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1

Comparison between fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of breast lesions  

PubMed Central

Aim To compare the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in patients with US-detected breast lesions. Patients and methods Between September 2011 and May 2013, 3469 consecutive breast US examinations were performed. 400 breast nodules were detected in 398 patients. 210 FNACs and 190 CNBs were performed. 183 out of 400 (46%) lesions were surgically removed within 30 days form diagnosis; in the remaining cases, a six month follow up US examination was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values were calculated for FNAC and CNB. Results 174 out of 400 (43%) malignant lesions were found while the remaining 226 resulted to be benign lesions. 166 out of 210 (79%) FNACs and 154 out of 190 (81%) CNBs provided diagnostic specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 97%, 94%, 95%, 91% and 98% were found for FNAC, and values of 92%, 82%, 89%, 92% and 82% were obtained for CNB. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 97%, 96%, 96%, 97% and 96% were found for FNAC, and values of 97%, 96%, 96%, 97% and 96% were obtained for CNB. Conclusion FNAC and CNB provide similar values of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25174291

MOSCHETTA, M.; TELEGRAFO, M.; CARLUCCIO, D.A.; JABLONSKA, J.P.; RELLA, L.; SERIO, G.; CARROZZO, M.; IANORA, A.A. STABILE; ANGELELLI, G.

2014-01-01

2

Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma to the orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report a case of metastatic tumor to the left orbit from a sacrococcygeal chordoma.METHODS: A 48-year-old man with a sacrococcygeal chordoma developed left orbit swelling, left eye proptosis with deteriorating vision, and the inability to walk. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the orbital tumor and sacrococcygeal tumor was performed.RESULTS: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed features of

D’Sa Bouvier; Coimbatore V. Raghuveer

2001-01-01

3

Role of Fine needle aspiration cytology of spleen.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of spleen in a tertiary care referral centre. FNAC of spleen was done in a total of 130 cases under ultrasonological guidance over a period of 5 years in a tertiary care centre. There were 76 male and 54 female including nine paediatric patients and the age range of the patients was from 2 to 70 years. All patients were evaluated for HIV, Hepatitis B antigen and coagulation profile before the procedure. Of 130 FNAC cases, 26 were inadequate, while 16 were normal splenic aspirate. A definite diagnostic opinion was possible in 88 cases. In this study, there were 13 cases of tuberculosis, 25 cases of granulomatous inflammation, 10 cases of acute suppurative inflammation, and one case each of leishmaniasis, aspergillosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In the neoplastic group, we had 26 cases of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, one case of Hodgkin lymphoma and 10 cases of metastatic malignancies. No complications were encountered during FNAC in any of the cases. With proper patient evaluation and emergency backup, USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology of spleen is a safe, easy and rapid procedure for definite diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic splenic pathology. PMID:25469450

Gochhait, Debasis; Dey, Pranab; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Nijhawan, Raje; Gupta, Nalini; Radhika, Srinivasan; Lal, Anupam

2014-12-01

4

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Male Breast Lesions – A Retrospective Study Over a Six Year Period  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a well-established role in the management of palpable breast lumps. However breast masses in males are rarely aspirated and hence there is limited cytopathologic experience. The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of FNAC in the diagnosis of male breast lesions and also we attempted to describe the cytomorphological features of some of these lesions. Materials and Methods: Data on male breast FNAC done between 2008 to 2013 were retrieved from the records of the cytopathology laboratory. FNAC diagnosis were categorized as benign, malignant, suspicious for malignancy and inadequate or unsatisfactory. Cytohistologic correlation was done with data from histopathology records. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were calculated using standard statistical methods. Results: Forty out of 1098 patients undergoing breast FNAC were males. Histopathology was available in 8 (20%) out of 40 cases. There were no false positive or false negative diagnoses. FNAC had a sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 100% for male breast lesions. Conclusion: FNAC is a very accurate tool for the diagnosis of male breast lesions. It is highly sensitive and specific with good cytohistologic correlation. To reduce the high rate of surgical biopsies of benign male breast masses, we conclude that FNAC should be performed as a standard procedure in the clinical evaluation of male breast lesions PMID:25478347

Fernandes, Hilda; CS, Jayaprakash; Marla, Nisha J; Keshava S, Murali

2014-01-01

5

Fine needle aspiration cytology of lesions of liver and gallbladder: An analysis of 400 consecutive aspirations  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients presenting with mass lesions of liver and gallbladder are a common occurrence in a cancer hospital in north central part of India. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) serves as first line of pathological investigations, but there are pros and cons involved. Aim: The main objective of the present study was to establish adequacy of the procedure and to find out diagnostic pitfalls. An attempt was made to analyze inconclusive and inadequate aspirations. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 consecutive fine-needle aspirates of liver, belonging to 328 cases over a period of 2 years, were analyzed. Hematoxylin and eosin and May-Gr?nwald-Giemsa stains were used. Chi-square test was carried out to compare significant degree of difference in different kind of diagnosis. Results: Out of 400 aspirations, 289 (72.2%) were adequate, 75 (18.7%), inconclusive and 36 (9%), inadequate. Among positive aspirations the most common was metastatic adenocarcinoma, 128 (44.2%). The positive diagnosis and adequate aspirations were significantly high (P < 0.0001). Major differential diagnostic problems were: Distinguishing the poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from the metastatic adenocarcinoma; and leukemia/lymphoma from other malignant round cell tumors. Common diagnostic pitfalls were repeated aspirations from the necrotic area and aspiration of atypical, disorganized and reactive hepatocytes, adjacent to a metastasis. No complications were observed. Conclusion: FNAC can be used successfully for the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder lesions, thus avoiding open biopsy. Study indicates the potential of using FNAC in clinical intervention where the incidence of gall-bladder and liver cancer is very high and open biopsy and surgery are not an option. PMID:25190979

Barbhuiya, Mustafa; Bhunia, Shushruta; Kakkar, Manisha; Shrivastava, Braj; Tiwari, Pramod K; Gupta, Sanjiv

2014-01-01

6

Fine needle aspiration cytology as the primary diagnostic tool in thyroid enlargement  

PubMed Central

Background: In the preoperative decision-making of the thyroid swellings, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is becoming an ever more vital tool. Objectives: To compare the advantage of preoperative FNAC of thyroid swellings with postoperative histopathology to reach a consensus protocol as a simple procedure for diagnosis and optimal management of thyroid swellings. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of preoperative FNAC was carried out on 178 incidental thyroid swellings attending a tertiary care centre in Kishanganj, Bihar. Evidence-based surgical interventions were done, irrespective of FNAC findings and diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination (HPE) postoperatively in all the cases. Results: In the FNAC, preponderance of the cases (75.84%) was colloid goitre followed by granulomatous thyroiditis; follicular carcinoma was noted in 7.30 percent and anaplastic carcinoma in 3.37 percent of cases. Histopathological examination showed colloid goitre predominantly (76.97%), followed by follicular carcinoma (8.99%). The overall prevalence of malignancy was 11.24 percent diagnosed by HPE and 9.55 percent by FNAC. In our FNAC series sensitivity of was 90 percent while specificity was 100 percent; accuracy was 98.88 percent. Predictive value of a positive test and negative tests was 100 percent and 98.75 percent respectively. Conclusion: The study highlights that FNAC should be treated as a first-line diagnostic test for thyroid swellings to guide the management though this is not a substitute for HPE as a need to improve primary healthcare in India. PMID:22470244

Sengupta, Arup; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Sengupta, Subhabrata; Pal, Shrayan

2011-01-01

7

Efficacy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for a thyroid abscess in children: Two case reports  

PubMed Central

A thyroid abscess caused by acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST) is a rare form of thyroid nodule, and is most common in children, particularly in the first decade of life. The echotexture of an abscess may vary depending on the extent of internal debris or hemorrhage and on the peripheral and interval vascular flow; thus, a definitive diagnosis of AST is difficult to establish. The present study reports two cases of a thyroid abscess in children caused by viridans streptococci, diagnosed using ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and bacterial culturing. FNAC of the thyroid gland may be used extensively in children for the diagnosis of AST and thyroid abscesses. In addition, FNAC is an efficient method for differentiating between benign and malignant nodules of the thyroid gland, in order to ensure that the appropriate treatment is administered. PMID:25667642

LU, YAPING; ZHANG, JIE; LIANG, XIAOYU; HU, MENG; ZHENG, RONGXIU; LI, LIQIN

2015-01-01

8

Comparison of Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnosis of Malignant Breast Lesions  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women worldwide and usually presents as lump in the breast. Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) are two investigational tools often used to differentiate malignant breast lump from benign one. Aims and Objects: To find out and compare the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC in diagnosing malignant breast lump. Material and Methods: Patients who presented with clinically palpable breast lump at the department of Surgery, RIMS, India, from September, 2010 to August, 2012, were included. Recurrent lumps, breast abscess and cystic breast lumps were excluded. All the patients underwent Ultrasonographic evaluation using 7.5 MHz probe (©SIEMENS, Sonoline Versa Plus) at the department of Radiodiagnosis, RIMS and FNAC at the department of Pathology, RIMS. All the patients underwent excision of the lumps and tissues were sent for Histopathological examination. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC were calculated taking Histopathological result as the gold standard. Values were compared. Results: Sixty patients with 62 breast lumps (40 benign and 22 malignant) were included. FNAC reported 42 lumps as benign and 19 as malignant and was indeterminate in 1 case. Ultrasonography reported 36 cases as benign, 18 as malignant and 6 as indeterminate; it failed to detect breast lump in 2 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC in diagnosing malignant breast lump were respectively 94.74%, 100%, 100%, 97.22% and 90.48%, 100%, 100%, 95.24%. Conclusion: Ultrasonography and FNAC are 100% specific in diagnosing malignant breast lesion. Although Ultrasonography appears more sensitive than FNAC, the percentage of indeterminate report is higher with Ultrasonography. PMID:24551655

Takhellambam, Yumjaobabu Singh; Lourembam, Sunil Singh; Sapam, Opendro Singh; Kshetrimayum, Raju Singh; Ningthoujam, Bhubon Singh; Khan, Tousif

2013-01-01

9

Practical significance of utilizing fine needle aspiration cytology as an adjunct diagnostic aid in the preoperative presumptive diagnosis of ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Cytological reports of ameloblastoma are relatively rare in the literature. Appropriate cytologic diagnosis may play a significant role in its preoperative presumptive diagnosis, especially when incisional biopsy findings are inadequate. Aim: To systematically study the detailed cytomorphologic features of ameloblastoma and to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in its preoperative diagnosis. Materials and Methods: In this study, FNAC was done on 26 cases of intra-osseous jaw lesion, clinically diagnosed as odontogenic tumor or developmental odontogenic cysts and detailed cytopathological interpretation was carried out and the results were correlated with the corresponding histopathology. Results: Of the 26 cases, 15 were found to be ameloblastoma and sensitivity of FNAC in the diagnosis of ameloblastoma was found to be 86.6%. None of the intra-osseous jaw lesion was false positively diagnosed as ameloblastoma in FNAC and hence the specificity was found to be 100%. Conclusion: Presence of cohesive epithelial cell clusters exhibiting smaller basaloid cells with peripherally placed tall columnar cells and occasional large squamous cells either adjoining the basaloid epithelial clusters or in isolated group aids in the specific cytological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and FNAC offers an excellent diagnostic aid that may play a significant role in preoperative presumptive diagnosis of ameloblastoma along with incisional biopsy. PMID:24648668

Kaliamoorthy, Sriram; Venkatapathy, Ramesh; Babu, Premalatha; Veeran, Veeravarmal

2013-01-01

10

[Value of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Core Needle Biopsy in the Head and Neck Region.  

PubMed

Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) represent 2 minimal invasive methods for further assessment of suspect lesions of the head and neck area. However, only limited data on the direct comparison of both methods has been published. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of FNAC and CNB and to compare their sensitivity and specificity. Material and methods: Between 2005 and 2012, CNB was performed in 86 patients and FNAC in 408 patients. 52 of 86 CNB-patients and 224 of 408 FNAC-patients underwent surgery afterwards and were included into the study (n=276). In order to compare the results of both methods the corresponding final histopathological finding from surgery was considered. Results: The sensitivity of the FNAC-group was higher (85%) compared to the CNB-group (80%), the specificity (87 vs. 94%) as well as the positive predictive value (64 vs. 97%) was lower. The negative predictive value (92 vs. 71%) and also the false negative value of the FNAC (5 vs. 13%) were superior to the results of the CNB-group. Concerning the false positive value the CNB-group showed better results (2 vs. 15%). Conclusion: Both methods are well suited to clarify the dignity of lesions in the head and neck region. In the current case series, FNAC seemed particularly suitable for diagnosis of hematologic diseases and the exclusion of malignancy in suspicious lymph nodes. The GNP has proven to be valid in the detection of tumor recurrences in irradiated or previously operated tissue, furthermore the definitive oncological treatment can be planed, based on the histopathological results obtained by GNP. PMID:25255122

Thierauf, J; Lindemann, J; Bommer, M; Veit, J A; Hoffmann, T K

2014-09-25

11

The value of preoperative ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of radiologically suspicious axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Preoperative ultrasound (US) and eventually US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of suspicious axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a standard procedure in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. Preoperative US FNAC may prevent sentinel node biopsy (SNB) procedure in 24-30% of patients with early stage breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the institutional results of this preoperative diagnostic procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 cases of preoperative FNAC of suspicious ALN where retrieved from the pathology files. The results were compared with the final histology and staging. False negative (FN) FNAC cases were reviewed and possibly missed metastatic cases (2) were immunostained with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. Results: There were no false positives, whereas 16 cases were FN. In all but one case the FN's represented sampling error. Half of the 16 FN cases in this series were macrometastases. Discussion: About 83% of the preoperatively aspirated cases were N+, indicating that a radiologically suspicious ALN has a very high risk of being metastatic. Preoperative US guided FNAC from radiologically suspicious ALN is highly efficient in detecting metastases. Depending on national guidelines, a preoperative, positive ALN FNAC might help to stratify the patients as to SNB and/or ALN dissection. PMID:25317197

Sauer, Torill; Kåresen, Rolf

2014-01-01

12

Anterior mediastinal masses: A study of 50 cases by fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure  

PubMed Central

Background: Mediastinal tumors are an uncommon abnormalities found in clinical practice. Anterior mediastinum is the common site and tissue diagnoses of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs) are very important for correct therapeutic decision. Objective: We evaluate the different malignant AMMs in various age groups and the sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Cytology smears are reviewed with particular emphasis on pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 50 patients who were consulted for AMMs and underwent FNAC and CNB under guidance of ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan from 2006 to 2011. Cytology smears and histological sections were evaluated in all patients. Results: Among 50 cases, 36 were male and 14 were female. Most AMMs (52%) were identified in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Metastatic carcinoma and nonHodgkin's lymphoma are the common AMMs. Adequate tissue material was obtained in 49 of 50 cases by CNB. Of these 49 patients, 35 (71.42%) cases were diagnosed correctly by FNAC, whereas 14 (28.57%) cases were not diagnosed definitely by FNAC. The sensitivity of CNB for AMMs was 97.95%, significantly higher than FNAC (71.42%) (P < 0.05). CNB had statistically significant higher diagnostic rate than FNAC in the noncarcinoma group (100% versus 62.96%) (P < 0.05). There is no significant difference of CNB and FNAC in carcinoma group (P > 0.05). Diagnostic rate of FNAC was higher for carcinomatous lesions (81.81%) than for noncarcinomatous lesions (62.96%). Conclusion: Ultrasound or CT scan-guided CNB in combination with FNAC are safe, minimally invasive, and cost-effective procedure, which can provide a precise diagnosis in the AMMs, and may obviate the need for invasive surgical approach. FNAC usually suffice for carcinomatous lesions but CNB should be performed whenever the diagnosis of carcinoma is equivocal or noncarcinoma lesions are suspected. PMID:24455533

Nasit, Jitendra G.; Patel, Maulin; Parikh, Biren; Shah, Manoj; Davara, Kajal

2013-01-01

13

Fine needle aspiration cytology as an aid to diagnosis, categorization and treatment when pure neuritic leprosy presents as nerve abscess  

PubMed Central

Background: Pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) usually presents with neurological symptoms without skin involvement. Fine needle aspiration can play an important role in the management of PNL cases presenting as nerve abscesses. Aim: To assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in diagnosing and categorizing PNL cases presenting as nerve abscesses in the absence of neurological symptoms. Materials and Methods: Five patients with subcutaneous nerve related swellings without clinically evident neurological deficits were subjected to FNAC. As the cytological features were suggestive of nerve abscesses due to leprosy, Fite stain was performed in all cases. As none of the patients had any leprosy skin lesions, they were diagnosed as cases of PNL. Features like cellularity, caseous necrosis, presence or absence of lymphocytes, macrophages, epithelioid cells, granulomas, Langhans giant cells and nerve elements were analyzed with the bacteriological index, to categorize PNL according to the Ridley-Jopling classification. Results: Based on the cytological features and bacteriological indices, 3 cases were cytologically categorized into tuberculoid (TT)/borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy and the other two, as BT/borderline lepromatous (BL) and BL leprosy respectively in spite of having similar clinical presentation. Based on the cytological diagnoses, category-specific treatment could be instituted with clinical improvement. Conclusions: The simple and minimally invasive FNAC procedure allows diagnosis and a reasonably accurate categorization of PNL presenting as nerve abscess and therefore, highly useful in its clinical management. PMID:24648666

Kiran, C M; Menon, Roshni

2013-01-01

14

Correlation of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Findings with Thyroid Function Test in Cases of Lymphocytic Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is the second most common thyroid lesion diagnosed on FNAC after goiter. FNAC is reliable tool in the diagnosis of thyroid lesion. Objective. To correlate FNAC cytologic findings with TFT in the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Methods. 175 patients with thyroid swellings were referred for FNAC as well as TFT during 2011–2013. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed using non-aspiration or aspiration techniques and TFT performed on Beckman culter access 2. Results. Lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 55 cases. The commonest age group of lymphocytic thyroiditis was 21–30 years with male?:?female ratio being 1?:?10. Anti-TPO and TSH were elevated in 96.16% (25/26) of cases with grade 3 lymphoid infiltrate, 94.12% (16/17) of cases with grade 2, and 91.67% (11/12) of cases with 1 grade. Increased anti-TPO with raised TSH without any lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 5 cases and 5 cases showed only raised TSH without raised anti-TPO and without any lymphoid infiltrate. We observed that grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. We also observed that anti-TPO and TSH together are significant even if no lymphocytic infiltration is present. Conclusion. Grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has statistical correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. Anti TPO was adjunct to TSH in grade 3. The presence of Hurthle cell change, giant cells, and granulomas has no statistical correlation with lymphocytic thyroiditis. PMID:24808970

Sood, Neelam; Nigam, Jitendra Singh

2014-01-01

15

Artificial neural network in breast lesions from fine-needle aspiration cytology smear.  

PubMed

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied in engineering and certain medical fields. ANN has immense potential and is rarely been used in breast lesions. In this present study, we attempted to build up a complete robust back propagation ANN model based on cytomorphological data, morphometric data, nuclear densitometric data, and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of ductal carcinoma and fibroadenomas of breast cases diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We selected 52 cases of fibroadenomas and 60 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast diagnosed on FNAC by two cytologists. Essential cytological data was quantitated by two independent cytologists (SRM, PD). With the help of Image J software, nuclear morphomeric, densitometric, and GLCM features were measured in all the cases on hematoxylin and eosin-stained smears. With the available data, an ANN model was built up with the help of Neurointelligence software. The network was designed as 41-20-1 (41 input nodes, 20 hidden nodes, 1 output node). The network was trained by the online back propagation algorithm and 500 iterations were done. Learning was adjusted after every iteration. ANN model correctly identified all cases of fibroadenomas and infiltrating carcinomas in the test set. This is one of the first successful composite ANN models of breast carcinomas. This basic model can be used to diagnose the gray zone area of the breast lesions on FNAC. We assume that this model may have far-reaching implications in future. PMID:23908018

Subbaiah, R M; Dey, Pranab; Nijhawan, Raje

2014-03-01

16

Fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of non-Hodgkins lymphoma in a resource-challenged environment.  

PubMed

To establish the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool for non-Hodgkins lymphoma in a resource challenged environment. This study was conducted on patients with lymphadenopathy, attending various clinics over a period of 18 months. FNAC of the enlarged lymph nodes was performed and biopsy, special stains and immunohistochemical staining was done in selected cases. Out of the total 275 cases, 42 cases (16%) were primary lymphoproliferative disorders. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma comprised of 32 cases (76.2% of all lymphomas), Hodgkin lymphoma-10 cases and the rest were metastatic carcinoma. The diagnostic accuracy for non-Hodgkin Lymphoma was 93.3%, sensitivity 95.4%, and specificity 87.5%. FNAC is a rapid, safe, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic technique which can be used for early diagnosis of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. PMID:20857396

Alam, Kiran; Jain, Anshu; Maheshwari, Veena; Siddiqui, Farhan Asif; Haider, Nazima; Khan, Arshad Hafiz

2011-06-01

17

Diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman Disease in Elderly Female on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare benign disorder of histiocytic proliferation that usually presents with bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy in children. We describe the case of a 50-year-old lady suffering from this disease who presented with generalized lymphadenopathy and a left sided chest wall lump. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from all the lesions showed abundant benign histiocytes with lymphophagocytosis which was compatible with the diagnosis of RDD. This case is being reported for its rarity in presentation in an elderly female with both generalized nodal as well as extranodal manifestations. PMID:23097734

Aziz, Meher; Ray, Prasenjit Sen; Haider, Nazima; Rathore, Sumit Prakash

2012-01-01

18

Aspiration biopsy cytology in diagnosis of thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) is a diagnostic method that has been used extensively in Sweden for a quarter of a century. The technical steps involved in this biopsy procedure are described, and the differences from large needle biopsy techniques are pointed out. An overview is given of the different pathologic conditions that present as thyroid nodules and are recognizable by

Torsten Löwhagen; Jan-Silvester Willems; Göran Lundell; Rolf Sundblad; Per-Ola Granberg

1981-01-01

19

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Pediatric Age Group with Special Reference to Pediatric Tumors: A Retrospective Study Evaluating Its Diagnostic Role and Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established diagnostic technique in adult mass lesions but a comparatively new technique to pediatric lesions. Aim: The current study aims to evaluate the role of FNAC in pediatric age with special reference to pediatric tumors. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of FNAC in children ? 18 years of age presenting with mass lesions was studied for 5 years. Distribution of cases in different age groups, sex, and site of lesion was analyzed. Pediatric lesions were categorized into non-neoplastic, benign, and malignant conditions. Diagnostic efficacy was assessed by comparing subsequent histopathological examination wherever possible. Statistical Analysis: Epi info 07 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia (USA) 07) and values were presented as simple percentages. Results: FNAC was performed on 2903 cases in 5 years out of which 327 cases 11.3% (327/2903) were ? 18 years of age. Out of 327 cases, 180 cases 55% (180/327) were between 11 and 18 years. Male to female ratio was 1.15:1. The commonest site for FNAC was cervical lymph node swelling 48.3% (158/327). Reactive lymphadenitis was the commonest diagnosis among all mass lesions 38.8% (103/265), whereas Fibroadenoma 20.8% (10/49) was commonest diagnosis among benign lesions and among malignant lesions there were two cases 15.3% (2/13) each of Hodgkins and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and one case of chondrosarcoma. The positive predictive value of diagnosing malignant lesions on FNAC was 100%. Conclusions: The ease of FNAC along with its high diagnostic accuracy makes it a desirable method for diagnosing lesions in children. PMID:24669329

Prathima, S; Suresh, TN; Harendra Kumar, ML; Krishnappa, J

2014-01-01

20

Fine-needle aspiration cytology in Kimura's disease.  

PubMed

Three patients presenting with parotid, submandibular, and/or lymph node masses were subjected to fine-needle aspiration cytology. Smears showed dissociated and clustered endothelial cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and Warthin Finkeldey giant cells. In two cases a diagnosis of Kimura's disease was suggested from the FNA cytologic smears. In the third case the presence of mononucleate cells with prominent nucleoli led to a suspicion of Hodgkin's disease. Excision biopsy and histopathologic study established a diagnosis of Kimura's disease in all three cases. PMID:8599911

Jayaram, G; Peh, K B

1995-11-01

21

Malignancy rate in nondominant nodules in patients with multinodular goiter: Experience with 1,606 cases evaluated by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Background: Conventional medical sources recommend the use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for single thyroid nodules and the dominant nodule in multinodular goiter (MNG). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the utility of FNAC for multiple thyroid nodules in patients with MNG and to determine the rate of malignancy in teh nondominant nodules. Materials and Methods: Our private practice performed ultrasound-guided FNAC on 1,606 patients between February 2001 and February 1, 2010. In the MNG cases, samples were taken from the dominant nodule and from trhee suspicious / nonsuspicious nodules larger than 1 cm on ultrasound. Ninety-four cases were diagnosed as ‘suspiciously malignant’(SUS) or ‘malignant’ (POS) based on FNAC. Results: The rate of an SUS / POS diagnosis was 5.7% in the dominant nodules; 2.3% of the nondominant nodules had a SUS / POS diagnosis in FNAC (p = 0.0003). Follow-up revealed malignancy in 15 (35.7%) nondominant nodules and in 27 (64.2%) dominant nodules, with 42 MNG cases undergoing surgery. X test showed a ‘p-level of 0.0003’ between the percentages of SUS / POS diagnosis in dominanat and nondominanat nodules. It was less than the significance level of 0.05. Therefore, the result was regarded to be statistically significant. Conclusions: Nondominant nodules could harbor malignancy. The risk of malignancy in nondominant nodules in MNG should not be underestimated. We have shown that the dominant nodule in patients with MNG was in fact about 2.5 times more likely to be malignant than a nondominant nodule. The use of FNAC for nondominant nodules could enhance the likelihood of detecting malignancy in an MNG. PMID:22114619

Paksoy, Nadir; Yazal, Kadri; Çorak, Selin

2011-01-01

22

Maxillary cementifying fibroma: a case report with fine-needle aspiration cytology highlighting the expanding role of e-medicine in cytopathologist collaborations.  

PubMed

Cementifying fibroma is an uncommon fibro-osseous lesion presenting in the oral cavity, which may present in children as an aggressive juvenile subtype of either psammomatoid or trabecular variant. Appropriate management, to achieve local control and prevent destructive expansion, requires early diagnosis, which fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can provide rapidly in a minimally invasive manner. The role of FNAC is even more powerful in situations where medical facilities are limited or where surgical biopsy is contraindicated. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy from Lagos, Nigeria, whose initial diagnosis of cementifying fibroma was made on photographed digital images in jpeg format of FNAC slides, which were then e-mailed as attachments to Sydney, Australia and to Scottsdale, USA. The tumor was subsequently confirmed as a juvenile trabecular variant of cementifying fibroma on histopathology on a surgical excision in London, United Kingdom. The ability to electronically send cytopathology images around the world for a definitive second opinion is a practical example of the power of e-medicine to achieve an accurate FNAC diagnosis. PMID:21472866

Sivasubramaniam, Vanathi; Faduyile, Francis; Zarka, Matthew A; Deery, Alastair; Field, Andrew

2012-09-01

23

BSCC Code of Practice--fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

The British Society for Clinical Cytology Code of Practice on fine needle aspiration cytology complements that on exfoliative cytopathology, which was published in the last issue (Cytopathology 2009;20:211-23). Both have been prepared with wide consultation within and outside the BSCC and have been endorsed by the Royal College of Pathologists. A separate code of practice for gynaecological cytopathology is in preparation. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an accepted first line investigation for mass lesions, which may be targeted by palpation or a variety of imaging methods. Although FNA cytology has been shown to be a cost-effective, reliable technique its accurate interpretation depends on obtaining adequately cellular samples prepared to a high standard. Its accuracy and cost-effectiveness can be seriously compromised by inadequate samples. Although cytopathologists, radiologists, nurses or clinicians may take FNAs, they must be adequately trained, experienced and subject to regular audit. The best results are obtained when a pathologist or an experienced and trained biomedical scientist (cytotechnologist) provides immediate on-site assessment of sample adequacy whether or not the FNA requires image-guidance. This COP provides evidence-based recommendations for setting up FNA services, managing the patients, taking the samples, preparing the slides, collecting material for ancillary tests, providing rapid on-site assessment, classifying the diagnosis and providing a final report. Costs, cost-effectiveness and rare complications are taken into account as well as the time and resources required for quality control, audit and correlation of cytology with histology and outcome. Laboratories are expected to have an effective quality management system conforming to the requirements of a recognised accreditation scheme such as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (UK) Ltd. PMID:19754835

Kocjan, G; Chandra, A; Cross, P; Denton, K; Giles, T; Herbert, A; Smith, P; Remedios, D; Wilson, P

2009-10-01

24

Cytopathological Pattern of Tubercular Lymphadenopathy on FNAC: Analysis of 550 Consecutive Cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lymph nodes is a simple, cost effective, out-patient procedure used for diagnosis of various causes of lymphadenopathies. In tuberculous lymphadenitis, it not only used for the cytological diagnosis but also used for other ancillary testing such as Ziehl- Neelsen staining and AFB Culture. Aims: Our study was designed to evaluate the cytopathological pattern of FNAC aspirate of patients presenting with lymphadenopathy with special reference to tuberculous lymphadenopathy. Materials and Methods: In this study all the patients referred to the cytopathology lab for FNAC of lymph nodes between January 2011 to June, 2013 were included. Out of 1050 patients presenting with lymphadenopathies, there were 550 cases of tuberculous lymphadenitis. The cytopathological findings of these 550 cases were analyzed. Results: A female preponderance was noted in our study with maximum incidence in the 3rd decade. Cervical lymph nodes were the most common nodes to be involved. Gross examination of aspirate showed maximum cases (74.5.2%) of whitish material. Among the four cytological patterns on FNAC, maximum cases demonstrated caseous necrotic material with degenerated inflammatory cells. Ziehl- Neelsen staining showed overall AFB positivity of 44.54%. Maximum AFB positivity was seen in cases having caseous necrosis only. Conclusion: FNAC is a simple, cost effective technique with high degree of accuracy in diagnosing Tubercular Lymphadenitis. Despite certain limitations and pitfalls, FNAC coupled with Ziehl- Neelson staining should be the 1st line investigation in cases with lymphadenopaty, in a developing country with high prevalence rate of tuberculosis. PMID:25386441

Chand, Priyanka; Dogra, Rajeev; Chauhan, Nidhi; Gupta, Renu

2014-01-01

25

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of breast lesions: a review of cytological analysis using smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunostaining.  

PubMed

We reviewed fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology cases for breast lesions in order to improve the reliability of cytological diagnoses. We analyzed the results of 1,019 FNA cytology cases of patients with breast lesions for five years in our hospital. One hundred and ninety-seven (19.3%) of the 1,019 cases were examined using histological sections, in addition to cytological specimens, and included 27 cytologically suspicious cases. Of the 1,019 cytology cases, 606 (59.5%) were benign, 41 (4.0%) suspicious, 149 (14.6%) malignant and 223 (21.9%) inadequate/nondiagnostic. We also performed immunostaining against smooth muscle actin (SMA), using 19 cytological specimens and 88 histological specimens. We observed myoepithelial cells positive for SMA, which were valuable for cytological or histological diagnosis. To improve the reliability of cytological diagnoses and decrease the false-positive and false-negative cases, it is very important to obtain sufficient aspirates and to understand the cytological characteristics of various benign and malignant breast lesions. PMID:14666621

Sato, Sakiyo; Kijima, Hiroshi; Suto, Akihiko; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sato, Tadamitsu; Shimbori, Masumi; Terasaki-Fukuzawa, Yasuko; Onoda, Noboru; Araki, Kayo; Tsuruno, Kazunori; Takeshita, Toshio

2003-01-01

26

Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087

Shyamala, K.; Girish, H. C.; Murgod, Sanjay

2014-01-01

27

Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087

Shyamala, K; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay

2014-01-01

28

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of chondroid syringoma of fore arm: Report of a rare case  

PubMed Central

Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of sweat glands with microscopic resemblance to the salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. Cytology is rarely utilized for preoperative assessment of these slow-growing, small, nodular lesions. Definitive cytological diagnosis is also quite difficult, and majority of the aspirates are evaluated as benign adnexal tumors leading to mandatory histopathological examination for pinpoint diagnosis. Here, we report a case of chondroid syringoma of forearm, which was diagnosed by cytology and also confirmed after histopathological examination. Pinpoint cytological diagnosis can help early formulation of necessary management protocol. PMID:25538390

Pal, Subrata; Sengupta, Sanjay; Jana, Sritanu; Bose, Kingshuk

2014-01-01

29

Use of ultrasound localization to improve results of fine needle aspiration cytology of breast masses.  

PubMed Central

A prospective randomized controlled trial of 116 patients with breast masses was conducted to compare the accuracy of 'blind' aspiration cytology performed in the clinic with aspiration cytology using ultrasound localization. The unsatisfactory aspiration cytology rate was significantly reduced by ultrasound localization (P = 0.028). This was mainly due to an improvement in the unsatisfactory rate for tumours less than 3 cm in diameter (P = 0.036). The results were influenced by the number of needle manoeuvres performed, less than 10 needle manoeuvres being associated with a 54% unsatisfactory aspiration rate compared with 25% when greater than 10 manoeuvres were performed (P = less than 0.02). One experienced aspirator in the clinic had results comparable to those achieved with ultrasound localization. It is concluded that experience and technique are the most important factors in obtaining a satisfactory aspirate from breast masses. Routine ultrasound localization prior to aspiration confers some benefit. Consideration should be given to the use of the ultrasound-assisted technique following a previous unsatisfactory aspiration, particularly if the tumour is less than 3 cm in diameter. PMID:3278115

Patel, J J; Gartell, P C; Guyer, P B; Herbert, A; Taylor, I

1988-01-01

30

PET/CT Is Complementary to Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology in Assessment of Irradiated Neck in Head and Neck Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background. Accurate assessment of irradiated neck in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is essential. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is often performed for suspicious lesions but it is limited by its low negative predictive value (NPV). We postulated that F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) can overcome this limitation by its high NPV value and allow for a more accurate assessment of irradiated neck in HNSCC. Methods. Fifty-four HNSCC patients were included for the study. They all received previous irradiation to the neck. Clinical characteristics, details of radiotherapy, PET/CT results, follow-up findings, and final histological diagnosis were analyzed. Results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and NPV were 95.8%, 96.7%, 95.8%, and 96.7%, respectively. Age, sex, radiation dose, interval between PET/CT and radiotherapy completion, nature of radiotherapy, and use of second course of radiotherapy were not found to affect diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT. A new algorithm for investigation of masses in irradiated neck is proposed. Conclusions. PET/CT is an effective diagnostic tool and has a complementary role to FNAC in the management of irradiated neck in head and neck cancers, particularly in cases where suspicious lesions were identified but FNAC showed negative results. PMID:25374947

Chan, R. C. L.; Chan, Y. W.

2014-01-01

31

Wide needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Zambia.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To study the value of wide needle (19 gauge) aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymph node disease in Zambia in the absence of a trained cytologist. METHODS--Patients (n = 304) referred for surgical biopsy of an enlarged peripheral lymph node were studied prospectively. Surgical biopsy was routinely preceded by 19 gauge needle aspiration of the same node; aspirates were stained by haematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl Neelsen stains. RESULTS--Of 232 aspirates, 182 contained sufficient material for cytological characterisation. Tuberculosis was diagnosed or suspected in 122 of 126 aspirates with histologically confirmed tuberculous lymphadenitis; reactive follicular hyperplasia in 31 of 38 patients with primary HIV lymphadenopathy; malignancy in all five patients with malignant nodes; and Kaposi's disease in four of nine patients with this. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was falsely suspected in four patients, as was reactive follicular hyperplasia in four, and Kaposi's disease in four. CONCLUSIONS--Wide needle aspiration cytology is useful in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Central Africa, with the exception of lymphadenopathic Kaposi's disease. PMID:8227428

Patil, P S; Bem, C

1993-01-01

32

The usefulness of 99mTc-SestaMIBI scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with oncocytic cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relevance of 99mTc-SestaMIBI (MIBI) scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyr- oid nodules with oncocytic cytology. Subjects and methods: Twenty-four patients with a single (or prevalent) 'cold' solid nodule with Hurthle cells (HC) at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were studied. Cytological diagnosis of oncocytic metaplasia (OM) or HC tumor (HCT) was made when HC on

F Boi; M L Lai; C Deias; M Piga; A Serra; A Uccheddu; S Mariotti

2003-01-01

33

Advances in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

New developments in the field of thoracic oncology have challenged the way pathologists approach the diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoma. Nonsmall cell carcinoma is no longer an adequate diagnostic category. Pathologists are required to further classify tumors into adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma since specific therapies are now recommended depending on the histological tumor type. This change occurred following the discovery of specific molecular alterations that predict response to certain drugs and now molecular testing of tumor cells is often requested to direct therapy. The vast majority of lung cancer is diagnosed in advanced clinical stages, where cytologic or small biopsy material is the only form of tissue diagnosis, thus placing cytology, especially fine needle aspiration biopsy in the front line for management of patients with lung cancer. In this paper we will review the current concepts in the suitability and accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy, including diagnosis, classification, prognostic markers, and use of ancillary techniques. PMID:21776344

Hasanovic, Adnan; Rekhtman, Natasha; Sigel, Carlie S.; Moreira, Andre L.

2011-01-01

34

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Lesions of the Nose, Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the spectrum of lesions in the sinonasal region diagnosed on FNAC. Study Design: This is a retrospective audit of sinonasal lesions diagnosed on FNAC over a period of 12 years (1998–2009). Results: Out of a total of 79,851 FNACs, 158 (0.2%) were from the sinonasal region. FNAC was non-diagnostic in 20 (12.6%) cases. Infective\\/inflammatory lesions comprised of

Nalini Gupta; Jasleen Kaur; Radhika Srinivasan; Ashim Das; Satyawati Mohindra; Arvind Rajwanshi; Raje Nijhawan

2011-01-01

35

Toward improving fine needle aspiration cytology by applying Raman microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.

Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

2013-04-01

36

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Eccrine porocarcinoma (EP), although rare, is widely recognized as the most common malignant sweat gland tumor. EP typically grows slowly and usually is cured by surgical excision with clear margins. An elevated mortality rate, however, is observed when regional lymph nodes are involved. We herein describe cytohistologic findings in a case of metastatic EP. An 86-year-old man with a history of EP of the left lateral ankle and squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease) of the penis presented with enlarged left inguinal lymph nodes. A superficial fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed and demonstrated a hypercellular sample with discohesive clusters and/or individual tumor cells. The tumor cells were round or oval with most of the cells showing dense, refractile cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles were readily appreciated in some of the cells. Nuclear enlargement, high N/C ratio, nuclear hyperchromasia, bi- and multinucleation, and prominent nucleoli were seen. A diagnosis of metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma was rendered. Enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes were detected and CT-guided left retroperitoneal core biopsy was performed 1 week later. The biopsy revealed features consistent with metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma. PMID:19405111

Yu, Limin; Olsen, Stephen; Lowe, Lori; Michael, Claire; Jing, Xin

2009-10-01

37

Multinucleate Giant Cells in FNAC of Benign Breast Lesions: Its Significance  

PubMed Central

Background: Multinucleate giant cells are described in breast aspirates. However, due to its rarity very few cases have been described cytologically. Hence recognition and correct interpretation of their presence is difficult, yet crucial for accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The prospective study of FNAC (fine needle aspirate cytology) of breast lumps was conducted for a period of six months. Direct smears were prepared from the material aspirated. In case of fluid aspirates, centrifuge done and cell sediment was used for making smears. Smears were alcohol fixed and stained with PAP/H&E or air dried smears were stained with Leishman stain. Further smears were subjected to immunocytochemistry using vimentin and CD34 markers to know the origin of multinucleate giant cells. Results: We have reported 11 cases of breast lesions, which showed multinucleate giant cells on FNAC. Out of the 11 cases, Cytologically six cases showed granuloma debris with relative proportion of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleate giant cells. Two cases were diagnosed as acute suppurative granulomatous mastitis. Two cases of fibroadenoma and one case of fat necrosis showed multinucleate giant cells. Immunocytochemistry showed vimentin positivity in both stromal and histiocytic type of multinucleate giant cells and in isolated histiocytes. CD34 was focally positive in histiocytic type of giant cells. Conclusion: An effort is made to distinguish between the stromal and histiocytic type giant cells in non-neoplastic breast lesions. Further molecular studies have to be done to know the exact histogenesis and role of these multinucleate giant cells in benign lesions. PMID:25653953

R, Kalyani; Murthy V, Srinivasa

2014-01-01

38

Cytologic features of Kimura's disease in fine-needle aspirates. A study of eight cases.  

PubMed

Kimura's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, presenting usually as painless subcutaneous swellings in the head and neck region or in the salivary glands. The cytologic features of fine-needle aspirates of eight cases of Kimura's disease were studied with reference to the histologic appearance of the subsequent surgical specimens. In the cytologic smears, the prominent feature was the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils in a background of lymphoid cells. Fragments of collagenous tissue and Warthin-Finkeldey polykaryocytes occasionally were seen. In the cell block, vascular proliferation and fibrosis were useful features, providing further support to the diagnosis. The constellation of these features is characteristic of Kimura's disease and should suggest this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting. For initial diagnosis, excisional biopsy is important for the exclusion of malignant lymphoma, histiocytosis X, angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and other reactive lymphadenopathies. Nonetheless, fine-needle aspiration cytology may be valuable in the diagnosis of recurrent lesions of Kimura's disease and may spare the patient from repeated biopsies. PMID:8085555

Chow, L T; Yuen, R W; Tsui, W M; Ma, T K; Chow, W H; Chan, S K

1994-09-01

39

Juvenile ossifying fibroma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology: A diagnostic challenge.  

