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Sample records for aspiration cytology fnac

  1. Malignancy Risk Analysis in Patients with Inadequate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Al Maqbali, Talib; Tedla, Miroslav; Weickert, Martin O.; Mehanna, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    Background Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the standard diagnostic modality for thyroid nodules. However, it has limitations among which is the incidence of non-diagnostic results (Thy1). Management of cases with repeatedly non-diagnostic FNAC ranges from simple observation to surgical intervention. We aim to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in non-diagnostic FNAC, and the success rate of repeated FNAC. We also aim to evaluate risk factors for malignancy in patients with non-diagnostic FNAC. Materials and Methods Retrospective analyses of consecutive cases with thyroid non diagnostic FNAC results were included. Results Out of total 1657 thyroid FNAC done during the study period, there were 264 (15.9%) non-diagnostic FNAC on the first attempt. On repeating those, the rate of a non-diagnostic result on second FNAC was 61.8% and on third FNAC was 47.2%. The overall malignancy rate in Thy1 FNAC was 4.5% (42% papillary, 42% follicular and 8% anaplastic), and the yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. Ultrasound guidance by an experienced head neck radiologist produced the lowest non-diagnostic rate (38%) on repetition compared to US guidance by a generalist radiologist (65%) and by non US guidance (90%). Conclusions There is a low risk of malignancy in patients with a non-diagnostic FNAC result, commensurate to the risk of any nodule. The yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. PMID:23185295

  2. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) as a Diagnostic Tool in Paediatric Head and Neck Lymphodenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Silas, OA; Ige, OO; Adoga, AA; Nimkur, LT; Ajetunmobi, OI

    2015-01-01

    A neck mass that is present for longer than a week might be pathological requiring rapid and thorough evaluation. This study aims to evaluate the positive role Fine needle aspiration cytology plays in the diagnosis of pediatric patients with lymphadenopathy in the head and neck region. Fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes was carried out, fixed and stained by cytopathologists for 56 patients at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, 43 (76.8%) were inflammatory and 13 (23.2%) malignant. Reactive hyperplasia (72.1%), acute suppurative (18.6%) and tuberculosis (9.3%) constituted the inflammatory lesions. Non Hodgkins lymphoma was the commonest malignant lesion (76.9%) followed by Hodgkins lymphoma (15.4%), the least being Rhabdomyosarcoma (7.7%). Age range 10-14 years had the highest number of cases (46.4%). Males were 36 (64.3%) while females were 20 (35.7%). All malignant cases diagnosed by FNAC had to undergo confirmation/characterization by histology and had 100% concordance. Thus there were no false positives and specificity was 100%, sensitivity 100%. Of the 43 diagnosed as inflammatory by FNAC, 12 cases which did not resolve after treatment or where patients condition worsened had to undergo surgical biopsy. Out of these only 1 (8.3%) case of fungal infection was misdiagnosed by FNAC. The lymph nodes were generalized 4 (7.1%) and localized in 52 (92.9%). Maximum number of cases 53 (94.6%) had Cervical Lymphadenopathy followed by axillary 2 (3.6%) and inguinal 1 (1.8%). Out of the cervical group of nodes, the upper anterior and upper posterior deep cervical nodes were involved in majority of cases (95%). PMID:26306308

  3. The diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the assessment of palpable supraclavicular lymph nodes: a study of 218 cases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Naran, S; Lallu, S; Fauck, R

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the assessment of palpable supraclavicular lymph nodes. The material was analysed in 218 cases with enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes in which FNAC was performed by the conventional method. In all cases cytological examination was performed on-site after staining the smears by the Papanicolaou method. In addition, air-dried smears, fixed smears, filter preparations from needle washings and cell blocks were studied. The FNAC diagnosis was supported by examining cell blocks which added the reliability of histological architecture; further support was obtained by tissue biopsy and/or comparison with the primary tumour in some of the cases. Eleven cases were diagnosed as inflammatory lesions and 41 cases were unsatisfactory because of scanty/acellular samples (despite two to three repeat samplings). However, in five of these, malignant tumours were later found on biopsy, which was done for persistent enlargement of the supraclavicular lymph node(s). Fifty-three cases were diagnosed as negative for malignancy (normal cellular elements, n=15; reactive elements, n=38) and 12 cases were suspicious of malignancy. In 11 cases a diagnosis of lymphoma was made on histology and in 90 cases metastatic tumours were diagnosed. The overall sensitivity was 92.7%, specificity 98.5%, positive predictive value 97.3% and the negative predictive value was 94.8%. Based on our study we feel that FNAC of palpable supraclavicular lymph nodes as a first line of investigation is a cost-effective procedure and is not only useful in the diagnosis of various lesions but can also help in deciding on appropriate management. Furthermore, the histological architecture from cell blocks can be correlated with cytology, and such material can be used for appropriate histochemical and immunomarker studies, which can be useful in enhancing the diagnosis. PMID:12873313

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Parikshaa; Dey, Pranab; Bal, Amanjit

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case. PMID:25745290

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology in two cases of chondromyxoid fibroma of bone and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sreedharanunni, Sreejesh; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Bansal, Sandeep; Vaiphei, Kim

    2013-10-01

    We report the cytological features of two cases of chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) confirmed by histopathology examination. First case was a 40-year-old male who presented with a foot swelling, and the second case was a 16-year-old male with a lesion at the angle of jaw. A fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed in both the cases. In first case, a correct diagnosis of CMF could be offered on FNAC. In the second case, though the cytology diagnosis was a sarcoma considering the cytological, radiological and clinical features, the histopathological examination confirmed the same to be a CMF. The cases are being discussed to highlight the usefulness of FNAC to diagnose these uncommon benign bone lesions and the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of chondroid lesions. PMID:22508682

  7. Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Gill, Meenu; Garg, Shilpa; Kalra, Rajnish; Sen, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma of the ocular adnexa is a malignant neoplasm which has aggressive local behavior and can metastasize to regional lymph nodes and distant organs. It is a malignant neoplasm known to masquerade as other benign and less malignant lesions, resulting in delay in diagnosis and relatively high morbidity and mortality. Aspiration cytological features of this neoplasm have not been well characterized in the literature. We report a case of this tumor diagnosed on fine needle aspiration. Clinically, a diagnosis of chalazion was made and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. Cytological diagnosis of a malignant tumor with closest resemblance to sebaceous carcinoma was suggested which was confirmed on histopathology. Eyelid reconstruction was done after histopathological confirmation of tumor-free margins. The article highlights the role of FNAC in early diagnosis and subsequent appropriate surgical management of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma to prevent recurrence and metastasis. PMID:22438626

  8. Spermiophages on testicular fine needle aspiration cytology: A rare finding.

    PubMed

    Jashnani, Kusum; Desai, Heena; Shetty, Jyothi

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages usually reside in the testicular interstitial tissues and are normally not found within the seminiferous tubules. However, in certain cases of male infertility, the macrophages are activated and can then be found within the tubules where they can ingest spermatozoa and are labeled as "spermiophages." FNAC was performed in a 36 year male with history of primary infertility. On microscopy, smears made from right testis were indicative of hypospermatogenesis. On the contrary, smears made from the left testis were very cellular showing Sertoli cells and the entire spectrum of normal spermatogenesis. Also seen were many isolated spermiophages. The cytological impression given for the left testis was normal spermatogenesis with numerous spermiophages. Thus the patient fell in the category of obstructive azoospermia (OA). According to currently adopted hypothesis, macrophages carry ingested sperm heads with some antigenic components to the basal capillaries which may result in the formation of autoantibodies against the spermatozoa. This situation may further diminish the chances of fertility in men. The origin of these spermiophage cells is unknown. Although commonly reported in semen and epididymal biopsies, they have not been reported to occur on testicular fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In our case, no sperms were found on semen examination which were easily picked up on testicular FNAC indicating usefulness of the latter in the diagnosis of cases of male infertility and eliminating the need for a testicular biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:232-234. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875595

  9. Fibroma of the tendon sheath: A diagnostic dilemma on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra G; Dhruva, Gauravi

    2015-01-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor (STS) of the tendon sheath. Clinical and radiological features are not distinctive enough to clinch the diagnosis preoperatively. Although histological features are well described, diagnostic cytological features of FTS are still lacking. Till date only two reports describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings of FTS. The present case is a 50-year-old female who presented with a slow growing nodule on the right thigh over a period of 2 years. FNAC revealed low cell yield with loose clusters of fibrotic spindle cells and stellate cells intermingled with fibro-collagenous and myxoid matrix. Few cells showed mild degree of nuclear atypia. Necrosis and atypical mitoses were not seen. Cytology findings were suggestive of benign/low-grade fibroblastic or fibromyxoid lesion. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of FTS. This article discusses the diagnostic role of FNAC in FTS with its differential diagnosis PMID:26729987

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, SN; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, S N; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  12. Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis – Diagnosis on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Makhdoomi, Rumana; Mustafa, Farhat; Malik, Rais; Bhat, Salma; Alam, Khurshid; Bashir, Humaira; Samoon, Nuzhat; Rasool, Mohsin; Baba, Khalil Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is associated with an increased risk of developing papillary carcinoma of thyroid. We hereby report a case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with papillary carcinoma in a 45-year-old ear old female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) which was later confirmed on histopathological examination .Such an occurrence, when both lesions are picked up on FNAC in a patient with no palpable thyroid nodule is rare. The case is presented here for its rarity. PMID:24348592

  13. Contribution of fine needle aspiration cytology to diagnosis and management of thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Godinho-Matos, L.; Kocjan, G.; Kurtz, A.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. METHODS: Clinical histories of 144 patients who had undergone FNAC of the thyroid were analysed. Clinical presentation, non-invasive investigations including hormone assays, ultrasound, and isotope scan procedures were compared with FNAC diagnoses in all cases and with histological diagnosis in the 28 cases (19%) that had undergone surgery. Clinical management was decided upon combining all of the above investigations. The relative contribution of the FNAC was divided into: essential, additional and non-contributory, misleading. RESULTS: FNAC diagnoses included: 29 (16%) benign colloid goitre, 56 (39%) benign cystic goitre, 24 (17%) thyroiditis, and 22 (15%) neoplasms. Nineteen (13%) of the specimens were unsatisfactory. When compared with clinical diagnoses based on non-invasive diagnostic investigations FNAC represented no improvement on the diagnosis of benign colloid/cystic goitre (55% v 54% respectively). It represented an improvement on the diagnosis of thyroiditis (9% v 17% respectively). FNAC decreased clinically suspicious lesions in which 22 neoplasms were diagnosed from 37% to 15%. Eleven patients with neoplasms underwent surgery and neoplasms were confirmed histologically. Others including lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma, and analplastic carcinoma were managed conservatively. There were four false negative FNAC diagnoses (3%) in clinically suspicious lesions, found on histology to be benign follicular adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: FNAC had an essential role in the diagnosis and management of 23% of our patients, a confirmatory role in 61% of patients, a non-contributory role in 13% when specimens were inadequate, and was misleading in 3% where results were false negative. The positive identification of thyroiditis and neoplasia stands on its own as a justification for FNAC. PMID:1597516

  14. Nodular fasciitis initially diagnosed by aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Aza, J; Arraiza, A; Delgado, B; Romeo, C

    1985-01-01

    A case of nodular fasciitis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology is described. The cytologic findings included fusiform cells, mitoses, macrophages, multinucleated giant cells and mesenchymal elements in a characteristic granular background substance. The cytopathologic diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by the histopathologic study of the tumor and by electron microscopy. PMID:3861046

  15. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Male Breast Lesions – A Retrospective Study Over a Six Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Hilda; CS, Jayaprakash; Marla, Nisha J; Keshava S, Murali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a well-established role in the management of palpable breast lumps. However breast masses in males are rarely aspirated and hence there is limited cytopathologic experience. The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of FNAC in the diagnosis of male breast lesions and also we attempted to describe the cytomorphological features of some of these lesions. Materials and Methods: Data on male breast FNAC done between 2008 to 2013 were retrieved from the records of the cytopathology laboratory. FNAC diagnosis were categorized as benign, malignant, suspicious for malignancy and inadequate or unsatisfactory. Cytohistologic correlation was done with data from histopathology records. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were calculated using standard statistical methods. Results: Forty out of 1098 patients undergoing breast FNAC were males. Histopathology was available in 8 (20%) out of 40 cases. There were no false positive or false negative diagnoses. FNAC had a sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 100% for male breast lesions. Conclusion: FNAC is a very accurate tool for the diagnosis of male breast lesions. It is highly sensitive and specific with good cytohistologic correlation. To reduce the high rate of surgical biopsies of benign male breast masses, we conclude that FNAC should be performed as a standard procedure in the clinical evaluation of male breast lesions PMID:25478347

  16. Rosai Dorfman disease diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology in a young man with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sall, Abibatou; Touré, Awa Oumar; Ndiaye, Fatou Samba; Sène, Abdoulaye; Sall, Fatimata Bintou; Faye, Blaise Félix; Seck, Moussa; Diop, Saliou

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message RDD (Rosai Dorfman disease) is a rare and benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. FNAC (Fine-needle aspiration cytology) is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of RDD, and as such, biopsy is avoidable. PMID:26509029

  17. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in diagnosing musculoskeletal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ivreet; Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Garg, Sudhir Kumar; Mohan, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of musculoskeletal neoplasms requires an accurate diagnosis, histologic type, and degree of tumor differentiation. Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors and further to compare the results with histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Grading of malignant tumors was also compared on these techniques. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients with musculoskeletal neoplasms. Detailed history, clinical examination, and radiological investigations were undertaken. FNAC followed by CNB were performed in each case. The tumors were categorized as benign and malignant with a definitive histotype diagnosis. For malignant neoplasms, cytologic and histologic gradings were done into three grades. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC and CNB were compared. Results: Of the 50 cases with musculoskeletal neoplasms, 32 (64%) were bone tumors and 18 (36%) were soft tissue tumors. The sensitivity of FNAC and CNB for categorizing bone tumors into benign and malignant was 94.7%. For soft tissue tumors, FNAC had a sensitivity of 90.9% and CNB had a sensitivity of 100%. The specificity of both the techniques, FNA and CNB for bone and soft tissue tumors was 100%. For malignant bone tumors, cytologic grade was concordant with CNB grade in 72.2% of the cases. Cytologic grade was concordant with the grade on CNB in 81.8% cases for malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Conclusion: FNAC and CNB alleviate the need for an open biopsy in diagnosing and grading musculoskeletal neoplasms, thus facilitating appropriate therapeutic intervention. PMID:27011434

  18. Diagnostic efficacy and importance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Muratli, Asli; Erdogan, Nilsen; Sevim, Sezgin; Unal, Isik; Akyuz, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules is an easy and cost-effective method. The increase in malignancy rates of the excised nodules due to the high sensitivity and specificity rates of the FNAC is remarkable. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of FNAC in the evaluation of thyroid nodules by comparing the results with histopathologic evaluation and comparing the consistency of the results with the literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, 1607 FNACs of 1333 patients which were classified according to the Bethesda system and 126 histopathological evaluations obtained from this group were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 51.24 (range: 17-89, 17% male and 83% female). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy rates were evaluated. Results: The sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity was 64.6%. The positive and negative predictive value and accuracy rates were 76.1%, 79.5%, and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusions: In our study, the evaluation of thyroid FNAC samples with Bethesda system highly correlated with the results of histopathological diagnosis. However, combination of additional and advanced diagnostic methods such as immunocytochemical studies and molecular pathology techniques enhance the prognostic value of FNAC in patients with atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance, lesions suspicious for malignancy, and suspected follicular neoplasm. PMID:25210233

  19. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Meenal V.; Phatke, Anjali S.; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Rane, Sharda R.; Kulkarni, Kalpana K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality. PMID:27011435

  20. Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Evaluation of Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Panjvani, Sahil I.; Parikh, Biren J.; Parikh, Swati B.; Chaudhari, Bhawana R.; Patel, Kazoomi K.; Gupta, Garima S.; Kodnani, Ashka H.; Anandani, Garima M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a simple, minimally invasive, cost effective, outpatient based and a rapid diagnostic method for breast lesions. The aim of the present study was to correlate cytological findings with histopathological findings and to determine the accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Material and Methods: A total of 222 breast aspirates were studied. Histo-cytopathological correlations were obtained in 91 cases. All the aspirates were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H andE) stain. Results: Among 222 patients, 217 were females and 5 were males. Benign breast lesions were found in 144 cases (64.87%); among which fibroadenoma (30.18%) was the commonest lesion which was observed. Malignancy was observed in 69 cases (31.08%); among them, ductal carcinoma was the predominant lesion (29.28%) which was seen. Histopathological confirmations were obtained in 90 cases out of 91 cases in which histo-cytopathological corrections were possible. All 45 malignant aspirates were confirmed by histopathology. Benign reports were confirmed in 45 out of 46 cases by doing histological examinations; except one case which was diagnosed as malignant by studying its histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in breast lesions were reported to be 97.82% and 100% respectively, with 100% positive predictive value and 97.85% negative predictive value. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in the present study was found to be 98.90%. Conclusion: It is important to remember that a negative FNAC of a breast lesion does not preclude the diagnosis of a carcinoma, particularly in presence of a clinical suspicion of malignancy and/or an abnormal mammogram. PMID:24551635

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology of non-hematological neoplasms in pediatric age group: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Chakrabarti, Indranil; Ghosh, Piyali; Ghosh, Nilanjana; Sinha, Mamata Guha Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of aspiration cytology has largely been ignored in pediatric population. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in non-hematological neoplasms in children in our institution, which is a rural tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: A total of 88 cases of non-hematological pediatric mass lesions were studied in which cytopathological diagnosis could be corroborated with histopathology. Results: Out of all the cases, 70 (80%) cases were benign tumors and 18 (20%) were malignant tumors. Fibroadenoma (37.9%) comprised the majority of cases in the benign category while small round cell tumors (SRCTs) (44.4%) comprised the majority of cases in the malignant category. Definite diagnosis could be offered based on the cytomorphology in 79.5% cases, while in 20.5% of cases only a broad cytological classification could be offered. Among the malignant lesions, FNAC showed 100% sensitivity while a specific diagnosis was made in 90% of cases. Conclusion: FNAC proved to be a rapid and fairly accurate tool in diagnosing non-hematological tumors in the pediatric age group. PMID:26729976

  2. Spindle cell lipoma masquerading as lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma: A diagnostic dilemma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Nangia, A; Jyotsna, P Lalita; Pujani, M

    2013-01-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a relatively uncommon benign adipocytic tumor that usually presents in subcutaneous fat of adult men. These are a rare form of lipoma, accounting for 1.5% of all lipomatous tumors, with a low rate of local recurrence and no risk of malignant behavior/dedifferentiation. Although few studies addressing the histological findings of spindle cell lipoma have been described, only a few descriptions of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings have been documented in literature. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with a nodular swelling over left cheek (in the parotid region), which due to its location as well as prominent myxoid background prompted us to include the lipomatous salivary gland lesions in differential diagnosis. Our objective is to document and delineate the characteristic cytological features of spindle cell lipoma, which may permit a confident diagnosis on FNAC smears. PMID:23661944

  3. Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Fine Needle Nonaspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongming; Wei, Chuankui; Li, Dengfeng; Hua, Kaiyao; Song, Jialu; Maskey, Niraj; Fang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and fine needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC) are useful cost-effective techniques for preoperatively assessing thyroid lesions. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and there is controversy over which method is superior. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between FNAC and FNNAC for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods. Primary publications were independently collected by two reviewers from PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, OALib, and the Cochrane Library databases. The following search terms were used: fine needle, aspiration, capillary, nonaspiration, sampling without aspiration, thyroid, and cytology. The last search was performed on February 1, 2015. Results. Sixteen studies comprising 1,842 patients and 2,221 samples were included in this study. No statistically significant difference was observed between FNAC and FNNAC groups with respect to diagnostically inadequate smears, diagnostically superior smears, diagnostic performance (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, average score of each parameter (background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture), and total score of five parameters. Conclusion. FNAC and FNNAC are equally useful in assessing thyroid nodules. PMID:26491689

  4. Anterior mediastinal masses: A study of 50 cases by fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra G.; Patel, Maulin; Parikh, Biren; Shah, Manoj; Davara, Kajal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mediastinal tumors are an uncommon abnormalities found in clinical practice. Anterior mediastinum is the common site and tissue diagnoses of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs) are very important for correct therapeutic decision. Objective: We evaluate the different malignant AMMs in various age groups and the sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Cytology smears are reviewed with particular emphasis on pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 50 patients who were consulted for AMMs and underwent FNAC and CNB under guidance of ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan from 2006 to 2011. Cytology smears and histological sections were evaluated in all patients. Results: Among 50 cases, 36 were male and 14 were female. Most AMMs (52%) were identified in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Metastatic carcinoma and nonHodgkin's lymphoma are the common AMMs. Adequate tissue material was obtained in 49 of 50 cases by CNB. Of these 49 patients, 35 (71.42%) cases were diagnosed correctly by FNAC, whereas 14 (28.57%) cases were not diagnosed definitely by FNAC. The sensitivity of CNB for AMMs was 97.95%, significantly higher than FNAC (71.42%) (P < 0.05). CNB had statistically significant higher diagnostic rate than FNAC in the noncarcinoma group (100% versus 62.96%) (P < 0.05). There is no significant difference of CNB and FNAC in carcinoma group (P > 0.05). Diagnostic rate of FNAC was higher for carcinomatous lesions (81.81%) than for noncarcinomatous lesions (62.96%). Conclusion: Ultrasound or CT scan-guided CNB in combination with FNAC are safe, minimally invasive, and cost-effective procedure, which can provide a precise diagnosis in the AMMs, and may obviate the need for invasive surgical approach. FNAC usually suffice for carcinomatous lesions but CNB should be performed whenever the diagnosis of carcinoma is equivocal or noncarcinoma lesions are suspected. PMID:24455533

  5. Correlation of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Findings with Thyroid Function Test in Cases of Lymphocytic Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neelam; Nigam, Jitendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is the second most common thyroid lesion diagnosed on FNAC after goiter. FNAC is reliable tool in the diagnosis of thyroid lesion. Objective. To correlate FNAC cytologic findings with TFT in the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Methods. 175 patients with thyroid swellings were referred for FNAC as well as TFT during 2011–2013. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed using non-aspiration or aspiration techniques and TFT performed on Beckman culter access 2. Results. Lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 55 cases. The commonest age group of lymphocytic thyroiditis was 21–30 years with male : female ratio being 1 : 10. Anti-TPO and TSH were elevated in 96.16% (25/26) of cases with grade 3 lymphoid infiltrate, 94.12% (16/17) of cases with grade 2, and 91.67% (11/12) of cases with 1 grade. Increased anti-TPO with raised TSH without any lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 5 cases and 5 cases showed only raised TSH without raised anti-TPO and without any lymphoid infiltrate. We observed that grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. We also observed that anti-TPO and TSH together are significant even if no lymphocytic infiltration is present. Conclusion. Grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has statistical correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. Anti TPO was adjunct to TSH in grade 3. The presence of Hurthle cell change, giant cells, and granulomas has no statistical correlation with lymphocytic thyroiditis. PMID:24808970

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammary hamartoma: a review of nine cases with histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Aracil, V; Mayayo, E; Azua, J; Mayayo, R; Azua-Romeo, J; Arraiza, A

    2003-08-01

    Mammary hamartoma is a breast lesion rarely reported by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We report on our experience of FNAC in nine cases confirmed by biopsy. We searched hospital case files for mammary hamartoma or similar lesions (fibrolipomas, lipomas, fibromas, etc.), and cases included were only those in which both FNAC and a histopathological study had been performed. The cytological features that were analysed included epithelial components, mesenchymal fragments and isolated cells dispersed in the background. The patients ranged in age from 25 to 58 years (mean 40 years), and the lesions were predominantly in the right breast and upper outer quadrant. The duration varied from 1 to 20 years. Mammographic features were characteristic revealing well-circumscribed masses of heterogeneous radiodensity and by ultrasonography were hypoechoic without calcification. Grossly, these lesions were oval to round, well-demarcated masses, ranging in diameter from 10 to 80 mm. The tumours were firm, rubbery and white, consisting largely of dense fibroconnective tissue with variable amounts of adipose tissue and glandular elements. Cytological samples showed two components, epithelial and mesenchymal. The cellularity was variable and was composed of lobular cells forming acini, ductal cells, occasional apocrine and foamy cells; myoepithelial cells and isolated naked nuclei were also observed. Adipose tissue and dense fibrous tissue were observed, occasionally with epithelial cells attached, and this finding was an important feature for diagnosis. We considered that the cytological findings could help to diagnose mammary hamartoma, FNAC making a rapid and very important technique for the diagnosis of this pathology. PMID:12873312

  7. [Fine needle aspiration cytology and influencing factors in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Qiu, H; Huang, H; Tang, W

    1994-10-01

    The results of 200 women with primary breast cancer who had fine needle aspiration cytology prior to definitive surgery at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were presented. Among them, aspiration cytology was positive and suspicious in 87% (174/200) and pseudonegative in 13% (26/200). Clinical factors relating to the success of these aspiration were evaluated. The most significant factor was which physician performed the aspiration. Size of the lesion and type of the cancer were also important influences on the aspiration. Experiences in aspiration cytology were introduced by author. PMID:7720123

  8. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Zarami, A. B.; Satumari, N. A.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries. PMID:26664783

  9. Ultrasound-guided aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses with histopathological corroboration: A study of 71 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Indranil; Bhowmik, Sourav; Sinha, Mamata Guha Mallick; Bera, Pranati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions is one of the most difficult areas in surgical pathology. Both primary and metastatic tumors can grow silently in retroperitoneum before the appearance of clinical signs and symptoms. Guided aspiration cytology has shown a promising role in diagnosis of lesions in this region. Aims: This study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses and to study the spectrum of retroperitoneal lesions in a rural tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 71 patients presenting with retroperitoneal masses over a period of 20 months in a tertiary care hospital. Ultrasound-guided FNAC was done and the smears were stained by MGG and H and E stains. Histopathological corroboration could be done on all neoplastic lesions along with some non-neoplastic lesions. Results: Out of 71 cases, 48 cases (67.6%) were found to be neoplastic. Malignant tumors (35 cases) were more common than benign ones (13 cases). Malignant lesions were predominantly composed of lesions of lymph node (17 cases i.e. 48.57%) followed by sarcomas (5 cases) and germ cell tumors. Some uncommon retroperitoneal lesions like adrenal myelolipoma, renal angiomyolipoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and adrenocortical carcinoma were found in our study. Guided FNAC could diagnose all the malignant lesions with 100% accuracy except in 2 cases of poorly differentiated carcinoma which came out to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma on subsequent biopsies. Conclusion: Guided FNAC is an inexpensive, rapid and reliable method for diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses. PMID:25190978

  10. The role of fine needle aspiration cytology and core biopsy in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses

    PubMed Central

    Kocaay, Akin Firat; Celik, Suleyman Utku; Sevim, Yusuf; Ozyazici, Sefa; Cetinkaya, Omer Arda; Alic, Kamil Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modern approach to palpable breast masses is to get cytopathologic diagnosis before definitive surgery. We aimed to compare fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with core biopsy in histopathologic diagnosis of palpable breast masses. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on 123 women who have suspicious palpable breast masses from 2007 to 2010. Results: Of the 123 patients, core biopsies were performed on 64 patients (Group 1) and FNAC on 59 patients (Group 2). Malignancy was confirmed in 25 out of 32 clinically suspicious patients in Group 1 (78.1%), and 20 out of 21 participants in Group 2 (95.2%). Among the clinically suspicious patients, 81.8% of 33 patients in Group 1, and 90.3% of 31 patients in Group 2 were identified malignancy. Sensitivity was 100% for core biopsy and 95% for FNAC. Specificity was 100% in both procedures. False negativity rate in FNAC were 5%. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity showed that in the case of true histopathologic classification, core biopsy is superior to FNAC. Nevertheless, FNAC's role as a fast, simple and cheap diagnosis cannot be ignored. It is an effective diagnostic tool in most patients, in comparison to the correct and specific typing of core biopsies in benign lesions which protect patients from the open biopsy.

  11. Utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the identification of parathyroid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Niraj; Mishra, Deepti; Pradhan, Roma; Agarwal, Amit; Krishnani, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a first-line investigation in the evaluation of neck nodules. In an attempt to search for reliable cytomorphological criteria for parathyroid lesions, we systematically evaluated cytomorphology of FNAC of parathyroid lesions. Study Design: FNAC of 15 parathyroid and 15 hyperplastic thyroid nodules with histological confirmation were reviewed for following features: Cellularity, follicles, bare nuclei, cohesiveness, vascular profiles, cytoplasmic granularity, intracytoplasmic vacuolation, mitosis, macrophages, and colloid. Results: Vascular proliferation, bare nuclei, intracytoplasmic fat vacuolation, absence of colloid, and high cellularity showed significant association with parathyroid lesions (P ≤ 0.05). Intracytoplasmic fat vacuolation was 53.3% sensitive and 100% specific for parathyroid. Follicular pattern and papillaroid clusters were also important; however, they achieved nearly significant statistical difference (P = 0.05 and P = 0.06, respectively). The combination of vascular proliferation and intracytoplasmic fat vacuolation were significantly associated with parathyroid (P = 0.006) whereas the absence of bare nuclei and the presence of background colloid were associated with thyroid cytomorphology (P = 0.03). Conclusion: No single cytological feature is helpful in differentiating parathyroid from thyroid lesion. Vascular proliferation, bare nuclei, intracytoplasmic fat vacuolation, high cellularity, and the absence of colloid were significantly associated with the parathyroid origin. The combination of at least two features — vascular proliferation and intracytoplasmic fat vacuoles — were highly suggestive of parathyroid origin.

  12. Pulmonary nocardiosis in fine-needle aspiration cytology smears: Report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudha; Singh, Priya; Garg, Rashi; Dey, Pranab

    2016-04-01

    Nocardia has been recognized as a significant opportunistic pathogen in organ transplant patients; however, it is an uncommon pathogen in immunocompetent patients. It may mimic other infectious diseases both clinically and radiologically. We report four cases of pulmonary nocardiosis in three immunocompromised and one immunocompetent patients on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Two patients presented with lung consolidation while two had cavitatory lesions. FNAC smears showed inflammatory cells composed of polymorphs and histiocytes along with necrosis. Occasional epithelioid cell granuloma was seen in one case. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain was performed which highlighted long slender filamentous branching organisms conforming to the morphology of Nocardia. Thus, a suspicion for nocardiosis should be kept while assessing cytologic material especially in immunocompromised individuals. The diagnosis can be confirmed by special stains and culture studies; however, a high index of clinical suspicion is required so that appropriate culture media can be used for high diagnostic yield. FNAC is of help in providing immediate and accurate diagnosis of nocardiosis, thus helping in appropriate medical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:347-350. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26764039

  13. Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Its Histopathological Correlation in A Tertiary Care Center of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    C, Akshatha; Masilamani, Suresh; Jonathan, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Background Salivary glands may enlarge either due to inflammation or neoplastic conditions and the diagnosis is possible by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Aim The present study was undertaken to determine utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 186 FNACs of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Of these, 146 cases had follow-up histopathological diagnosis. FNAC diagnoses were compared to histopathological diagnoses. Results The parotid glands were more commonly involved than others. Among the various diagnostic categories used in FNAC reports, Non neoplastic category was seen in 24 (16.4%), benign category in 86 (58.9%) and malignant category in 30 (20.6%) and unsatisfactory category in 6 (4.1%) of 146 cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions were 86.6%, 94.6%, 93.6%, 88.3%, and 94.6% respectively. Conclusion The present study concluded that FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions is highly sensitive, specific and accurate method. Hence, FNAC is a useful, quick and reliable diagnostic tool. It also appears to be a safe, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure, which provides information for management of salivary gland lesions. PMID:26266126

  14. Primary ovarian non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Diagnosis of two cases on fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajni; Balasundaram, Partheeban; Mridha, Asit R.; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Mathur, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the female genital tract is a rare condition. Involvement of the ovary by non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is usually secondary to systemic disease and primary ovarian lymphomas are unusual. In most cases, the diagnosis is not suspected initially and is confirmed only after detailed histopathological evaluation. We describe two cases of primary ovarian NHL which were diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). One of the patients was a 40 years old female who presented with abdominal distension and lump. She was found to have bilateral adnexal masses on ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan. A USG guided fine needle aspiration of the ovarian masses was performed, following which a diagnosis of primary ovarian diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was established. The second patient was a 14 years old female who presented with pelvic lump, which was lobulated and mildly enhancing on contrast enhanced CT. A diagnosis of high grade NHL of ovaries was made on cytology. Subsequently, the lymphoma was characterized as Burkitt's on histopathological examination. Both the patients were started on R-CHOP chemotherapy regimen. FNAC serves as an extremely useful minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis of ovarian lymphomas and early institution of appropriate chemotherapeutic regimens.

  15. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology in nonpalpable mammary lesions: a comparative cytohistologic study based on 308 cases.

    PubMed

    Zanconati, F; Bonifacio, D; Falconieri, G; Di Bonito, L

    2000-08-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in nonpalpable breast lesions detected by imaging techniques between 1995-1997. A total number of 308 lesions was investigated: 273 had been studied by means of either FNAC obtained under ultrasound (175 cases) or stereotactic guidance (98 cases). The overall sensitivity rate was 87.8%; specificity was 95.3%; the positive predictive value was 76.6%; the negative predictive value was 97.8%. Our results confirm that FNAC is quite effective in the approach to patients with nonpalpable breast lesions. It is particularly accurate in diagnosing malignancy, although a lower yield may be encountered in tumor types producing a desmoplastic stroma (tubular carcinoma, infiltrating lobular carcinoma) or in noncomedonic in situ ductal carcinoma. Discrepancy between a suspicious cytology and a negative histology is more frequent with benign lesions usually because of sampling mistake or technically inadequate smears. In particular, when smears are adequate, FNAC safely assists in ruling out the malignant lesions. PMID:10888751

  16. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the prompt diagnosis of recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis presented as isolated cervical leishmanial lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bipin; Verma, Pragya

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of isolated cervical leishmanial lymphadenopathy diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in apparently cured case of visceral leishmaniasis. A 28-year-old female presented with cervical lymphnode enlargement to surgery outpatient department and was subjected for FNAC. Smear showed numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of macrophages and giant cells, and extracellular spaces. She was treated by Amphotericin B for alternate 14 days and the size of the lymphnode regressed. She was found asymptomatic for 1 year of follow-up. PMID:21671412

  17. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  18. [The utility of aspiration cytology for the distinction of aggressive and non-aggressive papillary carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Caprara, G; Collina, G

    2007-06-01

    Preoperative identification of the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by fine needle aspiration (FNAC) has been suggested and different systems for distinguishing them from classical variant of PTC have been employed, including a point-based cytology grading system as suggested by Damiani et al., that we currently use in our Institution. The aim of this paper is to verify if distinction of PTC in aggressive or nonaggressive variants impacts on surgical treatment. In 7 years, from 1998 to 2005, 13586 cases of FNAC of thyroid have been performed; among them 156 PTC. The cytological material of thirty complete thyroidectomies with histology proven papillary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. 11/30 cases were correctly stratified into the appropriate low or high-grade category. The cytological grading system was discordant with the final histopathological diagnosis in 9/30 cases while in 10 cases the grade was not assessed. Eight cases were downgraded and therefore the low grade papillary carcinoma diagnosed at cytological level turned to be high grade at histology. When those cases were reviewed, the histology of seven cases diagnosed as tall cell variant of PTC failed to show a percentage of tumour cells higher than 50% and therefore it would be better to diagnose them as classical variant of PTC. One case was under-graded at FNAC. The case that was cytologically upgraded was a follicular variant of PTC in Hashimoto thyroiditis with a focus of tall cells. All patients underwent thyroidectomy or thyroidectomy plus lymphadenectomy and from our results the pre-operative diagnosis did not effect the surgical treatment. No patient died of the disease. PMID:17987724

  19. The Role of CD56 in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Pilot Study Performed on Liquid Based Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Marrocco, Carla; D’Amato, Donato; Traini, Emanuela; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Fadda, Guido; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Rossi, Esther Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration Cytology (FNAC) fulfills a reliable role in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Although the majority of nodules are quite easily diagnosed as benign or malignant, 30% of them represent an indeterminate category whereby the application of ancillary techniques (i.e. immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing) has been encouraged. The search for a specific immunomarker of malignancy sheds light on a huge number of ICC stains although none of them attempt to yield 100% conclusive results. Our aim was to define in a pilot study on thyroid FNAC whether CD56 might be a valid marker also in comparison with HBME-1 and Galectin-3. Materials and Methods Inasmuch as this is the largest pilot study using only liquid based cytology (LBC), we selected all the cases only in the categories of benign nodules (BN) and positive for malignancy (PM) for validation purposes. Eighty-five consecutive (including 50 PM and 35 BN) out of 950 thyroid FNACs had surgical follow-up. The ICC panel (HBME-1, Galectin-3 and CD56) was carried out on LBC and histology. Results All BNs and PMs were histological confirmed. CD56 was negative in 96% of the PM while 68.5% of the BNs showed cytoplasmic positivity for this marker, with an overall high sensitivity (96%) but lower specificity (69%). In specific, our 96% of the PMs did not show any follicular cell with CD56 expression. Different ICC combinations were evaluated showing that the panel made up of CD56 plus HBME-1 and Galectin-3 had the highest sensitivity (98%) and specificity (86%). Conclusions Our pilot study suggests that CD56 may be a good marker for ruling out PTC and its variants. The low specificity suggests that an immunopanel including also HBME-1 and Galectin-3 could obtain the highest diagnostic accuracy in thyroid lesions. Our results suggest that CD56 may be a feasible additional marker for identifying malignancies also in the FNs and SMs. PMID:26186733

  20. Immediate assessment of fine needle aspiration cytology of lung.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C J; Stewart, I S

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the value of immediate assessment of cytology in percutaneous fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of lung. METHODS: FNA specimens from 75 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary neoplasms were subjected to immediate cytology assessment. Direct smears were prepared in the radiology department and stained using the Diff Quik method. The cellular content was assessed and, if possible, a provisional diagnosis offered. A second FNA was requested if the initial aspirate seemed of doubtful adequacy. The diagnostic accuracy was examined by review of clinical and radiological data in all patients, and by correlation with other histological or cytological material in 25 patients. Complications of the procedure were identified during the clinical review. RESULTS: Two of 75 specimens were inadequate for diagnosis. Satisfactory diagnostic material was obtained in 51 patients on a single aspirate and following a second FNA in 22 patients. Of the 73 satisfactory aspirates, 58 were malignant, one highly suspicious of malignancy and 14 reported as negative for malignancy. All malignant diagnoses were confirmed on clinical or pathological review. FNA accurately distinguished primary small cell and large cell carcinomas in those patients with pathological follow up. There were two false negative reports, one due to sampling error and the other due to misinterpretation of aspirate material. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and sensitivity 96.6%. Complications were recorded in seven (9.3%) patients, five of whom developed pneumothorax; a chest drain was required in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous FNA cytology provides safe and accurate diagnosis in the investigation of pulmonary lesions. Immediate cytology assessment ensures that aspirate material is handled optimally, and those patients requiring further sampling or ancillary investigation identified rapidly. The number of unsatisfactory and false negative lung FNA are therefore reduced. The complication rate is minimised by decreasing the number of pleural punctures. Images PMID:8943753

  1. Ultrasonography Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Preparation of Cell Blocks in the Diagnosis of Intra- Abdominal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Muniyappa, Bharathi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is currently the most favoured and increasingly used pre-operative diagnostic procedure in various deep seated neoplastic and non-neoplastic mass lesions. Cell blocks prepared from residual fine needle aspiration (FNA) material can aid in better morphologic assessment and contribute to establish a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis. Aim To assess the value of ultrasonography guided FNAC in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal (non-pelvic) masses. Objectives To determine the reliability of ultrasonography guided FNAC in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic intra-abdominal mass lesions. To assess the usefulness of cell block as a complimentary diagnostic material in the morphologic evaluation of the lesions. Materials and Methods Aspirate material was collected from 62 patients with clinically and/or radiologically detected abdominal mass under ultrasonographic (USG) guidance. Pelvic masses were excluded from the study. In every case an attempt was made to prepare cell block (CB) from any residual material after preparation of routine smears. The final cytomorphologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical and radiologic findings, histopathologic diagnosis, follow up and response to therapy information. Results The diagnostic yield of USG guided FNAC was 96.77%. The cases included 42 malignant (67.74%), two (3.23%) benign, and 16 (25.8%) non-neoplastic lesions. Two (3.23%) smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation. In 45 out of 62 cases (72.58%) CB preparations were available. There was a good agreement between smear diagnosis and that observed on CB section. Additionally CB yielded better diagnostic material in 15.55% of cases and aided in establishing a more precise final cytopathologic diagnosis. Confirmation of diagnosis in the form of biopsy and/or surgically resected specimen and follow up was available in 56 cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of USG guided FNAC was 96.43% with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 95.35%, 100%, 100% and 86.66% respectively. Conclusion USG guided FNA procedure provides a good diagnostic yield for intra-abdominal masses. Also it has high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating benign from malignant lesions. Cell block preparations facilitate better diagnosis of lesions when reviewed along with cytological smears. PMID:26816896

  2. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of cutaneous granular cell tumor: Report of two cases with special emphasis on cytological differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Ujjawal; Handa, Uma; Mohan, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon neoplasms with recently postulated origin from Schwann cell or neural crest. It can appear in different parts of the body and is most commonly found in the tongue. The cutaneous presentation is not that uncommon. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been suggested to be the diagnostic modality of choice. It will help to differentiate benign tumors from malignant ones and to differentiate GCT from frequent misdiagnoses such as granular histiocytic reaction, xanthogranuloma, rhabdomyoma, oncocyte rich lesions, alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), epithelioid sarcoma, and carcinoma. We report two cases of GCT who presented with subcutaneous swellings in the right thigh and the left lumbar region for 24 months and 18 months, respectively. In the first case, a cytodiagnosis of chronic inflammation showing histiocytes was suggested while GCT was found in the second case. Subsequent histologic examination of the first case and immunocytochemistry in the second case gave the confirmatory diagnosis of GCT. PMID:27011439

  3. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas suspected by endoscopic ultrasonography-fine-needle aspiration cytology: Report of a case confirmed by surgical specimen histology.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo

    2015-12-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the pancreas is rare compared with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). These entities are distinguished by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) on the basis of mucin production and the presence of a tubular or papillary growth pattern. In addition, there are several tumor types that should be distinguished from ITPN, such as solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, acinar cell carcinoma, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Herein, a case of an 80-year-old man with ITPN, which was suspected based on EUS-FNAC findings at the time of review and confirmed by histological examination of the surgically resected specimen, has been presented. There have only been three reported cases that included the cytology of ITPN in the English language literature, all of which propose diagnostic features of ITPN based on cytological specimens. Here, a previously undescribed diagnostic feature of ITPN revealed by EUS-FNAC-tubules in contact with fibrovascular structures-correlated well with the histological findings of the surgically resected specimen, has been shown. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:1003-1006. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26390029

  4. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Can Play a Role in Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Operable Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garbar, Christian; Curé, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that CNB has been progressively replaced by FNAC in the investigation of nonpalpable lesions or microcalcifications without a clinical or radiological mass lesion, FNAC has yet a role in palpable lesions provided it is associated with the triple diagnosis and experienced cytologist. In these conditions, FNAC is a safe, effective, economical, and accurate technique for breast cancer evaluation. Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses illustrated the advantages and disadvantages of both methods CNB and FNAC. The difference does not seem significant when noninformative and unsatisfactory FNAC was excluded. Recently, cytological methods using liquid-based cytology (LBC) technology improve immunocytological and molecular tests with the same efficiency as classical immunohistochemistry. The indications of FNAC were, for palpable lesions, relative contraindication of CNB (elderly or frailty), staging of multiple nodules in conjunction or not with CNB, staging of lymph node status, newly appearing lesion in patient under neoadjuvant treatment, decreasing of anxiety with a rapid diagnosis, evaluation of biomarkers and new biomarkers, and chronological evaluation of biomarker following the neoadjuvant therapy response. PMID:23936675

  5. “A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine” — cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prashant; Agarwal, Shipra; Singh, Geetika; Xess, Immaculata; Bhowmik, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases. PMID:27011447

  6. Two cases of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of female breast: Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology and cell-block immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Banik, Tarak; Mondal, Krishnendu; Mandal, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon neoplastic condition. Though HIV-infection is a known risk factor for the development of extranodal lymphomas, mammary involvement is still a rarity. Radiologically, PBL appears as well circumscribed, heteroechoic, noncalcifying mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is commonly used to diagnose this neoplasm; however, subcategorization requires immunophenotypic characterization of the neoplastic cells. Herein, we report two cases of PBL, including a HIV-infected lady; in both the cases FNAC expressed features of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Finally, immunohistochemistry on cell-block with CD20 diagnosed both the cases as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:235-240. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875596

  7. Is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of adequate value in detecting breast cancer patients with three or more positive axillary lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Kramer, G M; Leenders, M W H; Schijf, L J; Go, H L S; van der Ploeg, T; van den Tol, M P; Schreurs, W H

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the sonographically most suspicious axillary lymph node (US/FNAC) to select early breast cancer patients with three or more tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 2130 patients with histologically proven early breast cancer were evaluated and treated in the Noordwest Clinics Alkmaar. US/FNAC was performed preoperatively in all these patients. We analysed the results of US/FNAC retrospectively. Pathological axillary node status (sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection) was used as reference standard. A total of 634 (29.8 %) of 2130 patients had axillary lymph node metastases on final histology. 248 node positive patients (11.6 %) had three or more positive lymph nodes. The accuracy of US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes was 89.8 %, sensitivity was 44.8 %, specificity was 95.7 %, PPV was 58.1 %, and NPV was 92.9 %. This study shows a more than adequate accuracy of preoperative US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes (89.8 %). However, when US/FNAC was chosen as the only axillary staging method, 6.4 % of all patients (false negative group) would have been undertreated and 3.8 % of all patients (false positive group) would have been overtreated according to the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria. PMID:26995283

  8. Is there still a role for thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of a thyroid nodule in the era of fine needle aspiration cytology and molecular testing?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Bourmorck, Carole; Chami, Rayan; Corvilain, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is now rarely used in the work-up of a thyroid nodule except in the presence of a low TSH value. Therefore, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) with a normal TSH value are diagnosed only in the rare medical centers that continue to use thyroid scan systematically in the presence of a thyroid nodule. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of AFTN with a normal TSH level and the possible consequences of performing fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in an undiagnosed AFTN. We also discuss the risk of malignant AFTN which may be higher than previously stated. PMID:27158470

  9. CT-guided aspiration cytology of advanced silicosis and confirmation of the deposited zeolite nano particles through X ray diffraction: A novel approach.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Majumdar, Kaushik; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mitra, Partha; Nag, Subhomoy

    2016-03-01

    Silicosis is a common occupational lung disease, resulting in fibrotic nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lung parenchyma. Most of the pneumoconioses are diagnosed on the basis of relevant history and clinico-radiological correlation. Image-guided aspiration cytology appears to be poorly yielding and is not usually considered as a diagnostic modality. However, silicosis may sometimes offer a diagnostic challenge because of its radiological resemblance and clinical overlap with pulmonary tuberculosis and neoplastic lesions. We present a unique situation where image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been advised on the basis of nodular upper lobe opacities. The cytology smears revealed hypocellular granular material, while phase contrast and polarized light microscopy highlighted crystalline particles. History of silica dust exposure long back was available after the cytological evaluation, suggesting the diagnosis of pulmonary silicosis. X ray diffraction (XRD) crystallography was also possible on cytology smears, confirming zeolite nano particles of size as small as 40 - 50 nm as the concerned agent for the first time. Cytological evaluation by phase contrast and polarized light microscopy may be useful for the confirmation of silicosis, supplemented by clinical history and radiological evaluation. XRD on smears may help in determination of chemical nature and particle size. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:246-249. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26748653

  10. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies. PMID:15754369

  12. FNAC Versus Core Needle Biopsy: A Comparative Study in Evaluation of Palpable Breast Lump

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Sarkar, Koushik; Saha, Ashis Kumar; Sarkar, Diptendra KR

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour and the leading cause of carcinoma death in women in world. The main purpose of FNAC or CNB of breast lumps is to confirm cancer preoperatively and to avoid unnecessary surgery in specific benign conditions. Aims and Objective The objective of the study was to compare between Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and Core Needle Biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma with final histological diagnosis from excision specimen as it is gold standard. Materials and Methods A prospective study was done on 50 cases. Patients undergoing all three procedures (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Core Needle Biopsy done at Department of Pathology; subsequent excision surgeries done at Department of General Surgery) were selected. May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) and Papaniculou (PAP) staining were performed on cytology smears. Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was done on both the CNB and tissue specimens obtained from subsequent excision surgeries to see the histological features. Results FNAC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 69%, 100%, 100%, 38.1%, and 74% respectively in diagnosing carcinoma. CNB had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of 88.3%, 100%, 100%, 53.3% and 86%. Both FNAC and CNB showed statistically significant correlation with confirmatory HPE of excision specimen (p-value <0.05) in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Conclusion Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, less complicated, economical, reliable and relevant method for the preoperative pathological diagnosis of breast carcinoma in a developing nation like ours. If the initial FNAC is inadequate, core needle biopsy (CNB) can be a useful second line method of pathological diagnosis in order to minimize the chance of missed diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:27042469

  13. Subcutaneous Rhinosporidiosis Masquerading as Soft Tissue Tumor: Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kishan Prasad, HL; Rao, Chandrika; Girisha, BS; Shetty, Vikram; Permi, Harish S; Jayakumar, Meera; Kiran, HS

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous lesion caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It frequently involves nasopharynx and ocular region. Presenting as cutaneous and subcutaneous mass is extremely rare. This report describes the FNA cytology of rhinosporidiosis occurring as a soft tissue mass in the right mid thigh region. We present a rare case of a 71-year-old male, who presented with multiple subcutaneous soft tissue mass lesions in the posteromedial aspect of mid right thigh region since 2 weeks. Local examination revealed multiple firm to hard mass with skin over the swelling was unremarkable. CT of the right thigh showed a heterogeneous lesion with infiltrative margins in the thigh. Clinically soft tissue sarcoma was considered. Diagnostic FNAC was performed showing numerous mature and immature sporangias with giant cell reaction. Hence, an excision biopsy confirmed the rhinosporidiosis. To conclude, the FNAC diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis is specific. Preoperative diagnosis is possible even in cases with unusual clinical presentations. PMID:25814750

  14. Role of ancillary techniques in diagnosing and subclassifying non-Hodgkin's lymphomas on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Dey, P

    2006-10-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are tumours of the lymphoid cells. During the process of development of lymphoid cells, neoplasia may evolve at any point. Neoplastic cells usually carry the imprint of cell of origin at the stage of origin. Various types of NHL may have similar morphology with wide variation in origin, immunophenotype and other biological features. Different ancillary laboratory techniques may help to overcome the limitations of morphology in this aspect. The commonly used ancillary techniques in lymphomas are immunocytochemistry (IC), flow cytometry, Southern blot (SB) technique, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, laser scanning cytometry (LSC) and DNA microarray technologies are in the research phase. Various laboratory techniques are used for immunophenotyping, demonstration of monoclonality, identification of chromosomal translocation, assessment of cell kinetics and expression of mRNA in the tumour cells. Flow cytometry helps in rapid immunophenotying of NHL and it has an added advantage over IC in recognizing the co-expression of CD markers. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) combined with flow immunophenotyping may help us to diagnose and subclassify certain NHLs, such as follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, which were previously recognized as pure morphological entities. Loss of morphology is one of the important limitations of flow cytometry. LSC can overcome this limitation by studying morphology along with the immunophenotyping pattern of individual cells. Chromosomal changes in NHL can be identified by SB, PCR and FISH. Molecular diagnosis of NHL helps in diagnosis, subclassification, prognostic assessment and even in planning of therapy. DNA microarray is a relatively newer and promising technology. It gives information about the expression of several thousands of genes in a tumour in a single experiment. In the near future, FNAC combined with ancillary techniques may play a major role in diagnosis, subclassification and management of lymphomas. PMID:16961657

  15. Myospherulosis. Fine needle aspiration cytologic findings in 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Shabb, N; Sneige, N; Dekmezian, R H

    1991-01-01

    An analysis was made of 19 cases of myospherulosis seen on fine needle aspirates of mammary and subcutaneous tissue masses. Myospherulosis, best seen with the Papanicolaou stain, appeared as 4 microns to 7 microns spherules that were homogeneously smooth or contained one or more internal dense bodies. The spherules were dispersed singly or aggregated into sac-like structures. Myospherulosis accompanied 16 benign and 3 malignant conditions. In two aspirates, myospherulosis was seen simultaneously with breast carcinoma; in another, fat necrosis with myospherulosis masked an underlying breast malignancy. In 10 of the 12 aspirates from patients with previous tissue trauma, it accompanied evidence of fat necrosis and mesenchymal repair; in 4 aspirates, no other underlying condition was apparent. These findings indicate that myospherulosis is not an uncommon finding in fine needle aspirates of fatty sites; it often accompanies fat necrosis and mesenchymal repair. The presence of myospherulosis in aspirates of clinically suspicious masses does not exclude an underlying malignancy. PMID:2028698

  16. [Fine-needle aspiration cytology. An exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Gamero de Ramos, M N

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows result from fine-needle aspiration biopsies done at the University Hospital and Falcon Clinic in Maracaibo, Venezuela, between December 1985 and October 1986. The study was conducted in order to determine factibility of fine-needle aspiration biopsies in our environment. Results are satisfactory and show that the method is a good one to diagnosis and prevent cancer, it is cheap and easy to use in large populations with quick diagnosis. PMID:2489279

  17. Aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes of normal breast epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Bondeson, L.

