. Twenty-four women with ovarian cysts underwent 34 transvaginal drainages between October 1998 and December 2004. All patients were referred following diagnosis of a persistent ovarian cyst with a benign appearance on ultrasound. All patients were unsuitable candidates for surgery (history of previous pelvic surgery, n = 21; high risk for anesthesia, n = 1; and unsuitable for laparoscopy due to obesity, n = 2). Patients with a history of pregnancy, acute abdominal symptoms, or previous gynecologic malignancy were excluded. A 20G x 20 cm Chiba needle was used for transvaginal aspiration using an endocavity probe (Acuson XP, Mountain View, CA, USA; Siemens Sololine, Erlangen, Germany) and intravenous sedoanalgesia. Cysts were aspirated to dryness. Results. Long-term follow-up of patients was performed and revealed a recurrence rate of 75%. Eighty-three percent of cysts on the left and 42% of those on the right recurred. Nine of 15 (60%) patients with recurrence required further intervention. Two of 9 underwent surgical intervention only, 4 of 9 had repeat transvaginal aspiration(s) performed, and 3 of 9 had a combination of both transvaginal aspiration and surgery. No patient developed ovarian malignancy. Conclusion. Transvaginal cyst aspiration has many advantages including short hospital stay, rapid recovery, excellent patient tolerance, and a low rate of procedure-related complications. Our study demonstrates that ovarian cyst recurrence following transvaginal drainage is a more significant problem than previously documented, especially if the cyst is on the left side. However, when recurrences do occur, repeat transvaginal aspirations may be considered in the symptomatic patient.

  20. Strain, Psychological Conflicts, Aspirations-Attainment Gap, and Depressive Tendencies among Youth of Mexican Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Paat, Yok-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Using Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study examined the links between strain, psychological conflicts, aspiration-attainment gap, and depressive tendencies of 755 youth of Mexican origin. Two research questions were raised: (a) What types of strain and psychological conflict induced depressive tendencies? (b) What types of aspirations were relevant to these depressive symptoms? Overall, this study showed that factors implicated by collision of values, perceived discrepancies between aspiration and attainment, and negative appraisal of self could induce depressive mood, feelings, and behaviors, an important finding revealing that this underserved population can benefit from better public health services. PMID:26667158

  1. A biospectroscopic interrogation of fine needle aspirates points towards segregation between graded categories: an initial study towards diagnostic screening.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jemma G; Ahmadzai, Abdullah A; Hermansen, Paul; Pitt, Mark A; Saidan, Zuhair; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

    2011-08-01

    Fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of suspicious breast lesions are often used to aid the diagnosis of female breast cancer. Biospectroscopy tools facilitate the acquisition of a biochemical cell fingerprint representative of chemical bonds present in a biological sample. The mid-infrared (IR; 4,000-400 cm(-1)) is absorbed by the chemical bonds present, allowing one to derive an absorbance spectrum. Complementary to IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy measures the scattering by chemical bonds following excitation by a laser to generate an intensity spectrum. Our objective was to apply these methods to determine whether a biospectroscopy approach could objectively segregate different categories of FNAs. FNAs of breast tissue were collected (n = 48) in a preservative solution and graded into categories by a cytologist as C1 (non-diagnostic), C2 (benign), C3 (suspicious, probably benign) or C5 (malignant) [or C4 (suspicious, probably malignant); no samples falling within this category were identified during the collection period of the study]. Following washing, the cellular material was transferred onto BaF(2) (IR-transparent) slides for interrogation by Raman or Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) microspectroscopy. In some cases where sufficient material was obtained, this was transferred to low-E (IR-reflective) glass slides for attenuated total reflection-FTIR spectroscopy. The spectral datasets produced from these techniques required multivariate analysis for data handling. Principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis was performed independently on each of the spectral datasets for only C2, C3 and C5. The resulting scores plots revealed a marked overlap of C2 with C3 and C5, although the latter pair were both significantly segregated (P < 0.001) in the Raman spectra. Good separation was observed between C3 and C5 in all three spectral datasets. Analysis performed on the average spectra showed the presence of three distinct cytological groups. Our findings suggest that biospectroscopy tools coupled with multivariate analysis may support the current FNA tests whilst increasing the sensitivity and associated reliability for improved diagnostics. PMID:21660416

  2. Utilization of Human Papillomavirus DNA Detection for Cervical Cancer Screening in Women Presenting With Abnormal Cytology in Lokoja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Olatunji; Ogah, Jeremiah; Alabi, Olatunde; Suleiman, Mustapha; Amuda, Oluwatomi; Kolawole, Folashade