PubMed

Preoperative diagnosis of jaw lesions is not always possible on the basis of clinico-radiological findings alone and needs to be confirmed before attempting any surgical intervention. Fibro-osseous lesions of the jaw comprise a spectrum of diseases which include cement-osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia, and ossifying fibroma. The cytomorphological distinction between these individual entities is difficult. We present a case of maxillary fibro-osseous lesion in an adolescent girl diagnosed and categorized as juvenile ossifying fibroma preoperatively on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Although aspirates are usually paucicellular in fibro-osseous lesions, certain cytological features if present in cellular cytosmears can offer further categorization and a definitive diagnosis may be possible in light of clinico-radiological correlation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:75-79. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24591292

Goyal, Surbhi; Sharma, Sonal; Arora, Vipin

2015-01-01

40

Incidental Diagnosis of Filariasis in Superficial Location by FNAC: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years  

PubMed Central

Background: Filariasis, transmitted by the bite of various species of mosquito, is a common disease of tropical belt of the world. In South East Asia, including India, it is a major public health problem. The parasite is primarily confined to Lymphatic channel or lymph nodes where it can remain viable for more than two decades. The most common presentation of the disease is asymptomatic/ subclinical microfilaremia, Hydrocele, acute adeno-lymphangitis (ADL) and chronic lymphatic disease. However, the disease may rarely present as superficial swellings at unusual sites. Incidental findings of microfilaria on fine needle aspiration cytology in these situations, helps in prompt recognition of the disease. Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidental diagnosis of Filariasis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), done for swellings in superficial locations over last ten years at our institute. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted over a period of 10 years from April 2003 to March 2013 on the cases where FNAC was carried out on swellings in superficial locations of the body. Twenty cases of filariasis were diagnosed on routine FNAC material obtained from various superficial sites. Their data was retrieved and analyzed. Results: Among the 20 cases diagnosed as filariasis on FNAC, six cases involved lymph nodes, six involved testiculo-scrotal region, three cases of thyroid swelling, soft tissue swelling in three cases and breast lump in two cases. On FNA smears, microfilariae were seen in all 20 cases, eggs in three cases, adult female worm in two cases and adult male worm in one case. Adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was noticed in 4 cases. Eosinophilia was present in seven cases. Microfilaremia was present in only three cases. Causative agent was Wuchereria bancrofti in all cases. Conclusion: Although not so common, filariasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of a superficial swelling particularly if clear fluid is obtained on FNAC. Careful screening of smears plays a significant role in recognition of the disease even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:25653954

Khare, Pratima; Jha, Aditi; Chauhan, Nidhi; Chand, Priyanka

2014-01-01

41

Demonstration of parasites in toxoplasma lymphadenitis by fine-needle aspiration cytology: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Two cases of toxoplasma lymphadenitis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, in which the microorganisms were identified in the cytologic preparations, are presented. The first case was that of an 8-yr-old boy with bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy of 2-mo duration, in which an FNA specimen of one of the lymph nodes in a Papanicolaou-stained smear disclosed a toxoplasma cyst, and in Wright-Giemsa preparation, dispersed tachyzoites and a pseudocyst. The second case was that of a 52-yr-old man with enlargement of a single lymph node in the neck, of 3-mo duration, FNA of which in Wright-Giemsa preparation disclosed numerous tachyzoites dispersed free in exudate, and also within cells, forming pseudocysts. In both cases, immunocytochemistry by the peroxidase method for Toxoplasma gondii antigen was positive. The tachyzoites seen in Wright-Giemsa preparations, when subjected to fluorescence microscopy, emitted autofluorescence, facilitating their identification. While the presence of parasites in toxoplasma lymphadenitis is quite unusual, having been reported occasionally in histologic preparations and only rarely in cytologic FNA materials, our 2 cases suggest that in active disease, tachyzoites may not be so uncommon in FNA specimens. Besides the use of immunocytochemistry in the diagnosis of the disease, air-dried preparations stained by the Wright-Giemsa method are valuable for the demonstration of such parasites through careful search, along with the possible use of fluorescence microscopy. PMID:10613965

Zaharopoulos, P

2000-01-01

42

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of Merkel cell carcinoma-a review of 69 cases.  

PubMed

This study reviewed the clinical presentation, cytologic findings, and the immunophenotype of 69 Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cases sampled by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). ?Demographic and clinical data, the cytology findings, and results of ancillary testing were reviewed. ?Median patient age was 78 years (37-104) with a 1:1.8 female to male ratio. The most common FNA sites sampled included lymph nodes in the neck, the axillary region, the inguinal region and the parotid gland. Most patients had a history of MCC (68%) and/or non-MCC malignancy (70%). ?The common cytologic pattern was a cellular smear with malignant cells arranged in a dispersed pattern with variable numbers of disorganized groups of cells. Cytoplasm was scant or absent and nuclei showed mild to moderate anisokaryosis, stippled chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and nuclear molding. Numerous apoptotic bodies were often present. ?Cell block samples (28 cases) were usually positive for cytokeratins in a perinuclear dot pattern, including 88% of cases with CK20 positivity. CD56 was the most sensitive (95%) neuroendocrine marker on cell blocks and was also positive with flow cytometry in nine cases tested. ?MCC is most commonly seen in FNA specimens from the head and neck of elderly patients, often with a history of previous skin lesions. Occasional cases present in younger patients and some may be mistaken for other round blue cell tumors, such as lymphoma. CD 56 may be a useful marker in cell block preparations and in flow cytometric analysis of MCC. PMID:24678011

Shield, Paul W; Crous, Heinrich

2014-11-01

43

Correlation of various techniques in diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis on fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Objective. To study the correlation of cytomorphological features in fine needle aspiration smears from patients suspected of having tuberculous lymphadenitis with Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN), auramine-rhodamine staining (ARS), and autofluorescence (AF). Methods. A total of 145 lymph nodes were aspirated, 3 air-dried smears were stained with Giemsa, Ziehl-Neelsen, and auramine-rhodamine stains, and 1 smear was wet fixed for Papanicolaou staining. Needle washes were incubated in Lowenstein-Jensen medium for culture. Papanicolaou and auramine-rhodamine stained smears were examined under fluorescent microscope using a blue excitation filter (450-480?nm). Results. Ninety aspirates were reported on cytomorphology as suggestive of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Smear positivity for Mycobacteria by Ziehl-Neelsen method was 26.67% (24/90), while positivity increased to 34.44% (31/90) by auramine-rhodamine and 42.22% (38/90) on autofluorescence. Culture was positive in 27.78% (25/90) aspirates. Using culture as the reference method, the statistical values of ZN, ARS, and AF were as follows: sensitivity 80.0%, 88.0%, 96.0%; specificity 93.85%, 86.15%, 78.46%; positive predictive values 83.33%, 70.97%, 63.16%; and negative predictive values 92.42%, 94.92%, 98.08%, respectively. Conclusion. There is a definite advantage of autofluorescence over Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine which is to detect Mycobacteria, being more sensitive as well as an inexpensive technique. Autofluorescence can be a useful addition to routine cytology for early diagnosis and effective treatment. PMID:24171137

Thakur, Brijesh; Mehrotra, Ravi; Nigam, Jitendra Singh

2013-01-01

44

Fibromatosis Colli - A Rare Cytological Diagnosis In Infantile Neck Swellings  

PubMed Central

Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

2014-01-01

45

Cysticercosis: hooked by a hooklet on fine needle aspiration cytology-a case report.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the larval form of cestode T. solium. It has a worldwide distribution and is potentially harmful with variable clinical manifestations. The patient most commonly presents with subcutaneous and muscle involvement in the form of nodular lesions. The other most commonly involved sites include eye, brain, bladder wall, and heart. Cysticercosis can be diagnosed on serology, and radiologically but confirmatory diagnosis is based on histopathological examination of the involved tissue biopsy specimen. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful low-cost outpatient procedure tool for preoperative diagnosis of cysticercosis and is absolutely essential for diagnosis of the parasitic lesions in a peripheral hospital, one like ours. PMID:24024052

Sawhney, Manav; Agarwal, Shubhra

2013-01-01

46

Fine needle aspiration cytology of a myoepithelioma presenting as a thyroid nodule.  

PubMed

Myoepitheliomas are rare neoplasms that are typically found in the major and minor salivary glands and represent approximately 1.5% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We present a patient with an exophytic anterior midline neck mass, which was initially believed to be a thyroid isthmus nodule that underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. FNA cytologic evaluation reveals numerous plump spindle cells and a myxoid background, thus raising the possibility of rare benign mixed tumor of the thyroid. However, the resected specimen consists of predominately spindle cells with a minor component of chondromyxoid matrix, and no ductal epithelial cells, favoring a diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Although this lesion clinically and radiologically appeared to arise from the thyroid gland, at the time of resection, it was found to be adjacent to the thyroid isthmus and was ultimately diagnosed as a soft tissue myoepithelioma of the midneck. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:153-157. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24700639

Narick, Christina; Velosa, Claudia; Pollice, Philip; Silverman, Jan

2015-02-01

47

Cysticercosis: Hooked by a Hooklet on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology—A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the larval form of cestode T. solium. It has a worldwide distribution and is potentially harmful with variable clinical manifestations. The patient most commonly presents with subcutaneous and muscle involvement in the form of nodular lesions. The other most commonly involved sites include eye, brain, bladder wall, and heart. Cysticercosis can be diagnosed on serology, and radiologically but confirmatory diagnosis is based on histopathological examination of the involved tissue biopsy specimen. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful low-cost outpatient procedure tool for preoperative diagnosis of cysticercosis and is absolutely essential for diagnosis of the parasitic lesions in a peripheral hospital, one like ours. PMID:24024052

Sawhney, Manav; Agarwal, Shubhra

2013-01-01

48

Oncocytic lipoadenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological findings and differential diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Oncocytic lipoadenoma is a rare benign neoplastic lesion of salivary gland. To the best of our knowledge, the detailed cytomorphological findings were described only in two cases. We are reporting a 56-year-old woman who presented with 1-year history of right parotid gland mass. Cytologic examination revealed tight clusters of bland looking oncocytic ductal cells with few aggregates of mature adipose tissue in a lipoid background and a benign oncocytic tumor of parotid gland was rendered. Histologically, a tumor with islands of oncocytic epithelial cells admixed with abundant mature adipose tissue was identified. Oncocytic lipoadenoma despite its rarity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland fine-needle aspirations containing oncocytes especially those which are accompanied by mature adipose tissue and lipoid background. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:72-74. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24591268

Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Azarpira, Negar; Anbardar, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

2015-01-01

49

Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

2014-08-01

50

Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Carcinoma Mimic Hürthle Cell Thyroid Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Background. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can cause misdiagnosis of cytomorphological findings between parathyroid and thyroid lesions. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old man presented with a palpable neck mass on the right thyroid lobe. FNA cytology was reported as intrathyroidal lymphoid hyperplasia. After 5 years, repeated FNA was done on the enlarged nodule with result of Hürthle cell lesion. Prior to right lobectomy, laboratories revealed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Careful history taking revealed chronic knee pain and ossifying fibroma at the maxilla. Ultrasonography showed a 2.8?cm mass inferior to right thyroid lobe. Pathology from en bloc resection was parathyroid carcinoma and immunohistochemical study revealed positivity for PTH. Genetic analysis found somatic mutation of CDC73 gene in exon1 (c.70delG) which caused premature stop codon in amino acid 26 (p.Glu24Lysfs*2). The final diagnosis was hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Conclusions. FNA cytology of parathyroid can mimic thyroid lesion. It is important to consider and correlate the entire information from clinical history, laboratory, imaging, and FNA. PMID:25177504

Sornmayura, Pattana; Chanplakorn, Niramol; Trachoo, Objoon; Sae-Chew, Pattarana; Aroonroch, Rangsima

2014-01-01

51

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of abdominal wall endometriosis: a study of 10 cases.  

PubMed

While about 15% of menstruating women develop endometriosis, abdominal wall endometriosis is relatively rare. We present 10 cases of abdominal wall endometriosis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and confirmed by subsequent surgical excision. A palpable abdominal wall mass was the most common symptom, followed by pain. Nine cases were associated with previous surgery. The smear showed glandular epithelial cells and spindle or ovoid stromal cells accompanied by macrophages in eight cases. The nucleus was round-to-oval and the nucleolus was inconspicuous. Mitosis was not observed in any case. In two cases, which were suspicious of malignancy on FNA, the epithelial cells showed anisonucleosis, hyperchromasia, and small conspicuous nucleoli. The stromal cells were spindle or ovoid in shape, without metaplastic changes. Histiocytes were noted in nine cases and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes were noted in two cases. The proportion of inflammatory cells varied. FNA diagnosis of abdominal wall endometriosis is possible when the cytological features are interpreted cautiously, together with the patient's clinical history. An accurate diagnosis on FNA will prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:21987456

Kim, Jung Yeon; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Kyeongmee

2013-02-01

52

Ascites as a presenting feature of relapsed multiple myeloma. Report of a case diagnosed by aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old woman with IgG-type multiple myeloma (MM) in remission and a chief complaint of ascites was found to have peritoneal fluid involvement by myeloma cells on cytologic study. There are only a few reports describing the cytologic features in patients presenting with ascites as the first manifestation of relapsed MM. IgG myeloma, however, is one of the rarest types. The patient had had pancreatic involvement months before her presentation with ascites, which itself is a rare manifestation of relapsed MM. Cytologic smears of ascitic fluid showed isolated and incoherent groups of cells with plasmacytoid features. To recognize myeloma as a cause of ascites is important because it may respond well to therapy. Aspiration cytologic study can be considered a useful method for follow-up and diagnosis of MM relapse even without a biopsy. PMID:1580115

Khoddami, M; Esphehani, F N; Aslani, F S

1992-01-01

53

Preoperative diagnosis of a breast hydatid cyst using fine-needle aspiration cytology: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction A hydatid cyst of the breast is rare and often goes unnoticed by mammography and ultrasound. Preoperative diagnosis may be performed using fine-needle aspiration cytology, which also minimizes the risk of intraoperative rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 70-year-old Spanish woman who was diagnosed with a hydatid cyst using fine-needle aspiration cytology before surgery. Conclusion Fine-needle aspiration cytology is an accurate and safe technique that can allow surgery to be avoided, especially in older patients or patients with high surgical risk. PMID:22973941

2012-01-01

54

Cytologic evaluation can predict microbial culture results for infectious causes of pulmonary nodules in patients undergoing fine needle aspiration biopsy.  

PubMed

We retrospectively compared cytopathology and microbial culture results for pulmonary fine needle aspiration biopsy specimens over a 10-year period. Eighty samples were submitted for culture, yielding 24 positive cultures with 17 pathogenic organisms. Cytology predicted positive cultures in all cases where organisms were visualized, and it was associated with negative cultures in 24 of 25 cases where inflammatory changes and necrosis were absent. PMID:20955918

Miller, Steve A; van Zante, Annemieke; Schwartz, Brian S

2010-11-01

55

Microfilaria in cytological smears at rare sites coexisting with unusual pathology: A series of seven cases  

PubMed Central

Filariasis is a major public health problem in India and microfilaria is sometimes seen during routine fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears, but it is very rare to find microfilaria coexistent with neoplastic lesions. Here we report a series of seven cases in which microfilaria is associated with neoplastic lesions. Out of these seven cases one is benign and six are malignant. Also we first time report the microfilaria coexistent with parotid pleomorphic adenoma, undifferentiated carcinoma thyroid and gall bladder carcinoma. PMID:23508347

Pantola, Chayanika; Kala, Sanjay; Agarwal, Asha; Khan, Lubna

2012-01-01

56

Critical clinical appraisal of the role of computed tomography-guided minimally invasive aspiration cytology in evaluation of retroperitoneal masses  

PubMed Central

Context: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is increasing in popularity as a means of diagnosing mass lesions in retroperitoneal area. With use of radiologic guidance for needle placement, this technique is an effective way to obtain diagnostic material. Aims: The aims of the study were (1) to establish the validity and reliability of fine needle aspiration cytology in preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, and (2) to compare the significance of cytological diagnosis with histopathological report. Settings and Design: A prospective, cross-sectional hospital-based study. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was designed on 45 cases of clinically and radiologically diagnosed retroperitoneal tumor in a tertiary care hospital. Computerized tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous FNA was performed and cytology smears were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain and conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) stain. Smears were broadly categorized into unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious of malignancy and malignant lesion. The cytological diagnosis was compared with subsequent histopathology report. Statistical Analysis: Positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic accuracy, chi-square test and others. Results: The total number of cases studied was 45, which include both epithelial tumors and mesenchymal tumors. Age group varied from 15 to 70 years. The overall sensitivity in our study to diagnose benign and malignant tumors by FNA cytology is 86% and the specificity is 96% with positive and negative predictive value of 86% and 96%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was 93.55% with high statistical significance (P < 0.001). Conclusions: FNA cytology is a simple, fast, reliable and less expensive method for diagnosis of various retroperitoneal neoplasms. PMID:25006286

Das, Chhanda; Sengupta, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Saha, Ashis Kumar

2014-01-01

57

Role of Fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of Cervical lymphadenopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A study was carried out to know the overall prevalence of various causes responsible for cervical lymphadenopathy of more than 3 weeks duration. FNAC has been evaluated as a diagnostic tool in our clinical set up. We aimed to present 110 cases which we treated in our center within last 3½ years. Methods: A retrospective study has been carried

Sanjeev Gupta

2008-01-01

58

Foregut duplication of the stomach diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst.In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment. PMID:23374143

Napolitano, Vincenzo; Pezzullo, Angelo M; Zeppa, Pio; Schettino, Pietro; D'Armiento, Maria; Palazzo, Antonietta; Della Pietra, Cristina; Napolitano, Salvatore; Conzo, Giovanni

2013-01-01

59

Foregut duplication of the stomach diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst. In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment. PMID:23374143

2013-01-01

60

Visceral Leishmaniasis with Associated Common, Uncommon, and Atypical Morphological Features on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology in Nonendemic Region  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The present study was conducted to categorise the morphological features on bone marrow aspirate cytology into common, uncommon, and atypical features in a nonendemic region which would be helpful in clinching an early and correct diagnosis especially in clinically unsuspected cases. Methods. The morphological features on bone marrow were categorized into common, uncommon, and atypical in cases of leishmaniasis from non endemic region. Results. Out of total 27 cases, 77.7% were residents of places at the height of 500?m or above and fever was the most common presentation followed by hepatosplenomegaly. Plasmacytosis, hemophagocytosis were the common cytological features while dysmyelopoiesis, presence of leishmania bodies in nonhistiocytic cells, and granuloma with necrosis were uncommon features. Aggregates of LD bodies in form of ring, floret, or strap shapes along with giant cells constitute the atypical morphological features. Conclusion. The knowledge of common, uncommon, and atypical features on bone marrow aspirate cytology is helpful in clinching an early and correct diagnosis of leishmaniasis especially in non endemic areas where clinical suspicion is low. These features will guide the pathologist for vigilant search of LD bodies in the marrow for definite diagnosis and thus will also be helpful in preventing unnecessary workups. PMID:24089618

Chandra, Harish; Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan

2013-01-01

61

Should We Apply Suction During Fine Needle Cytology of Thyroid Lesions? A Prospective Study of 200 Cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established first line diagnostic tool in evaluating palpable thyroid lesions. However, the technique depends on suction and thus is at times painful, sometimes traumatic and yield haemorrhagic material for cytological study. In more recent times, a modified technique called fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) has come into vogue which obviates the use of suction and therefore is more patient friendly. Aims/Objectives: To investigate whether fine needle sampling without aspiration (FNS) gives quantitatively and qualitatively superior cytologic material as compared to the conventional technique of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) in thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study of 200 cases carried out in the Department of Pathology during two years period. Both techniques were executed on the same thyroid swelling / nodule in the same clinical session beginning with FNS followed by FNAC. The observation recorded by two pathologists were based on the scoring system proposed by Mair et al., Statistical analysis was done by Student’s paired t-test using SPSS 13 software. Observation/Results: A total of 200 cases were studied. The non-aspiration technique yielded less diagnostically adequate but more diagnostically superior smears when compared with aspiration technique. The average score per case was 5.31 by aspiration technique and 6.35 by non-aspiration technique. Conclusion: Both the techniques have their own merits and demerits and neither is absolutely superior to the other. A combination of both the technique gives better result. PMID:25478349

Babu, K V Sreedhar; Sachan, Alok; Rukmangdha, N; Patnayak, Rashmi; Radhika, K; Phaneendra, B V; Reddy, M Kumaraswamy

2014-01-01

62

Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman Disease involving thyroid.  

PubMed

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a rare disease involving the lymph nodes. Extranodal RDD involving the thyroid is extremely rare. So far, six cases of RDD involving thyroid have been reported in the literature; all have occurred in females with a mean age of 56.3 years. Clinically, radiologically and cytologically, all the cases were initially diagnosed as thyroid malignancies with lymph nodal metastasis. The final diagnosis was made histologically only after total thyroidectomy. We herein, present a seventh case of RDD involving the thyroid in a 15-year-old female, diagnosed first on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We conclude that FNAC is a useful diagnostic procedure for RDD involving thyroid; it can avoid an unnecessary thyroidectomy. PMID:22438629

Vujhini, Sudhir Kumar; Kolte, Sachin S; Satarkar, Rahul N; Srikanth, Shastry

2012-01-01

63

Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman Disease involving thyroid  

PubMed Central

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a rare disease involving the lymph nodes. Extranodal RDD involving the thyroid is extremely rare. So far, six cases of RDD involving thyroid have been reported in the literature; all have occurred in females with a mean age of 56.3 years. Clinically, radiologically and cytologically, all the cases were initially diagnosed as thyroid malignancies with lymph nodal metastasis. The final diagnosis was made histologically only after total thyroidectomy. We herein, present a seventh case of RDD involving the thyroid in a 15-year-old female, diagnosed first on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We conclude that FNAC is a useful diagnostic procedure for RDD involving thyroid; it can avoid an unnecessary thyroidectomy. PMID:22438629

Vujhini, Sudhir Kumar; Kolte, Sachin S; Satarkar, Rahul N; Srikanth, Shastry

2012-01-01

64

Diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Fine-needle aspiration has assumed an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with advanced stage cancer. Given its predilection for metastases to distant sites and organs at the time of presentation, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not infrequently encountered in the setting of fine-needle aspiration for initial diagnosis. In some instances, fine-needle aspiration may be the only opportunity to obtain diagnostic tissue to diagnose and subclassify RCC. Therefore, cytopathologists and cytotechnologists should be familiar with and recognize the cytomorphology of RCC and the ancillary studies that can be used to confirm and subclassify RCC. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic RCC initially diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration, discuss the cytomorphologic features of RCC subtypes, and review pertinent ancillary immunohistochemical and cytogenetic adjuncts. PMID:25268189

Lew, Madelyn; Foo, Wen-Chi; Roh, Michael H

2014-10-01

65

High-Throughput Molecular Analysis from Leftover of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Mammographically Detected Breast Cancer12  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether residual material from diagnostic smears of fine needle aspirations (FNAs) of mammographically detected breast lesions can be successfully used to extract RNA for reliable gene expression analysis. Twenty-eight patients underwent FNA of breast lesions under ultrasonographic guidance. After smearing slides for cytology, residual cells were rinsed with TRIzol to recover RNA. RNA yield ranged from 0.78 to 88.40 µg per sample. FNA leftovers from 23 nonpalpable breast cancers were selected for gene expression profiling using oligonucleotide microarrays. Clusters generated by global expression profiles partitioned samples in well-distinguished subgroups that overlapped with clusters obtained using “biologic scores” (cytohistologic variables) and differed from clusters based on “technical scores” (RNA/complementary RNA/microarray quality). Microarray profiling used to measure the grade of differentiation and estrogen receptor and ERBB2/HER2 status reflected the results obtained by histology and immunohistochemistry. Given that proliferative status in the FNA material is not always assessable, we designed and performed on FNA leftover a multiprobe genomic signature for proliferation genes that strongly correlated with the Ki67 index examined on histologic material. These findings show that cells residual to cytologic smears of FNA are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA for high-throughput analysis even when taken from small nonpalpable breast lesions. PMID:22741037

Annaratone, Laura; Marchiò, Caterina; Renzulli, Tommaso; Castellano, Isabella; Cantarella, Daniela; Isella, Claudio; Macrì, Luigia; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Balmativola, Davide; Cantanna, Elisabetta; Deambrogio, Cristina; Pietribiasi, Francesca; Arisio, Riccardo; Schmitt, Fernando; Medico, Enzo; Sapino, Anna

2012-01-01

66

Cytological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland: fine-needle aspiration of seven cases.  

PubMed

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland neoplasm that is defined by ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. There have been few case reports on the cytopathologic features of MASC to date. We examined the clinicopathological and cytological features of seven cases of MASC defined by RT-PCR analysis of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. The cases occurred in three men and four women aged between 39 and 68 years, with a mean of 51.6 years. In five of these seven cases, the tumor involved the parotid gland. Histologically, all cases displayed predominantly microcystic patterns, often a mixture of follicular and papillary-cystic structures. All tumors were immunoreactive for mammaglobin, S-100 protein, and vimentin. Available fine-needle aspiration cytology smears were cellular and exhibited many loosely cohesive syncytial clusters or isolated cells. Many histiocytes, some of which contained hemosiderin pigments, and variously shaped mucinous material were evident in the background or within the epithelial clusters. The majority of cases showed small to medium-sized follicular structures with secreted materials. Papillary clusters were occasionally found. Tumor cells exhibited small to medium-sized round to oval nuclei, with a smooth contour and indistinct or small nucleoli, and vacuolated cytoplasm. No tumor cells had obvious intracytoplasmic zymogen granules. It appeared that clusters of small to medium-sized follicular and papillary configurations consisting of bland tumor cells with vacuolated cytoplasm, but lack of intracytoplasmic zymogen granules, in a mucinous or hemosiderin-laden histiocyte-rich background, were a characteristic cytological feature highly suggestive of MASC. PMID:24585770

Higuchi, Kayoko; Urano, Makoto; Takahashi, Reisuke H; Oshiro, Hisashi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagai, Takeshi; Obikane, Hiyo; Shimojo, Hisashi; Nagao, Toshitaka

2014-10-01

67

Cytological diagnosis of microfilariae in filariasis endemic areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Background: Filariasis is a major health problem in tropical countries including India. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays an important role in prompt recognition of disease. Aim: To assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in diagnosis of filariasis at all possible sites. Materials and Methods: Total 250 cases of superficial swellings at various sites were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Results: Out of 250 cases, 24 cases of filariasis were detected which include breast lumps (8 cases), lymph nodes (6 cases), scrotal swellings (4 cases), thyroid swellings (3 cases), soft tissue swellings (2 cases) and ascitic fluid (1 case). Eosinophilia was present in 8 out of 24 cases with a percentage ranging from 12-24%. Significant adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was present in 3 out of 24 cases. Conclusions: In endemic areas, it should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of a superficial swelling. Careful screening of FNAC smears help in detecting microfilaria even in asymptomatic patients and thus plays a significant role in recognition of the disease and institution of specific treatment. PMID:21938142

Mitra, Shaila K; Mishra, Rajiv K; Verma, Pallavi

2009-01-01

68

Penile neurilemmoma: Utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of a rare entity  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous lesions in the penis are of rare occurrence and encompass benign as well as malignant tumors. These include lipomas, leiomyomas, neurilemmomas and their malignant counterparts. A surgical excision at this site carries the risk of postoperative penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. We report a rare case of penile neurilemmoma which presented as a subcutaneous nodule on the dorsal surface of the penis. A fine-needle aspiration was performed which aided in the preoperative diagnosis and guided the extent of excision. We report this case to highlight the importance of needle aspiration as a simple outdoor procedure for penile lesions which can aid surgical approach and postoperative outcome.

Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Shukla, Saumya; Gupta, Anurag; Awasthi, Namrata Punit; Husain, Nuzhat; Dhayal, lshwar Ram

2014-01-01

69

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of subcutaneous toxoplasmosis: A case report.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a common opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS in whom it typically presents as encephalitis, pneumonia, lymphadenitis, and myocarditis. Skin involvement is very rare and, to our best knowledge, Toxoplasma gondii forming a subcutaneous mass has not been reported. Here, we report the findings of an interesting case of subcutaneous toxoplasmosis with the cytological appearance of an inflammatory fibrovascular lesion in a HIV-positive patient and discuss the differential diagnosis. PMID:20014129

Chen, Xiaowei; Remotti, Fabrizio; Tong, Guo-Xia; Gorczyca, Elzbieta; Hamele-Bena, Diane

2010-10-01

70

Fine needle aspiration cytology of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gingiva from the lung: a case report.  

PubMed

Metastases of malignant tumors to the oral region from distant sites are uncommon. A 45-year-old man with painless gingival swelling was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung. On cytology, clusters of tumor cells on mucous background revealed enlarged nuclei, indistinct cell borders, and irregular nuclear membranes. Some cells showed nuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves and small nucleoli. These findings are indicative of metastatic adenocarcinoma. We present a case of gingival metastasis from a lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:23109988

You, Tack Kune; Kim, So Ri; Park, Ho Sung; Jang, Kyu Yun; Moon, Woo Sung; Chung, Myoung Ja; Lee, Dong Geun; Kang, Myoung Jae

2012-02-01

71

Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy processed by cytologic smear and cell block techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors: a study of 48 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) processed by smear cytology and cell block (CB) techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors (LGTs). Study Design: In a prospective study, we enrolled 48 consecutive patients with LGTs. Immediately after excision of LGTs, the tissues were underwent FNAB with 23-gauge needles. The FNAB samples were processed to produce cytologic smears and CB from which slides were cut for immunohistochemical staining. The remainders were submitted for routine histopathologic processing. The diagnostic value of FNAB was assessed by comparing the FNAB diagnoses to those made by routine histopathology. Results: Cytopathologic evaluations based on smear cytology and CB with sections stained immunohistochemically can distinguish non-epithelial lesions from epithelial ones in all cases. The diagnostic sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions were: cytologic smears--76%, 68%, and 71%, respectively; CB with immunohistochemical staining--88%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. The accuracy of the tissue diagnosis compared to routine histopathology was less for cytologic smears (58%) than for CB with immunohistochemistry (81%; P < 0.05). Conclusions: FNAB of LGT processed using a CB technique capable of producing immunohistochemically stained slides results in a greater percentage of accurate tissue diagnoses than do cytologic smears, when compared to routine histopathology. PMID:25120744

Wang, Xiangning; Qian, Jiang; Yuan, Yifei; Ping, Bo; Feng, Liqing; Bi, Yingwen; Li, Xiaping

2014-01-01

72

Diagnostic Value of Endoscopic Ultrasonography Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology ofMediastinal Masses in Patients with Intrapulmo nary Lesions and Nondiagnostic Bronchoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several procedures are available for the cytopathological diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with mediastinal mass lesions\\/lymph node enlargement. All patients had intrapulmonary lesions on chest X ray and\\/or CT scan, and inconclusive findings by endobronchial forceps biopsy and\\/or brush cytology. EUS-guided

A. Fritscher-Ravens; S. Petrasch; A. Reinacher-Schick; U. Graeven; M. König; W. Schmiegel

1999-01-01

73

Cytologic score and DNA-image analysis in the classification of borderline breast lesions: a prospective study on 47 fine-needle aspirates.  

PubMed

We prospectively evaluated the accuracy of the cytologic score system developed by Masood et al. combined with DNA-image analysis in the subclassification of 47 fine-needle aspiration samples with cytologic features of borderline breast lesions. Cytologic scores ranged between 12-18. All cases underwent surgical excision of the lesion, and histology revealed 24 cases of florid hyperplasia, 8 of atypical hyperplasia, and 11 noninvasive and 4 invasive ductal carcinomas. DNA-image analysis demonstrated 33 diploid and 14 aneuploid cases. Diploid samples were divided into slowly proliferating (S + G2/M < or = 13%) and rapidly proliferating (S + G2/M > 13%) cases. By considering florid hyperplasia a "low-risk" lesion and by amalgamating atypical hyperplasia, and in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma in the category of "high-risk" lesions, the positive predictive value of a score value > 16 was 100%. In cases scoring < or = 16, the slowly proliferating pattern had a negative predictive value of 95%, while the aneuploid and rapidly proliferating patterns had a positive predictive value of 100% and 63%, respectively. We conclude that a combination of cytologic score evaluation and DNA-image analysis is very useful in differentiating "low-risk" from "high-risk" cases in the field of breast borderline lesions, thus improving the impact of fine-needle aspiration diagnosis on patient management. PMID:10204104

Gherardi, G; Marveggio, C

1999-04-01

74

Cytologically diagnosed metastatic small cell lung carcinoma in the mandibular soft tissue.  

PubMed

Metastatic tumors to the oral and maxillofacial region are relatively rare, they constitute 1% of all malignant tumors of the oral cavity. The purpose of this case report is to evaluate the efficiency of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of metastatic small cell lung carcinoma. A 50-year-old female patient presenting with a 4x5 cm firm, hemorrhagic, tender swelling on the left mandibular bicuspid gingiva was evaluated. Her past medical history revealed a mass measuring 8x5 cm in the left pulmonary hilar area with pleural effusion, which was diagnosed as small cell lung carcinoma. A FNAC was performed to the oral mucosal swelling, and cytological examination revealed metastatic small cell lung carcinoma. The duration between diagnosis of the primary lung and development of metastasis was 6 months. The FNAC is a rapid, non-invasive, and safe diagnostic method when carried out with a proper technique, and proved to be a valuable adjunct to a careful physical and radiological examination of the oro-maxillofacial lesions. PMID:23677273

Pektas, Zafer O; Gunhan, Omer

2013-05-01

75

Cytologic features of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with "vacuolated cell pattern." report of a case diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.  

PubMed

The "vacuolated cell pattern" has only been recently described as a distinct morphologic variant of pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma. Herein, we report the endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytologic features of a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with "vacuolated cell pattern" occurring in a 60-year-old man. The aspirate smears and cell block sections from the EUS-FNA of a 23.5 mm hypoechoic pancreatic head mass were highly cellular, showing variably-sized crowded three-dimensional cell clusters, flat sheets, and numerous highly atypical single cells. The background was bloody and showed necrotic debris, but no discernible mucus. The most striking feature of the aspirate was the presence of numerous very large (20-50 µm) vacuoles, occupying the entire cytoplasm, pushing the nuclei to the side and indenting them, that imparted a cribriform appearance to the sheets of neoplastic cells. The non-vacuolated neoplastic cells were large, had abundant dense (squamoid) cytoplasm, irregularly contoured hyperchromatic nuclei, and prominent macronucleoli. Histologic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimen showed a "vacuolated cell pattern" adenocarcinoma composed of poorly formed glands, solid sheets, and infiltrating single cells with pleomorphic nuclei and large cytoplasmic vacuoles. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the cytologic features of this rather uncommon morphologic variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Recognition of this morphologic variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in ESU-FNA samples allows its differentiation from primary and metastatic signet-ring cell carcinomas. PMID:24554377

Samad, Arbaz; Conway, Andrea B; Attam, Rajeev; Jessurun, Jose; Pambuccian, Stefan E

2014-04-01

76

Utility and diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal lesions: Saudi Arabian experience  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TFNA) of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Study Design: Over 3½ years from inception at King Khalid University Hospital, a retrospective analysis of the cytological diagnoses of all the EBUS-TFNA procedures performed in 80 patients who had mediastinal mass/nodular enlargement. Cytology results were reviewed and correlated with the histologic follow-up. Results: Of the 80 patients who underwent EBUS-TFNA, 15 cases (18.75%) were positive for malignancy, 48 cases (60%) negative for malignancy and 17 cases (21.25%) unsatisfactory. Of the 48 cases, which were negative for malignancy, 24 (50%) cases were of granulomatous inflammation. The overall diagnostic yield of our EBUS-TFNA specimen was 78.75%. Forty-seven cases (58.75%) of 80 cases had histological follow-up biopsies. Among them, 32 cases (68%) had the same cytological and histological diagnosis and 15 cases (31.09%) had discordance between the cytology and the follow-up histological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing granulomas by EBUS-TFNA are 77%, 82%, 83%, and 75% and for diagnosing malignancy are 71%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results show that cytological samples obtained through EBUS-TFNA are accurate and specific in making a diagnosis of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Its optimum use depends on the effective collaboration between the cytotechnologist, pathologist, and the bronchoscopist. PMID:25191512

Raddaoui, Emad; Alhamad, Esam H; Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Al-Habeeb, Fatmah F; Arafah, Maha

2014-01-01

77

Clinical evaluation, imaging studies, indications for cytologic study and preprocedural requirements for duct brushing studies and pancreatic fine-needle aspiration: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques for EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature to be used for pancreaticobiliary disease, ancillary testing and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on expertise of the authors, literature review, discussions of the draft document at national and international meetings and synthesis of online comments of the draft document. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. This document summarizes recommendations for the clinical and imaging work-up of pancreatic and biliary tract lesions along with indications for cytologic study of these lesions. Prebrushing and FNA requirements are also discussed. PMID:25191515

Adler, Douglas; Schmidt, C. Max; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Barthel, James S.; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Merchant, Nipun B.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Shaaban, Akram M.; Simeone, Diane; Pitman, Martha Bishop; Layfield, Lester J.

2014-01-01

78

Diagnostic Efficacy of Cell Block Immunohistochemistry, Smear Cytology, and Liquid-Based Cytology in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Lesions: A Single-Institution Experience  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnostic efficiency of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology varies widely depending on the treatment method of the specimens. The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of cell block (CB) immunohistochemistry, smear cytology (SC), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in patients with pancreatic lesions without consulting an on-site cytopathologist. Methods This study prospectively enrolled 72 patients with pancreatic lesions. The EUS-FNA specimens were examined by SC, LBC, and CB immunohistochemistry. The diagnostic efficacy of the 3 methods was then compared. Patients’ final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical resection specimens, diagnostic imaging, and clinical follow-up. Results Our results included 60 malignant and 12 benign pancreatic lesions. The diagnostic sensitivity (90%), negative predictive value (66.7%), and accuracy (91.7%) of CB immunohistochemistry were significantly higher than those of SC (70.0%, 30.0%, and 75.0%, respectively) and LBC (73.3%, 31.6%, and 77.8%, respectively) (all P<0.05). The combination of CB and SC, or CB and LBC, did not significantly increase the efficacy compared to CB immunohistochemistry alone. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in the absence of an on-site cytopathologist, CB immunohistochemistry on EUS-FNA specimens offers a higher diagnostic efficacy in patients with pancreatic lesions than does SC and LBC. PMID:25259861

Qin, Shan-yu; Zhou, You; Li, Ping; Jiang, Hai-xing

2014-01-01

79

Pure neuritic leprosy with nerve abscess presenting as a cystic, soft tissue mass: report of a case diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) with nerve abscess manifesting as a huge, cystic, soft tissue mass is highly uncommon. Fine needle aspiration cytology can serve as an important initial diagnostic modality in such an instance. We report a case of 28-year-old male, who presented with a huge swelling in the lower, medial aspect of the right upper arm. The clinical diagnosis was schwannoma. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) yielded 80 ml of sticky, turbid, pale brown fluid. Cytologic examination revealed abundant, caseous, necrotic material and many degenerated neutrophils in a thin proteinaceous background. Stain for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was negative. Based on an AFB negative, caseous, necrotic material obtained from the soft tissue mass located in the ulnar nerve region, a cytodiagnosis of tuberculoid PNL with nerve abscess was given, and this was confirmed by the subsequent histopathologic examination. Our case emphasizes the major role of minimally traumatic, FNA technique in the diagnosis of rare cases of clinically unsuspected neuritic leprosies. PMID:19217052

Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Singh, Neha; Muniraj, Femela; Chahwala, Qutubuddin; Basu, Debdatta; Kumar, Surendra

2009-05-01

80

Incidental diagnosis of filariasis in association with carcinoma of gall bladder: Report of a case evidenced on ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology with review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in India and South-East Asia. Detection of microfilaria is infrequently reported during cytological evaluation of various lesions or body cavity fluids. Microfilariae in cytological smears of few benign and malignant neoplasms have also been reported. Here we present a very rare case of presence of microfilariae in a smear from ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. The present patient is probably the second reported case in the literature harboring occult filariasis in association with gallbladder carcinoma. Though it is a chance finding, cytology can be an effective tool for detection of asymptomatic filariasis helping to pave the way of disease eradication.

Sinha, Rajani; Sengupta, Sanjay; Pal, Subrata; Adhikari, Anindya

2014-01-01

81

The Diagnostic Role of the Marginal Vacuoles in FNAC of Solitary Thyroid Nodules  

PubMed Central

Context: FNAC thyroid is more sensitive as well as specific in segregating neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions. Identification of predominant cell pattern, cell morphology and background details in FNAC smears play an important role in categorisation of various thyroid lesions with accuracy. Marginal vacuoles (MVs) have been described as irregular cytoplasmic vacuoles with largely unstained central area. MVs, although suggestive of thyrotoxicosis, are non-specific, as they are also encountered in non- toxic goitre, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and follicular carcinoma. This cytologic finding therefore deserves further study to precisely delineate its utility. Aims & Objective: To investigate whether MVs have a diagnostic role in FNAC of solitary thyroid nodule Setting & Design: This study was conducted on 40 patients who presented with solitary thyroid nodule. Methods & Material: Forty patients having solitary thyroid nodule were subjected to FNAC on an outpatient basis. Their cytomorphological features were studied with special attention to presence of MVs. MVs if present were then graded as no/ scant (gradeI ), moderate (gradeII) and abundant (gradeIII). Results and Conclusion: Majority (77.5%) of nodular goitres had insignificant MVs (gradeI) in their smears. Significant MVs (gradeII+III) were limited to autoimmune thyroiditis presenting as solitary nodule and follicular neoplasms. Abundant MVs/ gradeIII were seen in follicular neoplasm only. MVs were not present in rest of neoplastic goitres. This implies that MVs are a marker of follicular differentiation. PMID:23542577

Gupta, Anshu; Sharma, Sonia; Kalhan, Shivani; Gupta, Atul; Dudani, Sharmila; Devra, Amit

2013-01-01

82

A comparative study of silver binding nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) of breast lesions in histological sections and fine needle aspiration smears.  

PubMed

The study presents a comparative profile of AgNOR dot counting in different types of breast lesions in histopathological (HP) sections and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. The breast lesions chosen were non-neoplastic lesion like fibroadenosis, benign neoplastic lesion like fibroadenoma and malignant neoplastic lesion like infiltrating duct carcinoma-grade 2. The AgNOR counts of non-neoplastic lesion were significantly less in number than the neoplastic lesions--both benign and malignant, in both the HP section and FNAC smear. But the counts did not show significant difference in the two neoplastic lesions eg, fibroadenoma and infiltrating duct carcinoma-grade 2, in both the HP section and FNAC smear. The appearance of the dots, as felt by the observers, were more discriminating between the three lesions, eg, uniform small compact centrally placed in fibroadenosis; mostly uniform small compact but occasional large irregular in fibroadenoma and large irregular marginally located in infiltrating duct carcinoma. Counting was easier and the appearance of the dots more easily discernible in FNAC smear than the HP section as the smear was monolayer and the malignant cells were easily detected from macrophages and stromal cells. But the tissue fluid or secretions or blood when present in the smear gave the smear a dirty background which was disturbing to the observers. Thus this AgNOR technique, when applied in HP section or FNAC smear, appears cost ineffective, lengthy and tedious procedure; did not offer absolute histochemical discriminant for malignancy from benignancy. But the shape and size distribution and appearance of the dots showing much variability in FNAC smear than the HP section, might be of some help in the diagnosis of malignancy and discriminating from benignancy. PMID:9492450

Basu, A; Sanyal, S; Bhattacharyya, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Dasgupta, S

1997-08-01

83

Fine-needle aspiration cytology in lesions related to ornamental body procedures (skin tattooing, intraoral piercing) and recreational use of drugs (intranasal route).  

PubMed

Body adornment through tattooing and body piercing and the use of recreational drugs are on the increase, producing a variety of secondary lesions, the etiology of which often remains undetected, as the medical community is not yet aware of the extent of the morbidity of such procedures and practices. Three cases are presented, which underscore the problem and also the role that fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can play in clarifying the etiology of such lesions. Two of these cases were lymphadenopathies, one secondary to tattooing and the other to tongue piercing, while the third was a deep intranasal lesion, which in all probability had resulted from intranasal use of recreational drugs. Although the clinical diagnosis of these lesions was problematic, the FNA performed by a pathologist, by associating the cytologic findings with the corresponding clinical setting, was quite indicative of their relation to the aforementioned procedures or practices. PMID:12722121

Zaharopoulos, Paul

2003-05-01

84

Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on papillary thyroid carcinoma and metastatic malignant melanoma by fine-needle aspiration cytology: how genetic testing may drive toward personalized medicine.  