    1987-05-01

    From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula.

    PubMed

    Malukani, Kamal; Nandedkar, Shirish S; Yeshwante, Prashant; Rihal, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed. PMID:25745297

  19. The Utilization of Cytologic Fine-Needle Aspirates of Lung Cancer for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    In this era of precision medicine, our understanding and knowledge of the molecular landscape associated with lung cancer pathogenesis continues to evolve. This information is being increasingly exploited to treat advanced stage lung cancer patients with tailored, targeted therapy. During the management of these patients, minimally invasive procedures to obtain samples for tissue diagnoses are desirable. Cytologic fine-needle aspirates are often utilized for this purpose and are important not only for rendering diagnoses to subtype patients’ lung cancers, but also for ascertaining molecular diagnostic information for treatment purposes. Thus, cytologic fine-needle aspirates must be utilized and triaged judiciously to achieve both objectives. In this review, strategies in utilizing fine-needle aspirates will be discussed in the context of our current understanding of the clinically actionable molecular aberrations underlying non-small cell lung cancer and the molecular assays applied to these samples in order to obtain treatment-relevant molecular diagnostic information. PMID:26076721

  20. Cytological study of palpable breast lumps presenting in an Indian rural setup

    PubMed Central

    Sankaye, Smita Balwantrao; Dongre, Suyrakant Dattatreya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Benign as well as malignant breast lesions are quite common in Indian population. It is the second most common cancer site after cancer cervix. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is safe, reliable, and time saving outdoor procedure with little discomfort to the patient. FNAC is useful in diagnosis and further planning of treatment without need for biopsy. The current study was carried out with aims of studying the frequency of various breast lesions on FNAC in a rural area in India and its histopathological correlation. Materials and Methods: This was 2 years prospective study carried out from May 2010 to April 2012. Physical examination of breast mass by palpation was done. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and Papanicolaou stain. Results: Of the 225 cases, 131 were in the benign category and 65 belonged to the malignant category, while the cytology study of 13 cases was unsatisfactory. Seventy-six cases were available for histological correlation. Of 29 cytological benign cases, 26 were confirmed as benign, but 3 turned out to be malignant. Out of 36 cytological malignant cases, 35 were confirmed as malignant. FNAC was 88.37% sensitive and 96.42% specific in diagnosing malignant lesions. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a rapid and effective method for the primary categorization of palpable breast lumps into benign, malignant, atypical, suspicious, and unsatisfactory categories. Benign breast lesions are common than malignant lesions. Histological correlation indicated FNAC to be a good diagnostic tool. PMID:25197179

  1. Grey zone lesions of breast: Potential areas of error in cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Dey, Pranab

    2015-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast is a rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive procedure to diagnose breast lesions, and was widely employed to diagnose breast lesions in the past. However, in recent times, core needle biopsy of the breast is gaining popularity and acceptability, although FNAC still looms large. There are some intrinsic disadvantages to FNAC, of which the most important is probably difficulty in classification of a significant percentage of breast lesions. Such lesions are usually denoted by the rubric “grey zone lesions of the breast.” This article attempts to review these grey zone lesions and highlight the difficulties in diagnosing them. PMID:26729973

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of subcutaneous cysticercosis of the breast. Case report and pathogenic discussion.

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N

    1989-01-01

    A case of subcutaneous cysticercosis of the breast diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology is reported. The cytologic preparations showed the presence of many inflammatory cells mixed with spiked spherules resembling the rambutan tropical fruit. These spherules arose from the degenerated integument of the parasite found in the histologically excised cyst. They are suggestive of the presence of an encysted flat worm, but are not specific for cysticercosis, whose identification is based on the study of the cephalic extremity of the parasite. PMID:2781970

  3. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  4. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology of the pancreas: advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Kocjan, G; Rode, J; Lees, W R

    1989-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration of the pancreas was performed in 62 patients with radiological suspicion of malignancy. All fine needle aspirates were taken under computed tomography or ultrasound guidance. Fine needle aspirates were positive in 31 of 41 patients with histologically or clinically confirmed pancreatic carcinoma. There were no false positive results. The sensitivity of this method for detecting malignant disease was 86%. Cytology was not able to provide conclusive results of benign conditions. Difficulties were encountered in diagnosing well differentiated carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours and distinguishing them from reactive epithelium and islet cell hyperplasia, respectively. This resulted in a 12.1% false negative rate. There were no complications in our series. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration proved a reliable method of diagnosing pancreatic carcinoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2541174

  5. Subacute thyroiditis: fine-needle aspiration cytology of 14 cases presenting with thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Shabb, Nina S; Salti, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is usually diagnosed clinically without the need for fine-needle aspiration. The cytologic literature on this condition is therefore rare. We report on 14 cases of SAT presenting with thyroid nodules. The majority of patients were women with a mean age of 46 yr. All had pain/tenderness in the thyroid area accompanied by fever or an elevated ESR. The salient cytologic features included cellular smears; multinucleated giant cells in 100% of cases, some ingesting colloid or neutrophils; fibrous fragments with enmeshed inflammatory cells were a constant feature; follicular cells were scant to absent in most cases. Granulomas were rare. Colloid, when present was thick, with central cracks and frayed edges. One case was suspicious for malignancy. We conclude that the cytologic features of SAT are predictable, particularly, in the appropriate clinical setting. FNA is also helpful in ruling out concomitant neoplastic conditions. PMID:16355394

  6. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of benign and malignant adenomyoepithelioma: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kurashina, Masanori

    2002-01-01

    Cytological features of a malignant spindle-cell variant and a benign tubular variant of adenomyoepithelioma were examined to improve diagnosis of this tumor. Fine-needle aspiration cytology, of both a malignant and a benign case, characterized cellular and cohesive cell clusters composed of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The smears of the malignant case were rich in spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells, admixed with a few epithelial cells. In about a fourth of the clusters, atypical cells with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli comprised more than 20% of cells. The smears of the benign case were composed of tubular epithelial cells surrounding one to several layers of myoepithelial cells with clear cytoplasm. Mild atypia was occasionally noticed. A review of the literature showed that a cytological diagnosis of malignancy is not warranted, if nuclear atypia is not generally severe. Focal severe atypia is not definitively indicative of benignity or malignancy. PMID:11782084

  7. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of alveolar soft-part sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shabb, N; Sneige, N; Fanning, C V; Dekmezian, R

    1991-01-01

    Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft-tissue tumor. Few cases have been reported in the aspiration cytology literature. We discuss the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features of ASPS in four patients. The smears were characterized by single cells and clusters of cells associated with thin-walled vasculature, resulting in a distinct pseudoalveolar pattern. The cells had abundant granular cytoplasm and large round nuclei with prominent central nucleoli. Binucleated and occasional multinucleated cells were present. Numerous stripped tumor nuclei were a consistent feature. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive diastase-resistant granules were demonstrable within the intact and fragmented cytoplasm. Electron microscopy of aspirated material identified granules and crystals with the characteristic lattice pattern. To conclude, the FNA cytologic features of ASPS are characteristic. Confirmation by special stains and electron microscopy of FNA material is possible. The differential diagnostic considerations include renal cell carcinoma, paraganglioma, granular cell tumor, clear cell sarcoma, and epithelioid sarcoma. PMID:1879268

  8. The role and histological classification of needle core biopsy in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology in the preoperative assessment of impalpable breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, A; Bateman, A; Theaker, J; Low, J; Addis, B; Tidbury, P; Rubin, C; Briley, M; Royle, G

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To investigate the role of needle core biopsy (NCB) in the preoperative assessment of impalpable breast lesions, mainly derived from the NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) and to assess our own modifications to a suggested system for the classification of breast NCBs. Methods—The NCB, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and radiology scores from 298 women with non-palpable breast lesions presenting between January 1997 and December 1998, together with the open biopsy results (where available) were collated and analysed. Results—The mean follow up period was 15.8 months (range, 5–28). The 298 NCB specimens were categorised as follows: unsatisfactory/non-representative (B1; n = 61; 20.5%), benign but uncertain whether representative (B2r; n = 52; 17.4%), benign (B2; n = 103; 34.6%), lesions possibly associated with malignancy but essentially benign (B3a; n = 9; 3.0%), atypical epithelial proliferations (B3b; n = 10; 3.4%), suspicious of malignancy (B4; n = 7; 2.3%), and malignant (B5; n = 56; 18.7%). Excision biopsy was performed in 43 cases within the B1 (n = 19), B2r (n = 8), B2 (n = 8), and the B3a (n = 8; data unavailable in one case) categories, revealing malignancy in 18 (42.8%) cases and in 65 cases within the B3b, B4, and B5 categories, revealing malignancy in 64 cases (98.5%). The sensitivity of NCB for malignancy was 87.7%, with a specificity and positive predictive value of 99.3% and 98.5%, respectively. FNAC had an inadequacy rate of 58.7%, a complete sensitivity of 34.5% and a specificity of 47.6%. Conclusions—This study confirms the value of NCB in the preoperative assessment of impalpable breast lesions. Two new categories are suggested for the NCB classification; category B2r for benign breast tissue where representativeness is uncertain, and the subdivision of category B3 into B3a for benign lesions potentially associated with malignancy (for example, radial scars and intraduct papillomas) and B3b for more worrisome atypical epithelial proliferations. These will aid the accurate audit of NCB and identify more clearly the intellectual pathway leading to a particular assessment. Key Words: needle core biopsy • impalpable breast lesions • fine needle aspiration cytology • NHS Breast Screening Programme PMID:11215280

  9. Papillary neoplasms of the breast: clues in fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Aracil, V; Mayayo, E; Azua, J; Arraiza, A

    2002-02-01

    Papillary neoplasms of the breast include a wide spectrum of mammary lesions. The differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions can be problematic not only cytologically, but also histopathologically. Aspiration smears can demonstrate that cytological differentiation is feasible. A retrospective study of 30 cases of papillary tumour of the breast, 15 papillary carcinomas and 15 papillomas, was performed to find the cytological differences between the pathologies. Cytological samples of papillary carcinomas were characterized by an abundance of cellular material, three-dimensional papillary clusters without fibrovascular connective tissue cores, small papillae arranged in cell balls, tall columnar cells and isolated naked nuclei. Numerous haemosiderin-laden macrophages were seen. There were no eosinophilic bipolar cytoplasmic granules, bipolar naked nuclei or apocrine metaplasia. In the papillomas there was less material; the papillae had cohesive stalks surrounded by columnar cells in a honeycomb pattern. We also found fewer small papillae and isolated columnar cells. In addition, the presence of apocrine metaplasia and bipolar naked nuclei was noted. We suggest that papillary carcinoma of the breast can be diagnosed by cytology and differentiated from papilloma. PMID:11985565

  10. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  11. Toward improving fine needle aspiration cytology by applying Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.

  12. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Limin; Olsen, Stephen; Lowe, Lori; Michael, Claire; Jing, Xin

    2009-10-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma (EP), although rare, is widely recognized as the most common malignant sweat gland tumor. EP typically grows slowly and usually is cured by surgical excision with clear margins. An elevated mortality rate, however, is observed when regional lymph nodes are involved. We herein describe cytohistologic findings in a case of metastatic EP. An 86-year-old man with a history of EP of the left lateral ankle and squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease) of the penis presented with enlarged left inguinal lymph nodes. A superficial fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed and demonstrated a hypercellular sample with discohesive clusters and/or individual tumor cells. The tumor cells were round or oval with most of the cells showing dense, refractile cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles were readily appreciated in some of the cells. Nuclear enlargement, high N/C ratio, nuclear hyperchromasia, bi- and multinucleation, and prominent nucleoli were seen. A diagnosis of metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma was rendered. Enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes were detected and CT-guided left retroperitoneal core biopsy was performed 1 week later. The biopsy revealed features consistent with metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma. PMID:19405111

  13. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected. PMID:26148740

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytologic findings in four cases of pilomatrixoma (calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe).

    PubMed

    Gmez-Aracil, V; Azua, J; San Pedro, C; Romero, J

    1990-01-01

    Four cases of pilomatrixoma studied by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy prior to resection and histologic diagnosis were reviewed to identify the cytologic features useful in making the FNA cytodiagnosis. Cytopathology had initially correctly diagnosed two cases while misdiagnosing one as a carcinoma and one as a suspected carcinoma. The aspirates from all cases contained either clustered or isolated basaloid cells, with variably sized nuclei and prominent nucleoli. "Ghost cells" were also present in most smears stained with the Giemsa stain and could thus be very helpful for making the FNA diagnosis of pilomatrixoma. The occurrence of either foreign-body giant cells or calcium deposits in the aspirates could also contribute to suggesting the correct diagnosis of pilomatrixoma in some cases. PMID:1701604

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of postirradiation sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, with immunocytochemical confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J.F.; Lannin, D.L.; Larkin, E.W.; Feldman, P.; Frable, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Postirradiation sarcomas are an unusual but well-recognized late effect of cancer therapy. In this article, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) series of four cases is presented. There were three female patients and one male patient, with an age range of 28-55 yr (mean, 41). Two of the patients were irradiated for uterine cervical carcinoma while the other two received irradiation for malignant lymphoma. The time interval to the development of the postirradiation sarcoma ranged from 10 to greater than 20 yr. There were a postirradiation synovial sarcoma of the buttock region, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone (femur), and rhabdomyosarcoma and angiosarcoma of the retroperitoneum. A spectrum of cytologic findings was encountered, reflecting the specific types of sarcomas. Immunocytochemical studies performed on the aspirated material from the angiosarcoma demonstrated the utility of immunoperoxidase stains for ULEX europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) and, to a lesser degree, factor VIII-related antigen antibody, confirming the vascular nature of this malignancy. The FNA findings from all four cases demonstrated cytologic features that allowed recognition of this unusual complication of irradiation treatment. This article confirms the utility of FNA cytology in following patients with previous malignancies and differentiating a postirradiation sarcoma from recurrent carcinoma.

  16. Cutaneous metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and Hep Par 1 immunopositivity.

    PubMed

    Isa, Nurismah Md; Bong, Jan Jin; Ghani, Fauzah Abd; Rose, Isa Mohamed; Husain, Salina; Azrif, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    Cutaneous metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very rare, accounting for less than 0.8% of all known cutaneous metastases and occurring in 2.7-3.4% of HCCs. With less than 50 such cases reported worldwide, most of which were diagnosed histologically on excised lesions, it can only be expected that diagnosis made on cytological features alone would be challenging. We report a case of cutaneous metastasis of HCC diagnosed based on cytological features and confirmed by Hep Par 1 immunopositivity of the cell block material. An 81-year-old man, who was known to have unresectable HCC, presented with a 1-month history of painless, left nasal alae mass. The mass measured 1.5 cm in diameter, and was multilobulated with a central necrosis. Fine needle aspiration of the mass was done. Smears were cellular, comprising of malignant cells in loose clusters and aggregates as well as singly dispersed. The malignant cells displayed moderate nuclear pleomorphism, occasional prominent nucleoli, and intranuclear pseudoinclusion. Cell block material demonstrated the trabeculae pattern of the malignant cells and Hep Par 1 immunopositivity. The final diagnosis of a metastatic cutaneous HCC was made. In conclusion, cutaneous HCC metastasis is rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a history of HCC presenting with suspicious skin lesion. In the right clinical setting, a confident diagnosis can be made in such cases by using the fine needle aspiration technique aided with immunopositivity for Hep Par 1 antibody of the aspirated material. PMID:21563319

  17. Cytology in nipple aspirate fluid during a randomized soy food intervention among premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Suzuki, Shana; Pagano, Ian S.; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A.; Ehya, Hormoz

    2013-01-01

    Because soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the presence of epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF). In a randomized, crossover design, 82 premenopausal women completed a high-soy and a low-soy diet for 6 months each, separated by a 1-month washout period. They provided NAF samples at baseline, 6 months, and 13 months during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Papanicolaou-stained cytology slides (for 33 women at baseline, 24 at low-soy, and 36 at high-soy) were evaluated in women with sufficient NAF. Mixed models evaluated the effect of the high-soy diet on epithelial cytology as compared to baseline and the low-soy diet. At the end of the high-soy diet, cytological class had decreased in 8 (24%) and increased in 3 (9%) women as compared to baseline, whereas the respective values were 3 (14%) and 6 (29%) for the low-soy diet samples (p=0.32). Only the change in subclass indicated a trend in lower cytological class (p=0.06). Contrary to an earlier report, the number of NAF samples with hyperplastic epithelial cells did not increase after a soy intervention in amounts consumed by Asians. PMID:24127645

  18. Cytologic Diagnosis of Heterobilharzia americana Infection in a Liver Aspirate From a Dog.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, V; McGovern, D A; Fletcher, J M; Grasperge, B J

    2016-05-01

    Heterobilharzia americanais a trematode of the Schistosomatidae family that infects dogs, raccoons, and other mammals as definitive hosts. This parasite is considered endemic in the southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts; however, only a few cases are reported. A 7-year-old dog from Louisiana was referred for persistent hypercalcemia, hyperglobulinemia, and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed diffuse hyperechogenicity of the liver with several hyperechoic nodules of varying size. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates of the liver revealed few ovoid to round basophilic thin-walled eggshell fragments and rare ciliated miracidia.H. americanaeggs were identified on fecal sedimentation. PMID:26272209

  19. Cyto-morphological features of extramedullary acute megakaryoblastic leukemia on fine needle aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid cytology: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chitragar, Sanjeev; Agarwal, Shipra; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Karak, Asis K.; Chharchhodawala, Taher; Sharma, Atul; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    Extramedullary deposits may be the presenting feature of acute myeloid leukemia. An early and accurate diagnosis on cytology will aid in correct patient management. This is especially true for patients with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML M7), where bone marrow aspiration may yield only a dry tap. While cytomorphological features of myeloid sarcoma of other types are well recognized due to its rarity, there are only two case reports discussing the morphological details of megakaryoblastic differentiation on aspiration cytology. We present the case of a 25-year-old patient with extramedullary involvement of lymph node and cerebrospinal fluid by AML M7, describing in detail, the morphological features on aspiration as well as exfoliative cytology. PMID:22022337

  20. Multinucleate Giant Cells in FNAC of Benign Breast Lesions: Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    R, Kalyani; Murthy V, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleate giant cells are described in breast aspirates. However, due to its rarity very few cases have been described cytologically. Hence recognition and correct interpretation of their presence is difficult, yet crucial for accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The prospective study of FNAC (fine needle aspirate cytology) of breast lumps was conducted for a period of six months. Direct smears were prepared from the material aspirated. In case of fluid aspirates, centrifuge done and cell sediment was used for making smears. Smears were alcohol fixed and stained with PAP/H&E or air dried smears were stained with Leishman stain. Further smears were subjected to immunocytochemistry using vimentin and CD34 markers to know the origin of multinucleate giant cells. Results: We have reported 11 cases of breast lesions, which showed multinucleate giant cells on FNAC. Out of the 11 cases, Cytologically six cases showed granuloma debris with relative proportion of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleate giant cells. Two cases were diagnosed as acute suppurative granulomatous mastitis. Two cases of fibroadenoma and one case of fat necrosis showed multinucleate giant cells. Immunocytochemistry showed vimentin positivity in both stromal and histiocytic type of multinucleate giant cells and in isolated histiocytes. CD34 was focally positive in histiocytic type of giant cells. Conclusion: An effort is made to distinguish between the stromal and histiocytic type giant cells in non-neoplastic breast lesions. Further molecular studies have to be done to know the exact histogenesis and role of these multinucleate giant cells in benign lesions. PMID:25653953

  1. The Value of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Breast Fibromatosis: Study of Two New Cases and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Zanella, M.; Falconieri, G.; Della Libera, D.

    1999-07-01

    We report two new cases of breast fibromatosis studied by needle aspiration cytology observed in a 32-year-old man and a 49-year-old woman. The lesions manifested as palpable, painless, and firm masses of the para-areolar breast soft tissues. Preoperative fine needle cytology revealed scant cellularity, featuring oval and spindle cells with bland nuclei and occasional larger polygonal cells with high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio. Histologically, interwoven fascicles of spindle cells with bland nuclei, infiltrating the adjacent breast fat, were recognized. Based on available reports in the literature, we concluded that needle aspiration cytology, although not entirely specific, may be a source of important information in patients with breast fibromatosis. In particular, it confidently allows the exclusion of breast cancer and other more common diseases and is useful in planning a surgical approach to the lesion. PMID:11348299

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of vulvar actinomycosis masquerading clinically as malignancy.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Rahul Parasram; Patil, Suwarna Bhupendra; Khade, Manjiri Gunvant; Sarate, Dilip S

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Vulvar actinomycosis presenting as a fixed swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of vulvar actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 60-year-old postmenopausal female presented with a gradually increasing 15 cm × 10 cm vulvar swelling involving the right mons and right labia majora. The swelling was nodular, fixed, and nonulcerated, with multiple healed and few active discharging sinus tracts draining serosanguineous fluid and yellowish sulfur granules. FNA was diagnostic, as it revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. Histopathology of excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. FNA is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis, although, its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the FNA technique. PMID:26811578

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology of vulvar actinomycosis masquerading clinically as malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Rahul Parasram; Patil, Suwarna Bhupendra; Khade, Manjiri Gunvant; Sarate, Dilip S.

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Vulvar actinomycosis presenting as a fixed swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of vulvar actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 60-year-old postmenopausal female presented with a gradually increasing 15 cm × 10 cm vulvar swelling involving the right mons and right labia majora. The swelling was nodular, fixed, and nonulcerated, with multiple healed and few active discharging sinus tracts draining serosanguineous fluid and yellowish sulfur granules. FNA was diagnostic, as it revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. Histopathology of excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. FNA is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis, although, its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the FNA technique. PMID:26811578

  4. Use of Fine-Needle Aspiration in the Evaluation of Breast Lumps

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Arshad, Madiha; Jamal, Shahid; Niazi, Shahida; Bashir, Shahid; Bakhshi, Irfan M.; Shaharyar

    2011-01-01

    Background. A study was designed to see the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in palpable breast lumps. Materials and Methods. Four hundred and twenty five (425) patients came to the Department of Pathology King Edward Medical University, Lahore in four years for FNAC of their palpable breast masses from June 2006 to June 2010. FNAC diagnosis was compared with histological diagnosis to see the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology for neoplastic lesions. Results. There were 271/425 benign, 120/425 malignant, and 32/425 suspicious smears. Inadequate samples were repeated twice or thrice, and the degree of success was improved with consecutive repeating approaches. The frequency of inadequacy declined from 86 to 18, and 2 for first, second and third attempts, respectively. The number of repeats increased the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates which is statistically significant (P = .000). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most commonly reported lesion with maximum incidence in the 4th, 5th, and 6th decades followed by invasive lobular carcinoma and other malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and the positive predictive value of FNAC was 98%, 100%, 98%, 100%, and 97%, respectively. Conclusion. FNAC serves as a rapid, economical, and reliable tool for the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions because the cytopathological examination of these lesions before operation or treatment serves as an important diagnostic modality. PMID:21789264

  5. Benign chondroblastoma on fine-needle aspiration smears: A seven-case experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Zeppa, Pio; Zabatta, Assunta; Merolla, Francesco; Vetrani, Antonio; Sadile, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    We report seven cases of chondroblastoma (CB) of bone, diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), and confirmed by histomorphological examination. The concurrence of some cytomorphologic findings - mononucleated cells, multinucleated cells, and intercellular chondroid substance - unequivocally suggested the cytological diagnosis of CB. We also reviewed the literature on this topic in order to discuss morphological criteria and the importance of needle size. The differential diagnosis between CB, Giant Cell Tumor of Bone, and Eosinophilic Granuloma is further discussed. PMID:25914148

  6. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Benefits and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. Examine the benefits and limitations of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) used as the definitive diagnostic method before treatment. Method. Review of the 25 year experience at a multidisciplinary musculo-skeletal centre where FNA is the primary diagnostic approach to soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities and trunk wall and the experience of various experts in the field. Results. FNA has several benefits compared with coarse needle or open surgical biopsy. The most important are rapid preliminary diagnosis, no need for hospitalization and anaesthesia, negligible complications and fear for tumour cell spread. With the collected experience gained during the years a reliable diagnosis of sarcoma is the rule in general and specific-type diagnoses are possible in many histotypes, especially when the cytologic examination is supplemented with ancillary diagnostics. The most important limitations are inability to hit small deep-seated sarcoma and some diagnostic pitfalls such as the correct diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms, variants of benign lipomatous tumours and ‘new soft tissue tumour entities’. Discussion. Optimal use of FNA calls for certain requirements such as centralization, experience in soft tissue tumour cytology–histopathology, the FNA technique and close co-operation between the orthopaedic surgeon and cytopathologist. PMID:18521248

  7. USG guided FNAC of ovarian mass lesions: A cyto-histopathological correlation, with emphasis on its role in pre-operative management guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sailesh; Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Majumdar, Kaushik; Chaudhury, Nilanjana

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ultrasonography (USG)-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of ovarian masses is an efficient diagnostic modality for accurately diagnosing ovarian tumours prior to surgery. The main aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing ovarian masses. Material and Methods Eighty-three patients with ovarian masses were recruited and correlation of USG-guided FNAC was made with histopathology in all but 6 cases, where surgery was not indicated. Results Cytological diagnosis was obtained in all 83 ovarian lesions: 56 cases were benign, 6 possibly benign, 3 suspicious of malignancy and 18 cases as malignant. Out of 77 cases where histology was available, the 12 non-neoplastic cysts were endometriotic cysts and follicular cysts. The majority of neoplastic lesions were surface epithelial tumours. Out of 12 non-neoplastic cysts and 43 benign tumours, all but two were diagnosed as benign or possibly benign on cytology; of the 22 histologically malignant or borderline tumours, 18 were malignant or suspicious of malignancy on cytology, while four were false negative (three of these were borderline tumours). Thus, the sensitivity of cytological diagnosis was 83%, specificity was 97% and accuracy was 93%. Conclusion USG-guided FNAC seems to be a relatively safe, simple, fast and cost-effective procedure where most ovarian malignancies either present late in their course or no screening method is available. In addition, cyto-radiological correlation through this procedure may be useful in deciding management guidelines prior to any surgical intervention. PMID:24790509

  8. Role of Cell Block in Guided FNAC of Abdominal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Nandini; Shivajirao, Prathima; Manjunath; Jothady, Sunila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of space occupying lesions in superficial or deep anatomic sites is an increasingly common procedure, providing rapid and safe diagnosis. However, sometimes FNA does not yield sufficient information for a precise diagnosis and the risk of false negatives and indeterminate diagnosis is always present. Therefore, we attempted to obtain additional information via the preparation of Cell Block (CB) from the residual material of aspirates and thus enhance the diagnostic accuracy. Aim This study was carried out to evaluate the role of CB as a useful adjunct to smears for establishing a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis and for its utility in special staining and Immuno-histochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods A total of 66 cases of image-guided FNA of abdominal masses were studied. In addition to the routine smears, CBs were prepared from the residual tissues for all possible cases and its diagnostic efficacy was analysed. Further, the use of CBs for special staining and IHC was also established. Results This study included a total of 66 patients with abdominal masses who were referred for guided FNA cytology. Out of these cases, adequate material was obtained on FNAC in 64 cases (96.96%) and on CB in 45 cases (68.18%) and the diagnosis was provided. There was a good agreement between the FNA smear diagnosis and CB diagnosis. The histopathology of CB sections further helped in precise final cytopathological diagnosis. Two FNA smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation and hence the diagnosis was done on CB sections alone. With FNA cytology and CB in combination, a cytopathological diagnosis was given for all the 66 cases. The sensitivity of FNA in comparison to the histopathology of CB was 91.6% and specificity was 88.8%. The diagnostic accuracy was 62% and the discordance was 6%. Conclusions CB in addition to the routine FNA is a simple, reliable and cost-effective technique that further contributes to the final cytopathological diagnosis. PMID:27134875

  9. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  10. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: the first submandibular case reported including findings on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Lian, Derrick; Chau, Yuk Ping; Yan, Benedict

    2012-03-01

    We present the first case (male, 35 years old) of a mammary analogue secretory carcinoma occurring in a submandibular gland and document findings on fine needle aspiration cytology. On histology, the tumor displayed characteristic features: circumscribed nodules composed of bland, pink to light red neoplastic cells with low proliferative/mitotic activity arranged in tubular, vaguely cribriform, and microcystic structures containing Periodic acid Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant secretory material. Immunohistochemistry showed strong and diffuse positivity for cytokeratin 7, S100 protein, and vimentin, as well as moderate to strong immunoreactivity for c-kit in the majority of tumor cells. A rearrangement of the ETV6 gene on fluorescence in situ hybridization was documented. The patient underwent an ipsilateral selective (levels I-IV) neck dissection which showed metastasis in 3 out of 36 lymph nodes (levels 1-3). Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered. No local recurrence or metastatic disease has been detected during a follow up period of 28 months. PMID:21773954

  11. Eumycetoma versus actinomycetoma: Diagnosis on cytology

    PubMed Central

    Afroz, Nishat; Khan, Nazoora; Siddiqui, Farhan A; Rizvi, Mehar

    2010-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by various genera of fungi producing specific colored granules known as grains. A 45-year-old farmer presented clinically with a left foot mass with multiple discharging sinuses existing for last 3 years. Clinical and radiological findings suggested a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis with suspicion of tuberculosis. Imprints plus fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears exhibited distinct brown-black colonies of a fungus having branching and septate hyphae embedded in matrix like material against a mixed inflammatory background. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain gave positive staining and subsequent fungal culture confirmed the cytological diagnosis and aided in species identification as Madurella mycetomatis. Thus, eumycetoma can precisely be diagnosed and confidently differentiated from similar conditions such as actinomycetoma by simple and inexpensive cytological techniques such as FNAC and imprint smears, employing routine May-Grnwald-Giemsa, Papanicolaou and simple PAS stains on cytological specimen, thus leading to rapid diagnosis for institution of correct treatment. PMID:21157564

  12. Inconclusive or erroneous fine-needle aspirates of breast with adequate and representative material: a cytologic/histologic study.

    PubMed

    Shabb, Nina S; Boulos, Fouad I; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Abbas, Jaber; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W

    2014-05-01

    Adequately cellular and representative fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of breast have a high diagnostic accuracy. There is, however, a recognized category designated as "gray zone" where a definitive diagnosis cannot be reached. We reviewed our experience in this category to identify useful diagnostic parameters. Twenty-four such FNAs with surgical follow-up were retrieved from AUBMC files (2003-2009). Cytology slides were reviewed blindly. All cases were females, 29-73 years. There were three erroneous and 21 inconclusive diagnoses. The majority (15) was invasive adenocarcinomas: two cribriform, four tubular, one lobular, and eight not otherwise specified. The remaining cases were papillary and fibroepithelial tumors (three each), ductal carcinoma in situ, cribriform (two), and one adenomyoepithelioma (AME). Useful diagnostic features included: (1) Biphasic cell population with focal nuclear atypia and intranuclear and cytoplasmic vacuolar inclusions (AME). (2) Complex clusters of epithelial cells with cribriform architecture (cribriform carcinoma). (3) Rigid tubular epithelial structures with abrupt change in diameter, ending in pointed tips with abnormal branching (tubular carcinoma). (4) Cellular stromal fragments (fibroepithelial tumors). (5) Papillary fibrovascular cores, columnar cells, and three-dimensional papillary epithelial fragments (papillary tumors). Myoepithelial cells classically described in benign aspirates were not always a discriminatory factor. The "gray zone" in breast FNA is usually due to overlapping cytologic features of some benign and malignant lesions. Useful distinguishing cytologic features are described. PMID:24167007

  13. Is fine needle aspiration cytology a useful diagnostic tool for granular cell tumors? A cytohistological review with emphasis on pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Jason; Schnadig, Vicki; Nawgiri, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Granular cell tumors (GCT) formerly known as Abrikossoff tumor or granular cell myoblastoma, are rare neoplasms encountered in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) service. Named because of their highly granular cytoplasm which is invariably positive for the S-100 antibody, the classic GCT is thought to be of neural origin. The cytomorphological features range from highly cellular to scanty cellular smears with dispersed polygonal tumor cells. The cells have abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, eccentric round to oval vesicular nuclei with small inconspicuous nucleoli. The fragility of the cells can result in many stripped nuclei in a granular background. The differential diagnosis occasionally can range from a benign or reactive process to features that are suspicious for malignancy. Some of the concerning cytologic features include necrosis, mitoses and nuclear pleomorphism. Methods: We identified 6 cases of suspected GCT on cytology within the last 10 years and compared them to their final histologic diagnoses. Results: Four had histologic correlation of GCT including one case that was suspicious for GCT on cytology and called atypical with features concerning for a malignant neoplasm. Of the other two cases where GCT was suspected, one showed breast tissue with fibrocystic changes, and the other was a Hurthle cell adenoma of the thyroid. Conclusions: These results imply that FNA has utility in the diagnosis of GCT, and should be included in the differential diagnoses when cells with abundant granular cytoplasm are seen on cytology. Careful attention to cytologic atypia, signs of reactive changes, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical correlation are helpful in arriving at a definite diagnosis on FNA cytology. PMID:25379050

  14. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Low-Grade Cribriform Cystadenocarcinoma with Many Psammoma Bodies of the Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Ahn, Dongbin

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) is a rare salivary gland tumor that was recently defined as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma by the 2005 World Health Orgazniation (WHO) classification system. We report cytologic findings of an unusual case of LGCCC with many psammoma bodies. A 90-year-old man presented a palpable mass on his left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology showed tumor cells that were arranged in clusters and dispersed individually. The tumor cells showed mild atypia and had clear or dense cytoplasm with some vacuoles. Numerous psammoma bodies were noted. After surgical resection, the histologic examination revealed a mixed solid and cystic mass showing intraductal growth with focal stromal invasion. The S-100 protein expressed in the tumor cells, but smooth muscle actin and p63 were positive only in myoepithelial cells. Although LGCCCs resemble other salivary gland tumors, differentiating LGCCC during preoperative FNA is important to avoid unnecessary overtreatment. PMID:24255638

  15. Lipoblastoma presenting as a rapidly growing paravertebral mass and masquerading as myxoid liposarcoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani Selvi, Subramanian; Pradhan, Prita; Rajesh, Nachiappa Ganesh; Gochhait, Debasis; Barwad, Adarsh

    2016-05-01

    Lipoblastoma is a peculiar variant of lipoma occurring almost exclusively during infancy and early childhood. It is found most commonly in the upper and lower extremities; less common sites are head and neck, trunk, mediastinum, and retroperitoneum. It has a greater predilection for boys and commonly presents as a slowly growing soft-tissue mass. We present here the case of a five- year old female child with a lipoblastoma presenting as a paravertebral mass in the right lower back which progressed rapidly in the previous six months causing diagnostic difficulty on fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:426-429. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26919610

  16. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists. PMID:3336958

  17. Sample size in fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J; Bondestam, S; Virkkunen, P

    1989-12-01

    The weights of biopsy specimens from bovine liver taken for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) by three groups of physicians, were compared. The groups differed from each other in their extent or degree of experience in FNAC. When the physicians used their normal technique, the mean sample weight increased significantly with experience, from 4.6 mg in the least experienced group to 17.2 mg in the group with the longest experience. Thirty-six per cent of the samples taken by the group with the least experience were in the weight class 0-2 mg, whereas no such samples were encountered for the other groups. When all the physicians were advised to use the same, standard technique there were no statistically significant differences in mean sample weight between the groups or in the proportion of samples in class 0-2 mg. Sample weights correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with cell counts. This study shows that differences in the technique of FNAC are responsible for differences in sample weights and cell counts, including the number of the acellular samples obtained. This could explain in some part the wide variation in the reported accuracy rates of FNAC. PMID:2605470

  18. Soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma with rhabdoid-like features and EWSR1 rearrangement: Fine needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isidro; López-Soto, María Victoria; Rubio, Luis; Navarro, Lara; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    A new case of soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma (MEC) with rhabdoid-like differentiation is presented including cytologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic features. A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the Hospital with nodular mass involving the lower part of the abdominal wall. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed a round cell tumor with abundant cytoplasm in the myxoid background. The nuclei were uniform, round to ovoid, with finely distributed chromatin, nucleoli, and pale, vacuolated, or eosinophilic cytoplasm with rhabdoid-like appearance resembling a soft tissue malignant rhabdoid tumor. The surgically removed tumor was poorly demarcated, yellow, soft, and myxoid. The histopathology revealed sheets of poorly differentiated round malignant cells with focal myxoid stroma and rhabdoid-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CK (AE1/AE3), EMA, S100, vimentin, CD99, and SMA; however desmin, CD34, and gliofibrilar acid protein (GFAP) were negative. Tumor cells revealed loss of INI1 expression. The EWSR1 gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but molecular biology failed to detect EWSR1/ETS, EWSR1/NR4A3, EWSR1/DDIT3, EWSR1/ATF1, EWSR1-POU5F1, EWSR1/ZNF444, EWSR1-PBX1 gene fusions. The final diagnosis was soft tissue malignant myoepithelioma with rhabdoid changes and EWSR1 gene rearrangement. The differential diagnosis included soft tissue malignant rhabdoid tumor, cellular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, proximal epithelioid sarcoma, and other soft tissue tumor with EWSR1 rearrangement. To our knowledge, this is the first case of MEC with rhabdoid features and description of fine-needle aspiration cytology. PMID:25693574

  19. Papillary cystic type of acinic cell carcinoma of parotid: fine needle aspiration cytological features of a high grade variant with oncocytic metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Gita; Othman, Maizatul Asiah; Kumar, Muthu; Krishnan, Gopala

    2002-12-01

    A 60-year-old female developed a right parotid swelling six months after surgery for intra-oral squamous cell carcinoma. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytological smears showed dissociated large and small pleomorphic tumour cells with abundant mitoses and oncocytic features. A cytological diagnosis of parotid acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) was made. Histological study of the subtotal parotidectomy specimen showed a papillary cystic variety of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC-PCV). FNA cytological features in this case of ACC-PCV differs from the two previously reported cases in that it showed prominent oncocytic and high grade features and absence of papillary pattern in the cytological smears. ACC-PCV is an uncommon tumour and knowledge of its varied FNA cytological features is important for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. PMID:12887170

  20. Adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: fine-needle-aspiration cytology of 10 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sarfraz; Gattuso, Paolo; Howard, Allison; Mosunjac, Marina B; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2008-05-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is mostly diagnosed in postmenopausal women. They typically secrete estrogen, which stimulates the endometrium to proliferate and cause abnormal bleeding. This study reviews the cytologic features of adult GCT of the ovary diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). We reviewed slides from ten cases diagnosed by CT guided FNA from 1995 to 2007 at our institutions. Smears were stained with Diff-Quik and Papanicolaou stains. Patient's history and histologic diagnosis were also available and reviewed for all cases. The patients ranged in age from 39 to 83 yr. All 10 cases were hypercellular with both large and small overlapping cell clusters and individual cells. The cytologic features identified included: naked nuclei (10/10 cases), Call-Exner bodies (7/10 cases), blood vessels with prominent perivascular tumor cell growth (4/10 cases), spindle-shaped hyperchromatic stromal cells within cellular clusters (6/10 cases), mixed inflammation (3/10 cases), tumor cell necrosis (1/10 cases), and prominent metachromatic stroma seen in association with blood vessels (1/10 cases). Moderate to scant delicate cytoplasm was also seen (10/10 cases). Small, punctuate cytoplasmic vacuoles were also noted (7/10 cases) and were occasionally prominent (3/10 cases). In general nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios were high although lower than those typically seen in a lymphoma or small-cell carcinoma. Nuclei were generally centrally located although eccentrically located nuclei were consistently seen in a minority of cells. Nuclei were monotonous in size showing slightly convoluted (occasional rentiform and fetiform nuclei) to polygonal outlines. Prominent, central nucleoli were also seen (4/10 cases). Nuclear grooves were also seen (9/10 cases). No atypical mitotic activity was identified in any of the 10 cases (0/10 cases). In summary, the above cytologic features can also help in the cytologic diagnosis of adult GCTs. PMID:18418853

  1. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Shahanawaz; Gokden, Murat; Lindberg, Matthew; Ali, Sumera; Jeffus, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    The epithelioid variant of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (eMPNST) is an extremely rare soft tissue neoplasm comprising less than 5% of all MPNSTs. It is distinguished cytomorphologically from a conventional MPNST by the presence of polymorphous round epithelioid cells arranged in loose clusters with or without spindled tumor cells. These features pose a diagnostic challenge because the differential diagnosis involves a variety of mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal tumors including epithelioid sarcoma, sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor, chordoma, metastatic carcinomas, and melanoma. Thus, it may become imperative to perform immunochemical stains on cell blocks of FNA aspirates to arrive at definitive diagnosis. Reports describing the cytologic features of eMPNST are rare. Herein, we report a case of eMPNST with focus on cytomorphologic and cytoimmunochemical features and differential diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:226-231. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26646298

  2. Role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology, viscosity, and carcinoembryonic antigen in pancreatic cyst fluid

    PubMed Central

    Alkaade, Samer; Chahla, Elie; Levy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advances and increased utility of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts continues to increase. Many endosonographers, pancreatologists, and surgeons consider endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) to be an essential tool in the management of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). EUS can help distinguish between mucinous and nonmucinous lesions and may identify the specific cyst type. EUS achieves these goals by delineating the cyst morphology, identifying high risk stigmata and worrisome features, and through image-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and cyst fluid analysis. However, recent consensus statements have called to question the utility and diminished the role of EUS in this setting. The aim of this review is to assess the role and advances of EUS-FNA in pancreatic cyst fluid analysis, specifically in terms of fluid cytology, viscosity, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) analysis. PMID:26643697

  3. Unusual small bone metastases from epithelial malignancies: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology with histologic confirmation.

    PubMed

    Singh, H K; Silverman, J F; Ballance, W A; Park, H K

    1995-10-01

    Although epithelial malignancies can have bone metastases, involvement of small bones is exceedingly rare, representing either first manifestation of an occult carcinoma or late disseminated disease. Small bone metastases may mimic primary skeletal diseases leading to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. We report three cases of metastatic epithelial malignancies diagnosed by computed tomography (CT)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in two patients with lytic calcaneal lesions and a patellar lesion in a third patient; all with histologic confirmation. Case 1, a 63-year-old female, presented with heel pain. FNA and tissue biopsy of the calcaneus revealed a clear cell malignancy consistent with a renal primary. Follow-up abdominal CT scan revealed a renal lesion consistent with renal cell carcinoma. Case 2, a 37-yr-old male with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, presented with foot pain. FNA and tissue biopsy of the calcaneous revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Case 3, a 52-yr-old male with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of floor of mouth, presented with knee pain and swelling. FNA and tissue biopsy of the patella revealed metastastic squamous cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete FNA cytology report with histologic confirmation of unusual small bone metastases of the feet and patella from epithelial malignancies and shows the value of FNA cytology in establishing a correct diagnosis, and excluding primary skeletal diseases. PMID:8575276

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermatopathic lymphadenitis in an asymptomatic female: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasamurthy, Banushree C.; Saha, Kaushik; Senapati, Swagatika; Saha, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Dermatopathic lymphadenopathy usually presents as enlarged superficial lymph nodes, most often involving the axillary or inguinal regions. Most patients have a chronic dermatopathy that precedes the development of dermatopathic lymphadenopathy. This condition can be confused with lymphoma in adults. There are very few case reports on cytological features of this disease in literature. We describe a case of dermatopathic lymphadenopathy in a 50-year-old female without any skin disease. PMID:27011445

  5. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Chondroid Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Aiad, Hayam; Youssef Asaad, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of tendon sheath is a localized form of tenosynovial GCT, which preferentially affects the joints of hands and feet. Chondroid metaplasia is a rare phenomenon in tenosynovial GCT either in localized or diffuse types. The current case investigates the cytological and histopathological features of chondroid GCT of tendon sheath in a 22-year-old female presenting with wrist swelling. PMID:26266013

  6. Amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Grace C H; Kuhel, William I; Scognamiglio, Theresa

    2014-09-01

    Amyloid deposits are unexpected in salivary gland tumors. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1.8 cm, slow-growing parotid mass. Both fine-needle aspiration and frozen section were misinterpreted as pleomorphic adenoma. The final pathology was amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The aspirates consisted of three components: mucin, amyloid, and tumor cells. The mucin was unusually thick, stringy, and metachromatic. The amyloid presented as innumerable concretions scattered solitarily or in small jigsaw puzzle-like aggregates, individually wrapped by tumor cells. The tumor cells had bland oval nuclei and scant-to-abundant cytoplasm, arranged in loosely cohesive small sheets. On histology, the tumor cells were arranged in interconnecting monolayered glands of a wide range of size with small patches of cellular regions composed of plump tumor cells. As the luminal mucin and amyloid deposits enlarged, the lining tumor cells became thin and flat. The glandular lumen molded amyloid concretions into different shapes and sizes. Atrophic or pyknotic tumor cells outlined the amyloid concretions with concentric laminations, reminiscent of corpora amylacea. Alcian blue positive luminal mucin, associated with newly formed amyloid, was present in mucinous regions of the tumor. This is the first description of cytologic features of amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid and the second case in the pathology literature. The literature of amyloid-rich tumors was reviewed and the implication of the presence of abundant amyloid on the death of tumor cells suggested. PMID:24550230

  7. Immunoglobulin light chain mRNA detected by in situ hybridisation in diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C J; Farquharson, M A; Kerr, T; McCorriston, J

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To demonstrate expression of immunoglobulin light chain mRNA in diagnostic fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens using an in situ hybridisation (ISH) technique; and to evaluate ISH in a series of reactive lymphoid proliferations and malignant lymphomas. METHODS: Forty diagnostic FNA specimens showing a lymphoid cell population were examined for immunoglobulin light chain mRNA expression using ISH. Aspirates were obtained from lymph node (n = 34), salivary gland (n = 3), subcutaneous tissue, thyroid and breast (n = 1 each). The cases included 20 B cell lymphomas, five cases of Hodgkin's disease and 15 reactive lymphoid proliferations. Comparison with light chain immunoreactivity was made in 36 cases and histological correlation from biopsy material was available in 24. RESULTS: Immunoglobulin light chain restriction was demonstrated in 14 of 20 B cell lymphomas using ISH and in six of 17 B cell lymphomas using immunocytochemistry. A polytypic pattern of light chain expression was observed in four of five cases of Hodgkin's disease with both techniques, and in 12 of 15 and 11 of 14 reactive lymphoid proliferations using ISH and immunocytochemistry, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of immunoglobulin light chain expression is a useful adjunct to morphology in the diagnosis of reactive and malignant lymphoid proliferations in FNA specimens. Light chain restriction can be shown using either immunocytochemistry or ISH, but the latter is more sensitive in the diagnosis of B cell lymphoma. Images PMID:9038760

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the male breast in a cancer center.