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths in Nigeria, with an overall prevalence similar to most developing countries. Screening for cervical cancer is primarily performed using papanicolaou (PAP) staining procedure, in Nigeria. Objectives: This study aimed to use human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA typing, as a means of ascertaining the presence of high risk HPV in cytology samples, which are positive for the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), using the PAP screening procedure. Patients and Methods: Amplification of DNA was done using polymerase chain reaction. Gene sequencing was carried out to determine the presence of high risk HPV from cervical smears that were positive for abnormal cytology, from a cross-sectional study involving women between the ages of 16 - 65 years, screened for CIN and cervical cancer, in Lokoja, Nigeria. Results: Result showed a 100% presence of high risk HPV in all the samples with abnormal cytology. The HPV genotype 35 accounted for the highest percentage of the HPVs cases, with a 40% incidence. The HPV genotype 31 accounted for 30% of samples, while HPV genotype 16 and 18 accounted for 20% and 10% of samples, respectively. Conclusions: The high prevalence of HPV in abnormal cytology underlines to the fact that the presence of HPV is a critical factor in the development of cervical cancer. The use of HPV DNA techniques could actually become an effective and fast means of ascertaining the presence of HPV in abnormal cytology. PMID:26568803

  3. Cytological features of lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary pattern in the pleural or pericardial effusion: analysis of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Kagotani, Akiko; Iwai, Muneo

    2014-01-01

    Micropapillary pattern is a distinct histopathological pattern, and usually shows a high frequency of lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastases. This pattern is also reported in lung adenocarcinoma, however, only one cytological report of lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary pattern has been reported. In this study, we analyzed the cytological features of this type of carcinoma in the pleural or pericardial effusion. This study was comprised of 5 consecutive cases of lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary pattern, in which the tumor cells were present in the pleural or pericardial effusion and whose diagnoses were histopathologically confirmed. The characteristic cytological findings in the pleural or pericardial effusion were as follows: i) tightly cohesive small nests of tumor cells showing papillary structure without fibrovascular core, ii) these nests were comprised of approximately 5-20 tumor cells, iii) cauliflower-like and acinar-like structures were also observed, iv) intracytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in 40% of the cases, and v) the neoplastic cells had large round to oval nuclei containing coarse chromatin and occasional conspicuous nucleoli. It has been reported that the presence of micropapillary structure and intracytoplasmic vacuolation are also characteristic cytological features of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder, therefore, they are thought to be common cytological features of carcinomas with micropapillary pattern. Consequently, detection of these features can lead to a cytodiagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary pattern in the pleural or pericardial effusion. Recognition of these features is important because this type of tumor shows an aggressive clinical course. PMID:25197384

  4. Design and operation of a counter-rotating aspirated compressor blowdown test facility

    E-print Network

    Parker, David V. (David Vickery)

    2005-01-01

    A unique counter-rotating aspirated compressor was tested in a blowdown facility at the Gas Turbine Laboratory at MIT. The facility expanded on experience from previous blowdown turbine and blowdown compressor experiments. ...

  5. Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India

    E-print Network

    Beaman, Lori

    Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls’ career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly ...

  6. Iron lung: bronchoscopic and pathological consequences of aspiration of ferrous sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Godden, D J; Kerr, K M; Watt, S J; Legge, J S

    1991-01-01

    Acute bronchial damage was caused by aspiration of a ferrous sulphate tablet, early histological changes (unlike in the few previously reported cases) being observed in the biopsy specimens. Images PMID:2014497

  7. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26282242

  8. Factors associated with educational aspirations among adolescents: cues to counteract socioeconomic differences?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the development of educational aspirations, but this association will be modified by available social and individual resources, which may be particularly favourable for the group of adolescents who are on lower educational tracks, since for them such resources may lead to gaining a higher educational level. Methods We collected data on the socioeconomic background (mother's and father's education and employment status, doubts about affordability of future study), school-related factors (school atmosphere, school conditions, attitudes towards school), perceived social support, sense of coherence (manageability, comprehensibility, meaningfulness) and the self-rated health of a national sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 1992, 53.5% females, mean age 16.9 years). We assessed the association of these factors with educational aspirations, overall and by educational tracks (grammar schools, specialised secondary schools, vocational schools). Results We found statistically significant associations with educational aspirations for the factors parental educational level, father's unemployment, doubts about the affordability of future study, school atmosphere, attitude towards school, social support from the father and a sense of coherence. Social support from the mother and friends was not associated with educational aspiration, nor was self-rated health. Besides affinity towards school, the determinants of educational aspirations differed among adolescents on different educational tracks. Educational aspirations of grammar school students were associated with father's education, while the aspirations of their peers on lower educational tracks had a stronger association with mother's education and perceived social support from father and friends. Moreover, a sense of coherence contributes to the reporting of educational aspiration by students on different educational tracks. Conclusions Characteristics of the school environment, the family and the individual adolescent are all associated with the level of educational aspiration, but in a different way for different educational tracks. Interventions aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in health via the educational system should, therefore, take this variation and the rather pivotal role of the father into account. PMID:20334644

  9. [Optimal length of antibiotic therapy in aspirated cerebral abscess].