PubMed

A genetic link between cutaneous melanoma and thyroid cancer (TC) has been identified. A high percentage of both melanomas and papillary carcinomas of the thyroid harbors a recurrent mutation (i.e., BRAF(V600E) ) in the BRAF oncogene. Herein, we report the case of a 65-year-old man with papillary TC and cutaneous malignant melanoma metastatic to masseter muscle, both characterized by BRAF mutation. This is one of the rare reports in which a complete molecular characterization has been performed. As the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma have a higher risk of malignant melanoma and vice versa, continuous monitoring of such patients, with either of these tumors is necessary. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is useful as shown in the present case. PMID:24574369

Rocca, Bruno Jim; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Ginori, Alessandro; Disanto, Andrea

2014-10-01

85

Role of FNAC in the Preoperative Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: The characteristic cytologic features of the common salivary gland lesions have been well-delineated in literature. However, there also exist cytologic pitfalls and overlapping features that make an accurate diagnosis difficult in few cases. The present study was designed to compare the cytologic findings of salivary gland lesions with the histologic diagnoses, in order to assess the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, with an emphasis on discordant cases. Materials and Methods: Patients with suspected salivary gland enlargements, who were referred for FNAC, were included in this study, which was done over a 3 year period in a medical college hospital. FNAC was performed by using the standard procedure. Smears were stained by using Papanicolaou’s and MGG stains. Cytologic diagnosis was compared with histopathologic diagnosis wherever it was available. Results: Eighty eight patients with salivary gland swellings were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 82 years, with the M:F ratio being 1.6:1. Out of 88 cases, 68 had swellings in parotid gland, 19 had them in submandibular gland and one had them in hard palate. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest neoplasm which was seen in our study. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the only malignant lesion seen in our study. One each of Warthin’s tumour (WT) and MEC were overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed respectively, the reason being squamous metaplasia in WT and subtle nature of malignant cells in low-grade MEC. Conclusion: WT and MEC can pose problems in cytologicdiagnosis. Sampling errors and interpretational errors can lead todiscordant diagnoses. PMID:25386436

D’souza, Clement R S; Khosla, Charu; George, Lovely; Katte, Namitha Hegde

2014-01-01

86

Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples  

PubMed Central

Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology. PMID:24987443

Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali

2014-01-01

87

Cytomorphological variables of hepatic malignancies in fine needle aspiration smears with special reference to grading of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: The evaluation and management of discrete hepatic masses is a clinical problem. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, accurate and safe diagnostic procedure that can be used in various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the liver. Aim: To evaluate the cytomorphological features of hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed on 52 patients clinically suspected of having hepatic lesion. Results: Malignancy was detected in 50 cases. The primary malignancies consisted of 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 4 cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 2 of hepatoblastoma. There were 29 metastatic lesions, which included 26 cases of adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 1 of lymphoma. The key diagnostic features for HCC were trabecular arrangement, polygonal cells with eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei with macronucleoli. Atypical naked hepatocytic nuclei and malignant cells separated by sinusoidal capillaries were also commonly seen. The sensitivity and specificity of FNA for malignancies was found to be 96% and 100% respectively, yielding a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 50%. Conclusions: There was a very good correlation of cytological criteria and histopathological diagnosis in hepatocellular carcinoma of various grades as well as in differentiating primary from metastatic tumors. It is recommended that image directed FNAC should be the primary diagnostic modality for assessing potential malignancy in any patient with a localized hepatic mass. PMID:23833401

Balani, Sharda; Malik, Reeni; Malik, Rajesh; Kapoor, Neelkamal

2013-01-01

88

Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%), reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%), suppurative (n=16, 12.4%) lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%), and Hodgkin's lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%). Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of opportunistic infections, neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Comparison of lymph node lesions with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging, haematological alterations and AFB grading reflects immunity, stage of disease and disease activity aiding better treatment. PMID:24718407

Tirumalasetti, Neelima; Prema Latha, P.

2014-01-01

89

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease): A case report and review of 49 cases with fine needle aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD), a rare, benign, self-limiting histiocytic proliferative disorder, can be encountered in both nodal and extranodal locations, and fine needle aspiration (FNA), a simple, accurate and economic tool, has been widely used for the diagnosis of superficial and deep-seated lesions. Familiarity with the cytomorphologic features of RDD is important as prognosis and treatment are quite different from other benign or malignant diseases for which it may clinically masquerade. Although large numbers of RDD cases have been reported, review of the literature has revealed 49 reported cases of RDD diagnosed by FNA. Here, we report a case of RDD with nasal and sinus involvement. The patient was seen at our institution, carrying a diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor rendered by an outside institution, based on material obtained by nasal and sinus surgical biopsies. Cervical lymph node FNA performed at our institution revealed typical features of RDD. The case, as well as a brief review of the literature and 49 RDD cases with FNA cytology, will be discussed. PMID:21383958

Shi, Yuquan; Griffin, Adrienne Carruth; Zhang, Paul JL; Palmer, James N; Gupta, Prabodh

2011-01-01

90

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease): A case report and review of 49 cases with fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), a rare, benign, self-limiting histiocytic proliferative disorder, can be encountered in both nodal and extranodal locations, and fine needle aspiration (FNA), a simple, accurate and economic tool, has been widely used for the diagnosis of superficial and deep-seated lesions. Familiarity with the cytomorphologic features of RDD is important as prognosis and treatment are quite different from other benign or malignant diseases for which it may clinically masquerade. Although large numbers of RDD cases have been reported, review of the literature has revealed 49 reported cases of RDD diagnosed by FNA. Here, we report a case of RDD with nasal and sinus involvement. The patient was seen at our institution, carrying a diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor rendered by an outside institution, based on material obtained by nasal and sinus surgical biopsies. Cervical lymph node FNA performed at our institution revealed typical features of RDD. The case, as well as a brief review of the literature and 49 RDD cases with FNA cytology, will be discussed. PMID:21383958

Shi, Yuquan; Griffin, Adrienne Carruth; Zhang, Paul Jl; Palmer, James N; Gupta, Prabodh

2011-01-01

91

Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Diagnosed as Anaplastic Carcinoma: Failure in Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology?  

PubMed Central

A case of primary squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid which had been initially diagnosed as an anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) is described: female, 73 years old, with a fast-growing cervical nodule on the left side and hoarseness for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed a 4.5?cm solid nodule. FNA was compatible with poorly differentiated carcinoma with immunoreactivity for AE1/AE3, EMA. Thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed a nonencapsulated tumor. Immunohistochemistry disclosed positivity for AE1/AE3, p53,p63, and Ki67. The diagnosis was ATC. A second opinion reported tumor consisting of squamous cells, with intense inflammatory infiltrate both in tumor and in the adjacent thyroid, with final diagnosis of SCC, associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. No other primary focus of SCC was found. Patient has shown a 48-month survival period. Clinically, primary SCCs of the thyroid and ATCs are similar. The distinction is often difficult particularly when based on the cytological analysis of FNA material. PMID:25295208

Domingues, Maria A. C.; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Castilho, Emanuel C.; Carelli, Guareide; Paes, Norberto S.; Mazeto, Glaucia M. F. S.

2014-01-01

92

COX-2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in cytological material obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)  

PubMed Central

Background COX-2 is an enzyme isoform that catalyses the formation of prostanoids from arachidonic acid. An increased COX-2 gene expression is believed to participate in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 up-regulation is associated with the development of numerous neoplasms, including skin, colorectal, breast, lung, stomach, pancreas and liver cancers. COX-2 products stimulate endothelial cell proliferation and their overexpression has been demonstrated to be involved in the mechanism of decreased resistance to apoptosis. Suppressed angiogenesis was found in experimental animal studies as a consequence of null mutation of COX-2 gene in mice. Despite the role of COX-2 expression remains a subject of numerous studies, its participation in carcinogenesis or the thyroid cancer progression remains unclear. Methods Twenty three (23) patients with cytological diagnosis of PTC were evaluated. After FNAB examination, the needle was washed out with a lysis buffer and the obtained material was used for COX-2 expression estimation. Total RNA was isolated (RNeasy Micro Kit), and RT reactions were performed. ?-actin was used as endogenous control. Relative COX-2 expression was assessed in real-time PCR reactions by an ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System, using the ??CT method. Results COX-2 gene expression was higher in patients with PTC, when compared to specimens from patients with non-toxic nodular goitre (NTG). Conclusions The preliminary results may indicate COX-2 role in thyroid cancer pathogenesis, however the observed variability in results among particular subjects requires additional clinical data and tumor progression analysis. PMID:21214962

2011-01-01

93

Accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis of carcinoma in patients with multinodular goiter  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a useful method for evaluating multinodular goiter; however, its role is still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of ultrasound-guided thyroid FNA in detecting malignancy in patients with multinodular goiter in Oman. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study where all patients with multinodular goiter seen at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital endocrinology clinic in Oman in 2005 were evaluated. The thyroid FNA results were grouped into either malignancy (positive result) or others (negative result). They were compared to those of final histopathological examination in order to calculate the value of the test in diagnosing malignancy. Analyses were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 272 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 39?13 years with an age range from 5 to 85 years. The majority of the patients were females (n=236; 87%). The results of thyroid FNA revealed that 6% (n=15) of the patients had malignancies while histopathological results showed that the proportion of subjects with malignancies was 18% (n=49). Out of the 15 cases identified to have malignances by thyroid FNA, only 53% (n=8) of the subjects were confirmed to have malignancy by biopsy. Overall, the results of the tests were poor, revealing a sensitivity of 16%, specificity of 97% and a diagnostic accuracy of 82%, with a positive predictive value of 53% and a negative predictive value of 84%. Conclusion: Thyroid FNA is not a useful test in differentiating multinodular goiter from malignancy, as more than 80% of the malignancies go unnoticed. PMID:21966650

Al-Yaarubi, Saif; Farhan, Hatem; Al-Futaisi, Abdullah; Al-Qassabi, Salim; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Riyami, Shaden; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

2011-01-01

94

The effects of sonographic and demographic features and needle size on obtaining adequate cytological material in sonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the sonographic characteristics of the nodule, demographic features of patient, and nodule size and needle size used for sampling, on obtaining adequate cytological material (CM) in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). We performed 270 FNAB between September 2010 and June 2012. Size, echogenicity, and localization of all nodules were evaluated by ultrasonography (US) before the biopsy. Nodules were grouped as <1, 1-3, and >3 cm according to their size and as hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or heterogeneous according to their US characteristics. 20-, 22-, and 24-G needles were used for the biopsies. Different sonographic characteristics of the nodules did not affect the needle selection. All specimens were classified as adequate or inadequate CM by a cytopathologist. A total of 270 nodules were biopsied, 184 (68.1 %) specimens were considered as adequate CM and 86 (31.9 %) specimens were considered as inadequate CM. Patient age and the presence of heterogeneous echogenicity were found to have prognostic significance in univariate analysis (p < 0.05). In a multivariate logistic regression model with forward stepwise method, advanced age (p = 0.001, OR = 1.042, 95CI 1.018-1.068) and heterogeneous echogenicity (p = 0.017, OR = 1.955, 95CI 1.129-3.385) remained associated with an increased risk of inadequate CM obtainment after adjustment for other potential confounders (nodule size >3 cm and needle size 20-G usage) and variables found to be statistically significant in univariate analysis. Non-diagnostic FNAB remains a significant problem in the evaluation of thyroid nodules and can be as high as 30 %. Inadequate CM rates for elderly patients and heterogeneous nodules were significantly higher than that for other factors. The nodule size and needle size used for sampling did not affect the adequacy of FNAB. PMID:22956413

?nci, Mehmet Fatih; Özkan, Fuat; Yüksel, Mürvet; ?alk, ?smail; ?ahin, Murat

2013-04-01

95

Core-needle biopsy under CT fluoroscopy guidance and fine-needle aspiration cytology: Comparison of diagnostic yield in the diagnosis of lung and mediastinum tumors. Analysis of frequency and types of complications  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Patients with pathological tissue mass in thoracic cage found with imaging require histopathological or cytological confirmation of malignancy before treatment. The tissue material essential for patomorphological evaluation can be acquired with fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) controlled with CT and core-needle biopsy (CNB) under real-time CT fluoroscopy guidance. The purpose of this work is to carry out a retrospective analysis of the two methods with regards to their informativity, frequency and the kind of complications. Material/Methods From January, 2012 to May 2013, 76 core-needle biopsies of lung and mediastinum tumors were conducted and compared with 86 fine-needle aspiration biopsies(FNAB) of lung and mediastinum tumors, including 30 patients who underwent FNAB and were referred to CNB in order to specify the diagnosis. Results Complete histopathological diagnosis was made in 91% with the use of CNB and in 37% when FNAB was the chosen method. Early complications were observed in 32% patients who underwent BG and in group of 11% who underwent FNAB. Late complications, however, appeared in 29% patients after CNB and 13% after FNAB. In 24 cases CNB specified the complete diagnosis. Conclusions Core-needle biopsy in comparison to fine-needle aspiration biopsy has more frequent rate of negligible complications, however, it offers higher diagnostic yield for diagnostic of lung and mediastinum neoplastic disease and allows for more precise diagnosis of focal lesions. PMID:25006355

Szl?zak, Przemys?aw; ?rutek, Ewa; Gorycki, Tomasz; Kowalewski, Janusz; Studniarek, Micha?

2014-01-01

96

Cytological grading of breast cancers and comparative evaluation of two grading systems  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate and compare the cytograding of breast cancers using Robinson’s and Mouriquand’s grading methods. Materials and Methods: A 5-year retrospective (from Oct 2000 to Sept 2005) and 1-year prospective study (from Oct 2005 to Oct 2006). A total of 110 fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) cases of breast cancers were studied. These were graded according to Robinson’s and Mouriquand’s grading methods (grade I–III) followed by comparison of the two methods. Results: Of the 110 cases graded according to Robinson’s method, 28 (25.45%) cases were grade I, 46 (41.81%) grade II, and 36 (32.72%) were grade III, whereas using Mouriquand’s grading methods, 28 (25.45%), 42 (38.18%), and 40 (36.36%) cases were graded as grade I, II, and III, respectively. A high degree of concordance was observed between the two grading methods (90.9%). A highly significant relationship between the scores obtained by two methods was also observed (P=0.004). Conclusions: A comprehensive cytological grading of breast cancers is possible by using two different methods proposed by Robinson and Mouriquand. In spite of a high degree of concordance between the two methods, the Robinson’s grading system has been found to be easier and better because of more objective set of criteria and easy reproducibility. PMID:21157550

Wani, Farooq Ahmed; Bhardwaj, Subhash; Kumar, Dinesh; Katoch, Pervez

2010-01-01

97

Transbronchial needle aspiration in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transbronchial needle aspiration has recently been adapted for use with the flexible bronchoscope. We studied 108 patients, who had a total of 110 aspirations performed, and diagnosed thoracic cancer in 70 cases. Transbronchial needle aspiration revealed malignant disease in 32 (46%) of these 70 patients. In 12 (17%) patients with cancer this technique provided the sole cytological or histological confirmation

E M Harrow; F A Oldenburg; A M Smith

1985-01-01

98

Thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology: Performance data of neoplastic and malignant cases as identified from 1558 responses in the ASCP Non-GYN Assessment program thyroid fine-needle performance data  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid is a common procedure, with an established role in reducing unnecessary thyroid surgery and identifying neoplasms and malignancies. METHODS The study evaluated 1558 responses in the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Non-GYN Assessment program of aspirates of thyroid neoplasms and malignancies and placed them into the following groups: group A (target or correct interpretation), group B (incorrect interpretation as a benign thyroid nodule), group C (incorrect interpretation malignant aspirate as thyroid neoplasm), and group D (malignant diagnosis with incorrect interpretation). In clinical practice, responses in groups A, C, and D would lead to surgical excision, whereas responses in group B would not. RESULTS Of a total of 1558 responses, 78.5% of the responses were in group A, 8.5% in group B, 3.75% in group C, and 9.25% in group D. By individual diagnosis, the group rates were 86.5%, 0%, 11%, and 2.5% for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; 83%, 5.5%, 4.25%, and 7.25% for papillary thyroid carcinoma; 79%, 7%, 6%, and 8% for medullary thyroid carcinoma; 83.5% 6.75%, 0%, and 9.75% for Hürthle cell neoplasm; and 61%, 22%, 0%, and 17% for follicular neoplasm in groups A, B, C, and D respectively. CONCLUSIONS Fine-needle aspiration was effective in diagnosing thyroid neoplasms and malignancies and in separating thyroid nodules into surgical and nonsurgical categories. Data from a large group of cytology professionals showed good performance; however, there is room for improvement, especially in making specific diagnoses. In particular, follicular neoplasm and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma were challenging diagnoses for participants. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2014;122:745–750. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Cytopathology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. Data from 1558 responses in the American Society for Clinical Pathology Non-GYN Assessment program for thyroid fine-needle aspirates from thyroid neoplasms and malignancies were evaluated for the correct diagnostic interpretation as well as classifying the incorrect responses into treatment-based groups (nonsurgical benign thyroid nodule, thyroid neoplasm, or malignancy). Participants generally performed well, except for the entities of follicular neoplasm and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, which were challenging diagnoses to program participants. PMID:24913410

Eilers, Stan G; LaPolice, Paula; Mukunyadzi, Perkins; Kapur, Umesh; Wendel Spiczka, Amy; Shah, Ajay; Saleh, Husain; Adeniran, Adebowale; Nunez, Amberly; Balachandran, Indra; Clark, Jennifer J; Lemon, Larry

2014-01-01

99

Addition of Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration and On-Site Cytology to EUS-Guided Fine Needle Biopsy Increases Procedure Time but Not Diagnostic Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Although the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in pancreas adenocarcinoma is high, endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) is often required in other lesions; in these cases, it may be possible to forgo initial EUS-FNA and rapid on-site cytology evaluation (ROSE). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB alone (EUS-FNB group) with a conventional sampling algorithm of EUS-FNA with ROSE followed by EUS-FNB (EUS-FNA/B group) in nonpancreas adenocarcinoma lesions. Methods Retrospective cohort study of subjects who underwent EUS sampling of nonpancreatic adenocarcinoma lesions between February 2011 and May 2013. Results Over the study period, there were 43 lesions biopsied in 41 unique patients in the EUS-FNB group and 53 patients in the EUS-FNA/B group. Overall diagnostic accuracy was similar between the EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA/B groups (83.7% vs. 84.9%; p=1.0). In the subgroup of subepithelial mass lesions, diagnostic accuracy remained similar in the EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA/B groups (81.0% and 70.6%; p=0.7). EUS-FNB procedures were significantly shorter than those in the EUS-FNA/B group (58.4 minutes vs. 73.5 minutes; p<0.0001). Conclusions EUS-FNB without on-site cytology provides a high diagnostic accuracy in nonpancreas adenocarcinoma lesions. There appears to be no additive benefit with initial EUS-FNA but this requires further study in a prospective study. PMID:24944988

Krishnan, Kumar; Wani, Sachin; Keefer, Laurie; Komanduri, Srinadh

2014-01-01

100

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed to remove materials from the endometrium (the mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology...

2012-04-01

101

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed to remove materials from the endometrium (the mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology...

2011-04-01

102

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed to remove materials from the endometrium (the mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology...

2014-04-01

103

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed to remove materials from the endometrium (the mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology...

2013-04-01

104

Nontyrosine crystalloids in salivary gland lesions: report of seven cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology and follow-up surgical pathology.  

PubMed

We report a series of seven patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for clinically apparent parotid gland lesions. In all seven cases, numerous to abundant polyhedral, multifaceted (nontyrosine) crystalloids were noted in the background of scanty cellular specimens composed predominantly of oncocytic cells. Subsequent surgical excision showed that three of the seven glands revealed sialolithiasis and sialadenitis without evidence of neoplasia. The histology of the remaining four cases consisted of two Warthin's tumor, one oncocytic papillary cystadenoma, and one cellular benign mixed tumor. In all seven cases the nontyrosine crystalloids were found in highest concentrations in cystic spaces lined with oncocytic metaplastic cells. We conclude that nontyrosine cystalloids can be associated with both neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disease, and they may be a product of oncocytic cell secretion. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2000;22:167-171. PMID:10679997

Nasuti, J F; Gupta, P K; Fleisher, S R; LiVolsi, V A

2000-03-01

105

Overview and evaluation of the value of fine needle aspiration cytology in determining the histogenesis of liver nodules: 14 years of experience at Hannover Medical School.  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a sensitive and specific method (95%), often helpful in characterizing suspected liver lesions. It is appropriate to distinguish between primary and secondary liver neoplasia. Moreover, in most cases, the use of cell block preparations of small specimens allows immunocytochemical evaluation to determine the nature of the primary tumour. In a retrospective study at Hannover Medical School (MHH) from 1998 to 2012 (14 years), 4,136 sonographically guided FNAs were performed. The patients provided consent and the study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. There were 39.6% malignant and 57.5% benign lesions in the liver, while 2.8% of the cases were undetermined. FNA was non-representative in 1.1% of the cases. The diagnostic utility of highly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; G1) remains difficult; cell bridges with cell atypia are pathognomonic for diagnosis. Ancillary techniques and immunocytochemical investigations will increase the sensitivity and specificity, particularly by using the cell block technique. PMID:25333302

Soudah, B; Schirakowski, A; Gebel, M; Potthoff, A; Braubach, P; Schlue, J; Krech, T; Dämmrich, M E; Kreipe, H H; Abbas, M

2015-01-01

106

Efficiency of a Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound and Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology to Detect Patients with Extensive Axillary Lymph Node Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have demonstrated that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) does not affect patient survival, even in those with one or two positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). On the other hand, patients with 3 or more metastatic lymph nodes are eligible for chemotherapy. Therefore, it is crucial to identify a priori patients at risk of having a high number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes for their surgical and/or clinical management. Ultrasound (US) guided Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) has been proven to be a useful and highly specific method for detecting metastatic axillary lymph nodes. However, only one recent study has evaluated the efficiency of this method in identifying patients with high metastatic nodal involvement. Our aim was to validate US-guided FNA as a reliable method to discriminate a priori patients with >3 metastatic lymph nodes. Methods A retrospective series of 1287 breast cancer patients who underwent a simultaneous preoperative breast and axillary US to stage their axilla was collected. A total of 365 patients, with either positive SLNs (278) or positive axillary lymph nodes detected via US-guided FNA (87), underwent ALND. In these two subgroups, we compared the number of metastatic lymph nodes in the axilla. Results The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes in patients who underwent US-guided FNA was significantly higher (63% had >3 metastatic lymph nodes) than that in patients with SLNs positive for micro- or macrometastases (3% and 27%, respectively) (P<0.001, ?2?=?117.897). Conclusions Preoperative axillary US-guided FNA could act as a reliable tool in identifying breast cancer patients with extensive nodal involvement. PMID:25207643

Castellano, Isabella; Deambrogio, Cristina; Muscarà, Francesca; Chiusa, Luigi; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Bussone, Riccardo; Gazzetta, Guglielmo; Macrì, Luigia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

2014-01-01

107

Aspiration pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

108

Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis diagnosed by conventional cytology and liquid based cytology  

PubMed Central

Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL; Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) is a rare benign disorder. The diagnosis of HNL is established on recognizing the characteristic histologic findings from biopsy of the enlarged lymph nodes. Though diagnosis of HNL by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was reported, the characteristic fine-needle aspiration cytologic features with conventional cytology and a liquid based cytology test (LCT) have not been well documented. In this study, 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes were subjected to cytology and biopsy diagnosis. The lymph nodes were aspirated using a 10 mL disposable syringe with the percutaneous ultrasound guided. Samples were used for conventional cytology and LCT. Among 42 cases of suspicious necrotic lymph nodes, 37 of cases were histologically confirmed as HNL; 3 of cases were hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue; 1 case was tuberculosis of lymph node, and 1 case was classical Hodgkin lymphoma (nodular sclerosis type). 31 out of 37 (83.8%) cases of HNL were diagnosed by conventional cytology, 33 out of 37 (89.2%) were diagnosed by LCT. Our results indicate that no significant difference on accuracy rate between conventional cytology and LCT, but LCT has its advantages in the diagnosis of HNL. PMID:25337268

Hong, Lianqing; Wang, Xinfang; Huang, Zihui; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Jiandong

2014-01-01

109

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the islet cell tumor of pancreas: A comparison between computerized axial tomography and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to compare the cytologic features of islet cell tumor (ICT) of pancreas obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and computed tomography guided FNA (CT-FNA). We also describe the cytologic features associated with malignant ICT. Eleven cytology samples from 121 CT- FNA and 30 EUS- FNA of the pancreas were obtained

Darshana Jhala; Mohammad Eloubeidi; David C. Chhieng; Andra Frost; Isam A. Eltoum; Janie Roberson; Nirag Jhala

2002-01-01

110

Multicentric Aggressive Mammary Fibromatosis with Cytological Features and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Fibromatosis is a fibroblastic lesion composed of uniform fibroblasts and collagen with an infiltrative growth pattern but lacking malignant cytological features. It is a rare entity and is even more unusual when found in the breast. Multicentricity in fibromatosis has been reported in 10% cases. Multicentricity in breast cancer has been defined as the presence of two or more tumor foci within different quadrants of the same breast. Considering this definition of multicentricity for fibromatosis, we herein report a case of recurrent multicentric aggressive mammary fibromatosis and its cytological features with review of literature because of limited literature of (FNAC) in mammary fibromatosis. PMID:24995189

Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Gupta, Nilakshi; Pant, Prabhat; Thapliyal, Naveen Chandra

2014-01-01

111

A Cytological Study of Palpable Superficial Nodules of Parasitic Origin: A Study of 41 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background. Few parasitic infestations present as only superficial palpable subcutaneous or intramuscular nodule. The current study highlights the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of superficial palpable parasitic lesions. Methods. This was a retrospective study in which we reviewed the FNAC record of all patients over a period of two years from September 2011 to August 2013. During this period, FNA was performed on 5954 cases which presented as superficial palpable lump at various sites of body. There were 41 cases diagnosed as parasitic lesion or suspicious of parasitic lesion on cytology which were included in the study. Results. In the present study, most of the patients were children and young adults. The lesions were located over trunk in 18 (43.9%) cases, extremities in 12 (29.3%) cases, and head and neck region in 11 (26.8%) cases. Out of 41 cases, 27 (65.8%) cases were confirmed on cytology and/or histopathology as parasitic lesions, including 21 (51.2%) cases of cysticercosis, 5 (12.2%) cases of filariasis, and one (2.4%) case of hydatid cyst. Cytological findings of remaining cases were suggestive of parasitic lesion. Conclusion. Careful assessment of cytological material is helpful to detect parasite or inflammatory response to parasite even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:24757574

Goyal, Prashant; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Mittal, Deepti; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-01-01

112

[Cytological monitoring of the therapy of conservatively treated prostate cancer. Classification and clinical significance].  

PubMed

600 aspiration biopsies were performed under 6 different therapeutic conditions (estrogens, antiandrogen, Estracyt, irradiation, irradiation and estrogens, cytostatics) in patients mostly in stage T3 Nx Mo. The most important signs of regression were found in the nucleus. Compared to 102 simultaneous transrectal punch biopsies we found a diagnostic reliability for cytology of 97%. A detailed classification of the cytological signs of regression permitted a cytological grading of regression into 6 different regression grades. A surprisingly good correlation was found between grading of regression and clinical response or progression. Cytology was superior to rectal examination as a method of evaluating the effectiveness of therapies. The incidence of complications of aspiration biopsy was 1.6% and the incidence of insufficient cell material was 5.2%. PMID:6683897

Leistenschneider, W; Nagel, R

1983-05-01

113

Neutrophil phagocytosis by tumor cells--a cytological study.  

PubMed

Cell cannibalism is defined as the ability of a cell to phagocytose another cell. Malignant tumor cells may develop phagocytic property and demonstrate phagocytosis of own cells or cells of other series like neutrophils and lymphocytes. We report 11 cases in which the tumor cells showed evidence of neutrophil phagocytosis/emperipolesis on FNAC smears. Cases of malignancies diagnosed on FNA over a period of 1 year were retrieved, and smears were examined for neutrophil phagocytosis by tumor cells. These cases were classified according to type and differentiation of malignancy. The cytomorphological features and background inflammation were also studied at both primary and metastatic site. Of 362 malignant cases diagnosed on FNA smears, in 11 cases (3.09%), tumor cells showed neutrophil phagocytosis. The background showed increase in polymorphs in all cases. All the cases were associated with metastasis at presentation and were high-grade tumors cytologically. There were three cases of anaplastic carcinoma, two cases of adenocarcinoma, two cases of carcinoma breast, two cases of anaplastic non-Hodgkins lymphoma, one case each of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma from larynx and lung, respectively. Phagocytic activity by tumor cells is uncommon and usually seen in high-grade/poorly differentiated malignancies. It is frequently associated with metastatic disease. On cytology smears, true phagocytosis of neutrophils by tumor cells has to be distinguished from superimposed inflammatory cells from the background. The tumor cells also need to be distinguished from histiocytes displaying phagocytosis. PMID:20949458

Singhal, Niti; Handa, Uma; Bansal, Cherry; Mohan, Harsh

2011-08-01

114

Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions.  

PubMed

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:24554498

Brugge, William; Dewitt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

2014-04-01

115

Cytologic features of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.  

PubMed

To determine cytologic features of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) that would enable accurate diagnosis, we evaluated fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) smears from 11 histologically confirmed EHEs. The variably cellular smears comprised dispersed single cells and occasional cell aggregates. Dense stromal fragments were present in association with some tissue fragments. The cells were epithelioid, containing moderate or large amounts of dense cytoplasm. Nuclei exhibited mild pleomorphism, and nuclear grooves were identified in all cases. At least occasional intranuclear pseudoinclusions (INPIs) and intracytoplasmic lumina (ICLs) were present in all cases and in 9 cases (82%), respectively, and rare erythrocytes were seen within ICLs in 5 cases (45%). Mitotic figures were identified in 4 cases (36%). The background was bloody in 6 cases (55%) and contained hemosiderin and/or hemosiderin-laden macrophages in 5 cases (45%). The combination of the following features in FNAB samples should raise strong suspicion for EHE: predominantly dispersed single cells with occasional cohesive cell clusters; epithelioid cytomorphology; dense cytoplasm with well-defined cytoplasmic borders; ICLs (with or without erythrocytes), INPIs, and nuclear grooves. The presence of these features should prompt correlation with clinical, radiologic, and histologic features and immunohistochemical evaluation using vascular markers. PMID:22031312

Murali, Rajmohan; Zarka, Matthew A; Ocal, Idris T; Tazelaar, Henry D

2011-11-01

116

Telecytology for rapid assessment of cytological specimens.  

PubMed

We investigated the feasibility of telecytology for rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of cytological specimens. During a six-month study, 385 consecutive adult patients underwent image-guided fine needle aspiration biopsies of the lung or transbronchial needle aspirations of mediastinal lymph nodes. Direct smears were immediately wet-fixed and a cytopathologist or a trained cytotechnologist evaluated specimen adequacy using a telecytology system. Specimens were reported as adequate or inadequate. A total of 238 specimens (62%) were diagnosed without rapid assessment. The percentage of non-representative samples in the group without rapid evaluation was 42%. In the group of 147 specimens (38%) which underwent rapid evaluation, 48 (33%) were reported as inadequate and 99 (67%) as adequate. Only 22% of final diagnoses were non-representative, including samples which were assessed as inadequate by rapid evaluation. In three patients of 32, where the obtained material was recognized as adequate, final diagnoses were non-representative. Rapid evaluation with the use of telecytology improves the diagnostic yield of guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies by decreasing the percentage of non-representative specimens. PMID:22186066

Kern, Izidor; Gabric, Simona; Triller, Nadja; Pozek, Igor

2012-03-01

117

Hashimoto's thyroiditis: fine-needle aspirations of 50 asymptomatic cases.  

PubMed

The cytologic findings from 50 cases of asymptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration are reviewed. All patients were referred for fine-needle aspiration by the same physician: 48 because of thyroid enlargement and the clinical suspicion of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, two because of a small thyroid nodule. Positive antimicrosomal (antithyroid peroxidase) and/or antithyroglobulin antibody titers (performed by the same laboratory using the same technique) were present in only 25 of 48 patients evaluated. Cytologic findings included a predominantly lymphocytic process in 92% of the cases and a predominantly oxyphilic (Askanazy/Hürthle) cell process in 8% of the cases. It is likely that all patients were in an early stage of the autoimmune process. Our data indicate that the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is considerably higher than when recognized only by serologic tests for antibodies. PMID:7813361

Poropatich, C; Marcus, D; Oertel, Y C

1994-01-01

118

Cytology of Fungal Infection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a laboratory exercise in plant patholgy. Students become familiar with the cytological events involved in the establishment of infection by a fungal pathogen. Upon completion of this laboratory students should understand the effect of various management practices on particular infection events, and the significance of this to disease management.Instructors and students notes are included, as well as data record sheets and discussion questions.

Paul Vincelli. (University of Kentucky; )

2001-06-18

119

Aspiration-related lung diseases.  

PubMed

Aspiration is a common but underrecognized clinicopathologic entity, with varied radiographic manifestations. Aspiration represents a spectrum of diseases, including diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonitis, airway obstruction by foreign body, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, and aspiration pneumonia with or without lung abscess formation. Many patients who aspirate do not present with disease, suggesting that pathophysiology is related to a variety of factors, including decreased levels of consciousness, dysphagia, impaired mucociliary clearance, composition of aspirate, and impaired host defenses. In this pictorial essay, we will review the different types of aspiration lung diseases, focusing on their imaging features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24911122

Prather, Andrew D; Smith, Tristan R; Poletto, Dana M; Tavora, Fabio; Chung, Jonathan H; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

2014-09-01

120

42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221...Testing § 493.1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the laboratory must meet the...

2010-10-01

121

Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)  

MedlinePLUS

... JIA, formerly called rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is ... Lyme Disease Risk Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Living With Lupus Bones, Muscles, and Joints Lyme Disease Arthritis Word! ...

122

Towards laparoscopic tissue aspiration.  

PubMed

The soft tissue aspiration experiment has been further developed for application during laparoscopic surgery. The new setup has been tested and validated under lab-conditions and came then to in vivo operation. It is to our knowledge the first time ever a mechanical experiment has been performed under laparoscopic conditions on the human, which enables determining corresponding constitutive model equations. As most important results, the feasibility of laparoscopic tissue aspiration has been demonstrated and, based on an ad hoc parameter for the tissue stiffness, the liver and the stomach gave significantly different responses. Furthermore, the determined constitutive behavior for one healthy human liver was in line with results obtained from tissue aspiration during open surgery. Eventually, laparoscopic tissue aspiration might qualify as minimally invasive testing method for tactile feedback systems. The presented results are preliminary and more research is required. PMID:23876854

Hollenstein, Marc; Bugnard, Guillaume; Joos, Renzo; Kropf, Saskia; Villiger, Peter; Mazza, Edoardo

2013-12-01

123

Pleomorphic liposarcoma: A cytologic study of five cases.  

PubMed

Pleomorphic liposarcoma represents one of the rarest variants of liposarcoma. It has a poor prognosis and unlike other variants of liposarcoma, lacks a molecular or genetic signature. Histologic studies of pleomorphic liposarcoma have defined this lesion as a high grade sarcoma, which contains a variable number of lipoblasts. We describe the cytologic features of five cases of pleomorphic liposarcoma, all of which had histologic confirmation. We consistently identified numerous lipoblasts as well as micro and macrovesicular fat vacuoles in the background of cellular, pleomorphic sarcomatoid neoplasms. The appearance of the aspirates differs substantially form other variants of liposarcoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:138-143. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24652822

Dodd, Leslie G; Sara Jiang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Kathleen; Bui, Marilyn M

2015-02-01

124

HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY Biology 215  

E-print Network

1 HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY Biology 215 Mark Nowel, O.P., Ph.D. Lectures: MWF 11:30 Office: Harkins goal in this course is to help you to understand the basics of histology and cell structure about cytological and histological features. This is much better than simple memorization of facts

Arévalo, Elisabeth

125

[Clinical cytology: why and how?].  

PubMed

Clinical cytology is a morphological diagnostic profession, which has not been properly utilized in current medicine, primarily due to inadequate awareness among physicians of its diagnostic possibilities and advantages. The purpose of this historical review of clinical cytology and its diagnostic role is to contribute to higher awareness of the current possibilities offered by cytologic diagnosis and its future development in the era of technological progress and medical striking into profitability, with its negative connotations. The main features of cytologic diagnosis, i.e. non-aggressiveness, simplicity, promptness and accuracy, should be maintained while following new technological possibilities. Standard cytomorphology provides a basis for deciding on using additional technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular analysis and cytogenetics) after thorough microscopic analysis, on cytologic samples or/and cytologic smears. The conditio sine qua non for that purpose is appropriate education of cytologists and cytotechnologists as well as appropriate organization of cytology in the healthcare system. As in the historical development of clinical cytology, enthusiasts are necessary to maintain and even improve all its possibilities to the benefit of our patients. PMID:24979879

Znidarci?, Zeljka

2013-12-01

126

Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Fine-Needle Aspiration and/or Core Needle Biopsy for Subclassifying Lymphoma.  

PubMed

Context .- The World Health Organization system for lymphoma classification relies on histologic findings from excisional biopsies. In contradistinction to expert guidelines, practitioners increasingly rely on fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsies rather than excisional biopsies to diagnose lymphomas. Objective .- To determine a rate at which fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsies, combined with flow cytometry and/or genetic techniques, can provide a diagnosis sufficient for optimal medical management of lymphoma. Data Sources .- The English-language literature on fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsies for lymphoma was reviewed to identify studies that provided interpretations of all specimens regardless of whether these were deemed diagnostic. Conclusions .- Forty-two studies (1989-2012) specified the lymphoma subtypes for each diagnosis or indicated a rate at which the methods failed to provide a diagnosis. The median rate at which fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsies yielded a subtype-specific diagnosis of lymphoma was 74%. Strictly adhering to expert guidelines, which state that follicular lymphoma cannot be graded by these techniques, decreased the diagnostic yield further to 66%. Thus, 25% to 35% of fine-needle aspirates and/or core biopsies of nodes must be followed by an excisional lymph node biopsy to fully classify lymphoma. PMID:25611108

Frederiksen, John K; Sharma, Meenal; Casulo, Carla; Burack, W Richard

2015-02-01

127

Squamoid cyst of pancreatic ducts: a case series describing novel immunohistochemistry, cytology, and quantitative cyst fluid chemistry.  

PubMed

Squamoid cyst of pancreatic ducts (SCPD) is a benign pancreatic cyst often misdiagnosed preoperatively as a mucinous cyst. The histopathologic features are well described but the cytology and quantitative fluid chemistry profiles from fine-needle aspiration have not been reported. This case series discusses the cytology and cyst fluid chemistry profiles in 2 SCPDs and describes morphologic and immunohistochemical features that have not been previously reported. Fine-needle aspiration of 2 SCPDs yielded acellular debris lacking mucin or exfoliated squamous cells. Two cysts had elevated fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and amylase levels. Positive immunohistochemical staining included cytokeratin 5/6, pCEA, synaptophysin, and chromogranin (both focal). MUC2 and MUC5AC showed negativity in all cases, while PAX8 showed negative nuclear staining. An accurate preoperative diagnosis of SCPD is potentially difficult in the setting of elevated fluid CEA levels, and acellular cytology as a mucinous cyst cannot be confidently excluded. PMID:24476523

Hanson, Joshua Anspach; Salem, Ronald R; Mitchell, Kisha Anne

2014-02-01

128

Phialophora verrucosa-induced subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. Fine needle aspiration findings.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old woman on immunosuppressive therapy presented with a subcutaneous, cystic lesion on the dorsum of the right foot. Cytologic examination of material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) revealed a mixture of acute and granulomatous inflammation as well as brown-pigmented fungi in the form of budding yeast, pseudohyphae and septate hyphae. The findings suggested subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (phaeomycotic cyst). Culture grew Phialophora verrucosa. The cytologic, histologic and cultural findings are given. This case demonstrates that phaeohyphomycosis can be diagnosed by FNA but that fungal culture is necessary to establish the identity of the etiologic agent. This appears to be the first case of P. verrucosa-induced subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis reported in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:3461651

Schnadig, V J; Long, E G; Washington, J M; McNeely, M C; Troum, B A

1986-01-01

129

Significance of incidental detection of filariasis on aspiration smears: a case series.  

PubMed

Filariasis is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries including India. Although there are reports of incidentally diagnosed cases of lymphatic filariasis in the existing literature, the significance of this finding needs to be summarised in one place. The association of filariasis with neoplasms is still debatable. For this series, cases diagnosed as filariasis on aspiration cytology (with or without coexistent pathology) over a period of 1 year were retrieved. The cases with a clinical suspicion of filariasis were excluded. Hence, five cases with incidental diagnosis of filariasis on aspiration cytology were included. The site of aspiration included one case each of thyroid, breast, bone marrow, cervical lymph node, and subcutaneous nodule. Of these, three cases showed microfilariae, one showed only adult female worm while one showed both microfilariae and adult worm. Two cases did not show any inflammatory response while three cases showed a variable inflammatory reaction. Only one case (thyroid aspirate) had a coexistent pathology (colloid goitre). Filariasis may be detected in a clinically unsuspected case, especially in an endemic zone. The spectrum of host response may vary from no reaction to a marked inflammatory response. The entire spectrum of changes should be kept in mind while practicing cytopathology in an endemic area. In such situations, a high index of suspicion and careful screening of cytology smears are keys to a correct diagnosis. At the same time, keen search for a coexisting pathology, benign or malignant, is also mandatory. PMID:19941370

Gupta, Sampada; Gupta, Ruchika; Bansal, Bhawna; Singh, Sompal; Gupta, Kusum; Kudesia, Madhur

2010-07-01

130

Silicone lymphadenopathy: Presentation of a further case containing asteroid bodies on fine-needle cytology sample.  

PubMed

Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:57-59. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24995825

Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

2015-01-01

131

Clear Cell Hidradenoma of Breast Mimicking Atypical Breast Lesion: A Diagnostic Pitfall in Breast Cytology  

PubMed Central

Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon skin adnexal tumor arising from eccrine glands. Although several kind of skin adnexal tumors arise in the breast tissue, CCH of the breast is an extremely rare entity. Failure to identify its cytomorphologic features and rarity of this tumor may lead to misdiagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology. Hereby we report a case of 30-year-old female who presented with painless lump in left breast since 10 months. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lump yielded fluid material. On May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained smears, a possibility of atypical breast lesion was considered and patient was advised a biopsy examination. Final diagnosis of CCH was made on histopathologic examination. Awareness of cytomorphologic features of breast CCH will prevent misdiagnosis as malignant or atypical breast lesions and will allow for correct management of the patients. PMID:25002948

Sehgal, Shelly; Goyal, Prashant; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Mittal, Deepti; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-01-01

132

Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology, including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of sampling techniques in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:25191516

Brugge, William R.; De Witt, John; Klapman, Jason B.; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

2014-01-01

133

Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.  

PubMed

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology, including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of sampling techniques in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:25191516

Brugge, William R; De Witt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

2014-01-01

134

A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413

Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

2013-06-01

135

Asteroid bodies in lymph node cytology: infrequently seen and still mysterious.  