    PubMed

    Sneige, N; Holder, P D; Katz, R L; Fanning, C V; Dekmezian, R H; Shabb, N S; Singletary, S E

    1993-12-01

    All fine-needle aspirates (FNA) performed on the male breast at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1985 to 1992 were reviewed, totaling 64. The patients' ages ranged from 19 to 86 years, with a mean of 56 years. Thirty-three patients had a history of an extramammary malignancy. The diagnoses established by FNA were gynecomastia (45), mammary carcinomas (6), neoplasms metastatic to the breast (5), suspicious for carcinoma (1), intra-mammary lymph node (1), and lipoma (1). In five cases the aspirates were nondiagnostic. Two of these proved to be gynecomastia on subsequent histologic examination. Of the six FNA cases initially thought to represent primary breast carcinomas, two were found to be secondary because of involvement of the underlying chest wall by mesothelioma (1), and mucinous adenocarcinoma, unknown primary (1). No false-positive diagnosis was rendered. We conclude that fine-needle aspiration of the male breast is a reliable means of assessment; however, unique problems may be encountered compared with aspiration of the female breast. These include the epithelial hyperplasia frequently associated with gynecomastia, the relatively equal frequency of primary and metastatic breast lesions when a malignant process is discovered, and chest wall lesions masquerading as breast lesions. PMID:8143548

  9. Gaucher’s Disease: A Rare Case, Diagnosed By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Rashmi Rani

    2016-01-01

    Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is a simple, inexpensive and innocuous diagnostic tool. It is increasingly accepted in daily medical practice. We report a case of Gaucher’s disease diagnosed by FNA of enlarged spleen in a seven-year-old male presented with complaints of fever, on and off irregular bowel habits, abdominal distension and asymmetric gaze for four years and decreased vision in night for last one year. The diagnosis was based on the finding of large, macrophage like cells with abundant, pale, fibrillary cytoplasm and small nuclei. The patient had no family history of Gaucher’s disease, and the diagnosis was not suspected clinically. PMID:27134885

  10. Gaucher's Disease: A Rare Case, Diagnosed By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi Rani; Kumar, Bipin

    2016-03-01

    Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is a simple, inexpensive and innocuous diagnostic tool. It is increasingly accepted in daily medical practice. We report a case of Gaucher's disease diagnosed by FNA of enlarged spleen in a seven-year-old male presented with complaints of fever, on and off irregular bowel habits, abdominal distension and asymmetric gaze for four years and decreased vision in night for last one year. The diagnosis was based on the finding of large, macrophage like cells with abundant, pale, fibrillary cytoplasm and small nuclei. The patient had no family history of Gaucher's disease, and the diagnosis was not suspected clinically. PMID:27134885

  11. Fine-needle aspiration of the mediastinum: a clinical, radiologic, cytologic, and histologic study of 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Shabb, N S; Fahl, M; Shabb, B; Haswani, P; Zaatari, G

    1998-12-01

    Forty-two fine-needle aspirates (FNA) of the mediastinum were reviewed from 1984-1995. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and cytologic material was studied. Twenty-five males and 17 females had an age range from 10-72 yr and a mean of 41 yr. Common complaints were chest pain, dyspnea, and cough. Thirty-eight tumors were in the anterior/superior mediastinum. Fifty-seven percent were primary neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, 7; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 6; thymoma, 3; germ-cell tumor, 3; thymic carcinoid and angiosarcoma, 1 each; and malignant not otherwise specified, 3). Twenty-four percent were metastatic tumors (carcinoma, 9; and sarcoma, 1). Twelve percent were benign conditions (granulomatous disease, 2; multinodular goiter, 1; extramedullary hematopoesis, 1; and one thymic cyst). Seven percent were inconclusive. FNA yielded adequate tissue for diagnosis in 83% and a correct diagnosis in 86%. There was one false-negative and no false-positive diagnosis. FNA is a useful tool for accurate tissue diagnosis of mediastinal masses. PMID:9839132

  12. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy and imprint cytology of small non-cleaved cell (Burkitt's) lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Stastny, J F; Almeida, M M; Wakely, P E; Kornstein, M J; Frable, W J

    1995-05-01

    We reviewed 13 cases of small non-cleaved cell (Burkitt's) lymphoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and four cases where that diagnosis was made from touch imprints from surgical biopsy specimens. The most common site was intraabdominal. Histologic confirmation was present in 14/17 cases. General microscopic features on smears included high cellularity and an individual cell pattern. Extracellular lymphoglandular bodies were abundant and tingible body macrophages were prominent. Nuclei were intermediate in size and round with a finely dispersed chromatin pattern on May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained smears. Cytoplasm was basophilic and scant with prominent vacuoles. Extracellular vacuoles and vacuoles within lymphoglandular bodies occurred in all patients. Immunocytochemistry performed on 16/17 cases demonstrated a B cell phenotype in 15. Nine cases were kappa light chain positive and six were lambda light chain positive. Flow cytometry performed in five cases demonstrated diploid cells with a high S phase. We conclude that Burkitt's lymphoma can be diagnosed using combined FNAB and immunophenotyping. PMID:7621714

  13. Pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology of parotid membranous basal cell adenoma-A review of pitfalls in FNA cytology of salivary gland neoplasms with basaloid cell features.

    PubMed

    Jurczyk, Matthew; Peevey, Joseph F; Vande Haar, Mark A; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2015-05-01

    Membranous basal cell adenoma (MBCA) is a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm. It is difficult to diagnose MBCA based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology due to rare reporting of its FNA cytology and overlapping of its FNA cytologic features with some benign and malignant entities. We present a case of MBCA in a 67-year-old female that was originally misinterpreted as adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) on FNA cytology. The FNA smears showed numerous uniform small basaloid epithelial cells with round or oval nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. The basaloid cells surround acellular, dense, homogenous material or are surrounded by acellular or paucicellular dense homogeneous material possibly containing bland spindle cells. The basaloid cells are present in variably sized three-dimensional clusters, acini, or sheets with variable cohesion. The dense homogenous material surrounded by basaloid cells may be interconnected. High power magnification reveals the homogeneous material to have a fibrillar texture. The edges of dense homogenous materials were well-demarcated. We describe the diagnostic pitfalls of FNA for MBCA, particularly versus ACC, basal cell adenoma, cellular pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in hope of improving clinical management and patient treatment. PMID:25431027

  14. Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washouts vs. cytologic examination for diagnosis of primary or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Maccora, D; Carrozza, C; Canu, G; Fadda, G; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) is able to detect approximately 63% of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The measurement of calcitonin in the needle washout (FNAB-CT) could improve its accuracy. Sixty-two FNAB-C were performed in 38 patients. Serum calcitonin (sCT) was measured before performing FNAB-C. After obtaining a FNAB-C specimen, the needle was washed with 0.5 ml of saline solution to obtain the CT washouts. Receiver operating characteristic (RO C) analysis identified the cut-offs of FNAB-CT and FNAB-CT/sCT. Eighteen MTC were found at final histology. RO C analysis indicated FNAB-CT > 10.4 pg/ml and FNABCT/ sCT > 1.39 as more accurate cut-off values. Overall accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 85%, 100 and 83%, respectively, for FNAB-C, 97%, 100%, 96% for FNAB-CT and 90%, 83% and 93% for FNAB-CT/sCT. The integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT resulted in 98% overall accuracy, 100% PPV and 98% NPV; the integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT/sCT in 90% overall accuracy, 80% PPV and 95% NPV. One of 2 false negative FNAB-CT and one of 3 false negative FNAB CT/sCT were correctly diagnosed by FNAB-C. Eight of 9 non-diagnostic FNAB-C were correctly classified by FNAB-CT and 7 by FNAB CT/sCT. FNAB-CT should integrate but not replace FNAB-C. FNAB-CT is particularly useful in the presence of non-diagnostic FNAB-C. PMID:25762832

  15. Estimation of thyroglobulin in lymph node aspirates: Pilot experience from a tertiary referral cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Chauhan, Subhra; Naveen; Latha, B. S.; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kekatpure, Vikram; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Manjunath, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment of cervical lymph node involvement in patients with thyroid cancer either during preoperative surgical mapping or detection of recurrences during follow-up is a crucial step in the management of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs). In most patients, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirms the presence of metastasis in lymph node. However, in cases of paucicellular lymph node aspirate or discordant sonogram and cytology results, thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the lymph node aspirate (FNA-Tg) is useful and a value >1 ng/ml is considered consistent with metastatic disease. Context: The addition of FNAC to the US improves the specificity, but 5–10% are nondiagnostic and 6–8% rate of false-negative results. Several studies have reported that the detection of Tg in FNA-needle washes improves the evaluation of suspicious lymph nodes in patients with DTC.Data from Indian centers on FNA-Tg are limited. Aims: We piloted the utility of FNA-Tg in patients with sonographically suspicious cervical lymph node enlargement in the setting of suspicious thyroid nodule or in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. Settings and Design: Prospective data collection. Results: We measured Tg in 13 lymph node aspirates (12 patients, 10 females) among whom 4 patients had a total thyroidectomy and 1 had a hemithyroidectomy. Eight of the 13 lymph node aspirates had FNA-Tg values >150 ng/ml, all of them had unequivocal malignant cytology and four among them had proven metastatic DTC on surgical pathology. The median FNA-Tg of the patients with malignant cytology was 7550 ng/ml with a range of 162–30,000 ng/ml. Among the remaining 5 lymph node aspirate, 2 lymph nodes showed cytological features suggestive of reactive lymphadenitis (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml) and were not operated, 1 had a high-grade malignancy consistent with anaplastic thyroid cancer (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml), and 2 had nondiagnostic cytology (one had non-caseating granuloma on surgical pathology [FNA-Tg 1.3 ng/ml] and in the other patient [FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml] surgical intervention was deferred). Conclusions: FNA-Tg was concordant with positive cytology in all patients with DTC and may serve as a useful tool in patients with negative and nondiagnostic cytology to guide surgical management.

  16. Clinical evaluation, imaging studies, indications for cytologic study and preprocedural requirements for duct brushing studies and pancreatic fine-needle aspiration: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Douglas; Schmidt, C. Max; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Barthel, James S.; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Merchant, Nipun B.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Shaaban, Akram M.; Simeone, Diane; Pitman, Martha Bishop; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques for EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature to be used for pancreaticobiliary disease, ancillary testing and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on expertise of the authors, literature review, discussions of the draft document at national and international meetings and synthesis of online comments of the draft document. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. This document summarizes recommendations for the clinical and imaging work-up of pancreatic and biliary tract lesions along with indications for cytologic study of these lesions. Prebrushing and FNA requirements are also discussed. PMID:25191515

  17. Tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast with grooved and cerebriform nuclei: failure to identify this specific subtype in a case during routine fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Haji, Bahia I; Abdeen, Suad M; John, Bency; Sheikh, Mehraj; Al-Bader, Ibtisam; Behbehani, Abdulla I F

    2011-01-01

    Tubulolobular carcinoma (TLC) is a rare tumor of the breast in which histologic features of both tubular and lobular carcinoma are combined. We report a case of TLC, in which the specific subtype was missed at routine cytologic and histopathological examination. A 69-year-old woman presented with a right breast lump. Imaging studies indicated a malignant lesion in right upper quadrant. Routine fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnosis was a duct cell carcinoma (small cell type). In a setting of cystic thyroid lesions, presence of excessive nuclear grooves, and rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma was also considered. However, both these possibilities were not supported by immunocytochemical findings (estrogen receptor+, thyroglobulin-, and chromogranin-). The histopathology diagnosis was invasive duct cell carcinoma. Review of FNA smears and paraffin sections led to the diagnosis of TLC, which was supported by positive immunohistochemical stainings for markers like e-cadherin and β-catein. PMID:21162094

  18. Application of pattern analysis in fine needle aspiration of solitary nodule of thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Lngegowda, Jyothi B; Muddegowda, Prakash H; Rajesh, Kumar N; Ramkumar, Kurpad R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various methods are used to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis of thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Systemic pattern analysis is one such that can be used to analyze the lesions and divide them into individual categories. Aims: To study the application of pattern analysis in the interpretation of solitary thyroid nodule (STN). Materials and Methods: Two hundred and nineteen cases of fine needle aspiration cytology of STN were reviewed along with histopathological correlation. Smears were classified based on primary and secondary patterns. Predominant pattern (primary) was identified and lesion categorized. This was followed by identifying the next dominant pattern (secondary) and recategorization. Cytological diagnosis based on primary and secondary patterns was correlated with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: Based on pattern analysis, the study had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 98.9%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 88.9% and 96% respectively and the overall diagnostic accuracy was 95.4%. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the feasibility and applicability of pattern analysis in diagnosing thyroid lesions by FNAC, which could be easily reproducible. PMID:21042526

  19. Putting an eye on cytological specimens: an audit of the clinical impact of thyroid fine-needle aspiration in different health care settings.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bernardo Dias; Gerhard, Ren; Schmitt, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    There is published evidence showing less cost-benefit approaches in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. We performed an institutional audit of the cytologic diagnosis of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in an attempt to perceive the clinical impact of this technique on the management of thyroid nodules and to compare it in two different types of health care: Primary Care Medicine and Endocrinology. We performed a retrospective analysis to the electronic records of patients referred from General Practitioners (GP) and Endocrinologists (E) for thyroid FNA between 2010 and 2012. Request forms for cytological reports where retrieved for analysis of clinical and cytological data. The database search retrieved 1655 patients (female gender: 88.2%; GP references: 51.8%). Preprocedure clinical information was available from 157 out of 2005 nodules (7.8%). Significant differences in cytological diagnosis were seen in "Nondiagnostic" (GP: 11.6%; E: 7.5%, ?(2) ?=?0.002) and "Benign" categories (GP: 75%; E: 81.8%, ?(2) ?cytological diagnostic results. PMID:24678022

  20. Evaluation of endoscopic cytological diagnosis of unresectable pancreatic cancer prior to and after the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    USHIJIMA, TOMOYUKI; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; SUGIYAMA, GEN; SASAKI, YU; KURAOKA, KEI; YASUMOTO, MAKIKO; TAIRA, TOMOKI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; TSURUTA, OSAMU; SATA, MICHIO

    2014-01-01

    With the advances in the multidisciplinary treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC) over the last few years, it is crucial to obtain a histopathological diagnosis prior to treatment. Histopathological diagnosis for unresectable PC is currently performed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in combination with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We retrospectively assessed the results of these two methods and investigated diagnostic performance according to the location of the lesion and the complications. This study was conducted on a series of 263 consecutive cases of unresectable PC diagnosed with endoscopic cytology. Up to 2006, ERCP-guided cytology (group A) was performed as the first choice for the diagnosis of PC. EUS-FNA was introduced in 2007 and became the first choice thereafter (group B), except in cases with obstructive jaundice, in which ERCP-guided cytology during endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) remains the first choice. There were statistically significant differences in the overall cancer-positive rate between groups A and B (60.4 vs. 75.3%, P=0.01). The cancer-positive rate in the pancreatic body and tail was significantly higher in group B (59.5 vs. 83.3%, P=0.005), whereas there were no significant differences regarding cancer of the pancreatic head. The complication rate was 4.95% in group A and 3.09% in group B (P=0.448). The endoscopic cytology cancer-positive rate in unresectable PC cases was increased as a result of the introduction of EUS-FNA. In conclusion, we recommend performing EUS-FNA in combination with ERCP-guided cytology in cases with a lesion in the pancreatic head that requires EBS. PMID:24940503

  1. The role of fine-needle aspiration in the thyroid nodules of elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Straccia, Patrizia; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2016-03-15

    We assess the role of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) in our series of elderly patients. The growing subset of people aged older than 70 years has shown an increased incidence of thyroid diseases which need to be studied in order to reduce the percentage of surgical treatments in patients with higher likelihood of co-morbidities and associated life risk. We compared Follicular/Indeterminate Neoplasms(FN) and suspicious of malignancy(SM) with pediatric and adult cohorts. We discussed the role of immunocytochemistry-ICC to refine diagnoses. Four hundred and eighty out of 3539FNACs(13.5%) in elderly patients, were surgical followed-up. They included: 35Inadequate, 188benign(BL), 164FN/AUS, 49SM and 44positive for malignancy (PM). All PM and 95.7%BL were histological confirmed. The malignant rate was 24.3% mostly diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinomas. An ICC panel (HBME-1 and Galectin-3) was carried out on liquid based cytology (LBC) and performed on FN/AUS, SM and PM.We found concordant positive ICC in 69.3%malignancies and concordant negative ICC in 97.6%benign follicular adenomas. Among FNs, 42.9%malignant histologic cases had concordant positivity whilst 97.4%benign histology had negative panel.Thyroid FNAC shows high feasibility in elderly patients. ICC helps in reducing the number of useless thyroidectomies and providing a more adequate clinical and/or surgical selection in elderly patients. PMID:26919251

  2. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: High-yield thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology: an update focused on ancillary techniques improving its accuracy.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, M; Trimboli, P; Rossi, E D; Fadda, G; Nobile, A; Giovanella, L

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a fast growing field. One of the most developing areas is represented by molecular tests applied to cytological material. Patients that could benefit the most from these tests are those that have been diagnosed as 'indeterminate' on FNA. They could be better stratified in terms of malignancy risk and thus oriented with more confidence to the appropriate management. Taking in to consideration the need to improve and keep high the yield of thyroid FNA, professionals from various fields (i.e. molecular biologists, endocrinologists, nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists) are refining and fine-tuning their diagnostic instruments. In particular, all these developments aim at increasing the negative predictive value of FNA to improve the selection of patients for diagnostic surgery. These advances involve terminology, the application of next-generation sequencing to thyroid FNA, the use of immunocyto- and histo-chemistry, the development of new sampling techniques and the increasing use of nuclear medicine as well as molecular imaging in the management of patients with a thyroid nodule. Herein, we review the recent advances in thyroid FNA cytology that could be of interest to the 'thyroid-care' community, with particular focus on the indeterminate diagnostic category. PMID:26450171

  3. Reliability of real-time elastography to diagnose thyroid nodules previously read at FNAC as indeterminate: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Treglia, Giorgio; Sadeghi, Ramin; Romanelli, Francesco; Giovanella, Luca

    2015-11-01

    The main limit of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is represented by indeterminate report. Recently, real-time elastography (RTE) has been described in the management of these cases. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies specifically focused on the use of RTE in indeterminate thyroid nodules. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases was conducted by using the combination of the terms "thyroid" and "indeterminate" and "elastography." Pooled sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of RTE as predictor of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNAC were calculated, including 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) was also assessed. Databases found 572 papers, and eight were included in the meta-analysis. Of these, six studies had prospective design and two were retrospective. Pooled malignancy rate was 31%. As common denominator, all studies set the prevalence of hardness within the nodule as risk factor for malignancy of the lesion. Sensitivity of RTE ranged from 11 to 89% (pooled estimate of 69%; 95% CI 55-82%), specificity varied from 6 to 100% (pooled estimate of 75%; 95% CI 42-96%), and accuracy was comprised between 35 and 94% (pooled estimate of 73%; 95% CI 54-89%). The AUC was 0.77. RTE has suboptimal diagnostic accuracy to diagnose thyroid nodules previously classified as indeterminate. Then, RTE alone should not be used for selecting these patients for surgery or not. We advice for further studies using other elastographic approaches and combined RTE and B-mode ultrasonography. PMID:25534701

  4. The Role of Fine Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Parotid Gland Tumors: Correlation With Preoperative Computerized Tomography Tumor Size.

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Yasmine; Naddaf, Raja; Barak, Michal; Abd-Elraziq, Murad; Abu Eln-Naaj, Imad

    2016-03-01

    The role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses is still controversial, regarding its sensitivity and specificity that vary between 41% and 100% and between 86% and 100% respectively.The aim of this study was to identify the specificity and sensitivity of FNAC of parotid gland tumors in relation to the tumor size as characterized preoperatively by computer tomography. The medical files of 79 patients whom were referred to the MaxilloFacila Surgery Department, Rambam medical center, over a 10.5-year period (2000-2010) were analyzed retrospectively.The extensity of the operation was determined by the location of the tumor as presented in computed tomography (CT) radiography, and preoperative FNAC examination.The majority of the masses were located in the superficial lobe (88.52%), and only 11.48% of the patients were located in the deep lobe (8:1 ratio). FNAC results were nondiagnostic in 7 patients (8.86%), 62 patients were diagnosed as inflammatory and benign lesion in (78.48%), malignant tumors were diagnosed in 10 patients (12.65%).The sensitivity in our study was 90%, the specificity was 98%, positive predictive value was 90%, negative predictive value was 98%, and diagnostic accuracy was 88%. The positive predictive value was 90%, the negative predictive value was 98%.Analyzing the effect of the preoperative CT size upon the accuracy of the FNAC diagnosis, we found that lesion with preoperative CT size greater than 24 mm has a more accurate FNAC result (P = 0.034). PMID:26872280

  5. Secondary B-cell lymphoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and flow cytometry following penile carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HUAN; QIU, LIAN-NV; WU, MAO; CHEN, WAN-YUAN; REN, LI-GANG; HE, XIANG-LEI; ZHOU, YONG-LIE

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies reporting lymphoma as a secondary tumor has gradually increased. However, few studies have reported that occurrence of lymphoma as a secondary tumor following treatment for penile carcinoma, particularly cases in which the lymphoma was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and flow cytometry. The present study reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who was troubled with frequent urination and repeated chest tightness for 5 years. The diagnosis upon admission was penile carcinoma. Two months subsequent to the tumor removal surgery, enlarged lymph nodes were extracted from the patient using fine-needle biopsy, to be analyzed using light microscopy and flow cytometry. Smear results indicated a large number of abnormal cells scattered in the right axillary lymph node. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping of fine-needle aspiration samples indicated the increased expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)79a, CD19, CD20, CD38, κ chain and human leukocyte antigen-DR, which supported a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma based on the results of the fine-needle aspiration biopsy and flow cytometry. The method of diagnosis and causes of therapy-related leukemia are discussed in the present report. PMID:27073496

  6. Discrepancy of target sites between clinician and cytopathological reports in head neck fine needle aspiration: Did I miss the target or did the clinician mistake the organ site?

    PubMed

    Khanlari, Mahsa; Daneshbod, Yahya; Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Hanieh; Shirian, Sadegh; Negahban, Shahrzad; Aledavood, Azita; Oryan, Ahmad; Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Field, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of head and neck lesions is relatively high, but cytologic interpretation might be confusing if the sample is lacking typical cytologic features according to labeled site by physician. These errors may have an impact on pathology search engines, healthcare costs or even adverse outcomes. The cytology archive database of multiple institutions in southern Iran and Australia covering the period 2001-2011, were searched using keywords: salivary gland, head, neck, FNAC, and cytology. All the extracted reports were reviewed. The reports which showed discordance between the clinician's impression of the organ involved and subsequent fine needle biopsy request, and the eventual cytological diagnosis were selected. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology or cell block, with assistance from imaging, clinical outcome, physical examination, molecular studies, or microbiological culture. The total number of 10,200 head and neck superficial FNAC were included in the study, from which 48 cases showed discordance between the clinicians request and the actual site of pathology. Apart from the histopathology, the imaging, clinical history, physical examination, immunohistochemical study, microbiologic culture and molecular testing helped to finalize the target organ of pathology in 23, 6, 7, 8, 2, and 1 cases respectively. The commonest discrepancies were for FNAC of "salivary gland" [total: 20 with actual final pathology in: bone (7), soft tissue (5), lymph node (3), odontogenic (3) and skin (2)], "lymph node" [total: 12 with final pathology in: soft tissue (3), skin (3), bone (1) and brain (1)], "soft tissue" [total: 11 with final pathology in: bone (5), skin (2), salivary gland (1), and ocular region (1)] and "skin" [total: 5 with final pathology in: lymph node (2), bone (1), soft tissue (1) and salivary gland (1)]. The primary physician requesting FNAC of head and neck lesions are incorrect in their clinical impression of the actual site in nearly 0.5 percent of cases, due to the overlapping clinical and imaging findings or possibly due to inadequate history taking or physical examination. PMID:26108921

  7. Discrepancy of target sites between clinician and cytopathological reports in head neck fine needle aspiration: Did I miss the target or did the clinician mistake the organ site?

    PubMed Central

    Khanlari, Mahsa; Daneshbod, Yahya; Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Hanieh; Shirian, Sadegh; Negahban, Shahrzad; Aledavood, Azita; Oryan, Ahmad; Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Field, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of head and neck lesions is relatively high, but cytologic interpretation might be confusing if the sample is lacking typical cytologic features according to labeled site by physician. These errors may have an impact on pathology search engines, healthcare costs or even adverse outcomes. The cytology archive database of multiple institutions in southern Iran and Australia covering the period 20012011, were searched using keywords: salivary gland, head, neck, FNAC, and cytology. All the extracted reports were reviewed. The reports which showed discordance between the clinician's impression of the organ involved and subsequent fine needle biopsy request, and the eventual cytological diagnosis were selected. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology or cell block, with assistance from imaging, clinical outcome, physical examination, molecular studies, or microbiological culture. The total number of 10,200 head and neck superficial FNAC were included in the study, from which 48 cases showed discordance between the clinicians request and the actual site of pathology. Apart from the histopathology, the imaging, clinical history, physical examination, immunohistochemical study, microbiologic culture and molecular testing helped to finalize the target organ of pathology in 23, 6, 7, 8, 2, and 1 cases respectively. The commonest discrepancies were for FNAC of salivary gland [total: 20 with actual final pathology in: bone (7), soft tissue (5), lymph node (3), odontogenic (3) and skin (2)], lymph node [total: 12 with final pathology in: soft tissue (3), skin (3), bone (1) and brain (1)], soft tissue [total: 11 with final pathology in: bone (5), skin (2), salivary gland (1), and ocular region (1)] and skin [total: 5 with final pathology in: lymph node (2), bone (1), soft tissue (1) and salivary gland (1)]. The primary physician requesting FNAC of head and neck lesions are incorrect in their clinical impression of the actual site in nearly 0.5 percent of cases, due to the overlapping clinical and imaging findings or possibly due to inadequate history taking or physical examination. PMID:26108921

  8. Clear cell sarcoma of the soft parts arising in the rectus abdominis in a child – aspiration cytology of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Paari; Basu, Debdatta; Kumar, Surendra; Jagadish, Sadasivan

    2007-01-01

    Background Clear cell sarcoma of soft parts is most commonly found associated with the tendons and aponeuroses of distal extremities in young adults with a peak incidence in the third decade. Location in the abdominal wall and in a child is very rare. Case presentation A nine-year-old female child presented with a swelling in the anterior abdominal wall in the suprapubic region. Fine needle aspiration revealed predominantly discrete cells with loose clustering at places. The cytoplasm was abundant, finely granular, and eosinophilic with some cells exhibiting clear vacuolated zones. No pigment was seen. The nuclei were rounded and eccentrically placed with a striking single eosinophilic macro nucleolus present in all the cells. Taking into consideration, the history, age of the patient, location of the tumor and absence of melanin pigment, a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma was made, the differential including Clear cell sarcoma. This was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry Conclusion The atypical presentation of the case made the cytological diagnosis rather challenging. Clear cell sarcoma should be considered when cytology of a soft-tissue tumor shows uncharacteristically high cellularity and relatively uniform cells with macronucleoli. PMID:17631685

  9. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology. PMID:24987443

  10. Utility of FNAC in Conjunction with Cell Block for Diagnosing Space-Occupying Lesion (SOL) of Liver with Emphasis on Differentiating Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Metastatic SOL: Analysis of 61 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sheefa, Haq; Lata, Jadhav; Basharat, Mubeen; Rumana, Makhdoomi; Veena, Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the cytological patterns of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) obtained from space-occupying lesions (SOLs) of the liver with an aim to differentiate primary hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic deposits and to evaluate the added advantage and efficacy of studying cell blocks in conjunction with smears for enhancing diagnostic accuracy.   Methods This prospective study took place over two years (September 2007 to 2009) and included 61 patients with cases of liver SOLs that were clinically or radiologically suspicious for malignancy and who were referred for computed tomography or ultrasonography-guided FNAC. Smears were prepared from the aspirated material, and any remainder was used to make the cell block (n = 55). A final diagnosis was made after evaluating the smears and cell block sections.   Results On cytomorphology, a diagnosis of moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic carcinoma was made in 10 (18.2%) and 25 (45.5%) cases, respectively, and were confirmed using cell block sections. In cases where it was difficult to differentiate between well-differentiated HCC and regenerative nodules, and between poorly differentiated HCC and poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma, a final diagnosis was made with the help of cell blocks sections. Cell blocks assisted in reaching a final diagnosis in 16 (29.1%) cases. Cases that were diagnosed using cytomorphology were confirmed by the cell block method. In these 39 (70.9%) cases we were able to render a diagnosis with much more confidence.   Conclusion In our experience, difficulties in diagnosing SOL liver are attributed to differentiation of the tumor. Cell block preparation gives an additional advantage as architectural details can be studied that help to reach an accurate diagnosis in problematic and challenging cases. Thus, we strongly recommend the use of the cell block technique in conjunction with cytosmears for the purpose of diagnosis. PMID:27168925

  11. Cytological findings of odontogenic myxofibroma: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Khare, Akriti; Joshi, Deepti; Majumdar, Kaushik; Gupta, Vikas; Goel, Garima; Kapoor, Neelkamal

    2016-04-01

    Odontogenic myxofibroma represents a rare slow-growing benign neoplasm, which usually occurs in the second and third decades of life and rarely in children or adults over 50 years of age. Myxomas in general represent from 2.3% to 17.7% of all odontogenic tumors, and myxofibromas represent a small number of all myxomas. Limited evidence is present in literature regarding the cytological diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma/myxofibroma. We hereby report the cytomorphological features of a histologically confirmed case of odontogenic myxofibroma and the pitfalls of the cytological diagnosis. A painless jaw swelling in a young boy was aspirated. Scanty mucoid material was obtained. Cytology Smears were moderately cellular and showed a population comprising predominantly of singly scattered plump to fusiform cells with bipolar cytoplasmic processes showing mild to moderate atypia embedded within dense myxoid matrix and another population of cells arranged in clusters. Case was interpreted as low grade mesenchymal tumor. Subsequent biopsy confirmed it as odontogenic myxofibroma arising in a odontogenic keratocyst. Precise interpretation of intraosseous jaw lesions FNAC may not always be possible, but an attempt should be made to broadly classify the lesion as an inflammatory lesion, cystic lesion, giant cell lesion, fibro-osseous lesion or as an odontogenic tumor. If dual population of odontogenic epithelium and mesenchymal cells embedded in myxoid matrix are identified in such aspirates, a possibility of myxoid odontogenic tumor may be suggested. Triple correlation of cytological, clinical and radiological findings can guide the surgeon for taking appropriate therapeutic decisions. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:329-333. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26801006

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes in nonneoplastic breast lesions. Possible pitfalls in cytodiagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterse, J.L.; Thunnissen, F.B.; van Heerde, P.

    1989-03-01

    The range of radiation-induced changes in fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears of the breast is described. In 41 of more than 800 patients who underwent breast-conserving treatment, a palpable breast lesion developed, and FNA was performed. In six cases, a recurrent carcinoma was present. In the remaining cases, three patterns of nonneoplastic lesions could be discerned: epithelial atypia (14 cases), fat necrosis (10 cases) and poorly cellular smears without epithelial atypia or fat necrosis (13 cases). It is important to be familiar with the patterns of radiation-induced epithelial atypia, since such atypia may lead to a misdiagnosis of recurrent carcinoma. These atypical cells may show impressive anisocytosis and anisonucleosis; however, the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio remains normal and an admixture of bipolar cells is present. Cell dissociation and necrotic cell debris, as often seen in breast cancer smears, were never encountered in FNA smears from radiated nonneoplastic breasts.

  13. Tumour seeding after fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy of the head and neck - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Keval S V; Ethunandan, Madan

    2016-04-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy are essential diagnostic investigations of lumps in the head and neck, seeding along the needle track has long been a concern, and various factors have been implicated. We therefore searched the Medline database for relevant English language papers published between 1970 and 2014, excluding those on the thyroid and parathyroid, and systematically reviewed them to assess the risk. In the 610 articles reviewed we found only 7 reports of seeding (5 after FNAC and 2 after core needle biopsy). Tumours were found between 3 months and 3 years after the procedure in 4 cases, and in 3, tumour cells were found along the needle track between 0 and 33 days after the procedure. The needles varied in size from 18 - 22 gauge (G) and there were 3 to 4 passes. Four cases occurred after investigation of a mass in the salivary glands, and 3 after assessment of a cervical lymph node. Disease was benign in one and malignant in 6. Seeding along the needle track after FNAC or core needle biopsy of a lump in the head and neck is rarely reported, and an accurate estimate of its incidence is difficult to ascertain. Crude estimates suggest 0.00012% and 0.0011% after FNA and core needle biopsy, respectively. A distinction should be made between seeding that is seen shortly after the procedure and the development of tumour along the needle track. PMID:26837638

  14. Imprint cytology of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2002-06-01

    To reveal the characteristic features of the imprint cytology of ameloblastomas, we compared these features with the histopathological features of the same specimens. Twenty-five cases, histopathologically diagnosed as ameloblastoma, were used. Three cell types were recognized: small squamous epithelial cells which were polyhedral or spindle-shaped with some projections; naked cells with poorly defined cytoplasm showing tubular and palisade patterns in some areas; and large squamous epithelial cells with extensive wrinkled cytoplasm. Naked cells and small squamous epithelial cells were thought to correspond to the histopathological classifications of cuboidal to columnar cells, and polyhedral or spindle cells respectively. Large squamous epithelial cells were thought to be acanthomatous cells showing squamous metaplasia. Imprint cytology had characteristic advantages compared to fine needle aspiration cytology, and clearly reflected the histopathology of the lesions. Knowledge of the characteristic features of the cells observed in imprint cytology is important when undertaking cytodiagnosis using fine needle aspiration. PMID:12227502

  15. Cytology of mixed germ cell tumor with mediastinal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dagli, Adile Ferda; Pehlivan, Sultan; Cihangiroglu, Gulcin; Ozercan, Mehmet Resat

    2009-01-01

    Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis are common and are very aggressive malignant tumors. Most of the cases have metastases at the time of diagnosis, and involvement of the posterior mediastinum in particular is well known. A 33 year-old male patient presented with complaints of a swelling on the right side of the neck that had been growing for the last month, as well as shortness of breath and cough. His thoracic computed tomography (CT) showed a 1.5 cm lymph node on the anterior mediastinum and a mass of about 11 × 10 × 8 cm extending from the right lung apex to the right hilus, with regular contours and without contrast enhancement. The patient, who was given the preliminary diagnosis of a mixture metastatic bronchial tumor plus lymphoma, was subjected to transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). His abdominal CT revealed a hypodense, heterogeneous and cystic necrotic mass of about 10 × 7 × 5 cm that was para-aortic at the infrarenal level (initially predicted as a lymphoma). The patient, who could not be typed in his cytopathological examination, was diagnosed with malignant epithelial tumor and was recommended to undergo a genitourinary system examination. Upon finding a high alpha fetoprotein (AFP) value, a scrotal ultra sonography was performed which showed a mass filling the right testis. Histopathological examination of the orchiectomy material resulted in the diagnosis of mixed germ cell tumor (60% mature teratoma and 40% yolk sac tumor). Even though metastatic lesions are mostly seen in the posterior mediastinum, our findings reveal that specimens obtained with FNAC from the anterior mediastinum bear discohesive, pleomorphic, small nuclei in epithelial cells with microvacoules in the cytoplasm. These cytopathological alterations in specimens from the anterior mediastinum might promote germ cell and yolk sac tumors. PMID:21938171

  16. Primary small cell carcinoma of the parotid: Fine needle aspiration and immunohistochemical features of a neuroendocrine variant

    PubMed Central

    Altinay, Serdar; Firat, Pinar; Yalçin, Şenay; Taşkin, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland small cell carcinoma (SGSmCC) is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of salivary gland tumors. A 42-year-old female patient came to the outpatient clinic due to a mass localized in the left submandibular space and that had been growing since 3-4 months. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) matched with small cell carcinoma (SmCC). As no other focus was detected by computerized tomography (CT), it was accepted as a primary neoplasm of the parotid gland. The histopathological assessment of the excised material and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a neuroendocrine differentiation of SmCC. No recurrence was observed during the 54-month follow-up period. We believe this to be the second case of SmCC with neuroendocrine differantiation of the parotid glands reported in Turkısh medical literature and will be added to the english database as one of the favorable SmCC cases. PMID:27011440

  17. Fusion of FNA-cytology and gene-expression data using Dempster-Shafer Theory of evidence to predict breast cancer tumors.

    PubMed

    Raza, Mansoor; Gondal, Iqbal; Green, David; Coppel, Ross L

    2006-01-01

    Decision-in decision-out fusion architecture can be used to fuse the outputs of multiple classifiers from different diagnostic sources. In this paper, Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) has been used to fuse classification results of breast cancer data from two different sources: gene-expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and Fine-Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAc) data. Classification of individual sources is done by Support Vector Machine (SVM) with linear, polynomial and Radial Base Function (RBF) kernels. Out put belief of classifiers of both data sources are combined to arrive at one final decision. Dynamic uncertainty assessment is based on class differentiation of the breast cancer. Experimental results have shown that the new proposed breast cancer data fusion methodology have outperformed single classification models. PMID:17597882

  18. Osteoclast-Like Giant Cell Tumor of the Parotid Gland: Report of a Case Diagnosed on Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology With Histological and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    PubMed

    Elhence, Poonam; Rao, Meenakshi; Goyal, Amit; Kumar, Amit; Khera, Pushpinder S; Bhattacharya, Shilajit

    2016-06-01

    Extraosseous giant cell tumors have been described in organs like larynx, thyroid, pancreas, heart, skin, lung, colon, kidney, and soft tissues (Wu et al., Oncol Lett 2013;6:829-832). Osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the parotid gland has been reported only rarely with the first description of primary giant cell tumour of the parotid gland (GCTPs) given in 1984 by Eusebi et al. (Am J Clin Pathol. 1984;81:666-675). However, FNAC of osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the parotid gland has not been well described, and only one case has been reported till date (Torabinezad et al., Acta Cytol. 2006;50:80-83). Two presentations have been observed in the form of either an isolated giant cell tumor (Eusebi et al., Am J Clin Pathol. 1984;81:666-675) or tumor associated with a carcinomatous component (Yang et al., Korean J Pathol 2012;46:297-301; Pasricha et al., J Can Res Ther 2013;9:314-316). GCTPs are uncommon benign soft tissue tumors with a malignant potential. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:548-551. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27079183

  19. Efficacy and Pitfalls of FNAC of Thyroid Lesions in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; A.L., Hemalatha; B., Rakhi; S., Githanjali

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fine-needle aspiration has proven safe and efficacious in the evaluation of nodular diseases in the adults. It has been used extensively to select patients for surgical exploration with a high degree of reliability. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of its applicability in thyroid lesions in children and adolescents, as well as to determine distribution of thyroid lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients in whom the prevalence of thyroid nodules and probability of malignancy are different. Methodology: This is a four-year study undertaken between January 2009 and December 2012, during which, 284 fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed for palpable thyroid lesions in children and adolescents and analysed. Out of these 11, 52, 82 and 116 aspirates belonged to the age group between 7-<12 years, 12 -<16 years, 16 -<19 years, 19-21 years respectively. There were 261 (91.9%) satisfactory aspirates and 23 unsatisfactory aspirates (8.1%). These 261 satisfactory aspirates with adequate cellular material were taken up for interpretation and analysed. Thirty one patients underwent thyroidectomy. There were 4 true positives, 24 true negatives, 2 false positives and one false negative case in this study. Sensitivity, Specificity, Accuracy, Positive predictive value and Negative predictive value were calculated. Results: Benign cytology was reported in 89 cases (34.2%) where 11 cases (4.2%) were males. Thyroiditis was observed in 154 cases (59%) and 8 cases (3.1%) were males. Suspicious cytology was reported in 12 cases and comprised of 2 cases with a suspicion of Papillary Carcinoma and 10 cases (3.8%), with a suspicion of a Follicular lesion. Papillary Carcinoma was detected on 6 cases where all were females. The Sensitivity was 96%, Specificity was 66% and the Accuracy was 90%, Positive predictive value was 66%, Negative predictive value was 96%. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of palpable thyroid lesions in children and adolescents is a good screening test because of its high sensitivity. Majority of the nodules in this age-group are benign and fine-needle aspiration cytology helps prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:24596718

  20. Cytological evaluation of tracheal aspirate and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid in comparison to endoscopic assessment of lower airways in horses with recurrent airways obstruction or inflammatory airway disease.

    PubMed

    Wysocka, B; Kluciński, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the grade of discharge accumulation in the tracheal lumen, area of tracheal bifurcation, main bronchi and the tracheal septum thickness with the cytology of the tracheal aspirate (TA) and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in horses with recurrent airways obstruction and inflammatory airway disease from those horses. This study was conducted on 96 horses with RAO, 139 horses with IAD and 10 control horses. In all the horses, both clinical and endoscopic examinations were performed. During endoscopy, a score of mucus accumulation was estimated in 3/4 lower of the trachea and in the tracheal bifurcation. In addition, thickening of the tracheal septum was also assessed; tracheal aspirates and broncho-alveolar lavage were performed. An estimate of cell percentage was done in TA and BALF samples. In horses suffering from RAO and IAD, there was a positive correlation between the percentage of neutrophils and the accumulation of discharge, and in the IAD group, there was a negative correlation between the percentage of eosinophils and the accumulation of discharge. There was no correlation between tracheal septum thickening and the percentage of neutrophils and/or eosinophils. PMID:26618592

  1. Incidental Detection Microfilaria in Subcutaneous Breast Nodule of Lactating Female Fnac: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prashant; Yadav, Soma; Pahawa, H.S

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis is a major public health problem which is faced in tropical countries like India. Its diagnosis is made by using peripheral blood smears. However, microfilaria has been detected incidentally during FNACs of various lesions, which were done in clinically unsuspected cases. We are reporting here, an uncommon case of filariasis, which caused a nodular, subcutaneous swelling in left breast of a 30 year old lactating female. A nodular subcutaneous swelling can be caused in breast of a lactating female by lactational associated mastitis, but filaria causing a nodular swelling in a lactating breast is a rare presentation. Aspiration of the swelling demonstrated enormous pathogen presence caused by Woucheria bancrofti and the patient responded well to six weeks of daily anti-filarial treatment with diethylcarbamazine citrate. PMID:25120989

  2. To Establish Bethesda System for Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules on the Basis of Fnac with Histopathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nandini J.; Mehta, Dimple; Vaishnav, Mitsu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In October 2007, “The National Cancer Institute (NCI), Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference” was held in Bethesda, Maryland hosted by the NCI with the intention of formulating internationally acceptable guidelines for reporting of thyroid cytopathology. This was because, thyroid FNAC have a reporting confusion due to multiplicity of category terminologies. To overcome this, The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was introduced for unifying the terminology and morphologic criteria along with the corresponding risk of malignancy. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology represents a major step towards standardization, reproducibility, improved clinical significance, and greater predictive value of thyroid fine needle aspirates (FNAs). Aim The aim of this study was to elucidate the diagnostic utility of the Bethesda system in reporting thyroid FNAs and to assess the effectiveness of FNAC in the evaluation of thyroid nodules by comparing the results with histopathological evaluation. Materials and Methods The present study was carried out in our institute during the July 2012 to September 2014. In this study, 100 FNACs done which were classified according to the Bethesda system and out of them, 60 histopathological evaluations obtained from this group were evaluated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. Results Out of 100 FNACs, 06% were Non-diagnostic, 78% were Benign, 04% were Atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 04% were suspicious for Follicular neoplasm (SFN), 01% were suspicious for Follicular neoplasm Hurthle cell type, 03% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 04% malignant. In 60 cases, data of follow-up histopathologic examination (HPE) were available. The sensitivity was 88.89% and specificity was 84.31%. The positive and negative predictive value were 50% and 97.7%, respectively. Conclusion The Bethesda system is very useful for a standardized system of reporting thyroid cytopathology, improving communication between cytopathologists and clinicians, and inter-laboratory agreement, leading to more consistent management approaches. An additional point which is in favor of the implementation of this system is that the classification is directly related to the risk of malignancy in each category, which in turn, prompts the recommended clinical management of that category, thus truly embodying the clinico-pathological correlation in its true spirit. The correlation of FNAC with histopathology is necessary before starting treatment. PMID:26816898

  3. Pre-analytic steps for molecular testing on thyroid fine-needle aspirations: The goal of good results.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Schmitt, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) represents a valid alternative to biopsy in a variety of clinical settings mainly based on its simplicity and less invasive clinical approach. In some cases, morphology evaluation alone is not sufficient to manage the patients, so that the application of ancillary techniques can contribute to diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of tumor behavior. These techniques include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in situ PCR, direct Sequencing, microarrays and proteomic methodologies. Although several recent experiences underline the superior value of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) quality mainly for advanced genomic high throughput platforms, very scant literature studied the role of the pre-analytical or analytical phases. Despite the high specificity of molecular techniques as a support for diagnosis, there is a need for an increased standardization of pre-analytical/analytical steps such as providing appropriate clinical history, proper collection of laboratory specimens and proper preparation of samples, adequate fixative/reagent concentrations and technical equipments. All these requirements are crucial according to the results from 42 American laboratories, which reported 0.33% of significant molecular errors with 60% of them in the pre-analytical phase. The most common error is to forget that cytological preparation requires specific molecular variables, which are different from histological specimens. Cytological samples offer the advantage of a well preserved DNA, readily extractable and reasonably stable (from 6 months to 5 years) avoiding pitfalls due to formalin-fixation. Freshly prepared, unstained direct, alcohol-fixed papanicolaou, air-dried diff-quick smears are all suitable for DNA extraction and preservation. In the specific field of thyroid FNAC, molecular analysis has been supported by the growing evidence that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer, frequently is a diploid lesion and can display non-overlapping mutations of the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) in 46% to 70%, cases, ret proto-oncogene (RET) in 3 to 85% and Rat Sarcoma oncogene (RAS) in 0-21% cases. Recently, several cytological papers demonstrated that the combination of morphology and molecular analysis can increase the diagnostic accuracy allowing more precise prediction of malignancy regardless of the diagnostic categories. In conclusion, the correct use of the pre-analytical-analytical steps might lead to optimal results on cytology and empower the prognostic value of molecular techniques as strong indicators of cancer for their high specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:24403951

  4. Pre-analytic steps for molecular testing on thyroid fine-needle aspirations: The goal of good results

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Schmitt, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) represents a valid alternative to biopsy in a variety of clinical settings mainly based on its simplicity and less invasive clinical approach. In some cases, morphology evaluation alone is not sufficient to manage the patients, so that the application of ancillary techniques can contribute to diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of tumor behavior. These techniques include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in situ PCR, direct Sequencing, microarrays and proteomic methodologies. Although several recent experiences underline the superior value of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) quality mainly for advanced genomic high throughput platforms, very scant literature studied the role of the pre-analytical or analytical phases. Despite the high specificity of molecular techniques as a support for diagnosis, there is a need for an increased standardization of pre-analytical/analytical steps such as providing appropriate clinical history, proper collection of laboratory specimens and proper preparation of samples, adequate fixative/reagent concentrations and technical equipments. All these requirements are crucial according to the results from 42 American laboratories, which reported 0.33% of significant molecular errors with 60% of them in the pre-analytical phase. The most common error is to forget that cytological preparation requires specific molecular variables, which are different from histological specimens. Cytological samples offer the advantage of a well preserved DNA, readily extractable and reasonably stable (from 6 months to 5 years) avoiding pitfalls due to formalin-fixation. Freshly prepared, unstained direct, alcohol-fixed papanicolaou, air-dried diff-quick smears are all suitable for DNA extraction and preservation. In the specific field of thyroid FNAC, molecular analysis has been supported by the growing evidence that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer, frequently is a diploid lesion and can display non-overlapping mutations of the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) in 46% to 70%, cases, ret proto-oncogene (RET) in 3 to 85% and Rat Sarcoma oncogene (RAS) in 0-21% cases. Recently, several cytological papers demonstrated that the combination of morphology and molecular analysis can increase the diagnostic accuracy allowing more precise prediction of malignancy regardless of the diagnostic categories. In conclusion, the correct use of the pre-analytical-analytical steps might lead to optimal results on cytology and empower the prognostic value of molecular techniques as strong indicators of cancer for their high specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:24403951

  5. Diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma of bone by fine-needle aspiration with concurrent institution of therapy: a cytologic, histologic, clinical, and radiologic study of 27 cases.