    PubMed

    Lepresle, E; Djindjian, M; Nguyen, J P; Goujon, C

    1990-03-10

    Between 1983 and 1988, 22 patients with brain abscess were admitted to our neurosurgery department; 2 patients deeply comatose on admission and who died on the first day were excluded from this study. Treatment consisted of needle aspiration of the abscess and antibacterial therapy initially using a broad-spectrum antibiotic later replaced, in all cases, by an antibiotic found to be active in vitro against the organism(s) isolated. The portal of entry was eradicated as early as possible. The duration of antibiotic therapy was determined according to the changes observed on computerized tomography images classified as cavitary, nodular, hypodense or normal. Nodular images were taken as reflecting an inflammatory state in the healing process, and hypodense images as sequelae, so that antibiotics were withdrawn in patients with such images. Altogether, 62 per cent of the patients received antibiotics for 60 days and 95 per cent for 90 days. There was no recurrence. In some patients with deep or, chiefly, multiple abscesses, treatment was pursued. In any case, antibiotics should not be given for more than 90 days if the initial treatment has proved effective, since cure is achieved in 45 to 60 days on average. PMID:2138760

  10. Association between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and micronuclei in normal cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Cassel, Ana Paula Rebelo; Barcellos, Regina Bones; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between HPV-DNA and micronucleus (MN) frequency in women with normal cervical cytology. A total of 158 normal cervical smears were analyzed cytologically. The HPV genome was amplified using the GP5+/bioGP6+ consensus primers. HPV-DNA of high-risk types 16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 45 and 59 were also investigated. Of the 158 samples, 20 (12.7%) and 47 (29.7%) were positive for HPV-DNA and MN, respectively. Evidence for MN was found in 11 out of 20 (55%) HPV-DNA positive samples and in 36 out of 138 (26.1%) HPV-DNA negative ones. MN presence was significantly higher in HPV-DNA positive samples (p = 0.016). On the other hand, the absence of MN observed in a considerable number of HPV-DNA negative samples (102) may be of great value in predicting the absence of HPV. The mean age of HPV-DNA positive women (34.2 ± 12.6) was significantly lower than the mean age of HPV-DNA negative women (43.9 ± 13.7) (p = 0.003). Infection by one or multiple HPV types was found in 11 out of 20 (55.0%) and 9 out of 20 (45.0%) samples, respectively. The evaluation of MN using cervical smears collected for cytology tests could, thus, be used as additional information to monitor a population’s exposure to HPV. PMID:25071400

  11. Influence of vulvar hygiene on cytology of vaginal smears after sham artificial insemination in sows.

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, H; Desnoyers, M; Vaillancourt, D; Martineau, G P

    1995-01-01

    The description of vaginal cytology in the sow in relation to artificial insemination (AI) has never been reported. Poor vulvar hygiene is frequently imputed as a cause for the development of endometritis after AI and could thus enhance the inflammatory response of the genital tract. The goal of this study was to use cytology as an objective tool to evaluate the vulvar hygiene during sham AI. Sixty-eight sows were matched according to their parity and week of mating and divided into 2 groups: treatment sows (CVS) had their vulva cleaned with a 1:2000 Hibitane solution and control sows (SVS) had theirs soiled with feces. Both groups of sows were inseminated twice with saline following this vulvar treatment, once at detection of estrus and a 2nd time 24 hours later. Vestibular smears were taken before each AI, and vaginal smears were taken after each AI from the material present on the insemination spirette. Cytological smears were described by the predominant type of cells, namely epithelial, neutrophil, or no predominance. Results showed no significant differences between the 2 groups and no evolution in the predominance of neutrophils from the 1st to the 2nd AI (P > 0.05). The pooled results from the 2 groups showed an increase in cellularity from the 1st to the 2nd AI (P > 0.05). Neither the cellularity nor predominant cell type in vestibular or vaginal smears from estrus sows are predictors of vulvar hygiene during sham AI (P > 0.05). PMID:8521352