PubMed

Granulomatous inflammation is a relatively common finding in routine aspiration cytology of lymph nodes. However, asteroid bodies are very rarely encountered in cytologic preparations, and most morphologic descriptions result from observations made in histologic tissue sections. This brief report describes the cytologic findings in paratracheal aspirate smears from a 74-year-old Caucasian woman with the history of squamous-cell carcinoma of the right ankle metastatic to a right groin lymph node. At the time of removal of the metastatic tumor, the patient was noted to have multiple small, mildly FDG-avid lymph nodes in the supraclavicular, paratracheal, precarinal, pulmonic hilar, and axillary regions. A transbronchial fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of a paratracheal lymph node showed granulomatous inflammation and numerous multinucleated giant cells containing asteroid bodies. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears. Additional patient history elicited at the time of FNAB revealed a diagnosis 6 years previously of disseminated histoplasmosis infection. A concomitant workup for sarcoidosis was negative. PMID:20049975

Jorns, Julie M; Knoepp, Stewart M

2011-01-01

136

[The role of cells originating from seminal vesicles in aspiration biopsy smears of the prostate (author's transl)].  

PubMed

328 (30.7%) of 1068 prostatic aspirates obtained from 874 patients contained cells of seminal vesicle origin. Cells originating from the seminal vesicles were recognized in aspirates obtained from 27.6% of the untreated patients and in aspirates from 60.4% of the treated patients. Patients of the latter group had received hormonal treatment or radation therapy, or both, or had been surgically treated by prostatectomy. The occurrence of cells derived from seminal vesicles was due to the site of the needled prostatic lesion in 21% of the aspirates obtained, to treatment in 21% and to incorrect biopsy technique in the remaining 58%. A false cytologic report was made in the case of 6 aspirates (1.6%). PMID:1258228

Droese, M; Voeth, C; Konetzke, C

1976-01-01

137

Primary/local hepatic tuberculosis without dissemination.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of primary hepatic tuberculosis in a 50-year-old man who presented with pain at the right hypochondrium. The diagnosis was established by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the primary hepatic lesions in both lobes of the liver, which was further supported by histopathological examination and tissue PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the FNAC specimens. PMID:25628318

Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Meena, Lalit Prashant; Samaria, Jai Kumar

2015-01-01

138

Tuberculosis of the triceps muscle.  

PubMed

A tubercular swelling of the triceps muscle in a 25-year-old immunocompetent man is described in this report. He presented with hard, fixed swelling at the lower end of the triceps muscle. Confirmatory diagnosis was established by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the swelling with subsequent PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the FNAC specimen. The patient was completely cured with antitubercular therapy. PMID:25564636

Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Vijayakandeepan Kumaresan, Sabarigirivasan Harish

2015-01-01

139

Correlation between cytological and histopathological examination of the endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common problem for which women seek gynecological consultation. Endometrial aspiration cytology (EAC) is an acceptable and valuable diagnostic procedure for screening the endometrial status. Materials and Methods: Endometrial aspiration using a menstrual regulation (MR) syringe and a 4 mm Karman's cannula was performed just prior to D and C in 100 women presenting with AUB. Smears were reviewed for cytomorphological findings and were correlated with the histopathological findings. These findings were categorized as benign endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, malignancy and inadequate smears. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 19 to 70 years. In our study, the accuracy in diagnosing benign conditions of endometrium, hyperplasia, and malignancy on aspiration cytology were 93.88%, 96.94% and 96.84%, respectively. Conclusions: Endometrial aspiration is an effective, useful and a minimally invasive procedure. With an experienced cytologist, it can be used routinely for the primary investigation of women with AUB, provided all the points of discrepancies are taken care of.

Kaur, Navjot; Chahal, Jagjit S; Bandlish, Usha; Kaul, Rashmi; Mardi, Kavita; Kaur, Harjit

2014-01-01

140

Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Waiting ... topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer diagnosed? Overview ...

141

Endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Diagnostic accuracy and complication assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) permits cytological confirmation of EUS findings. A multicenter prospective evaluation of EUS-FNA for primary diagnosis, staging, and\\/or follow-up purposes was undertaken. METHODS: EUS-FNA was performed in 457 patients with 554 lesions. Clinical (n = 218) or histopathologic (n = 256) confirmation was available in 192 lymph nodes, 145 extraluminal masses, 115 gastrointestinal

MJ Wiersema; P Vilmann; M Giovannini; KJ Chang; LM Wiersema

1997-01-01

142

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary duct carcinoma: report of five cases.  

PubMed

Salivary duct carcinoma is a high grade malignancy which histologically strongly resembles ductal carcinoma of the breast. The findings from five cases of histologically proven salivary duct carcinoma sampled by preoperative fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology are presented. Characteristic cytomorphologic features include cohesive clusters and flat sheets of epithelial cells which display a cribriform pattern with eccentrically located, hyperchromatic nuclei, abundant finely granular cytoplasm, and necrosis in the smear background. PMID:9181320

Fýrat, P; Cramer, H; Feczko, J D; Kratzer, S; Layfield, L J; Eisenhut, C C; Glant, M D

1997-06-01

143

Rapid on-site cytologic examination of 1500 breast lesions using the modified Shorr's stain.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) cytology enables sample quality assessment in the procedure room and facilitates the process of examination. While its use for mammary lesions in one-stop breast clinics has been reported, its usefulness as a cytologic diagnostic tool has not been fully explored. METHODS: A total of 1500 examinations of core-needle biopsy imprint/fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed for outpatients with breast lesions. The slides were immediately processed with modified Shorr's stain, which can be completed within a few minutes yet produces specimens of similar staining quality as the Papanicolaou (Pap) stain. The adequacy of sampling was evaluated on site, and a cytologic diagnosis was also made. ROSE cytologic findings were classified into five grades: class 1, inadequate; class 2, benign; class 3, indeterminate; class 4, suspicious for malignancy; class 5, malignant. If enough epithelial cells could not be obtained despite repeated examinations, the sample was scored as ineligible. These scores were utilized for patient management. Final cytologic diagnoses were made with conventional Pap stains. RESULTS: Reproducibility of scores between both staining methods was excellent (weighted ? statistic = 0.985). When compared class by class, concordance of cytologic diagnoses was particularly high in class 2 and 5 Shorr scores, in which the agreement with Pap diagnoses was 92.8 and 93.6 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our modified Shorr's staining protocol was useful to reduce the time for the diagnosis and treatment planning of breast lesions suspected of being breast cancer. It is beneficial for both the patients and clinicians. PMID:23733595

Sakuma, Takahiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Morishima, Hirotaka; Matsunami, Nobuki

2013-06-01

144

Transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) was performed as a diagnostic procedure in 91 consecutive patients ultimately proven to have bronchogenic carcinoma. Results of TBNA were compared, in the same patients, to the diagnostic yield of cytologic examination of sputum, endobronchial brushings and washings, and endobronchial/transbronchial biopsy. The diagnostic yield for sputum was 13 percent (10 of 75); brushings, 40 percent (34 of 84); washings, 29 percent (26 of 89); biopsy, 56 percent (42 of 75); and TBNA, 45 percent (41 of 91). Aspirates were positive in 35 percent of patients with adenocarcinoma, 41 percent with squamous cell carcinoma, 52 percent with large cell undifferentiated carcinoma, and 55 percent of patients with small cell carcinoma. Carinal aspirates were positive in 54 percent (6 of 11); paratracheal aspirates, 57 percent (13 of 23); parabronchial aspirates, 39 percent (11 of 28); endobronchial, 78 percent (7 of 9), and peripheral mass or solitary pulmonary nodule, 40 percent (17 of 42). The overall diagnostic yield for brushings, washings, and biopsy was 64 percent. The addition of TBNA increased the yield to 71 percent. Bronchogenic carcinoma was diagnosed solely by TBNA in six patients, all with extrabronchial or extratracheal lesions. We conclude that TBNA increases the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy, particularly in patients with extratracheal and extrabronchial lesions. An equally important observation is that TBNA fails to contribute significantly to the diagnosis of cancer in patients with lesions readily accessible by conventional bronchoscopic techniques. Exceptions to this observation include occasional patients with necrotic endobronchial tumors, submucosal lesions, and rarely patients with peripheral lung nodules or masses. PMID:3036428

Schenk, D A; Bryan, C L; Bower, J H; Myers, D L

1987-07-01

145

Cytomorphologic spectrum in aspirates of extra-adrenal paraganglioma  

PubMed Central

Background: Paraganglioma is a rare tumor arising from clusters of neuroendocrine cells in association with sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. It poses a diagnostic challenge because of its widespread anatomic distribution, subtle clinical manifestations, and a variety of morphologic patterns. Aim: The aim of this study is to have an insight into the diverse morphologic spectrum of extra-adrenal paraganglioma (EAP). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of seven cytologically diagnosed cases of EAP over a period of 10 years was performed. There were five superficial swellings and two deep seated retroperitoneal masses. The superficial swellings were aspirated directly, and the retroperitoneal masses were aspirated under ultrasound guidance using 22-gauge lumbar puncture needle fitted to a 10 mL syringe. Smears were reviewed for cellularity, pattern, cell shape, cytoplasm, nuclear features, and background. Results: The age of patients ranged from 25 to 75 years; four patients were males and three were females. Sites involved were carotid body region (four cases), para-pharyngeal space (one case) and para-aortic region (two cases). All the cases yielded hemorrhagic material on fine-needle aspiration. Smears showed scattered and clusters of cells and loosely cohesive acini of tumor cells. Cells were round to polygonal with pleomorphic nuclei, granular chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and moderate to abundant cytoplasm containing fine pink granules and vacuolations. The cases were confirmed on radiology and histopathology. Conclusion: The cytologic features in EAP along with pertinent clinicoradiologic findings help in making an accurate preoperative diagnosis of an otherwise rare tumor. PMID:25210234

Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Mohan, Harsh

2014-01-01

146

Proliferative epithelial disease identified in nipple aspirate fluid and risk of developing breast cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Guideline panels recognize the need to increase the accuracy of identifying women at high risk of developing breast cancer who would benefit from prevention strategies. The characterization of proliferative epithelial disease found in nipple aspirate fluid (PED-NAF) may be a relevant risk factor. Objective: To comprehensively review the published literature to characterize and summarize abnormal cytology detected by NAF and the association of PED-NAF with subsequent risk of developing breast cancer. Research design and methods: Literature identified by systematic searches in MEDLINE PubMed and the Cochrane Library was screened for articles containing primary data on NAF cytology based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Main outcome measures: Study characteristics, cytological group distribution, and incidence of breast cancer. Results: Thirty articles were included after full-text review, of which 16 were analyzed, containing data on 20,808 unique aspirations from over 17,378 subjects. Seven (44%) of the studies used the King cytological classification system. Among aspirations from women free of breast cancer, 51.5% contained fluid, in which over 27.7% had PED on cytology. In the two prospective studies of 7850 cancer-free women, abnormal cytology by NAF carried a 2.1-fold higher risk (95% CI, 1.6-2.6; p?

Hornberger, John; Chen, Shu-Chih; Li, Qianyi; Kakad, Priyanka; Quay, Steven C

2014-12-01

147

Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.  

PubMed

On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

2013-08-01

148

Clinical, radiological and cytological diagnosis of breast cancer in young women.  

PubMed

In women over the age of 35 years, an accurate diagnosis of breast cancer can be made in over 95 per cent of patients using a 'triple assessment' system collating information from clinical examination, mammography, sonomammography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology. These methods have not been specifically evaluated in women aged 35 years or less, hence a study was undertaken on 30 such patients. Clinical examination was unreliable in predicting malignancy with a sensitivity of only 37 per cent. Thirty per cent of patients presented with a lump which had the clinical features of a fibroadenoma. Radiological methods were less sensitive in detecting malignancy in this age group than in older patients. The sensitivity of aspiration cytology was 78 per cent which was higher than that for breast cancer at all ages. Histology showed that there were fewer low grade tumours and fewer scirrhous tumours in this age group than in a control group of women aged over 35 years. This study indicates that cytological confirmation of apparently benign focal breast lesions in young women is essential, especially when these are managed conservatively. PMID:2670059

Ashley, S; Royle, G T; Corder, A; Herbert, A; Guyer, P B; Rubin, C M; Taylor, I

1989-08-01

149

Endobronchial ultrasound guided needle aspiration of a paraspinal mass with prior failed multiple diagnostic interventions: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

The increasing frequency of tuberculosis (TB) in both developed and developing countries has continued to make spinal TB an important health problem. The present case report is about a patient who presented to us with progressive back pain and paraspinal mass. We performed endobronchial ultrasound guided needle aspiration from the paraspinal mass. The cytology showed granulomatous inflammation suggestive of TB. PMID:25378853

Sinha, Nishant; Padegal, Vivek; Jermely, Deepthi; Satyanarayana, Satish; Santosh, H K

2014-10-01

150

Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus  

PubMed Central

A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

2013-01-01

151

Cytological investigations on Bulgarian phanerogams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baltisberger, M.: Cytological investigations on Bulgarian phanerogams. - Willdenowia 36 (Special Issue): 205-216. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2006 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.36.36117 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) Chromosome numbers are given for 35 species of angiosperms from Bulgaria, nine of which are the first reports on Bulgarian material; for Geum bulgaricum a new ploidy level is reported. The karyo- types are presented for

MATTHIAS BALTISBERGER

2006-01-01

152

Fluorescence in situ hybridization as adjunct to cytology improves the diagnosis and directs estimation of prognosis of malignant pleural effusions  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of malignant cells in effusions by conventional cytology is hampered by its limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as adjuncts to conventional cytologic examination in patients with malignant pleural effusions. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 93 inpatients with pleural effusions (72 malignant pleural effusions metastatic from 11 different organs and 21 benign) over 23 months. All the patients came from Chinese northeast areas. Aspirated pleural fluid underwent cytologic examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for aneuploidy. We used FISH in single-colour or if appropriate in dual-colour evaluation to detect chromosomal aberrations (chromosomes 7, 11, and 17) in effusion cells as markers of malignancy, to raise the diagnostic yield and identified the efficiency by diagnostic biopsy. Predominant cytogenetic anomalies and patterns of intratumor cytogenetic heterogeneity were brought in relation to overall survival rate. Results Cytology alone confirmed malignant pleural effusions in 45 of 72 patients (sensitivity 63%), whereas FISH alone positively identified 48 of 72 patients (sensitivity 67%). Both tests had high specificity in predicting benign effusions. If cytology and FISH were considered together, they exhibited 88% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in discriminating benign and malignant effusions. Combined, the two assays were more sensitive than either test alone. Although the positive predictive value of each test was 94.5%, the negative predictive value of cytology and FISH combined was 78%, better than 47% and 44% for FISH and cytology alone, respectively. There was a significantly prolonged survival rate for patients with aneuploidy for chromosome 17. Conclusions FISH in combination with conventional cytology is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for detecting malignant cells in pleural effusions . The high sensitivity and specificity may be associated with geographic area and race. Simple numeric FISH anomalies may be prognostic. PMID:23148562

2012-01-01

153

Utilization of Ancillary Studies in the Cytologic Diagnosis of Biliary and Pancreatic Lesions  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings, and synthesis of selected online comments of the draft document. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytologic diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. Currently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) appears to be the most clinically relevant ancillary technique for cytology of bile duct strictures. The addition of FISH analysis to routine cytologic evaluation appears to yield the highest sensitivity without loss in specificity. Loss of immunohistochemical staining for the protein product of the SMAD4 gene and positive staining for mesothelin support a diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endocrine and exocrine differentiation are sufficient for a diagnosis of endocrine and acinar tumors. Nuclear staining for beta-catenin supports a diagnosis of solid-pseudopapilary neoplasm. Cyst fluid analysis for amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen aids in the preoperative classification of pancreatic cysts. Many gene mutations (KRAS, GNAS, VHL, RNF43, and CTNNB1) may be of aid in the diagnosis of cystic neoplasms. Other ancillary techniques do not appear to improve diagnostic sensitivity sufficiently to justify their increased costs. PMID:24639398

Layfield, Lester J.; Ehya, Hormoz; Filie, Armando C.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Jhala, Nirag; Joseph, Loren; Vielh, Philippe; Pitman, Martha B.

2015-01-01

154

Impression cytology of conjunctival melanosis and melanoma.  

PubMed Central

Impression cytology using cellulose acetate paper has been used in various ocular surface disorders as a simple non-invasive diagnostic test. To assess its value in differentiating melanocytic tumours, 24 patients with a range of pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva were examined using this technique. Cytological and histological diagnoses were compared in 23 cases. In 73% of cases impression cytology predicted the histological diagnosis by detection of superficial atypical melanocytes and their proportion relative to benign epithelial cells. This pilot study shows impression cytology to be a useful diagnostic aid in the differentiation of pigmented tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva. Images PMID:1390485

Paridaens, A. D.; McCartney, A. C.; Curling, O. M.; Lyons, C. J.; Hungerford, J. L.

1992-01-01

155

42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...

2010-10-01

156

42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...

2010-10-01

157

Cestode infection in 2 dogs: cytologic findings in liver and a mesenteric lymph node.  

PubMed

Mesocestoides cestode infections in dogs are well known for causing severe peritonitis with larvae or larval fragments (metacestodes, tetrathyridia, or calcareous corpuscles) frequently observed cytologically in peritoneal fluid samples. This case report describes the cytologic and clinical features of 2 dogs infected with cestode larvae, with one case confirmed and the other presumed to be Mesocestoides sp. In these 2 unusual cases, cestode larvae or larval fragments were found in fine-needle aspirates of the liver and a mesenteric lymph node, but no organisms were found in peritoneal fluid samples. The data presented in this report indicate that clinical pathologists should not rule out Mesocestoides sp cestodiasis based on the absence of larvae in peritoneal fluid samples from dogs. PMID:23278428

Patten, Penny K; Rich, Lon J; Zaks, Karen; Blauvelt, Melissa

2013-03-01

158

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... a bone marrow sample for procedures (such as stem cell transplantation ) or other testing (such as chromosomal analysis). ... For the bone marrow aspiration, the doctor or nurse will carefully insert a needle into the biopsy ...

159

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... aspiration and biopsy, you can speak with your nurse or doctor before the procedure. Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD Date reviewed: April ... Cell Transplants Anemia Biopsy Leukemia Word! Bone Marrow About ...

160

Application of Magnetic-Resonance-Spectroscopy- Based Metabolomics to the Fine-Needle Aspiration Diagnosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study explores the potential use of high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an ancillary diagnostic technique for papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies. The method has already been shown to be effective in the classification of various other nonthyroid cancers. Study Design: Twenty-six samples (13 paired cytologic and histologic samples) from patients being

Kate W. Jordan; Christen B. Adkins; Leo L. Cheng; William C. Faquin

2011-01-01

161

Is there a role for on-site evaluation of thyroid fine needle aspiration to reduce the nondiagnostic rate?  

PubMed

The use of immediate on-site evaluation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimens can determine the adequacy of specimens and provides a specific preliminary diagnosis. In this prospective study, we evaluated the impact of on-site assessment of thyroid FNAB performed under ultrasound guidance. Totally, 204 (170 female, 34 male) patients (102 on site, 102 control group) were included. The patients were randomized on site and regular cytologic examination groups. Quick May-Grünwald Giemsa stain was used for on-site examination and FNA was continued until adequate aspirate for optimal cytological examination. Two (2.0 %) of the 102 patients evaluated with on-site examination had a nondiagnostic result. However, 16 (15.7 %) of the 102 patients examined by regular cytologic examination method, had nondiagnostic result. The difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p?aspirate a sufficient number of cells necessary for diagnosis cystic lesions. Immediate on-site evaluation can significantly decrease the nondiagnostic rate of thyroid FNAB specimens. PMID:23512283

Simsek, Gulcin Guler; Ertu?rul, Derun Taner; Guresci, Servet; ?im?ek, Hülya

2013-06-01

162

Cytological screening of endocervical adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma represents on average 15% of cervical carcinomas and it is associated with the human papillomavirus infection high risk types 16 and 18 in most cases. Its detection has some special features compared to squamous cell carcinoma; glandular precancerous lesions are less known and only adenocarcinoma in situ is diagnosed by consensus among pathologists; adenocarcinoma in situ develops in the squamocolumnar junction by reserve cells but it is hard to be located by colposcopy in the endocervical canal or in the deep glandular recess. Sampling of endocervical cells requires brushes rather than an Ayre spatula. Cytological diagnosis of glandular cells abnormalities is based on the Bethesda System 2001 terminology which redefined endocervical cells abnormalities and also introduced the entity of adenocarcinoma in situ. This entity is characterized by specific morphological features, such as the radial arrangement of nuclei in the periphery, like "at the end of the feathers of a bird's wing"(feathering of cells), images of nuclei palissading or rosette without tumoral diathesis. Glandular cells abnormalities are rare and represent less than 0.1% of all smears and less than 5% of abnormal smears. By improving the collection and the interpretation of abnormal endocervical cells, cytological screening should allow the diagnosis of in situ adenocarcinoma and detection of invasive adenocarcinoma at a very early stage. This will lead to a decrease in mortality from endocervical adenocarcinoma, especially in young women. PMID:23244488

Di Bonito, Luigi; Bergeron, Christine

2012-12-01

163

Accuracy of liquid cytology in the diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic oesophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Oesophagoscopy with biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). Therefore is important to discover less-invasive diagnostic methods. Methods Cytology specimens were obtained in patients with active EoE (AEoE) (?15 eos/hpf) and EoE in remission (EoER) (<15 eos/hpf). The samples were assessed by two independent pathologists and were compared with biopsy samples. EoE cytology specimens were compared with specimens obtained from patients with GERD. Results Specimens of 36 patients (69.4% male, mean age 30.88 years) were included. AEoE (17, 47.2%), EoER (11, 30.5%) and GERD (22.2%). eos/hpf in cytology (AEoE 9.23 vs. EoER 1.54 vs. GERD 2, p?=?0.01). Linear correlation between eos/hpf average biopsy and cytology eos/hpf: r?=?0.57, p?cytology obtained a sensitivity of 70%, specificity 81%, PPV 86% and NPV 60% (AUC?=?0.81, p?=?0.01). For detection of AEoE, ?3 eos/hpf in LBC obtained a sensitivity of 70%, specificity 82%, PPV 81% and NPV 66% (AUC?=?0.87, p?=?0.001). Conclusions LBC in oesophageal aspirate seems to be effective for the diagnosis and monitoring activity in EoE. These results support the usefulness of non-invasive methods for the diagnosis and monitoring of EoE. PMID:25452842

García Rojo, Marcial; López Viedma, Bartolomé; de la Santa Belda, Eva; Palomar, Pilar Olivencia; Torrijos, Elisa Gómez; López, Lucia González; Camacho, José Olmedo

2014-01-01

164

Ancillary techniques on direct-smear aspirate slides: a significant evolution for cytopathology techniques.  

PubMed

Numerous cytologic techniques aimed at effectively acquiring patient material for molecular testing have been proposed. Such techniques are becoming ever more important in an age of personalized medicine. In this commentary, the authors explored some more commonly proposed techniques to aid in the molecular testing of cytologic specimens. These techniques include the use of cell blocks, direct cytologic smears, filter paper storage, frozen samples, and enriched cellular techniques such as ThinPrep and cytospin preparations. Direct-smeared slides demonstrate excellent preservation of DNA, are easy to prepare, and are amenable to immediate adequacy at the time of the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedure as well as effective subsequent tumor purity estimation. Cell block methods cannot be assessed at the time of FNA and often demonstrate insufficiency, whereas filter paper and frozen techniques do not allow for the direct assessment of the presence and purity of tumor cells in the sample. Direct-smeared slides are emerging as the most effective preparation and storage medium of cytologic material to be used for molecular testing. Their cost-effectiveness, ease of use, and reliability have cemented them as the optimal solution for cytopathologists to fulfill the role of providing advanced molecular testing on patient samples. PMID:22786714

Knoepp, Stewart M; Roh, Michael H

2013-03-01

165

Hyaline matrix in hyalinizing trabecular tumor: Findings in fine-needle aspiration smears.  

PubMed

Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare neoplasm which usually follows an indolent clinical course. The cytologic diagnosis of HTT can be challenging as these neoplasms share cytomorphological features with other thyroid neoplasms and paraganglioma. In fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or suspicion of PTC is often made. Herein we report cytologic findings in two patients with HTT examined by FNA. The key to a correct diagnosis is the recognition of a hyaline and colloid/amyloid-like material in the background of the smears. Immunocytochemical examination showing aberrant membranous and peripheral cytoplasmic staining for MIB-1 can help in rendering a correct diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25352467

Baku?a-Zalewska, Elwira; Cameron, Robert; Ga?czy?ski, Jacek P; Domanski, Henryk A

2014-10-29

166

Utility of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in splenic lesions.  

PubMed

Indications of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of spleen have increased as more splenic lesions are detected because of advanced imaging techniques. A retrospective analysis of cytological material of 36 patients on whom ultrasound-guided splenic FNA was performed was done. No complications were noted. There were 16 inflammatory lesions, 12 neoplastic and 8 cases were reported as descriptive either because of scant cellularity, blood only, or normal splenic cytology. Inflammatory lesions included nine cases of acute abscess, five cases of tuberculosis, and one case each of leishmaniasis and infarct. Neoplastic lesions included two benign (benign cyst and inflammatory pseudotumor) and 10 malignant lesions. Among malignant lesions, eight were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), one suspicious of NHL, and one desmoplastic small round cell tumor. FNA proved to be an effective procedure for reaching a microscopic tissue diagnosis and thus a splenectomy could be avoided in cases where it was not required. PMID:21953852

Handa, Uma; Tiwari, Avani; Singhal, Niti; Mohan, Harsh; Kaur, Ravinder

2013-12-01

167

Archival fixed histologic and cytologic specimens including stained and unstained materials are amenable to RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues are increasingly used for analysis of gene expression. However, a large proportion of archival fixed histologic specimens including spare paraffin sections and stained slides, as well as archival cytologic materials, have not been investigated for their suitability for RNA-based analysis. The current study addressed this issue by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) transcript in a series of archival histologic and cytologic specimens. The histologic specimens included freshly prepared paraffin sections, spare paraffin sections, hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, immunostained slides, and decalcified bone marrow trephines. The cytologic specimens comprised cervical smears and various stained and unstained needle aspirates and cell sediments. The G6PD was amplified for five different fragment sizes ranging from 67 bp to 453 bp. It was found that the majority of archival materials were amenable to RT-PCR of small fragments with the overall success rates of 95% and 79% for 67 bp and 151 bp of the G6PD mRNA, respectively. Neither staining nor prolonged storage up to 15 years had major negative effects on RT-PCR, although fine-needle aspirates showed a higher rate of RT-PCR of 242-bp fragment than other types of cytologic specimens and so did Papanicolaou-stained samples than May Grounwald and Giemsa-stained samples. RT-PCR of minute cell populations microdissected from immunostained sections of tonsils and t(11;18)-positive mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas showed that as few as 100 cells were adequate for RT-PCR of G6PD and translocation-associated fusion transcript as long as the target fragment was limited to less than 150 bp. Our results demonstrate that archival fixed histologic and cytologic specimens are valuable resources for RT-PCR-based molecular investigations. PMID:12459638

Liu, Hongxiang; Huang, Xuebiao; Zhang, Yun; Ye, Hongtao; El Hamidi, Amina; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Dogan, Ahmet; Isaacson, Peter G; Du, Ming-Qing

2002-12-01

168

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Cystic Pancreatic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Incidental pancreatic cysts are being increasingly recognized recently with incremented concern about health and frequent health check-up. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as the principal modality for imaging pancreas for various pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cyst. But imaging alone cannot accurately identify the exact nature of the pancreatic cyst. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration is a useful adjunctive procedure to differentiate pancreatic cystic lesions. Cystic fluid analysis with cytologic evaluation is important to diagnose etiology of pancreatic cystic lesions, helping the clinician to more accurately assess the presence or potential for malignancy. PMID:22866252

Clancy, James; Hasan, Muhammad K.

2012-01-01

169

Modified aspirated internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder;

1993-01-01

170

Aspiring Teachers Take up Residence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Boston Teacher Residency program is a yearlong, selective preparation route that trains aspiring teachers, many of them career-changers, to take on jobs in some of the city's highest-needs schools. The program, which fits neither of the two most common types of teacher preparation--alternative routes and traditional teacher education…

Honawar, Vaishall

2008-01-01

171

Small intestine aspirate and culture  

MedlinePLUS

Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection in the small intestine. ... A sample of fluid from the small intestine is needed. A procedure ... done to get the sample. The fluid is placed in a special dish in ...

172

Choosing Sleeve Aspiration Filter Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an aspiration filter is governed by the choice of material for the filter sleeves. As a rule, it should have good dust-trapping, regeneration capacity, and strength, together with reasonably high gas permeability and relatively low hydraulic resistance, while withstanding the temperature of the input gas and being resistant to corrosion by the dust and gas. Tensile and

I. K. Goryachev

2002-01-01

173

Effect of suction on specimen size in fine-needle aspiration biopsy.  

PubMed

High incidences of unsatisfactory specimens in fine-needle aspiration biopsy for cytology have been reported previously. Inappropriate aspiration techniques may account partly for this. In this study, the effect of suction on specimen size was studied in vitro using an automatic sampler. Bovine liver, testis, and pig's kidney were used as target tissues and biopsies were performed with 18-, 20- and 22-gauge needles. Specimen weight increased rapidly and linearly with suction force (P less than .001), regardless of the target tissue or needle diameter, when standard needle movement was applied. In the absence of needle movement, the suction force, rate of increase of suction, and duration of suction had no effect on the weight of the specimens. Needle movement alone, without suction, also produced meager specimens. Suction alone does not seem to tear fragments off target tissues. Nevertheless, in combination with needle movement, suction force plays an important role in the determination of specimen size. PMID:2254053

Kreula, J; Virkkunen, P; Bondestam, S

1990-11-01

174

The nature of aspiration in psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper underscores the importance of aspiration as an active, progressive striving toward goals. Aspiration is often borne out of new experiences with new objects that differ from the patient's archaic objects. Patients who take inventory of their aspirations start to understand how they consciously and unconsciously work toward or ward off the attainment of goals. Self-discrepancy approaches (e.g., Jacobson,

Sharon Hymer

1990-01-01

175

Intraocular lymphoma: immunological and cytological analysis.  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively reviewed the cytology and immunohistology of vitreous specimens from nine patients with intraocular lymphoma (ocular reticulum cell sarcoma). A single vitreous biopsy specimen was not always adequate to establish the diagnosis in this condition. Cytological evaluation was more accurate than lymphocyte surface marker analysis to differentiate lymphoma from uveitis. The immunological features of these tumours indicate a heterogeneous group of intraocular lymphomas. Images PMID:3067746

Char, D H; Ljung, B M; Deschênes, J; Miller, T R

1988-01-01

176

Exfoliative cytology of tracheobronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma.  

PubMed

The cytologic findings in the bronchial brushing and washing specimens of three cases of tracheobronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma are reported and compared with those reported in the literature. The cytodiagnostic features including cribriform epithelial clusters, epithelial balls, branching epithelial cylinders, cellular hyaline mucous globules, and a heretofore unemphasized diagnostic clue in exfoliative cytology--naked hyaline globules in washing smears, are illustrated and discussed. PMID:8872436

Chen, K T

1996-08-01

177

Ameloblastoma: Cytopathologic profile of 12 cases and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used as a diagnostic tool in evaluating suspected lesions. It shows a high diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing salivary gland lesions. Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight FNAC as an effective diagnostic tool in the presumptive diagnosis of ameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 cases of ameloblastoma sampled by FNAC retrieved from the archives of the Oral Pathology Department were retrospectively studied. The smears were alcohol-fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. All the 12 cases of FNAC had subsequent corresponding surgical incisional biopsy or excision specimens. Results: Cytologically, seven cases were diagnosed as benign odontogenic tumor more in favor of ameloblastoma. All the 12 fine-needle aspiration cases were given a histopathologic work-up and diagnosed as ameloblastomas. Of these, the seven cytologically diagnosed benign odontogenic lesions were also confirmed to be ameloblastoma by both incisional biopsy as well as surgical excision. Conclusion: It was deduced from the above results that FNAC helps potentially in diagnosing ameloblastoma.

Chandavarkar, Vidyadevi; Uma, K; Mishra, Mithilesh; Sangeetha, R; Gupta, Radhika; Sharma, Ritika

2014-01-01

178

Brushing cytology in biliary tract obstruction.  

PubMed

During a period of eight years (1980 to 1987), cytologic samples were obtained by brushing and reverse screw devices from 54 patients undergoing transhepatic cholangiography for evaluation of obstructive jaundice. Eight patients were excluded from this study, seven for inadequate follow-up and one because of unsatisfactory cytologic material. Of the remaining cases, 32 were cytologically diagnosed as adenocarcinomas; all but one patient proved to have malignant disease by histologic examination and/or through clinical follow-up. These included 21 pancreatic carcinomas, 6 bile duct carcinomas, 1 ampullary carcinoma, 1 gallbladder carcinoma and 2 metastatic carcinomas. In one case, the diagnosis of malignancy was found to be in error upon review of the cytologic smears. Of 14 patients with negative cytologic diagnoses, 7 were found to have malignant neoplasms and 7 had benign diseases. These findings indicate that, while a positive cytologic diagnosis is a reliable indicator of a malignant biliary obstruction, a negative result does not exclude malignancy. PMID:2321454

Rupp, M; Hawthorne, C M; Ehya, H

1990-01-01

179

Coexistent non-Hodgkins lymphoma and ductal carcinoma breast: diagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Synchronous occurrance of multiple neoplastic processes is not very common, and the relationship between breast cancer with lymphoproliferative diseases is unusual as well. Furthermore, breast involvement by non-Hodgkins lymphoma is a rare event and primary breast non-Hodgkins lymphoma is even rarer. The authors take this opportunity to report a case of primary B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma breast occurring in association with invasive ductal carcinoma in a 47-year-old female for its rare synchronous association. PMID:21919216

Siddiqui, Farhan Asif; Maheshwari, Veena; Alam, Kiran; Jain, Anshu

2011-10-01

180

Acute human parvovirus b19 infection: cytologic diagnosis.  

PubMed

Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR. PMID:25332559

Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik

2014-09-01

181

Horrifying Basal Cell Carcinoma: Cytological, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing and frequently occurring tumor of the eyelids. Among BCC cases, there is a subtype of aggressive cases called horrifying BCC (HBCC). There are also rare BCC cases that show neuroendocrine differentiation. Here, we describe a case of HBCC with neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient, a 41-year-old woman, presented with abnormal left eye tearing and left cheek pain. On computed tomography imaging, a tumor that extended to the left orbit was detected in the left cheek. On cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples, the tumor cells were observed as sheet-like clusters and single bare nuclei with a clear background; peripheral palisading was not clearly seen. On examination of the biopsy specimen taken after FNA, the tumor was found to be composed of cancer cell nests with scattered peripheral palisading in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CD56 and were negative for CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Membrane-bound dense-core granules were detected on ultrastructural study. A HBCC case with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been previously reported. The correlation between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in HBCC and patient prognosis should be further studied. PMID:25120472

Kinoshita, Yuichi; Takasu, Kosho; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2014-01-01

182

A distinctive cytologic pattern for diagnosing tuberculous lymphadenitis in AIDS.  

PubMed

Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TL) is a very common infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We performed fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of enlarged lymph nodes in 57 HIV-infected patients to evaluate its usefulness in this population. We observed three cytologic patterns in 21 patients diagnosed as having TL: granulomatous lymphadenitis (GL) in 4 FNABs, necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis (NGL) in 7 FNABs, and necrotizing lymphadenitis (NL) in 12 FNABs. GL and NGL are already well-known and considered to be highly suggestive of TL. Our results support the idea that NL should have the same diagnostic value as GL or NGL. In the group of 12 patients with NL, TL was confirmed in 11 by microbiologic methods (7 by a positive Ziehl-Neelsen stain and 4 by a positive Löwenstein culture) and in the remaining patient by a biopsy that showed NGL with acid-fast bacilli. We conclude that FNAB is a useful, inexpensive, and safe technique for diagnosing TL in HIV-infected patients. The finding of a NL pattern is suggestive enough of TL to start antituberculous treatment. PMID:8254472

Llatjos, M; Romeu, J; Clotet, B; Sirera, G; Manterola, J M; Pedro-Botet, M L; Raventos, A; Foz, M

1993-12-01

183

Cell Block Preparation from Cytology Specimen with Predominance of Individually Scattered Cells  

PubMed Central

This video demonstrates Shidham's method for preparation of cell blocks from liquid based cervicovaginal cytology specimens containing individually scattered cells and small cell groups. This technique uses HistoGel (Thermo Scientific) with conventional laboratory equipment. The use of cell block sections is a valuable ancillary tool for evaluation of non-gynecologic cytology. They enable the cytopathologist to study additional morphologic specimen detail including the architecture of the lesion. Most importantly, they allow for the evaluation of ancillary studies such as immunocytochemistry, in-situ hybridization tests (FISH/CISH) and in-situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traditional cell block preparation techniques have mostly been applied to non-gynecologic cytology specimens, typically for body fluid effusions and fine needle aspiration biopsies. Liquid based cervicovaginal specimens are relatively less cellular than their non-gynecologic counterparts with many individual scattered cells. Because of this, adequate cellularity within the cell block sections is difficult to achieve. In addition, the histotechnologist sectioning the block cannot visualize the level at which the cells are at the highest concentration. Therefore, it is difficult to monitor the appropriate level at which sections can be selected to be transferred to the glass slides for testing. As a result, the area of the cell block with the cells of interest may be missed, either by cutting past or not cutting deep enough. Current protocol for Shidham's method addresses these issues. Although this protocol is standardized and reported for gynecologic liquid based cytology specimens, it can also be applied to non-gynecologic specimens such as effusion fluids, FNA, brushings, cyst contents etc for improved quality of diagnostic material in cell block sections. PMID:19623160

Varsegi, George M.; Shidham, Vinod

2009-01-01

184

Cell block preparation from cytology specimen with predominance of individually scattered cells.  

PubMed

This video demonstrates Shidham's method for preparation of cell blocks from liquid based cervicovaginal cytology specimens containing individually scattered cells and small cell groups. This technique uses HistoGel (Thermo Scientific) with conventional laboratory equipment. The use of cell block sections is a valuable ancillary tool for evaluation of non-gynecologic cytology. They enable the cytopathologist to study additional morphologic specimen detail including the architecture of the lesion. Most importantly, they allow for the evaluation of ancillary studies such as immunocytochemistry, in-situ hybridization tests (FISH/CISH) and in-situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traditional cell block preparation techniques have mostly been applied to non-gynecologic cytology specimens, typically for body fluid effusions and fine needle aspiration biopsies. Liquid based cervicovaginal specimens are relatively less cellular than their non-gynecologic counterparts with many individual scattered cells. Because of this, adequate cellularity within the cell block sections is difficult to achieve. In addition, the histotechnologist sectioning the block cannot visualize the level at which the cells are at the highest concentration. Therefore, it is difficult to monitor the appropriate level at which sections can be selected to be transferred to the glass slides for testing. As a result, the area of the cell block with the cells of interest may be missed, either by cutting past or not cutting deep enough. Current protocol for Shidham's method addresses these issues. Although this protocol is standardized and reported for gynecologic liquid based cytology specimens, it can also be applied to non-gynecologic specimens such as effusion fluids, FNA, brushings, cyst contents etc for improved quality of diagnostic material in cell block sections. PMID:19623160

Varsegi, George M; Shidham, Vinod

2009-01-01

185

Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the “neoplastic” category separated into “benign” (serous cystadenoma) or “other” (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility for patient management, which has become increasingly conservative for some neoplasms. PMID:25191517

Pitman, Martha B.; Centeno, Barbara A.; Ali, Syed Z.; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-del; Schmidt, C. Max; Brugge, William R.; Layfield, Lester J.

2014-01-01

186

Cytology result entry without using the keyboard.  

PubMed

Many keystrokes are needed to enter routine gynecologic cytology results into many computer systems. Not only is this quite time consuming, but typing errors cannot be avoided and are not always detected before the report is sent to the clinician. Because of continuing shortages of staff time and the desire to avoid transcription errors, we began using $400 bar code wands to enter cytology results and billing information. No changes in our laboratory information system software or tables were necessary. Accession number labels are preprinted on a stand-alone printer. Bar code sheets, containing common keystroke sequences, are printed using a standard Macintosh computer and Laserwriter printer. Scanning the bar codes exactly emulates those keystrokes typed on the keyboard. We have entered the results of > 99% of our gynecologic cytology cases in the past two years without touching the keyboard. PMID:8091908

Aller, R D; DeWitt, C

1994-01-01

187

Tracheobronchial Foreign Body Aspiration: Dental Prosthesis  

PubMed Central

It is important to extract foreign bodies for avoiding life-threatening complications. They can lead to death if they are not treated. Different signs and symptoms could occur according to the complete or partial airway obstruction. Foreign body aspiration is a rare incident in adults. The organic foreign materials such as foods are found to be aspirated more commonly and are usually settled in the right bronchial system. However, dental prosthesis and teeth aspirations are rare in literature. In our study, a 52-year-old male patient who had aspirated the front part of his lower dental prosthesis accidentally is presented and the foreign body is extracted by using rigid bronchoscopy. There are many causes of aspiration but dental prosthetic aspirations should be kept in mind during sleep. For this reason, dental apparatus must be taken out while asleep. PMID:25165606

Köse, Ataman; Kostak, Dilek; Aramagan, Erol; Durak, Asl?han; Seçkin, Nur Sezin; Dönmez, Serdar Süha; Melek, Hüseyin

2014-01-01

188

Fine needle aspiration biopsy in urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis.  

PubMed

Ten of 73 kidney neoplasms (14%) collected from the files of the Hospital de Navarra over a five-year period were urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis (UCRP). In 54 of 73 kidney neoplasms fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed. In seven cases a cytologic diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma was made. The majority of patients presented with pain and hematuria of short duration. In three cases a renal mass was detected by roentgenography. A filling defect in the collector system, with no conclusive roentgenographic diagnosis, was observed in the remaining cases. Computed tomography-guided FNAB was performed in all cases. Voided urine was collected for microscopic study in six cases. The cytologic pattern of all cases was similar to that of bladder urothelial carcinoma. This feature was particularly frequent in well-differentiated papillary carcinomas. The differential diagnosis with other kidney lesions based on cytologic findings was established. FNAB is useful not only in the preoperative diagnosis of UCRP but also in follow-up. PMID:7762330

Santamaría, M; Jauregui, I; Urtasun, F; Bertol, A

1995-01-01

189

Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease in an osteolytic lesion of bone  

PubMed Central

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) or Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is an uncommon but well-defined benign self-limited clinicopathological entity. It mainly involves lymph nodes. Extranodal involvement is seen in up to 43% of cases, with the most common location in the head and neck region. Primary RDD occurring in the bone is rare with only twelve cases reported in the literature to date, all diagnosed on histology except one by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. We report a case of RDD diagnosed by FNA cytology in a 28 year-old female presented as an osteolytic lesion of superior pubic ramus where the differential diagnosis included a sarcoma and lymphoma. Based on the cytologic findings, a diagnosis of a RDD was considered during the rapid FNA on site with no clinical history provided. The diagnosis of RDD was further confirmed by immunohistochemical stains and histology diagnosis. Our findings show that even in the absence of a clinical history, FNA is a less invasive and a very reliable tool for the diagnosis of SHML (RDD). PMID:20806072

Li, Shaoying; Yan, Zhijie; Jhala, Nirag; Jhala, Darshana

2010-01-01

190

[Cytology and immunophenotyping of acute promyelocytary leukaemia].  