    PubMed

    Shabb, N; Fanning, C V; Carrasco, C H; Guo, S Q; Katz, R L; Ayala, A G; Raymond, A K; Cangir, A

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of bone seen at our institution between 1979 and 1991 underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with or without concurrent Tru-Cut biopsy. The 16 males and 11 females ranged in age from 2 1/2 to 61 years (median, 10 yr). Twenty-four patients had monostotic lesions. The clinicoradiologic differential diagnosis included osteomyelitis and Ewing's sarcoma (young patients) and primary and metastatic malignancies (older patients). Twenty-four of 28 FNAs (one patient had two FNAs) were diagnostic of EG, and 10 cases were diagnosed by FNA alone. Smears in these cases showed histiocytes, often with grooved or infolded nuclei, and abundant eosinophils. Multinucleated giant cells, foamy histiocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were present in variable numbers. Four FNAs were misdiagnosed: two as osteomyelitis where smears contained abundant neutrophils, sparse eosinophils, and histiocytes misinterpreted as foamy histiocytes, and two as metastatic carcinoma (in adults) where histiocytes in a scant specimen (one case) and skin appendiceal structures without lesional tissue (one case) were misinterpreted. These cases were correctly diagnosed on repeat FNA (one case), Tru-Cut (two cases), or excisional biopsy (one case); however, three cases diagnosed by FNA had nondiagnostic concurrent Tru-Cut biopsies. Treatment consisted of intralesional injection of 125 mg of methylprednisolone (22 cases). Progressive or complete healing of all lesions occurred. FNA is a rapid and useful technique for the immediate diagnosis of EG that allows concurrent institution of therapy. PMID:8458278

  6. A cytological study of mammary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented of 887 cytological biopsies performed on 610 patients with mammary disease, including 510 fine needle aspirations. Technical details of fine needle biopsy, imprints, and scrape-smears are provided, together with both histological and cytological descriptions. The case material has been classified into 6 series, the most important being a clinicocytological study in which fine needle biopsy achieved a 96.2% accuracy rate in respect of breast cancer. The status of cytology in the clinical management of mammary disease is evaluated. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:803095

  7. Cytologic diagnosis of diseases of invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Van Wettere, Arnaud; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    Invertebrate medicine in the context of an exotic or zoo animal veterinary practice is in its infancy. Establishment of species-specific reference values and evaluation of the effectiveness of cytology for diagnosis of specific diseases are necessary. Despite the lack of normal reference parameters for most species encountered in clinical practice, important information may be obtained from cytologic examination of tissue imprints, aspirates, scrapings, and hemolymph. This information may be essential to establish a specific diagnosis, focus investigations, and influence treatments. It is hoped that this article stimulates veterinarians who work with invertebrates to use diagnostic cytology and disseminate the results of their experience. PMID:17198966

  8. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  9. The utility of periodic acid schiff with diastase and alcian blue stains on fine needle aspirates of breast and salivary gland neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, NK; Jariwala, PH; Buch, AC; Joshi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is extensively used in the diagnosis of various clinically palpable lesions of breast and salivary glands. Much interest has been gained in mucosubstances produced in tumors arising from these organs. Aims: To evaluate the utility of Periodic acid Schiff with diastase (PAS-D) and Alcian blue (AB) staining pattern on fine needle aspirates of breast and salivary gland neoplasms. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five cases of different neoplasm of breast and salivary gland were studied. The staining pattern of PAS-D and AB stains on smears of these neoplasm were observed. Results: Among cases of neoplasms of breast, intracytoplasmic PAS-D positive globules were restricted to carcinoma except in one case where PAS-D-positive globules were seen in fibroadenoma. The background substance of both mucinous carcinoma and fibroadenoma with myxoid change stained positive with PAS-D, but the pattern was different. The cases of pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland showed intracytoplasmic PAS-D-positive globules. The cases of pleomorphic adenoma showed stromal positivity which was not seen in basal cell adenoma on smears. Conclusion: Intracytoplasmic PAS-D-positive globules may be useful in differentiating benign and malignant lesions of breast. The presence of PAS-D positive granules are useful in differentiating various lesions of salivary glands. AB staining of stromal fragments in pleomorphic adenoma is useful in differentiating it from basal cell adenoma. PMID:23326023

  10. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Divakar Sullery; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Kakoti, Lopa Mudra

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence. PMID:25948945

  11. Cytology of canine and feline cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Amy L

    2011-05-01

    Fine-needle aspirates and impression smears of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and lymph nodes are the most commonly submitted cytology samples from veterinary patients. Diagnostic cytology samples of these lesions are easily collected in patients without anesthesia or analgesia. Cytology can yield immediate results and may prevent the need for additional tests that use more invasive methods of sample collection. This article offers a brief review of how to collect and submit cytology samples and describes cytologic lesions that often are diagnosed in dogs and cats. When applicable, differences between disease progression in dogs and cats are described. PMID:21596346

  12. Immigrant Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines occupational, income, and educational aspirations among recent Mexican and Cuban immigrants to the United States. Aspirations appear to be set through a rational assessment of past attainments and skills. Reviews implications for immigrants'"dreams of fantasy" when they first arrive in the United States. (Author/AV)

  13. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum mimicking skin adnexal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Nagappa, Divya Kota

    2010-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection presenting as multiple, umbilicated papules and vesicles. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum in an 11-year-old boy, which presented atypically as a solitary nodule over the right cheek, mimicking a skin adnexal tumor is reported here. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays a vital role in establishing the correct diagnosis of clinically unsuspected cases, and hence, the proper management of such lesions. The cytology of molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the presence of numerous large intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies that push the host nucleus to the periphery, giving a signet ring appearance to the superficial epidermal cells. PMID:21157556

  14. Effectiveness of histology and cytology on musculoskeletal tumor diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Ferreira, George Rocha; Lima, Túlio Paes de Medeiros; Lima, Jairo de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare cytology and histology on the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. METHOD: Fifty eight cases available to evaluation were analyzed both by cytology and histology. The results of the biopsies studied by histology and cytology were compared to the results obtained on the surgical specimen or immunohistochemistry. We determined the percentage of correct results, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of each method. RESULTS: Twelve per cent of biopsies were inconclusive by cytology. The percentage of correct diagnosis was 70.7% and 81% (p=.179), the ability to differentiate benign lesions from malignant ones was 84.5% and 93.1% (p=0.18) respectively, for cytology and histology. Cytology showed sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 76.5%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 72% and accuracy 84.5%. Histology showed sensitivity of 90.2%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 81% and accuracy of 93.1%. The Youden index for cytology was 64.3% and for histology it was 90.2%. CONCLUSION: Despite promising, cytology obtained by thin needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than the histological evaluation on musculoskeletal tumors diagnosis. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Studies. PMID:25061418

  15. Cytological diagnosis of chondroblastoma: diagnostic challenge for the cytopathologist.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kafil; Qadri, Shagufta; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Sherwani, Rana K

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon osseous neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumours. It characteristically arises in the epiphysis or epimetaphyseal region of long bones and has been reported to affect people of all ages with slight male predilection. WHO has defined chondroblastoma as 'a benign, cartilage-producing neoplasm usually arising in the epiphyses of skeletally immature patients'. The authors document the cytological features on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a chondroblastoma which appeared as a lytic lesion in the upper end of the right fibula, an uncommon site, in an 18-year-old male patient. X-ray feature combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology favoured the diagnosis of chondroblastoma, which was further confirmed by histopathological examination. PMID:24876212

  16. [Cytology in the internet].

    PubMed

    Glatz, K; Bubendorf, L; Glatz, D

    2007-09-01

    Computer-based learning (E-learning) is of increasing importance for the education of students and professionals. Various publicly accessible online courses for cytologists now exist and some of these are presented in this paper. For the learning platform Patho-Basiliensis (http://www.unibas.ch/patho/) we have developed several learning materials: a database of 726 cytology images, a cytopathology course to teach the basics of cytopathology, and a game testing histologic-cytologic correlation. Tests on lung and urinary cytology were attended by 383 international participants. The virtual microscopy technology will revolutionize telecytology and cytology education. PMID:17632721

  17. Diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis by fine needle aspiration. A case report.

    PubMed

    Lininger, J R; Frable, W J

    1984-01-01

    A case of pelvic abscess caused by Actinomyces in a patient wearing an intrauterine contraceptive device is presented. The diagnosis was established preoperatively by transvaginal fine needle aspiration. The cytologic, surgical and histologic findings are discussed. PMID:6207695

  18. Ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the thyroid nodule: does the procedure hold any benefit for the diagnosis when fine-needle aspiration cytology analysis shows inconclusive results?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, S Y; Han, B-K; Ko, E Y; Ko, E S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the diagnostic role of ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) according to ultrasonography features of thyroid nodules that had inconclusive ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results. Methods: A total of 88 thyroid nodules in 88 patients who underwent ultrasonography-guided CNB because of previous inconclusive FNA results were evaluated. The patients were classified into three groups based on ultrasonography findings: Group A, which was suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); Group B, which was suspicious for follicular (Hurthle cell) neoplasm; and Group C, which was suspicious for lymphoma. The final diagnoses of the thyroid nodules were determined by surgical confirmation or follow-up after ultrasonography-guided CNB. Results: Of the 88 nodules, the malignant rate was 49.1% in Group A, 12.0% in Group B and 90.0% in Group C. The rates of conclusive ultrasonography-guided CNB results after previous incomplete ultrasonography-guided FNA results were 96.2% in Group A, 64.0% in Group B and 90.0% in Group C (p=0.001). 12 cases with inconclusive ultrasonography-guided CNB results were finally diagnosed as 8 benign lesions, 3 PTCs and 1 lymphoma. The number of previous ultrasonography-guided FNA biopsies was not significantly different between the conclusive and the inconclusive result groups of ultrasonography-guided CNB (p=0.205). Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided CNB has benefit for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with inconclusive ultrasonography-guided FNA results. However, it is still not helpful for the differential diagnosis in 36% of nodules that are suspicious for follicular neoplasm seen on ultrasonography. Advances in knowledge: This study shows the diagnostic contribution of ultrasonography-guided CNB as an alternative to repeat ultrasonography-guided FNA or surgery. PMID:23564885

  19. Metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: cytologic features of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Grenko, R T; Shabb, N S

    1991-01-01

    The cytologic features of 18 fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 17 patients were examined. The 12 males and 5 females had a median age of 45 years (range 17-75 years). Six were white, five Oriental, four Hispanic, and two black. All patients had mid- or upper-cervical lymphadenopathy (14 bilateral, 3 unilateral). Seven developed widespread metastasis (bone, 5; lung, 2; liver 1; adrenal, 1; soft tissue, 1). The FNAs were from cervical lymph nodes (15), liver (1), adrenal (1), and soft tissue (1). Most aspirates showed similar cytologic features. Tumor cells were present singly and in syncytial groups with overlapping moderately pleomorphic oval to spindle-shaped nuclei with thin, slightly irregular nuclear contours, moderately hyperchromatic chromatin, and usually one or two prominent nucleoli. The cytoplasm was scant and pale with ill-defined borders. Mitoses were frequent. Mature lymphocytes were common in the background of lymph node aspirates. Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry confirmed the epithelial nature of the tumor in four cases. Although the cytologic features of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are characteristic, other poorly differentiated neoplasms need to be considered. Clinical and radiologic data are helpful in supporting the cytologic diagnosis. PMID:1769282

  20. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. Methods The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4mm diameter needle attached to a 8ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grnwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4?m thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Results Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage localized in the different regions, local invasiveness and enlarged nuclei were observed. The samples included 3 tumors of mammary glands mammary tumors were complex carcinomas (n?=?2) and adenocarcinoma (n?=?1). The histological grades of the 3 cases were as follows: grade II, (1/3); grade III, (2/3) with high mitotic index. The preferential localization of mammary neoplasms was in the inguinal lobe (1/3 case) and abdominal lobes (2/3 cases). Furthermore, 1case of the inguinal mass affected the left caudo-inguinal lobe and 2cases right cranio and caudo abdominal lobes. Conclusion The study concluded that cytology could be used as a quick, rapid, field diagnostic technique in combination with histopathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary tumors (FMTs). Our findings in feline MTs indicate that FMTs could be useful as an animal model of human breast cancer. Moreover, because of the similarity of the cytohistopathological findings in the human and feline mammary gland tumours, it is possible to use the same cytopathological criteria applied in human pathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary gland tumours. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2047361423103295 PMID:23941603

  1. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity.

    PubMed

    Lingappa, Hemalatha Anthanahalli; Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-05-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as "Intramuscular Sarcocystosis" and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  2. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as “Intramuscular Sarcocystosis” and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  3. Neutrophil phagocytosis by tumor cells--a cytological study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Niti; Handa, Uma; Bansal, Cherry; Mohan, Harsh

    2011-08-01

    Cell cannibalism is defined as the ability of a cell to phagocytose another cell. Malignant tumor cells may develop phagocytic property and demonstrate phagocytosis of own cells or cells of other series like neutrophils and lymphocytes. We report 11 cases in which the tumor cells showed evidence of neutrophil phagocytosis/emperipolesis on FNAC smears. Cases of malignancies diagnosed on FNA over a period of 1 year were retrieved, and smears were examined for neutrophil phagocytosis by tumor cells. These cases were classified according to type and differentiation of malignancy. The cytomorphological features and background inflammation were also studied at both primary and metastatic site. Of 362 malignant cases diagnosed on FNA smears, in 11 cases (3.09%), tumor cells showed neutrophil phagocytosis. The background showed increase in polymorphs in all cases. All the cases were associated with metastasis at presentation and were high-grade tumors cytologically. There were three cases of anaplastic carcinoma, two cases of adenocarcinoma, two cases of carcinoma breast, two cases of anaplastic non-Hodgkins lymphoma, one case each of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma from larynx and lung, respectively. Phagocytic activity by tumor cells is uncommon and usually seen in high-grade/poorly differentiated malignancies. It is frequently associated with metastatic disease. On cytology smears, true phagocytosis of neutrophils by tumor cells has to be distinguished from superimposed inflammatory cells from the background. The tumor cells also need to be distinguished from histiocytes displaying phagocytosis. PMID:20949458

  4. Evaluation Profile of Thyroid Nodule by Fnac in the Rural Population of Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Haryana

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ruchi; Rana, Parveen; Kalra, Rajnish; Kaur, Swarn; Duhan, Amrita; Verma, Sanjay; Agarwal, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid disease is most common endocrine disorder and is different from other endocrine diseases because of its visible swelling and ease of diagnosis. If left untreated, thyroid disease makes a person more prone for heart disease, infertility and osteoporosis. In India, significant burden of thyroid diseases exist with an estimation of around 42 million cases. The thyroid status and autoimmune status of adult Indian population in the post iodinization phase is largely unknown. Aim: The main objective of this study was to generate valuable epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of thyroid disorders in rural population of Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat in the post-iodinisation era in India. To assess whether thyroid autoimmunity or goitrogens along with environmental factors play role in the development of thyroid.This paper is being presented in view that no such study has been carried out in the rural population of this region in Haryana. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Department of Pathology, Bhagat Phool Singh Medical College for Women, Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat between August 2011 to July 2013. It included retrospective analysis of cytomorphology of fine needle aspiration cytology material of 206 patients presenting with thyroid nodule in the Department of Pathology. Results: The commonest age group affected was 31-40 yrs. The female patients (93.4%) outnumbered the male patients (6.6%).The cytomorphological analysis of 206 patients revealed 190 cases (92.2%) of neoplastic lesions, 10 cases (4.8%) were neoplastic and 6 cases (2.9%) had indeterminate cytomorphology. Maximum number (65.5%) of patients was suffering with goiter followed by lymphocytic thyroiditis (26.2%). Amongst the malignant cases three cases were of papillary carcinoma and one case of medullary carcinoma. Two out of the six cases of follicular neoplasm proved to be follicular adenoma on histopathology. Four patients with high T3 levels were under treatment with neomercazole. They showed change in cytomorphology from hyperplasia to colloid goiter. Only one case of acute suppurative thyroiditis was reported which shows rarity of its type. Conclusion: The increased prevalence of goiter in this post iodinisation era can be attributed to goitrogens, autoimmune thyroid disease and micronutrient deficiency of iron and selenium. Higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in females is linked with both genetic and environmental factors such as infection, stress. PMID:25478348

  5. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Pleural fluid cytology ... A cytology exam is used to look for cancer and precancerous cells. It may also be done for other ... a cancerous tumor . This test most often detects: Breast cancer Lymphoma Lung cancer Ovarian cancer Stomach cancer

  6. Effusion cytology of hepatocellular carcinoma with in situ hybridisation for human albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, M R; Oien, K; Ferrier, R K; Burnett, R A

    1997-01-01

    While the cytological features of hepatocellular carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology are well described, cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with malignant cells in ascitic fluid and their characteristics are not. A patient is described with cirrhosis resulting from chronic hepatitis B virus infection, ascites, and hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed by effusion cytology. The malignant cells in the effusion were shown to be positive for alpha fetoprotein using immunocytochemistry, and for human albumin using in situ hybridisation, confirming the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigations in a terminally ill patient were thus avoided. Images PMID:9215133

  7. Cytological features of lipoblastoma: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kloboves-Prevodnik, V Veronika; Us-Krasovec, Marija; Gale, N; Lamovec, Janez

    2005-09-01

    Lipoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm occurring mostly in children under the age of three. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is mandatory for planning the treatment. The main aim of this study is to establish the cytological features of lipoblastoma and to answer the question: "Is cytological diagnosis of lipoblastoma reliable?"Preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and tissue sections of three children treated for lipoblastoma at the Division of Pediatrics, University Medical Center, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the period from 1997 to 2004 were reexamined. The Giemsa- and Papanicolaou-stained FNAB smears were moderately or poorly cellular and contained lipocytes, lipoblasts, and spindle cells in various proportions. The tumor cells were in clusters and tissue fragments or as single cells. Thin branching capillaries were observed in most of the clusters and tissue fragments. In the background, abundant myxoid extracellular material and naked oval nuclei were present. In the first case, the cytological diagnosis was benign soft-tissue tumor, in the second the diagnosis was not conclusive and the last case was correctly diagnosed as lipoblastoma. In the differential diagnosis of the second case, both lipoblastoma and liposarcoma were considered cytologically as well as histologically. At 7-yr follow-up, there is no evidence of the disease.Thus, we conclude that lipoblastoma with typical cytological features could be accurately diagnosed by FNAB. However, tumors containing numerous lipoblasts could pose a diagnostic problem. PMID:16078242

  8. Cytologic findings of urogenital mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2013-07-01

    Mesenteric cysts are heterogeneous groups of lesions. Most of them are developmental cysts of lymphatic and enteric origin or cystic neoplasm such as mesothelioma or cystic teratoma. Urogenital cysts are a subcategory of developmental cysts of the mesentery. They are thought to arise from vestigial remnants of urogenital apparatus. These cysts may show evidence of mesonephric or metanephric differentiation. An 11 -year -old boy was presented with undescended testis. During preoperative work- up, an incidental cystic lesion was discovered which was attached to the ileum. Aspiration cytology of the cyst content revealed cuboidal to columnar cells; some of them were ciliated. Histologic examination showed a cyst with fibromuscular wall, lined by Mullerian type ciliated epithelium; so the diagnosis of urogenital mesenteric cyst of Mullerian type was made. Urogenital cysts are rare lesions, but they should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic lesion of the mesentery. Cytology could be a useful method for evaluation and revealing the nature of these cysts. PMID:23808784

  9. How to increase the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a relatively sensitive, accurate, and safe technique in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. There are many factors influencing the yield of TBNA, such as location and the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN), types of the needle used and the experience of the bronchoscopist. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomy, guidance, availability of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) and the number of aspirates, preparation of specimen and interpretations of the cytology and histology of specimens all play important roles. Especially, whether an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is required for TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses is currently a disputed subject.

  10. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  11. [Clinical cytology: why and how?].

    PubMed

    Znidarcić, Zeljka

    2013-12-01

    Clinical cytology is a morphological diagnostic profession, which has not been properly utilized in current medicine, primarily due to inadequate awareness among physicians of its diagnostic possibilities and advantages. The purpose of this historical review of clinical cytology and its diagnostic role is to contribute to higher awareness of the current possibilities offered by cytologic diagnosis and its future development in the era of technological progress and medical striking into profitability, with its negative connotations. The main features of cytologic diagnosis, i.e. non-aggressiveness, simplicity, promptness and accuracy, should be maintained while following new technological possibilities. Standard cytomorphology provides a basis for deciding on using additional technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular analysis and cytogenetics) after thorough microscopic analysis, on cytologic samples or/and cytologic smears. The conditio sine qua non for that purpose is appropriate education of cytologists and cytotechnologists as well as appropriate organization of cytology in the healthcare system. As in the historical development of clinical cytology, enthusiasts are necessary to maintain and even improve all its possibilities to the benefit of our patients. PMID:24979879

  12. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia of the Hard Palate: A Rare Entity of Dilemma on Cytology, Confirmatory on Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chowdappa, Vijaya; Devasamudra, Chidananda R.; Janardhan, Jayalakshmi Valligari

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a rare, benign reactive necrotizing lesion, involving sites where salivary gland tissue is usually present. The importance of this lesion is that it mimics malignancy clinically leading to treatments ranging from conservative excision to total maxillectomy. Cytologically and histologically also the lesion is often confused with neoplasms. We present a case of a lady with a hard palatal swelling, which was non – ulcerative unlike typical cases of necrotizing sialometaplsia. FNAC features made us strongly suspect a low grade mucoepidermiod carcinoma, following which the swelling was excised. Histopathology came to the rescue, on which the final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate was made. Necrotizing siaometaplasia is often misdiagnosed by the inexperienced cytologist, with histopathological examination being confirmatory. We also emphasize the fact that lesions like necrotizing sialometaplasia need a high degree of suspicion along with clinical co relation before subjecting the patient to unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:26816899

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of cytology and biopsy in primary bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C R; Hadfield, J W; Stovin, P G; Barker, V; Heard, B E; Stark, J E

    1981-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnosis in 656 patients with the four common histopathological types of primary lung cancer has been assessed by comparing the cell type diagnosis made on cytological and histological investigation with that determined by examination of the surgically resected or necroscopy specimen. The accuracy of diagnosis achieved by cytological examination of sputum and bronchial aspirate, and by bronchial biopsy histology was over 85%. The least accurate diagnostic procedure was percutaneous needle biopsy (62%). Squamous and small cell tumours were accurately diagnosed by all four investigations but errors were made in the diagnosis of large cell and adenocarcinomas. Nearly half the number of patients (43%) with large cell carcinoma were later reclassified as having squamous carcinoma and of the patients with adenocarcinoma 32% had been predicted to be squamous and 18% large cell carcinoma. We consider such quality control of pretreatment diagnosis mandatory in management of individual patients and before enrollment in clinical trials. PMID:6267108

  14. Multisurface Method of Pattern Separation for Medical Diagnosis Applied to Breast Cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolberg, William H.; Mangasarian, Olvi L.

    1990-12-01

    Multisurface pattern separation is a mathematical method for distinguishing between elements of two pattern sets. Each element of the pattern sets is comprised of various scalar observations. In this paper, we use the diagnosis of breast cytology to demonstrate the applicability of this method to medical diagnosis and decision making. Each of 11 cytological characteristics of breast fine-needle aspirates reported to differ between benign and malignant samples was graded 1 to 10 at the time of sample collection. Nine characteristics were found to differ significantly between benign and malignant samples. Mathematically, these values for each sample were represented by a point in a nine-dimensional space of real variables. Benign points were separated from malignant ones by planes determined by linear programming. Correct separation was accomplished in 369 of 370 samples (201 benign and 169 malignant). In the one misclassified malignant case, the fine-needle aspirate cytology was so definitely benign and the cytology of the excised cancer so definitely malignant that we believe the tumor was missed on aspiration. Our mathematical method is applicable to other medical diagnostic and decision-making problems.

  15. The added value of using mutational profiling in addition to cytology in diagnosing aggressive pancreaticobiliary disease: review of clinical cases at a single center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to better understand the supporting role that mutational profiling (MP) of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and supernatant specimens may play in the diagnosis of malignancy in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and biliary brushing specimens from patients with pancreaticobiliary masses. Methods Cytology results were examined in a total of 30 patients with associated surgical (10) or clinical (20) outcomes. MP of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and from discarded supernatant fluid was analyzed in 26 patients with atypical, negative or indeterminate cytology. Results Cytology correctly diagnosed aggressive disease in 4 patients. Cytological diagnoses for the remaining 26 were as follows: 16 negative (9 false negative), 9 atypical, 1 indeterminate. MP correctly determined aggressive disease in 1 false negative cytology case and confirmed a negative cytology diagnosis in 7 of 7 cases of non-aggressive disease. Of the 9 atypical cytology cases, MP correctly diagnosed 7 as positive and 1 as negative for aggressive disease. One specimen that was indeterminate by cytology was correctly diagnosed as non-aggressive by MP. When first line malignant (positive) cytology results were combined with positive second line MP results, 12/21 cases of aggressive disease were identified, compared to 4/21 cases identified by positive cytology alone. Conclusions When first line cytology results were uncertain (atypical), questionable (negative), or not possible (non-diagnostic/indeterminate), MP provided additional information regarding the presence of aggressive disease. When used in conjunction with first line cytology, MP increased detection of aggressive disease without compromising specificity in patients that were difficult to diagnose by cytology alone. PMID:25084836

  16. Aspiration in Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huey-Ju.

    This dissertation studies aspiration in Chinese in these four areas: the temporal relationships between aspiration and the vowel of the syllable, the perception of aspiration, the correlation between pitch and aspiration, and the role of aspiration in a historical change in Chinese. Data based on 144 words with aspiration contrasts were derived from the experiments which involved production and perception by a total of 28 Chinese speakers. On the basis of the measurements of acoustical characteristics of the voice onset time and the lengths of the syllable, a constant ratio model has been proposed to describe the timing relationships among the elements within a syllable. The perceptual experiment tested the cues of aspiration by deleting the portion of the voice onset time from the syllable on the front, back, middle and both ends. The results are reported and discussed. The effects of aspiration on intrinsic tone heights in Mandarin were measured and the significance calculated. Finally some attempts are made to solve the development of aspiration from voiced obstruents under the condition of different tones from Middle Chinese to modern dialects.

  17. Cytology of canine malignant histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane E.; Thrall, Mary Anna; Getzy, David M.; Weiser, M. Glade; Ogilvie, Gregory K.

    1994-01-01

    Cytologic features of bone marrow, tissue, and abdominal fluid in seven cases of malignant histiocytosis in dogs are described, and histopathology, hematology, and serum biochemistry of the cases are reviewed. Diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis was confirmed by tissue morphology and immunohistochemistry; neoplastic cells in all cases had positive immunoreactivity to lysozyme. This stain can be used to definitively establish the diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis on cytology specimens as well as tissue sections. Cytologic findings included numerous pleomorphic, large, discrete mononuclear cells with abundant, lightly basophilic, vacuolated, granular cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval to reniform with marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis; nucleoli were prominent. Mitotic figures, often bizarre, were occasionally seen. Multinucleated giant cells and phagocytosis of erythrocytes and leukocytes were prominent features in cytologic preparations in four cases. Four dogs were anemic, five dogs were thrombocytopenic, and three dogs were hypercalcemic. Breeds affected included Doberman Pinscher (1), Golden Retriever (2), Flat Coated Retriever (3), and mixed-breed dog (1). PMID:12666013

  18. Aspiration in Jaffna Tamil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thananjayarajasingham, S.

    1975-01-01

    The article accounts for the phenomenon of aspiration in Jaffna Tamil, a dialect distinct form South Indian dialects of Tamil. Not being distinctive orphonologically determined, aspiration is dealt with as a prosodic feature affecting voiceless stops in various positions. Distribution and symbolic representation are handled; kymographic evidence…

  19. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks ...

  20. CYTOLOGY OF RHODOTORULA GLUTINIS

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, T. R.; Naylor, H. B.

    1962-01-01

    Thyagarajan, T. R. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and H. B. Naylor. Cytology of Rhodotorula glutinis. J. Bacteriol. 83:127–136. 1962.—The structure and manner of division of nuclei in actively dividing cells of Rhodotorula glutinis were studied with the phase contrast microscope. The nucleus consists of a dense central body, surrounded by a shell of optically uniform material of low density. The entire structure is enclosed within a nuclear membrane. Various fixation and staining techniques were employed to confirm the observations made from living cells. Since the dense central body is Feulgen-negative and is readily stained by iron alum hematoxylin, it is identified as the nucleolus. The material surrounding the nucleolus has no marked affinity for hematoxylin but is Feulgen-positive and stains intensely with Giemsa and basic fuchsin. The nucleus appears to divide by a process of elongation and constriction during which roughly half of the nucleolus, along with the surrounding chromatin, passes into the bud. The nuclear membrane was found to persist during all stages of division. Vacuoles were seldom observed in actively dividing cells. The nucleus of R. glutinis is similar in structure to the nuclei of higher organisms, but its behavior during division is quite different. Images PMID:13921134

  1. Clear cell neuroendocrine tumor of pancreas: Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration diagnosis of an uncommon variant

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Bakshi, Pooja; Singla, Vikas; Verma, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    The cytomorphologic features of clear cell neuroendocrine tumor of pancreas have been rarely reported in cytology literature. The cytomorphology of this rare variant mimics many primary and metastatic clear cell tumors of the pancreas. However, a precise cytological diagnosis can be rendered by awareness of this entity and judicious use of immunohistochemistry. We report one such case in a young woman diagnosed on endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration. The tumor cells showed positive staining with synaptophysin, chromogranin, and also with inhibin.

  2. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of sclerosing hemangioma (pneumocytoma): report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dettrick, Andrew; Meikle, Anne; Fong, Kwun M

    2014-03-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma (pneumocytoma) is a rare benign lung tumor with uncertain histogenesis but characteristic histology. Reports of the cytopathology of this tumor are even rarer with only a handful of cases in the literature--many of these incorrectly diagnosed by cytology initially. Herein, we describe a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed prima facie by fine-needle aspiration cytology. A cell block preparation with accompanying immunohistochemistry was instrumental in making the diagnosis. A review of the literature is also presented. PMID:22645055

  3. Granular Quality Reporting for Cervical Cytology Testing

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B.; MacLaughlin, Kathy L.; Chute, Christopher G.; Greenes, Robert A.; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Quality reporting for cervical cancer prevention is focused on patients with normal cervical cytology, and excludes patients with cytological abnormalities that may be at higher risk. The major obstacles for granular reporting are the complexity of surveillance guidelines and free-text data. We performed automated chart review to compare the cytology testing rates for patients with ’atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance’ (ASCUS) cytology, with the rates for patients with normal cytology. We modeled the surveillance guidelines, and extracted information from free-text cytology reports, to perform this study on 28101 female patients. Our results show that patients with ASCUS cytology had significantly higher adherence rates (94.9%) than those for patients with normal cytology (90.4%). Overall our study indicates that the quality of care varies significantly between the high and average risk patients. Our study demonstrates the use of health information technology for higher granularity of reporting for cervical cytology testing. PMID:26306264

  4. Value of cytology in small cell lung carcinoma diagnostic--single-center study.

    PubMed

    Milicić, Valerija; Prvulović, Ivana; Misić, Maja; Perić, Marija; Samardzić, Senka; Tomić, Karla

    2014-06-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) together with the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), typical carcinoid (TC), and atypical carcinoid (AC) make a group of morphologically identifiable neuroendocrine tumors. The differential diagnosis of SCLC includes, first of all, other neuroendocrine tumors, and primary or metastatic non-small cell carcinomas. Although the criteria for the morphologic separation from other tumors of the lung are defined, in everyday practice it can be a problem, both in cytology and with histological samples. Accurate and early differentiation of the SCLC is important because it exhibits aggressive behavior, rapid growth, early spread to distant sites, but also exquisite sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. The study included 127 patients who underwent bronchoscopic examination or percutaneous transthoracic fine-needle aspiration (PTTFNA) during the period from early 2003 to 2007 in University Hospital Center Osijek whose cytological diagnosis was SCLC. The value of cytological diagnosis was determined by comparing it with histological findings obtained from a biopsy sample during bronchoscopy or on a resection specimen in 50 patients. In the remaining 77 patients, histological verification of cytological diagnosis was not made and the patients were treated based on cytological diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. In 76% of cases (38/50) cytological diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma was also confirmed histologically. In 8% of cases (4/50) adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed, in 10% (5/50) of the cases the squamous carcinoma was confirmed, and there was one case of urothelial carcinoma, one case of sarcoma and one undifferentiated carcinoma. Cytological diagnosis of SCLC was made in all cases in a brush smear while the catheter aspirate was positive in only 32 cases (25.8%). Median survival in the group of patients with histologically confirmed small cell cancer was 238 days, for women 250 days, and for men 237 days. Cumulative survival was 63.2% for 6 months, 26.3% for 12 months, 13.2% for 18 months and 7.9% for two years. In conclusion, cytology is a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Our results confirm that there is a good correlation between cytology and histology diagnoses, especially when it comes to malignant lesions. In determining the type of tumor cytology must be supported with additional methods, especially in cases when it is not possible to take samples for histological verification. PMID:25144997

  5. Subclassification of Follicular Neoplasms Recommended by the Japan Thyroid Association Reporting System of Thyroid Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kakudo, Kennichi; Kameyama, Kaori; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Katoh, Ryohei; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Japan Thyroid Association recently published guidelines for clinical practice for the management of thyroid nodules, which include a diagnostic system for reporting thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology. It is characterized by the subclassification of follicular neoplasms, which is different from other internationally accepted reporting systems. Materials and Methods. This study examined observer variability in the subclassification of follicular neoplasms among 4 reviewers using Papanicolaou-stained smear samples from 20 surgically treated patients with indeterminate cytology. Results. The favor malignant subcategory had high predictive value of malignancy (risk of malignancy: 60–75%) and good agreement among the 4 reviewers (κ = 0.7714). Conclusion. These results clearly confirmed that the risk stratification of follicular neoplasms, which was adapted from cytology practice of high-volume thyroid centers in Japan, can provide clinically helpful information to estimate the risk of malignancy and to triage patients for surgery. PMID:25722720

  6. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  7. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413

  8. Towards laparoscopic tissue aspiration.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, Marc; Bugnard, Guillaume; Joos, Renzo; Kropf, Saskia; Villiger, Peter; Mazza, Edoardo

    2013-12-01

    The soft tissue aspiration experiment has been further developed for application during laparoscopic surgery. The new setup has been tested and validated under lab-conditions and came then to in vivo operation. It is to our knowledge the first time ever a mechanical experiment has been performed under laparoscopic conditions on the human, which enables determining corresponding constitutive model equations. As most important results, the feasibility of laparoscopic tissue aspiration has been demonstrated and, based on an ad hoc parameter for the tissue stiffness, the liver and the stomach gave significantly different responses. Furthermore, the determined constitutive behavior for one healthy human liver was in line with results obtained from tissue aspiration during open surgery. Eventually, laparoscopic tissue aspiration might qualify as minimally invasive testing method for tactile feedback systems. The presented results are preliminary and more research is required. PMID:23876854

  9. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Waiting ... topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer diagnosed? Types ...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology,...

  15. Fine-needle aspiration of soft tissue myoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Tucker, Tracy; Ng, Tony L; Villamil, Carlos F; Hayes, Malcolm M

    2016-02-01

    Soft tissue myoepithelioma is a rare neoplasm composed of myoepithelial cells. We describe the cytologic features of a soft tissue myoepithelioma arising in the right lower chest wall in a 65-year-old woman. The fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed round to oval, spindle, epithelioid, and plasmacytoid cells in the myxoid background. The nuclei were uniform, round to ovoid, with finely distributed chromatin and eosinophilic or pale cytoplasm, and resembled lobular carcinoma of breast. Ultrasound guided core biopsy showed the tumor cells had bland cytologic features, arranged in small cords, nests, and dissociated single cells, with no glandular differentiation or breast tissue seen. The tumor cells demonstrated immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but were negative for estrogen receptor. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the EWSR1 rearrangement, confirming the diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:152-155. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26644362

  16. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Winey, Mark; Stemm-Wolf, Alexander J; Giddings, Thomas H; Pearson, Chad G

    2012-01-01

    Since their first detection in pond water, large ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila, have captivated school children and scientists alike with the elegance of their swimming and the beauty of their cortical organization. Indeed, cytology - simply looking at cells - is an important component of most areas of study in cell biology and is particularly intriguing in the large, complex Tetrahymena cell. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena is critical for the study of the microtubule cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, complex nuclear movements and interactions, and the cellular remodeling during conjugation, to name a few topics. We briefly review previously reported cytological techniques for both light and electron microscopy, and point the reader to resources to learn about those protocols. We go on to present new and emerging technologies for the study of these marvelous cells. These include the use of fluorescent-protein tagging to localize cellular components in live cells, as well as for tracking the dynamic behavior of proteins using pulse labeling and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. For electron microscopy, cellular and antigenic preservation has been improved with the use of cryofixation and freeze-substitution. The technologies described here advance Tetrahymena cell biology to the cutting-edge of cytological analysis. PMID:22444152

  17. Abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tam, T; Verma, M; Elgar, C

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective, cohort study of pregnant adolescents with abnormal cervical cytology including: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) was done to determine the regression, persistence and progression of abnormal cervical cytology in adolescent pregnancies. Follow-up cervical cytology within 1 year was assessed. Results suggest that pregnant adolescents have a high regression rate of abnormal cervical cytology. The likelihood of regression, persistence, or progression, is independent of the initial cytological diagnosis. PMID:23259888

  18. A robust biomarker of differential correlations improves the diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rueda, Hugo; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Trevino, Victor

    2016-05-01

    The fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules and subsequent cytological analysis is unable to determine the diagnosis in 15 to 30% of thyroid cancer cases; patients with indeterminate cytological results undergo diagnostic surgery which is potentially unnecessary. Current gene expression biomarkers based on well-determined cytology are complex and their accuracy is inconsistent across public datasets. In the present study, we identified a robust biomarker using the differences in gene expression values specifically from cytologically indeterminate thyroid tumors and a powerful multivariate search tool coupled with a nearest centroid classifier. The biomarker is based on differences in the expression of the following genes: CCND1, CLDN16, CPE, LRP1B, MAGI3, MAPK6, MATN2, MPPED2, PFKFB2, PTPRE, PYGL, SEMA3D, SERGEF, SLC4A4 and TIMP1. This 15-gene biomarker exhibited superior accuracy independently of the cytology in six datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) thyroid dataset. In addition, this biomarker exhibited differences in the correlation coefficients between benign and malignant samples that indicate its discriminatory power, and these 15 genes have been previously related to cancer in the literature. Thus, this 15-gene biomarker provides advantages in clinical practice for the effective diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27035928

  19. Cytology of mucinous carcinoma of breast: a report of 28 cases with histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Swain, M; Chew, M T; Yip, C H; Moosa, F

    2000-12-01

    Pure mucinous carcinoma (MC) of the breast is a relatively uncommon variant of breast carcinoma with distinctive histological and cytological features. In this study we have analysed fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytological material from 28 cases of MC of breast and correlated the cytomorphological features with histopathology. The 28 patients consisted of 27 females and one male patient. 14 patients were Chinese, 10 were Indian and four were Malay. Their ages ranged from 38 to 90 with a mean at 52 years. The left breast was involved in 17 and the right in 11 cases. The duration of the lump varied from two weeks to 10 years. The cytological picture was characterized by abundant extracellular mucin giving a "sea of mucin" or "whirlpools of mucin" effect, in which were seen floating clusters of tumour cells with relatively bland cytological features. Myxo-vascular fragments were seen in 12 cases. Dissociated tumour cells showed a plasmacytoid appearance with eccentric nuclei. In four cases, the mucin was scanty in amount and the cellularity was high while in two cases, the cellularity was very low. Psammoma bodies were seen in cytological smears in one case. Histological study of excision or mastectomy specimens confirmed all 28 cases to be pure MC. Knowledge of the distinctive cytomorphological appearance of MC would enable correct identification of these lesions as malignant and prompt treatment that could further enhance the survival of these prognostically good breast cancers. PMID:16329537

  20. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region. PMID:26881166

  1. Joint Aspiration: Arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, John William

    1987-01-01

    Joint aspiration is an easily mastered procedure used to confirm or rule out joint sepsis and crystal-induced arthrosis. It is routinely performed with or without local anaesthetic, or with cooling spray. The time spent obtaining the fluid is short. The procedure is safe, requiring no hospitalization, except in the case of diagnosed sepsis. Arthrocentesis is a necessary procedure to prove beyond reasonable doubt that infection is not the cause of the arthritis. The family physician must be familiar with this procedure and obtain fluid for analysis, or refer when joint fluid cannot be readily aspirated. (Can Fam Physician 1987; 33:2057-2062.) PMID:21263975

  2. [Surgery for severe aspirations].

    PubMed

    Von Wihl, S; Bouayed, S; Kohler, R; Dulguerov, P

    2012-10-01

    Severe dysphagia resulting in repeated aspirations and pneumonia are difficult to treat with swallowing therapy and surgical treatment is often required. Our study retrospectively reviews our experience with 19 such cases operated by laryngeal suspension and laryngotracheal separation. Restoration of oral nutrition was possible in 45% of laryngeal suspension cases and in 75% of laryngotracheal separation operations. These surgical techniques prevent severe aspirations while conserving phonation, contrarily to total laryngectomy. Tracheocutaneous fistulas were frequent, especially after radiation, implying that the surgical technique should be modified in the future. PMID:23133886

  3. Strongyloides stercolaris infection mimicking a malignant tumour in a non-immunocompromised patient. Diagnosis by bronchoalveolar cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mayayo, E; Gomez-Aracil, V; Azua-Blanco, J; Azua-Romeo, J; Capilla, J; Mayayo, R

    2005-01-01

    Autoinfective strongyloidiasis is often fatal in immunosuppressed patients or in immunocomprised hosts. An interesting case of Strongyloides stercolaris hyperinfection was seen in an immunocompetent patient. This report describes a case of fatal strogyloidiasis in a 79 year old man, who had suffered gastrointestinal discomfort for years, and who presented because of respiratory illness. A chest radiograph showed an irregular mass close to the mediastinum and interstitial infiltrates, but blood eosinophilia was not observed. Cytological examination of the samples obtained from bronchial aspiration and brushing identified several filariform larvae. Thus, cytology was essential for the correct diagnosis in this patient and is a very reliable method to diagnose lung parasitosis. PMID:15790710

  4. Black Women's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Jennie; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A two-page questionnaire dealing with career aspirations and expectations was administered to undergraduates at four institutions. Results suggest Black women as a group predict they will earn less than Black males; white women as a group predict they will earn less than white men but the pay gap is narrower. (Author)

  5. Aspirations for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, P. G.; Western, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The first phase of a longitudinal study of effects of social origins, schooling, perceived influence of significant others, and self-concept on college aspiration is more explanatory for men than women but shows parent, teacher, and peer influence to have a major impact for all. The social-psychological theory is criticized. (MSE)

  6. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  7. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed. PMID:19352601

  8. Now Who Aspires to Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Sandra D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Among high school seniors, (1) most of those who aspired to teach were White females; (2) teacher aspirants were less concerned with earning good incomes than those who chose other professions; (3) job security was not an important motivation for entering teaching; and (4) teacher aspirants were intellectually less able than their classmates.…

  9. Schwannoma including epithelial elements mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland on fine-needle cytology: The first case report.

    PubMed

    Tarjan, Gabor

    2015-05-01

    Although most salivary gland tumors can be diagnosed accurately on fine-needle aspiration, cytological evaluation of spindle cell lesions, including schwannomas, still poses a challenge. In salivary gland aspirates, the most important mimickers of schwannomas are the common pleomorphic adenomas/mixed tumors since these may yield abundant spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells and only scant epithelial cells. Therefore, in spindle cell-rich aspirates from the head and neck, diligent search for epithelial cells is recommended. Their presence traditionally favors pleomorphic adenoma and argues against a schwannoma. Herein, however, we report, for the first time, a schwannoma with epithelial elements (glandular schwannoma) in the submandibular gland, demonstrating that the presence of epithelial cells in a spindle cell-rich aspirate may not always exclude a schwannoma. PMID:25346295

  10. Eosinophilic Structure: Should it be Included in Routine Cytology Reporting of Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis?

    PubMed Central

    Boovalli, Mythri M; Venkataramappa, Srinivasa Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, rapid procedure routinely employed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis lymphadenitis. Positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in Ziehl-Neilsen stained smear is still considered as gold standard for diagnosis of Tuberculosis, but all lesions may not yield AFB, thus pose diagnostic problems. Few cytomorphological changes i.e. Eosinophilic structure (ES) in the stained smears correlates with the presence of AFB thus, helping us in rapid diagnosis. Aim To evaluate the correlation between AFB and ES in necrotic lymph node aspirates. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from January to December 2014. Lymphnodes upon purulent aspiration which were reported as granulomatous lymphadenitis suggestive of tuberculosis were included in the study. All the stained smears (H&E, MGG and ZN Stains) for each case were retrieved from the files and rescreened for the presence of ES, granulomas and AFB. Presences of ES were correlated with AFB. Statistical Analysis Stastistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results Our study included 103 cases. The common age group involved was 21-40 years, with female predominance. Cervical lymph nodes were most commonly involved. In relation to ES and AFB, four different cytological pictures were seen i.e., ES and AFB-(31%); ES-AFB+(16.5%); ES+, AFB+(39%); ES+AFB-(14.5%). Chi-square test showed a highly significant stastistical association between ES and AFB with p=0.001. Conclusion Eosinophilic structure is one of the cytomorphological features to be considered in necrotic lymph node aspirate which has a significant correlation with AFB in the smears. Hence pathologist should search for this, and it should be included in routine cytology reporting of tuberculosis lymphadenitis. PMID:26816895

  11. Amyloidoma secondary to insulin injection: Cytologic diagnosis and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Grunes, Dianne; Rapkiewicz, Amy; Simsir, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidomas are rare tumors composed of deposits of amyloid protein not associated with systemic amyloidosis. They can present as an initial manifestation of a systemic disease process or can be a completely localized phenomenon. We present a case of amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site found incidentally in an 80-year-old male with multiple co-morbidities who presented with diverticulitis associated bleeding. A subcutaneous abdominal mass was found on physical examination. Imaging revealed a 5 cm × 1.6 cm homogenous subcutaneous lesion. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core biopsy were performed under ultrasound guidance to reveal amorphous material proven to be amyloidosis at insulin injection sites (AIns) type amyloid. The patient had no treatment for this lesion and has had his care triaged to his more serious health problems. This is the first case of AIns type amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site reported in cytology literature. We highlight the cytologic findings and diagnostic pitfalls. As the incidence of diabetes is increasing, cytopathologists may encounter this lesion more often on FNA. PMID:26288650

  12. Amyloidoma secondary to insulin injection: Cytologic diagnosis and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Grunes, Dianne; Rapkiewicz, Amy; Simsir, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidomas are rare tumors composed of deposits of amyloid protein not associated with systemic amyloidosis. They can present as an initial manifestation of a systemic disease process or can be a completely localized phenomenon. We present a case of amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site found incidentally in an 80-year-old male with multiple co-morbidities who presented with diverticulitis associated bleeding. A subcutaneous abdominal mass was found on physical examination. Imaging revealed a 5 cm × 1.6 cm homogenous subcutaneous lesion. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core biopsy were performed under ultrasound guidance to reveal amorphous material proven to be amyloidosis at insulin injection sites (AIns) type amyloid. The patient had no treatment for this lesion and has had his care triaged to his more serious health problems. This is the first case of AIns type amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site reported in cytology literature. We highlight the cytologic findings and diagnostic pitfalls. As the incidence of diabetes is increasing, cytopathologists may encounter this lesion more often on FNA. PMID:26288650

  13. Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.