  12. Comparison of honey with ethanol as an oral cytological fixative: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amita; Hunasgi, Santosh; Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M; Ramalu, Surekha; Manvikar, Vardendra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The fixation of cytological smears using ethanol is the gold standard. But, there exists a quench to search a new alternative for it due to it being expensive, carcinogenic and not freely available. Honey has various properties, like dehydrant, anti-bacterial and antioxidant. The use of honey as a preservative in funerary practices is well documented. A thorough search in the literature did not reveal any matter for the utility of honey as a fixative in cytological smear, but its use in histopathology is well recognized. Aims: To analyze the efficacy of cytological smears fixed in ethanol and 20% unprocessed honey and to compare the efficacy between the two fixatives. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 30 normal healthy individuals who willingly gave written consent. Prior to the collection of buccal cells, subjects were asked to rinse their mouth with water. Buccal cells were collected using a wooden ice cream stick. Two smears were collected from each subject. One smear was fixed in ethanol and the other was fixed in unprocessed 20% honey. The slides were washed in tap water for about 30 s, following which they were subjected to the conventional Papanicolaou staining procedure. The slides thus fixed were evaluated separately for ethanol and honey. The cytoplasmic and nuclear details were scored for 50 cells in each slide. Data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ninety percent of the ethanol-fixed (EF) smears were adequately fixed as compared with the honey-fixed (HF) smears, which were 80% adequate. The P-value obtained was 0.47 and the data were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Both EF and HF smears were at par with each other, and honey can be safely used as a substitute to ethanol. PMID:26229248

  13. Nasal cytology in southwest metropolitan Mexico City inhabitants: A pilot intervention study

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon-Garciduenas, L.; Roy-Ocotla, G. )

    1993-06-01

    Southwest metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) inhabitants have been exposed several hours per day for the last 6 years to photochemical smog, ozone being the most important oxidant pollutant. Subjects exposed to the SWMMC atmosphere develop several histopathological changes in their nasal mucosa: dysplasia is the most significant, affecting 78.72% of adult individuals within 60 or more days of residence in SWMMC. This study was originally designed to explore whether chemical intervention could modify nasal dysplasia, as determined by nasal cytology, in a defined adult population. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial, 177 healthy male subjects were divided into 5 groups to whom 5000 IU of vitamin A, 100 IU of vitamin E, a combination of vitamins A and E (5000 IU + 100 IU), 16 mg of beta-carotene, or placebo were administered daily for 4 months. Sixteen clinical and cytological variables were monitored. No effect on dysplasia was seen at the end of the 4-month trial; however, an apparent reversibility as well as progression of the dysplastic nasal lesions and high correlation coefficients between dysplasia and nasal cytology of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs; 0.85), squamous metaplasia (SM; 0.50), and nasal mucosa atrophy (NMA; 0.41) were found. A mathematical theoretical nasal dysplasia (tD) predictor equation for SWMMC adult male inhabitants is proposed (tD = 0.85 delta PMNs + 0.50 delta SM + 0.41 delta NMA + 0.98), in which PMNs are the best single dysplasia predictor, and all variables are independent.

  14. ASPIRE outreach and informal education - high impact outreach on a budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Julie; Christiansen, Peter; Sims, Pace

    2010-10-01

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research & Education (ASPIRE) provides hands-on activities for K-12 students and teachers to use in the classroom through immersive Flash activities as well as traveling kits. These projects and techniques are a successful way to contact groups of people either in the classroom or in an informal situation. The ASPIRE team presents information about the development of Flash activities and creating hands-on experiments that have the potential to reach large audiences with minimal finances.

  15. An Unusual Case of Foreign Body Aspiration Masquerading as Pulmonary Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Gopathi, Nageswara Rao; Mandava, Venu; P, Prabahkar Rao; Kolaparthy, Lakshmaikanth

    2015-06-01

    Foreign body aspiration into the airways is a common occurrence in inebriated conditions, paediatric age group and or loss of cough reflex. Acute symptoms, often times are recognized and medical assistance is sought. Subtle aspirations, unrecognized and stationed for longer time in the abode of airways pose variegated clinical picture. The authors present herewith an unsuspected case of Areca nut in a middle-aged woman mimicking eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:26266154

  16. An Unusual Case of Foreign Body Aspiration Masquerading as Pulmonary Eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Venu; P., Prabahkar Rao; Kolaparthy, Lakshmaikanth

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration into the airways is a common occurrence in inebriated conditions, paediatric age group and or loss of cough reflex. Acute symptoms, often times are recognized and medical assistance is sought. Subtle aspirations, unrecognized and stationed for longer time in the abode of airways pose variegated clinical picture. The authors present herewith an unsuspected case of Areca nut in a middle-aged woman mimicking eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:26266154

  17. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  18. Synergy between acid and endotoxin in an experimental model of aspiration-related lung injury progression.