PubMed

Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (AML3) is characterized by particular clinical and biological features. We report the cytology and the immunophenotype of 14 AML3 from which 3 were AML3v. A double negativity of HLA-DR and CD34 is found in 12 cases and aberrant expression of CD2 in 2AML3v. Aberrant expression of CD56 and CD22 was shown in, respectively, one case, CD15, CD65 and CD117 expressions were variable. Cytological diagnosis is often evident, although in some cases, it is not typical and immunophenotype will contribute to the diagnosis. PMID:19388597

Gouider, E; Ben Salah, N; Jeddi, R; Belakhal, F; Meddeb, B; Hafsia, R

2006-01-01

191

Alternative Certification: Aspirations and Realities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the number of alternative programs is ever increasing, shortages in the number of qualified science teachers continue. These programs have not solved the teacher shortage problem alone, but they should not bear full responsibility. Numerous societal and financial reasons make teaching a less desirable profession. The more contentious issue is whether alternative programs prepare qualified teachers or, in terms of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), "highly qualified" teachers. Initially, the authors believed that alternative programs did not produce competent teachers when they started their review. However, the limited research appears to indicate otherwise. This chapter discusses the aspirations and realities of alternative certification.

Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

2006-01-01

192

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspected metastatic cancers to the posterior uvea.  

PubMed Central

This thesis presents the author's experience with diagnostic intraocular fine needle aspiration biopsy in 18 patients with a suspected metastatic choroidal or ciliary body tumor. The author has reviewed the literature on biopsy of intraocular tumors and has specified what he believes to be valid indications for diagnostic biopsy of posterior uveal tumors. He has evaluated the accuracy, limitations, and complications of diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy in this series and others, and he has suggested methods for improving the recovery of sufficient cells for cytologic diagnosis and lessening the risks of tumor cell seeding during the biopsy. The author has concluded that fine needle aspiration biopsy appears to be a relatively safe, generally reliable means of establishing the pathologic diagnosis of a choroidal or ciliary body tumor in highly selected patients suspected of having metastatic cancer. In spite of its apparent safety and reliability, however, the author has cautioned against the routine use of fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with posterior uveal tumors since its long-term safety has not been established. The author has suggested that diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy of posterior uveal tumors be performed only in medical centers where there can be input from and cooperation among ophthalmologists, ophthalmic pathologists, and cytopathologists who are experienced in the diagnosis of intraocular malignancies. Images FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 8 D FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 PMID:2979028

Augsburger, J J

1988-01-01

193

Diagnostic performance of elastography in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

Cytological examination of material from fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the mainstay of diagnosis of thyroid nodules, thanks to its remarkable accuracy and scarcity of complications. However, follicular lesions (also called indeterminate lesions or Thy3 in the current classification), a heterogeneous group of lesions in which cytology is unable to give a definitive diagnosis to, represent its main limit. Elastography has been proposed as a potential diagnostic tool to define the risk of malignancy in the aforementioned nodules, but at present there is no conclusive data due to the small number of specifically addressed studies and the lack of concordance among them. The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of real-time elastography (RTE) for refining diagnosis of Thy3 nodules, by integrating diagnostic information provided by traditional ultrasound (US). The study included 108 patients with Thy3 nodules awaiting for surgery, which were evaluated by US (considering hypoecogenicity, irregular margins, microcalcifications, halo sign, and intranodular vascularization) and RTE. Nodules were classified at RTE using a four-class color scale. At histologic examination, 75 nodules were benign and 33 malignant. As expected, none of the ultrasound parameters alone was adequate in predicting malignancy or benignity of the nodules; in the presence of at least two US risk factors, we obtained 61 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity, and 77 % accuracy with 6.8 OR (95 % CI 2.4-20.4). RTE scores 3 and 4 showed 76 % sensitivity, 88 % specificity, 74 % PPV, and 89 % NPV with diagnostic accuracy of 84 %; the data are statistically significant (p < 0.0001) with a OR of 21.9 (95 % CI 7.1-76). By combining RTE with US parameters, the presence of at least 2 characters of suspicion had 88 % sensitivity and 94 % NPV with 23.8 OR (95 % CI 7-106.3). The use of combined RTE and US leads to the identification of two patients subpopulations which have a significantly different malignancy risk (6 vs. 63 %); further studies are needed to verify if it is possible to send only the first group to thyroidectomy and the other to follow-up. PMID:25273318

Garino, Francesca; Deandrea, Maurilio; Motta, Manuela; Mormile, Alberto; Ragazzoni, Federico; Palestini, Nicola; Freddi, Milena; Gasparri, Guido; Sgotto, Enrico; Pacchioni, Donatella; Limone, Paolo Piero

2014-10-01

194

Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of psammomatous melanotic schwannoma.  

PubMed

A 51-yr-old male presented with an 8-mo history of lower back pain. Computerized axial tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies showed a 3.5 X 3.0 cm sacral mass within the spinal canal in the region of the left S2 nerve root. A fine-needle aspirate biopsy (FNAB) was performed under CT guidance. The cytologic findings included a spindle-cell population with a fibrillary background arranged in a vaguely streaming pattern, wavy nuclei with mild atypia, wispy cytoplasm, rare intranuclear inclusions, and dilated vascular spaces. Some cells contained a nonrefractile granular brown pigment consistent with melanin. Also identified were calcified concentric laminations typical of psammoma bodies. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for S-100 protein and HMB-45. A diagnosis of psammomatous melanotic schwannoma was rendered. No stigmata of Carney's complex were identified on physical examination. The patient has declined the recommendation of surgical excision of the mass. We herein describe a case unequivocally diagnosed as psammomatous melanotic schwannoma by FNAB. PMID:10907935

Cummings, T J; Liu, K; Jordan, L K; Dodd, L G

2000-07-01

195

Two-Year College Students' Degree Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the educational aspirations of college freshmen students in public and private two-year colleges around the nation. Surveying a sample of over 13,000 first-time, full-time students from a national database elicited the following results: about half of students at public and private two year colleges aspired to obtain the…

Laanan, Frankie Santos

196

Sex, Aspiration Level, and Perceptual Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated some of the differences in a perceptual discrimination performance task due to: (1) sex and (2) level of aspiration of each group of subjects. It was found that there is an interaction effect between femaleness, maleness, and aspiration level. (Author)

Peretti, Peter O.

1974-01-01

197

MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring  

E-print Network

MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring nature conservation professionals www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/conservation LONDON'S GLOBAL UNIVERSITY #12;Student fieldwork, Norfolk (Picture: Jan Axmacher) Conservation at UCL The UCL MSc Conservation is widely recognised as the leading course for aspiring nature conservation

Jones, Peter JS

198

Percutaneous needle aspiration of neonatal lung abscesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three premature infants (mean gestational age 27 weeks) ranging in age from 3 to 11 weeks, were treated for lung abscesses, with a combination of antibiotics and percutaneous needle aspiration under either ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance. Antibiotics, to which microorganisms cultured from aspirated pus were sensitive, were continued for a further period of two weeks, with no relapse in any

S. K. Lee; R. F. Morris; B. Cramer

1991-01-01

199

[Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) in cytological diagnostics of pulmonary and mediastinal diseases].  

PubMed

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become an important tool in the diagnosis and staging of malignant tumors of the lungs and mediastinum. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) denotes a cytomorphological diagnostic procedure that allows assessment of the adequacy and accuracy of the material obtained during bronchoscopy within a few minutes in or near the bronchoscopy suite (on-site) using a quick staining of smears. This results in a significant decrease in the number of repeated bronchoscopy procedures required to recover an adequate biopsy sample and is therefore both time and cost effective. The obtained material can be further assessed as conventional cytological specimens or alternatively using the thin-prep technique for definitive cytopathology diagnosis and/or embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemical or molecular analyses such as DNA sequencing or flow cytometry. PMID:22752354

Wohlschläger, J; Darwiche, K; Ting, S; Hager, T; Freitag, L; Schmid, K W; Kühl, H; Theegarten, D

2012-07-01

200

Biomarkers in the diagnosis of aspiration syndromes  

PubMed Central

Recognizing and managing the different types of aspiration events remain a challenging task due to the lack of distinguishing clinical or laboratory characteristics. Numerous biomarkers in serum, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage have been studied, and their role in the recognition of aspiration remains controversial at this time. Recent animal investigations using an array of biomarkers based on distinct pathogenic features of each aspiration event have produced promising results; however, they have not been validated in humans. Newer markers are being introduced as diagnostic and prognostic tools in conditions such as community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, but they have not been examined in aspiration. The present review summarizes the different biomarkers that have been studied in aspiration and those who might have a potential clinical use in the future. PMID:20370588

Jaoude, Philippe Abou; Knight, Paul R; Ohtake, Patricia; El-Solh, Ali A

2010-01-01

201

Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: a case report with liquid based and conventional smear cytology  

PubMed Central

Background Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare neoplasm confined to the meninges without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventriculoperitoneal shunt may be used as a therapeutic modality. Herein, we describe the first report of cytologic findings of a case of this neoplasm with shunt-related peritoneal metastasis. Case presentation A 19-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of severe headaches. He had bilateral papilledema on physical exam. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was negative. Four months later a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Shortly thereafter, he was diagnosed with primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis based on the biopsy of an intradural extramedullary lesion adjacent to the lumbar spinal cord at a referral cancer center. The histology featured an infiltrating growth pattern of pleomorphic astrocytes with diffuse positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein. A couple of months later he presented at our institution with ascites and an anterior peritoneal mass. Repeat cerebrospinal fluid cytology and fine needle aspiration of the mass confirmed disseminated gliomatosis. Cytologic characteristics included clusters of anaplastic cells of variable size, high nuclear to cytoplasm ratio and scant to moderate cytoplasm. Occasional single bizarre multinucleated cells were seen with eccentric "partial wreath-like" nuclei, clumped chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Patient expired 13 months after initial presentation. Conclusion Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic aseptic meningitis and in the presence of a peritoneal tumor in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Immunocytochemistry may be of diagnostic value. PMID:16174291

Bilic, Masha; Welsh, Cynthia T; Rumboldt, Zoran; Hoda, Rana S

2005-01-01

202

Surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus for dysplasia and cancer with balloon cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A less costly cancer surveillance method for Barrett's esophagus is desirable. The aim of this study was to compare nonendoscopic balloon cytology with biopsy and brush cytology for detecting dysplasia and carcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: Patients in a surveillance program underwent balloon cytology before endoscopy with biopsy and brush cytology. Results of cytology were

GW Falk; R Chittajallu; JR Goldblum; CV Biscotti; KR Geisinger; RE Petras; S Birgisson; TW Rice; JE Richter

1997-01-01

203

Experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the use of aspiration on compressor blade design. The pressure ratio can be significantly increased by controlling the development of the blade and endwall boundary layers. This concept is validated ...

Schuler, Brian Joseph, 1974-

2001-01-01

204

Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia.  

PubMed

Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25657850

Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

2015-02-01

205

21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...aspirator is a device designed to remove materials from the endometrium (the mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a...2) Labeling: (i) Indication: Only to evaluate the endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy,...

2010-04-01

206

Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia.

Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

2015-01-01

207

Role of endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration evaluating adrenal gland enlargement or mass  

PubMed Central

AIM: To report the clinical impact of adrenal endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the evaluation of patients with adrenal gland enlargement or mass. METHODS: In a retrospective single-center case-series, patients undergoing EUS-FNA of either adrenal gland from 1997-2011 in our tertiary care center were included. Medical records were reviewed and results of EUS, cytology, adrenal size change on follow-up imaging ? 6 mo after EUS and any repeat EUS or surgery were abstracted. A lesion was considered benign if: (1) EUS-FNA cytology was benign and the lesion remained < 1 cm from its original size on follow-up computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging or repeat EUS ? 6 mo after EUS-FNA; or (2) subsequent adrenalectomy and surgical pathology was benign. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients had left (n = 90) and/or right (n = 5) adrenal EUS-FNA without adverse events. EUS indications included: cancer staging or suspected recurrence (n = 31), pancreatic (n = 20), mediastinal (n = 10), adrenal (n = 7), lung (n = 7) mass or other indication (n = 19). Diagnoses after adrenal EUS-FNA included metastatic lung (n = 10), esophageal (n= 5), colon (n = 2), or other cancer (n = 8); benign primary adrenal mass or benign tissue (n = 60); or was non-diagnostic (n = 9). Available follow-up confirmed a benign lesion in 5/9 non-diagnostic aspirates and 32/60 benign aspirates. Four of the 60 benign aspirates were later confirmed as malignant by repeat biopsy, follow-up CT, or adrenalectomy. Adrenal EUS-FNA diagnosed metastatic cancer in 24, and ruled out metastasis in 10 patients. For the diagnosis of malignancy, EUS-FNA of either adrenal had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 86%, 97%, 96% and 89%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adrenal gland EUS-FNA is safe, minimally invasive and a sensitive technique with significant impact in the management of adrenal gland mass or enlargement. PMID:25332900

Martinez, Melissa; LeBlanc, Julia; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Sherman, Stuart; DeWitt, John

2014-01-01

208

42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section...Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general...

2010-10-01

209

Comparison of PCR with stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani complex. Traditionally the definite diagnosis is made by amastigote detection in the tissue. The aim this study was to evaluate the PCR technique in stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis. Slides were selected totaling 62 suspect cases (33 bone marrow samples and 29 lymph node samples) and 17 positive cases (8 bone marrow and 9 lymph node). From 62 suspect cases, 39 (62.90%) were confirmed to be positive being 17 (n=29) lymph node aspirates and 22 (n=33) bone marrow. This finding is in agreement with the higher sensitivity of the PCR assay compared to direct microscopic observation. In conclusion, the findings of this study supports the use of PCR on archive cytological preparation stained slides for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, emphasizing the higher sensitivity of this technique when compared to direct microscopic examination and mostly the use of the suspect status for the cytology samples that presents the previously mentioned particularities with focus on detecting the oligosymptomatic or assymptomatic dogs in endemic areas functioning as potential reservoirs for this disease. PMID:25159534

Santos, T R; Carreira, V S; Ferrari, H F; Moreira, M A B; Luvizotto, M C R

2014-12-01

210

Ultrasound Guided Core Biopsy versus Fine Needle Aspiration for Evaluation of Axillary Lymphadenopathy in Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives. To compare the sensitivities of ultrasound guided core biopsy and fine needle aspiration (FNA) for detection of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with a current diagnosis of ipsilateral breast cancer. Materials and Methods. From December 2008 to December 2010, 105 patients with breast cancer and abnormal appearing lymph nodes in the ipsilateral axilla consented to undergo FNA of an axillary node immediately followed by core biopsy of the same node, both with ultrasound guidance. Experienced pathologists evaluated the aspirate cytology without knowledge of the core histology. Cytology and core biopsy results were compared to sentinel node excision or axillary dissection pathology. Sensitivities were compared using McNemar's test. Results. Of 70 patients with axillary node metastases, FNA was positive in 55/70 (78.6%) and core was positive in 61/70 (87.1%) (P = 0.18). The FNA and core results were discordant in 14/70 (20%) patients. Ten cases were FNA negative/core positive. Four cases were FNA positive/core negative. Conclusion. Core biopsy detected six (8.6%) more cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy than FNA but the difference in sensitivities was not statistically significant. Core biopsy should be considered if the node is clearly imaged and readily accessible. FNA is a good alternative when a smaller needle is desired due to node location or other patient factors. This trial is registered with NCT01920139. PMID:24649373

Ganott, Marie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Abrams, Gordon S.; Lu, Amy H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Austin, R. Marshall; Bandos, Andriy I.

2014-01-01

211

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA): an overview and update for the cytopathologist.  

PubMed

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has emerged as a minimally invasive technique for evaluating the mediastinum and staging patients with lung cancer. In the hands of an experienced operator, the procedure is safe and provides excellent sensitivity, specificity, and predictive diagnostic values. In conjunction with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), a nearly complete mediastinal evaluation can be performed in a minimally invasive fashion. This strategy results in improved lymph node staging, markedly reduced need for mediastinoscopy, and fewer futile thoracotomies compared with a traditional surgical staging procedure. The procedure is cost effective and provides excellent cytologic specimens that have proven well suited for ancillary testing, such as immunohistochemistry and tumor genotyping. EBUS-TBNA, initially used as a tool to sample the lymph nodes adjacent to the airway walls, has now become instrumental in sampling lesions in the mediastinum, hilum, and lung parenchyma, where previously more than 1 procedure would have been necessary. Looking forward, expanded use of this procedure is likely to revolutionize the access to cytology-proven staging and restaging of lung cancer and other thoracic malignancies in a minimally invasive fashion. PMID:24760496

VanderLaan, Paul A; Wang, Helen H; Majid, Adnan; Folch, Erik

2014-08-01

212

Atypia of undetermined significance on thyroid fine needle aspiration: surgical outcome and risk factors for malignancy  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to analyze the surgical pathology results of the "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS) category from thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to describe the characteristics to distinguish a malignant from a benign nodule. Methods A retrospective analysis was done on 116 patients who underwent thyroid surgery from December 2008 to December 2012, following a diagnosis of AUS from preoperative thyroid FNA. We investigated the age, gender, size and site of the nodules, ultrasonographic criteria, cytological features, the number of atypia results after repeated FNAs, surgical method, and final pathologic results. Results Sixty-five out of 116 patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the rest had partial thyroidectomy. The final pathologic results were 41 malignancies (35.3%) and 75 benign diseases (64.7%). AUS was divided into group 1: 'cannot rule out malignancy' or group 2: 'cannot rule out follicular neoplasm'. After surgery, group 1 revealed papillary thyroid cancer in most cases and group 2 revealed follicular adenoma in most cases. Age over 40 years, ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy, more than 2 results of atypia from repeated FNAs and nodules less than 2 centimeters were risk factors for malignancy on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy was a significant risk factor for malignancy. Conclusion For proper evaluation of the risk for malignancy in thyroid AUS patients, the ultrasonographic criteria should be considered along with other clinicopathological findings such as age, nodule size, number of atypia, cytologic features. PMID:24761418

Ryu, Young Jae; Jung, Youn Seung; Yoon, Hyun Chul; Hwang, Min Jung; Shin, Sun Hyoung; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kang, Ho Cheol; Lim, Hyo Soon; Yoon, Jung Han

2014-01-01

213

Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-03-01

214

Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and useful ancillary methods  

PubMed Central

The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in evaluating pancreatic pathology has been well documented from the beginning of its clinical use. High spatial resolution and the close proximity to the evaluated organs within the mediastinum and abdominal cavity allow detection of small focal lesions and precise tissue acquisition from suspected lesions within the reach of this method. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is considered of additional value to EUS and is performed to obtain tissue diagnosis. Tissue acquisition from suspected lesions for cytological or histological analysis allows, not only the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions, but, in most cases, also the accurate distinction between the various types of malignant lesions. It is well documented that the best results are achieved only if an adequate sample is obtained for further analysis, if the material is processed in an appropriate way, and if adequate ancillary methods are performed. This is a multi-step process and could be quite a challenge in some cases. In this article, we discuss the technical aspects of tissue acquisition by EUS-guided-FNA (EUS-FNA), as well as the role of an on-site cytopathologist, various means of specimen processing, and the selection of the appropriate ancillary method for providing an accurate tissue diagnosis and maximizing the yield of this method. The main goal of this review is to alert endosonographers, not only to the different possibilities of tissue acquisition, namely EUS-FNA, but also to bring to their attention the importance of proper sample processing in the evaluation of various lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and other accessible organs. All aspects of tissue acquisition (needles, suction, use of stylet, complications, etc.) have been well discussed lately. Adequate tissue samples enable comprehensive diagnoses, which answer the main clinical questions, thus enabling targeted therapy. PMID:25339816

Tadic, Mario; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Kusec, Rajko

2014-01-01

215

Imprint cytology detects floating Brachyspira in human intestinal spirochetosis.  

PubMed

Human intestinal spirochetosis is a colorectal infectious disease caused by 2 Brachyspira species. Its diagnosis is established by histology, culture, and polymerase chain reaction, but the value of cytologic examination in routine practice remains unclear. In this study, imprint cytology of biopsy specimens was examined for cytologic features specific to human intestinal spirochetosis. Specimens were obtained from 65 colorectal regions (1-3 regions from each case) in 25 ultrastructurally and/or genetically confirmed human intestinal spirochetosis cases (20 with Brachyspira aalborgi, 3 with B pilosicoli, 2 with both genotypes). In cytologic specimens, spirochetes tended to be floating freely within the mucus and intestinal fluid, whereas the "fringe formation" of spirochetes typically observed in histologic specimens was indistinct in cytologic specimens. Spirochetes were identified in 58 regions (89.2%) and 23 cases (92.0%) by cytology, against in 50 regions (76.9%) and 22 cases (88.0%) by histology (no significant differences). In 6 of 8 regions exhibiting positive cytology and negative histology, B pilosicoli was present within the mucus. Hence, B pilosicoli may tend to float in the mucus. In conclusion, cytologic examination would be useful for the routine identification of human intestinal spirochetosis, especially if B pilosicoli is involved. Further, we suggest the existence of differences in biological behavior between these spirochetes. PMID:19836054

Ogata, Sho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Adachi, Yoshikazu; Ohara, Ichiyo; Nishiyama, Junichiro; Okusa, Yasushi; Takeo, Hiroaki; Sato, Kimiya; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Kawai, Toshiaki

2010-02-01

216

TUFTS ORAL PATHOLOGY SERVICE Liquid-Based Brush Cytology Analysis  

E-print Network

is an adjunctive procedure that utilizes advanced technology compared to conventional exfoliative cytology smear are directly smeared onto a glass microscope slide at the chairside. Liquid-based cytology is a painless. [Request PAP staining] · Evaluation of suspected active herpes simplex infection. [Request PAP staining

Dennett, Daniel

217

Impression cytology of the ocular surface  

PubMed Central

Impression cytology refers to the application of a cellulose acetate filter to the ocular surface to remove the superficial layers of the ocular surface epithelium. These cells can then be subjected to histological, immunohistological, or molecular analysis. Proper technique is essential as the number of cells sampled can vary considerably. Generally two to three layers of cells are removed in one application but deeper cells can be accessed by repeat application over the same site. Applications for impression cytology include diagnosing a wide range of ocular surface disorders, documenting sequential changes in the conjunctival and corneal surface over time, staging conjunctival squamous metaplasia, and monitoring effects of treatment. It is also a useful investigational tool for analysing ocular surface disease with immunostaining and DNA analysis. It is non-invasive, relatively easy to perform, and yields reliable information about the area sampled with minimal discomfort to the patient. Major ophthalmic centres should develop and introduce this technique into routine clinical practice. This is best achieved with a team approach including the ophthalmologist, pathologist, microbiologist, and the immunologist. PMID:16299150

Singh, R; Joseph, A; Umapathy, T; Tint, N L; Dua, H S

2005-01-01

218

[Exfoliative cytology for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori].  

PubMed

The development of more reliable diagnostic methods has undoubtedly contributed to a better knowledge of the epidemiology and role of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in the physiopathology of upper digestive tract diseases. Non abrasive and abrasive diagnostic methods have been used; among the latter, the exfoliating of abrasive cytology has been very popular during the last years. This fact motivated us to do this investigation. A descriptive-prospective study was developed in which the sample was composed by 235 patients of both sexes. The patients underwent gastro-duodenoscopy on account of dyspeptic symptoms and in order to determine the presence of Hp and its association with endoscopically diagnosed gastritis, with or without duodeno-gastric reflux, using the SYDNEY classification system. The frequency of Hp was assessed and the density of this microorganism was correlated with the hystological type of chronic gastritis following the above-mentioned classification. As a method of diagnosis of this disease, cytology showed a sensibility of 72% a specificity of 100% and an efficiency of 77% compared with histology, that was considered the "golden test". It was histologically proved that there exists a close relationship between chronic gastritis and the presence of Hp in the gastric antrum and that when the density of the bacterial population increases, the severity of chronic gastritis increases too. This germ may show up in histologically normal mucose, being able to provoke dyspeptic symptoms and colonizing the gastric antrum independently of the presence of duodeno-gastric reflux. PMID:9713657

Paniagua, M; Valdés, L; Borbolla, E; Hernández, M

1998-01-01

219

Next generation sequencing improves the accuracy of KRAS mutation analysis in endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration pancreatic lesions.  

PubMed

The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

220

Next Generation Sequencing Improves the Accuracy of KRAS Mutation Analysis in Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration Pancreatic Lesions  

PubMed Central

The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results. PMID:24504548

Baccarini, Paola; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Maimone, Antonella; Fornelli, Adele; Giuliani, Adriana; Zanini, Nicola; Fabbri, Carlo; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

221

Factors Influencing the Diagnostic Yield of Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration.  

PubMed

We describe the diagnostic performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in a heterogeneous population of patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy secondary to suspected cancer (lung and nonlung) or recurrence after cancer therapy in a large academic cancer institute. A review was done of all patients referred for real-time EBUS-TBNA over an 18-month period at our institution. Cytological analysis of EBUS-TBNA aspirates was compared with a reference standard of definitive pathologic tissue diagnosis or a composite of ?6 months' clinical follow-up with radiographic imaging. Adequate tissue was obtained in 225/236 procedures (95.3%) and a reference standard was available in 214. The overall diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA in those procedures with a reference standard was 87.4%. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for malignancy was 86.1%, 100% and 92.9%, respectively. The sampling accuracy of EBUS-TBNA decreased with lymph node size ?5?mm and with paratracheal location. Other factors, such as airway distortion and calcification, are also associated with less accurate EBUS-TBNA results. In a diverse population of patients with suspected cancer or recurrence, EBUS-TBNA is minimally invasive and highly accurate. Factors such as lymph node size and location influence the result of EBUS-TBNA. PMID:23168884

Kennedy, Marcus P; Jimenez, Carlos A; Morice, Rodolfo C; Sarkiss, Mona; Lei, Xiudong; Rice, David; Eapen, Georgie A

2010-07-01

222

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the spleen in pyrexia of unknown origin.  

PubMed

To evaluate the diagnostic utility, value and potential risk of fine needle aspiration biopsy of spleen (sFNAB) in patients with splenomegaly in pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO), a retrospective analysis of medical records and cytological material of 31 patients on whom FNAB was performed between April 1994 and October 1997 was done. The patients were HIV- and presented with PUO. All other relevant investigations were negative. The spleen was either palpable or detected to have space-occupying lesions on ultrasonography (USG). The splenic aspirates showed tuberculosis in 11 patients (35.4%) and inconclusive or reactive changes in nine patients (25.8%). One case out of this group proved to be Kaposi's sarcoma on autopsy. The other diseases encountered were leishmaniasis (n = 3), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 4), fungal infections (n = 2), Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1). The patients who were diagnosed as having tuberculosis had epithelioid cells, giant cells, necrosis and inflammatory cells in various combinations. AFB positivity was 63.6%. The other cases which showed granulomas but no AFB were diagnosed on empirical grounds and all responded to the anti-tuberculosis therapy. No complications were encountered with the procedure. Therefore the authors conclude that sFNAB is rewarding in patients where all other non-invasive modalities of diagnosis have failed. PMID:10390068

Rajwanshi, A; Gupta, D; Kapoor, S; Kochhar, R; Gupta, S; Varma, S; Gupta, S

1999-06-01

223

Cytomorphological Findings and Histological Correlation of Low-Grade Cribriform Cystadenocarcinoma of Salivary Gland in Fine-Needle Aspiration: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) of the salivary gland is a rare tumor. We report the cytologic features and histologic correlation of a patient with LGCCC. A 57-year-old man had a hardly palpable, nontender mass in the right cheek area followed over nine months. Radiologic analysis revealed a 1.2 cm multiseptated, cystic, solid nodule in an anterior superficial lobe of the right parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed many irregular overlapping sheets or clusters of ductal epithelial cells forming solid, pseudopapillary, and cribriform architectures. Nuclei of the tumor cells revealed inconspicuous atypia with minimal size variation. On the basis of these findings, we confirmed a diagnosis of ductal epithelial proliferative lesion, favoring neoplasm, with uncertain malignant potential. Tumor excision was performed, revealing a tiny multicystic nodule (0.7 cm). Histopathologically, this tumor showed the characteristic morphology of LGCCC. This is the first report of cytomorphological findings of LGCCC in Korea. PMID:24421856

Ko, Young Sin

2013-01-01

224

Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: A prospective study on 114 cases.  

PubMed

Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FNA, FNI, and/or IS) were available from the same lesion; ?-agreement and accuracy between cytological and histopathological results were calculated. Eighteen cytological specimens were excluded, with a retrieval rate of 84.2%. Of the 96 samples analysed, FNA, FNI, and IS were available from 80, 76, and 73 animals, respectively. Overall, 60/67 (89.6%) and 21/29 (72.4%) lesions were neoplastic in dogs and cats, respectively, with the remaining being non-neoplastic. For all lesions, ?-values obtained by FNA, FNI, and IS were in dogs 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.84), respectively, and in cats 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of FNA, FNI, and IS in dogs with neoplasia were 98.2%, 98.1%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in cats with neoplasia were 95.6%, 95.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the high agreement with histopathology suggests that cytological examinations by FNI, FNA, and IS are all appropriate methods to correctly diagnose lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats. PMID:25466576

Bonfanti, U; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G; Palermo, G; Zini, E

2014-10-22

225

Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: clinical, cytologic, histologic, radiologic, therapeutic aspects, and differential diagnosis of an uncommon lesion.  

PubMed

Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare disorder with an indolent clinical course that leads to nonspecific symptoms, dysfunction, and anatomic distortion of the TMJ. We describe a case of SC in an 82-year-old male that presented as an incidental 2 cm cystic tumor of the left TMJ, during diagnostic work-up for unrelated symptoms. A fine needle aspiration of the lesion yielded fragments of abnormal mature cartilage and myxoid fluid. The diagnosis of SC was suggested after correlating the clinical and pathologic findings. Open TMJ surgery was performed for definitive diagnosis and therapy. This manuscript describes the clinical, radiologic, cytologic, and pathologic features of this entity, and relates the differential diagnosis to other cartilaginous lesions and neoplasms of the TMJ. Awareness of this disorder is important to provide adequate care and avoid overtreatment. PMID:23850367

Sink, Jill; Bell, Brian; Mesa, Hector

2014-03-01

226

Cytological examination of Leeuwenhoek's first microbial specimens.  

PubMed

Of the nine packets of specimens sent by van Leeuwenhoek to London in the seventeenth century, and which were recently rediscovered in their original condition, three contained dried aquatic microorganisms. The author has reconstituted portions of this material. Several recognizable organisms have been noted, including portions of this material. Several recognizable organisms have been noted, including water-fleas, chlorophyte and cyanophyte algae, desmids, diatoms and rotifers. These provide evidence for the formation of the 'heavenly paper', which was believed at the time to represent charred notepaper dropped from the skies, but which Leeuwenhoek rightly assumed to be dried algal felts. Photomicrographs reveal many cytological details in the material, and this has been correlated with Leeuwenhoek's descriptions, extracted from the original correspondence. PMID:7051419

Ford, B J

1982-01-01

227

[Cytological diagnosis and differentiation of tracheobronchial cylindromas].  

PubMed

From study of histocytological parallels in 12 cases of cylindromas the authors determined the criteria of cytologic diagnosis which allowed these tumors to be differentiated from other neoplasms of the lungs. Cylindromas are characterized by the presence in the cytogram of 2 types of cells (small cells and larger ones with light nuclei), homogeneous spherical structures with cells occurring centrally or on the periphery, ball-shaped clusters of cells, and an oxyphilic structureless mass forming the background of the preparation. The absence of oxyphilic masses in solid cylindroma, atypism and polyphormism of the epithelial cells makes it very difficult to differentiate it from moderately and poorly differentiated glandular carcinoma. However, careful study of the preparations and the discovery of an intermediate substance makes it possible to differentiate cylindroma from glandular carcinoma. PMID:1647810

Arzumanian, G A; Akopian, A A; Gevorkian, L S

1991-04-01

228

A Conversation on Mobility, Aspiration and Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On 11 and 12 October 2010, the National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education held its second annual "Student Equity in Higher Education National Conference" in Melbourne, Australia. The conference theme was "Aspiration, Mobility, Voice". During the conference the three keynote speakers--Gareth Parry (University of Sheffield, UK), Jane…

Critical Studies in Education, 2011

2011-01-01

229

Psychological Predictors of College Women's Leadership Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the influence of psychological variables upon female college students' aspirations for leadership positions in their future careers. Results demonstrated that connectedness needs, gender role, self-esteem, and fears of negative evaluation accounted for a significant amount of the variance in predicting college women's leadership…

Boatwright, Karyn J.; Egidio, Rhonda K.

2003-01-01

230

Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

Lin, Meng-Jie

2011-01-01

231

Educational Aspirations: Individual Freedom or Social Injustice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines the concepts of aspiration level (what a student would like to do) and expectation level (more "realistic" choices of action or goal) and the gap that exists between them, a gap primarily due to social class and gender. (MJB)

Deosaran, Ramesh A.

1977-01-01

232

Educational Aspirations, What Matters? A Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature review attempted to identify: 1) what we know and don't know about post-secondary aspirations, expectations, and access; and 2) where and how it is possible for us to embark on solutions or further investigation. The research in this area has been heavily sociological. Socio-economic background, family size, community origins,…

Deosaran, Ramesh

233

Another Opinion No Inspiration, No Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School library media specialists are the first to witness the malaise that permeates American schools threatening the future of our society. Believing that personal lack of aspirations, our failure to encourage reading for pure enjoyment, and society's disrespect toward education has left a void in our children that is filled with apathy.

Brown, Donna W.

2004-01-01

234

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2014-04-01

235

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2012-04-01

236

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2010-04-01

237

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2011-04-01

238

21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...endocervical aspirator is a device designed to remove tissue from the endocervix (mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to evaluate endocervical tissue to...

2013-04-01

239

The educational aspirations of children of immigrants in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general aim of this paper is to investigate the educational aspirations of the children of immigrants living in Italy and attending the last year of primary school (8th grade). We look at the educational aspirations both as a predictor of educational choice and as a measure of social integration. We consider both secondary school track and university aspirations as

Alessandra Minello; Nicola Barban

2011-01-01

240

Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

2010-01-01

241

Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Latino Youth and Their Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews of 10 rural Latino family triads (mother, father, and adolescent) investigated the educational and occupational aspirations of parents and youth, and factors affecting those aspirations. Using a content analysis of the interview scripts, several themes emerged that described these families’ experiences. In some instances, Latino parent aspirations were found to transfer to their youth. However, only one half

Andrew O. Behnke; Kathleen W. Piercy; Marcelo Diversi

2004-01-01

242

Cayenne aspiration: an unusual type of lower airway foreign-body aspiration  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cayenne aspiration is an unusual type of foreign-body aspiration that is usually misdiagnosed. This article analyzes the clinical features of cayenne aspiration in the lower airway. Patients and methods Clinical data on eight adult patients with cayenne aspiration were retrospectively analyzed. Six were elderly patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2010 and August 2014. Results The most common symptoms of cayenne aspiration were cough (eight cases, 100%) and sputum (five cases, 62.5%). Only one patient (12.5%) could supply the history of aspiration on his first visit to doctor and was diagnosed definitely without delay. The other seven cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia and the time to accurate diagnosis was from 1 month to 6 months. The history of aspiration could be recalled after confirmed diagnosis for the other seven cases. The most common presentation shown by chest computed tomography (CT) was pneumonic opacity (eight cases, 100%). The existence of cayenne could not be detected by chest CT in any of the patients. All the patients were diagnosed definitively and managed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. Cayenne was more often lodged in the right bronchus tree (seven cases, 87.5%), especially the right lower bronchus (four cases, 50%). The segment of cayenne was complete in five cases (62.5%) and scattered in three cases (37.5%). Conclusion The clinical features of cayenne aspiration are usually obscure and nonspecific which may lead to delay in diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is safe and useful for early diagnosis and effective management. PMID:25473273

Lin, Lianjun; Wang, Yuchuan; Zha, Xiankui; Tang, Fei; Lv, Liping; Liu, Xinmin

2014-01-01

243

Preoperative discrimination of benign from malignant disease in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology using elastic light-scattering spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Thyroid nodules are common and often require fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the presence of malignancy to direct therapy. Unfortunately, approximately 15-30% of thyroid nodules evaluated by FNAB are not clearly benign or malignant by cytology alone. These patients require surgery for the purpose of diagnosis alone; most of these nodules ultimately prove to be benign. Elastic light scattering spectroscopy (ESS) that measures the spectral differences between benign and malignant thyroid nodules has shown promise in improving preoperative determination of benign status of thyroid nodules. We describe the results of a large, prospective, blinded study validating the ESS algorithm in patients with thyroid nodules. An ESS system was used to acquire spectra from human thyroid tissue. Spectroscopic results were compared to the histopathology of the biopsy samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the ESS system in the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid nodules are 74% and 90% respectively, with a negative predictive value of 97%. These data suggest that ESS has the potential for use in real time diagnosis of thyroid nodules as an adjunct to FNAB cytology. PMID:23771305

Rosen, Jennifer E; Suh, Hyunsuk; Giordano, Nicholas J; Aamar, Ousama M; Rodriguez-Diaz, Eladio; Bigio, Irving I; Lee, Stephanie L

2014-08-01

244

Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.  

PubMed

An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

2013-06-01

245

Human papillomavirus status of head and neck cancer as determined in cytologic specimens using the hybrid-capture 2 assay  

PubMed Central

Objective A standardized assay to determine the HPV status of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) specimens has not yet been established, particularly for cytologic samples. The goal of this study was to determine whether the hybrid capture-2 (HC-2) assay, already widely used for the detection of high risk HPV in cervical brushings, is applicable to cytologic specimens obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs. Materials and methods Fine needle aspirates (FNA) of cervical lymph nodes were pre-operatively obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs and evaluated for the presence of HPV using the HC-2 assay. HPV analysis was performed on the corresponding resected tissue specimens using p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HR-HPV in situ hybridization (ISH). A cost analysis was performed using the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Results HPV status of the cervical lymph node metastases was correctly classified using the HC-2 assay in 84% (21/25) of cases. Accuracy was improved to 100% when cytologic evaluation confirmed the presence of cancer cells in the test samples. The estimated cost savings to CMS using the HC-2 assay ranged from $113.74 to $364.63 per patient. Conclusions HC-2 is a reliable method for determining the HPV status of HNSCCs. Its application to HNSCCs may reduce costs by helping to localize the primary site during the diagnostic work-up as well as decrease the interval time of determining the HPV status which would be relevant for providing prognostic information to the patient as well as determining eligibility for clinical trials targeting this unique patient population. PMID:24630260

Smith, David F.; Maleki, Zahra; Coughlan, Diarmuid; Gooi, Zhen; Akpeng, Belinda; Ogawa, Takenori; Bishop, Justin A.; Frick, Kevin D.; Agrawal, Nishant; Gourin, Christine G.; Ha, Patrick K.; Koch, Wayne M.; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Westra, William H.; Pai, Sara I.

2015-01-01

246

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears), the laboratory must meet the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section. (a)...

2013-10-01

247

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears), the laboratory must meet the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section. (a)...

2010-10-01

248

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears), the laboratory must meet the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section. (a)...

2011-10-01

249

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears), the laboratory must meet the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section. (a)...

2012-10-01

250

42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears), the laboratory must meet the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section. (a)...

2014-10-01

251

Some Observations on the Morphology and Cytology of Indian Charophyta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Out of the several Indian Charophyta studied cytologically from seven States, ten taxa, five belonging to the genus Nitella and five to the genus Chara, are new records for which brief morphological descriptions have been given. Chromosome numbers in eighteen taxa are new\\u000a reports. The nuclear characters of these taxa also have been summarised. Occurrence of cytological races in N.

Ramjee; Y. S. R. K. Sarma

1971-01-01

252

Aspiration-Related Deaths in 57 Consecutive Patients: Autopsy Study  

PubMed Central

Background Aspiration can cause a diverse spectrum of pulmonary disorders some of which can lead to death but can be difficult to diagnose. Patients and Methods The medical records and autopsy findings of 57 consecutive patients in whom aspiration was the immediate cause of death at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) over a 9-yr period, from January 1 2004 to December 31 2012 were analyzed. Results The median age at death was 72 years (range, 13–95 years) and included 39 (68%) males. The most common symptom before death was dyspnea (63%) and chest radiography revealed bilateral infiltrates in the majority (81%). Most common precipitating factors for aspiration were depressed consciousness (46%) and dysphagia (44%). Aspiration-related syndromes leading to death were aspiration pneumonia in 26 (46%), aspiration pneumonitis in 25 (44%), and large airway obstruction in 6 patients (11%). Aspiration was clinically unsuspected in 19 (33%) patients. Antimicrobial therapy had been empirically administered to most patients (90%) with aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis. Conclusion We conclude aspiration-related deaths occur most commonly in the elderly with identifiable risks and presenting bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. One-third of these aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes were clinically unsuspected at the time of death. PMID:25076409

Hu, Xiaowen; Yi, Eunhee S.; Ryu, Jay H.

2014-01-01

253

Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

2012-02-01

254

Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of trachea presenting as midline neck swelling and mimicking thyroid tumor: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

We report an extremely rare case of primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) trachea presenting as midline swelling neck and mimicking thyroid tumor. A 44-year-old female presented with painless midline swelling neck without any respiratory complaints, hoarseness of voice or dysphagia etc. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from swelling reveal features of papillary carcinoma thyroid. Subsequently the operative findings, bronchoscopy and histological diagnosis of excised mass, along with review of FNAC, revealed features of ACC of trachea with exra tracheal extension anteriorly into the soft tissue neck, without actual invasion of the thyroid gland. The world literature on extension of an ACC arising in the laryngotracheal complex to thyroid or soft tissue neck and clinical manifestation as a thyroid nodule or mass is reviewed. The cytological differential diagnosis of ACC and CT findings are also briefly discussed. PMID:20931039

Nuwal, Paras; Dixit, Ramakant; Singhal, Anand K.

2010-01-01

255

Hepatic endometriosis diagnosed by liquid-based cytology: a case report.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old woman presented to Emergency Department with sudden onset of severe upper abdominal pain. T2-weighted MRI image showed a large cystic mass with a thickened wall measuring 9.5 × 9.1 × 11.2 cm in the right hepatic lobe. It was radiologically interpreted as a cystic mass with differential diagnosis including echinococcal cyst, biliary cystadenoma, and malignant neoplasm. The cystic mass was intraoperatively aspirated and a liquid-based cytology preparation (ThinPrep) and a cell block were made. The ThinPrep slides showed three dimensional clusters of epithelioid cells with scant delicate cytoplasm and tissue fragments composed of small stromal cells with round to oval shaped nuclei and a small amount of dense cytoplasm lined by the cuboidal epithelial cells. Occasional ciliated cells and abundant hemosiderin laden macrophages were also present. The cell block showed many tissue fragments containing glands and stroma with associated hemorrhage and hemosiderin laden macrophages, typical of endometrial tissue. Although it is uncommon, hepatic endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic liver mass in women, especially those with a history of endometriosis or obstetric/gynecologic surgery. PMID:23341055

Hertel, J D; Guimaraes, M; Yang, J

2014-05-01

256

Correlated immunohistochemical and cytological assays for the prediction of hematogenous dissemination of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Although metastasis is a major cause of death from breast cancer, our ability to predict which tumors will metastasize is limited (American Cancer Society 2010). Proper assessment of metastatic risk and elucidating the underlying mechanisms of metastasis will help personalize therapy and may provide insight into potential therapeutic targets. Traditionally, histologic grading, staging, hormone receptors, HER2/Neu, and proliferation assays have been the gold standard on which oncologists based their treatment decisions. However, all of these are indirect measures of metastatic risk. Recent insights from intravital imaging directly address questions of mechanism and have led to a new way of using histologic and cytologic material to assess metastatic risk. This review describes the tumor microenvironment model of invasion and intravasation, as well as an emerging histopathologic application based on this model. In particular, the authors describe a new immunohistochemical approach to the assessment of metastatic risk based on the density of intravasation microenvironment sites called the tumor microenvironment of metastasis. In addition, they describe an isoform assay for the actin regulatory protein Mena using fine needle aspiration samples and the details about how these 2 assays may be applied in clinical practice in a synergistic way to assess the risk of metastasis. PMID:22215635

Oktay, Maja H; Gertler, Frank B; Liu, Yi-Fang; Rohan, Thomas E; Condeelis, John S; Jones, Joan G

2012-03-01

257

CT-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Inferior Vena Cava Wall: A Posterior Coaxial Approach  

SciTech Connect

A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis.