    PubMed

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2013-08-01

    On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

  14. A focal nodular Hürthle cell hyperplasia in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A diagnostic dilemma on fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Chandanwale, Shirish S.; Kulkarni, Tanmayi V.; Patel, Ruchir J.; Thakkar, Dhaval

    2014-01-01

    Hürthle cells are seen in a variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic thyroid gland lesions. Number and morphology of Hürthle cell vary in thyroid aspirate. Occasionally, thyroid aspirate in focal nodular Hürthle cell hyperplasia in Hashimoto's thyroiditis exclusively comprise of Hürthle cells and mimics Hürthle cell neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis in such cases is challenging. A 60-year-old female presented with goiter and clinical features of hyperthyroidism. FNA smears showed Hürthle cells arranged in flat sheets and lying singly with occasional lymphocytes in Hürthle cell sheets. Repeat aspiration from other site showed lymphocytes, infiltrating the thyroid follicular cells. We conclude that a careful search of lymphocytes in Hürthle cell sheets in cytology smears, multiple aspirates, associated clinical findings and ancillary techniques reduce the diagnostic pitfall and avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:25745298

  15. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  20. Influence of secondary aspiration on human aspiration efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K.R.; Anthony, T. Renee

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the contribution of secondary aspiration to human aspiration efficiency estimates using a humanoid model with realistic facial features. This study applied coefficient of restitution (CoR) values for working-aged human facial skin to the facial regions on the humanoid CFD model. Aspiration efficiencies for particles ranging from 7 to 116 μm were estimated for bounce (allowing for secondary aspiration) and no-bounce (CoR=0) simulations. Fluid simulations used the standard k–epsilon turbulence model over a range of test conditions: three freestream velocities, two breathing modes (mouth and nose breathing, using constant inhalation), three breathing velocities, and five orientations relative to the oncoming wind. Laminar particle trajectory simulations were used to examine inhaled particle transport and estimate aspiration efficiencies. Aspiration efficiency for the realistic CoR simulations, for both mouth- and nose-breathing, decreased with increasing particle size, with aspiration around 50% for 116 μm particles. For the CoR=0 simulations, aspiration decreased more rapidly with increasing particle size and approached zero for 116 μm compared to realistic CoR models (differences ranged from 0% to 80% over the particle sizes and velocity conditions). Differences in aspiration efficiency were larger with increasing particle size (>52 μm) and increased with decreasing freestream velocity and decreasing breathing rate. Secondary aspiration was more important when the humanoid faced the wind, but these contributions to overall aspiration estimates decreased as the humanoid rotated through 90°. There were minimal differences in aspiration between uniform CoR values of 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 and realistic regionally-applied CoR values, indicating differences between mannequin surfaces and between mannequin and human skin will have negligible effect on aspiration for facing-the-wind orientation. PMID:26778849

  1. Papillary renal-cell carcinoma: fine-needle aspiration of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Dekmezian, R; Sneige, N; Shabb, N

    1991-01-01

    Although papillary carcinoma of the kidney is a distinct clinical and pathological entity, there are few descriptions of its cytologic features in the literature. We describe the cytologic features of aspirates from 15 papillary carcinomas of the kidney. The smears showed abundant papillary clusters with vascular cores and relatively few single cells. Tumor cells contained moderate to scant cytoplasm, nuclei were usually small and uniform, mild to moderate hyperchromasia was routine, nucleoli were single and small, and nuclear grooves were often prominent. Histiocytes and psammoma bodies were present in only four cases. Hemosiderin pigment within tumor cells was also present in four cases. Differential diagnosis should consider low-grade transitional-cell carcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, normal renal tubular epithelium, mesothelial cells, and, occasionally, Wilms' tumor. Cytologically recognizing the distinct entity of papillary carcinoma is important in the workup of primary renal neoplasms and metastatic papillary neoplasms of unknown origin. PMID:2065577

  2. Musculoskeletal Aspiration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

    2012-01-01

    With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800

  3. Inter-Rater Agreement of Anal Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Darragh, Teresa M.; Tokugawa, Diane; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; LaMere, Brandon J.; Schwartz, Lauren; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most anal cancers are caused by persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV). Similar to cervical carcinogenesis, the progression from HPV infection to anal cancer goes through precancerous lesions that can be treated to prevent invasion. In analogy to cervical cytology, anal cytology has been proposed as a screening tool for anal cancer precursors in high-risk populations. We analyzed the inter-observer reproducibility of anal cytology in a population of 363 HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were collected in the anal dysplasia clinic before performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) on all subjects. Papanicolaou-stained, LBC slides were evaluated by two cytopathologists, blinded to clinical outcome and the other pathologist's results, using the revised Bethesda terminology. Overall agreement between two observers was 66% (kappa 0.54, linear weighted kappa 0.69). Using dichotomizing cytology results (ASC-US or worse vs. less than ASC-US), the agreement increased to 86% (kappa 0.69). We observed an increasing likelihood of testing positive for markers associated with HPV-related transformation, p16/Ki-67 and HPV oncogene mRNA, with increasing severity of cytology results both for individual cytologists and for consensus cytology interpretation (ptrend < 0.0001 for all). In summary, we observed moderate to good agreement between two cytopathologists evaluating anal cytology samples collected in HIV-positive MSM. A higher severity of anal cytology was associated with biomarkers of anal precancers. Anal cytology may be used for anal cancer screening in high-risk populations, and biomarkers of HPV-related transformation can serve for quality control of anal cytology. PMID:22811048

  4. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy. PMID:26730066

  5. Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

  6. Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

    2013-01-11

    A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

  7. Utilization of Ancillary Studies in the Cytologic Diagnosis of Biliary and Pancreatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Layfield, Lester J.; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B.

    2015-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings, and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. Currently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapilary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the preoperative classification of pancreatic cysts. Many gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, VHL, RNF43, and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:24639398

  8. Testicular cytology indicates differences in Sertoli cell counts between "good freezer" and "poor freezer" bulls.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Thippeswamy, Vijetha Bajjalli; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Layek, Siddhartha Shankar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Gaurav, Mukesh Kumar; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Prasad, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    In artificial insemination, poor quality of semen unsuitable for cryopreservation and susceptibility of spermatozoa to cryodamage in crossbred bulls have been a matter of concern. Present study was designed to identify the testicular cytology indices that might be used to predict the semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls. Based on the ejaculate rejection rate and sperm cryotolerance, bulls (Holstein Friesian X Tharparkar crossbred) were classified into either good (producing good quality semen with spermatozoa having good cryotolerance; n = 4) or poor (producing poor quality semen with spermatozoa having poor cryotolerance; n = 4). Testicular cytology was studied in all the 8 bulls using fine needle aspiration technique. Testicular cytology of good bulls and poor bulls differed significantly. The proportion of Sertoli cells was significantly higher in good bulls (25.3 ± 1.6) compared to poor bulls (11.0 ± 0.8). The Sertoli cell index was 46.1 ± 5.0 in good bulls while it was only 13.8 ± 1.3 in poor bulls. The cut off values, as determined using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis, indicate that the bulls having testicular cytogram comprising of < 15.5% Sertoli cells, < 24.3 Sertoli cell index and > 4.0 spermatogenic cells to Sertoli cell ratio might be a poor bull in terms of semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. The proportion of Sertoli cells in the testicular cytology had positive (P < 0.05) relationship with semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. PMID:26891549

  9. Anal-rectal cytology: a review.

    PubMed

    Bean, Sarah M; Chhieng, David C

    2010-07-01

    The incidence of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma, a human papilloma virus (HPV) related cancer, is on the rise, especially in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is associated with precursor lesions detectable on exfoliative cytology as squamous intraepithelial lesions and on biopsy as intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal-rectal cytology screening programs, similar to cervical cytology screening programs, have been developed in an effort to detect and to eradicate precursor lesions prior to progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Either conventional or liquid-based anal-rectal cytology specimens are acceptable, but liquid-based specimens are preferred. Specimens may be collected by health care professionals or by patients. A minimum of 2,000-3,000 nucleate squamous cells should comprise adequate specimens. Diagnostic terminology as defined by the Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology (TBS 2001) should be used. Sensitivity and specificity of a single anal-rectal cytology specimen is comparable with that of a single cervical cytology test, but cytological interpretations do not always correlate with lesion severity. Patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse should be referred for anoscopy. PMID:19941374

  10. Respiratory Cytology-Current Trends Including Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy and Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy: Analysis of Data From a 2013 Supplemental Survey of Participants in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Charles D; Marshall, Carrie B; Barkan, Guliz A; Booth, Christine N; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Souers, Rhona J; Keylock, Joren B; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Russell, Donna K; Moriarty, Ann T; Doyle, Mary A; Thomas, Nicole; Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z; Collins, Brian T; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Crothers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Context .- Nongynecologic cytology (NGC) practices are expanding in relationship to historical gynecologic cytology screening programs. Bronchopulmonary cytology is experiencing an evolution regarding new procedural types. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) tracks practice patterns in NGC by developing questionnaires, surveying participants, and analyzing respondent data. Objective .- To analyze responses to a 2013 CAP supplemental survey from the Interlaboratoy Comparison Program on bronchopulmonary NGC. Design .- The "NGC 2013 Supplemental Questionnaire: Demographics in Performance and Reporting of Respiratory Cytology" was mailed to 2074 laboratories. Results .- The survey response rate was 42% (880 of 2074) with 90% of respondents (788 of 880) indicating that their laboratories evaluated cytology bronchopulmonary specimens. More than 95% of respondents indicated interpreting bronchial washings (765 of 787) and bronchial brushings (757 of 787). A minority of laboratories (43%, 340 of 787) dealt with endobronchial ultrasound-guided samples, and an even smaller fraction of laboratories (14%, 110 of 787) saw cases from electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy. Intraprocedural adequacy assessments by pathologists (and less often by cytotechnologists or pathologists-in-training) were routinely performed in percutaneous transthoracic aspiration cases (74%, 413 of 560) with less involvement for other case types. Most laboratories reported that newly diagnosed primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas were triaged for molecular testing of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Conclusions .- The parameters examined in this 2013 survey provide a snapshot of current pulmonary cytopathology practice and may be used as benchmarks in the future. PMID:26717056

  11. Management of ovarian cysts with percutaneous aspiration and methotrexate injection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate ultrasonographic-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from November 2007 to October 2009. It included 132 female patients (age range, 15–72 years; mean, 38.7 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0–10.6 cm) at ultrasonic examinations. We performed puncture and aspiration followed by methotrexate injection into the cyst. All patients were followed for 12 months. None was lost to follow-up. Results: At follow-up ultrasonography, cysts had disappeared in 120 patients (90.90%) and persisted in 12 patients (9%). No major complications were observed in our study population during or after the procedure. Only 10 patients reported mild pelvic pain, and four others reported dizziness or nausea during or after the procedure. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. We did not observe any cases of infection after the procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases. PMID:27185974

  12. Fine needle aspiration of lymphoblastic lymphoma. A multiparameter diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J C; Katz, R L; Shabb, N; el-Naggar, A; Ordonez, N G; Pugh, W

    1992-01-01

    Sixteen fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) that were used to either initially diagnose disease (12) or document relapse (4) were reviewed. Cellular aspirates (2 x 10(7) cells) were readily obtained for immunologic, DNA/RNA flow cytometric and immunoglobulin and/or T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies. Cytologically, aspirates were characterized by intermediate-sized cells (9.5-18.5 microns) with fine nuclear chromatin, small, inconspicuous nucleoli, irregular nuclear contours and scant basophilic cytoplasm. Frequent mitotic figures were seen (1-14 figures per 1,000 cells). Fourteen cases demonstrated a T-cell phenotype with considerable phenotypic variability. One case demonstrated a precursor B-cell phenotype, and another demonstrated biphenotypic expression with both T-cell and myeloid differentiation. Eleven of 14 cases (79%) were positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Thirteen of 15 cases (87%) manifested diploid DNA content by flow cytometric analysis and were characterized by intermediate proliferative activity (S+G2M 12.7 +/- 8.7% SD) and intermediate mean RNA index (1.3 +/- .5 SD). T beta gene rearrangements were demonstrated in four of five phenotypic T-cell LBL cases analyzed, with concomitant JH gene rearrangements observed in three cases, confirming that bigenotypic rearrangements characterize some T-cell LBLs. We conclude that FNA samples are adequate for accurate characterization of LBL and may obviate the need for surgical biopsy. PMID:1449027

  13. A Case of Significant Endobronchial Injury due to Recurrent Iron Pill Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Joo-Hee; Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric mucosal damage by iron pills is often reported. However, iron pill aspiration is uncommon. Oxidation of the impacted iron pill causes bronchial mucosal damage that progresses to chronic bronchial inflammation, necrosis, endobronchial stenosis and rarely, perforation. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with chronic productive cough and significant left-sided atelectasis. Bronchoscopy revealed substantial luminal narrowing with exudative inflammation of the left main bronchus. Bronchial washing cytology showed necroinflammatory exudate and a small amount of brown material. Mucosal biopsy showed diffuse brown pigments indicative of ferrous pigments, crystal deposition, and marked tissue degeneration. After vigorous coughing, she expectorated dark sediments and her symptoms and radiological abnormalities improved. There are a few such reports worldwide; however, this was the first case reported in Korea. Careful observation of aspiration-prone patients and early detection of iron pill aspiration may prevent iron pill-induced bronchial injury. PMID:26508942

  14. Effectiveness of Toyota process redesign in reducing thyroid gland fine-needle aspiration error.

    PubMed

    Raab, Stephen S; Grzybicki, Dana Marie; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Balassanian, Ronald; Janosky, Janine E; Vrbin, Colleen M

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Toyota Production System process redesign resulted in diagnostic error reduction for patients who underwent cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. In this longitudinal, nonconcurrent cohort study, we compared the diagnostic error frequency of a thyroid aspiration service before and after implementation of error reduction initiatives consisting of adoption of a standardized diagnostic terminology scheme and an immediate interpretation service. A total of 2,424 patients underwent aspiration. Following terminology standardization, the false-negative rate decreased from 41.8% to 19.1% (P = .006), the specimen nondiagnostic rate increased from 5.8% to 19.8% (P < .001), and the sensitivity increased from 70.2% to 90.6% (P < .001). Cases with an immediate interpretation had a lower noninterpretable specimen rate than those without immediate interpretation (P < .001). Toyota process change led to significantly fewer diagnostic errors for patients who underwent thyroid fine-needle aspiration. PMID:16938657

  15. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  16. Sclerosing Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor of the Lung: A Case Report with Cytologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Choi, Jin Hyuk; Lee, Hye Seung; Choi, Yoo Jin; Kim, Aeree; Kim, Han Kyeom

    2016-01-01

    Benign perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the lung is a rare benign neoplasm, a sclerosing variant of which is even rarer. We present a case of 51-year-old man who was diagnosed with benign sclerosing PEComa by percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology and biopsy. The aspirate revealed a few cell clusters composed of bland-looking polygonal or spindle cells with fine granular or clear cytoplasm. Occasional fine vessel-like structures with surrounding hyalinized materials were seen. The patient later underwent wedge resection of the lung. The histopathological study of the resected specimen revealed sheets of polygonal cells with clear vacuolated cytoplasm, variably sized thin blood vessels, and densely hyalinized stroma. In immunohistochemical studies, reactivity of tumor cells for human melanoma black 45 and Melan-A further supported the diagnosis of benign sclerosing PEComa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of benign sclerosing PEComa described in lung. PMID:27068025

  17. Correlation of ultrasound findings, liver and spleen cytology, and prognosis in the clinical staging of high metastatic risk canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Book, Alison P; Fidel, Janean; Wills, Tamara; Bryan, Jeffrey; Sellon, Rance; Mattoon, John

    2011-01-01

    Cytologic sampling of the ultrasonographically normal spleen and liver is not implemented routinely in the clinical staging of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and normal ultrasound findings are often accepted as sufficient evidence for ruling out splenic or liver metastasis. Our objective was to define the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound findings for diagnosis of mast cell infiltration when verified with cytologic evaluation, and to define the prognostic role of cytologic evaluation of liver and splenic aspirates. Dogs with a diagnosis of clinically aggressive grade II, or grade III mast cell tumor treated with a combination vinblastine/CCNU chemotherapy protocol, were selected retrospectively based on availability of cytologic evaluation of spleen plus or minus liver for staging. Out of 19 dogs, 10 dogs had a grade II tumor and nine a grade III tumor. Seven dogs had mast cell infiltration of the spleen, liver, or both. The sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting mast cell infiltration was 43% for the spleen and 0% for the liver. Dogs with positive cytologic evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had significantly shorter survival (100 vs. 291 days) than dogs without evidence of mast cell infiltration (P<0.0001). Routine splenic aspiration should be performed regardless of ultrasonographic appearance in dogs with a clinically aggressive mast cell tumor. PMID:21689203

  18. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  3. Pulmonary aspiration in perioperative medicine.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative aspiration into the lungs is an infrequent but potentially serious cause of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. It is still a leading cause of death from pulmonary complications. Aspiration occurs in approximately three per 10.000 anesthetic procedures with higher incidences in special patient populations and emergency situations. Any patient with symptoms following aspiration that last for more than two hours in the recovery room should be admitted to an intensive care unit for further observation and therapy. This article reviews incidence, morbidity and mortality of perioperative aspiration as well as risk factors and preventive measures. Among preventive measures the use of drugs designed to increase gastric pH, recent developments in supraglottic airway devices and application of rapid sequence induction with cricoid pressure are discussed. Also, international fasting guidelines and clinical management following aspiration are provided. PMID:23767172

  4. Ultrasound-guided vs endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pancreatic cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Masato; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kuraoka, Kensuke; Yukisawa, Seigo; Kasuga, Akiyoshi; Ozaka, Masato; Suzuki, Sho; Takano, Kouichi; Sugiyama, Yuko; Itoi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic PC between February 2006 and September 2011 were selected for this retrospective study. FNA biopsy for pancreatic tumors had been performed percutaneously under extracorporeal ultrasound guidance until October 2009; then, beginning in November 2009, EUS-FNA has been performed. We reviewed the complete medical records of all patients who met the selection criteria for the following data: sex, age, location and size of the targeted tumor, histological and/or cytological findings, details of puncture procedures, time from day of puncture until day of definitive diagnosis, and details of severe adverse events. RESULTS: Of the 121 patients who met the selection criteria, 46 had a percutaneous biopsy (Group A) and 75 had an EUS-FNA biopsy (Group B). Adequate cytological specimens were obtained in 42 Group A patients (91.3%) and all 75 Group B patients (P = 0.0192), and histological specimens were obtained in 41 Group A patients (89.1%) and 65 Group B patients (86.7%). Diagnosis of malignancy by cytology was positive in 33 Group A patients (78.6%) and 72 Group B patients (94.6%) (P = 0.0079). Malignancy by both cytology and pathology was found in 43 Group A (93.5%) and 73 Group B (97.3%) patients. The mean period from the puncture until the cytological diagnosis in Group B was 1.7 d, which was significantly shorter than that in Group A (4.1 d) (P < 0.0001). Severe adverse events were experienced in two Group A patients (4.3%) and in one Group B patient (1.3%). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA, as well as percutaneous needle aspiration, is an effective modality to obtain cytopathological confirmation in patients with advanced PC. PMID:23613631

  5. [Foreign body aspiration in children].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shlomo; Goldberg, Shmuel; Springer, Chaim; Avital, Avraham; Picard, Elie

    2015-03-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs mainly in children under 3 years of age and is one of the most frequent causes of accidental death under 12 months of age. The increased risk of FB aspiration in children is due to the different structure of the pharynx and the upper airways compared to adults. In addition, children have an immature swallowing mechanism and they most commonly aspirate food stuffs. FB aspiration is usually a sudden and dramatic event when the child feels that he is suffocating or choking. After the acute event, the clinical presentation widely ranges from severe respiratory distress to the most minimal symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic modality for FB inhalation. Prevention and rapid diagnosis can be lifesaving. In 2010, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a position paper on prevention of FB aspiration. The association calls for more proactive preventative measures to protect children from FB aspiration and to prevent mortality and morbidity. These include: 1. Raising awareness of parents and caregivers to supervise children and create a safe environment for them. 2. Promoting legislation and enforcing regulations that will prevent dangerous products being sold for children. 3. Changing the design of products, especially food products and toys, that will reduce the risks of choking. In this overview we will show the principles of diagnosis of FB aspiration and a flow chart including when flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is required. PMID:25962247

  6. Otic cytology in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Angus, John C

    2004-03-01

    Accurate characterization of the primary cause and perpetuating factors is essential for successful management of ear disease in dogs and cats. Cytology is a simple, rapid, and practical diagnostic test that should be performed routinely on any and all patients presented for clinical signs consistent with otitis externa. In combination with clinical signs, otoscopic evaluation, and diagnostic testing of primary disease, serial cytology enhances the ability of veterinarians to diagnose secondary infections, monitor progression of disease, evaluate response to therapy, and make appropriate management decisions. Cytologic specimens should be evaluated for the presence, numbers, and characteristics of three key features: yeast, bacteria, and leukocytes. More than five yeast organisms or more than 25 bacteria per high-powered field is suggestive of significant microbial activity warranting therapeutic intervention. The presence of leukocytes, particularly with phagocytized bacteria, indicates "true infection" rather than overgrowth; if suppurative discharge is present, systemic therapy is needed. Cytology combined with culture and susceptibility is the best method for identification of bacterial overgrowth and infection; however, if only one test can be performed, always choose cytology. Culture results assist in the selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy, but cytology determines whether systemic antibiotics are indicated, which organisms are most significant, and when therapy can be discontinued. PMID:15062616

  7. Bone marrow cytological findings in 4 dogs and a cat with hemophagocytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walton, R M; Modiano, J F; Thrall, M A; Wheeler, S L

    1996-01-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome or hemophagic histiocytosis was diagnosed in 4 dogs and 1 cat by evaluation of bone marrow aspirate smears. One of the dogs had a suspected infection with canine parvovirus and a confirmed infection with Salmonella spp, 2 dogs had presumptive diagnoses of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disease, respectively, and 1 dog died without a diagnosis. The cat had hepatic lipidosis and lesions compatible with feline calicivirus infection. All animals had cytopenias involving 2 or more cell lines, and fragmented erythrocytes in the blood, along with mild to moderate increases in the number of macrophages in the bone marrow. Numerous marrow macrophages contained phagocytized hematopoietic cells. Other cytological features of the bone marrow were variable in each patient, but the degree of response in the blood was inadequate, even in those with bone marrow hyperplasia. The phagocytosis of hematopoietic elements did not appear to be caused by a primary immune disorder, but rather by the inappropriate activation of normal macrophages secondary to infectious, neoplastic, or metabolic diseases. These findings suggest that hemophagocytic syndrome may be an important factor in the development of cytopenias; the data also support the cytological evaluation of bone marrow aspirates as an aid in the diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome. PMID:8965270

  8. Canine bone marrow cytological examination, classification and reference values: A retrospective study of 295 cases.

    PubMed

    Turinelli, Vanessa; Gavazza, Alessandra; Stock, Graham; Fournel-Fleury, Corinne

    2015-12-01

    Cytologic assessment of bone marrow with knowledge of the hemogram represents an effective method to investigate hemic tissue and its function. To determine the spectrum and prevalence of canine bone marrow disorders over a 2 year period in a diagnostic laboratory setting achieved through a standard approach to cytologic bone marrow assessment. A retrospective study of bone marrow fine needle aspirates sample preparations, blood smears, hemogram data and case records. Of the 295 bone marrow samples evaluated, 90 (30.5%) were nondiagnostic samples. Of the remaining samples, 25.1% were classified as hyperplasia of which most were granulocytic hyperplasia (58.1% of the total hyperplasia), 19.3% had no cytological abnormalities, 12.9% had malignant hemopathy and 7.8% had hypo-aplastic conditions. Only a small proportion of cases involved dysplasia (1.7%) and metastatic disease was detected in only one case (0.3%). Reference values of nucleated cells and the M/E ratio were calculated for normal and erythroid and granulocytic hyperplastic bone marrow. This study provides the spectrum and the prevalence of canine bone marrow disorders as well as a differential bone marrow cell counting and determination of reference intervals for diseases. PMID:26679822

  9. Cytologic features of nipple adenoma: a report of four cases of adenoma of the nipple.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Satoru; Mizukami, Yuji; Kawahara, Ei

    2015-08-01

    We report four cases of adenoma of the nipple, a rare benign epithelial benign tumor occurring under the nipple and areola. Clinically, erosion findings of the nipple require discrimination from Paget's disease. In addition, a mass found in the nipple warrants discrimination from ductal carcinoma. Two cases underwent aspiration biopsy cytology and the other underwent tumor imprint cytology, respectively, revealing a large number of epithelial cell populations in the necrotic background material. These large cell clusters had a papillary or sheet structure and exhibited decreased cell cohesiveness at the cluster part. In addition, small clusters and solitary epithelial cells were also present. Furthermore, a two-cell pattern comprising both duct epithelial and myoepithelial cells was observed in the cell clusters. Two other cases underwent nipple brush cytology, revealing a few small papillary clusters with isolated epithelial cells in the hemorrhagic background. The clusters appeared as benign duct proliferative lesions such as papilloma, papillomatosis, and adenosis. An accurate diagnosis warrants the recognition of regular nuclei with bland chromatin and myoepithelial cells and the identification of the lesion location. PMID:26011103

  10. Cytopathologic diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Misiakos, Evangelos P; Margari, Niki; Meristoudis, Christos; Machairas, Nickolas; Schizas, Dimitrios; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Machairas, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an important diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid lesions. Several systems have been proposed for the cyropathologic diagnosis of the thyroid nodules. However cases with indeterminate cytological findings still remain a matter of debate. In this review we analyze all literature regarding Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting systems trying to identify the most suitable methodology to use in clinical practice for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. A review of the English literature was conducted, and data were analyzed and summarized and integrated from the authors’ perspective. The main purpose of thyroid FNA is to identify patients with higher risk for malignancy, and to prevent unnecessary surgeries for benign conditions. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the most widely used system for the diagnosis of thyroid FNA specimens. This system also contains guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of indeterminate or suspicious for malignancy cases. In conclusion, patients who require repeated FNAs for indeterminate diagnoses will be resolved by repeat FNA in a percentage of 72%-80%. PMID:26881190

  11. Cytopathologic diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Misiakos, Evangelos P; Margari, Niki; Meristoudis, Christos; Machairas, Nickolas; Schizas, Dimitrios; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Machairas, Anastasios

    2016-02-16

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an important diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid lesions. Several systems have been proposed for the cyropathologic diagnosis of the thyroid nodules. However cases with indeterminate cytological findings still remain a matter of debate. In this review we analyze all literature regarding Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting systems trying to identify the most suitable methodology to use in clinical practice for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. A review of the English literature was conducted, and data were analyzed and summarized and integrated from the authors' perspective. The main purpose of thyroid FNA is to identify patients with higher risk for malignancy, and to prevent unnecessary surgeries for benign conditions. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the most widely used system for the diagnosis of thyroid FNA specimens. This system also contains guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of indeterminate or suspicious for malignancy cases. In conclusion, patients who require repeated FNAs for indeterminate diagnoses will be resolved by repeat FNA in a percentage of 72%-80%. PMID:26881190

  12. Efficacy of liquid-based cytology versus conventional smears in FNA samples

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Kalpalata; Misra, Aparajita; Ghosh, Joydip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is fast becoming a useful method in evaluating both gynecological and non-gynecological preparations, including fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Even distribution of cells, decreasing obscuring background elements like blood and mucus, well preserved nuclear and cytoplasmic details and rapid fixation helps in better visualization of cells. Aim: This study was conducted to asses the diagnostic accuracy of liquid–based cytology versus conventional smears in fine needle aspiration samples. Study Design: In this prospective study, we had 110 cases, including 30 cases of breast, 40 of lymph node, 10 of salivary glands, 18 of thyroid and 12 of bone and soft tissue. In each case, two passes were performed. The first pass was for conventional preparation (CP) and the second pass yielded material for thin-prep (TP) preparation. Both CP and TP smears were compared for cellularity, background blood and necrotic cell debris, cell architecture, informative background, presence of a monolayer of cells and nuclear and cytoplasmic details by a semiquantitative scoring system. Wilcoxon's signed rank test on an SPSS program was used for statistical analysis. Results: Diagnostic accuracy was better in LBC smears compared with CP smears due to lack of background debris and better cell morphology, which was performed according to Wilcoxon's signed rank test, yielding a P-value of <0.001. However, in some cases, because of a decrease in cell size, clustering and altered background in LBC, a support of CP was essential. Conclusion: LBC performed on FNA samples can be a simple and valuable technique. Only in few selected cases, where background factor is an essential diagnostic clue, a combination of both CP and TP is necessary. PMID:25948938

  13. Supersymmetry: aspirations and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tata, Xerxes

    2015-10-01

    The realization in the early 1980s that weak scale supersymmetry stabilizes the Higgs sector of the spectacularly successful Standard Model (SM) led several authors to explore whether low energy supersymmetry could play a role in particle physics. Among these were Richard Arnowitt, Ali Chamseddine and Pran Nath who constructed a viable locally supersymmetric grand unified theory (GUT), laying down the foundation for supergravity GUT models of particle physics. Supergravity models continue to be explored as one of the most promising extensions of the SM. After a quick overview of some of the issues and aspirations of early researchers working to bring supersymmetry into the mainstream of particle physics, we re-examine early arguments that seemed to imply that superpartners would be revealed in experiments at LEP2 or at the Tevatron. Our purpose is to assess whether the absence of any superpartners in searches at LHC8 presents a crisis for supersymmetry. Toward this end, we re-evaluate fine-tuning arguments that lead to upper bounds on (some) superpartner masses. We conclude that phenomenologically viable superpartner spectra that could arise within a high scale model tuned no worse than a few percent are perfectly possible. While no viable underlying model of particle physics that leads to such spectra has yet emerged, we show that the (supergravity-based) radiatively driven natural supersymmetry framework serves as a surrogate for a phenomenological analysis of an underlying theory with modest fine-tuning. We outline the phenomenological implications of this framework, with emphasis on those LHC and electron-positron collider signatures that might point to the underlying natural origin of gauge and Higgs boson masses. We conclude that the supergravity GUT paradigm laid down in 1982 by Arnowitt, Chamseddine and Nath, and others, remains a vibrant possibility.

  14. Synchronous Ipsilateral Parotid Tumors with Cytologic-Histologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjan, Kristina; Groth, John V; Patel, Tushar N; Guzman, Grace; David, Odile; Cabay, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Synchronous ipsilateral tumor formation within a major salivary gland is a very rare event. In this case, a 54-year-old female tobacco smoker presented with a slowly enlarging left parotid gland. Computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a solid mass superficial to a cystic mass in the deep lobe of the gland. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration yielded oncocytic cells, lymphoid cells, and granular debris along with rare cohesive groups of basaloid cells. Parotidectomy was performed, and the resected gland was found to contain two adjacent but distinct masses. One mass, a predominantly solid, well-circumscribed lesion composed of ribbons of double-layered oncocytic cells and a lymphoid stroma with germinal center formation, was a Warthin tumor. The other mass, a predominantly cystic lesion composed of cords and nests of basaloid cells with associated deposits of basement membrane-like material, was a basal cell adenoma of the membranous type. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous Warthin tumor and basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland with cytologic-histologic correlation attributable to each tumor. PMID:26440804

  15. Horrifying Basal Cell Carcinoma: Cytological, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing and frequently occurring tumor of the eyelids. Among BCC cases, there is a subtype of aggressive cases called horrifying BCC (HBCC). There are also rare BCC cases that show neuroendocrine differentiation. Here, we describe a case of HBCC with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient, a 41-year-old woman, presented with abnormal left eye tearing and left cheek pain. On computed tomography imaging, a tumor that extended to the left orbit was detected in the left cheek. On cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples, the tumor cells were observed as sheet-like clusters and single bare nuclei with a clear background; peripheral palisading was not clearly seen. On examination of the biopsy specimen taken after FNA, the tumor was found to be composed of cancer cell nests with scattered peripheral palisading in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CD56 and were negative for CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Membrane-bound dense-core granules were detected on ultrastructural study. A HBCC case with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been previously reported. The correlation between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in HBCC and patient prognosis should be further studied. PMID:25120472

  16. Metastases to the Pancreas Encountered on Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided, Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pang, Judy C; Roh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic lesions in the pancreas are very uncommon and may be difficult to differentiate from the more commonly encountered primary neoplasms derived from the exocrine and endocrine pancreas because of the significant overlap in clinical presentation, imaging, and cytologic features. Metastasis to the pancreas may occur years after treatment of the primary neoplasm and is often not considered on initial evaluation because of the rarity of such events. The possibility of a metastasis to the pancreas should be entertained in patients with any prior history of malignancy because a proper diagnosis is essential in identifying surgical candidates, or avoiding potentially unnecessary surgery and facilitating triage to more appropriate nonoperative therapy. Herein, we describe intrapancreatic metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung carcinoma, as documented by cytologic examination of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the pancreatic masses. PMID:26414469

  17. NASAL cytology: practical aspects and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Quaranta, N; Landi, M; Passalacqua, G

    2016-06-01

    Nasal cytology is a simple and safe diagnostic procedure that allows to assess the normal and pathological aspects of the nasal mucosa, by identifying and counting the cell types and their morphology. It can be easily performed by a nasal scraping followed by May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining and optical microscopy reading. This procedure allows to identify the normal cells (ciliated and mucinous), the inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells), bacteria, or fungal hyphae/spores. Apart from the normal cell population, some specific cytological patterns can be of help in discriminating among various diseases. Viral infections, allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis and overlapping forms can be easily identified. According to the predominant cell type, various entities can be defined (named as NARES, NARESMA, NARMA). This implies a more detailed knowledge and assessment of the disease that can integrate the standard diagnostic procedures. Nasal cytology also represents a useful research tool for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27009397

  18. Utilization of ancillary studies in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Layfield, Lester J.; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. Currently, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the pre-operative classification of pancreatic cysts. A number of gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, von Hippel-Lindau, RNF43 and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:25191518

  19. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Martha B; Centeno, Barbara A; Ali, Syed Z; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del; Schmidt, C Max; Brugge, William R; Layfield, Lester J

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the "neoplastic" category separated into "benign" (serous cystadenoma) or "other" (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility for patient management, which has become increasingly conservative for some neoplasms. PMID:25191517

  20. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Martha B; Centeno, Barbara A; Ali, Syed Z; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Max Schmidt, C; Brugge, William; Layfield, Lester

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site (www.papsociety.org). This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Nondiagnostic, Negative, Atypical, Neoplastic (benign or other), Suspicious and Positive. Unique to this scheme is the "Neoplastic" category separated into "benign" (serous cystadenoma), or "Other" (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors, and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma, and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility for patient management, which has become increasingly conservative for some neoplasms. PMID:24554455

  1. Preanalytic parameters in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation testing for non-small cell lung carcinoma: A review of cytologic series.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Saieg, Mauro Ajaj

    2015-11-01

    The results from molecular assays can be affected significantly by the preanalytic condition of cytologic samples. The authors review current knowledge on the use of cytologic samples for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer with a focus on preanalytic parameters. A systematic electronic search of the MEDLINE database was performed to identify original articles that reported the use of cytologic samples for EGFR molecular analysis and included a minimum of 100 samples. The information collected included author(s), journal, and year of publication; number of patients and samples; sampling method; type of preparation; type of fixative; staining techniques; mutation analysis techniques; tumor cellularity; the percentage of tumor cells; data on DNA quantity, quality, and concentration; failed assays; and the mutation rate. EGFR mutation analysis was conducted on 4999 cytologic samples from 22 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fine-needle aspirates and pleural effusions were the most common types of specimens used. DNA was mainly extracted from cell blocks and smears, and the most commonly reported fixatives included formalin, ethanol, and CytoLyt. Cellularity assessments and DNA yields were available from 5 studies each. The average success rate for the assays that used cytologic specimens was 95.87% (range, 85.2%-100%). The mutation rate ranged from 6% to 50.46%, and a higher mutation detection rate and lower numbers of insufficient cases were reported for pleural effusions and lymph node samples from endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with histologic specimens. Low cellularity and a low percentage of tumor cells were associated with higher test failure rates. Future guidelines should consider the current data for specific recommendations regarding cytologic samples. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2015;123:633-643. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26288231

  2. [Contributions to the morphological basis of the cytology of the respiratory tract (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, P; Sygula, E; Bernhardt-Huth, D

    1978-01-01

    It is reported on 275 cases treated for bronchial carcinoma at the Surgical Departement of Düsseldorf University between 1970 and 1974. In all cases cytological as well as histological methods were used for diagnosis. These cases are complemented by 60 cases selected under cytological aspects from other sources. Localization by X-ray proved a central tumor in 11% and tumors in the different lobes in 89% of the cases. Tumors were more frequent in the upper lobes (54%) than in the lower lobes (30%), and more frequent in the right lung (58%) than in the left (42%). Cytological smears were positive or suspicious in 77% of the central carcinoma and in 60 and 56% in cases of roentgenologically peripheral localization. There is no difference found between tumors in the upper and lower lobes. Bronchial secretion renders less positive results for all histological types. This indicates a small area of origin for the cells investigated by this method. Metaplastic cell changes were observed in one third of all cases involving all histological types equally. Operation was possible in only 30% of the cytologically diagnosed cases in comparison to 52% of all cases. The 60 selected cases were composed of 48 primary and twelve secondary tumors. Probatory excision had been performed in 50%, 8% remaining negative even after repetition. 33% could only be verified by autopsy corresponding to 29% with sputa, bronchial aspirate and pleural effusion positive at the same time and therefore regarded as late stages. Negative results can be caused by fibrosis as well as obstruction, fibrosis not being a regular result of treatment with X rays. Differentiation of tumor types is possible in cytological smears. Sometimes differences in the same tumor are evident and occasionally the tumor type can be more distinct in the cytological preparations. Metastatic tumor cells are open to false classification. Tumor and tuberculosis were found in four of sixty cases. One false positive result was caused by cells ressembling cases of experimentally induced bronchiolization of alveoli by different noxa. PMID:686983

  3. Evaluation of lymphoid cell populations in cytology specimens using flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B; Risberg, B; Berner, A; Smeland, E B; Torlakovic, E

    1999-12-01

    Differential diagnosis between lymphomas and reactive lymphoid proliferations often requires ancillary techniques and morphologic evaluation. Flow cytometry (FCM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can aid the detection of monoclonal B-cell populations. In the present study, the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods in the study of cytology specimens were compared. Eighty-six cytologic specimens from 81 patients (lymph nodes, solid organs, and body cavities) were evaluated. These specimens were taken from three groups of patients: those who underwent an initial evaluation for suspected lymphoma; those who were previously diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma and were now evaluated for possible disease recurrence; and those who were diagnosed with a nonhematologic malignancy. Histologic diagnosis was available for 51 samples. All samples were tested by FCM for the detection of monoclonality using kappa:lambda ratio and for clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements using a single-round PCR after cytologic evaluation. Tissue morphology, FCM and PCR results, and clinical findings in specimens without histologic diagnosis were correlated. Histologic evaluation (N = 51) revealed 44 specimens with B-cell malignancy. Twenty of the 44 lymphoma specimens (45%) were accurately diagnosed in cytologic smears, 18 (41%) were classified as suspicious of lymphoma, and 6 (14%) were diagnosed as reactive. FCM had superior sensitivity compared with PCR (77% vs. 64%). Fifty-six percent of specimens with B-cell malignancy were FCM+/PCR+, 23% were FCM+/PCR-, 14% were FCM-/PCR+, and 7% were FCM-/PCR-. The combined use of FCM and PCR resulted in a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma in 41 (93%) of 44 B-cell lymphoma specimens and increased the sensitivity of fine needle aspiration by 48%. Both FCM and PCR aid in the diagnosis of lymphoid lesions in cytology specimens, and both can detect monoclonal B-cell populations that may be interpreted in cytology smears as reactive, even by experienced cytologists. Although FCM had higher sensitivity than PCR test in the present study, their combined use should be considered because of a relatively large number of specimens that were detected as monoclonal only with PCR. PMID:10617274

  4. Determination of the Optimal Time Interval for Repeat Evaluation After a Benign Thyroid Nodule Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nou, Eric; Kwong, Norra; Alexander, Lukas K.; Cibas, Edmund S.; Marqusee, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The optimal timing for repeat evaluation of a cytologically benign thyroid nodule greater than 1 cm is uncertain. Arguably, the most important determinant is the disease-specific mortality resulting from an undetected thyroid cancer. Presently there exist no data that evaluate this important end point. Methods: We studied the long-term status of all patients evaluated in our thyroid nodule clinic between 1995 and 2003 with initially benign fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. The follow-up interval was defined from the time of the initial benign FNA to any one of the following factors: thyroidectomy, death, or the most recent clinic visit documented anywhere in our health care system. We sought to determine the optimal timing for repeat assessment based on the identification of falsely benign malignancy and, most important, disease-related mortality due to a missed diagnosis. Results: One thousand three hundred sixty-nine patients with 2010 cytologically benign nodules were followed up for an average of 8.5 years (range 0.25–18 y). Thirty deaths were documented, although zero were attributed to thyroid cancer. Eighteen false-negative thyroid malignancies were identified and removed at a mean 4.5 years (range 0.3–10 y) after the initial benign aspiration. None had distant metastasis, and all are alive presently at an average of 11 years after the initial falsely benign FNA. Separate analysis demonstrates that patients with initially benign nodules who subsequently sought thyroidectomy for compressive symptoms did so an average of 4.5 years later. Conclusions: An initially benign FNA confers negligable mortality risk during long-term follow-up despite a low risk of identifying several such nodules as thyroid cancer. Because such malignancies appear adequately treated despite detection at a mean 4.5 years after falsely benign cytology, these data support a recommendation for repeat thyroid nodule evaluation 2–4 years after the initial benign FNA. PMID:24276452

  5. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  6. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  7. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  9. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  11. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  12. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  13. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  16. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and...

  17. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

  19. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap...

  20. Diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma: computed tomography, sonography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, K.; Raptopoulos, V.; Reale, F.; Krolikowski, F.J.; D'Orsi, C.J.; Graham, S.; Smith, E.H.

    1983-06-01

    The diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma was made prospectively and noninvasively in four patients with the use of sonography, computed tomography, and sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The imaging methods revealed information similar to the operative findings, with clear superiority of computed tomography over sonography. These noninvasive methods may be used as screening tools, especially among groups or in regional areas with a high risk for asbestos exposure. The findings included soft-tissue masses with invariable involvement of the omentum; small intraperitoneal nodules; thickened peritoneum, mesentery, and bowel wall; pleural plaques; and usually minimal, if any, ascites. Since the differential diagnosis from peritoneal carcinomatosis may be difficult, sonographically (or CT) guided aspiration biopsy is needed to produce diagnostic cytologic specimens. The use of this type of biopsy should obviate surgical exploration.

  1. Myxoid liposarcoma of the anterior mediastinum. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Attal, H; Jensen, J; Reyes, C V

    1995-01-01

    The mediastinum is an uncommon primary site of liposarcoma, which constitutes < 1% of tumors at that site. We report a case of myxoid liposarcoma evaluated with fine needle aspiration biopsy in a 66-year-old male who presented with cardiac tamponade, superior vena cava syndrome and radiologic evidence of a large anterior mediastinal mass. Cytologically the neoplastic cells were strikingly dyscohesive, with ovoid or spindle-shaped, hyperchromatic nuclei. The cytoplasm was abundant and often finely vacuolated with lipid. They were associated with a prominent myxoid, intercellular substance and distinct, arborized capillary structures. Survival is influenced by the tumor cell type and differentiation. The overall prognosis seems to be poorer than that of liposarcomas occurring in other areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary mediastinal liposarcoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:7762343

  2. Effect of suction on specimen size in fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J; Virkkunen, P; Bondestam, S

    1990-11-01

    High incidences of unsatisfactory specimens in fine-needle aspiration biopsy for cytology have been reported previously. Inappropriate aspiration techniques may account partly for this. In this study, the effect of suction on specimen size was studied in vitro using an automatic sampler. Bovine liver, testis, and pig's kidney were used as target tissues and biopsies were performed with 18-, 20- and 22-gauge needles. Specimen weight increased rapidly and linearly with suction force (P less than .001), regardless of the target tissue or needle diameter, when standard needle movement was applied. In the absence of needle movement, the suction force, rate of increase of suction, and duration of suction had no effect on the weight of the specimens. Needle movement alone, without suction, also produced meager specimens. Suction alone does not seem to tear fragments off target tissues. Nevertheless, in combination with needle movement, suction force plays an important role in the determination of specimen size. PMID:2254053

  3. Cytologic diagnosis of adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma in a lung cancer patient: Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Anna S.; Koizumi, June H.; Giorgadze, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare type of pheochromocytoma. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first cytological diagnosis of this variant via fine-needle aspiration in an 81-year-old male patient who was found to have an adrenal mass while undergoing workup of the recently diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma. We describe the cytomorphologic findings in our case and provide a review of the reported cases of adrenal oncocytic pheochromocytoma all of which appear to be benign, nonfunctional, occur in adults, and have similar morphologic features. The pathologist should be aware of this uncommon diagnostic entity and its potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:25838834

  4. Comparison of the performance of anal cytology and cervical cytology as screening tests.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer Margaret; Thurloe, Julia Kathleen

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cytology screening has a long history and has successfully reduced the impact of cervical cancer in many countries. Anal cytology is a relative newcomer and anal screening is currently offered in only a few centres around the world. Many questions need to be answered before anal screening is more widely adopted. While there are many similarities between cervical and anal squamous cell carcinoma, there are also important differences: differences in the prevalence of disease, in the 'at-risk' target populations and possibly in the robustness of the reference standard of biopsy. The performance of cytology as a screening test in the literature varies widely but it is essential to understand that some of this variability is due to differences in the definitions of key parameters in the various studies. For cervical screening, estimates of sensitivity have ranged from 19% to 94% and specificity from 94% to 98%. For anal screening, data are fewer and more limited. Estimates of the sensitivity of anal cytology in men who have sex with men and HIV-positive populations have ranged from 55% to 87% and specificity from 37% to 76%. Ultimately, rather than comparing anal with cervical cytology, it may be more helpful to assess the value of anal cytology independently through well designed trials. PMID:22951325

  5. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of metastatic malignant mesothelioma with myxoid change and signet ring cells: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manisha M.; Farver, Carol F.; Chute, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare neoplasm, which is most commonly encountered in cytology through effusion specimens. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of MM, particularly the epithelioid subtype, can be a source of diagnostic difficulty and may mimic sampling of an adenocarcinoma. This is the first case report to demonstrate abundant extracellular myxoid material and numerous intracellular vacuoles, including signet ring cells, in a fine needle aspirate of metastatic MM. A review of the literature for myxoid change and vacuoles in fine needle aspiration biopsies of MM discloses that vacuoles are found in up to 35% of aspirates of MM, but myxoid change is very rare, reported in <5% of the cases. Cytologists should be aware of this rare morphologic pattern of metastatic epithelioid MM. PMID:27014364

  6. Liposuction: more curettage than aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    1991-01-01

    After infiltration with epinephrine solution in each adipose area, an 8- or 10-mm cannula, without the suction tube connected, was introduced. With a curettage maneuver and by directing the cannula upward, the fat began to come out spontaneously. After obtaining a considerable amount of fat, the suction tube was connected and the remaining fat tissue aspirated at low suction power (250 mm Hg). With this curettage maneuver adiposity of the abdomen, knees, and trochanteric areas can be reduced. However, in the back, buttocks, or thighs, where adiposity is more fibrous, aspiration is needed from the start in almost every case, but always at low-power suction. This procedure is indicated in particular for the face and neck and for secondary liposuction. The fact that fat comes out easily through the cannula (without suction) demonstrates that the curettage maneuver is more important than the aspiration. Only with curettage can a considerable amount of fat be removed. No fat is removed when aspiration of 1 atm without a curettage maneuver is used. Suction only helps to remove fat already mobilized and free in the cannula. Our experience includes 34 patients. PMID:1897413

  7. Aspiring Teachers Take up Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishall

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Teacher Residency program is a yearlong, selective preparation route that trains aspiring teachers, many of them career-changers, to take on jobs in some of the city's highest-needs schools. The program, which fits neither of the two most common types of teacher preparation--alternative routes and traditional teacher education…

  8. Career Aspirations in Cataclysmic Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Susan L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses children's career aspirations from viewpoints of literature on children's career notions and psychological impact of nuclear threat on young. Presents terminologies of two-stage theories of career development as conceptual link between these disparate areas of inquiry. Suggests nuclear threat literature reveals pertinent variables for

  9. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  10. Crowning achievement: a case of dental aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Nicholas M.; Lessing, Juan N.; Çoruh, Başak

    2015-01-01

    Aspiration of foreign bodies during dental procedures is a rare but potentially serious complication. We present a case of a 75-year-old man who aspirated a dental crown requiring flexible bronchoscopic retrieval. We discuss the risk factors for aspiration, the radiographic features of diagnosis, and the techniques for management and retrieval. PMID:26649115

  11. Measurement of TFF3 mRNA in aspirates from thyroid nodules using mesh filtration: the first clinical trial in 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroya; Takano, Toru; Kihara, Minoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hidaka, Yoh; Miyauchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of gene expression levels in thyroid tumor cells in aspirates was difficult because it is interfered with peripheral blood cells or infiltrating lymphocytes. In this study, we established a novel method to separate thyroid tumor cells from blood cells efficiently with mesh filtration. The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA was estimated using LGALS3 mRNA as an internal control (T/G ratio) in 148 preoperative thyroid aspirates. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of T/G ratio for high, moderate, and low samples were 6.5%, 2.5%, and 9.7%, respectively, and inter-assay CV for high, moderate, and low samples were 27.7%, 21.9%, and 38.2%, respectively. Nondiagnostic samples in terms of T/G ratio and cytology were 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. We observed no interference with the data by contaminating blood cells. Among these patients, 12 patients received more than two repeated aspirations. We did not observe a marked day-to-day variation except in two cases. All 13 preoperative aspirates diagnosed as malignant by cytology showed an extremely low T/G ratio, whereas 93 aspirates diagnosed as benign by cytology showed extremely varied T/G ratios and 21.5% of them showed a T/G ratio below the cut-off value. Eleven cases underwent surgery. All nodules showing a low T/G ratio were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma by pathological diagnosis. However, one nodule diagnosed as follicular adenoma after surgery showed a high T/G ratio. Our present method may be a promising preoperative test for measuring mRNAs in thyroid aspirates. PMID:22572548

  12. Low interobserver agreement in cytology grading of mucinous pancreatic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Carlie; Edelweiss, Marcia; Tong, Leung Chu; Magda, Joanna; Oen, Handy; Sigel, Keith; Zakowski, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying high grade features in pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (MN) is important for patient management. It is not clear if MNs can be graded with reproducibility in routine practice. We evaluated interobserver variability in grading MNs and identification of neoplastic mucin in endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA). Methods We created a 54 case grading set from histologically confirmed MNs (N=44) and nonmucinous lesions (NML) with abundant gastrointestinal contamination (N=10). Six observers received a tutorial, reviewed pre-screened slides, and recorded: 1) a diagnosis according to a 6-tiered system (TS) (nondiagnostic (NDX), atypical (ATP), mucinous cyst low grade (LG), mucinous cyst high grade (HG), suspicious for adenocarcinoma (SSPA), positive for adenocarcinoma (PA)); 2) a diagnosis with cyst fluid CEA (CEADX); and 3) the presence of neoplastic mucin. Interobserver agreement (IOA ) was evaluated by calculation of Kappa coefficients. Diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated. Results IOA was lowest for 6-TS (K=0.13, P<.001). CEADX was available for 18 (33%) cases, including 6/24 (25%) of LG. CEADX modestly improved IOA for combined tiers of the 6-TS with ATP and LG as separate categories. The highest IOA was with a 3-TS (NDX, ATP/LG, HG/SSPA/PA; K=0.28, P<.001) and various 4-TS (K=0.22-0.23). IOA was low for neoplastic mucin (K=0.15, P<.001). Conclusions In a study using simulated cytology practice, observers showed fair IOA for grading MNs and low IOA for identifying neoplastic mucin. Knowledge of cyst fluid CEA level modestly improved IOA for low grade lesions. PMID:25355052

  13. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. PMID:22807408

  14. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  15. Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

  16. Cytological diagnosis of lymphoma in serous effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, A I; Vanhegan, R I

    1981-01-01

    A consecutive series is presented of 100 cases of malignant lymphoma in which a correlation could be made between the histological findings and the cytology of pleural or peritoneal fluid or both. Using the Kiel classification, 80 cases could be given a histological label, while 20 remain unclassified. In those cases in which lymphoma cells were identifiable in the serous fluid, their morphology was studied and was found in general to correlate well with the cell-type expected from the histology. It is not claimed that the type of lymphoma can be reliably diagnosed from the cytology of pleural or peritoneal fluid, but an opinion can be provided as to the grade (high or low), and in some cases it is also possible to give an indication of the cell-type involved. Images PMID:6895757

  17. Value of quantitative nucleolar features in the preoperative cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasias of the thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Montironi, R; Braccischi, A; Scarpelli, M; Matera, G; Alberti, R

    1991-01-01

    Nucleolar prevalence, size, and outline were investigated on cytological material from cold thyroid nodules obtained by fine needle aspiration. The percentage of nucleolated nuclei in follicular adenoma (32 cases) was less than in follicular carcinoma (26 cases). In adenoma most nuclei contained one nucleolus, and nuclei with two or more nucleoli were less common than in carcinoma where most cases showed the highest nucleolar diameter values. There was some overlap between adenomas and carcinomas, however, when the mean of the 10 largest values of the major nucleolar diameter was considered. In follicular carcinoma the percentage of marginated nucleoli--that is, those touching the nuclear membrane--was, in general, greater than 20%; in adenoma the values were equal to or lower than 16%. The overlap index showed that the percentages of marginated nucleoli and nucleolated nuclei are the two best discriminatory features between adenoma and carcinoma. PMID:2066431

  18. MR-guided fine needle aspiration of breast lesions: Initial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, D.S.; Weinreb, J.C.; Newstead, G.; Flyer, M.; Bose, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive procedure that is used to obtain cytologic specimens of suspicious lesions in the breast. The goal of this study was to evaluate the logistics and limitations of MR-guided FNA using a prototype breast localization coil. MR-guided FNAs were attempted on 18 lesions (detected on mammography and/or palpation) in 16 patients. Patients were prone with their compressed mediolaterally between two plates in a circularly polarized RF coil. Lesion position was determined by reference to fiducial makers that corresponded to a grid of holes placed at 5 mm intervals in compression plate. FNA was performed with a 22G non-ferromagnetic needle. FNA was successful for 11 of 18 lesions (61%). Of the seven unsuccessful cases, there were four in which the lesions were too posteriorly placed to be accessed through the compression plate by the needle. Three cases were too anteriorly placed to be effectively immobilized and, although successfully localized, were insufficiently sampled by the FNA technique. MR-guided FNA is possible using a prototype breast localization device in a select group of patients. Current coil design limits its use in performing MR-guided FNA on the most anteriorly and posteriorly placed breast lesions. Unique requirements of FNA under MR guidance as compared to needle localization and biopsy have been identified. Modifications in localization hardware and cytology aspiration needles should overcome these restrictions. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Time for evidence-based cytology.