    PubMed

    Tetenev, Konstantin; Cloutier, Mary E; von Reyn, Jessica A; Ather, Jennifer L; Candon, James; Allen, Gilman B

    2015-11-15

    Aspiration is a common cause of lung injury, but it is unclear why some cases are self-limited while others progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sporadic exposure to more than one insult could account for this variable progression. We investigated whether synergy between airway acid and endotoxin (LPS) amplifies injury severity in mice and whether LPS levels in human patients could corroborate our experimental findings. C57BL/6 mice aspirated acid (pH 1.3) or normal saline (NS), followed by LPS aerosol or nothing. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained 2 to 49 h later. Mice were injected with FITC-dextran 25 h after aspiration and connected to a ventilator, and lung elastance (H) measured periodically following deep inflation (DI). Endotracheal and gastric aspirates were also collected from patients in the intensive care unit and assayed for pH and LPS. Lung instability (?H following DI) and pressure-volume hysteresis in acid- or LPS-exposed mice was greater than in controls but markedly greater in the combined acid/LPS group. BALF neutrophils, cytokines, protein, and FITC-dextran in the acid/LPS mice were geometrically higher than all other groups. BALF from acid-only mice markedly amplified LPS-induced TNF-? production in cultured macrophages. Human subjects had variable endotracheal LPS levels with the highest burden in those at higher risk of aspiration. Acid aspiration amplifies LPS signaling in mice to disrupt barrier function and lung mechanics in synergy. High variation in airway LPS and greater airway LPS burden in patients at higher risk of aspiration could help explain the sporadic progression of aspiration to ARDS. PMID:26408552

  19. [The innovative approach to improvement of accuracy of cytological analysis: application of intrascopic technology].

    PubMed

    Men'shikov, V V

    2014-10-01

    The article presents information concerning development of device Cell-CTtm by the American specialists to implement cytological analysis of 3D images of cells using technology of computer tomography by means of visible photons and not x-rays beams. Since density of single cell is insufficient for x-ray analysis. The isotropic resolution of Cell-Cttm permits receiving highly contrast and neatly separating signal from noise image of cell structures in 200 nm range. The device is able to apply mathematical apparatus of computer tomography under analysis and classification of cells. PMID:25884074

  20. Endometrial cytology, biopsy, and bacteriology for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Madoz, L V; Giuliodori, M J; Migliorisi, A L; Jaureguiberry, M; de la Sota, R L

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the agreement between endometrial cytology and uterine biopsy for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis (SEND) in grazing dairy cows, the interobserver agreement of the biopsy's readings, and the bacterial population isolated from the uterus of cows having SEND. In experiment 1, lactating Holstein cows (n=44) 31 to 59 d in milk (DIM) at sampling were enrolled. Clinical endometritis was diagnosed by direct evaluation of vaginal discharge and SEND by endometrial cytology evaluation. Two hundred cells per smear were counted to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL). Cut-off values used were ?8% PMNL at ?33 DIM, ?6% PMNL at 34 to 47 DIM, and ?4% PMNL at ?48 DIM. Biopsies were assessed blindly by 2 observers who categorized them into 4 groups according to their inflammatory changes: none, minimal, moderate, and severe inflammatory changes. Data were analyzed using the kappa coefficient and logistic regression. In experiment 2, lactating Holstein cows (n=60) 21 to 62 DIM were enrolled. Clinical endometritis and SEND were diagnosed as previously described. Samples were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria by routine methods of bacteriological testing. Data were analyzed with logistic regression. In experiment 1, little agreement was observed between cytology and biopsy outputs (kappa=0.151), and strong agreement between the 2 operators (kappa=0.854). The likelihood of having a normal biopsy (no inflammatory change) was greater for healthy cows than for those having SEND (odds ratio=13.145). The probability for getting normal uterine tissue decreased 2.1% for every increasing percentage point in PMNL. In experiment 2, no bacteria were isolated from cows with SEND, coagulase-negative staphylococci were commonly isolated from healthy cows, and Trueperella pyogenes was frequently isolated from cows with clinical endometritis. The likelihood of isolating T. pyogenes from uterine samples increased with the percentage of PMNL (odds ratio=1.100). In conclusion, biopsy showed low agreement with cytology for the diagnosis of SEND. Nevertheless, fertility trials using uterine biopsies to predict pregnancy outcomes are needed to determine its diagnostic usefulness. Finally, bacteriology would not be recommended as a diagnostic tool because no bacteria were isolated from cows with SEND. PMID:24183683