Kos, Sebastian, E-mail: skos@gmx.de; Bilecen, Deniz [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology (Switzerland); Baumhoer, Daniel [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Pathology (Switzerland); Guillaume, Nicolas [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine (Switzerland); Jacob, Augustinus L. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology (Switzerland)

2010-02-15

258

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for smooth benign appearing esophageal stricture due to metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Metastatic breast cancer is an uncommon cause of esophageal stricture. We present an 80 year-old woman with past medical history of locally advanced breast cancer who admitted for evaluation of dysphagia. Barium swallow (i.g. esophageal fluoroscopy) demon-strated moderate irregular narrowing in the distal thoracic esophagus. Endoscopy revealed distal esophageal stricture with normal esophageal mucosa and computed tomography demonstrated thickened wall in the distal esophagus and the proximal stomach. Endoscopic biopsy of esophagus revealed no malignancy. Thus, we performed endoscopic ultrasound-guide fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and cytological results were consistent with metastatic breast cancer. Diagnosis of malignant esophageal stricture due to metastasis from other primary is often challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. EUS-FNA is an alternative diagnostic technique in such cases when endoscopic biopsy fails to obtain adequate specimen. PMID:24949363

Suzuki, Rei; Singh, Harvinder; Ramireddy, Srinivas; Ross, William A; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

2013-01-01

259

Enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma in cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome: Fine-needle aspiration contributes to the diagnosis.  

PubMed

Cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome (CMLNS) is an infrequently reported manifestation of unrecognized/longstanding celiac disease and may be associated with enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma and hyposplenism. Unrecognized malignancy and life-threatening infections can pose a significant risk to patients in cases of delayed diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration of the mesenteric lesions may contribute significantly to the correct diagnosis and can expedite patient management. We report on the cytologic characteristics of enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma first detected in a cyst fluid specimen obtained from a patient with cavitating mesenteric lesions. Image-guided fine-needle aspiration resulted in chylous fluid that contained a lymphoid cell population with neoplastic morphology and abnormal immunophenotype. Further work-up led to the diagnosis of enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma with bone marrow involvement. Cytologic assessment of the cyst fluid is an important part of the diagnostic cascade in patients with CMLNS to exclude clinically occult lymphoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:125-130. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24610808

Schwock, Joerg; Hyjek, Elizabeth M; Torlakovic, Emina E; Geddie, William R

2015-02-01

260

Percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions; fine needle aspiration biopsy versus core biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the results and complication rate in CT guided percutaneous trans-thoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and core biopsies of lung lesions, and to determine the applicability of these needles. Patients and methods In 242 patients (166 males; 76 females) with mean age of 58.9 years (13–84 years) CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were performed on dual slice CT equipment. The average diameter of lung lesion was 2.9 cm (1.2–6.3 cm). For FNAB’s 20 – 22 G Chiba needles and for core biopsies 14 G biopsy needles were used. The samples were sent for the histological analysis. The cytological or histological results and the eventual complications were compared. Results FNAB’s cytological samples were adequate for definitive diagnosis in 117 patients (79.60 %) and inadequate in 30 patients (20.40 %). Core biopsies samples were adequate in 92 (96.85 %) patients and non- representative (necrotic tissue) in 3 (3.15 %). Pneumothorax as the most frequent complication was detected in 14 (9.7 %) of the patients in the group of FNAB’s and in 30 (31.5 %) of the patients with the core biopsy group. Conclusions The results showed that percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were an effective and safe procedure in the diagnosis of lung lesions. Core biopsy gives a higher percentage of representative samples than FNAB, and is a preferred method regardless of the higher rate of complications. PMID:22933975

Beslic, Serif; Zukic, Fuad; Milisic, Selma

2012-01-01

261

Diagnostic impact of color Doppler ultrasound-guided core biopsy on fine-needle aspiration of anterior mediastinal masses.  

PubMed

Although lymphoma and thymoma are common etiologies of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs), smaller percentages and numbers of patients with these diseases have been enrolled in previous ultrasound-guided biopsy studies. To date, there has been no study of color Doppler sonographic features to support the differentiation of AMMs. For this retrospective cohort study, a search of the database of the China Medical University Hospital using the clinical coding "ultrasound-guided biopsy" was conducted for the period December 2003 to February 2013. We selected patients diagnosed with AMMs (not cysts) using radiographic records. This search yielded a list of 80 cases. Real-time ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) was performed in all but 5 patients without a sufficient safety range. In 89% (67/75) of these ultrasound-guided CNB cases, the diagnostic accuracy achieved subclassification. Fine-needle aspiration cytology achieved subclassification in only 10% of cases. On color Doppler sonography, 71% of lymphomas were characterized as "rich vascular with central/crisscross collocations" and 29% as "avascular or localized/scattered peripheral vessels." However, decreased proportions of "rich vascular with central/crisscross collocations" were found in lung cancer (4% [1/23], odds ratio = 0.018, 95% confidence interval: 0.002-0.154, p < 0.001) and thymoma/thymic carcinoma (25% [4/16]; odds ratio = 0.133, 95% confidence interval: 0.035-0.514, p = 0.003) compared with the lymphoma group. We conclude that the vessels in lymphoma AMMs have specific patterns on color Doppler sonography. Ultrasound-guided CNB of AMMs had an accuracy of ?89% in diagnosis and subclassification. Fine-needle aspiration cytology itself cannot aid in the diagnosis. Color Doppler sonographic evaluation of AMMs followed by real-time CNB is a more efficient method. PMID:25261906

Chen, Hung-Jen; Liao, Wei-Chih; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Li, Chia-Hsiang; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Wu-Huei

2014-12-01

262

The importance of urgent cytological examination of synovial fluids in differentiation inflammatory and non-inflammatory joint diseases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to imply the possibilities of the urgent cytological examination of synovial fluids in differential diagnosis of arthropathies and to motivate the clinicians to use this method. It gave valuable information particularly with respect to differentiate the inflammatory and non-inflammatory joint diseases. This study included 115 synovial fluids obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the swollen knee from the patients in the period between 2003 and 2008. At our department the urgent cytological examination of the synovial fluids consisted of macroscopic analysis that includes volume, colour, clarity, viscosity and mucin clot test, native microscopic analysis for crystals and tissue fragments, counting the total nucleated cell count and semiquantitative microscopic analysis for neutrophil granulocyte percentage on the slides stained with Hemacolor rapid staining. All cytological analyses were done within one hour since FNA. According to our results the clarity, viscosity, mucin clot test, the total nucleated cell count and the neutrophil granulocyte percentage enabled distinction between inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases with statistically significant difference at the 0.01 level but we could not differentiate these two groups of illnesses according to volume and colour. In inflammation the total nucleated cell count and the neutrophil granulocyte percentage was greater than in non-inflammation, the clarity was only translucent and opaque, the viscosity was low and the mucin clot test was negative. In non-inflammatory diseases the clarity varied from transparent to opaque, the total nucleated cell count and the neutrophil granulocyte percentage was smaller than in inflammatory diseases, the viscosity was high and consequently the mucin test was highly positive in all samples. Crystals were detected in only 12 samples of synovial fluids, mostly in inflammation and they were all monosodium urate (MUS) so we could diagnose gout. We could conclude that the urgent cytological analysis of the synovial fluid is a very useful, simple and reliable basic diagnostic screening test in differentiation inflammatory and non-inflammatory joint diseases and we recommended using it as the initial test in the diagnostic procedure of these illnesses using our protocol. PMID:20432743

Ostovi?, Karmen Trutin; Kai?, Gordana; Ostovi?, Ines; Skoro, Marija; Novak, Nina-Petra; Morovi?-Vergles, Jadranka

2010-03-01

263

Molecular analysis of cyst fluid aspiration in the diagnosis and risk assessment of cystic lesions of the pancreas.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cyst detection is increasing largely due to increasing use of cross-sectional imaging. The management of pancreatic cysts differs for true cysts, pseudocysts, mucinous cysts, nonmucinous cysts, and malignant lesions. Depending on the setting, diagnostic tests, such as cross-sectional imaging, endoscopic ultrasound, cyst fluid chemistry, and cytology, have moderate accuracy in characterizing the cyst subtype. Molecular analysis of cyst fluid aspirates has shown promise in preliminary studies and may require smaller fluid volumes than is needed for carcinoembryonic antigen level and cytology. This article reviews published studies in which molecular analysis was performed in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts. The molecular studies are compared with the conventional tests. Most studies have had moderate sample sizes (16-124) and have characterized a high proportion of patients with malignant cysts. Evaluation of molecular analysis as a diagnostic tool merits larger prospective trials with long-term follow-up of patients who are not sent to surgery. Larger cysts may meet size criteria for resection, and it is the smaller cysts for which molecular analysis may be of benefit if additional molecular testing results in a change in management. PMID:22376266

Garud, Sagar S; Willingham, Field F

2012-02-01

264

Evaluation of cytologic screening results of the cervix.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively cytologic screening for cancers and precancerous lesions of the cervix and to research whether biopsy is overused among women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). We examined 28 469 smears obtained over 5 years. The patients were referred when the result of the smear was abnormal for a colposcopic biopsy, endocervical curettage, or a repeat Papanicolaou smear. The results of the screening of 28 469 smears are as follows: 699 (2.45%) ASCUS, 67 (0.23%) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), 43 (0.15%) high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL), 1 epidermoid carcinoma, 31 (0.10%) atypical glandular cells, and 1 adenocarcinoma. Histologic examination of the cervix was done in 119 patients (17.0%) of ASCUS, 13 patients (10.9%) of LGSIL, and 15 patients (12.6%) of HGSIL and cervical carcinoma. In the 119 women with histological examination, histologic examination was generally performed in patients with ASCUS neoplastic Papanicolaou smear, and histologic diagnosis of low-grade, high-grade, or invasive lesion of the cervix was made in 23.5% of women with ASCUS; in these patients, 46.4% were cytologic LGSIL and 53.5 % were cytologic HGSIL and cervical carcinoma. In the aspect of these findings, we concluded that for patients with a cytologic diagnosis of ASCUS, more aggressive interventions should be performed. PMID:15823114

Yalti, S; Gürbüz, B; Bilgiç, R; Cakar, Y; Eren, S

2005-01-01

265

[Previous cytology in patients with carcinoma of the cervix].  

PubMed

The cytologic history of 317 patients with uterine cancer, in a mass survey using mobile units, was reviewed. They included 152 cases of carcinoma in situ of the cervix, 151 cases of invasive epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix, 11 cases of adenocarcinoma of the cervix, one case of verrucous squamous cell carcinoma and 2 cases of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. There was no history of cytology in 17.1% of CIS or in 29.8% of invasive epidermoid carcinoma in the preceding 3 years (same order in the following); in the preceding 5 years the figures were 24.3% and 23.6% respectively. Suspicious or positive cytology noted more than once were 22.2% and 21.7% in the preceding 3 years, and 24.3% and 23.6% of the cases in the preceding 5 years. At least 2 negative Papanicolaou smears were 19.1% and 20.5% in the preceding 3 years, and 28.3% and 28.5% of the cases in the preceding 5 years. The yearly rate of suspicious and/or positive cytology in the preceding 5 years fluctuated between 13.5% and 30.4% in CIS, and between 9.1% and 23.0% in invasive epidermoid carcinoma. They showed no significant rise or trend. Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma as well as adenocarcinoma of the cervix and of the endometrium not infrequently showed successive negative cytology. PMID:3782952

Hando, T; Sugimori, H; Higashiiwai, H; Kuroshima, Y; Nishiya, I; Sugimoto, O

1986-10-01

266

Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.  

PubMed

Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

2014-09-01

267

Foreign body aspiration: a life-threatening situation.  

PubMed

Foreign body aspiration is a life-threatening event, especially in children. In Pakistan, foreign body aspiration in children with betel nuts is a common emergency in the perioperative area. Health awareness of parents, teachers, caretakers, and health care providers can play a significant role in reducing the risk of this life-threatening event. This article describes a case report of a 2½ year old boy who presented in the perioperative area with a betel nut aspiration. PMID:25616886

Lalani, Sharifa Bashir

2015-02-01

268

Indications for renal fine needle aspiration biopsy in the era of modern imaging modalities  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has become an uncommon procedure in the era of renal helical computed tomography (CT), which has high diagnostic accuracy in the characterization of renal cortical lesions. This study investigates the current indications for renal FNAB. Having knowledge of the specific clinico-radiologic scenario that led to the FNAB, cytopathologists are better equipped to expand or narrow down their differential diagnosis. Materials and Methods: All renal FNABs performed during a 6 year interval were retrieved. Indication for the procedure was determined from the clinical notes and radiology reports. Results: Forty six renal FNABs were retrieved from 43 patients (14 females and 29 males with a mean age of 52 years [range, 4-81 years]). Twenty one cases (45.6%) were performed under CT-guidance and 25 cases (54.4%) under US-guidance. There were four distinct indications for renal FNAB: (1) solid renal masses with atypical radiological features or poorly characterized on imaging studies due to lack of intravenous contrast or body habitus (30.2%); (2) confirmation of radiologically suspected renal cell carcinoma in inoperable patients (advanced stage disease or poor surgical candidate status) (27.9%); (3) kidney mass in a patient with a prior history of other malignancy (27.9%); and (4) miscellaneous (drainage of abscess, indeterminate cystic lesion, urothelial carcinoma) (14.0%). 36 patients (83.7%) received a specific diagnosis based on renal FNAB cytology. Conclusions: Currently, renal fine needle aspiration remains a useful diagnostic tool in selected clinico-radiologic scenarios. PMID:23976896

Dragoescu, Ema A; Liu, Lina

2013-01-01

269

Silent aspiration: results of 2,000 video fluoroscopic evaluations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this retrospective study of aspiration and the lack of a protective cough reflex at the vocal folds (silent aspiration) was to increase the awareness of nursing staffs of the diagnostic pathology groups associated with silent aspiration. Of the 2,000 patients evaluated in this study, 51% aspirated on the video fluoroscopic evaluation. Of the patients who aspirated, 55% had no protective cough reflex (silent aspiration). The diagnostic pathology groups with the highest rates of silent aspiration were brain cancer, brainstem stroke, head-neck cancer, pneumonia, dementia/Alzheimer, chronic obstructive lung disease, seizures, myocardial infarcts, neurodegenerative pathologies, right hemisphere stroke, closed head injury, and left hemisphere stroke. It is of high concern that the diagnostic groups identified in this research as having the highest risk of silent aspiration be viewed as "red-flag" patients by the nursing staff caring for them. Early nursing dysphagia screens, with close attention to the clinical symptoms associated with silent aspiration, and early referral for formal dysphagia evaluation are stressed. PMID:19678503

Garon, Bernard R; Sierzant, Tess; Ormiston, Charles

2009-08-01

270

A low-hemolysis blood aspirator conserves blood during surgery.  

PubMed

Blood damage caused by traditional vacuum-operated suction tubes, particularly when air is aspirated along with the blood, usually exceeds damage from all other components. In addition to platelet injury, there is a high degree of hemolysis, which leads to high plasma hemoglobin levels and reduces the number of red blood cells available for reinfusion during cases of blood conservation, such as autologous transfusion and cardiac bypass. This work was undertaken to minimize hemolysis, and the accompanying platelet destruction, during aspiration, with the design of a jet-driven aspirator that separates and removes air from blood immediately within the suction tip. The jet-driven aspirator can suction blood at a range of rates from 100 to at least 700 ml/min, separates and removes 80-100% of aspirated air, operates at any orientation, and generates subatmospheric pressures on the order of only 1 inch H2O. In-vitro hemolysis testing showed a significant reduction in average plasma hemoglobin release, from 19.4 mg/dl to 1.8 mg/dl, when air was removed during blood aspiration. In comparative testing with a conventional vacuum suction tube, the jet-driven aspirator showed significantly less hemolysis than the conventional aspirator at comparable rates of air and blood aspiration. PMID:7496409

Clague, C T; Blackshear, P L

1995-01-01

271

Concentration of Lymph Node Aspirate Improves the Sensitivity of Acid Fast Smear Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Result Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. Conclusion The concentration of lymph node aspirates for acid fast smear microscopy had significantly higher sensitivity than direct microscopy. PMID:25184279

Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen

2014-01-01

272

The practical use of cytology for diagnosis in dermatology.  

PubMed

Exfoliative cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in Dermatology despite the rapid and reliable results which this procedure can offer in many clinical conditions. This simple procedure may prove advantageous in a wide range of skin diseases, including genodermatoses (Hailey-Hailey disease), infections (mainly herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis), immune disorders (early oral pemphigus) and tumours (basal and squamous cell carcinomas, Paget disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, and others). The specific circumstances where cytological examination provides a very helpful and practical aid to confirmation or exclusion of a clinically suspected diagnosis are briefly reviewed. Cytological patterns, along with some technical hints on how to take and stain Tzanck smears correctly, are described in connection with the diseases considered. PMID:20553359

Ruocco, E; Brunetti, G; Del Vecchio, M; Ruocco, V

2011-02-01

273

[Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].  

PubMed

There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Dr?gan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocm?reanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

1999-01-01

274

Diagnostic impression cytology: a simple technique for the diagnosis of external eye disease.  

PubMed

The technique of impression cytology was used for cytologic examination of conjunctival samples from 128 patients with a variety of external eye diseases. The method of sample collection and the staining procedure are described. Microscopic examination showed 62 cases with allergic conjunctivitis, 23 with bacterial or viral infection, 26 cases with changes typical of dry eye and 17 cases with non-specific chronic inflammation. The cytologic features and numerous applications of impression cytology are discussed. PMID:9439889

Divani, S N; Margari, C; Zikos, G A; Zikos, A; Papavassiliou, G B

1997-12-01

275

Bronchial wash cytology: A study on morphology and morphometry  

PubMed Central

Background: Bronchial wash cytology of lung lesions is a non/minimally invasive procedure utilized for diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial wash cytology in the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary lesions and assess the role of morphometry in categorizing dysplastic/malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: All cases of bronchial wash cytology received from January 2006 to June 2010 were retrieved and reviewed. Cases with adequate clinical data or a subsequent biopsy were selected for the study and cytodiagnosis was correlated with available clinical details. Morphometry was done on alcohol fixed hematoxylin and eosin stained cytosmears using computer assisted Image Pro software. Results: One hundred and seventy-six cases of the 373 cases of bronchial cytology received were included for the study. Bronchial wash cytology technique showed high specificity. Cytohistopathology correlation showed 62.06% concordance rate. Cells from normal epithelium, reactive atypia, neoplastic atypia, squamous metaplasia, non-small cell and small cell carcinoma showed a mean nuclear diameter of 7.4 ?m, 11.7 ?m, 13.9 ?m, 13.0 ?m, 10.7 ?m, and 17.7 ?m, respectively, which was statistically significant with P < 0.05. Multiple comparisons between various groups using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests also showed remarkable statistical significance. Conclusions: Bronchial wash cytology has low sensitivity in detecting pulmonary lesions. It can be of value in patients with contraindication for biopsy. Morphometry can be a useful adjunct to cytomorphology, especially in situations where biopsy is contraindicated. PMID:25210231

Rao, Shalinee; Rao, Shivani; Lal, Archana; Barathi, Gunabooshanam; Dhanasekar, Thangaswamy; Duvuru, Prathiba

2014-01-01

276

Assessment of EGFR and K-ras mutations in fixed and fresh specimens from transesophageal ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in non-small cell lung cancer patients.  

PubMed

In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, somatic EGFR and K-ras mutations predict therapeutic effectiveness and resistance, respectively, to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Transesophageal ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a validated technique for diagnosis and staging of NSCLC. In the present study, we compared the feasibility and reliability of EGFR and K-ras gene mutation analysis in fixed and fresh mediastinal lymph nodes and extra-lymph nodal samples obtained by EUS-FNA in patients suspicious for NSCLC. Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the study. For each patient, DNA was extracted from both fresh samples and fixed cytological smears. Exons 18-21 of EGFR and exon 2 of K-ras were amplified by PCR and mutation status was determined by direct sequencing and pyrosequencing. All cases were eligible for analysis. NSCLC was diagnosed in 32 patients (25 adenocarcinomas and 7 squamous cell carcinomas) and 4 patients were free of malignancy. Of the 25 patients with adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations were detected in 2 (8%) fresh tumor samples and in 3 (12%) fixed cytological smears. K-ras mutations were detected in 8 (32%) fresh samples, and in 9 (36%) fixed cytological smears. Fixed and stained cytological samples seem to be more reliable than fresh material for molecular analysis. PMID:22504767

Ulivi, Paola; Romagnoli, Micaela; Chiadini, Elisa; Casoni, Gian-Luca; Capelli, Laura; Gurioli, Carlo; Zoli, Wainer; Saragoni, Luca; Dubini, Alessandra; Tesei, Anna; Amadori, Dino; Poletti, Venerino

2012-07-01

277

Human papillomavirus ‘reflex’ testing as a screening method in cases of minor cytological abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) ‘reflex genotyping’ in cases of minor cytological abnormalities detected in the gynaecological screening programme in Stockholm, Sweden. Liquid-based cytology samples showing minor cytological abnormalities were analysed using HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche diagnostics). Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were obtained and the HPV test results were correlated with the histological results. In all,

M Fröberg; B Johansson; A Hjerpe; S Andersson

2008-01-01

278

Fine needle aspiration of primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma: cytomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study.  

PubMed

The cytologic diagnosis of synovial sarcoma (SS) can be difficult when it occurs in unusual locations, atypical age groups, and/or have unusual morphology. We report a case of primary mediastinal SS in a 65-year-old male with a long smoking history who presented with increasing shortness of breath and was found to have a 14.2 cm mediastinal mass. Smears from the endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of the mass were moderately cellular consisting of loosely cohesive clusters, some of which demonstrated nuclear molding, and dispersed single cells. The relatively uniform tumor cells had a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, finely granular chromatin, and inconspicuous nucleoli. Some of the single cells had spindled morphology with unipolar wispy tails and naked nuclei. Based on the clinical presentation and the cytomorphologic features, our initial differential diagnoses included atypical carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. Immunohistochemical studies on the cell block sections revealed that the tumor cells were focally positive for cytokeratin and diffusely positive for CD56, while negative for CD45, synaptophysin and chromogranin. Ultimately, an immunohistochemical stain for TLE-1 demonstrated diffusely strong nuclear positivity and molecular studies showed the presence of the t(X; 18) SYT/SSX1 translocation confirming the diagnosis of SS. In this report, we describe the cytomorphologic features of SS, its diagnostic pitfalls, and potential mimics in the mediastinum. PMID:24436244

Huang, Cheng Cheng; Michael, Claire W; Pang, Judy C

2014-02-01

279

Undergraduate Aspirations and Career Choice: Effects of College Selectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data analyzed in this paper are drawn from a number of past studies dealing with the effects of college selectivity upon undergraduate aspirations. Reexamination of previous studies and secondary analysis of data leads the author to conclude that aspirations and career-field choice should not be treated as interchangeable measures because…

Reitz, Jeffrey G.

1975-01-01

280

Sociological Theory and Youth Aspiration Research: A Critical Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewing sociological theories relative to youth aspiration research, the following thesis was presented: "pre-path analysis aspiration research was characterized by a person-centered, middle-range functionalist approach which eventually shifted to a person-centered, functionalist-system approach with the introduction of the path model…

Picou, J. Steven; Wells, Richard H.

281

The Indiana Principalship: Perceptions of Principals, Aspiring Principals, and Superintendents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals, aspiring principals, and superintendents completed surveys investigating the state of the principalship in Indiana. Respondents rank-ordered selected skills and personal traits necessary to succeed as school principals. Perceived barriers for principal candidates were compared by group. A total of 581 principals, 55 aspiring

Malone, Bobby G.; Sharp, William; Thompson, Jay C., Jr.

282

Stability of Career Aspirations: A Longitudinal Test of Gottfredson's Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gottfredson's theory of the career compromise process was evaluated using a longitudinal data set of 2,353 female and 321 male students recruited for Zuckerman's "Seven College Study," who reported their career aspirations twice over a 1-year period. Expressed career aspirations were coded on the dimensions of sex type, prestige, and the…

Junk, Kate E.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

2010-01-01

283

Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Latino Youth and Their Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In-depth interviews of 10 rural Latino family triads (mother, father, and adolescent) investigated the educational and occupational aspirations of parents and youth, and factors affecting those aspirations. Using a content analysis of the interview scripts, several themes emerged that described these families' experiences. In some instances,…

Behnke, Andrew O.; Piercy, Kathleen W.; Diversi, Marcelo

2004-01-01

284

Leaving home: ;;The housing aspirations of young disabled people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the housing experiences and aspirations of young disabled people in Scotland. Those who leave the family home in crisis experience several housing moves before settling; those who leave in a planned way tend to stay in their first home. Young people aspiring to leave the parental home are limited to a social housing tenancy, as a result

Jo Dean

2003-01-01

285

Effects of aspiration on public cooperation in structured populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a deterministic win-stay-lose-shift rule into the spatial public goods game, according to which a player will change its current strategy only if its payoff is below a predefined aspiration level. Simulation results on the square lattice and scale-free network indicate that the aspiration level greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. For small multiplication factors, the frequency of cooperation increases to 0.5 as the aspiration level increases. For large multiplication factors, intermediate levels of aspiration prove optimal for the successful evolution of public cooperation. Some qualitative analyses are provided to explain the above results. Besides, we have found that there exists a ping-pong vibration of cooperation at some specific values of multiplication factors and aspiration levels.

Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Lu, Pei-Min; Zeng, Yong-Zhi

2012-08-01

286

The Astrophysics Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.

Callahan, J.

287

The Value of Cervical Cytology in HIV-Infected Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of cytology to predict the results of colposcopically directed cervical biopsies in HIV-infected women. We performed a case-control study of 52 HIV(+), 31% of whom had AIDS, and 57 HIV(-) women referred to two tertiary care centers for colposcopy from July 1991 to November 1993. All 57 HIV(-) controls and

Giuseppe Del Priore; Terry Maag; Mondira Bhattacharya; Patricia M. Garcia; Michele Till; John R. Lurain

1995-01-01

288

KRAS testing on colo-rectal carcinoma cytological imprints.  

PubMed

Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab, and panitumumab, are administrated under the condition that advanced colo-rectal cancer (CRC) carries a wild-type KRAS gene. Thus, clinicians request pathologists to genotype KRAS before treatment. In the near future routine mutation testing at the same time of the surgery may be implemented. The reliability of a rapid KRAS testing on ex vivo cytological samples obtained by direct scraping of the colon tumour tissue is here evaluated. A consecutive series of 20 surgically resected, primary CRC specimens was analysed. Fresh tissue from CRC was scraped with a scalpel blade, smeared on uncoated glass slides, air-dried and Diff-Quik stained to ensure malignant cell presence. The same tissue area was also histologically processed. Exon 2 KRAS gene mutations were evaluated on both cytological and histological specimens by dideoxy sequencing and by the DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit (DxS, Manchester, England). Data obtained on on imprint cytology and matched histological samples showed full concordance; however, the mutation frequency was slightly higher (35%) by the DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit than by the dideoxy sequencing (30%). Thus, colon cancer imprint cytology sample is a reliable biospecimen for both dideoxy-sequencing and DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit analysis and it may be useful to abbreviate the KRAS assay turnaround time. PMID:20607679

Malapelle, Umberto; Bellevicine, Claudio; Russo, Anna; Salatiello, Maria; Palombini, Lucio; Troncone, Giancarlo

2011-04-01

289

Cytology of Morcellated Renal Specimens: Significance in Diagnosis and Dissemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeControversy surrounds the process of morcellation for retrieving laparoscopically removed specimens. The inability to assess tumor stage, increased difficulty in pathological examination and the potential for tumor spillage are cited as significant disadvantages of the technique. We examined cytological findings in bag washings after laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign and malignant diseases.

MAXWELL V. MENG; THEODORE R. MILLER; IMOK CHA; MARSHALL L. STOLLER

2003-01-01

290

Lavage of cytology of the renal pelvis and ureter with special reference to tumors.  

PubMed

Lavage cytology was done in 101 patients with radiological filling defects in the ureter and renal pelvis. This simple and inexpensive technique is valuable in the preoperative diagnosis of tumors of the ureter and renal pelvis. In our series it was possible to recognize clearly 29 of 36 such tumors (80.5 per cent) through preoperative lavage cytology. No falsely positive diagnoses were made. Lavage cytology failed in 6 patients with hypernephroma. The diagnostic reliability of lavage cytology with urothelial tumors is far greater than that of exfoliative urine cytology and reaches almost equally good results as brush biopsy. PMID:7452779

Leistenschneider, W; Nagel, R

1980-11-01

291

CT Pulmonary Findings in Healthy Older Adult Aspirators versus Nonaspirators  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis In previous studies, we consistently found that approximately 30% of asymptomatic healthy older adults silently aspirated liquids during a flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), and that their aspiration status was stable for the following year. However, no studies have systematically evaluated effects of silent aspiration on lung parenchyma and airways. We used computed tomography (CT) to compare lungs of healthy older adult aspirators versus nonaspirators. We hypothesized that CT images would show pulmonary differences in healthy older adult aspirators versus nonaspirators. Study Design Prospective study. Methods Fifty healthy older adults (25 aspirators and 25 nonaspirators) who participated in a previous FEES were randomly selected. CT scans were performed; on inspiration, lung views were taken at 1.25 mm and 2.5 mm windows; on expiration, lung views were taken at 2.5 mm. CT scans were reviewed by radiologists blinded to group assignment. Outcomes included bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis, bronchial wall thickening, parenchymal band, fibrosis, air trapping, intraluminal airway debris, and tree-in-bud pattern. Results Chi-square analyses between aspirators and nonaspirators found no statistically significant differences between aspirators and nonaspirators for any outcomes (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for smoking did not change the results. Conclusion(s) There were no differences in pulmonary CT findings between healthy older adult aspirators and nonaspirators. This study adds to the evidence that some aspiration may be within the range of normal for older adults, or at least does not contribute to a change in pulmonary appearance on CT images. PMID:23832617

Butler, Susan G.; Clark, Hollins; Baginski, Scott G.; Todd, J. Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine; Leng, Xiaoyan

2013-01-01

292

Foreign Body Aspiration Presenting with Asthma-Like Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Aspiration of a foreign body into the tracheobronchial tree is rare in adults. In the majority of these cases there is an underlying condition such as mental retardation, depressed mental status, impairment in the swallowing reflex, neurological impairment, alcohol or sedative abuse, or complications from dental manipulations that contributed to the aspiration. These patients are commonly misdiagnosed with asthma and typically do not respond to mainstay anti-inflammatory and/or bronchodilator therapy. We describe the case of a patient with a foreign body aspiration in the upper trachea not recognized by radiographic studies that presented with asthma-type symptoms. PMID:24454397

Kam, Jennifer C.; Doraiswamy, Vikram; Dieguez, Javier F.; Govind, Mayur; Miller, Richard; Adelman, Marc

2013-01-01

293

Granulomatous inflammation and organizing pneumonia: Role of computed tomography-guided lung fine needle aspirations, touch preparations and core biopsies in the evaluation of common non-neoplastic diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Background: Fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) and core biopsies (CBs), with or without touch preparations (TPs), are performed to characterize pulmonary lesions. Although a positive (P) or suspicious report is sufficient for further management, the significance of unsatisfactory (U), negative (N) and atypical (A) cytological diagnoses remains uncertain. The aims of the study were to correlate U, N and A cytological diagnoses with histological and/or clinical/radiological follow-up and evaluate the utility of FNAs, TPs and CBs. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective search and examined 30 consecutive computed tomography-guided transthoracic U, N and A lung FNAs (n = 23) and TPs (n = 7) with surgical pathology (SP) (n = 17) and/or clinical/radiological follow-up (n = 13) and compared them to 10 SP-confirmed P FNAs, which served as controls. Results: The 30 FNAs and TPs were from 29 patients. All 6 U specimens were scantly cellular. Granulomas, the most common specific benign cytological diagnosis, were evident in 8 (of 13) and 7 (of 11) N and A cytology cases, respectively. Histology corroborated the presence of granulomas identified on cytology. Organizing pneumonia was the second leading benign specific diagnosis (5/17), but it was rendered on histology (n = 5) and not FNAs or TPs. Evaluation of the A cases revealed that type II pneumocytes were the source of “atypical”, diagnoses often associated with granulomas or organizing pneumonia and lacked 3-D clusters evident in all P cases. Discussion: U, N and A FNAs and TPs lacked 3-D clusters seen in carcinomas and were negative on follow-up. Granulomas and organizing pneumonia were the most common specific benign diagnoses, but the latter was recognized on histology only. In the absence of a definitive FNA result at the time of on-site assessment, a CB with a TP containing type II pneumocytes increases the likelihood of a specific benign diagnosis. PMID:24678338

Saqi, Anjali; Coley, Shana M.; Crapanzano, John P.

2014-01-01

294

Grading of EUS-FNA cytologic specimens from patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: it is time move to tissue core biopsy?  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (p-NENs) are rare and characterized by an indolent course, with a much better prognosis than non-neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. In the non-functional class of p-NENS, surgery remains the only curative treatment for early localized disease, but there are few therapeutic options for advanced disease. The prognosis of non-functional p-NENs is determined by many clinical criteria. In 2010, however, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a grading system in which determination of the Ki-67 proliferative index has become essential with key role in determining therapeutic decision in both advanced and early diseases. Conventionally, Ki-67 has been assessed on surgical specimens. In last decade, however, the availability of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has provided the opportunity to sample pancreatic lesions and to assess the value of this parameter pre-operatively. The few studies reporting the use of EUS-FNA cytological specimens for Ki-67 measurement showed promising results. As shown by Weynand and colleagues FNA-cytology may underestimate the staging and caution in using this method to classify tumors as low-grade (G1) should be adopted. Thus, Ki-67 expression on cytological specimens remains unsatisfactory and the need for tissue biopsy specimens has been strongly advocated. Based on a recent study that has reported a high concordance of EUS-guided core biopsy for histologic examination and surgical specimens, especially when a cut-off of 5% is used to differentiate G1 and G2 tumors, EUS tissue acquisition by core biopsy is ready for prime time and should be adopted as a standard of practice. PMID:25493252

Vinayek, Rakesh; Capurso, Gabriele

2014-01-01

295

Variations in Molecular Profile in NSCLC Can Be Analyzed Using Cytological Samples: Development of EGFR Resistance Mutations and Coexistence of ALK-EML4 Translocation in an EGFR-Sensitive Patient.  

PubMed

As a result of therapeutic advances, a revolution is taking place in the lung cancer field with major implications for pathologic diagnosis and tissue management. We report a case of a non-small cell lung carcinoma patient with coexistence of EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 rearrangements that responded to EGFR inhibitors and in which the development of a new resistance mutation in exon 20 of EGFR-determined treatment resistance. All the molecular determinations were performed in cytological samples. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported with these characteristics, and the 11th case described with coexistence of EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 rearrangements. The EGFR L858R mutation in exon 21 was found at diagnosis, and the patient presented a 4-year response to erlotinib. On progression, the T790M resistance mutation in the EGFR exon 20 was also confirmed in cytological samples. At this point, fluorescence in situ hybridization also detected ALK-EML4 translocation. This case emphasizes the usefulness of cytological samples for molecular analysis in lung adenocarcinoma, as well as the relevance of repeating biopsies/fine-needle aspirations in tumor recurrences to assess the mutation profile of the disease. PMID:24942894

Lozano, Maria D; Labiano, Tania; Zudaire, Isabel; Subtil, Jose C; Gúrpide, Alfonso; Echeveste, Jose I; Zulueta, Javier J; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Pérez-Gracia, Jose L

2014-06-17

296

Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

2011-01-01

297

School Principal Expertise: Putting Expert-Aspiring Principal Differences in Problem Solving Processes to the Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on differences between expert and aspiring principals. Following the work of Leithwood and colleagues, we asked expert and aspiring principals to respond to ill-structured written problem scenarios. Our sample of 44 included 20 expert principals and 24 aspiring principals. The aspiring principals were from a cohort of…

Spillane, James P.; White, Kathryn Weitz; Stephan, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

298

Multiplex Cytological Profiling Assay to Measure Diverse Cellular States  

PubMed Central

Computational methods for image-based profiling are under active development, but their success hinges on assays that can capture a wide range of phenotypes. We have developed a multiplex cytological profiling assay that “paints the cell” with as many fluorescent markers as possible without compromising our ability to extract rich, quantitative profiles in high throughput. The assay detects seven major cellular components. In a pilot screen of bioactive compounds, the assay detected a range of cellular phenotypes and it clustered compounds with similar  annotated protein targets or chemical structure based on cytological profiles. The results demonstrate that the assay captures subtle patterns in the combination of morphological labels, thereby detecting the effects of chemical compounds even though their targets are not stained directly. This image-based assay provides an unbiased approach to characterize compound- and disease-associated cell states to support future probe discovery. PMID:24312513

Sokolnicki, Katherine L.; Anthony Wilson, J.; Walpita, Deepika; Kemp, Melissa M.; Petri Seiler, Kathleen; Carrel, Hyman A.; Golub, Todd R.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Clemons, Paul A.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Shamji, Alykhan F.

2013-01-01

299

Diagnosis of Thymic Clear Cell Carcinoma by Cytology  

PubMed Central

Clear cell carcinoma of the thymus is a rare tumor. Few cases of clear-cell carcinoma of thymus have been documented (Truong et al., 1990 and Wolfe III et al., 1983). All these cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the tissue. Diagnosis of thymic clear cell carcinoma on cytology is extremely challenging. Here we report the first case of thymic clear cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytological examination of the pericardial fluid with the help of immunocytochemistry. Differential diagnosis included adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and thymic clear cell carcinoma. Thymic carcinoma with clear cell features has an aggressive clinical behavior including our case, where it was already metastasized at the time of presentation. PMID:24175107

Lale, Seema A.; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G.; Aziz, Mohamed

2013-01-01

300

Computerized Diagnosis of Breast Fine-Needle Aspirates  

E-print Network

- tem calculates 10 nuclear size, shape, and textural fea- tures and reports their mean, standard errors. The aspirated material was expressed onto a silane-coated glass slide. A similar slide was placed face

Street, Nick

301

Nipple Aspirate Test Is No Substitute for Mammogram  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol Nipple Aspirate Test is No Substitute for Mammogram Search the Consumer Updates Section ... Many women admit that getting a mammogram is no fun, and may wish there was an easier, ...

302

STRIVING TOWARD THE FUTURE: ASPIRATION-PERFORMANCE DISCREPANCIES  

E-print Network

in organization theory. Theorists in the organizational learning tradition view organizational change as being1 STRIVING TOWARD THE FUTURE: ASPIRATION-PERFORMANCE DISCREPANCIES AND PLANNED ORGANIZATIONAL PARZEN Associate Professor of Decision and Information Analysis Goizueta Business School Emory University

Parzen, Michael

303

Psammoma bodies in endometriosis: clinical, cytological, and physiopathological implications.  

PubMed

This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of the cytological observation of psammoma bodies in an endometrioma. Psammoma bodies are laminated, calcified spherites, commonly associated with meningiomas, ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas, and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Many other pathologic processes can produce dystrophic calcification in the form of psammoma bodies. The physiopathological theories of the origin of dystrophic calcification and psammoma bodies will be discussed. The most promising theory implicates matrix vesicles as the nidus for calcification. PMID:8725135

Minkowitz, G

1996-06-01

304

Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

1987-08-06

305

Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

1988-01-01

306

Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.  

PubMed

As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. PMID:24692343

Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

2014-11-01

307

Anatomy and cytology of microsporogenesis in cytoplasmic male sterile angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The studies reviewed date from 1925 to 1972 and contain extensive anatomical and cytological information all too often incomplete\\u000a or vague. The terminology for microsporogenesis used is also often sketchy or inaccurate. An attempt therefore has been made\\u000a to establish some consistency in microsporogenesis terminology via Fig. 1 and the tables. We have given, in convenient tabular\\u000a form, CMS taxa,

Kenneth D. Laser; Nels R. Lersten

1972-01-01

308

Lung ultrasound findings in meconium aspiration syndrome.  

PubMed

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a rare and life-threatening neonatal lung injury induced by meconium in the lung and airways. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a quick, easy and cheap imaging technique that is increasingly being used in critical care settings, also for newborns. In this paper we describe ultrasound findings in MAS. Six patients with MAS of variable severity were examined by LUS during the first hours of life. Chest X-rays were used as reference. The following dynamic LUS signs were seen in all patients: (1) B-pattern (interstitial) coalescent or sparse; (2) consolidations; (3) atelectasis; (4) bronchograms. No pattern was observed for the distribution of signs in lung areas, although the signs varied with time, probably due to the changing localisation of meconium in the lungs. LUS images corresponded well with X-ray findings. In conclusion, we provide the first formal description of LUS findings in neonates with MAS. LUS is a useful and promising tool in the diagnosis and management of MAS, providing real-time bedside imaging, with the additional potential benefit of limiting radiation exposure in sick neonates. PMID:25220126

Piastra, Marco; Yousef, Nadya; Brat, Roselyne; Manzoni, Paolo; Mokhtari, Mostafa; De Luca, Daniele

2014-09-01

309

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for suspected malignancies adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in association with a multidisciplinary team evaluation for the detection of gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: A cohort of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract received EUS-FNA after a standardized multidisciplinary team evaluation (MTE) and were divided into 4 groups according to their specific malignant risk score (MRS). Patients with a MRS of 0 (without detectable risk of malignancy) received only EUS without FNA. For patients with a MRS score ranging from 1 (low risk) - through 2 (intermediate risk) - to 3 (high risk), EUS-FNA cytology of the lesion was planned for a different time and was prioritized for those patients at higher risk for cancer. The accuracy, efficiency and quality assessment for the early detection of patients with potentially curable malignant lesions were evaluated for the whole cohort and in the different classes of MRSs. The time to definitive cytological diagnosis (TDCD), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the rate of inconclusive tests were calculated for all patients and for each MRS group. RESULTS: A total of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions were evaluated by EUS-FNA. In 515 patients of 616 with true malignant lesions the tumor was diagnosed by EUS-FNA; 421 patients with resectable lesions received early surgical treatment, and 94 patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The overall diagnostic accuracy for the 1019 lesions in which a final diagnosis was obtained by EUS-FNA was 0.95. When patients were stratified by MTE into 4 classes of MRSs, a higher rate of patients in the group with higher cancer risk (MRS-3) received early treatment and EUS-FNA showed the highest level of accuracy (1.0). TDCD was also shorter in the MRS-3 group. The number of patients who received surgical treatment or chemo-radiotherapy was significantly higher in the MRS-3 patient group (36.3% in MRS-3, 10.7% in MRS-2, and 3.5% in MRS-1). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA can effectively detect a curable malignant lesions at an earlier time and at a higher rate in patients with a higher cancer risk that were evaluated using MTE. PMID:25024614

Gambitta, Pietro; Armellino, Antonio; Forti, Edoardo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Colombo, Paola Enrica; Aseni, Paolo

2014-01-01

310

Cytologic features of neoplastic lesions in endocervical glands.  