    PubMed

    Dey, Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC) is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed. PMID:17210074

  20. Time for evidence-based cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC) is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed. PMID:17210074

  1. Postbrushing and fine-needle aspiration biopsy follow-up and treatment options for patients with pancreatobiliary lesions: the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kurtycz, Daniel; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Michaels, Claire; Young, Nancy; Schmidt, C Max; Farrell, James; Gopal, Deepak; Simeone, Diane; Merchant, Nipun B; Field, Andrew; Pitman, Martha Bishop

    2014-04-01

    The papanicolaou society of cytopathology (PSC) has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology, ancillary testing, and postprocedure management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the PSC web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on the follow-up and treatment options for patients after procedures performed for obtaining cytology samples for the evaluation of biliary strictures and solid and cystic masses in the pancreas. These recommendations follow the six-tiered terminology and nomenclature scheme proposed by Committee III. PMID:24639399

  2. Organisms in an aspirate from an ulcerated mass: etiologic agent or mass-querade?

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Jacqueline

    2005-06-01

    Smears prepared from a fine-needle aspirate of an ulcerated, dermal mass between the digits of a 9-month-old Bull Terrier puppy revealed a moderately cellular, mixed-cell inflammation with numerous extracellular organisms. The organisms were 3-8 microm in length, curved to oval in shape, with prominent nuclei, and (retrospectively) a rare single, narrow-based bud. The cytologic diagnosis was mycotic dermatitis due to infection with an unusual yeast. Histologic sections of the lesion showed pyogranulomatous inflammation without evidence of an infectious organism. Contamination of the cytologic smears was suspected to have taken place in the clinical pathology laboratory and was confirmed by the isolation of a yeast with identical microscopic features from a cactus located on a windowsill near the work bench. The yeast was cultured and identified as Rhodotorula minuta, an airborne contaminant and ubiquitous saprophyte. It can be difficult to differentiate external contamination from infection when interpreting a cytologic specimen, however, it is important to do so, especially for unusual or opportunistic pathogens. PMID:15902671

  3. Cytological features of clear cell thyroid tumors, including a papillary thyroid carcinoma with prominent hobnail features.

    PubMed

    Yang, Grace C H; Fried, Karen; Scognamiglio, Theresa

    2013-09-01

    Primary thyroid tumors with extensive clear cell changes are extremely rare. More than 10,000 ultrasound-guided thyroid fine needle aspirations examined over a period of 17 years by the first author, only one of the 530 (<0.2%) papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and three of the 42 (7.1%) follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) had extensive cytoplasmic clearing. Thyroidectomies were performed for these cases at four different hospitals in New York City. Final pathology was available for review in each of the four cases. Histology showed a 1.5-cm PTC with prominent hobnail features and clear cell change in a 31-year-old woman, a 4.3-cm FTC without angioinvasion in a 31-year-old woman, a 4.5-cm angioinvasive FTC in a 45-year-old man, and a 2-cm FTC with extensive angioinvasion in a 41-year-old woman with McCune-Albright syndrome (previously published). On ultrasound, the FTCs were solid circumscribed nodules and the PTC had an irregular margin. In these cases, the etiology for the cytoplasmic clearing included accumulation of glycogen in the PTC, accumulation of vesicles in two of the FTCs, and accumulation of lipid droplets in a FTC with extensive angioinvasion. Review of the cytologic literature showed 17 cases of follicular-derived thyroid tumors with extensive clear cell change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cytologic report of PTC with hobnail features and extensive clear cell change. PMID:23166112

  4. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of thyroid nodules: comparison with cytologic and histologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Tomimori, Eduardo K; Bisi, Helio; Medeiros-Neto, Geraldo; Camargo, Rosalinda Y A de

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate our ultrasonographic classification of thyroid nodules, based on echo structure, echogenicity, calcification, margin and analysis of the surrounding parenchyma. From January 1998 to January 2002, 2,468 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules were referred for thyroid ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (USFNAB) in our Thyroid Unit. Among 1,039 nodules classified as benign on ultrasound, 998 (96.1%) were also benign on cytology, 37 (3.6%) were suspicious and only 4 (0.4%) were malignant. On the other hand, among 153 nodules classified as suspicious on ultrasound, 20 (13.1%) were suspicious and 88 (57,5%) were malignant on cytology. Of the 71 nodules suspicious on ultrasound submitted to surgery, 67 (94.3%) were malignant and 56 (96.6%) of 58 nodules considered benign were benign on pathologic studies. In conclusion, we advocate USFNAB in nodules classified as indeterminate or suspicious. Nodules classified as benign may be followed up at periodic intervals. PMID:15611823

  5. Kba.62 and S100 protein expression in cytologic samples of metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Erdag, Gulsun; Chowdhuri, Sinchita Roy; Fetsch, Patricia; Erickson, Dana; Hughes, Marybeth S; Filie, Armando C

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of melanoma can be challenging, especially in metastatic lesions, due to the ability of melanoma cells to morphologically mimic carcinoma, sarcoma and even lymphoma cells. Moreover, melanomas can exhibit negative immunostaining for the melanoma markers HMB-45 and MART-1/Melan-A, often used in the diagnosis of this tumor. KBA.62 is a recently described antibody that reacts with benign and malignant melanocytic proliferations. In this study, we report our experience with KBA.62 and S100 protein immunostaining in the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma on fine-needle aspiration and effusion samples. We reviewed 60 cytology samples from 58 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our results showed that KBA.62 stained 75% of the cases and S100 protein 87% of the cases. KBA.62 and S100 protein stained the majority of metastatic melanomas that were negative for HMB-45 and MART-1; KBA.62 stained 73% of the cases and S100 protein 73% of the cases. The majority (85%) of the cases negative for HMB-45 and MART-1 were positive for KBA.62 and/or S100 protein. Additionally, we also observed that KBA.62 staining was positive in the majority of epithelioid and spindle cell type melanoma cells. In conclusion, the performances of KBA.62 and S100 protein were similar and both markers are useful in the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma in cytology material, especially when the tumor cells lack expression of HMB-45 and MART-1. PMID:23554410

  6. Preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis by clinical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Katsuya; Nakajima, Hisayoshi; Khan, Khaleque N; Tanigawa, Terumi; Hamaguchi, Daisuke; Kitajima, Michio; Hiraki, Koichi; Moriyama, Shingo; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this work was to investigate whether clinical cytology could be useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis. Methods This study involved the prospective collection of samples derived from the endometrium and the uterine cervix, and retrospective data analysis. Nine patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic actinomycosis were enrolled. The clinical and hematological characteristics of patients were recorded, and detection of actinomyces was performed by cytology, pathology, and bacteriological culture of samples and by imprint intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) cytology. Results The detection rate of actinomyces was 77.7% by combined cervical and endometrial cytology, 50.0% by pathology, and 11.1% by bacterial culture. Conclusion The higher detection rate of actinomyces by cytology than by pathology or bacteriology suggests that careful cytological examination may be clinically useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis. PMID:23071423

  7. SHOX2 DNA Methylation is a Biomarker for the diagnosis of lung cancer based on bronchial aspirates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to show that SHOX2 DNA methylation is a tumor marker in patients with suspected lung cancer by using bronchial fluid aspirated during bronchoscopy. Such a biomarker would be clinically valuable, especially when, following the first bronchoscopy, a final diagnosis cannot be established by histology or cytology. A test with a low false positive rate can reduce the need for further invasive and costly procedures and ensure early treatment. Methods Marker discovery was carried out by differential methylation hybridization (DMH) and real-time PCR. The real-time PCR based HeavyMethyl technology was used for quantitative analysis of DNA methylation of SHOX2 using bronchial aspirates from two clinical centres in a case-control study. Fresh-frozen and Saccomanno-fixed samples were used to show the tumor marker performance in different sample types of clinical relevance. Results Valid measurements were obtained from a total of 523 patient samples (242 controls, 281 cases). DNA methylation of SHOX2 allowed to distinguish between malignant and benign lung disease, i.e. abscesses, infections, obstructive lung diseases, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, stenoses, at high specificity (68% sensitivity [95% CI 62-73%], 95% specificity [95% CI 91-97%]). Conclusions Hypermethylation of SHOX2 in bronchial aspirates appears to be a clinically useful tumor marker for identifying subjects with lung carcinoma, especially if histological and cytological findings after bronchoscopy are ambiguous. PMID:21047392

  8. Role of Needle Aspiration in Diagnosis and Management of Suppurative Bacille Calmette–Guerin Adenitis: An Institutional Study of 30 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Subrata; Chakarabarti, Srabani; Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Biswas, Sudhanya; Sinha, Anuradha; Sinha, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Context: Regional lymphadenitis is the most common complication of bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination. Most of the BCG lymphadenitis cases are nonsuppurative, but some suppurate and follow abscess formation, rupture, ulceration and cicatrization. Needle aspiration is the rapid, safe and cost-effective method for diagnosis as well as management of suppurative BCG adenitis. Aims: The aims of the present study were to assess the clinical and cytological spectrum of BCG lymphadenitis and to evaluate the role of needle aspiration in the management of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. Settings and Design: We have approached every cases of ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy having history of BCG vaccination. We designed to aspirate the suppurative axillary lymph nodes and follow-up of nonsuppurative cases. Subjects and Methods: 30 cases of BCG adenitis were studied during a period of 2 years. 12 cases of suppurative lymphadenitis were approached by needle aspiration and cytologically evaluated, and all the cases were followed-up for 12 weeks after diagnosis. Anti-tubercular drugs were not applied, and surgical excision was reserved for nonhealing lesions. Statistical Analysis Used: Data tables. Results: Ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes were commonest site and none had constitutional symptoms. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in 11 (91.67%) cases of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. On follow-up all nonsuppurative adenitis were resolved spontaneously, and 8 suppurative lymphadenitis cases were resolved after 4 weeks of needle aspiration. Four cases needed repeat aspiration among which 3 resolved in 8 weeks, and one needed surgical excision. Conclusions: We recommend needle aspiration as a simple, safe, chief and effective modality, which helps in diagnosis as well as in management of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. PMID:25949055

  9. Observations on the application of the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology standardised terminology and nomenclature for pancreaticobiliary cytology.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Madeleine; Newman, Marsali

    2016-06-01

    In 2014 the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) published a system of standardised terminology and nomenclature for pancreaticobiliary cytology (STNPC). In the present study, 232 previously reported pancreaticobiliary cytology specimens were categorised according to this set of guidelines in order to identify potential challenges to implementation of the PSC system into routine practice. Overall, 207 (89%) of the cases were found to comply with the PSC scheme in their original form. Twenty-five cases (11%) demonstrated that the application of the PSC system would result in a change of category. In the majority of these cases, the change was related to the method of categorising low grade and premalignant neoplasms, using the categories of 'Neoplastic: other' (a new category unique to STNPC classification scheme) and 'Atypical', for specimens deemed to be diagnostic of or suspicious for these lesions, respectively. The study also highlighted the emphasis on the inclusion of imaging context and cyst fluid analysis in the interpretation of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration specimens in the guidelines. The STNPC offers an approach to pancreaticobiliary cytology that reflects the considerable variation in the nature and treatment of the entities that may be encountered in these specimens. Challenges in utilisation of the scheme include awareness of the unique approach to the categorisation of premalignant and low grade neoplasms, and the amount and quality of available clinical and imaging information. PMID:27114371

  10. Comparison of Ultrafast Papanicolaou Stain with the Standard Papanicolaou Stain in Body Fluids and Fine Needle Aspiration Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Alwahaibi, Nasar Yousuf; Alsubhi, Mariam Said; Aldairi, Najat; Alshukaili, Amna; Bai, Usha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most cytology laboratories in all Gulf countries including Oman, use the standard papanicolaou (PAP) method to stain various cytological specimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible application of ultrafast PAP (UF-PAP) method in cytology laboratory. Materials and Methods: Samples from 46 patients containing 26 body fluids and 20 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) (9 thyroids and 11 breasts) were collected. Two air dried and two wet smears from each sample were prepared and stained by UF-PAP and the standard PAP stains, respectively. Background, nuclear staining, cell morphology, and overall staining were independently reviewed by two cytoscreeners. Results: In all cases of FNA, UF-PAP stain gave a good score for the background, nuclear staining, cell morphology, and overall staining when compared with the standard PAP method. Although the correct diagnosis was made in all cases of body cavity fluids cases except in one case, UF-PAP stain gave a fewer score in the assessment of body cavity fluid samples. Conclusion: The findings of this study support the use of UF-PAP method in cytology laboratory with a high emphasis on FNA samples. PMID:27013808

  11. Investigating the stationarity of paediatric aspiration signals.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tom; Chau, Doug; Casas, Michael; Berall, Glenn; Kenny, David J

    2005-03-01

    An aspiration signal is the time-varying anterior-posterior acceleration measured infero-anterior to the thyroid notch when foreign material enters the airway during inspiration. The hypothesis of weak stationarity is tested on aspiration signals by the reverse arrangements test. Results indicate that aspiration signals cannot be uniformly regarded as weakly stationary. Forty-five percent of the examined signals violated the stationarity hypothesis. For these signals, time-varying variance and spectral density structure are identified as major sources of nonstationarity. Stationarity test results generally corroborate qualitative clinical descriptions of aspiration. However, stationarity analysis indicates that aspiration signals are highly heterogenous, a finding which poses significant challenges to the automatic detection of aspirations by accelerometry. PMID:15813411

  12. Aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis of benign lesions. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  13. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  14. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth. PMID:26712673

  15. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  16. Cytodiagnosis of Epidermoid Cyst of the Upper Lip: A Common Lesion in an Uncommon Site

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Jalan, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst and dermoid cysts are developmental pathologies thought to derive from aberrant ectodermal tissue. They are uncommon in the head and neck region. Rarely, they can be found in the oral cavity and buccal mucosa. However, epidermoid cyst is extremely uncommon in the upper lip and is rarely reported. In this study, we report an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst occurring in the upper lip diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We present this case because of its extremely rare site of presentation and also to highlight the role of FNAC to in the pre-operative diagnosis of this benign lesion. PMID:24696565

  17. Peripancreatic cystic lymphangioma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound/fine-needle aspiration: a rare mesenchymal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Tanimu, Sabo; Rafiullah; Resnick, Jeffrey; Onitilo, Adedayo A

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of intermittent nausea, vomiting, central abdominal discomfort and a 17-pound weight loss over the past year. Laboratory testing, including a complete blood count with differential, liver function testing, amylase and lipase studies were normal. A CT scan showed a bilobed cystic lesion inferior to the body of the pancreas. An endoscopic ultrasound revealed a 5.3×3.9 cm, anechoic, bilobed cystic lesion, extrinsic to the body of the pancreas with a 1–2 mm septation and a normal pancreas. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a milky-white aspirate with negative cytology. Laboratory assessment of the cystic aspirant revealed carcinoembryonic antigen 1.7 ng/mL, amylase 148 units/L, cholesterol 300 mg/dL, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 3 units/mL. He underwent resection of the mass, with the histopathology confirming a diagnosis of peripancreatic lymphangioma. He did well after the surgery with interval resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24092605

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging assisted with fine needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of fibrosarcomas of the skull in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhalniarovich, Y; Adamiak, Z; Przyborowska, P; Otrocka-Domagała, D

    2013-01-01

    Five canine patients were directed to low-field magnetic resonance imaging due to different neurological defects. In each case there were heterogeneous extraaxial masses covering left or right dorsal parietal and occipital lobes that were isointense to the brain on T1-weighted Spin Echo images, isointense to hypointense to the brain on T2-weighted Fast Spin Echo sequences and hypointense to the brain on Flair sequence. After MRI study fine needle aspiration biopsy of the tumors was performed. On the basis of the cytological examination fibrosarcomas with of moderate malignancy were diagnosed. PMID:24195299

  19. Endoscopic-Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration and the Role of the Cytopathologist in Solid Pancreatic Lesion Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Shahzad; Friedel, David; Gupta, Mala; Ogden, Lorna; Stavropoulos, Stavros N.

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is the most sensitive imaging modality for solid pancreatic lesions. The specificity, however, is low (about 75%). It can be increased to 100% with an accuracy of 95% by the addition of fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Cytopathology plays an important role. The final diagnosis is based upon the correlation of clinical, EUS, and cytologic features. A close interaction with the cytopathologist is required in improving the diagnostic yield. In this paper, we present an overview of the role of EUS-guided FNA and importance of close interaction with the cytopathologist. Day to day examples of different solid pancreatic lesions have been presented at the end. PMID:22666633

  20. Cytology of bone lesions by intraoperative sampling during fracture treatment.

    PubMed

    Kinias, Ioannis S; Rammou-Kinia, Rea

    2002-03-01

    Cytology was performed on 314 patients who were treated by surgery for hip joint fracture, to determine and evaluate the role, accuracy, and perspective of intraoperative bone sampling. Specimens were collected from bone lesions during surgery by imprints or driller washing in normal saline. The results were compared with those of subsequent biopsies or clinical follow-up. All 13 neoplastic cases (malignant or benign) were identified by cytology. An accuracy rate of 69.2% was achieved by this method when the type and origin of the neoplasms were to be conclusive. There were no false-positive diagnoses, and all benign conditions showed negative results on cytology (specificity and sensitivity of 100%). Cytology can play a valuable role in the diagnosis of bone lesions. The morphologic diagnostic criteria allow for a high level of diagnostic accuracy of cytologic assessments in most cases of bone lesions, no matter the sampling technique. PMID:11892017

  1. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  2. Gendered Trends in Student Teachers' Professional Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a small-scale, exploratory study investigating the professional aspirations of a cohort of student teachers at a UK university. Questionnaires and interviews sought insights into the students' perceptions of leadership, future aspirations and self-perceptions as potential leaders. Whilst there was commonality in male and

  3. Gendered Trends in Student Teachers' Professional Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a small-scale, exploratory study investigating the professional aspirations of a cohort of student teachers at a UK university. Questionnaires and interviews sought insights into the students' perceptions of leadership, future aspirations and self-perceptions as potential leaders. Whilst there was commonality in male and…

  4. Remote Possibilities: Rural Children's Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Caitlin W.

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the influence of rural context on youth's life chances, this study takes up the question of rural children's educational aspirations. The experience of rural life may, as some claim, limit students' educational aspirations. Yet there are indications that rural communities simultaneously generate important social benefits that…

  5. Grades, Aspirations, and Postsecondary Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Milla, Joniada; Stengos, Thanasis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we exploit a rich longitudinal data set to explore the forces that, during high school, shape the development of aspirations to attend university and achieve academic success. We then investigate how these aspirations, along with grades and other variables, impact educational outcomes such as going to university and graduating. It…

  6. Aspirator increases relief valve poppet stroke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Addition of an aspirator to a relief valve increases the valve poppet stroke under dynamic flow conditions. The aspirator allows poppet inlet dynamic forces to overcome relief valve spring force. It reduces the fluid pressure in the skirt cavity by providing a low pressure sense probe.

  7. Clinical factors predicting risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration among patients with Stroke1

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Morais, Huana Carolina Cândido; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the association of risk factors with the Risk for aspiration nursing diagnosis and respiratory aspiration. Method: cross-sectional study assessing 105 patients with stroke. The instrument used to collect data addressing sociodemographic information, clinical variables and risk factors for Risk for aspiration. The clinical judgments of three expert RNs were used to establish the diagnosis. The relationship between variables and strength of association using Odds Ratio (OR) was verified both in regard to Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. Results: risk for aspiration was present in 34.3% of the patients and aspiration in 30.5%. The following stood out among the risk factors: Dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex, Neurological disorders, and Impaired physical mobility, all of which were statistically associated with Risk for aspiration. Note that patients who develop such a diagnosis were seven times more likely to develop respiratory aspiration. Conclusion: dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex were the best predictors both for Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. PMID:26039291

  8. Urine cytology in patients with calculi.

    PubMed Central

    Highman, W; Wilson, E

    1982-01-01

    The cytological changes in voided urines were analysed in 154 patients with calculi. No abnormality was seen in 52.6%; 40.9% contained smooth-bordered clusters of transitional cells with essentially normal, centrally placed nuclei. These, when found in routine urines, were reliable in predicting calculi in 62.5% of cases. Of the calculus urines, 6.5% showed features suspicious of differentiated transitional carcinoma. Although their morphological features overlapped with those observed in urines from 40 cases of proved differentiated transitional carcinoma, they contained significantly fewer single and clusters of transitional cells with abnormal nuclear morphology. Histological examination of urothelium adjacent to calculi in eight patients showed no evidence of malignancy although one case showed hyperplasia and severe epithelial atypia. Images PMID:7068927

  9. Cytological examination of Leeuwenhoek's first microbial specimens.

    PubMed

    Ford, B J

    1982-01-01

    Of the nine packets of specimens sent by van Leeuwenhoek to London in the seventeenth century, and which were recently rediscovered in their original condition, three contained dried aquatic microorganisms. The author has reconstituted portions of this material. Several recognizable organisms have been noted, including portions of this material. Several recognizable organisms have been noted, including water-fleas, chlorophyte and cyanophyte algae, desmids, diatoms and rotifers. These provide evidence for the formation of the 'heavenly paper', which was believed at the time to represent charred notepaper dropped from the skies, but which Leeuwenhoek rightly assumed to be dried algal felts. Photomicrographs reveal many cytological details in the material, and this has been correlated with Leeuwenhoek's descriptions, extracted from the original correspondence. PMID:7051419

  10. The presence of diatom algae in a tracheal wash from a German Wirehaired Pointer with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Benson, Catherine J; Edlund, Mark B; Gray, Sarah; Powell, Lisa; Paulin-Curlee, Geisa; Armien, Anibal; Overmann, Jed A

    2013-06-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female German Wirehaired Pointer was presented with difficulty breathing after being found seizing in a water-filled drainage ditch while out hunting. Aspirates from a tracheal wash contained numerous degenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, some of which contained basophilic debris, low numbers of extracellular diatoms, and a single intracellular short bacterial rod. As the dog continued to clinically decline and could not be weaned from oxygen support, the owners chose euthanasia. The major necropsy finding was a severe granulomatous bronchopneumonia that was likely due to aspiration of foreign material based on the microscopic presence of plant-like material, bi-refringent crystalline material, non-cellular debris, and occasional fungal structures. Diatoms are a class of algae that live primarily in water. Diatom analysis has been used, with some controversy, in human forensics to assist in documenting drowning as the cause of death. In this case, given the clinical history, the presence of diatoms and inflammation in the tracheal wash were interpreted as a likely result of the aspiration of surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of diatoms observed in a cytologic specimen in a nonhuman mammal with aspiration pneumonia. PMID:23647227

  11. Surgical jejunostomy in aspiration risk patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weltz, C R; Morris, J B; Mullen, J L

    1992-01-01

    One hundred patients underwent laparotomy for independent jejunal feeding tube placement. Neurologic disease was present in 50%, and obtundation (28) and oropharyngeal dysmotility (25) were the most common indications for enteral feeding. The post-pyloric route was chosen because of aspiration risk in almost all (94%) patients. Postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 21%, because of cardiopulmonary failure in most (18). One death resulted directly from aspiration of tube feeds. Two surgical complications required reoperation: one wound dehiscence and one small bowel obstruction. Four wound infections occurred. Two patients underwent reoperation after tube removal, and four tubes required fluoroscopically guided reinsertion for peritubular drainage (2), removal (1), and occlusion (1). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 18 patients preoperatively and in eight postoperatively. None of the patients with feeding-related preoperative aspiration pneumonia (13) had a recurrence while fed by jejunostomy. Three patients developed postoperative aspiration pneumonia before initiation of jejunostomy feedings. Jejunostomy may be performed with low morbidity rate and substantial reduction of feeding-related aspiration pneumonia, and is the feeding route of choice in aspiration risk patients. PMID:1546899

  12. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  13. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  14. Lung cancer cytology: potential pitfalls and mimics - a review

    PubMed Central

    Idowu, Michael O; Powers, Celeste N

    2010-01-01

    Cytology is increasingly being used in the evaluation of lung lesions. There are several potential pitfalls and mimics encountered in the evaluation of respiratory cytology specimens, making interpretation of respiratory cytology challenging. Familiarity with the mimics and the pitfalls is essential in avoiding a misdiagnosis because a false positive or false negative diagnosis may have significant management implications. This article focuses on the main classification of primary lung carcinoma - small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma - with potential mimics discussed under each tumor category. We have attempted to separate pitfalls from common potential mimics and have suggested general rules when such pitfalls are encountered. PMID:20490328

  15. Molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases using cytological specimens.

    PubMed

    Canberk, Sule; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Pathologists have an important role in the diagnosis of infectious disease (ID). In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made using cytopathology alone. However, several ancillary techniques can be used on cytological material to reach a specific diagnosis by identifying the causative agent and consequently defining the management of the patient. This review aims to present the effectiveness of the application of molecular studies on cytological material to diagnose IDs and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various molecular techniques according to the type of cytological specimen and the infectious agents. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:156-164. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26620694

  16. Urinary cytology in bladder cancer: why is it still relevant?

    PubMed

    Comploj, Evi; Trenti, Emanuela; Palermo, Salvatore; Pycha, Armin; Mian, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy with cytology is currently considered the gold standard for the detection and surveillance of primary tumors and for the follow-up of patients after transurethral resection. Even if cytology has a low sensitivity especially in low-grade bladder carcinomas, the high specificity and the inexpensive nature of the equipment required, justify performing it. The greatest value of cytology for patients with low-grade, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the detection of those lesions that may progress to high-grade urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26219472

  17. Simultaneous bilateral aspiration of foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Rubio, P A; Farrell, E M; Ayers, L N

    1979-11-01

    Aspiration of foreign bodies into the bronchial lumen continues to be a potential hazard especially in children. Bronchiectasis, lung abscesses, emphysema, or pleuropulmonary fistula may develop if untreated. The treatment of choice is extraction by bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. Our patient simultaneously aspirated two squirrel vertebrae, neither of which produced obstruction. The patient's symptoms were due mainly to the partial obstruction secondary to the formation of granulation tissue. One aspirated vertebra was extracted during the diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy, but a rigid Jackson bronchoscope was necessary to remove the other foreign body. The patient has since been asymptomatic. PMID:505098

  18. Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: a prospective study on 114 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G; Palermo, G; Zini, E

    2015-08-01

    Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FNA, FNI, and/or IS) were available from the same lesion; κ-agreement and accuracy between cytological and histopathological results were calculated. Eighteen cytological specimens were excluded, with a retrieval rate of 84.2%. Of the 96 samples analysed, FNA, FNI, and IS were available from 80, 76, and 73 animals, respectively. Overall, 60/67 (89.6%) and 21/29 (72.4%) lesions were neoplastic in dogs and cats, respectively, with the remaining being non-neoplastic. For all lesions, κ-values obtained by FNA, FNI, and IS were in dogs 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.84), respectively, and in cats 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of FNA, FNI, and IS in dogs with neoplasia were 98.2%, 98.1%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in cats with neoplasia were 95.6%, 95.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the high agreement with histopathology suggests that cytological examinations by FNI, FNA, and IS are all appropriate methods to correctly diagnose lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats. PMID:25466576

  19. Management of thyroid nodules: scanning techniques, thyroid suppressive therapy, and fine needle aspiration

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcraft, M.W.; Van Herle, A.J.

    1981-03-01

    For the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroidal disease, ultrasound displays anatomic but not histologic features. Other visualization techniques can be used including isotope scanning (radioiodine, 99m technetium, 241 americium fluorescence, 131 cesium, 67 gallium, 75 selenomethionine, 201 thallium, 32 phosphorus, 99m Tc-bleomycin, 197 mercury, 133 xenon), thermography, x-ray techniques (plain films, computed tomographic scan, xeroradiography, chest x-ray barium swallow, lymphography, angiography), and thyroid hormone suppression. Needle biopsy can be done by core biopsy (Vim-Silverman and drill biopsy), large needle biopsy for histologic processing and fine needle aspiration for cytologic interpretation. The latter is the safest, most reliable, and most cost-effective technique currently available to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroidal disease and has great promise for the future.

  20. Chondroid syringoma of the axilla: An unusual tumor diagnosed by fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert; Zhou, Fang; Grunes, Dianne; Shapiro, Richard L; Bannan, Michael; Simsir, Aylin; Leung, Allen

    2016-04-01

    Chondroid syringoma (CS) is a rare benign adnexal tumor of the skin with a resemblance to pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland, most commonly involving the head and neck region. In the present literature, reports of the cytologic appearance of CS are scarce as it is rarely encountered by fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 67-year-old woman presented with a 1 year history of a 1 cm subcutaneous nodule in the right axilla. FNA biopsy was performed revealing an epithelial-mesenchymal biphasic neoplasm suggesting CS. Surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated extensive ossification, an extremely rare feature, with only seven reported cases, all located on the head. CS is a rare benign adnexal tumor of the skin, often overlooked due to its unremarkable clinical presentation. FNA is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of CS and helps guide optimal surgical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:342-346. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800260

  1. Changing patterns in cervical cytology among oral and non-oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Fuertes-de la Haba, A; Pelegrina, I; Bangdiwala, I S; Hernández-Cibes, J J

    1973-01-01

    9634 patients (21-39 years, with at least 1 normal pregnancy) with no previous experience with oral contraceptives or IUDs, seen at clinics in Rio Piedras, Caguas, and Ponce, Puerto Rico from July 1961 to October 1969 to study their changing patterns in cervical cytology were divided randomly into 2 groups, of which 4846 were given oral contraceptive, Enovid, and 4788 provided with a vaginal contraceptive excluding IUDs, and followed for a period of 6 months-8 years. Separate Pap smears were obtained at admittance to the study by an endocervical aspiration with the pipette and cervical sample with Ayre spatula scraped over the cervico-columnar junction. The cervix was diagrammed showing any erosion. Schiller tests were done. Possible presence of Trichomonas vaginalis was treated. Repeat smears were done at 3-month intervals. 2129 oral patients and 2249 nonoral patients experienced either regression or progression in cytological patterns throughout the 8 years of observation. The analysis is divided into 3 groups, irrespective of the time at which they were observed. Of the 2129 oral patients showing a first change, 55.5% progressed to a higher Pap class, 44.5% regressed to a lower Pap class. In the nonoral group, 55.2% progressed and 44.4% regressed. 1255 patients had a second change: in the oral group, 37.5% progressed, 62.5% regressed. In the nonoral group, 36.7% progressed, 63.3% regressed out of 1258 patients. 690 oral patients showed a third change: 46.1% progressed and 53.9% regressed. Of the 718 nonoral patients 47.1% progressed and 52.9% regressed. There was no significant difference in the pattern of progression and regression between oral and nonoral groups. Oral contraceptives do not aggravate the conditions which lead to development of premalignant lesions in the uterine cervix. PMID:4572229

  2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid: Is preoperative cytological diagnosis possible?

    PubMed

    Oza, Nikita; Sanghvi, Kintan; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Menon, Santosh; Ramadwar, Mukta; Kane, Shubhada

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently recognized tumor of salivary gland with characteristic t(12;15)(q13;q25) that results in ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Distinguishing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma from other salivary gland tumors is important. Present study highlights cytologic findings in three cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid which facilitate preoperative diagnosis with the aid of ancillary diagnostic techniques. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parotid was performed on three cases after clinical examination. Immunocytochemistry for mammoglobin and S100 were performed. Parotidectomy was done in all cases. The corresponding hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and blocks of all cases were studied. Molecular analysis was done in one of the cases. Cases 1 and 3 revealed uniform atypical epithelial cells arranged in branching papillary pattern with few cells in microcystic pattern. Case 2 showed atypical cells arranged mainly in loose clusters and few singly dissociated. Individual cells revealed round nuclei, vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli and abundant finely vacuolated cytoplasm with metachromasia prominent in May-Grunwald-Giemsa smear (case 3). Characteristic hob-nail cells covering papillae were observed in cases 1 and 3. Immunocytochemistry showed strong positivity for mammoglobin and S100 thereby confirming the diagnosis of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma preoperatively. The diagnosis was in concordance with surgical specimen. Also, characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 translocation was confirmed in case 1. Increased awareness and high index of suspicion is necessary for the upfront diagnosis, more so for the papillary variant of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry aids in confirming this preoperative diagnosis, based on which treatment can be planned. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:519-525. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945684

  3. Comparison of PCR with stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Santos, T R; Carreira, V S; Ferrari, H F; Moreira, M A B; Luvizotto, M C R

    2014-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani complex. Traditionally the definite diagnosis is made by amastigote detection in the tissue. The aim this study was to evaluate the PCR technique in stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis. Slides were selected totaling 62 suspect cases (33 bone marrow samples and 29 lymph node samples) and 17 positive cases (8 bone marrow and 9 lymph node). From 62 suspect cases, 39 (62.90%) were confirmed to be positive being 17 (n=29) lymph node aspirates and 22 (n=33) bone marrow. This finding is in agreement with the higher sensitivity of the PCR assay compared to direct microscopic observation. In conclusion, the findings of this study supports the use of PCR on archive cytological preparation stained slides for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, emphasizing the higher sensitivity of this technique when compared to direct microscopic examination and mostly the use of the suspect status for the cytology samples that presents the previously mentioned particularities with focus on detecting the oligosymptomatic or assymptomatic dogs in endemic areas functioning as potential reservoirs for this disease. PMID:25159534

  4. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  5. Recognizing breast ductal carcinoma in situ on fine-needle aspiration: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Huan; Zhao, Lin-Lin; Pan, Qin-Jing

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cytomorphologic features of different subgroups of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); we compared seven cytologic features between DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) aspirates to determine whether diagnosis of stromal invasion can be made based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) findings. There were 142 cases of DCIS and 1,978 cases of IDC enrolled in our study. FNA analysis revealed 80.3% sensitivity for DCIS and 94.7% sensitivity for IDC. High and intermediate grade DCIS exhibited marked nuclear abnormality (92.1% vs. 35.7%, 30.0%; P1 < 0.001, P2 < 0.001) and necrosis (69.7% vs. 0%, 10.0%; P1 < 0.001, P2 = 0.001) in a higher percentage of cases compared to low grade DCIS and intraductal/intracystic papillary carcinoma. The rates of background macrophages (71.3% for DCIS and 21.9% for IDC, P < 0.001) and extensive necrosis (54.0% for DCIS and 16.7% for IDC, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in DCIS compared to IDC. Lymphocytes were observed in conjunction with tumor cells more frequently in IDC (81.3%) compared to DCIS (36.8%, P < 0.001). Stromal fragments associated with tumor cells were only observed in invasive lesions (11.9% micro-invasive DCIS and 52.1% IDC). Tubular structures were found exclusively in IDC (11.5%). Cytologic criteria for diagnosis of high and low grade DCIS are different. The suspicion of DCIS is raised when background macrophages and extensive necrosis are observed. Stromal invasion is suggested by FNA if lymphocytes are entwined around tumor cells or if stromal fragments associated with tumor cells or tubular structures are observed. PMID:23729369

  6. Phenotype-Guided Natural Products Discovery Using Cytological Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Jessica L; Bray, Walter M; Lokey, R Scott; Linington, Roger G

    2015-09-25

    Phenotype-guided natural products discovery is emerging as a useful new discovery tool that addresses challenges in early, unbiased natural product biological annotation. These high-content approaches yield screening results that report directly on the impact of test compounds on cellular processes in target organisms and can be used to predict the modes of action of bioactive constituents from primary screening data. In this study we explored the use of our recently implemented cytological profiling platform for the isolation of compounds with a specific, predefined mode of action, namely, induction of mitotic arrest. Screening of a microbially derived extract library revealed six extracts whose cytological profiles clustered closely with those of known antimitotic agents from the pure compound training set. Subsequent examination of one of these extracts revealed the presence of two separate bioactive constituents, each of which possessed a unique cytological profile. The first, diketopiperazine XR334 (3), recapitulated the observed antimitotic phenotype of the original extract, demonstrating that cytological profiling can be used for the targeted isolation of compounds with specific modes of action. The second, nocapyrone L (6), possessed a cytological profile that clustered with known calcium channel modulators, in line with previous published activities for this compound class, indicating that cytological profiling is a flexible and powerful platform for the de novo characterization of compound modes of action. PMID:26292657

  7. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of orbital tumours.

    PubMed

    Tarkkanen, A; Koivuniemi, A; Liesmaa, M; Merenmies, L

    1982-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was used for the diagnosis of 25 consecutive patients with orbital tumours. CT scan was used to locate the lesion accurately. In two cases of orbital sarcoma and three out of four cases of orbital meningeoma, pre-operative fine-needle biopsy provided the correct diagnosis for proper operative treatment. Post-operative histopathological examination of the tumours proved that the cytological diagnoses had been correct. Two cases were diagnosed as metastatic carcinomas, 4 as malignant lymphomas and 11 as chronic inflammatory lesions. Orbitotomies were performed in 3 cases only, and the cases were managed accordingly with radiation, chemotherapy or corticosteroids. With conservative treatment the results varied from arrest of the condition to total disappearance of the lesion. No complications were encountered as a result of orbital fine-needle biopsies. The procedure is simple, requiring only topical anaesthesia and if proper cytological service is available, invaluable diagnostic information is provided for proper clinical management. It can also be used if recurrence of orbital tumour is suspected and a new mass is seen by CT scan. The method may save the patient from unnecessary exploratory orbital surgery. PMID:7173630

  8. Hemithyroidectomy is the preferred initial operative approach for an indeterminate fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Connie G.; Yao, Reina; Chan, Simon K.; Strugnell, Scott S.; Bugis, Samuel; Irvine, Robert; Anderson, Donald; Walker, Blair; Jones, Steven J.; Wiseman, Sam M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration biopsy represents the critical initial diagnostic test used for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Our objectives were to determine the cytological distribution, the utility of clinicopathologic characteristics for predicting malignancy and the true proportion of cancer among individuals who presented with indeterminate cytology and had undergone thyroid surgery for suspicion of cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1040 consecutive primary thyroid operations carried out over an 8-year period at a tertiary care endocrine referral centre. Follicular neoplasm (FN), Hürthle cell neoplasm (HN), neoplasms suspicious for but not diagnostic of papillary carcinoma (IP) and neoplasms with cellular atypia (IA) were reviewed. Results In all, 380 individuals presented with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Of these, 252 (66%) patients had FN, 47 (12%) HN, 44 (12%) IP, 26 (7%) IA and 11 (4%) had mixed diagnoses. Biopsied lesions were found to be malignant on pathological evaluation in 102 (27%) patients: 49 (19%) with FN, 11 (23%) HN, 28 (64%) IP and 9 (35%) with IA. Hemithyroidectomy was adequate definitive treatment in 196 of 225 (87%) patients with FN and 39 of 42 (93%) with HN. Significant associations with a cancer diagnosis were identified for smaller tumour size in patients with FN (p = 0.004) and right thyroid lobe location in patients with IP (p = 0.012), although these factors were nonsignificant in the corrected analyses for multiple comparisons. Conclusion In a review of the experience at a Canadian centre, 4 operations were carried out to identify each cancer, and hemithyroidectomy was the optimal initial and definitive surgical approach for most patients. PMID:22630062

  9. Urine: beyond cytology for detection of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Pattari, Sanjib Kumar; Dey, Pranab

    2002-09-01

    In the present review we discuss various ancillary modalities for detection of malignancies in urine samples, with an emphasis on urothelial carcinomas. Flow cytometry, bladder tumor antigen (BTA), nuclear matrix protein (NMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), human chorionic gonadotrophic (HCG), telomerase, and other techniques are discussed. DNA FCM is a relatively costly and sophisticated technique. It has a practical application in the diagnosis of bladder cancer among subjects at high risk and is of value in monitoring the course of the disease and anticipating recurrence following conservative treatment. The BTA test is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive adjunct to cystoscopy and the results of the test are equivalent or superior to those of voided urinary cytology. NMP-22 immunoassay is a useful diagnostic test for predicting recurrence of urothelial malignancy. It is also a cost-effective and sensitive screening test for detecting tumor in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Beta-HCG estimation in urine samples appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the assessment of distant metastasis in bladder carcinoma rather than a screening test. Other ancillary techniques such as detection of expression of cytokeratin 20 by RT-PCR, MMP-9 estimation, and fluorescent in situ hybridization and telomerase activity are rarely applied clinically in routine urinary samples and are not cost-effective. PMID:12203859

  10. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  11. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: diagnosis of a rare tumor using ultrasonography, cytology, and intraoperative frozen sections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of thyroid nodules surgically diagnosed as hyaline trabecular tumor (HTT), and to assess the role of cytology and frozen sections (FS) in the diagnosis of HTT. Methods: This study included 21 thyroid nodules in 21 patients treated from August 2005 to March 2015 (mean age, 53.3 years) who were either diagnosed as HTT or had HTT suggested as a possible diagnosis based on cytology, FS, or the final pathology report. Patients’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed for cytopathologic results and outcomes during the course of follow-up. Sonograms were reviewed and categorized. Results: Twelve nodules from 12 patients were surgically confirmed as HTT. Ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed on 11 nodules, of which six (54.5%) were papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or suspicious for PTC and three (27.3%) were HTT or suspicious for HTT. Intraoperative FS suggested the possibility of HTT in seven nodules, of which four (57.1%) were confirmed as HTT. US-FNA suggested the diagnosis of HTT in 10 nodules, of which three (30.0%) were confirmed as HTT. Common US features of the 12 pathologically confirmed cases of HTT were hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity (83.4%), absence of calcifications (91.7%), parallel shape (100.0%), presence of vascularity (75.0%), and probable benignity (58.3%). Conclusion: HTT should be included in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors with hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity and otherwise benign US features that have been diagnosed as PTC through cytology. PMID:26639939

  12. To Aspire: A Systematic Reflection on Understanding Aspirations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Aspirations for higher education by people from low socioeconomic status backgrounds are now a focus of government policy in many OECD nations. This is part of a global trend emphasizing the perceived benefits of "raising" aspirations among under-represented groups as a social inclusion strategy to widen university participation, but…

  13. EGFR mutation testing in lung cancer: a review of available methods and their use for analysis of tumour tissue and cytology samples

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Gillian; Zhu, Guanshan; Moulis, Alexandros; Dearden, Simon; Speake, Georgina; McCormack, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Aims Activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Testing for mutations in EGFR is therefore an important step in the treatment-decision pathway. We reviewed reported methods for EGFR mutation testing in patients with lung cancer, initially focusing on studies involving standard tumour tissue samples. We also evaluated data on the use of cytology samples in order to determine their suitability for EGFR mutation analysis. Methods We searched the MEDLINE database for studies reporting on EGFR mutation testing methods in patients with lung cancer. Results Various methods have been investigated as potential alternatives to the historical standard for EGFR mutation testing, direct DNA sequencing. Many of these are targeted methods that specifically detect the most common EGFR mutations. The development of targeted mutation testing methods and commercially available test kits has enabled sensitive, rapid and robust analysis of clinical samples. The use of screening methods, subsequent to sample micro dissection, has also ensured that identification of more rare, uncommon mutations is now feasible. Cytology samples including fine needle aspirate and pleural effusion can be used successfully to determine EGFR mutation status provided that sensitive testing methods are employed. Conclusions Several different testing methods offer a more sensitive alternative to direct sequencing for the detection of common EGFR mutations. Evidence published to date suggests cytology samples are viable alternatives for mutation testing when tumour tissue samples are not available. PMID:23172555

  14. Incidence of apocrine cells in fine-needle aspirates of gynecomastia: a study of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Naran, S; Lallu, S; Fauck, R