PubMed

Cytologic criteria for classifying atypical endocervical cells on Pap smears are poorly defined. In this study we evaluated cytologic parameters that are useful in predicting the presence of neoplastic lesions (NL) and those that help distinguish squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) from glandular neoplastic lesions. The recently proposed Bethesda System (TBS) terminology for reporting atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) was also evaluated for its significance on patient management. Sixteen cases of biopsy-proven endocervical glandular NL that had cytologic smears available for review were included. Thirty-five smears with atypical endocervical cells and follow-up biopsies showing benign/reactive change (n = 22) and SIL involving glands (n = 13) were reviewed for comparison. Our results show that squamous NL often coexist with glandular NL. The presence of rosettes, hyperchromasia and increased N/C ratio is useful in distinguishing NL from benign/reactive conditions. Architectural features are helpful in distinguishing SIL from glandular NL. While a haphazard arrangement is more often seen with SIL, glandular NL are more likely to maintain polarity and to show glandular rosettes. Using TBS criteria, a conservative management seems justified in patients with AGUS-favor reactive and AGUS diagnosis on Pap smear, and colposcopy is indicated for patients with AGUS-favor NL. PMID:9218895

Siziopikou, K P; Wang, H H; Abu-Jawdeh, G

1997-07-01

311

Coevolution of aspirations and cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suboptimal outcomes are often more acceptable than the best ones when the latter are hard or even impossible to find. In order to describe the emergence of cooperation when suboptimal alternatives prevail, an evolutionary game model is established by considering the effects of aspirations. A win-stay-lose-shift like rule for strategy updating is proposed. The rule prescribes that if the payoff of the current strategy is greater than the aspiration, the strategy remains, otherwise the strategy changes. Aspiration updating allows for individuals to adjust their expected payoff levels. It is shown that suboptimal alternatives can promote the emergence and persistence of cooperation over a wide range of the temptation to defect. Furthermore, a nontrivial phenomenon is found that cooperators prevail as the temptation increases when it is small. The aspirations are stabilized at an intermediate level which can most facilitate cooperation. The obtained results also show that the average level of aspirations decreases as the temptation increases. Furthermore, the variance of aspiration levels is minimized for an intermediate level of temptation.

Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

2015-01-01

312

Correlation of clinical, cytological and histological findings in oral squamous cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of exfoliative cytology by correlating the clinical lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with exfoliative cytology and histopathological findings. Cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1984 and 2010 were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the present study were the availability of detailed clinical findings and a diagnosis of the disease through exfoliative cytology and histopathology. The cases were assessed and assigned scores, which were then submitted to modal expression analysis, which considers the higher frequency scores, thus relating the variables. The cytological findings demonstrated that the majority of the cases had malignant potential. Exfoliative cytology should be used as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of OSCC, as it enables the early detection of these lesions. However, cytology should not be used as a substitute for histopathological examination. PMID:25013502

Sousa, Michele Cardoso; Alves, Monica Ghislaine Oliveira; Souza, Luciano Albino; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Almeida, Janete Dias; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães

2014-08-01

313

Molecular identification of Bartonella species in dogs with leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum) with or without cytological evidence of arthritis.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggest that Bartonella species may cause polyarthritis and lameness in dogs. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a multi-systemic disease often occurring in association with arthritis. We hypothesized that concurrent Bartonella infection may be a contributing factor for the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. Hence the primary objective of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in dogs with naturally occurring CanL, with or without cytologically documented arthritis. Thirty-eight dogs with CanL (31 with neutrophilic arthritis and 7 without arthritis) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four archived clinical specimens from these 38 dogs, including 33 blood samples, 19 bone marrow (BM) samples and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from 22 dogs were tested for Bartonella spp. DNA using the Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Overall, eight (21.1%) dogs were infected with one or two Bartonella species; however, Bartonella spp. infection was not associated with arthritis in dogs with CanL. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine if there is a correlation between Bartonella spp. infection and the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. PMID:25258172

Mylonakis, Mathios E; Soubasis, Nectarios; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Theodorou, Konstantina; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Saridomichelakis, Manolis; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-11-01

314

[Lavage-cytology of the renal pelvis and ureter with special reference to tumors (author's transl)].  

PubMed

On 138 patients with radiologic filling defects in the ureter and renal pelvis lavage cytology was done. With this method it was possible to recognize clearly 39 of 47 urothelial tumors of renal pelvis and ureter (81,3%). Lavage cytology failed in patients with hypernephroma. Severe cellular atypias could be seen in patients with urolithiasis and inflammation. The diagnostic reliability of lavage cytology with urothelial tumors of renal pelvis and ureter is far greater than that of exfoliative urinary cytology and reaches results as good as those from brush biopsy. PMID:7043857

Leistenschneider, W; Nagel, R; Al-Abadi, H

1982-03-01

315

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy as an initial diagnostic modality in a clinically unsuspected case of invasive maxillary fungal sinusitis: A case report.  

PubMed

Cases of invasive fungal lesions involving the paranasal sinuses are generally diagnosed either on histologic examination or on fungal culture. Here, we report a case of invasive fungal sinusitis diagnosed primarily by a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).Our patient was a 36-year-old male who presented with a history of slowly progressive, painless swelling over the left cheek. The only positive clinical finding was a bony hard swelling in the left maxillary region, which was clinically interpreted as "fibrous dysplasia." A computed tomographic (CT) examination of the paranasal sinuses showed a soft tissue attenuation lesion involving the bilateral maxillae, with the destruction of multiple bones and involvement of multiple sinuses and the bilateral orbits. FNAB of the maxillary swelling showed several giant cells, many of them exhibiting ingested organisms with a morphologic resemblance to the Aspergillus species of fungi. Strikingly, no significant inflammatory cells were seen on cytologic smears. Unfortunately, owing to a lack of initial clinical suspicion, as well as the patient's loss to further follow-up, a culture/histopathologic examination could not be carried out.This case is presented chiefly to highlight the clinical utility of a simple FNAB procedure, as an initial diagnostic modality in cases of fungal sinusitis, which can masquerade clinically as a neoplastic lesion. In addition, if radiologic findings are also available at the time of cytologic examination, a pretherapeutic comment on the invasive nature of the lesion can also be made. PMID:19894266

Singh, Neha; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Kumar, Surendra; Muniraj, Femela; Bakshi, Satvinder; Gopalakrishnan, Suryanarayanan

2010-04-01

316

Rosai-Dorfman disease: A case report with extranodal thyroid involvement.  

PubMed

Rosai-Dorfman Disease (RDD) or Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (SHML) is a rare disorder typically manifesting as enlarged lymph nodes with or without systemic involvement. These cases are often clinically misdiagnosed as lymphoma. Recognising this entity to distinguish it from lymphoma and other causes of histiocytosis is important because of different treatment modalities for these disorders. Extranodal involvement is also common, often with a particular predilection for the head and neck region. We report a rare case of Rosai-Dorfman Disease with both nodal and extranodal involvement in a 33-year-old woman. The patient had bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and diffuse thyroid enlargement. Thyroid gland involvement in RDD diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has rarely been reported in literature. FNAC is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of RDD and the biopsy can be avoided in these patients, thus reducing inconvenience to patients. PMID:21630484

Chhabra, Sonia; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Sunita

2012-05-01

317

Insufficient Experience in Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Leads to Misdiagnosis of Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid is a widely accepted confirmatory test for thyroid cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. FNA is a simple procedure that is learned by many clinicians to enable accurate diagnosis of thyroid cancer. However, it is assumed that because the FNA test is a relatively simple procedure, its cytologic results are reliable regardless of the operator's experience. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the diagnostic indices of FNA between operators with different levels of experience. Methods A total of 694 thyroid FNA specimens from 469 patients were reviewed, and were separated based on the experience of the clinicians who performed the procedure. One hundred and ninety were categorized in the experienced group, and 504 in the inexperienced group. All FNA results were then compared with histological data from surgically resected specimens, and the sample adequacy and diagnostic accuracy of the groups were compared. Results The age, gender, and nodule size and characteristics were similar in both groups. The sample adequacy rate was not significantly different between the experienced and nonexperienced groups (96.3% vs. 95.4%, P=0.682). However, the non-experienced group had a higher false-negative rate than the experienced group (6.4% vs. 17.2%, P=0.038), and the sensitivity of the FNA test also tended to be lower in the nonexperienced group (95.6% vs. 88.9%, P=0.065). Conclusion These results suggest that FNA operators who have less experience may miss cases of thyroid cancer by performing the procedure incorrectly. As such, the experience of the FNA operator should be considered when diagnosing thyroid cancer. When clinicians are being trained in FNA, more effort should be made to increase the accuracy of the procedure; therefore, enhanced teaching programs and/or a more detailed feedback system are recommended. PMID:25309787

Son, Jung Il; Rhee, Sang Youl; Park, Won Seo; Byun, Jong Kyu; Kim, Yu-Jin; Byun, Ja Min; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Oh, Seungjoon; Kim, Sung Woon; Kim, Young Seol

2014-01-01

318

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with an echobronchoscope in undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy: First experience from India  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Several studies have reported the performance of combining endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration with an echobronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA), with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Herein we report our initial experience with this technique. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, we report the outcome of patients who underwent EUS-B-FNA with or without EBUS-TBNA during the same session. Details of the lymph nodes sampled, number of passes, duration of the procedure, results of the cytological examination, and the final diagnosis of all the patients are presented. Results: Eleven patients underwent EUS-B-FNA during the study period. EUS-B-FNA and EBUS-TBNA together yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 72.7 and 100%, respectively. The number of lymph nodes sampled per patient and the number of passes per lymph node were significantly higher with EBUS-TBNA compared to EUS-B-FNA. The mean duration of procedure was also significantly higher in the EBUS-TBNA group. The most common reason (five patients (45.5%)) for resorting to EUS-B-FNA was the patient being unfit for EBUS-TBNA or the inability of the operator to complete the procedure. Sarcoidosis was the most frequent final diagnosis in the study patients (four cases), followed by bronchogenic carcinoma (three cases). Conclusions: EUS-B-FNA is a useful additional tool for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In combination with EBUS-TBNA, it has a fairly good diagnostic yield and is a good alternative in situations where EBUS-TBNA is not feasible. PMID:25624588

Dhooria, Sahajal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Singh, Navneet; Gupta, Dheeraj; Behera, Digamber; Gupta, Nalini; Agarwal, Ritesh

2015-01-01

319

Liposarcoma of the Spermatic Cord: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant tumours of spermatic cord are rare. The liposarcoma of spermatic cord is a rare entity and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of forty five-year-old male with huge left inguinoscrotal swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of swelling revealed the diagnosis of a liposarcoma. The patient was subjected to radical orchidectomy and wide excision. Histopathological examination (HPE) of the resected specimen reported a well-differentiated liposarcoma of the spermatic cord and confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:22606620

Parray, Fazl Qadir; Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Chowdri, Nisar Ahmad; Hamid, Arif; Malik, Rayees Ahmed

2011-01-01

320

Hurthle cell tumor of the thyroid gland: report of a rare case and review of literature.  

PubMed

This article presents a case of Hurthle cell adenoma (HCA) of the thyroid gland with a review of literature on Hurthle cell tumors. This case presented is that of a 57-year-old woman with a recurrent thyroid swelling. She previously underwent a right hemithyroidectomy for thyroid mass 10 years prior. A left lobectomy was done and microscopic examination revealed a HCA of the thyroid. The patient was discharged on thyroid replacement therapy and has remained healthy after more than 24 months of follow-up. The literature review highlights the criteria for diagnosis, the role of imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in preoperative diagnosis. PMID:24714021

Okere, P C N; Olusina, D B; Enyinnah, M O

2014-01-01

321

Primary Ewing's sarcoma of cervical vertebra: An uncommon presentation  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor primarily seen in the long bones. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranium is quite uncommon occurring in 1% of the cases. We report the occurrence of this rare lesion in a 24-year-old male presenting with progressively increasing swelling in left mastoid region mimicking a mastoid abscess which was later diagnosed on Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a small round cell tumor as Ewing's sarcoma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed a typical moth eaten appearance in the first and second cervical vertebra. PMID:25126127

Chhabra, Sonia; Singh, Sunita; Sethi, Divya; Mahapatra, Qury Sabita

2014-01-01

322

Primary tuberculous osteomyelitis of the mandible: a case report.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old female child presented with a gradually increasing swelling of 2 months' duration on the left side of her face. The history given by the guardian was not very specific. However, the history revealed possible contact between the child and a tuberculous patient. The initial clinical and radiological evaluation indicated either a chronic residual dentoalveolar abscess, tuberculosis (TB) of the mandible or a malignancy. Routine laboratory investigations were grossly unremarkable with only the erythrocyte sedimentation rate being mildly raised. Further investigations were carried out, including a purified protein derivative test, chest screening, sputum examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HIV and abdominal ultrasound, which were all negative. CT of the mandible showed a soft tissue mass in the submandibular region with an osteolytic lesion in the body of the mandible on the left side, and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed the presence of a tuberculoid granuloma. FNAC, along with the clinical and radiographic findings and history, led to the diagnosis of primary TB of the mandible. Although FNAC is not as effective as an actual biopsy, it is often adequate for diagnosis and avoids a major surgical operation, which would be required for obtaining tissue for a biopsy. This case emphasises the role of proper history taking, diagnostic work-up and management. It also draws attention to the literature pertaining to the diagnosis of TB based on FNAC, especially in TB endemic areas where sophisticated tests such as the polymerase chain reaction are either unavailable or unaffordable. PMID:18812606

Dinkar, A D; Prabhudessai, V

2008-10-01

323

Diagnostic Accuracy of High Resolution Ultrasound to Differentiate Neoplastic and Non Neoplastic Causes of Cervical Lymphadenopathy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Lymph nodes are normal structures distributed throughout the human body and are enlarged in various disease entities. Identifying the relevant lymph nodes is important in treating these patients. High resolution sonography (HRSG) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) play crucial role in planning the treatment. Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRSG differentiate neoplastic and non neoplastic causes of enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: HRSG evaluation of enlarged cervical lymph nodes were performed to differentiate neoplastic from non neoplastic lymph nodes followed by FNAC correlation and the accuracy of HRSG was studied. Results: One hundred and fourteen lymph nodes of 106 patients were analysed to accomplish the study objective. In our study, HRSG had 96% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for differentiating between neoplatic and non-neoplastic cervical lymphadenopathy. Similarly positive and negative predictive values were 88.9% and 96.7% respectively. Overall accuracy of HRSG was 93%. Conclusion: Owing to high sensitivity and negative predictive value, HRSG with Doppler is an excellent first line investigating tool for enlarged lymph nodes and avoids invasive procedures like FNAC in cases of reactive/ inflammatory (non-neoplastic) lymph nodes. However, neoplastic diagnosis of HRSG needs further confirmation by FNAC. PMID:25386501

Shivalli, Siddharudha; Rai, Sheethal; Haris, Arafat; Madhurkar, Rohit; Hemraj, Sandhya

2014-01-01

324

Giant chondroid syringoma with divergent differentiation: Cyto-histo-immuno correlation.  

PubMed

Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It is also called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are very few case reports of chondroid syringoma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We hereby report a case of giant chondroid syringoma occurring over the lower back in a 50-year-old male, diagnosed initially on cytology and confirmed by histopathology. This case is reported for its unusual size and site of occurrence. We describe the clinical features, cytology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnosis of giant chondroid syringoma along with review of literature. PMID:24083150

Narasimha, Aparna; Kalyani, R; Kumar, Harendra Ml; Suresh, Tn; Supreeth, A

2013-07-01

325

Giant chondroid syringoma with divergent differentiation: Cyto-histo-immuno correlation  

PubMed Central

Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It is also called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are very few case reports of chondroid syringoma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We hereby report a case of giant chondroid syringoma occurring over the lower back in a 50-year-old male, diagnosed initially on cytology and confirmed by histopathology. This case is reported for its unusual size and site of occurrence. We describe the clinical features, cytology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnosis of giant chondroid syringoma along with review of literature. PMID:24083150

Narasimha, Aparna; Kalyani, R; Kumar, Harendra ML; Suresh, TN; Supreeth, A

2013-01-01

326

Development of Biopsy Gun for Aspiration and Drug Injection.  

PubMed

Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24990254

Kang, Hyun Guy; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi

2014-07-01

327

ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD  

SciTech Connect

Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

Kurzeja, R.

2009-09-09

328

Headscarf pin tracheobronchial aspiration: a distinct clinical entity.  

PubMed

Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children and less commonly in the elderly. However, due to some social and cultural factors, a distinct group of tracheobronchial FB aspiration is increasingly recognized. We sought to assess our experience with such entity. A retrospective review of all cases with veil pin tracheobronchial FB aspiration in a single center over a 13-year period was carried out. There were 35 cases of headscarf tracheobronchial FB aspiration. All were females with mean age of 14 years. All patients experienced coughing and all had positive chest radiography findings. Commonest anatomical location was right main bronchus (32%) followed by left main bronchus (23%). Tracheal pins occurred in 17%. Rigid bronchoscopy was used more often than flexible bronchoscopy (83% vs. 17%, respectively). Repeat bronchoscopy was required in two cases (6%). Thoracotomy was required in one patient (3%). There were no complications or hospital deaths. Headscarf pin aspiration is seen in middle-aged women who inappropriately place the pins between their lips prior to securing their veils. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice and surgery is rarely required. Preventative educational strategies should be implemented to reduce such an avoidable risk. PMID:19470499

Al-Sarraf, Nael; Jamal-Eddine, Hassan; Khaja, Fatma; Ayed, Adel K

2009-08-01

329

[Exfoliative vaginal cytology in the bitch--indications, procedure, interpretation].  

PubMed

Exfoliative vaginal cytology as an essential part of the gynaecological examination is a simple, non-invasive method for the determination of the phases of the oestrous cycle (anoestrus, prooestrus/oestrus, metoestrus) and is additionally applied in cases of silent heat, or suspected ovarian cysts, ovarian remnant syndrome, postpartal disturbances in the endometrial involution or Sticker sarcoma. The exfoliated cells reflect the hormonal, in particular the oestrogenic state, of the bitch. Due to the oestrogenic influence, an increase in cell layers, keratinisation and exfoliation is observed in the follicular phase during prooestrus, such that the 3-4 layered epithelium in anoestrus becomes 20-layered during oestrus. The cells change characteristically in size and nuclear morphology. In anoestrus, predominantly parabasal cells with a large nucleus and homogenous cytoplasm are found. During early prooestrus, single parabasal cells are identified among erythrocytes and intermediate cells. As this phase progresses, the percentage of large intermediate cells and nucleated superficial cells increases. The oestrus is characterised by a high cell number, initially superficial cells with pyknotic nuclei, later anucleated squamous cells that are located in cell nests. The switch to metoestrus is associated with a large number of neutrophil granulocytes and a sudden change of cytology within 24-48 hours. Vaginal cytology can be performed in any practice due to its simplicity and the limited equipment necessary (speculum, cotton wool wad, slide, staining and microscope). Because the results are rapidly available, it is a useful addition to gynaecological examination to differentiate the stage of the cycle (anoestrus, prooestrus/oestrus, metoestrus) and to diagnose infectious, inflammatory and tumorous conditions in the bitch. PMID:23958711

Wehrend, A; von Plato, K; Goericke-Pesch, S

2013-01-01

330

Optimal z-axis scanning parameters for gynecologic cytology specimens  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of virtual microscopy (VM) in clinical cytology has been limited due to the inability to focus through three dimensional (3D) cell clusters with a single focal plane (2D images). Limited information exists regarding the optimal scanning parameters for 3D scanning. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal number of the focal plane levels and the optimal scanning interval to digitize gynecological (GYN) specimens prepared on SurePath™ glass slides while maintaining a manageable file size. Subjects and Methods: The iScanCoreo Au scanner (Ventana, AZ, USA) was used to digitize 192 SurePath™ glass slides at three focal plane levels at 1 ? interval. The digitized virtual images (VI) were annotated using BioImagene's Image Viewer. Five participants interpreted the VI and recorded the focal plane level at which they felt confident and later interpreted the corresponding glass slide specimens using light microscopy (LM). The participants completed a survey about their experiences. Inter-rater agreement and concordance between the VI and the glass slide specimens were evaluated. Results: This study determined an overall high intra-rater diagnostic concordance between glass and VI (89-97%), however, the inter-rater agreement for all cases was higher for LM (94%) compared with VM (82%). Survey results indicate participants found low grade dysplasia and koilocytes easy to diagnose using three focal plane levels, the image enhancement tool was useful and focusing through the cells helped with interpretation; however, the participants found VI with hyperchromatic crowded groups challenging to interpret. Participants reported they prefer using LM over VM. This study supports using three focal plane levels and 1 ? interval to expand the use of VM in GYN cytology. Conclusion: Future improvements in technology and appropriate training should make this format a more preferable and practical option in clinical cytology. PMID:24524004

Donnelly, Amber D.; Mukherjee, Maheswari S.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Bridge, Julia A.; Lele, Subodh M.; Wright, Najia; McGaughey, Mary F.; Culberson, Alicia M.; Horn, Adam J.; Wedel, Whitney R.; Radio, Stanley J.

2013-01-01

331

Basic technique for solid lesions: Cytology, core, or both?  

PubMed Central

This chapter highlights key fundamentals relevant to post-procurement tissue handling of materials obtains by aspiration and/or biopsy and details the subtle techniques that can significantly impact patient management and practice patterns. A basic knowledge of tissue handling and processing is imperative for endosonographers who attempt to achieve a greater than 95% diagnostic accuracy with their tissue-acquisition procedures. PMID:24949408

Hébert-Magee, Shantel

2014-01-01

332

Cytological analysis of reproduction in johnsongrass - Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.  

E-print Network

reproduction in sorghum. indian J. of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 2:271-278. 15. Rangaswamy Ayyangar, G. N. , and B. W. X. Ponnaiya. 1941. St d' ' ~Sh A~1*. g . l d' A d. S 13(3):157-162. 16. Raman, V. S. , and D. Krishnaswami. 1959. Aberrant d' ' ' f th... 'ot' h ' S. A~1 Journal Indian Bot. Soc. 38(2):296-298. 17. Raman, V. S. , Meenakshi, K. , Thangam, M. S. , and L Sivagnanam. 1064. The cytological behavior or B- h ' S. ~hl . Md Ag . J. 51: 72-73. 18. Snowden, J. D. 1936. The Cultivated Races...

Kaduru, Blaize Ndubuisi

2012-06-07

333

Cytological Confirmation of Female Heterogamety in the African Water Frog (Xenopus laevis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, male and female heterogamety of amphibians and reptiles cannot be determined cytologically, as the X and Y or the Z and W appear morphologically identical. However, female heterogamety of the African water frog, Xenopus laevis, has been proven by the sex reversal experiments of Chang and Witschi. The present report describes the cytological identification of the sex chromosomes in

C. Weiler; S. Ohno

1962-01-01

334

Comparative image analysis of conventional and thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology.  

PubMed

We evaluated the differences in cytologic findings between conventional and thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology to introduce the thin-layer method into routine cytology. Eighty patients who had undergone endometrial cytology and biopsy on the same day were selected and we compared the cytological findings between conventional- and thin-layer preparations (TLP) in endometrial cytology. The numbers of neutrophils and cell clusters in the thin-layer method were lower than those in the conventional smear (CSS) method. The average number of neutrophils in endometrioid adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal morphology endometrium and endometrial hyperplasia. Regarding the shape of the cell clusters, ball-like patterns and round-edged cell clusters were not identified in CSS. The average number of clusters in CSS was significantly greater than that using the TLP. The average of the nuclear area in CSS was significantly larger than that using the TLP, indicating that the nuclear areas in CSS were more uneven than that using the TLP. In the future, it is expected that liquid-based cytology will be applied to the cytological diagnosis of a variety of lesions. The influence on cells due to fixation is considerable in liquid-based preparations. Therefore, if we strive to pick up the differences between CSS and TLP of endometrial samples, the diagnostic accuracy of the latter could be improved. PMID:22807421

Hattori, Manabu; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Nishimura, Yukari; Machida, Daisuke; Toyonaga, Masumi; Tsunoda, Shinpei; Ohbu, Makoto

2013-06-01

335

Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

1984-08-01

336

Preoperative starvation and pulmonary aspiration. New perspectives and guidelines.  

PubMed

The fear of aspiration of gastric contents and its life-threatening consequences in patients(aspiration pneumonitis and respiratory failure), has caused many medical practitioners, particularly anaesthetists, to rigidly follow conservative (i.e. prolonged) preoperative fasting standards. This is the nil per os (NPO) order for clear fluids/liquids and solids overnight or six to eight hours preceding the induction of anaesthesia. This practice neither takes into account the differences in the rate of gastric emptying for solid food (which may exceed six hours) and clear liquids (which is one to two hours), nor the differences in scheduled times of surgery. Long-term prospective studies and retrospective reviews have shown that the incidence of significant clinical aspiration is low: 1.4-6.0 per 100,00 anaesthetics for elective general surgery. Risk factors for pulmonary aspiration include: a high American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status score; emergency surgery; difficult airway management; increased gastric volume and acidity; increased intra-abdominal pressure; gastro-oesophageal reflux; oesophageal disease; head injury with impaired consciousness and extremes of age. Experimental studies and reviews have consistently shown the safety of clear liquid ingestion up to two hours before induction of anaesthesia in healthy patients without risk factors, and the fact that a longer fluid fast does not necessarily offer any added protection against pulmonary aspiration. The conservative pre-operative fasting standard causes discomfort and in some cases, suffering of patients and is therefore unnecessary for patients without risk factor(s). Anecdotal reports at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) have shown that application of the liberalized guidelines for preoperative fasting and fluid intake has not resulted in increased pulmonary aspiration, morbidity or mortality. Instead it has resulted in decreased irritability, anxiety, thirst and hunger in the peri-operative period. Patients, especially children are more comfortable and the perioperative period is better tolerated. It is therefore time that all medical personnel adopt the liberalized guidelines. PMID:12632641

Scarlett, M; Crawford-Sykes, A; Nelson, M

2002-12-01

337

Urine cytology and adjunct markers for detection and surveillance of bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Urine cytology coupled with cystoscopic examination has been and remains the standard in the initial evaluation of lower urinary tract lesions to rule out bladder cancer. However, cystoscopy is invasive and may miss some flat lesions, whereas cytology has low sensitivity in low-grade papillary disease. Additional lab-based or office-based markers are needed to aid in the evaluation of these lesions. Recently, many such markers have been developed for the purpose of improving the cytologic diagnosis of bladder malignancies. In this review, we will first discuss conventional cytomorphologic analysis of urine cytology followed by a discussion of markers that have been developed in the past for detection and surveillance of urothelial carcinoma. We will focus on how these markers can be used in conjunction with urine cytology in daily practice. PMID:20733951

Sullivan, Peggy S; Chan, Jessica B; Levin, Mary R; Rao, Jianyu

2010-01-01

338

Cooperation in aspiration-based N -person prisoner's dilemmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a mathematical model of the N -person prisoner’s dilemma game played by a continuous population of agents with a time-dependent aspiration level. The model—a system of differential equations—takes into account the evolution of the aspiration level and of the mean frequency of the cooperators in the population. The dependence of the asymptotic level of cooperation on the individual payoffs and on the transition rates determining the agent’s reaction to the received payoffs is studied. In general the existence and the magnitude of the asymptotic level of cooperation depends on N , the payoffs and the transition rates, and decreases with increasing N .

P?atkowski, Tadeusz; Bujnowski, Pawe?

2009-03-01

339

Malignancy rate in sonographically suspicious thyroid nodules of less than a centimeter in size does not decrease with decreasing size.  

PubMed

We evaluated the malignancy and nondiagnostic rates using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results in thyroid nodules smaller than 1 cm according to the subdivided size. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all subjects underwent FNAC from 2003 to 2009 in our hospital, and 2,756 patients of subcentimeter thyroid nodules with one or more suspicious sonographic features and 7,105 with nodule sized 1 cm or more were included. The malignancy rate was higher in those subcentimeter nodules with suspicious sonographic findings than the nodule sized 1cm or more (19.7% vs 7.8%, P < 0.001). We grouped the nodules based on size with mm interval and observed that the malignancy rate did not decrease but the nondiagnostic results increased its size decrement. When we divided the subjects arbitrarily into a 5 mm or smaller and a 6-9 mm sized group, nondiagnostic cytology findings were reported more frequently in the smaller group (24.3% vs 18.1%, P = 0.001), while the rate of "malignant" was similar (18.3% vs 15.5%, P = 0.123) and the rate of "suspicious for malignancy" was higher (6.8% vs 2.9%, P < 0.001). Therefore when we decide to perform FNAC or not in subcentimeter-sized nodules, we should consider sonographic findings and other clinical risk factors but not the nodular size itself. PMID:21286015

Bo, Yul Hwang; Ahn, Hwa Young; Lee, Yun Hee; Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Jung Hee; Ohn, Jung Hun; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, Kyung Won; Jeong, In Kyung; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Oh, Byung-Hee; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

2011-02-01

340

Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.  

PubMed

In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

2013-05-01

341

CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FIBER TYPES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

A comparative investigation of the mammalian diaphragm has revealed a correlation between certain cytological aspects of red and white muscle fibers and functional activity. This skeletal muscle presents the advantage of a similar and constant function among the mammals, but its functional activity varies in a quantitative manner. Both the rate of breathing (and hence the rate of contraction of the diaphragm) and metabolic activity are known to be inversely related to body size; and this study has demonstrated a relationship between cytological characteristics of the diaphragm and body size of the animal. Small fibers rich in mitochondria (red fibers) are characteristic of small mammals, which have high metabolic activity and fast breathing rates; and large fibers with relatively low mitochondrial content predominate in large mammals, which have lower metabolic activity and slower breathing rates. In mammals with body size intermediate between these two groups (including the laboratory rat), the diaphragm consists of varying mixtures of fiber types. In general, the mitochondrial content of diaphragm fibers is inversely related to body size. It appears, then, that the red fiber reflects a high degree of metabolic activity or a relatively high rate of contraction within the range exhibited by this muscle. PMID:5950272

Gauthier, Geraldine F.; Padykula, Helen A.

1966-01-01

342

The Role of Lymph Node Fine-Needle Aspiration in Penile Cancer in the Sentinel Node Era  

PubMed Central

Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon condition in Western countries. Inguinal lymph nodes dissection can be curative in 20%–60% of node positive patients. However, there is a high complication rates from the dissection, thus accurate diagnosis of inguinal lymph nodes metastasis is required. Current non invasive methods to detect lymph nodes metastasis are unreliable. Dynamic Sentinel Node Biopsy (DNSB), ultrasonography (US), and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were proposed to in an attempt to detect sentinel lymph node (SLN). Despite the initial high rate of false negative results, recent DSNB showed improved survival compared to wait and see policy as well as reduced mortality compared to prophylactic inguinal lymphadenectomy. In addition, the US guided FNA shown 100% of specificity in detecting clinically occult lymph nodes metastasis. We proposed an algorithm for management of lymph nodes in penile cancer and suggest that FNA with US guidance should be performed in all high risk patients and that therapeutic dissection should be performed if findings are positive. PMID:21603215

Mir, Maria Carmen; Herdiman, Olivia; Bolton, Damien M.; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

2011-01-01

343

Rapid on-site evaluation of endoscopic-ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of pancreatic masses  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an essential tool for the study of pancreatic diseases. Specifically, EUS plays a pivotal role evaluating patients with a known or suspected pancreatic mass. In this setting, differential diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fine-needle biopsy (FNB) have been proven to be safe and useful tools in this setting. EUS-guided FNA and FNB, by obtaining cytological and/or histological samples, are able to diagnose pancreatic lesions with high sensitivity and specificity. In this context, several methodological features, trying to increase the diagnostic yield of EUS-guided FNA and FNB, have been evaluated. In this review, we focus on the role of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). From data reported in the literature, ROSE may increase diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA specimens by 10%-30%, and thus, diagnostic accuracy. However, we should point out that many recent studies have reported adequacy rates of > 90% without ROSE, indicating that, perhaps, at high-volume centers, ROSE may not be indispensable to achieve excellent results. The use of ROSE can be considered important during the learning curve of EUS-FNA, and also in hospital with diagnostic accuracy rates < 90%. PMID:25071339

Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Lariño-Noia, Jose; Abdulkader, Ihab; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

2014-01-01

344

Two smalls in one: Coincident small cell carcinoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma in a lymph node diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL / SLL) is one of the most common lymphoproliferative disorders in western countries. Patients with SLL / CLL are at increased risk of site-specific secondary cancers. We present a unique case of a 71-year-old male, with a history of SLL / CLL, who presented with pulmonary symptoms and a mediastinal mass. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the mediastinal lymph node revealed synchronous SLL / CLL and small cell carcinoma (SCC). Materials and Methods: The patient underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration of the mediastinal lymph node (4R). The sample was submitted for cytopathology, immunohistochemical stains, and flow cytometry evaluation. Results: Fine needle aspiration of the mediastinal lymph node revealed neoplastic cells, in clusters and singly, with cytological features suggestive of small cell carcinoma. The immunohistochemistry results confirmed this diagnosis. Small-to-medium, mature-appearing lymphocytes were also present in the background. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that these lymphocytes possessed an immunophenotype consistent with CLL / SLL. Conclusions: This case illustrates the importance of a pathologist's awareness of the possibility of concurrent lymphoma and metastatic carcinoma in a lymph node. When evaluating lymph nodes, pathologists must strive to identify both foreign cells and subtle lymphoid changes. As demonstrated by our case, ancillary techniques (such as immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry) can be critical to making a complete and accurate diagnosis. The diagnosis of small cell carcinoma in the enlarged lymph node, primarily harboring CLL / SLL, is of critical importance for decision-making and treatment purposes, in addition to having a significant adverse impact on the overall survival. PMID:22438859

Afify, Alaa; Das, Shweta; Mingyi, Chen

2012-01-01

345

The Path Taken: Consequences of Attaining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspirations in Post-College Life  

PubMed Central

Life goals, or aspirations, organize and direct behavior over extended periods of time. The present study, guided by self-determination theory, examined the consequences of pursuing and attaining aspirations over a one-year period in a post-college sample. Results indicated that placing importance on either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations related positively to attainment of those goals. Yet, whereas attainment of intrinsic aspirations related positively to psychological health, attainment of extrinsic aspirations did not; indeed, attainment of extrinsic aspirations related positively to indicators of ill-being. Also as predicted, the association between change in attainment of intrinsic aspirations and change in psychological health was mediated by change in the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Discussion focuses on the idea that not all goal attainment is beneficial; rather, attainment of aspirations with different contents relates differentially to psychological health. PMID:20161160

Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

2009-01-01

346

Comparison of the CDC Backpack aspirator and the Prokopack aspirator for sampling indoor- and outdoor-resting mosquitoes in southern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Resting mosquitoes can easily be collected using an aspirating device. The most commonly used mechanical aspirator is the CDC Backpack aspirator. Recently, a simple, and low-cost aspirator called the Prokopack has been devised and proved to have comparable performance. The following study evaluates the Prokopack aspirator compared to the CDC backpack aspirator when sampling resting mosquitoes in rural Tanzania. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled in- and outdoors of 48 typical rural African households using both aspirators. The aspirators were rotated between collectors and households in a randomized, Latin Square design. Outdoor collections were performed using artificial resting places (large barrel and car tyre), underneath the outdoor kitchen (kibanda) roof and from a drop-net. Data were analysed with generalized linear models. Results The number of mosquitoes collected using the CDC Backpack and the Prokopack aspirator were not significantly different both in- and outdoors (indoors p = 0.735; large barrel p = 0.867; car tyre p = 0.418; kibanda p = 0.519). The Prokopack was superior for sampling of drop-nets due to its smaller size. The number mosquitoes collected per technician was more consistent when using the Prokopack aspirator. The Prokopack was more user-friendly: technicians preferred using the it over the CDC backpack aspirator as it weighs considerably less, retains its charge for longer and is easier to manoeuvre. Conclusions The Prokopack proved in the field to be more advantageous than the CDC Backpack aspirator. It can be self assembled using simple, low-cost and easily attainable materials. This device is a useful tool for researchers or vector-control surveillance programs operating in rural Africa, as it is far simpler and quicker than traditional means of sampling resting mosquitoes. Further longitudinal evaluations of the Prokopack aspirator versus the gold standard pyrethrum spray catch for indoor resting catches are recommended. PMID:21718464

2011-01-01

347

Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland) and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Environics Ltd., Graanintie 5, P.O. Box 349, FI-50101, Mikkeli (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland) and Drug Discovery and Development Technology Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland) and Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland)

2007-04-15

348

eStrategies | Projects00 The ASPIRE (Collaborative Signal  

E-print Network

' glass ceiling. The project is funded under the EU Sixth Framework Programme. Wireless sensor networkseStrategies | Projects00 The ASPIRE (Collaborative Signal Processing for Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks) project is pushing the boundaries of wireless sensor networks. By approaching traditional

Tsakalides, Panagiotis

349

Searching for Autonomy: Young Black Men, Schooling and Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationships between being young and black, and educational and career aspirations, drawing on new research evidence from two recent studies carried out in two urban locations in Northern England. The first of these studies forms part of a wider research project concerned with analysing the connections between aspects of…

Law, Ian; Finney, Sarah; Swann, Sarah Jane

2014-01-01

350

Adolescents' Attainability and Aspiration Beliefs for Famous Musician Role Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the role that adolescents' competence beliefs and subjective task values for music have in relation to their aspirations and expectations for becoming like their musician role models. A total of 381 adolescents (aged 13-14) completed a questionnaire about their competence beliefs and values for music, the musicians they admired…

Ivaldi, Antonia; O'Neill, Susan A.

2010-01-01

351

Social Factors and Educational Aspirations of Canadian High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction emphasizes the worth of higher education to individuals and society. The author cites social scietists' findings that social class, sex, residential background, parental and peer group interest, I.Q. and academic performance influence educational aspirations and achievement. In this paper, he intends: (1) to verify these…

George, P. M.

352

POSITION IN GROUP, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, AND GROUP ASPIRATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMBERS OF 3-PERSON GROUPS, COMPRISED OF 48 11TH-GRADE BOYS, PARTICIPATED IN A GROUP TASK FOR A SERIES OF TRIALS AND PRIVATELY STATED THEIR ASPIRATIONS FOR THE GROUP PRIOR TO EACH TRIAL. 1 MEMBER WAS IN A CENTRAL ROLE IN WHICH HE WAS LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE GROUP'S SCORE AND WAS REQUIRED TO SET THE OFFICIAL TEAM GOAL. THE OTHER 2

ALVIN ZANDER; JOHN FORWARD

1968-01-01

353

Equipping Aspiring Principals for the Principalship in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of school principals is of paramount importance for quality education. This article examines the leadership capacities of a group of 228 aspiring principals who participated in a training programme for the principalship in four cohorts. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions in six core areas of leadership was constructed and…

Ng, Shun Wing

2013-01-01

354

Effects of coda voicing and aspiration on Hindi vowels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reexamines the well-attested coda voicing effect on vowel duration [Chen, Phonetica 22, 125-159 (1970)], in conjunction with the relationship between vowel duration and aspiration of codas. The first step was to replicate the results of Maddieson and Gandour [UCLA Working Papers Phonetics 31, 46-52 (1976)] with a larger, language-specific data set. Four nonsense syllables ending in [open-o] followed by [k, kh, g, gh] were read aloud in ten different carrier sentences by four native speakers of Hindi. Results confirm that longer vowels precede voiced word-final consonants and aspirated word-final consonants. Thus, among the syllables, vowel duration would be longest when preceding the voiced aspirate [gh]. Coda voicing, and thus, vowel duration, have been shown to correlate negatively to vowel F1 in English and Arabic [Wolf, J. Phonetics 6, 299-309 (1978); de Jong and Zawaydeh ibid, 30, 53-75 (2002)]. It is not known whether vowel F1 depends directly on coda voicing, or is determined indirectly via duration. Since voicing and aspiration both increase duration, F1 measurements of this data set (which will be presented) may answer that question.

Lampp, Claire; Reklis, Heidi

2001-05-01

355

Explanatory Aspirations and the Scandal of Cognitive Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Explanatory Aspirations and the Scandal of Cognitive Neuroscience Ross W. GAYLERa , Simon D. LEVYb of artificial cognitive systems. Most cognitive neuroscience models fail to provide a basis for implementation architectures by simplifying the design task through vertical modularity. Keywords. cognitive neuroscience

Levy, Simon D.

356

Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

2004-01-01

357

Desired mobility or satisfied immobility? Migratory aspirations among knowledge workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the aspects discussed within the globalisation process, the international mobility of professional workers assumes considerable relevance. This paper focuses on migratory aspirations among knowledge workers within the context of economic globalisation and market restructuring in Romania. Due to a lack of literature dealing with these issues, the originality of this study consists in its attention to the stage immediately

Anna Ferro

2006-01-01

358

Who wants a job in biology? Student aspirations and perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a questionnaire survey of UK Year 3 biology undergraduates' career aspirations, and their perceptions of employment in teaching, research and conservation. Although most students sought material benefits in their potential careers, even more wished to gain job satisfaction. None of the careers in biology was perceived as well paid; research and conservation jobs were

Danielle Henderson; M. artin Stanisstreet; Edward Boyes

2007-01-01

359

Uncertain Aspirations for Continuing in Education: Antecedents and Associated Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively little is known about adolescents who hold uncertain aspirations, that is, those who do not know what they would like to do in the future regarding their educational or occupational plans. Drawing upon the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England born in 1989-1990, the authors tested a pathway model to investigate the antecedents…

Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Schoon, Ingrid; Sabates, Ricardo

2012-01-01

360

Raising Aspirations within School Communities: The Learning Catalysts Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article accounts for a project that rests on a collaboration between the Leadership for Learning group at the Faculty of Education and the county council in King's Lynn and West Norfolk to address a concern regarding the low aspirations in the community. At the heart of the project was the development of a cadre of "Learning Catalysts" who…

Waterhouse, Joanne

2008-01-01

361

Adolescent Boys' Science Aspirations: Masculinity, Capital, and Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread international concern about post-16 participation rates in science, with women's under-representation constituting a particular issue. This paper contributes to these debates through a novel, critical examination of the role of masculinity within boys' negotiations of science aspirations. Drawing on a UK longitudinal…

Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Willis, Beatrice

2014-01-01

362

Who Wants a Job in Biology? Student Aspirations and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the results of a questionnaire survey of UK Year 3 biology undergraduates' career aspirations, and their perceptions of employment in teaching, research and conservation. Although most students sought material benefits in their potential careers, even more wished to gain job satisfaction. None of the careers in biology was…

Henderson, Danielle; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2007-01-01

363

The Effect of Community Colleges on Changing Students' Educational Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education literature provides numerous estimates of community college diversion and democratization effects measured in terms of educational attainment. Kane and Rouse [J Econ Pers 13 (1999) 64] suggest testing for diversion by comparing the impacts of two-year and four-year colleges on the changes in educational aspirations that underlie…

Leigh, Duane E.; Gill, Andrew M.