    2000-05-01

    While the presence of apocrine cells in fibrocystic conditions of the female breast is a common finding in a fine-needle aspirate (FNA) of the breast, such a finding in gynecomastia has only been reported recently in a single case report. This study was undertaken in 100 cases with adequate cellular samples which had been diagnosed as gynecomastia from aspirates which were obtained using a 22-gauge needle and a 5-ml syringe maintaining negative pressure. The material was collected as needle and syringe washings in 30% ethyl alcohol in physiologic saline and the cytologic preparations were made on 3-microm Schleicher and Schuell filters and were stained by the Papanicolaou method. In 3 of the 100 cases, sheets of apocrine cells were noted in addition to clusters of hyperplastic ductal cells. The findings were further confirmed histologically in cell blocks which were made in the 3 cases. Based on our findings, it was concluded that apocrine cells in gyneco- mastia are found in about 3% of cases, and such a finding should be regarded as nonneoplastic, thus avoiding the need of surgical excision. PMID:10790234

  15. Factors Influencing the Diagnostic Yield of Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Marcus P; Jimenez, Carlos A; Morice, Rodolfo C; Sarkiss, Mona; Lei, Xiudong; Rice, David; Eapen, Georgie A

    2010-07-01

    We describe the diagnostic performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in a heterogeneous population of patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy secondary to suspected cancer (lung and nonlung) or recurrence after cancer therapy in a large academic cancer institute. A review was done of all patients referred for real-time EBUS-TBNA over an 18-month period at our institution. Cytological analysis of EBUS-TBNA aspirates was compared with a reference standard of definitive pathologic tissue diagnosis or a composite of ≥6 months' clinical follow-up with radiographic imaging. Adequate tissue was obtained in 225/236 procedures (95.3%) and a reference standard was available in 214. The overall diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA in those procedures with a reference standard was 87.4%. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for malignancy was 86.1%, 100% and 92.9%, respectively. The sampling accuracy of EBUS-TBNA decreased with lymph node size ≤5 mm and with paratracheal location. Other factors, such as airway distortion and calcification, are also associated with less accurate EBUS-TBNA results. In a diverse population of patients with suspected cancer or recurrence, EBUS-TBNA is minimally invasive and highly accurate. Factors such as lymph node size and location influence the result of EBUS-TBNA. PMID:23168884

  16. Characterizing cell adhesion by using micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Brenna; Babataheri, Avin; Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I; Husson, Julien

    2015-07-21

    We have developed a technique to directly quantify cell-substrate adhesion force using micropipette aspiration. The micropipette is positioned perpendicular to the surface of an adherent cell and a constant-rate aspiration pressure is applied. Since the micropipette diameter and the aspiration pressure are our control parameters, we have direct knowledge of the aspiration force, whereas the cell behavior is monitored either in brightfield or interference reflection microscopy. This setup thus allows us to explore a range of geometric parameters, such as projected cell area, adhesion area, or pipette size, as well as dynamical parameters such as the loading rate. We find that cell detachment is a well-defined event occurring at a critical aspiration pressure, and that the detachment force scales with the cell adhesion area (for a given micropipette diameter and loading rate), which defines a critical stress. Taking into account the cell adhesion area, intrinsic parameters of the adhesion bonds, and the loading rate, a minimal model provides an expression for the critical stress that helps rationalize our experimental results. PMID:26200857

  17. Synovial sarcoma presenting as a lung mass and diagnosed by cytology.

    PubMed

    Pyden, Alexander D; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a common soft tissue sarcoma with variable fibrous and epithelial differentiation that rarely arises from other body sites, such as within the lung. A case of a 68-year-old male with an extensive smoking history who presented with chest pain and a primary, central, metabolically active lung mass was reported. The mass was biopsied by bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Cytologic analysis of bronchial brushing, BAL, and FNA revealed single and clusters of atypical spindle cells, oval, or spindle-shaped nuclei with smooth nuclear membranes, hyperchromatic and granular chromatin, scant to moderate and delicate cytoplasm, a high degree of mitotic figures, and a lack of necrosis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were positive for CD99, BCL2, and CK7. A diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was rendered. The differential diagnosis of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is discussed, including neuroendocrine tumors, squamous cell carcinoma, and various sarcomatous tumors. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:434-437. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875702

  18. Automated micropipette aspiration of single cells.

    PubMed

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Yu

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a system for mechanically characterizing single cells using automated micropipette aspiration. Using vision-based control and position control, the system controls a micromanipulator, a motorized translation stage, and a custom-built pressure system to position a micropipette (4 μm opening) to approach a cell, form a seal, and aspirate the cell into the micropipette for quantifying the cell's elastic and viscoelastic parameters as well as viscosity. Image processing algorithms were developed to provide controllers with real-time visual feedback and to accurately measure cell deformation behavior on line. Experiments on both solid-like and liquid-like cells demonstrated that the system is capable of efficiently performing single-cell micropipette aspiration and has low operator skill requirements. PMID:23508635

  19. Transcatheter mechanical thrombus aspiration for stent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Galli, M; Bonatti, R; Butti, E; Zerboni, S

    2000-03-01

    Currently, in-stent thrombosis is a rare but serious clinical event. The mechanical or pharmacological approach has not totally solved this problem. In this report we describe the treatment of in-stent thrombosis with a new device for mechanical thrombus aspiration. We used the Rescue catheter (Rescue Catheter System, Boston Scientific), a new 4.5F dual lumen monorail catheter that was able to break and aspirate thrombus without evidence of distal embolization. In this case the procedure was quickly performed with good angiographic results after mechanical aspiration and additional traditional coronary angioplasty. Moreover, the excellent clinical outcome confirmed the efficacy of the technique in the percutaneous treatment of this late complication of stent implantation. PMID:10806992

  20. Comparison of accuracy of diagnostic modalities for evaluation of breast cancer with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Akhtar, Zahid Mahmood

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted to confirm which of these modalities [mammography (MG), fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), core-needle biopsy (CNB), or intraoperative touch imprint cytology (IOTIC)] is useful to detect breast cancer and to compare the accuracy of these modalities for the diagnostic setting. One hundred seventy-five, 85, 78, and 25 patients were selected who underwent FNAC, MG, IOTIC, and CNB, respectively. Histopathology was used as a gold standard for comparison of the results of all diagnostic modalities. Twenty-five patients with combinations of three preoperative tests (MG, FNAC, CNB) showed 100% accurate results when compared with histopathology, while the overall accuracy for MG, FNAC, and CNB was 91.7%, 91.5%, and 96%, respectively. Both touch and scrape imprints' sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were 100% for class V and class II smears, while sensitivity, accuracy, and NPV were 87, 95, and 83% for IOTIC and 94%, 96%, and 89% for IOSC for class III and IV smears. On comparison of the results of all these procedures, the difference was nonspecific (P = 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.55, and 0.6 for MG, FNAC, IOTI, IOSC, and CNB, respectively). Combinations of preoperative tests (MG, FNAC, CNB) were more accurate, reliable, and acceptable when compared with individual diagnostic procedure, but these have their own technical limitations. The accuracy of CNB was much higher than that of MG and FNAC. IOTP and IOSC are simple and cost effective diagnostic tests with better accuracy that can be used as an alternate to frozen section in diagnostic settings and margin assessments. PMID:19217034

  1. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  2. A Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases After the Chornobyl Accident. Cyto-Histopathologic Correlation and Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Nodules Detected During the First Screening in Ukraine (1998-2000)

    PubMed Central

    Bozhok, Yuriy; Greenebaum, Ellen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zelinskaya, Anna; Brenner, Alina V.; Zurnadzhy, Lyudmyla Y.; Zablotska, Lydia; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ukrainian American Cohort Study was established to evaluate the risk of thyroid disorders in a group exposed as children and adolescents to 131I by the Chornobyl accident (arithmetic mean thyroid dose=0.79 Gray). Subjects are screened by palpation and ultrasound and referred to surgery according to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). However, the accuracy of FNA cytology for detecting histopathologically confirmed malignancy following this level of internal exposure to radioiodines is unknown. Methods As a result of the first screening cycle (1998-2000), 13,243 individuals were examined, 356 with thyroid nodules were referred for FNA, 288 completed the procedure, 85 were referred to surgery, 82 were operated upon, and pre-operative cytology was available for review in 78. Cytological interpretation for the nodule that resulted in surgical referral was correlated with final pathomorphology; discrepancies were retrospectively reviewed; and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNA cytology were calculated. Results All 24 cytological interpretations definite for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were histopathologically confirmed (PPV=100%) and of 11 suspect for PTC, 10 were confirmed (PPV=90.9%). Ten of 41 FNAs interpreted as either definite or suspect for follicular neoplasm (FN) were confirmed as malignant (PPV=24.4%): 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) and 8 PTCs (all but one of the follicular or mixed subtypes). Depending on whether a cytological interpretation of FN was considered a “positive” or “negative”, sensitivity was 100% or 77.3%, respectively; similarly, specificity was 17.6% or 97.1 %, PPV 61.1% or 97.1% and NPV 100% or 76.7%. Conclusions Among children and adolescents exposed to 131I following Chornobyl and evaluated 12 to 14 years later, thyroid cytology has a sensitivity and predictive value similar to that reported in unexposed populations. PMID:19365829

  3. A Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases After the Chornobyl Accident. Cyto-Histopathologic Correlation and Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Nodules Detected During the First Screening in Ukraine (1998-2000)

    PubMed Central

    Bozhok, Yuriy; Greenebaum, Ellen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zelinskaya, Anna; Brenner, Alina V.; Zurnadzhy, Lyudmyla Y.; Zablotska, Lydia; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Background The Ukrainian American Cohort Study was established to evaluate the risk of thyroid disorders in a group exposed as children and adolescents to 131I by the Chornobyl accident (arithmetic mean thyroid dose=0.79Gray). Subjects are screened by palpation and ultrasound and referred to surgery according to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). However, the accuracy of FNA cytology for detecting histopathologically confirmed malignancy following this level of internal exposure to radioiodines is unknown. Methods As a result of the first screening cycle (1998-2000), 13,243 individuals were examined, 356 with thyroid nodules were referred for FNA, 288 completed the procedure, 85 were referred to surgery, 82 were operated upon, and pre-operative cytology was available for review in 78. Cytological interpretation for the nodule that resulted in surgical referral was correlated with final pathomorphology; discrepancies were retrospectively reviewed; and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNA cytology were calculated. Results All 24 cytological interpretations definite for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were histopathologically confirmed (PPV=100%) and of 11 suspect for PTC, 10 were confirmed (PPV=90.9%). Ten of 41 FNAs interpreted as either definite or suspect for follicular neoplasm (FN) were confirmed as malignant (PPV=24.4%): 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) and 8 PTCs (all but one of the follicular or mixed subtypes). Depending on whether a cytological interpretation of FN was considered a “positive” or “negative”, sensitivity was 100% or 77.3%, respectively; similarly, specificity was 17.6% or 97.1 %, PPV 61.1% or 97.1% and NPV 100% or 76.7%. Conclusions Among children and adolescents exposed to 131I following Chornobyl and evaluated 12 to 14 years later, thyroid cytology has a sensitivity and predictive value similar to that reported in unexposed populations PMID:17083123

  4. Cytologic diagnosis of diseases of rabbits, guinea pigs, and rodents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the diseases most amenable to cytologic diagnosis in clinical small mammal practice. Diseases of pet rabbits, guinea pigs, rodents, chinchillas, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs are addressed. The small size of these patients, risk of anesthesia and invasive surgery, and cost factors make small mammals ideal patients for cytologic evaluation when applicable; however, surprisingly few reports exist in the literature, and no other reviews of cytology in these species exist. Much of the data in this article is derived from case submissions to Northwest ZooPath, and disease presentations that seem to be common in this group of animals are emphasized. Diseases of the skin are particularly well represented, especially tumors and inflammatory processes. PMID:17198958

  5. Cytometry: The Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, Supplement 6, 1993: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayall, B.H.; Landay, A.L.; Shapiro, H.M.; Visser, J.W.M.

    1993-12-31

    This contains the 465 presentation and poster abstracts for the XVI Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, March 1993. Plenary Sessions included the following: Industrial Cytometry; Clinical Issues (in Cytology); Molecular Pathology; biotechnology; new biology; temporal cytometry.

  6. Diagnosis of chordoma by cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Marigil, M A; Pardo-Mindan, F J; Joly, M

    1983-09-01

    This is a case report of a 44-year-old man with a chordoma of the clivus that caused dysphonia, low back pain, and urinary and fecal incontinence. The diagnosis was made by cytologic study of the CSF, which demonstrated vacuolated malignant cells. The patient was treated with intrathecal methotrexate, dexamethasone, and radiotherapy. At autopsy extensive dissemination of chordoma was found at the base of the brain, in the ventricles, and in the leptomeninges of the spinal cord. This is the sixth reported case of intrathecal dissemination of a chordoma and the first diagnosed by cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:6881106

  7. Career Aspirations of Rural Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, J. David; Odell, Kerry S.

    1988-01-01

    The career aspirations of 491 rural Ohio secondary students were identified. Results indicate that rural schools emphasize preparation for college attendance and that rural parents hold educational expectations for their children higher than their own attainments. Students also had high expectations, especially with regard to salary. (Author/CH)

  8. Methods, Interpretations, and Different Views of Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Paul

    1986-01-01

    The author praises Ellen Brantlinger's article "What Low-Income Parents Want from Schools: A Different View of Aspirations" (v16 n4 1985) and her method. This article is followed by a criticism by Weir and a response to both articles by Brantlinger. (MT)

  9. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent...

  10. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent...

  11. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies. PMID:26811557

  12. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  13. Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

  14. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  15. GROUP ASPIRATIONS AND GROUP COPING BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEDOW, HERMAN; ZANDER, ALVIN

    THIS RESEARCH PROJECT WAS CONCERNED WITH THE EFFECTS OF CERTAIN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONDITIONS UPON THE SELECTION OF A GROUP'S LEVEL OF ASPIRATION AND THE EFFECTS OF THESE CONDITIONS ON MEMBERS' COPING BEHAVIOR. SEVEN EXPERIMENTS WERE DESIGNED WHICH UTILIZED MALE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF SUBURBAN SCHOOLS AS SUBJECTS. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE…

  16. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent...

  17. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent...

  18. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent...

  19. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative

  20. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

  1. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the

  2. Educational Aspirations, What Matters? A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deosaran, Ramesh

    The literature review attempted to identify: 1) what we know and don't know about post-secondary aspirations, expectations, and access; and 2) where and how it is possible for us to embark on solutions or further investigation. The research in this area has been heavily sociological. Socio-economic background, family size, community origins,…

  3. Straight pin aspiration in young women.

    PubMed

    Shabb, B; Taha, A M; Hamada, F; Kanj, N

    1996-05-01

    Straight pins are used extensively for securing facial scarves in women and girls in the Middle East. Accidental aspiration often results in the pin lodging in the segmental bronchus with the sharp end pointing cephalad. Flexible bronchoscopy is superior to rigid bronchoscopy in retrieving these pins. We report on five cases successfully treated by fiberoptic bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. PMID:8614089

  4. Female Aspirants to the Roman Catholic Priesthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celmer, Virginia; Winer, Jane L.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated Holland vocational-personality types, job satisfaction, and psychological dysfunction among 85 parish priests, 55 nonparish priests, and 235 women who aspire to, but are barred from, ordination in the Roman Catholic Church. Found women's Holland-type code was most similar to code of clergy member as assigned by Dictionary of Holland…

  5. Psychological Predictors of College Women's Leadership Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatwright, Karyn J.; Egidio, Rhonda K.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the influence of psychological variables upon female college students' aspirations for leadership positions in their future careers. Results demonstrated that connectedness needs, gender role, self-esteem, and fears of negative evaluation accounted for a significant amount of the variance in predicting college women's leadership…

  6. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their

  7. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the...

  12. Estimating the Accuracy of Anal Cytology in the Presence of an Imperfect Reference Standard

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, William C.; Cachay, Edward R.; Caperna, Joseph; Sitapati, Amy; Cosman, Bard; Abramson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background The study aim is to estimate sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology for histologic HSIL in analyses adjusted for the imperfect biopsy reference standard. Methods and Principal Findings Retrospective cohort study of an anal dysplasia screening program for HIV infected adults. We estimated the prevalence of histologic HSIL by concurrent cytology category and the associated cytology ROC area. Cytology operating characteristics for HSIL were estimated and adjusted for the imperfect reference standard by 3 methodologies. The study cohort included 261 patients with 3 available measures: (1) referral cytology; (2) HRA cytology; and (3) HRA directed biopsy. The prevalence of biopsy HSIL varied according to the concurrent HRA cytology result: 64.5% for HSIL or ASC-H, 12.6% for LSIL, 10.9% for ASCUS, and 6.3% for no abnormality. The cytology ROC area was 0.78. The observed prevalence of HSIL was 37% (referral cytology), 24% (HRA cytology), and 24% (HRA biopsy). Unadjusted estimates of sensitivity and specificity of cytology were 0.66 and 0.90, respectively. Adjusted estimates varied from 0.47–0.89 (sensitivity) and 0.89—1.0 (specificity). Conclusions Analysis of a single dataset yields widely different estimates of anal cytology operating characteristics that depend on difficult to verify assumptions regarding the accuracy of the imperfect reference standard. PMID:20808869

  13. Cayenne aspiration: an unusual type of lower airway foreign-body aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lianjun; Wang, Yuchuan; Zha, Xiankui; Tang, Fei; Lv, Liping; Liu, Xinmin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cayenne aspiration is an unusual type of foreign-body aspiration that is usually misdiagnosed. This article analyzes the clinical features of cayenne aspiration in the lower airway. Patients and methods Clinical data on eight adult patients with cayenne aspiration were retrospectively analyzed. Six were elderly patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2010 and August 2014. Results The most common symptoms of cayenne aspiration were cough (eight cases, 100%) and sputum (five cases, 62.5%). Only one patient (12.5%) could supply the history of aspiration on his first visit to doctor and was diagnosed definitely without delay. The other seven cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia and the time to accurate diagnosis was from 1 month to 6 months. The history of aspiration could be recalled after confirmed diagnosis for the other seven cases. The most common presentation shown by chest computed tomography (CT) was pneumonic opacity (eight cases, 100%). The existence of cayenne could not be detected by chest CT in any of the patients. All the patients were diagnosed definitively and managed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. Cayenne was more often lodged in the right bronchus tree (seven cases, 87.5%), especially the right lower bronchus (four cases, 50%). The segment of cayenne was complete in five cases (62.5%) and scattered in three cases (37.5%). Conclusion The clinical features of cayenne aspiration are usually obscure and nonspecific which may lead to delay in diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is safe and useful for early diagnosis and effective management. PMID:25473273

  14. The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

  15. Aspirator modification for the removal of mosquitoes from tight spaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect aspirator was modified to remove mosquitoes that entered an animal-baited experimental cage-within-a-cage. The modified aspirator is easy to maneuver inside tight spaces, powerful enough to aspirate mosquitoes but not remove scales or fluorescent marking powders, and will run continuously...

  16. Aspirations and wellbeing in Romanian and US undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael J; Constantinescu, Petru-Madalin; Butucescu, Andreea

    2011-12-01

    Updating cross-cultural research of the past decade on the relationship between life aspirations and wellbeing, we compared Romanian (N=69) and US (N=64) undergraduates on the contribution of the importance and likelihood of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations to psychological maladjustment and life satisfaction, and on the qualitative meaning they assign to financial success. Similarly to prior studies, we found that extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations tended to be either negatively or positively correlated with life satisfaction, respectively; however, wealth predicted life satisfaction for Romanian students. Unlike previous research, we found generally negative relationships between intrinsic aspirations and psychological maladjustment. Although there were no differences between Romanian and US undergraduates on extrinsic and intrinsic orientation, on the overall importance of attaining aspirations, or on specific extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations, Romanian students expressed weaker expectations of fulfilling intrinsic aspirations than did US students. Finally, the groups produced similar rankings of aspirations and assigned similar meaning to financial success. The results favored a social cognitive rather than a self-determination model of psychological wellbeing in that expectations for attaining aspirations were more often predictive of life satisfaction than were their content. We interpret these findings and their convergence and departure from earlier research in terms of political economic, demographic, and cultural factors. We encourage future cross-cultural investigations of the social construction of aspirations, subsidiation of seemingly contradictory aspirations to each other, and cognitive and ecological mediation of the complex relationship of aspirations to psychological functioning. PMID:22046989

  17. Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study

  18. The contribution of vacuum-assisted modified Menghini type needle to diagnosis of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Birgi, Erdem; Ergun, Onur; Türkmenoğlu, Tuğba Taşkın; Tatar, İdil Güneş; Durmaz, Hasan Ali; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the contribution of vacuum-assisted modified Menghini type needle to diagnosis of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid evaluated by a pathologist at the bedside. METHODS A total of 147 thyroid nodules in 138 patients (122 women, 16 men) were included in this prospective study. Sonographic features of nodules, number of aspirations, pain and pain severity during the process, hemorrhage, and presence of sample obtained for cell block analysis were recorded and analyzed with the results of aspiration biopsy. RESULTS Using the 21G modified Menghini type needle, a diagnosis could not be reached in 14.3% of nodules. Adequate samples for cell block analysis were obtained in 47 nodules (32%), 17 of which contributed to the diagnosis. While the difference between diagnostic cytopathology results and the contribution of the cell block were statistically significant, obtainability of cell block samples was not significantly correlated with the number of aspirations or the presence of a cystic component in the nodule. CONCLUSION FNAB with 21G vacuum-assisted modified Menghini type needle is a safe procedure with very low complication rates. In addition to the cytologic smear samples, microtissue fragments obtained with this method help pathologists in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. PMID:26714056

  19. Cytodiagnosis of secretory carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, Vissa; Rama Krishna, Baddukonda Appala; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Sujatha, Ciddarla

    2012-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma is a rare form of breast carcinoma which has a predilection for juveniles and young adults (usually less than 30 years of age), becoming progressively less common with advancing age. It is a low grade breast carcinoma which shows distinct features at histology. Diagnosis of this carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is difficult. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman diagnosed to have secretory carcinoma of breast on FNAC. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The recognition of secretory carcinoma is important because the cytological findings can be confused with those of lactating breast. Preoperative diagnosis is essential for appropriate surgical therapy. Secretory carcinoma is reported to have good prognosis, but surgical therapy with an axillary node dissection is recommended, since axillary metastases have been found in approximately 30% of the recorded cases. PMID:22438622

  20. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  1. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations. PMID:25914033

  2. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  3. Cytomorphology of Boerhaave's syndrome: A critical value in cytology

    PubMed Central

    Khalbuss, Walid E.; Hooda, Shveta; Auger, Manon

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal perforation into the pleural cavity (Boerhaave's syndrome) is a rare life-threatening condition, which requires early diagnosis and urgent management. The diagnosis of such critical condition in many cases is delayed because of atypical clinical presentation, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Cytological examination of pleural fluid can provide early, fast and accurate diagnosis of such critical condition and help in better and early management of this disease. We describe a case of an 81-year-old female with esophageal perforation who presented with a left sided pleural effusion. The correct diagnosis was established in this case by observing gastrointestinal-like fluid characteristics of the thoracic drainage upon cytological and chemical analyses and the rupture was confirmed by esophagography. The cytological examination of pleural fluid revealed benign reactive squamous cells, fungal organisms, bacterial colonies, and vegetable material consistent with a ruptured esophagus. Cytological examination of pleural fluid is a rapid and accurate technique that can help in establishing the diagnosis of this challenging entity and guide initiation proper management of this unusual entity. PMID:23858318

  4. CYTOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF NORMAL AND CLONED BULLS’ MEIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytological and molecular analysis of meiotic cells from two bull clones and three non-clones was performed in order to detect effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNCT) on the meiotic process. Pachytene cells were analyzed by immunohistology using antibodies against the synaptonemal complex pr...

  5. The diagnostic reliability of urinary cytology: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Raisi, O; Magnani, C; Bigiani, N; Cianciavicchia, E; D'Amico, R; Muscatello, U; Ghirardini, C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. The first aim was to estimate the diagnostic reliability of urinary cytology for detection and management of urothelial neoplasms by using a specific preserving fluid for sample collection, and the liquid-based thin layer method for specimen preparation, the estimate was based on the correlation between the cytological findings of 10,000 non-hospitalized patients, and their histological diagnoses. A second aim was to compare the reliability of two instruments for thin-layer preparation, i.e., TP2000, TP3000, capable of processing the specimens at very different rates. The preservation of cell structure is ameliorated by the procedure of sample collection and treatment here described. This allows a more accurate reading of LBC slides as shown by: (a) the significant concordance between cytological and histological diagnosis (92%); (b) the significant number of low-grade urothelial carcinomas (20.5%) revealed by urinary cytology and validated by histologic diagnosis; (c) the low rate (8%) of misjudgement of cytological diagnosis reached in this study. The quality of performances of the two instruments tested for thin-layer preparation, i.e., TP2000 and TP3000, is statistically comparable. We recommend the procedure that makes use of preserving fluid for sample collection (cytolyt™) and treatment (preservcyt ™) as here described. We also recommend the use of thin-layer method for specimen preparation since it allows a more uniform distribution of the cells on the support with reduction of overlapping phenomena. Finally, economic considerations suggest the preferential use of Thin Prep 3000. PMID:21548121

  6. Dysphagia, dystussia, and aspiration pneumonia in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Sekiya, Hideki; Miyagi, Midori; Ebihara, Takae; Okazaki, Tatsuma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the development and wide distribution of guidelines for pneumonia, death from pneumonia is increasing due to population aging. Conventionally, aspiration pneumonia was mainly thought to be one of the infectious diseases. However, we have proven that chronic repeated aspiration of a small amount of sterile material can cause the usual type of aspiration pneumonia in mouse lung. Moreover, chronic repeated aspiration of small amounts induced chronic inflammation in both frail elderly people and mouse lung. These observations suggest the need for a paradigm shift of the treatment for pneumonia in the elderly. Since aspiration pneumonia is fundamentally based on dysphagia, we should shift the therapy for aspiration pneumonia from pathogen-oriented therapy to function-oriented therapy. Function-oriented therapy in aspiration pneumonia means therapy focusing on slowing or reversing the functional decline that occurs as part of the aging process, such as "dementia → dysphagia → dystussia → atussia → silent aspiration". Atussia is ultimate dysfunction of cough physiology, and aspiration with atussia is called silent aspiration, which leads to the development of life-threatening aspiration pneumonia. Research pursuing effective strategies to restore function in the elderly is warranted in order to decrease pneumonia deaths in elderly people. PMID:27076964

  7. Aspiration-Related Deaths in 57 Consecutive Patients: Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaowen; Yi, Eunhee S.; Ryu, Jay H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspiration can cause a diverse spectrum of pulmonary disorders some of which can lead to death but can be difficult to diagnose. Patients and Methods The medical records and autopsy findings of 57 consecutive patients in whom aspiration was the immediate cause of death at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) over a 9-yr period, from January 1 2004 to December 31 2012 were analyzed. Results The median age at death was 72 years (range, 13–95 years) and included 39 (68%) males. The most common symptom before death was dyspnea (63%) and chest radiography revealed bilateral infiltrates in the majority (81%). Most common precipitating factors for aspiration were depressed consciousness (46%) and dysphagia (44%). Aspiration-related syndromes leading to death were aspiration pneumonia in 26 (46%), aspiration pneumonitis in 25 (44%), and large airway obstruction in 6 patients (11%). Aspiration was clinically unsuspected in 19 (33%) patients. Antimicrobial therapy had been empirically administered to most patients (90%) with aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis. Conclusion We conclude aspiration-related deaths occur most commonly in the elderly with identifiable risks and presenting bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. One-third of these aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes were clinically unsuspected at the time of death. PMID:25076409

  8. CT-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Inferior Vena Cava Wall: A Posterior Coaxial Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, Sebastian Bilecen, Deniz; Baumhoer, Daniel; Guillaume, Nicolas; Jacob, Augustinus L.

    2010-02-15

    A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis.

  9. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen: utilization of fine needle aspiration for diagnosis of a potential mimic of a pancreatic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Tara A; Miller, Theodore R; Khanafshar, Elham

    2016-04-01

    Accessory spleen (AS) is not a rare occurrence, and with the second most common site being the tail of the pancreas, intrapancreatic AS (IPAS) can easily mimic a pancreatic neoplasm. Together with radiologic imaging findings, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) can be used to assist in the diagnosis, preventing potentially unnecessary surgical procedures. The most common cytologic findings that have been described in the literature include a heterogenous population of small lymphocytes along with traversing small vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for CD8 has also been documented as a useful tool to support the diagnosis as it specifically highlights the endothelial cells of the splenic sinus. Here, we report two additional cases of IPAS diagnosed by FNA and discuss the potential pitfalls in diagnosis of this entity. PMID:27034814

  10. Cell-block procedure in endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration of gastrointestinal solid neoplastic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; Todaro, Paolo; Caruso, Rosario Alberto; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed the clinical applications of endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration (EUS-FNA) and the methodological aspects obtained by cell-block procedure (CBP) in the diagnostic approach to the gastrointestinal neoplastic pathology. CBP showed numerous advantages in comparison to the cytologic routine smears; in particular, better preservation of cell architecture, achievement of routine haematoxylin-eosin staining equivalent to histological slides and possibility to perform immunohistochemistry or molecular analyses represented the most evident reasons to choose this method. Moreover, by this approach, the differential diagnosis of solid gastrointestinal neoplasias may be more easily achieved and the background of contaminant non-neoplastic gastrointestinal avoided. Finally, biological samples collected by EUS-FNA CBP-assisted should be investigated in order to identify and quantify further potential molecular markers. PMID:26322154

  11. Hybrid Intercalated Duct Lesion of the Parotid: Diagnostic Challenges of a Recently Described Entity with Fine Needle Aspiration Findings.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yingting; Pang, Yin Huei; Teh, Ming; Petersson, Fredrik

    2016-06-01

    Intercalated duct lesions (IDL) of the salivary glands are recently described, and encompass both hyperplasia and benign neoplasms that remain incompletely understood. IDLs have been linked to various benign and low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. We herein present a case of a 77 year old woman with an IDL of the parotid composed of both a hyperplastic and an adenomatous component and report, for the first time, the fine needle aspiration findings of such a lesion. This case illustrates the morphologic spectrum of an IDL, as well as challenges in rendering an accurate cytological and histologic diagnosis. The potential diagnostic pitfalls presented by the hybrid pattern of this lesion are also discussed. PMID:26477034

  12. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen: utilization of fine needle aspiration for diagnosis of a potential mimic of a pancreatic neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Tara A.; Miller, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Accessory spleen (AS) is not a rare occurrence, and with the second most common site being the tail of the pancreas, intrapancreatic AS (IPAS) can easily mimic a pancreatic neoplasm. Together with radiologic imaging findings, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) can be used to assist in the diagnosis, preventing potentially unnecessary surgical procedures. The most common cytologic findings that have been described in the literature include a heterogenous population of small lymphocytes along with traversing small vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for CD8 has also been documented as a useful tool to support the diagnosis as it specifically highlights the endothelial cells of the splenic sinus. Here, we report two additional cases of IPAS diagnosed by FNA and discuss the potential pitfalls in diagnosis of this entity. PMID:27034814

  13. Enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma in cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome: fine-needle aspiration contributes to the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schwock, Joerg; Hyjek, Elizabeth M; Torlakovic, Emina E; Geddie, William R

    2015-02-01

    Cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome (CMLNS) is an infrequently reported manifestation of unrecognized/longstanding celiac disease and may be associated with enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma and hyposplenism. Unrecognized malignancy and life-threatening infections can pose a significant risk to patients in cases of delayed diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration of the mesenteric lesions may contribute significantly to the correct diagnosis and can expedite patient management. We report on the cytologic characteristics of enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma first detected in a cyst fluid specimen obtained from a patient with cavitating mesenteric lesions. Image-guided fine-needle aspiration resulted in chylous fluid that contained a lymphoid cell population with neoplastic morphology and abnormal immunophenotype. Further work-up led to the diagnosis of enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma with bone marrow involvement. Cytologic assessment of the cyst fluid is an important part of the diagnostic cascade in patients with CMLNS to exclude clinically occult lymphoma. PMID:24610808

  14. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Diagnosis on Thyroid Aspirate and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Saqi, Anjali; Kuker, Adriana P; Ebner, Susana A; Ausiello, John; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Bhagat, Govind; Giorgadze, Tamar A

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid gland involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis is extremely rare. A 35-year-old woman with a history of a suprasellar mass previously diagnosed as a ganglioglioma and complicated by diabetes insipidus, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and central hypothyroidism presented with acute onset of neck enlargement. On ultrasound examination, almost the entire thyroid appeared replaced by abnormal lobulated hypoechoic tissue with increased vascularity. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid was performed and revealed singly scattered and loosely cohesive large cells with abundant cytoplasm, including some with irregular nuclear contours and nuclear grooves. No thyroid follicular cells were noted. Based on the cytomorphologic findings and ancillary studies (immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis) a cytological diagnosis of "positive for neoplastic cells" with features suggestive of monocytic/histiocytic origin, possibly Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was rendered. Following FNA, the patient underwent an incisional thyroid biopsy that confirmed the cytological impression of LCH. In light of the new diagnosis of LCH, the prior suprasellar mass biopsy slides were re-reviewed and rare cells suspicious for LCH were observed. Appropriate treatment for systemic LCH was initiated successfully. This case demonstrates that the presence of enlarged and loosely cohesive cells, especially those with irregular nuclear contours, in thyroid FNA specimens should raise suspicion for LCH. The diagnosis of LCH in FNA specimens is challenging. Additional material should be allocated for ancillary studies to confirm the morphological impression. In our case, not only was the thyroid FNA crucial in diagnosing LCH, but instrumental in initiating a thorough diagnostic work-up for multisystem involvement and thus unmasking the true etiology of the patient's suprasellar mass and associated endocrinopathies. PMID:25596951

  15. The significance of the diagnosis of atypia in breast fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jennifer C; Al-Masri, Hytham; Salhadar, Alia; Xie, H Bill; Gabram, Sheryl; Wojcik, Eva M

    2004-11-01

    The diagnosis of atypia in breast fine-needle aspiration (FNA) continues to be an area of debate in cytology practice. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of this term and to evaluate potential morphological criteria, which would determine the patient's outcome. A computer-based search was carried out to retrieve breast FNAs performed between 1990 and 2000 that were diagnosed as atypical. Cases followed by surgical resection were reexamined for the presence of morphological features potentially differentiating benign and malignant lesions. Out of 1,568 breast FNAs, there were 64 cases (4%) with a diagnosis of atypia. Thirty-eight cases had surgical follow-up material that revealed malignancy in 14 cases (37%) and benign lesions in 24 cases (63%). The benign diagnostic categories included fibrocystic change (12/24), fibroadenoma (3/24), tubular adenoma (2/24), and nonspecific findings (7/24). The malignant diagnoses included ductal carcinoma (9/14), lobular carcinoma (3/14), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; 1/14), and tubular carcinoma (1/14). The evaluation of cytological criteria used to differentiate benign from malignant lesions (i.e., cellularity, loss of cohesion, myoepithelial cells, nuclear enlargement, nuclear overlap, prominent nucleoli) revealed significant overlap between benign and malignant cases, particularly in cases of fibroadenoma, tubular adenoma, and proliferative breast disease. The surgical follow-up of four hypocellular cases revealed lobular carcinoma in two cases and ductal carcinoma in the remaining two cases. Our study confirmed that the diagnosis of atypia is clinically significant because it is associated with a high probability of malignancy. No morphological criterion is able to reliably differentiate benign and malignant lesions in cases diagnosed with atypia. Diagnosis of atypia is particularly significant in hypocellular cases. We recommended that breast FNAs with a diagnosis of atypia be evaluated further histologically. PMID:15468131

  16. [Bone marrow aspiration for diagnostic purposes].

    PubMed

    Letestu, R; Valensi, F

    2003-01-01

    Examination of bone marrow aspiration is an important tool in the diagnosis of haematological diseases. First attempts of bone marrow sampling took place at the beginning of the twentieth century. Thereafter, numerous methods were proposed and different materials were described. The commonly accepted sites for sampling are sternum and the iliac crest. We describe here a sampling procedure for each site. Bone marrow aspiration is a safely investigation, but not recommended for patients with impaired haemostasis. The physician must be aware of its side effects and complications which could occur. The consequence of the complications varies according to the type of iatrogenic injury. Prevention and rapid diagnosis are a crucial point in the management of bone marrow aspiration accidents. To avoid malpractice, the procedure should be taught by senior physicians including theoretical as well as practical learning. The purpose of the learning is a high quality of care to ensure patients the best comfort in subsequent bone marrow examinations, this point being particularly important in paediatrics. PMID:14711606

  17. The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, Rıdvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors. PMID:16262899

  18. Accuracy of diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas on fine needle aspiration: A multi-institution experience of ten cases

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Sidra; Loya, Asif; Siddiqui, Momin T.; Akhter, Noreen; Yusuf, Muhammed Aasim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a neoplasm of uncertain origin and indolent biologic behavior with distinctive morphological features occurring predominantly in young women. This tumor has an excellent prognosis compared to neuroendocrine and acinar cell carcinoma, which are close differential diagnoses based on morphology, hence making it crucial to diagnose SPTP correctly. Objectives: To discuss the cytomorphological features of 10 cases of SPTP reported in two institutions and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in establishing the diagnosis of SPTP. Methods: Ten diagnosed cases of SPTP were retrieved from the computerized endoscopy and pathology databases of our two tertiary care institutions. Nine patients had subsequent histological follow-up available. Eight patients underwent EUS-FNA while one patient each had ultrasound and computed tomography-guided FNA. The rapid on-site evaluation was carried out in all 10 cases, and additional material was retained for cell block preparation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains ranging from synaptophysin, progesterone receptor, chromogranin, β-catenin, CD10, and NSE were applied on cell blocks. Histological sections of all resected specimens were reviewed, and findings were correlated with those obtained by FNA. Results: Adequate material was obtained in all ten cases. IHC stains helped to confirm the cytological impression of SPTP. Histological examination of resection specimens, available in 9/10 cases, confirmed the cytological diagnosis. Conclusions: FNA particularly that obtained with EUS guidance is an effective tool in the accurate diagnosis of SPTP. PMID:26884802

  19. Small cell mesothelioma: A rare entity and diagnostic pitfall mimicking small cell lung carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Afify, Alaa; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F; Bishop, John W; Huang, Eric C

    2016-06-01

    Small cell mesothelioma (SCM) is an extremely rare variant of epithelioid mesothelioma that can be mistaken for other forms of small round blue cell tumors, particularly small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Here, we describe a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) from a pleural lesion in a 75-year-old man with a history of known asbestos exposure. The FNA revealed cohesive clusters of uniform small round blue cells with high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, finely powdery chromatin, small inconspicuous nucleoli, and scant amount of cytoplasm. Mitoses were infrequent and nuclear molding was absent. Immunochemical profile supported a mesothelial origin, which was later confirmed by pleurectomy with a diagnosis of SCM. This report demonstrates the difficulties in cytologic evaluation of lung FNAs in differentiating SCM from SCLC or other small round blue cell tumors. As therapy differs for SCM, early recognition of the cytologic features is essential in making the correct diagnosis needed for appropriate clinical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:526-529. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26952387

  20. Does onsite cytotechnology evaluation improve the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Alsohaibani, Fahad; Girgis, Safwat; Sandha, Gurpal Singh

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the preferred modality for the cytological diagnosis of various cancers. Onsite cytopathology interpretation is not available in most centres. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the the adequacy of tissue sampling assessed by an onsite cytotechnologist improves the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA. METHODS: The present study is a retrospective review of all patients undergoing solid mass EUS-FNA between September 2005 and August 2007. Patients in group I (September 2005 to August 2006) had cytology slides prepared by an endoscopy nurse. Patients in group II (September 2006 to August 2007) had cytology slides prepared, stained and assessed for adequacy of tissue sampling by a cytotechnologist in the endoscopy suite. The final cytopathological diagnosis (definitely positive, definitely negative or inconclusive) was compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 49 EUS-FNA procedures were performed in 47 patients in group I and 60 EUS-FNA procedures in 55 patients in group II. Pancreatic masses were the most common target site in both groups. The total number of needle passes was 105 in group I (mean 2.14 passes per patient; range one to five needle passes) and 158 in group II (mean 2.63 passes per patient; range one to four needle passes). The difference in the number of needle passes was not statistically significant between groups. The final diagnosis was definite in 53% in group I compared with 77% in group II (P=0.01). The percentage of inconclusive diagnoses was 47% in group I and 23% in group II (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Onsite cytotechnologist interpretation of adequacy of tissue sampling significantly improves the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA. This appears to be independent of the total number of needle passes undertaken for tissue sampling. PMID:19172205

  1. Role of radiological-assisted cytology in intra-abdominal lesions: A 3 years’ experience in a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Dosi, Shilpi; Gupta, Garima; Kawatra, Mallika; Chakrabarti, Preeti Rihal; Agrawal, Purti; Jain, Mukul Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) with assistance of radiological tools such as ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) is an effective and safe technique for diagnosing intra-abdominal neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. Aims and Objectives: (1) To assess the utility of image-guided cytology in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal lesions. (2) To categorize various intra-abdominal lesions according to their site of occurrence and study their cytomorphological features. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology between January 2012 and January 2015. A total of 174 cases with intra-abdominal lesions were included in the study. Results: In our study, diagnostic yield was 84.5%. The mean age was found to be 52 years with M: F ratio 1.1:1. We found that 92 (52.87%) cases were in hepatobiliary region, 33 (18.96%) in adnexa, 13 (7.47%) in pancreatic-ampullary region, 14 (8.04%) in unknown abdominal lumps, 8 (4.6%) in lymph nodes, 6 (3.4%) in renal, 5 (2.87%) in retroperitoneum, 2 (1.1%) in omental nodules, and 1 (0.5%) in splenic mass. Of total 174 cases, 106 (61%) cases were malignant, 10 (5.7%) benign, 16 (9.1%) inflammatory, 27 (15.5%) inadequate, and 15 (8.7%) suspicious for malignancy. Conclusion: Ultrasound and CT-guided FNA cytology had a significant role in diagnosis of palpable and nonpalpable intra-abdominal lesions. Being a relatively quick and safe method, it also avoids invasive diagnostic procedures.

  2. Dysphagia, dystussia, and aspiration pneumonia in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Hideki; Miyagi, Midori; Ebihara, Takae; Okazaki, Tatsuma

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development and wide distribution of guidelines for pneumonia, death from pneumonia is increasing due to population aging. Conventionally, aspiration pneumonia was mainly thought to be one of the infectious diseases. However, we have proven that chronic repeated aspiration of a small amount of sterile material can cause the usual type of aspiration pneumonia in mouse lung. Moreover, chronic repeated aspiration of small amounts induced chronic inflammation in both frail elderly people and mouse lung. These observations suggest the need for a paradigm shift of the treatment for pneumonia in the elderly. Since aspiration pneumonia is fundamentally based on dysphagia, we should shift the therapy for aspiration pneumonia from pathogen-oriented therapy to function-oriented therapy. Function-oriented therapy in aspiration pneumonia means therapy focusing on slowing or reversing the functional decline that occurs as part of the aging process, such as “dementia → dysphagia → dystussia → atussia → silent aspiration”. Atussia is ultimate dysfunction of cough physiology, and aspiration with atussia is called silent aspiration, which leads to the development of life-threatening aspiration pneumonia. Research pursuing effective strategies to restore function in the elderly is warranted in order to decrease pneumonia deaths in elderly people. PMID:27076964

  3. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dimashkieh, Haytham; Krishnamurthy, Savitri

    2006-01-01

    Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (<50, 51–500 or >500 cells), cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation), cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin), and background (colloid-like material and macrophages). Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells) with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma. Immunocytochemical analysis for PHT was performed for 14 cases (6 destained smears and 8 cell blocks) which showed distinct cytoplasmic positivity. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland. Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin. Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology. Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells. PMID:16569241

  4. Diagnostic Thyroidectomy May Be Preferable in Patients With Suspicious Ultrasonography Features After Cytopathology Diagnosis of AUS/FLUS in the Bethesda System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Hyeung Kyoo; Chang, Hojin; Kim, Seok Mo; Kim, Bup-Woo; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2015-12-01

    Atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a new category in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) for which repeat fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is recommended. The aim of this study was to identify specific ultrasonography and clinical predictors of malignancy in a subset of thyroid nodules associated with cytology diagnoses of AUS/FLUS.Between January 2011 and December 2102, 5440 patients underwent thyroid surgery at our institution. Of these, 213 patients were diagnosed AUS/FLUS at the preoperative cytopathology diagnosis. The frequency of FNAC and ultrasonography images was compared between patients with cancerous and benign tumors based on their final pathology.Of the 213 patients, 158 (74.2%) were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma in their final pathology reports. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the frequency of FNAC was not significantly correlated with the cancer diagnosis. Hypoechogenicity (odds ratio 2.521, P = 0.007) and microcalcification (odds ratio 3.247, P = 0.005) were statistically correlated with cancer risk.Although AUS/FLUS in cytopathology is recommended for repeating FNAC in BSRTC, we proposed that thyroid nodules with ultrasonography findings that suggest the possibility of cancer should undergo thyroidectomy with diagnostic intent. PMID:26705204

  5. Building and using a PACS in pathology and cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Drunen, Rudi; van Teylingen, Geert; Boon, Mathilde E.; Kok, Lambrecht P.

    2001-08-01

    Applications of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in Pathology and Cytology are currently hardly used in the diagnostic process. Here we describe a system that, together with existing equipment, stores data from cervix smears, and aids the physician in the diagnostic process. The system comprises of a scanning system for the specimen and a multi-level storage system partly on disk and partly on optical media. The system adds additional benefits in the diagnostic process while at the same time provides a safe long-term storage and archive of the data. Due to the open nature and the cost-effectiveness of this solution applications of this system can be found not only in cervical cytology but also in pathology or other parts of medicine where image processing or storage is a major issue.

  6. FISH molecular testing in cytological preparations from solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many of the exciting new developments in solid tumor molecular cytogenetics impact classical and molecular pathology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify specific DNA target sequences in nuclei of non-dividing cells in solid neoplasms has contributed to the integration of molecular cytogenetics into cytology in spite of the remarkable promiscuity of cancer genes. Indeed, although it is a low-throughput assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization enables the direct disclosure and localization of genetic markers in single nuclei. Gene fusions are among the most prominent genetic alterations in cancer, providing markers that may be determinant in needle biopsies that are negative or suspicious for malignancy, and may contribute to the correct classification of the tumors. In view of the expanding use of fluorescence in situ hybridization in cytology, future challenges include automated sample evaluation and the specification of common criteria for interpreting and reporting results. PMID:25478010

  7. Pigmented Paget's disease of nipple: A diagnostic challenge on cytology.

    PubMed

    Vani, Br; Thejaswini, Mu; Srinivasamurthy, V; Rao, M Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Paget's disease is a rare form of breast cancer often associated with an underlying ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive cancer. A 47-year-old female patient presented with bleeding from the left nipple since 4 months. Imprint smears from the lesion showed pleomorphic malignant epithelial cells in singles and in small clusters, many of them containing dark brown cytoplasmic pigment granules. There was no palpable breast lump or axillary lymph node enlargement. Based on the physical examination and cytological features, a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with a differential of Paget's disease of the nipple was made. Biopsy showed features of Paget's disease and immunohistochemistry was positive for HER-2/neu, negative for HMB-45 and S-100, thus confirming the diagnosis. This case has been reported to emphasize the fact that Paget's cells can contain imbibed brown cytoplasmic pigment and should not be mistaken for melanoma cells on cytology smears. PMID:23661948

  8. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland masses in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Michelow, Pam; Dezube, Bruce J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Salivary gland disease is an important manifestation of HIV-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytologic findings of salivary gland fine needle aspiration (FNA) in South African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A retrospective review was performed on confirmed HIV-positive patients who underwent FNA of various body sites, including salivary glands, over a 5-year period. There were 495 (14.1%) salivary gland FNAs out of a total of 3,501 HIV-positive patients. This included 260 (52.5%) parotid, 226 (45.7%) submandibular, 2 (0.4%) sublingual, and 7 (1.4%) specimens labeled as a salivary gland aspirate, exact site not provided. Patients were of average age 34 years (range 9 months to 63 years) with a female: male ratio of 1:0.6. There were 37 (7.5%) inadequate FNAs and 22 (4.4%) that contained normal gland constituents only. Most diagnoses were benign and comprised 168 (33.9%) reactive lymphadenopathy, 115 (23.2%) benign lymphoepithelial cysts, 62 (12.5%) mycobacterial infections, and 52 (10.5%) abscesses, of which 10 had associated mycobacterial infections. Neoplasms accounted for 31 (6.7%) diagnoses including 11 pleomorphic adenomas, 13 lymphoma, 3 Kaposi sarcoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 metastatic carcinoma, and 1 rhabdomyosarcoma. There were four epidermoid inclusion cysts, three non-specific sialadenitis, one mucocele, and one spindle cell lesion not able to be further characterized. FNA is a useful procedure to evaluate salivary gland lesions in an HIV-infected population, allowing prompt management to be undertaken and obviating the need for surgery in many instances, an important consideration in an underfunded public health care system. PMID:22807383

  9. False-negative cytology in invasive cancer of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Fetherston, W C

    1983-12-01

    The mainstay of early diagnosis of CIN is exfoliative cytologic screening of the cervicovaginal area. The Achilles heel in this tremendously valuable screening process is the high false negativity rate. The false negativity rate can be diminished by rigid adherence to indications for screening, screening technique, proper interpretation and reporting, and utilization, where indicated, of adjunctive diagnostic methods such as multiple biopsy, colposcopy, and maintenance of the annual screening schedule in the majority of patients. PMID:6661844

  10. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  11. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature. PMID:21994199

  13. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  14. Deformable membrane for the segmentation of cytological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Bredno, Joerg; Lehmann, Thomas M.; Spitzer, Klaus

    1998-06-01

    In clinical cytology quantitative parameters have to be extracted from a large number of biological samples to obtain diagnostically relevant and reproducible information. Computer-assisted microscopy can provide methods that increase the quality and comparability of clinical studies by reducing the subjective influence of human operators on their results. In order to guarantee the correctness of extracted parameters automatic and reliable segmentation of the samples is required. For the detection of cytological objects a novel deformable membrane model is presented which is strictly based on macroscopical mechanics and statics. This is appropriate for modeling physiological membranes, because their shape is determined exclusively by mechanical forces. The self-driven membrane converges iteratively towards a stable state, where the contrary forces are in balance. However, active contours may not yield sufficient detection quality for acquisition of quantitative parameters. Therefore, after convergence a stochastic optimization process corrects the contour according to local graylevel information. This yields a contour that is well- adapted to the local graylevel structure. Additionally, for subsequent cytometric quantifications a local measure of confidence is provided for the contour. this can be used to enhance the robustness of the extracted parameters by incorporating the confidence factors in the quantification process. The method is applied to cytological and histological samples of different magnification.

  15. The Application of Molecular Diagnostics to Stained Cytology Smears.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Maja H; Adler, Esther; Hakima, Laleh; Grunblatt, Eli; Pieri, Evan; Seymour, Andrew; Khader, Samer; Cajigas, Antonio; Suhrland, Mark; Goswami, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    Detection of mutational alterations is important for guiding treatment decisions of lung non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid nodules with atypical cytologic findings. Inoperable lung tumors requiring further testing for staging and thyroid lesions often are diagnosed using only cytology material. Molecular diagnostic tests of these samples typically are performed on cell blocks; however, insufficient cellularity of cell blocks is a limitation for test performance. In addition, some of the fixatives used while preparing cell blocks often introduces artifacts for mutation detection. Here, we applied qClamp xenonucleic technology and quantitative RT-PCR to cells microdissected directly from stained cytology smears to detect common alterations including mutations and translocations in non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid lesions. By using this approach, we achieved a 1% molecular alteration detection rate from as few as 50 cells. Ultrasensitive methods of molecular alteration detection similar to the one described here will be increasingly important for the evaluation of molecular alterations in clinical scenarios when only tissue samples that are small are available. PMID:26921541

  16. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  17. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Frye, Margaret; Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  18. Respiratory complications following hydrocarbon aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Makrygianni, Evanthia A; Palamidou, Fani; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2016-06-01

    Accidental hydrocarbon ingestion may lead to aspiration and chemical pneumonitis in children. In this review article, the clinical course of hydrocarbon pneumonitis, chest radiographic abnormalities, complications, and treatment interventions are summarized. Most children remain asymptomatic and without complications following ingestion of a hydrocarbon. In approximately 15% of ingestions, aspiration pneumonitis occurs and evolves over the first 6-8 hr presenting with fever, tachypnea, hypoxemia, and tachycardia. A symptom zenith is reached within 48 hr followed by progressive improvement. Up to 5% of pneumonitis cases progress rapidly to acute respiratory failure. Chest radiographic abnormalities develop by 4-8 hr after ingestion, but they are not always predictive of clinical pneumonitis. Patients with history of hydrocarbon ingestion should be monitored for 6-8 hr in the emergency department and a chest radiogram should be obtained at the end of the observation period. Spontaneous or induced emesis and gastric lavage have been related to aspiration pneumonitis. Children who are symptomatic are admitted to the hospital for cardiorespiratory status monitoring and supportive care. Approximately 90% of hospitalized patients have a benign clinical course. Increased work of breathing with or without altered sensorium and seizures are indications for admission to the intensive care unit. Hypoxemia unresponsive to supplemental oxygen and/or severe central nervous system involvement require mechanical ventilation. Corticosteroids do not seem to offer any benefit and antibiotics are administered in cases of bacterial superinfection. Pneumatoceles may become evident after the first 6-10 days of symptoms on follow-up chest radiograms and they resolve up to 6 months later. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:560-569. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910771

  19. Evolution of transbronchial needle aspiration technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Ben, Su-Qin; Xia, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an established technique to collect cell and tissue specimens from lesions outside the airway wall, generally guided by flexible bronchoscope under the direct visualization of the puncture site. TBNA has been utilized for 30 years, and now there is renewed interest in utilizing it in conjunction with endobronchial ultrasound. Although the basic operational principles have remained the same, conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided TBNA (EBUS-TBNA) have been greatly improved over the years with the increased application in clinic and the advance of new technology. In this article we briefly discussed the evolution of TBNA technique and its future. PMID:26807269

  20. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    PubMed

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV. PMID:21656277

  1. [An Overview of Incidence and Outcome of Perioperative Pulmonary Aspiration].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koichi; Shinoda, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Examination of the literature suggests that the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the perioperative period is relatively infrequent. Since Mendelson's report of aspiration pneumonitis in 1946, the factors that contribute to the likelihood of aspiration have been identified, and numerous attempts for preventions for regurgitation or pulmonary aspiration have been made. The low incidence of major morbidity of anesthesia-related pulmonary aspiration may be due to adopting quality measures, applying practice guidelines for preoperative fasting, and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. More systematic preoperative checking and more careful selection of patients are necessary when a supraglottic airway is used in preference to a tracheal tube. Second generation supraglottic airways may not reduce the risk of regurgitation, but may reduce the chance of aspiration if the mask position is correct and drain tube works well. Because the mortality and morbidity of aspiration pneumonia remain relatively high, the preoperative risk evaluation is very important to avoid regurgitation or aspiration. PMID:27004379

  2. Aspirations langagieres: Negociation et apprentissage du francais (Language Aspirations: Negotiation and Learning French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepetit, Daniel; Cichocki, Wladyslaw

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 130 beginning French students at the University of Windsor (Canada) focused on their second language aspirations, expectations, and anticipated needs. Interpersonal relations appear to be the primary motivator, with travel and instrumental motivation secondary. (20 references) (Author/MSE)

  3. Correlation of clinical, cytological and histological findings in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    SOUSA, MICHELE CARDOSO; ALVES, MONICA GHISLAINE OLIVEIRA; SOUZA, LUCIANO ALBINO; BRANDÃO, ADRIANA AIGOTTI HABERBECK; ALMEIDA, JANETE DIAS; CABRAL, LUIZ ANTONIO GUIMARÃES

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of exfoliative cytology by correlating the clinical lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with exfoliative cytology and histopathological findings. Cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1984 and 2010 were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the present study were the availability of detailed clinical findings and a diagnosis of the disease through exfoliative cytology and histopathology. The cases were assessed and assigned scores, which were then submitted to modal expression analysis, which considers the higher frequency scores, thus relating the variables. The cytological findings demonstrated that the majority of the cases had malignant potential. Exfoliative cytology should be used as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of OSCC, as it enables the early detection of these lesions. However, cytology should not be used as a substitute for histopathological examination. PMID:25013502

  4. Osteogenic potential of reamer irrigator aspirator (RIA) aspirate collected from patients undergoing hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Porter, Ryan M; Liu, Fangjun; Pilapil, Carmencita; Betz, Oliver B; Vrahas, Mark S; Harris, Mitchel B; Evans, Christopher H

    2009-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing preceded by canal reaming is the current standard of treatment for long-bone fractures requiring stabilization. However, conventional reaming methods can elevate intramedullary temperature and pressure, potentially resulting in necrotic bone, systemic embolism, and pulmonary complications. To address this problem, a reamer irrigator aspirator (RIA) has been developed that combines irrigation and suction for reduced-pressure reaming with temperature modulation. Osseous particles aspirated by the RIA can be recovered by filtration for use as an autograft, but the flow-through is typically discarded. The purpose of this study was to assess whether this discarded filtrate has osteogenic properties that could be used to enhance the total repair potential of aspirate. RIA aspirate was collected from five patients (ages 71-78) undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty. Osseous particles were removed using an open-pore filter, and the resulting filtrate (230 +/- 200 mL) was processed by Ficoll-gradient centrifugation to isolate mononuclear cells (6.2 +/- 5.2 x 10(6) cells/mL). The aqueous supernatant contained FGF-2, IGF-I, and latent TGF-beta1, but BMP-2 was below the limit of detection. The cell fraction included culture plastic-adherent, fibroblastic cells that displayed a surface marker profile indicative of mesenchymal stem cells and that could be induced along the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. When compared to outgrowth cells from the culture of osseous particles, filtrate cells were more sensitive to seeding density during osteogenic culture but had similar capacity for chondrogenesis. These results suggest using RIA aspirate to develop improved, clinically expeditious, cost-effective technologies for accelerating the healing of bone and other musculoskeletal tissues. PMID:18655129

  5. Informed Cytology for Triaging HPV-Positive Women: Substudy Nested in the NTCC Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)–based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Methods: Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients’ HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status–informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status–informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Conclusions: Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. PMID:25568167

  6. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of spleen diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Douglas H; Wu, Yaping; Weston, Allan P; McAnaw, Mary P; Bromfield, Cecil; Bhattatiry, Manu M

    2003-07-01

    Splenic metastases are infrequent, and determination of the primary site by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can be complex. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who was found to have a large heterogeneously enhancing 8 x 7-inch splenic mass by abdominal computed tomography (CT). FNA by transesophageal endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated atypical cells conclusive for malignancy and consistent with metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on cytomorphology, histochemical lipid positivity, and immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratin, vimentin, and renal cell carcinoma marker. Repeat CT with and without arteriovenous contrast demonstrated bilateral renal cysts, including a 0.9 x 0.8-cm lesion on the left with significant enhancement. Splenectomy confirmed the radiological and cytological findings, and left kidney exploration and nephrectomy demonstrated a small (1.5 cm) lower pole renal cell carcinoma of chromophil (papillary) type, histologically similar to the splenic metastasis. This case demonstrates the diagnostic importance of interdisciplinary involvement (oncology, radiology, gastroenterology, pathology, and general and urologic surgery); cytomorphology; histochemistry, including fat stain on frozen cell block; and immunohistochemistry, including the recently developed renal cell carcinoma marker. PMID:12861126

  7. Role of brush cytology in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, Femila; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sistla, Sarath Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Although debatable, role of cytology in diagnosing Barrett's esophagus has been stressed by some authors. Our brief report analyses the role of brush cytology (BC) in its diagnosis. Eight patients who presented with upper gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations and subsequently diagnosed to have Barrett's esophagus with or without adenocarcinoma on brush cytology (BC) or, endoscopic biopsy (EB) or, a combination of both the techniques were included in the study. In all the cases routine cytologic smears and histologic sections with relevant special stains (when essential) were studied. On cytology, the diagnosis of "Barrett's esophagus" was made when the esophageal brushings obtained from a region beyond 3 cm from the gastroesophageal junction showed closely intermingled clusters of squamous and columnar cells, or when there was evidence of intestinal metaplasia. Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus was diagnosed by the usual criteria for malignancy with features of adenocarcinoma. Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the histologic diagnoses. Of the eight cases, seven had histopathologic correlation of which six had evidence of BE on BC; four had cytohistologic concordance, of which three cases revealed adenocarcinoma arising in BE. Two endoscopic biopsies were nonrepresentative. In one case, cytology missed Barrett's esophagus. For two cases in which cytology detected Barrett's mucosa, biopsies were nonrepresentative. Our study showed brush cytology (BC) to be a fairly reliable test for detecting Barrett's esophagus. Owing to its inherent advantage of sampling a wider and circumferential area, a technically well performed brushing procedure is likely to be more representative and superior than multiple endoscopic biopsies. PMID:21162095

  8. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  9. Value of DNA analysis in addition to cytological testing in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez de Castro, F.; Molero, T.; Acosta, O.; Julià-Serdà, G.; Caminero, J.; Cabrera, P.; Carrillo, T.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Aneuploidy appears to be a highly specific marker for cancer, and measurement of cellular DNA content by flow cytometry is rapid and reliable. This study was undertaken to determine if the addition of DNA analysis improved the sensitivity of cytological diagnosis of malignancy in pleural fluid. METHODS--Pleural effusions from 92 patients were studied by cytological examination and flow cytometry. RESULTS--In 41 patients the final diagnosis was malignancy, there were 40 cases of benign effusions including 22 with pleural tuberculosis, and in the remaining 11 patients with biopsy proven cancer the presence of malignant cells was not found by cytological and histological means in the pleural fluid. Aneuploidy and cytological malignancy were found in 14 samples. There were seven cases with abnormal flow cytometry and negative cytological results. In 12 patients the cytological test results were positive but DNA analysis was normal. Thirty six samples of fluid were both diploid and cytologically negative. Of the 22 tuberculous effusions seven contained aneuploid cells. The sensitivity of DNA and cytological analysis was 51.2% and 63.4%, respectively. The specificity of DNA analysis was 74.5%. CONCLUSIONS--DNA analysis of cells in malignant pleural effusions is both less sensitive and specific than the cytological diagnosis. Flow cytometric analysis is not recommended for routine use in the diagnosis of pleural effusions. PMID:8066565

  10. Cytological and molecular diagnosis of solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, Giancarlo; Russo, Maria; Malapelle, Umberto; Accardo, Marina; Ferraro, Angelo; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Palombini, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) composed by predominant solid areas is diagnosed as a distinct variant on histological samples. Here we present a case of PTC recognized preoperatively by fine needle cytology as a solid variant. This diagnosis was made by combining cytology with the detection of the BRAFVK600-1E mutation, the molecular hallmark of the solid variant of PTC. Histological and molecular evaluation of the surgical specimen confirmed this pre-operative diagnosis. Thus combining cytology to BRAF molecular analysis is useful to refine the cytological diagnosis of this variant also on FNC specimens. PMID:18353179

  11. Comparative evaluation of various cytomorphological grading systems in breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arul, P.; Masilamani, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of breast carcinoma can be reliably made by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Grading usually done in histological samples for the selection of therapy but not in cytology. Various cytological grading systems have been proposed; however, none of them is presently considered the gold standard to predict the prognosis. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate various 3-tier cytological grading systems and to determine the best possible system corresponds to the histological grading proposed by Elston and Ellis based on the method by Nottingham modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) method. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 94 cases of breast carcinoma FNACs were graded using six cytological grading systems and compared with SBR method. Concordance, association, and correlation studies were done to select best possible cytological grading system. The interobserver reproducibility among the six grading systems was also assessed. Results: Robinson method showed best correlation (ρ = 0.801; P = 0.0001 and τ = 0.783; P = 0.0001), maximum percent agreement (83/94 cases; 88.3%), and a substantial kappa value of agreement (κ = 0.737) with the Nottingham modification of SBR grading system followed by Mouriguand method. Taniguchi system showed better interobserver agreement (87.2%; κ = 0.738). Conclusions: This study showed that all six cytological grading systems correlated positively with SBR method. However, Robinson's grading system demonstrated the best concordance, correlation, and substantial Kappa value of the agreement with the histological grading by SBR method in comparison to other 3-tier cytological grading systems. Hence, in conclusion, this grading should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports as it correlates well with histological grade. Despite various cytological grading systems, Robinson's method is simple, more objective, and reproducible, hence being preferable for routine use.

  12. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized Following Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Festic, Emir; Park, Pauline K.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Dabbagh, Ousama; Adesanya, Adebola; Gajic, Ognjen; Bartz, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary aspiration is an important recognized cause of ARDS. Better characterization of patients who aspirate may allow identification of potential risks for aspiration that could be used in future studies to mitigate the occurrence of aspiration and its devastating complications. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Lung Injury Prediction Score cohort to better characterize patients with aspiration, including their potential risk factors and related outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 5,584 subjects at risk for ARDS and who required hospitalization, 212 (3.8%) presented with aspiration. Subjects who aspirated were likely to be male (66% vs 56%, P < .007), slightly older (59 years vs 57 years), white (73% vs 61%, P = .0004), admitted from a nursing home (15% vs 5.9%, P < .0001), have a history of alcohol abuse (21% vs 8%, P < .0001), and have lower Glasgow Coma Scale (median, 13 vs 15; P < .0001). Aspiration subjects were sicker (higher APACHE [Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation] II score), required more mechanical ventilation (54% vs 32%, P < .0001), developed more moderate to severe ARDS (12% vs 3.8%, P < .0001), and were twofold more likely to die in-hospital, even after adjustment for severity of illness (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6). Neither obesity nor gastroesophageal reflux was associated with aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Aspiration was more common in men with alcohol abuse history and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale who were admitted from a nursing home. It is independently associated with a significant increase in the risk for ARDS as well as morbidity and mortality. Findings from this study may facilitate the design of future clinical studies of aspiration-induced lung injury. PMID:24811480

  13. Molecular identification of Bartonella species in dogs with leishmaniosis (leishmania infantum) with or without cytological evidence of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Soubasis, Nectarios; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Theodorou, Konstantina; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Saridomichelakis, Manolis; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggest that Bartonella species may cause polyarthritis and lameness in dogs. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a multi-systemic disease often occurring in association with arthritis. We hypothesized that concurrent Bartonella infection may be a contributing factor for the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. Hence the primary objective of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in dogs with naturally occurring CanL, with or without cytologically documented arthritis. Thirty-eight dogs with CanL (31 with neutrophilic arthritis and 7 without arthritis) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four archived clinical specimens from these 38 dogs, including 33 blood samples, 19 bone marrow (BM) samples and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from 22 dogs were tested for Bartonella spp. DNA using the Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Overall, eight (21.1%) dogs were infected with one or two Bartonella species; however, Bartonella spp. infection was not associated with arthritis in dogs with CanL. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine if there is a correlation between Bartonella spp. infection and the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. PMID:25258172

  14. [Evaluation of the role of cytology in the diagnosis of cancer of the lung. Comparison between cytology and pathological anatomy in 330 cases of proximal cancers].

    PubMed

    De Villaine, S; Mesguich, P; Fabien, N; Isaac, S; Rochet, M; Paulin, C

    1996-07-01

    This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the interest of cytology in the diagnosis of pulmonary carcinomas. Bronchial samples were collected from 330 patients known to display a macroscopic lesion which was detected by bronchoscopy. Cytological analysis of the bronchial brushings and washings, removed at the first fibroscopy, allowed the diagnosis of malignancy in 92% of the cases analyzed whereas the biopsy confirmed the malignancy in 77% of the cases. In conclusion cytological studies gave information on malignity and classification in 90% of the cases. However histological classification only could guarantee the choice of the best treatment regimen. PMID:8765923

  15. Sociological Theory and Youth Aspiration Research: A Critical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; Wells, Richard H.

    Reviewing sociological theories relative to youth aspiration research, the following thesis was presented: "pre-path analysis aspiration research was characterized by a person-centered, middle-range functionalist approach which eventually shifted to a person-centered, functionalist-system approach with the introduction of the path model…

  16. Students' School Motivation and Aspiration over High School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2005-01-01

    Students from a school in Hong Kong (n = 199) responded to 22 items asking about their school motivation and aspirations in a survey. Structural equation models found four school motivation factors consistent with the task, effort, competition, and praise scales of the Inventory of School Motivation, one education aspiration factor, one career

  17. Calculating Student Aspiration: Bourdieu, Spatiality and the Politics of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a recent study of aspirations for higher education by secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds in regional Australia. At the same time, it goes in search of explanations that transcend a Bourdieuian account of aspirations as produced by and reproductive of cultural histories and dominance, given the apparent…

  18. Exploring Aspiring Principals' Perceptions of Principalship: A Slovenian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trnavcevic, Anita; Vaupot, Silva Roncelli

    2009-01-01

    A lot is expected of Slovenian principals, yet very little is known about aspiring principals' own expectations of principalship. Currently there is no Slovenian study of aspiring principals, although they represent the majority of those enrolled on the "certification programme" of the National School for Leadership in Education. The purpose of…

  19. Factors Influencing the Vocational Aspirations of Victorian Year 9 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrom, Linda K.

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…

  20. Aspiring Social Justice Ally Identity Development: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals who are supportive of social justice efforts are not always effective in their anti-oppression efforts. Some who genuinely aspire to act as social justice allies are harmful, ultimately, despite their best intentions, perpetuating the system of oppression they seek to change. Different underlying motivations of those who aspire to be

  1. Stability of Career Aspirations: A Longitudinal Test of Gottfredson's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junk, Kate E.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Gottfredson's theory of the career compromise process was evaluated using a longitudinal data set of 2,353 female and 321 male students recruited for Zuckerman's "Seven College Study," who reported their career aspirations twice over a 1-year period. Expressed career aspirations were coded on the dimensions of sex type, prestige, and the…

  2. Study of Educational Aspirations of Preparatory School Students in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.

    To identify causes for low enrollment in secondary agricultural schools in Yemen, the United States Agency for International Development and the Yemen Ministry of Education surveyed 990 preparatory (junior high) students, examining their educational aspirations, differences between rural and urban youth, major influences on student aspirations,…

  3. Debridement of vaginal radiation ulcers using the surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderburgh, E.; Nahhas, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator (USA) is a fairly new surgical instrument used for an increasingly wide range of procedures. This paper introduces a new application: debridement of vulvovaginal necrotic ulcers resulting from intracavitary radiation therapy. The ultrasonic aspirator allowed removal of the soft, necrotic tissue while preserving underlying healthy, firm tissue and blood vessels.

  4. Students' Aspirations, Expectations and School Achievement: What Really Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), this study examines how different combinations of aspirations, expectations and school achievement can influence students' future educational behaviour (applying to university at the age of 17-18). The study shows that students with either high aspirations or high expectations have…

  5. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  6. The Relationship between Gender and Aspirations to Senior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzky, Barrie; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender, work factors, and non-work factors with aspirations to positions in senior management. A process model of senior management aspirations was developed and tested. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via an online survey that resulted in a sample of 368 working…

  7. Occupational Aspirations of Normal and Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    1981-01-01

    The levels of occupational aspirations of 40 emotionally disturbed adolescent males and 40 normal adolescent males were compared. Results indicated that the emotionally disturbed adolescents maintained their aspirations at lower levels, suggesting that their level of occupational aspiration vacillated. (RC)

  8. The Astrophysics Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, J.

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.

  9. Anal cytology as a predictor of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Eve M; Wahbah, Mary M; Been, Laura C; Chiao, Elizabeth Y; Citron, Deborah R; Laucirica, Rodolfo

    2013-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Cytologic screening is invaluable in the detection of cervical neoplasia, therefore many clinicians have adopted anal cytology as part of anal cancer screening in patients at high-risk for anal neoplasia. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anal cytology is a valuable screening test for identifying AIN in HIV+ patients. The cohort included 228 HIV+ patients who underwent anal cancer screening with collection of 318 anal cytology specimens between January 2006 and December 2009. Of this group, 74 (32.5%) patients had associated anal biopsies within a 6-month period, with a total of 89 comparison cases. The anal cytology samples were classified using the 2001 Bethesda System terminology. The sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting ASC-US, AIN 1-3 or SCC was 93%. Cytology was 88% sensitive for detecting low-grade AIN (AIN 1), but only 20% sensitive for detecting high-grade AIN (AIN 2-3) or SCC. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cases were distributed evenly between low- and high-grade AIN, with two cases having normal histology. Only six cases had negative cytology, all of which were associated with AIN on biopsy, for a false negative rate of 7%. Anal cytology is a good predictor of AIN, as confirmed by the high degree of sensitivity. However, there is poor correlation between the cytological and histological grade of AIN. Cytology underestimates the grade of dysplasia compared to the corresponding biopsy. PMID:23288861

  10. Isolation of microRNA from conjunctival impression cytology.

    PubMed

    Pilson, Qistina; Jefferies, Caroline A; Gabhann, Joan Ní; Murphy, Conor C

    2015-03-01

    Impression cytology (IC) is an easy and safe technique that has been used in the past for harvesting epithelial cells from the cornea and conjunctiva for various applications including histology, immunohistology and molecular studies. Previous investigations have shown the usage of different types of membranes for the purpose of investigating pathophysiology and staging of diseases. This contributes to a better understanding of ocular surface conditions and helps to provide information for diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis. Recently, there has been a shift of focus in research towards understanding the contribution of microRNAs (miRs) to ocular disease. Thus far, impression cytology has been explored for measuring gene expression but not for quantifying miR expression. This study describes how miRs and mRNA can be isolated from conjunctival epithelial cells obtained by impression cytology and determines the optimum membrane and technique for this purpose. The IC technique was optimized using Biopore, Immobilon-P(SQ) and Millicell Hanging Cell Culture Insert membranes on healthy controls. miRs and mRNAs were isolated from the conjunctival epithelial cells (CEC) obtained and measured. Biopore membrane provided the optimum yield of miRs (38.8 ng/μL ± 10.8) and mRNA (155.3 ng/μL ± 20.1) as well as subjectively found to be best tolerated with minimum discomfort. Appreciable levels of miRs and mRNAs were detected from the CEC from healthy controls, confirming that it is possible to isolate miR and mRNA from CEC. Here, we give a detailed description of the application of conjunctival impression cytology to isolate miRs and the convenience of the technique by using the best membrane available. This method can be readily adopted in both clinical and laboratory settings. This technique will facilitate the measurement of miRs to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular surface conditions as well as potentially identifying novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25584869

  11. A Comprehensive Software Subsystem for Anatomic Pathology and Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, John M.

    1982-01-01

    An anatomic pathology software subsystem was developed on a Medlab/Control Data Laboratory Computer System. Specifications for such a subsystem included: on-line accessioning, word processing capabilities, automatic retrieval of surgical and cytologic history, SNOMED coding, long-term retrieval by SNOMED code, CAP workload recording and billing. This subsystem has been installed and performing relatively error-free for a number of months. The advantages have just begun to be realized: replacment of log books with on-line access, decreased volume of typing with neater and more consistent reports, a daily surgical pathology log containing each active surgical and related history, and a mechanism for SNOMED searching.

  12. Cytological diagnosis of breast tumours by the imprint method

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, C. R.

    1965-01-01

    Tumour imprints were made from 311 breast tumours at the time of frozen section. Rapid and permanent staining methods were employed and the accuracy of diagnosis was compared with that obtained from frozen and paraffin sections. Two false positives (0·65%) and 16 false negatives (5·15%) were found in the imprint group compared with no false positives and five false negatives (1·6%) in the frozen section group. The cytology of breast imprints is described and the false results are analysed. The possible uses of this technique, both alone and in combination with frozen sections, are discussed. Images PMID:14247701

  13. Acid aspiration-induced airways hyperresponsiveness in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Timothy R.; von Reyn, Jessica; Larrabee, Yuna C.; Cloutier, Mary E.; Irvin, Charles G.; Bates, Jason H. T.

    2009-01-01

    The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH (1.8) equivalent to the upper range of typical gastric contents would lead to AHR in naive mice. We further speculated that modest reductions in aspirate acidity to a level expected during gastric acid suppression therapy (pH 4.0) would impede aspiration-induced AHR. BALB/c female mice were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane and allowed to aspirate 75 μl of saline with HCl (pH 1.8, 4.0, or 7.4) or underwent sham aspiration. Mice were re-anesthetized 2 or 24 h later, underwent tracheostomy, and were coupled to a mechanical ventilator. Forced oscillations were used to periodically measure respiratory impedance (Zrs) following aerosol delivery of saline and increasing doses of methacholine to measure for AHR. Values for elastance (H), airways resistance (RN), and tissue damping (G) were derived from Zrs. Aspirate pH of 1.8 led to a significant overall increase in peak RN, G, and H compared with pH 4.0 and 7.4 at 2 and 24 h. Differences between pH 7.4 and 4.0 were not significant. In mice aspirating pH 1.8 compared with controls, airway lavage fluid contained more neutrophils, higher protein, and demonstrated higher permeability. We conclude that acid aspiration triggers an acute AHR, driven principally by breakdown of epithelial barrier integrity within the airways. PMID:19797689

  14. Rate-dependent perception of aspiration and pre-aspiration in Icelandic.

    PubMed

    Pind, J

    1996-08-01

    Speech segments are highly context-dependent and acoustically variable. One factor that contributes heavily to the variability of speech is speaking rate. Some speech cues are temporal in nature-that is, the distinctions that they signify are defined over time. How can temporal speech cues keep their distinctiveness in the face of extrinsic transformations, such as those wrought by different speaking rates? This issue is explored with respect to the perception, in Icelandic, of Voice Onset Time as a cue for word-initial stop voicing, word-initial aspiration as a cue for [h], and Voice Offset Time as a cue for pre-aspiration. All the speech cues show rate-dependent perception though to different degrees, with Voice Offset Time being most sensitive to rate changes and Voice Onset Time least sensitive. The differences in the behaviour of these speech cues are related to their different positions in the syllable. PMID:8828403

  15. Fine-needle breast aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R; Shank, J C; Gratton, C

    1989-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of breast lesions is a safe, accurate, well-tolerated procedure that can easily be done in the family physician's office. It has a specificity and positive predictive value of virtually 100 percent, a sensitivity of 53 to 99 percent (median of 89 percent), and a negative predictive value of 80 to 99 percent (median of 93 percent). It is limited by the nature of the lesion, which must be easily palpable, the physician's technical ability, and the availability of a reference cytopathologist. Complications are rare and usually very benign, such as local hematoma. With proper training and understanding of the procedure, many family physicians could easily introduce the procedure into their office practice. PMID:2926346

  16. Religiosity and Migration Aspirations among Mexican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    International migration has become an important topic of discussion from a policy and humanitarian perspective. Part of the debate includes a renewed interest in understanding the factors that influence decisions about migration to the US among Mexican youth still residing in their country of origin. The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge specifically about internal and external religiosity and their influence on youths' migration aspirations. The data for this study were collected in 2007 from students enrolled in an alternative high school program located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The findings indicated that as external religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA decreases. Furthermore, as internal religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA and plans to migrate increase. The results are interpreted and discussed in light of previous research on religious and cultural norm adherence. PMID:25663825

  17. [Our experiences with early vacuum aspiration (miniinterruption)].

    PubMed

    Poradovský, K; Ondás, P; Posluch, J

    1982-07-01

    The authors report their experiences with 80 early vacuum aspirations (mini-interruptions) performed at the 1st Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital in Kosice during 1980-81. The procedure was performed between days 36-42 in 15% of the women, between days 43-49 in 52.7% of the women, between days 50-56 in 27.5%, and between days 57-60 in 5% of the women. Interruption of pregnancy did not require general anesthesia or hospitalization of the patients. Complications occurred in 10% of the women, 6.25% due to residua and 2.5% to inflammation. Further experience should reduce the occurrence of complications. The authors consider the method to be advantageous and prospective. (author's modified) PMID:7127164

  18. Coupling Optimization Design of Aspirated Compressor Airfoil and Aspirated Scheme Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and CST Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xiaodong; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on creating a new design method optimizing both aspirated compressor airfoil and the aspiration scheme simultaneously. The optimization design method is based on the artificial bee colony algorithm and the CST method, while the flow field is computed by one 2D computational program. The optimization process of the rotor tip and stator tip airfoil from an aspirated fan stage is demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the new coupling method. The results show that the total pressure losses of the optimized stator tip and rotor tip airfoil are reduced relatively by 54% and 20%, respectively. Artificial bee colony algorithm and CST method indicate a satisfying applicability in aspirated airfoil optimization design. Finally, the features of aspirated airfoil designing process are concluded.

  19. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.O.L.P.; Heráclio, S.A.; Coelho, A.V.C.; Acioly, V.L.; Souza, P.R.E.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases). The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001). The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02), and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. PMID:26247400

  20. University of California Program for Analytical Cytology five-year report, 1982-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, S.; Calkins, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Program for Analytical Cytology (PAC) was created by the Regents of the University of California on June 17, 1982. The purposes of the Program are to encourage research into theoretical, scientific, and engineering aspects of analytical cytology and into its biological and clinical applications.

  1. Risk Factors for Abnormal Anal Cytology over Time in HIV-infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BARANOSKI, Amy S; TANDON, Richa; WEINBERG, Janice; HUANG, Faye; STIER, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess incidence of, and risk factors for abnormal anal cytology and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 2–3 in HIV-infected women. Study Design This prospective study assessed 100 HIV-infected women with anal and cervical specimens for cytology and high risk HPV testing over three semi-annual visits. Results Thirty-three women were diagnosed with an anal cytologic abnormality at least once. Anal cytology abnormality was associated with current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, anal HPV infection and history of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Twelve subjects were diagnosed with AIN2-3: four after AIN1 diagnosis and four after ≥1 negative anal cytology. AIN2-3 trended towards an association with history of cervical cytologic abnormality and history of STI. Conclusions Repeated annual anal cytology screening for HIV-infected women, particularly for those with increased immunosuppression, anal and/or cervical HPV, history of other STIs, or abnormal cervical cytology, will increase the likelihood of detecting AIN2-3. PMID:22520651

  2. Crush Cytology of Secretory Meningioma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae; Yee, Gie-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Secretory meningioma, a histologic subtype of meningioma of World Health Organization grade 1, is clinically significant because it is frequently accompanied by peritumoral brain edema. The patient was a 53-year-old woman suffering from dysarthria and motor weakness of the right arm. Enhanced magnetic resonance images showed an enhancing mass measuring 2.5 cm in size located in the right parietal convexity. Intraoperative squash cytology showed moderately cellular smears composed mainly of clusters of ovoid cells with scattered whorl formations. The cells had round nuclei and a moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm with ill-defined cell borders. Neither atypia nor mitosis was observed. Some scattered round shaped eosinophilic refractile hyaline globules, measuring from 5 to 25 µm, were observed, and a periglobular halo was occasionally observed. The diagnosis of secretory meningioma should be made as early as possible so that neurosurgeons can prevent postoperative aggravation of peritumoral edema. We emphasize that cytologic findings including eosinophilic, non-fibrillary cytoplasm with eosinophilic refractile hyaline globules are helpful in differentiating secretory meningioma from other subtypes of meningioma, primary and metastatic brain tumors. PMID:26605274

  3. [Education concerning pathological/cytological diagnosis at 4-year colleges].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Toshio; Yoshida, Tomomi

    2007-06-01

    Recent students of clinical technologist training courses at 4-year colleges aiming to qualify as medical technologists or cytotechnologists have diverse future prospects, for the following reasons: (1) Abundant information can be easily obtained due to the advancement of IT, (2) 4-year college education is increasing available professions, and (3) graduate schools for laboratory medicine have been established, enabling acquisition of a degree. For departments of pathological/cytological diagnosis, cooperation with pathologists and clinicians based on a reliable relationship is important, and medical technologists, cytotechnologists, and pathologists are organically linked in performing tests. To strengthen this reliable relationship and broaden professions as medical care staff, not only students but also instructors have to consistently increase their level of consciousness and energy. In addition to the establishment of the current cytotechnologist education system, introduction of the 'qualification of senior cytotechnologist' established in other countries or 'pathologist's assistant (tentative name)' as a pathological specialist should be seriously considered. The established graduate schools in the field of laboratory medicine started to produce human resources capable of performing basic research based on the knowledge and techniques of laboratory and cytology tests, and were granted a degree. Many universities have established graduate courses combined with employment, and an increasing number of cytotechnologists have acquired specialized knowledge and perform research activities based on knowledge from their routine work. PMID:17657992

  4. Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  5. Cytological and physiological changes in orthodox maize embryos during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin; Wang, Ruling; Cheng, Hongyan; Song, Songquan

    2010-03-01

    Cytological and physiological changes during cryopreservation were studied in maize embryos at 35 days after pollination (DAP). Both dehydration and freezing caused cytological damage, such as plasmolysis, swelled mitochondria, increased heterochromatin, and nuclear shrinkage. Dehydration alone slightly impaired plasma membrane integrity while a drastic increase in electrolyte leakage was observed after freezing of embryos with moisture content above 23%. Damage to cellular ultrastructure and plasmalemma integrity was negatively related to moisture content in unfrozen embryos and positively related in frozen embryos. The pattern of changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes differed from one another during dehydration and/or freezing-thawing treatment. Dehydration increased activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) but decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR). Freezing further decreased GR and SOD activity and resulted in extremely low DHAR activity. Embryos at intermediate moisture contents had low catalase (CAT) activity before freezing but highest CAT activity after freeze-thaw. Both dehydration and freezing promoted membrane lipid peroxidation which resulted in an approximately threefold increase at most in the malondialdehyde content in postthaw embryos. Changes in viability of postthaw embryos can be closely related to damage in cellular ultrastructure and plasmalemma integrity but directly related neither to antioxidants nor lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:19904484

  6. Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility. PMID:25181856

  7. Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  8. The prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology in women with infertility.

    PubMed

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Kamal, Mohamed O; Hasoub, Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in women with infertility problems with that of fertile women by using ThinPrep® liquid-based Pap Tests™. A retrospective case-control study for over 2 years was conducted. The cases included all women with infertility problems who had Pap tests during their infertility treatment period. The cases were further subdivided into primary and secondary infertility groups. The control group included all women without infertility problems who had routine Pap tests in the same period. The age and demographic features were adjusted and matched for both groups. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and Fischer exact test. The infertility group (n = 490) showed significantly (P < 0.05) more abnormal cervical squamous epithelial abnormalities (48 positive cases, 9.8%) than the controls (n = 7,150, 216 positive cases, 3%). Women with secondary infertility had more epithelial abnormalities and more high-grade lesions than women with primary infertility. Women with infertility had statistically significant higher frequency of squamous intraepithelial lesions than women without infertility problems of similar age and demographic background. The data suggest that women with infertility might benefit from more frequent cervical cytology screening. PMID:20014305

  9. Microsatellite DNA instability in nasal cytology of COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Karatzanis, Alexander D; Samara, Katerina D; Tzortzaki, Eleni; Zervou, Maria; Helidonis, Emmanuel S; Velegrakis, George A; Siafakas, Nikolaos

    2007-03-01

    Genetic alterations in the microsatellite DNA level have been successfully detected in sputum samples of patients with COPD and have been shown to be disease specific. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that inflammation coexists in the nasal mucosa of patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of MSI in nasal cytological samples of patients with COPD comparing the results with sputum samples of the same individuals. Nasal brush samples, sputum samples obtained by induction, and peripheral blood from 20 patients with COPD were analyzed. DNA was extracted and analyzed for MSI using the following microsatellite markers: RH70958, D5S207, D6S344, D6S263, G29802, D13S71, D14S588, D14S292 and D17S250. Microsatellite analysis was also performed in 8 healthy non-smokers. MSI was detected in the sputum samples of 7 patients with COPD (35%). In contrast, no microsatellite DNA instability was noted in the nasal cytological samples of the same COPD patients. In addition, no genetic alteration was detected in the control group. These results suggest that MSI is a specific finding for the target organ of COPD, i.e. the lungs, despite the fact that inflammation coexists in the nasal mucosa of COPD patients. Our study supports the hypothesis that MSI could be an index of the somatic-acquired genetic alterations in the lungs of COPD patients. PMID:17273748

  10. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  11. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  12. Brush cytology of the colon and rectum in ulcerative colitis: an aid to cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Melville, D M; Richman, P I; Shepherd, N A; Williams, C B; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1988-01-01

    In a prospective study of 100 patients with ulcerative colitis, 82 of whom had extensive colitis, carcinoma and dysplasia were distinguished cytologically from reactive hyperplasia. Six patients had carcinoma complicating colitis and satisfactory samples were obtained from five; the cytological appearances were interpreted as carcinoma in three and as dysplasia in two. Seventy eight patients had not developed carcinoma or dysplasia; the cytological appearances were interpreted as negative for dysplasia in 75 and indefinite for dysplasia in three. In patients who had developed dysplasia the changes seemed to be more widespread on cytological rather than on histological examination. Brush cytology may complement histological assessment in patients with ulcerative colitis who have developed strictures or in whom there is a high suspicion of neoplastic change. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:3209705

  13. Aspiration before and after Supraglottoplasty regardless of Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rastatter, Jeffrey C.; Schroeder, James W.; Hoff, Stephen R.; Holinger, Lauren D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of preoperative and postoperative aspiration in infants who undergo supraglottoplasty. To determine the effect of cold steel and CO2 laser supraglottoplasty on aspiration in infants with severe laryngomalacia. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. Tertiary pediatric hospital. Patients. Thirty-nine patients who underwent CO2 laser-assisted supraglottoplasty (CLS) or cold steel supraglottoplasty (CSS) for severe laryngomalacia. Main Outcome Measures. Aspiration and upper-airway obstruction. Results. Thirty-nine patients met inclusion criteria (18 males, 21 females). Eighteen patients underwent CSS and 21 patients underwent CLS. 10/39 (25.6%) of the patients had preoperative aspiration, and 2/10 (20%) resolved after supraglottoplasty. New onset aspiration was found in 4/13 (30.8%) in the CSS group and 9/16 (56.3%) in the CLS group. Conclusions. There is no significant difference in the rate of postoperative new-onset aspiration or relief of upper-airway obstruction in the CLS or CSS, is temporary and can be managed with thickened diet or temporary tube feedings. The rate of persistent postoperative aspiration was statistically similar regardless of the method of surgery. PMID:21113300

  14. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Methods Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40–69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. Results There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40–69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355–462) and 226 (95% CI: 177–292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17–22% reduction in case fatality. Conclusions Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. PMID:26346038

  15. An approach to post-radical trachelectomy vaginal-isthmus cytology.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Kenan; Wilbur, David C; Duska, Linda; Tambouret, Rosemary H

    2009-06-01

    Radical trachelectomy (RT) is the surgical amputation of the uterine cervix with paracervical lymphadenectomy, performed in reproductive age women to treat invasive squamous-cell carcinoma or endocervical adenocarcinoma while preserving the uterine corpus for potential child bearing. Post-RT patient monitoring includes isthmic-vaginal cytology. This study reviews our experience with liquid based preparation of post-RT cytology samples. Fifty-four post-RT vaginal-isthmic cytology specimens were reviewed from nine patients, seven with adenocarcinoma, and two with squamous-cell carcinoma. Five patients had normal (NILM) or normal with reactive changes on all cytology samples. Two patients had isolated squamous abnormalities (atypical squamous-cells of uncertain significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)); both follow-up biopsies were negative. Two patients had repeatedly abnormal specimens interpreted as atypical glandular cells (AGC), one of whom also had a concurrent ASC-US. Only one sample was tested for high risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV), with negative results. All patients with abnormal cytology went on to have biopsies which were interpreted as benign. The cytology specimens most often interpreted as AGC contained many groups of hyperchromatic crowded glandular cells and/or stromal cells derived from direct sampling of the lower uterine segment. The crowding often limits visualization of all the cells in a group, plus sampled endometrium may harbor mitoses, adding to the atypical appearance. Cytologists should become familiar with the spectrum of changes in the post-RT cytology. Testing for hrHPV should be considered for use in the management of abnormal cytology results. Post RT cytology should be compared with presurgical cytology since one would anticipate similarities in post-RT true positive cases. In particular, a primary diagnosis of adenocarcinoma makes differentiating benign reactive glandular cells from recurrence a critical issue. PMID:19217064

  16. Usefulness Of Glucocorticoids In The Management Of Foreign Body Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pagn Rivera, Bryan L; Anselmi, Francisco Jaume; Torres, Maria Del Mar; Segarra, Amaury; Rivera, Jose Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration can be a life-threatening emergency. An aspirated solid or semi-solid object may lodge in the larynx, trachea or other breathing airways. If the object is large enough to cause nearly complete obstruction of the airway, asphyxia may rapidly cause death. We report a 19-year old man admitted with right lower lobe pneumonia who spontaneously expelled a foreign body, one day after admission and glucocorticoids administration. Glucocorticoids should be considered in foreign body aspiration management because improvement of the inflammatory reaction may facilitate expontaneous expulsion or foreign body extraction PMID:26742192

  17. Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas by endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Attwell, Augustin; Sams, Sharon; Fukami, Norio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical, endoscopic, sonographic, and cytologic features of ectopic pancreas (EP). METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed at an academic referral center including two hospitals. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Patients referred to the University Hospital or Denver Health Medical Center Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Lab for gastroduodenal subepithelial lesions (SEL) with a final diagnosis of EP between January 2009 and December 2013 were identified. Patients in this group were selected for the study if they underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or deep biopsy. A review of the medical record was performed specifically to review the following information: presenting symptoms, endoscopic and EUS findings, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings, pathology results, procedure-related adverse events, and subsequent treatments after EUS-FNA. EUS with FNA or deep submucosal biopsy was performed in all patients on an outpatient basais by one of two physicians (Attwell A, Fukami N). Review of all subsequent clinic notes and operative reports was performed in order to determine follow-up and final diagnoses. RESULTS: Between July 2009 and December 2013, 10 patients [3 males, 7 females, median age 52 (26-64) years] underwent EUS for a gastroduodenal SEL and were diagnosed with EP. One patient was symptomatic. Six (60%) lesions were in the antrum, 3 (30%) in the body, and 1 (10%) in the duodenum. A mucosal dimple was noted in 6 (60%). Mean lesion size was 17 (8-25) mm. Gastrointestinal wall involvement: muscularis mucosae, 10%; submucosa, 70%; muscularis propria, 60%; and serosa, 10%. Nine (90%) lesions were hypoechoic and 5 (50%) were homogenous. A duct was seen in 5 (50%). FNA was attempted in 9 (90%) and successful in 8 (80%) patients after 4 (2-6) passes. Cytology showed acini or ducts in 7 of 8 (88%). Superficial biopsies in 7 patients (70%) showed normal gastric mucosa. Deep endoscopic biopsies were taken in 2 patients and diagnostic in one. One patient (10%) developed pancreatitis after EUS-FNA. Two patients (20%) underwent surgery to relieve symptoms or confirm the diagnosis. The main limitation of the study was the fact that it was retrospective and performed at a single medical center. CONCLUSION: EUS features of EP include antral location, mucosal dimple, location in layers 3-4, and lesional duct, and FNA or biopsy is accurate and effective. PMID:25741143

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for suspected malignancies adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gambitta, Pietro; Armellino, Antonio; Forti, Edoardo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Colombo, Paola Enrica; Aseni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in association with a multidisciplinary team evaluation for the detection of gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: A cohort of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract received EUS-FNA after a standardized multidisciplinary team evaluation (MTE) and were divided into 4 groups according to their specific malignant risk score (MRS). Patients with a MRS of 0 (without detectable risk of malignancy) received only EUS without FNA. For patients with a MRS score ranging from 1 (low risk) - through 2 (intermediate risk) - to 3 (high risk), EUS-FNA cytology of the lesion was planned for a different time and was prioritized for those patients at higher risk for cancer. The accuracy, efficiency and quality assessment for the early detection of patients with potentially curable malignant lesions were evaluated for the whole cohort and in the different classes of MRSs. The time to definitive cytological diagnosis (TDCD), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the rate of inconclusive tests were calculated for all patients and for each MRS group. RESULTS: A total of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions were evaluated by EUS-FNA. In 515 patients of 616 with true malignant lesions the tumor was diagnosed by EUS-FNA; 421 patients with resectable lesions received early surgical treatment, and 94 patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The overall diagnostic accuracy for the 1019 lesions in which a final diagnosis was obtained by EUS-FNA was 0.95. When patients were stratified by MTE into 4 classes of MRSs, a higher rate of patients in the group with higher cancer risk (MRS-3) received early treatment and EUS-FNA showed the highest level of accuracy (1.0). TDCD was also shorter in the MRS-3 group. The number of patients who received surgical treatment or chemo-radiotherapy was significantly higher in the MRS-3 patient group (36.3% in MRS-3, 10.7% in MRS-2, and 3.5% in MRS-1). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA can effectively detect a curable malignant lesions at an earlier time and at a higher rate in patients with a higher cancer risk that were evaluated using MTE. PMID:25024614

  19. Well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung: cytomorphologic features on fine-needle aspiration with emphasis on use of beta-catenin as a useful diagnostic marker.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Lori; Folpe, Andrew L; Esper, Annette; Wolfenden, Linda L; Force, Seth; Logani, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma (WDFA), also known as low grade adenocarcinoma of the fetal lung type, is a rare pulmonary neoplasm now considered to be a variant of lung adenocarcinoma rather than a type of pulmonary blastoma. Upregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway with subsequent aberrant nuclear/cytoplasmic beta-catenin expression has been recently described in these tumors providing a possible pathogenetic role for this gene in WDFA. We describe the cytomorphologic findings of a case of WDFA in a 36-yr-old female patient and emphasize the diagnostic utility of aberrant nuclear/cytoplasmic expression of beta-catenin as an adjunct to the correct preoperative recognition of this tumor on aspiration cytology. PMID:17173289

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts by combined cytopathology and cystic content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Amanda K; Zhou, Zhongren

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have resulted in an increase in incidental discoveries of pancreatic cystic lesions. Pancreatic cysts comprise a wide variety of lesions and include non-neoplastic cysts and neoplastic cysts. Because some pancreatic cysts have more of a malignant potential than others, it is absolutely essential that an accurate diagnosis is rendered so that effective care can be given to each patient. In many centers, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has emerged as the modality of choice that enables one to distinguish between mucinous and non-mucinous lesion, diagnose malignancy and collect cyst fluid for further diagnostic studies, such as pancreatic enzyme levels, molecular analysis and other tumor biomarkers. The current review will focus on EUS-guided FNA and the cytological diagnosis for pancreatic cysts. PMID:26504505