2004-01-01

364

Pneumonitis and pneumatoceles following accidental hydrocarbon aspiration in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental ingestion and aspiration of hydrocarbons in children are common. Among the various clinical and pathological manifestations of hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, pneumonitis is the most significant and occurs in up to 40% of children, whereas formation of pneumatoceles is believed to be a rare event. We report two children with HC pneumonitis and pneumatoceles as a reversible complication after ingestion

Gabriela H. Thalhammer; Ernst Eber; Maximilian S. Zach

2005-01-01

365

Aspiring Principal Development Programme Evaluation in New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is to…

Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard

2011-01-01

366

Johnson County High School Students: Goals, Perceptions and Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to develop a marketing plan for the recruitment of students directly from high school, Johnson County Community College (JCCC) conducted a survey in Fall 1978 of 1,947 juniors and seniors at eight county high schools to determine student demographic characteristics, occupational and educational aspirations, college attendance plans,…

Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS.

367

Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

Morgan, George

2006-01-01

368

CYTOPATHOLOGY Indeterminate Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Breast  

E-print Network

system computed a benign or malignant diagnosis and a corresponding probability of malignancy for each129 CANCER CYTOPATHOLOGY Indeterminate Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Breast Image Analysis-Assisted Street, Ph.D. 3 sive diagnosis, often prompting surgical biopsy. Surgery is justified in some ofOlvi L

Street, Nick

369

The Evolution of Roles and Aspirations: Burgeoning Choices for Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional female status, roles, and aspirations and changes that have occurred in American society are traced. While women were barred from colleges and universities in the 1800's, they now account for more than 50 percent of college students. It is projected that by the year 2000, women will represent an even larger percentage of the college…

Scott, Robert A.

370

Aspirating Seal Development: Analytical Modeling and Seal Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort is to develop large diameter (22 - 36 inch) Aspirating Seals for application in aircraft engines. Stein Seal Co. will be fabricating the 36-inch seal(s) for testing. GE's task is to establish a thorough understanding of the operation of Aspirating Seals through analytical modeling and full-scale testing. The two primary objectives of this project are to develop the analytical models of the aspirating seal system, to upgrade using GE's funds, GE's 50-inch seal test rig for testing the Aspirating Seal (back-to-back with a corresponding brush seal), test the aspirating seal(s) for seal closure, tracking and maneuver transients (tilt) at operating pressures and temperatures, and validate the analytical model. The objective of the analytical model development is to evaluate the transient and steady-state dynamic performance characteristics of the seal designed by Stein. The transient dynamic model uses a multi-body system approach: the Stator, Seal face and the rotor are treated as individual bodies with relative degrees of freedom. Initially, the thirty-six springs are represented as a single one trying to keep open the aspirating face. Stops (Contact elements) are provided between the stator and the seal (to compensate the preload in the fully-open position) and between the rotor face and Seal face (to detect rub). The secondary seal is considered as part of the stator. The film's load, damping and stiffness characteristics as functions of pressure and clearance are evaluated using a separate (NASA) code GFACE. Initially, a laminar flow theory is used. Special two-dimensional interpolation routines are written to establish exact film load and damping values at each integration time step. Additionally, other user-routines are written to read-in actual pressure, rpm, stator-growth and rotor growth data and, later, to transfer these as appropriate loads/motions in the system-dynamic model. The transient dynamic model evaluates the various motions, clearances and forces as the seals are subjected to different aircraft maneuvers: Windmilling restart; start-ground idle; ground idle-takeoff; takeoff-burst chop, etc. Results of this model show that the seal closes appropriately and does not ram into the rotor for all of the conditions analyzed. The rig upgrade design for testing Aspirating Seals has been completed. Long lead-time items (forgings, etc.) have been ordered.

Bagepalli, Bharat

1996-01-01

371

Entrepreneurial aspirations among family business owners : An analysis of ethnic business owners in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to our understanding of the intersection between entrepreneurship and family businesses by examining the business aspirations of immigrant entrepreneurs from five different ethnic minority communities in the UK. It explores differences in the entrepreneurs' antecedents that might explain differences in their aspirations and examines the interaction between aspirations and business behaviour and outcomes. It finds that despite

Anuradha Basu

2004-01-01

372

Contribution of routine joint aspiration to the diagnosis of infection before hip revision surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. — To define the sensitivity and specificity of routine preoperative hip aspiration for diagnosing hip prosthesis infection (HPI) and to separately analyze subgroups with and without a clinical suspicion of HPI before aspiration.Methods. — From June 1994 to June 1997, all patients scheduled for hip revision surgery underwent aspiration of the hip under image intensifier guidance. Microbiological results were

Dominique Somme; Jean-Marc Ziza; Nicole Desplaces; Valérie Chicheportiche; Pascal Chazerain; Philippe Leonard; Luc Lhotellier; Pascal Jacquenod; Patrick Mamoudy

2003-01-01

373

Self-Efficacy Beliefs as Shapers of Children's Aspirations and Career Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study tested with 272 children a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences that shape children's career aspirations and trajectories. Familial socioeconomic status is linked to children's career trajectories only indirectly through its effects on parents' perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. The impact of parental self-efficacy and aspirations on their children's perceived career efficacy and choice is,

Albert Bandura; Claudio Barbaranelli; Gian Vittorio Caprara; Concetta Pastorelli

2001-01-01

374

Career Decision-Making, Career Barriers and Occupational Aspirations in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study tested the relationship between occupational aspirations/expectations (type and status) and decision-making difficulties, efficacy and career barriers in 498 Chinese high school students. Males aspired to investigative and enterprising types, but expected realistic and enterprising ones; females aspired to enterprising and conventional…

Creed, Peter A.; Wong, Oi Yin; Hood, Michelle

2009-01-01

375

Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The career aspirations of high-achieving adolescent girls were explored by comparing them to the aspirations of adolescent boys as well as by looking at the influence of grade in school, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. The participants' ideal and real career aspirations, scored in terms of prestige, were investigated via 2 sets of analyses , with coed (n

Cary M. Watson; Teri Quatman; Erik Edler

2002-01-01

376

Explaining Educational Aspirations of Minority Students: The Role of Social Capital and Students' Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous literature predicts disadvantaged groups to develop low aspirations and expectations, and has often explained high aspirations of these groups in terms of irrationality and fantasy. In this paper the educational aspirations of Palestinian students in Israel are examined using data from a representative sample of high school students. The results show that: (1) despite their disadvantage within the Israeli

Nabil Khattab

2003-01-01

377

Conjunctival impression cytology in non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

AIM To examine the integrity of the ocular surfaces of subjects with and without diabetes with no conjunctival and dry eye signs and symptoms and compare conjunctival impression cytology findings in diabetics with non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS Conjunctival impression cytology was performed on 43 eyes of 43 subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 42 eyes of 42 subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and 30 eyes of 30 control subjects. Impression cytology specimens of each group were graded and scored in the range 0-3 according to Nelson's method. RESULTS There were 45 (52.9%) women and 40 (47.1%) men. The mean age of the patients was 59.6±9.3y (range, 43-76y) in NPDR group and 58.0±8.8y (range, 41-85y) in PDR group. Cases with NPDR and PDR showed statistically significant higher impression cytology scores than control group (P<0.05). There was no difference between the NPDR and PDR patients for impression cytology grading scores. CONCLUSION It is determined that impression cytology grades are altered in patients with NPDR and PDR. Consequently, we suggest that there might be an association between the impression cytology grading scores and the severity of diabetic retinopathy PMID:24790878

Citirik, Mehmet; Berker, Nilufer; Haksever, Hulya; Elgin, Ufuk; Ustun, Huseyin

2014-01-01

378

Percutaneous aspiration of fluid for management of peritonitis in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: As a medical emergency that can affect even well-screened, healthy individuals, peritonitis developing during a long-duration space exploration mission may dictate deviation from traditional clinical practice due to the absence of otherwise indicated surgical capabilities. Medical management can treat many intra-abdominal processes, but treatment failures are inevitable. In these circumstances, percutaneous aspiration under sonographic guidance could provide a "rescue" strategy. Hypothesis: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid can be performed in microgravity. METHODS: Investigations were conducted in the microgravity environment of NASA's KC-135 research aircraft (0 G). The subjects were anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs weighing 50 kg. The procedures were rehearsed in a terrestrial animal lab (1 G). Colored saline (500 mL) was introduced through an intra-peritoneal catheter during flight. A high-definition ultrasound system (HDI-5000, ATL, Bothell, WA) was used to guide a 16-gauge needle into the peritoneal cavity to aspirate fluid. RESULTS: Intra-peritoneal fluid collections were easily identified, distinct from surrounding viscera, and on occasion became more obvious during weightless conditions. Subjectively, with adequate restraint of the subject and operators, the procedure was no more demanding than during the 1-G rehearsals. CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid collections is feasible in weightlessness. Treatment of intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions in spaceflight might rely on pharmacological options, backed by sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration for the "rescue" of treatment failures. While this risk mitigation strategy cannot guarantee success, it may be the most practical option given severe resource limitations.

Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Nicolaou, S.; Campbell, M. R.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Melton, S.; Beck, G.; Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Hamilton, D. R.

2002-01-01

379

HPV testing is an efficient management choice for women with inadequate liquid-based cytology in cervical cancer screening.  

PubMed

This study compares colposcopy referrals of 2 management strategies: oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA testing (Hybrid Capture 2 assay, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) and repeat cytology. In the New Technology in Cervical Cancer Trial, 22,708 subjects were randomly assigned to undergo both HPV and liquid-based cytologic testing. Women aged 35 to 60 years old with unsatisfactory cytologic findings were directly referred for colposcopy if the HPV test result was positive, and were referred for repeat cytologic examination if the HPV test result was negative; women aged 25 to 35 years old were referred for repeat cytologic examination independent of HPV test results. A positive or a second unsatisfactory cytologic examination referred women for colposcopy. Five hundred sixty women had unsatisfactory cytologic findings. Colposcopy referral was not significant and slightly higher with HPV testing than repeat cytologic test (9.8% vs 6.8%, P = .11). When cytologic testing was repeated 36.8% were unavailable for follow-up and most of the colposcopies were performed in HPV-negative women. For unsatisfactory cytologic findings, HPV triage is a more logical and efficient management strategy than a repeat cytologic test. PMID:22706859

Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Guido; Confortini, Massimo; Dalla Palma, Paolo; De Lillo, Margherita; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Maioli, Patrizia; Pellegrini, Antonella; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Segnan, Nereo; Zaffina, Leandra M T; Zorzi, Manuel; Ronco, Guglielmo

2012-07-01

380

[The value of the cytological exam in the diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis].  

PubMed

Cytologic investigations was performed in four groups of patients: central group (10 cares), without pathologic lesions; 12 patients were admitted with allergic conjunctivitis (with positive allergy tests, atopic state or clinical manifest allergic diseases), 20 cases with bacterial conjunctivitis; 8 cases with mix allergic and bacterial conjunctivitis (that hardly respond to therapy). Smears from the conjunctivae secretion were air-dried and stained with blue-polycrometanin Dr?gan method. Cytologic lesions characteristic for each group of patients are described. Our results suggest that cytology from the conjunctivae secretion is helpful in the diagnosis of the allergic etiology; also, it accurately the allergic components mix conjunctivitis. PMID:10641100

Turlea, M; Raica, D; Ciocm?reanu, M; Haidar, A; Jinga, F

1999-01-01

381

Molecular Detection of HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Brazilian Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology  

PubMed Central

The question of whether Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a cofactor for human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis is still controversial. We conducted a molecular detection study of both infections in 622 Brazilian women, including 252 women with different grades of abnormal cervical cytology and cervical cancer (CC; cases) and 370 women with normal cytology (controls). Although Ct infection did not seem related to CC carcinogenicity, women with abnormal cytology had a significant high rate of Ct infection. Therefore, it is important to adopt protocols for diagnosis and treatment of this bacterium in conjunction with screening for CC in this population. PMID:23128289

de Abreu, André L. P.; Nogara, Paula R. B.; Souza, Raquel P.; da Silva, Mariana C.; Uchimura, Nelson S.; Zanko, Rodrigo L.; Ferreira, Érika C.; Tognim, Maria C. B.; Teixeira, Jorge J. V.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E. L.

2012-01-01

382

Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting by the Bethesda System: A Two-Year Prospective Study in an Academic Institution  

PubMed Central

Background. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has attempted to standardize reporting and cytological criteria in aspiration smears. Aims. The objective of this study was to analyze the thyroid cytology smears by TBSRTC, to determine the distribution of diagnostic categories and subcategories, to analyze cytological features, and to correlate the cytopathology with histopathology, wherever surgery was done. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study of 225 fine needle aspirations (FNA) of thyroid nodules. All fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnoses were classified according to the features given in the monograph of TBSRTC into nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory (ND/UNS), benign, atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), follicular neoplasm/suspicious of a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN), suspicious for malignancy (SFM), and malignant. Cytohistological correlation was done, when surgical material was available. Results. The distribution of various categories from 225 evaluated thyroid nodules was as follows: 7.2% ND/UNS, 80.0% benign, 4.9% AUS/FLUS, 2.2% FN, 3.5% SFM, and 2.2% malignant. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Conclusions. TBSRTC is an excellent reporting system for thyroid FNA. It also provides clear management guidelines to clinicians to go for follow-up FNA or surgery and also the extent of surgery.

Mehra, Payal; Verma, Anand Kumar

2015-01-01

383

Evaluation of unexplained peripheral lymphadenopathy and suspected malignancy using a distinct quick diagnostic delivery model: prospective study of 372 patients.  

PubMed

Although rapid diagnostic testing is essential in suspicious peripheral lymphadenopathy, delays in accessing them can be considerable. We investigated the usefulness of an internist-led outpatient quick diagnosis unit (QDU) in assessing patients with unexplained peripheral lymphadenopathy, focusing on the characteristics, diagnostic, and treatment waiting times of those with malignancy. Patients aged ? 18 years, consecutively referred from 12 primary health care centers (PHCs) or the emergency department (ED) for unexplained peripheral lymphadenopathy, were prospectively evaluated during 7 years. Diagnostic investigations were done using a predefined study protocol. Three experienced cytopathologists performed a fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) systematic approach of clinically suspicious lymphadenopathy with cytomorphology and immunophenotyping analyses. We evaluated 372 patients with a mean age (SD) of 45.3 (13.8) years; 56% were women. Malignancy was diagnosed in 120 (32%) patients, including 81 lymphomas and 39 metastatic tumors. Metastatic lymphadenopathy was diagnosed by FNAC in all 39 patients and the primary tumor site was identified in 82% of them when cytomorphology and immunocytochemistry were combined. A correct diagnosis of lymphoma was reached by FNAC in 73% of patients. When accepting "suspicious of" as correct diagnosis, the FNAC diagnosis rate of lymphoma increased to 94%. Among patients with malignancy, FNAC yielded 1.3% of false negatives and no false positives. All patients with an FNAC report of correct or suspicious lymphoma underwent a surgical biopsy, as it is a mandatory requirement of the hematology department. Mean times from first QDU visit to FNAC diagnosis of malignancy were 5.4 days in metastatic lymphadenopathy and 7.5 days in lymphoma. Mean times from receiving the initial referral report to first treatment were 29.2 days in metastatic lymphadenopathy and 40 days in lymphoma. In conclusion, a distinct internal medicine QDU allows an expeditious, agile, and prearranged system to diagnose malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy. Because of the close collaboration with the cytopathology unit and the FNAC methodical approach, diagnostic and treatment waiting times of patients with malignancy fulfilled national and international time frame standards. This particular diagnostic delivery unit could help overcome the difficulties facing PHC, ED, and other physicians when trying to provide rapid access to investigations to patients with troublesome lymphadenopathy. PMID:25310744

Bosch, Xavier; Coloma, Emmanuel; Donate, Carolina; Colomo, Lluís; Doti, Pamela; Jordán, Anna; López-Soto, Alfonso

2014-10-01

384

[The use of the Bethesda-terminology cytological system in clinical practice. A pilot study].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to summarize the one-year experience in applying the Bethesda terminological system (BTS) for assessment of cervical cytology. The study was based on 164 women, aged from 18 to 45, of which 98 with early pregnancy and 66 not pregnant. The materials for cytological examination were prepared by classical techniques and then coloured with hemalaun-eosin. Cytological findings were interpreted according to the revised BTS (1991), and an assessment of the adequacy of smears, possible infectious and reactive changes was made. Intraepithelial lesions were classified in two categories--low and high grade lesions. The advantages and shortcomings of the proposed new terminological, cytological classification system for assessment of the uterine cervix are discussed. PMID:7793521

Kostova, P; Zlatkov, V; Zamfirova, K; Ganchev, G

1994-01-01

385

[Experiences with lavage cytology from renal pelvis and ureter (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In 41 cases of roentgenologic filling defects in renal pelvis and ureter, which could not be determined exactly preoperatively, we could confirm the diagnostic value of cytology from washings of renal pelvis and ureter (lavage cytology), especially in preoperative diagnosis of carcinoma of renal pelvis and ureter. Ten of fourteen tumors (71%) were detected by this method. The diagnostic reliability increased with tumor-stage and was more accurate than the normal exfoliative urinary cytology. In five cases of hypernephromas invading the renal pelvis lavage cytology was not successful and we had obtained only false negative results. In roentgenologic filling defects that were not tumor-induced especially uric acid stones, inflammatory processes, blood clots and renal cysts, we had no false positive results. Our findings are discussed together with the literature. PMID:898441

Leistenschneider, W; Nagel, R

1977-07-01

386

Stages of oogenesis in the snail, Helix aspersa : cytological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies  

E-print Network

Stages of oogenesis in the snail, Helix aspersa : cytological, cytochemical and ultrastructural, France. Summary. Oogenesis was studied in adult Helix aspersa using light and electron micros- copy rela- tions between oocytes and follicle cells. Introduction. Oogenesis inside molluscs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

Automation in cytology: a survey conducted by the New Technology Task Force, Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology.  

PubMed

Despite the overwhelming interest in the development of several computer based technologies in the last several years, the role of automation in cytology has remained controversial. The potential of these technologies in the reduction of false negative results in pap smears is well recognized. However, there is still remarkable confusion as how to incorporate automation in the routine practice of cytology. This prompted the New Technology Task Force of the George Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology to design a survey to seek the opinion of those engaged in cervicovaginal cytology screening regarding the value of automation in cytology. In 1996, a ten question survey was sent to 1800 cytopathology laboratories throughout the nation. The response rate was 23% (416/1800). The responders represented laboratories varying from those with less than 5,000 pap smears to those with over 100,000 cases per year. The majority of the responders did not believe that automation is essential for cervicovaginal cytology. This was evidenced by the fact that only 12% of the laboratories were engaged in automated cytology and predominantly used it for quality control measures. The inability of small laboratories to absorb the extra expense involved in the integration of automated cytology in their practice, particularly in the current era of managed care was a major concern. There was also concern about the potential for compromise of patient care by the drive for corporate profits and the dissemination of wrong information to the public and physicians. Suggestions most frequently proposed included appropriate patient and physician education about the merits and pitfalls of the pap smear, and also endorsing an affordable universal fee for pap smears. Rescreening for all pap smears, reassessing the benefits of automation in cytology and development of the standards were other proposals. Partnership with larger cytology laboratories, creation of "cytology consortiums" with shared resources to provide regionalized automated rescreening services were also strongly suggested. This survey clearly indicates the need for further evaluation of automation in cytopathology and a focused attention to various issues surrounding cervicovaginal cytology screening. PMID:9451558

Masood, S; Cajulis, R S; Cibas, E S; Wilbur, D C; Bedrossian, C W

1998-01-01

388

Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.  

PubMed

To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance. PMID:25415397

Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

2015-01-01

389

Behavior of liquid metal droplets in an aspirating nozzle  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of particle size, velocity, and relative mass flux were made on spray field produced by aspirating liquid tin into 350{degrees}C argon flowing through a venturi nozzle via a small orifice in the throat of the nozzle. Details of the aspiration and droplet formation process were observed through windows in the nozzle. The spatial distribution of droplet size, velocity, and relative number density were measured at a location 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Due to the presence of separated flow in the nozzle, changes in nozzle inlet pressure did not significantly effect resulting droplet size and velocity. This suggests that good aerodynamic nozzle design is required if spray characteristics are to be controlled by nozzle flow. 5 refs.

Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Mason, T.A.

1990-01-01

390

Behavior of liquid metal droplets in an aspirating nozzle. Revision  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of particle size, velocity, and relative mass flux were made on spray field produced by aspirating liquid tin into 350{degrees}C argon flowing through a venturi nozzle via a small orifice in the throat of the nozzle. Details of the aspiration and droplet formation process were observed through windows in the nozzle. The spatial distribution of droplet size, velocity, and relative number density were measured at a location 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Due to the presence of separated flow in the nozzle, changes in nozzle inlet pressure did not significantly effect resulting droplet size and velocity. This suggests that good aerodynamic nozzle design is required if spray characteristics are to be controlled by nozzle flow. 5 refs.

Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Mason, T.A.

1990-12-31

391

A Case of Death Caused by Tracheal Tube Aspiration  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Airway management, especially outside the operating room, needs meticulous observation in order to avoid certain risks, such as; endotracheal tube (ETT) disloca­tion, esophageal intubation, and unwanted extubation. ETT or tracheostomy dislocation is responsible for one-half of death or brain damage cases in the ICU. Despite appropri­ate fixation of an ETT, the previously mentioned compli­cations can still occur . A broken ETT and consequent airway obstruction may lead to lethal complications. Case Presentation: We report a case of death caused by tracheal tube aspiration, where it was located distal to the vocal cords, with a part of it entering the right bronchus and the mediastinum, after tearing the right bronchus. Discussion: The vigilance and experience of medical personnel in the ICU, appropriate IV sedation, and using a bite block are the best ways to prevent mortality caused by aspiration of an ETT in all intubated patients. PMID:24660153

Mirkheshti, Alireza; Jabbary Moghadam, Morteza; Kalantar, Mohamad Shahab; Abtahi, Dariush; Memary, Elham

2014-01-01

392

Aspirated bezoar in a pediatric patient: a case report.  

PubMed

This case report describes an 11-year-old boy with a known esophageal bezoar admitted to surgery for esophagogas-troduodenoscopy with biopsy and possible removal of the bezoar. On induction, a copious amount of fluid and solid food particulate was noted in the posterior oropharynx, interfering with immediate intubation. After clearing of the oropharynx, the patient was intubated. A bronchoscopy revealed aspirated food materials. A stat intraoperative consultation was initiated for rigid bronchoscope with bronchial suctioning to clear aspirated undigested food particles and an esophageal scope to remove the bezoar mass in pieces. Postoperatively, the parents were notified that the jejunal mass would require further workup with possible surgical removal. PMID:16918121

Macksey, Lynn

2006-08-01

393

Cell Block Preparation from Cytology Specimen with Predominance of Individually Scattered Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article with accompanied video demonstrates Shidham's method for preparation of cell blocks from liquid based cervicovaginal cytology specimens containing individually scattered cells and small cell groups. This technique uses HistoGel (Thermo Scientific) with conventional laboratory equipment.\\u000aThe use of cell block sections is a valuable ancillary tool for evaluation of non-gynecologic cytology. They enable the cytopathologist to study additional

George M. Varsegi; Vinod B. Shidham

2009-01-01

394

[Possibilities of clinico-cytological diagnosis in contagious equine metritis (CEM)].  

PubMed

Clinical, bacteriological and serological examinations on a 6 years old pony mare were performed. Cytological alterations in the genital tract were also recorded. A cellular reaction was seen after infection with T. equigenitalis. This reaction is an evidence for infection but it is not specific for this organism. Cytological studies should be performed on mares especially in cases of latent infections to complete bacteriological examination and to prevent false positive or negative results. PMID:1872793

Ullrich, E; Selbitz, H J; Schieck, R; Friedrich, U; Schulz, J

1991-05-01

395

Brush cytology in the assessment of pancreatico–biliary strictures: a review of 406 cases  

PubMed Central

Aims—To assess the accuracy of brush cytology in patients investigated for pancreatico–biliary strictures. Methods—All pancreatico–biliary brush cytology specimens submitted from two major teaching hospitals over a 6.5 year period were reviewed. Four hundred and forty eight satisfactory specimens from 406 patients with adequate clinical and/or pathological follow up data were examined in the study period. Results—Two hundred and forty six patients (60.6%) were shown to have neoplastic strictures. One hundred and forty seven tumours were identified cytologically, including 87 of 146 pancreatic carcinomas, 29 of 47 cholangiocarcinomas, one of one bile duct adenoma, four of seven carcinomas of the gallbladder, eight of 13 ampullary carcinomas, two of three ampullary adenomas, 10 of 16 malignancies of undetermined origin, none of two islet cell tumours, one of three hepatocellular carcinomas, and five of eight metastatic tumours. The three adenomas identified on brush cytology could not be distinguished from adenocarcinoma morphologically. One hundred and sixty patients (39.4%) had benign strictures, most often as a result of chronic pancreatitis and bile duct stones. There were three false positive cytological diagnoses mainly as a result of the misinterpretation of cases with relatively scant and/or degenerative atypical epithelial cells. Forty one cases were reported as atypical or suspicious of malignancy on brush cytology, of which 29 were ultimately shown to have carcinoma. The overall diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 59.8% and 98.1%, respectively. The sensitivity increased from 44.3% in the initial third of cases to 70.7% in the final third of cases examined in the series. Conclusions—Brush cytology, in conjunction with other clinical and radiological investigations, is a useful technique in the assessment of patients with suspected pancreatico–biliary neoplasia. Key Words: brush cytology • pancreatico-biliary strictures • pancreatico-biliary neoplasia PMID:11376018

Stewart, C; Mills, P; Carter, R; O'Donohue, J; Fullarton, G; Imrie, C; Murray, W

2001-01-01

396

Molecular markers of endometrial carcinoma detected in uterine aspirates.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. Although usually detected in its initial stages, a 20% of the patients present with advanced disease. To date, no characterized molecular marker has been validated for the diagnosis of EC. In addition, new methods for prognosis and classification of EC are needed to combat this deadly disease. We thus aimed to identify new molecular markers of EC and to evaluate their validity on endometrial aspirates. Gene expression screening on 52 carcinoma samples and series of real-time quantitative PCR validation on 19 paired carcinomas and normal tissue samples and on 50 carcinoma and noncarcinoma uterine aspirates were performed to identify and validate potential biomarkers of EC. Candidate markers were further confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We identified ACAA1, AP1M2, CGN, DDR1, EPS8L2, FASTKD1, GMIP, IKBKE, P2RX4, P4HB, PHKG2, PPFIBP2, PPP1R16A, RASSF7, RNF183, SIRT6, TJP3, EFEMP2, SOCS2 and DCN as differentially expressed in ECs. Furthermore, the differential expression of these biomarkers in primary endometrial tumors is correlated to their expression level in corresponding uterine fluid samples. Finally, these biomarkers significantly identified EC with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic values ranging from 0.74 to 0.95 in uterine aspirates. Interestingly, analogous values were found among initial stages. We present the discovery of molecular biomarkers of EC and describe their utility in uterine aspirates. These findings represent the basis for the development of a highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive method for screening ECs. PMID:21207424

Colas, Eva; Perez, Cristina; Cabrera, Silvia; Pedrola, Nuria; Monge, Marta; Castellvi, Josep; Eyzaguirre, Fernando; Gregorio, Jesus; Ruiz, Anna; Llaurado, Marta; Rigau, Marina; Garcia, Marta; Ertekin, Tugçe; Montes, Melania; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Carreras, Ramon; Xercavins, Jordi; Ortega, Alicia; Maes, Tamara; Rosell, Elisabet; Doll, Andreas; Abal, Miguel; Reventos, Jaume; Gil-Moreno, Antonio

2011-11-15

397

Bullet aspiration and spontaneous expectoration after gunshot wound to trachea.  

PubMed

A young adult male suffered a combat gunshot wound to his anterior trachea, which resulted in bullet migration, via aspiration, to the point of lodgment in the right upper lobe bronchus. He subsequently spontaneously expectorated the intact bullet, a first report of such events. A bronchoscopy was then performed confirming the site of entry, position of previous lodgment, and lack of further pathology. A brief discussion of expected findings, management, and complications are discussed. PMID:20108847

Andrews, Christopher M; Singh, Nicklesh N; Stewart, Robert W

2010-01-01

398

Perfectionism and life aspirations in intrinsically and extrinsically religious individuals.  

PubMed

Religiosity is related to positive health and life satisfaction but the pathways through which this occurs have not been clearly delineated. The purpose of this study was to examine potential mediators of the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Perfectionism and life aspirations are two possible pathways through which religious orientation is related to outcome. It was hypothesized that adaptive perfectionism and intrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between intrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction, and that maladaptive perfectionism and extrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between the extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Two consecutive samples of religious college students (N = 540 and N = 485) completed measures of the Age Universal Religious Orientation Index, the Frost Multi-Dimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Aspiration Index, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Intrinsic religiosity had a direct negative relationship with negative affect and positive relationship with life satisfaction. Contrary to the hypotheses, intrinsic religiosity had its strongest indirect effect via maladaptive perfectionism such that increased intrinsic religiosity was related to decreased maladaptive perfectionism which in turn lead to better negative affect and life satisfaction. Extrinsic religiosity was related to increased maladaptive perfectionism and thereby indirectly contributed to worse negative affect and life satisfaction. Interestingly, when the effects of maladaptive perfectionism were controlled, the direct effects of extrinsic religiosity were related to reduced negative affect and increased life satisfaction. Overall, the strongest mediator in this study of both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity was maladaptive perfectionism, with intrinsic religiosity related to decreased maladaptive perfectionism and extrinsic religiosity related to increased maladaptive perfectionism. PMID:23435828

Steffen, Patrick R

2014-08-01

399

Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

McIntosh, Keith W.

2012-01-01

400

Thrombus aspiration in acute myocardial infarction: Rationale and indication  

PubMed Central

Reperfusion of myocardial tissue is the main goal of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) with stent implantation in the treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Although PPCI has contributed to a dramatic reduction in cardiovascular mortality over three decades, normal myocardial perfusion is not restored in approximately one-third of these patients. Several mechanisms may contribute to myocardial reperfusion failure, in particular distal embolization of the thrombus and plaque fragments. In fact, this is a possible complication during PPCI, resulting in microvascular obstruction and no-reflow phenomenon. The presence of a visible thrombus at the time of PPCI in patients with STEMI is associated with poor procedural and clinical outcomes. Aspiration thrombectomy during PPCI has been proposed to prevent embolization in order to improve these outcomes. In fact, the most recent guidelines suggest the routine use of manual aspiration thrombectomy during PPCI (class IIa) to reduce the risk of distal embolization. Even though numerous international studies have been reported, there are conflicting results on the clinical impact of aspiration thrombectomy during PPCI. In particular, data on long-term clinical outcomes are still inconsistent. In this review, we have carefully analyzed literature data on thrombectomy during PPCI, taking into account the most recent studies and meta-analyses. PMID:25276294

Sardella, Gennaro; Stio, Rocco Edoardo

2014-01-01

401

Controlled aspiration and positioning of biological cells in a micropipette.  

PubMed

Manipulating single cells with a micropipette is the oldest, yet still a widely used technique. This paper discusses the aspiration of a single cell into a micropipette and positioning the cell accurately to a target position inside the micropipette. Due to the small volume of a single cell (picoliter) and nonlinear dynamics involved, these tasks have high skill requirements and are labor intensive in manual operation that is solely based on trial and error and has high failure rates. We present automated techniques in this paper for achieving these tasks via computer vision microscopy and closed-loop motion control. Computer vision algorithms were developed to detect and track a single cell outside and inside a micropipette for automated single-cell aspiration. A closed-loop robust controller integrating the dynamics of cell motion was designed to accurately and efficiently position the cell to a target position inside the micropipette. The system achieved high success rates of 98% for cell detection and 97% for cell tracking (n = 100). The automated system also demonstrated its capability of aspirating a single cell into a micropipette within 2 s (versus 10 s by highly skilled operators) and accurately positioning the cell inside the micropipette within 8 s (versus 25 s by highly skilled operators). PMID:22231148

Zhang, XuPing; Leung, Clement; Lu, Zhe; Esfandiari, Navid; Casper, Robert F; Sun, Yu

2012-04-01

402

Thrombus aspiration in acute myocardial infarction: Rationale and indication.  

PubMed

Reperfusion of myocardial tissue is the main goal of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) with stent implantation in the treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Although PPCI has contributed to a dramatic reduction in cardiovascular mortality over three decades, normal myocardial perfusion is not restored in approximately one-third of these patients. Several mechanisms may contribute to myocardial reperfusion failure, in particular distal embolization of the thrombus and plaque fragments. In fact, this is a possible complication during PPCI, resulting in microvascular obstruction and no-reflow phenomenon. The presence of a visible thrombus at the time of PPCI in patients with STEMI is associated with poor procedural and clinical outcomes. Aspiration thrombectomy during PPCI has been proposed to prevent embolization in order to improve these outcomes. In fact, the most recent guidelines suggest the routine use of manual aspiration thrombectomy during PPCI (class IIa) to reduce the risk of distal embolization. Even though numerous international studies have been reported, there are conflicting results on the clinical impact of aspiration thrombectomy during PPCI. In particular, data on long-term clinical outcomes are still inconsistent. In this review, we have carefully analyzed literature data on thrombectomy during PPCI, taking into account the most recent studies and meta-analyses. PMID:25276294

Sardella, Gennaro; Stio, Rocco Edoardo

2014-09-26

403

The Perceived Value of Education and Educational Aspirations in the Czech Republic: Changes in the Determination of Educational Aspirations between 1989 and 2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the changes in the determination of educational aspirations from the end of the communist period in 1989 to 2003, focusing on a single postcommunist country, the Czech Republic. The Czech case is particularly relevant for comparative research on educational inequality and aspirations, as previous studies have shown…

Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

2009-01-01

404

Lymph node aspirate from a California wine-country dog.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old, male Golden Retriever was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California-Davis with a history of lethargy, inappetance, and vomiting. The patient had generalized lymphadenomegaly, marked thrombocytopenia, mild anemia, and moderate hypoalbuminemia. Moderate to marked histiocytic inflammation and lymphocytic-plasmacytic reactivity of the mesenteric, left popliteal, and right mandibular lymph nodes were diagnosed cytologically. Many macrophages contained granular to amorphous material of a uniform blue color, occasionally in morula formation, suggestive of rickettsial organisms. Exposure to raw trout was subsequently documented, leading to a presumptive diagnosis of salmon poisoning disease (SPD). The patient responded quickly to doxycycline therapy for the causative agent of SPD (Neorickettsia helminthoeca). SPD should be considered as a differential diagnosis for a canine patient with clinical signs of vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, and lymphadenomegaly; laboratory findings of thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia; and potential exposure to raw fish from an endemic area. The cytologic finding of rickettsial inclusions within lymph node macrophages is reportedly seen within a majority of SPD cases and can be valuable in supporting a clinical suspicion of SPD, as it was in this case. PMID:16783722

Johns, Jennifer L; Strasser, Jennifer L; Zinkl, Joseph G; Christopher, Mary M

2006-06-01

405

Correlation of eosinophilic structures with detection of acid-fast bacilli in fine needle aspiration smears from tuberculous lymph nodes: Is eosinophilic structure the missing link in spectrum of tuberculous lesion?  

PubMed Central

Background: Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is not seen in all necrotic tuberculous lesions. If the subset of tuberculous lesions which yield positive result for AFB can be identified, it would save on time and manpower besides optimizing use of resources. A prospective study was undertaken to assess if presence of eosinophilic structures (ESs) in necrotic tuberculous lesions correlated with the presence of AFB. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for fine needle aspiration cytology for evaluation of lymphadenopathy between July 2012 and June 2013 were analyzed. The hematoxylin and eosin and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained slides were screened for epithelioid cell granuloma, ES and necrosis and Ziehl Neelsen stained smears for AFB. Result: One hundred and eight tuberculous lymph nodes yielded necrotic material on aspiration. Four cytologic pictures were seen: (a) ES+ AFB+ in 58.33%, (b) ES+ AFB? in 20.37%, (c) ES? AFB+ in 9.26% (d) ES? AFB? in 12.04% cases. Overall AFB was found in 67.59% cases, out of which 58.33% correlated with the presence of ES while 9.26% were seen in smears without ES. Conclusion: Presence of ESs should be included in the morphological description of tuberculous lesions. In the absence of granulomas, they indicate tuberculous nature of the lesion. Presence of ES mandates a search for AFB as probability of finding AFB is high in such lesions. Significance of ES lies in their presence and not in their absence. Eosinophilic structures appear to be the missing link in the spectrum of tuberculous lesion. PMID:25538384

Prasoon, Dev; Agrawal, Parimal

2014-01-01

406

Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina  

PubMed Central

Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, SSR marker genotyping, and array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH). Results Chromosome counting and flow cytometry revealed that ESP and FRA were haploid, but ITA was tri-haploid. Homozygous patterns, represented by a single peak (allele), were observed among the three plants at almost all SSR loci distributed across the entire diploid donor genome. Those few loci with extra peaks visualized as output from automated sequencing runs, generally low or ambiguous, might result from amplicons of paralogous members at the locus, non-specific sites, or unexpected recombinant alleles. No new alleles were found, suggesting the genomes remained stable and intact during gametogenesis and regeneration. The integrity of the haploid genome also was supported by array-CGH studies, in which genomic profiles were comparable to the diploid control. Conclusions The presence of few gene hybridization abnormalities, corroborated by gene dosage measurements, were hypothetically due to the segregation of hemizygous alleles and minor genomic rearrangements occurring during the haploidization procedure. In conclusion, these plants that are valuable genetic and breeding materials contain completely homozygous and essentially intact genomes. PMID:24020638

2013-01-01

407

The solution to the cytological paradox of isomorphy  

PubMed Central

Cells with polyploid nuclei are generally larger than cells of the same organism or species with nonpolyploid nuclei. However, no such change of cell size with ploidy level is observed in those red algae which alternate isomorphic haploid with diploid generations. The results of this investigation reveal the explanation. Nuclear DNA content and other parameters were measured in cells of the filamentous red alga Griffithsia pacifica. Nuclei of the diploid generation contain twice the DNA content of those of the haploid generation. However, all cells except newly formed reproductive cells are multinucleate. The nuclei are arranged in a nearly perfect hexagonal array just beneath the cell surface. When homologous cells of the two generations are compared, although the cell size is nearly identical, each nucleus of the diploid cell is surrounded by a region of cytoplasm (a "domain") nearly twice that surrounding a haploid nucleus. Cytoplasmic domains associated with a diploid nucleus contain twice the number of plastids, and consequently twice the amount of plastid DNA, than is associated with the domain of a haploid nucleus. Thus, doubling of ploidy is reflected in doubling of the size and organelle content of the domain associated with each nucleus. However, cell size does not differ between homologous cells of the two generations, because total nuclear DNA (sum of the DNA in all nuclei in a cell) per cell does not differ. This is the solution to the cytological paradox of isomorphy. PMID:3818798

1987-01-01

408

Integrating a FISH imaging system into the cytology laboratory.  

PubMed

We have implemented an interactive imaging system for the interpretation of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to improve throughput, productivity, quality control and diagnostic accuracy. We describe the Duet imaging system, our experiences with implementation, and outline the financial investment, space requirements, information technology needs, validation, and training of cytotechnologists needed to integrate such a system into a cytology laboratory. Before purchasing the imaging system, we evaluated and validated the instrument at our facility. Implementation required slide preparation changes, IT modifications, development of training programs, and revision of job descriptions for cytotechnologists. A darkened room was built to house the automated scanning station and microscope, as well as two imaging stations. IT changes included generation of storage for archival images on the LAN, addition of external hard drives for back-up, and changes to cable connections for communication between remote locations. Training programs for cytotechnologists, and pathologists/fellows/residents were developed, and cytotechnologists were integrated into multiple steps of the process. The imaging system has resulted in increased productivity for pathologists, concomitant with an expanded role of cytotechnologists in multiple critical steps, including FISH, scan setup, reclassification, and initial interpretation. PMID:20436794

Smith, G Denice; Riding, Matt; Oswald, Kim; Bentz, Joel S

2010-01-01

409

Reproducibility of ear cytology in dogs with otitis externa.  

PubMed

Eighty-three dogs with clinical signs of otitis externa and with ear cytology revealing microbial organisms were studied. Samples were collected from both ears of each dog by inserting two swabs successively into each ear canal, rotating each once through 360 degrees and then rolling it out in a line on to a glass slide. For each animal, four single parallel smears (SPS) were made on one slide, which was then appropriately labelled to identify the animal as well as the order of the samples. The slides, one representing each animal, were subsequently stained with modified Wright's stain. Six high-power fields of every SPS were counted. Golden retrievers and West Highland white terriers were found to be predisposed to developing otitis externa (P=0.0006 and P=0.0123, respectively). Otitis externa occurred significantly more frequently in dogs with pendulous pinnae than in dogs with erect pinnae (P=0.0009). There was no significant difference between the first and the second samples with respect to the number of microorganisms found (P>0.1 for cocci and P>0.5 for rods and yeasts), and there was a substantial agreement between the results of the two successive swabs for the presence of cocci (kappa=0.765) and rods (kappa=0.705). For yeasts, the agreement was only moderate (kappa=0.581). PMID:20605955

Lehner, G; Louis, C Sauter; Mueller, R S

2010-07-01

410

Screening for Cervical Cancer Precursors With p16/Ki-67 Dual-Stained Cytology: Results of the PALMS Study  

PubMed Central

Background Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing. Methods A total of 27349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined. Results The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001). Conclusions The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations. PMID:24096620

2013-01-01

411

The Utility and Management of Vaginal Cytology After Treatment For Endometrial Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the accuracy of vaginal cytology in postoperative surveillance for detecting recurrent endometrial cancer and estimate the optimal management of squamous abnormalities detected in this setting. Methods This review included women who underwent hysterectomy for endometrial cancer between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 and had at least one post-operative Pap test. Clinical and demographic data were collected and outcomes including abnormal vaginal cytology, results of colposcopic examination, and endometrial cancer recurrence were assessed. A multivariable logistic regression model to estimate the risk of abnormal cytology was created. Sensitivity, specificity and negative/positive predictive values of detecting vaginal recurrences were calculated. Results Four hundred thirty three women contributed 2,378 Pap tests. At least one abnormal cytology result was found during follow-up of 55 (13%) women, representing 3% of all Pap tests. No recurrent endometrial cancers were diagnosed on the basis of isolated abnormal cytology. No cases of recurrent cancer were diagnosed in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) Paps. In multivariable analysis, abnormal cytology was highly associated with prior post-operative radiation therapy (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of an abnormal Pap test in detecting a local recurrence are 40%, 87.9%, 7.3% and 98.4%, respectively. Conclusion Vaginal cytology is of limited utility in detecting recurrent endometrial cancer. Pap tests read as ASC-US/LSIL can be followed without colposcopy. PMID:23262937

Novetsky, Akiva P.; Kuroki, Lindsay M.; Massad, L. Stewart; Hagemann, Andrea R.; Thaker, Premal H.; Powell, Matthew A.; Mutch, David G.; Zighelboim, Israel

2013-01-01

412

Variations in Practice Guideline Adherence for Abnormal Cervical Cytology in a County Healthcare System  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in cervical cancer incidence and mortality is not only dependant on promoting cervical cancer screening but also on providing appropriate follow-up and treatment of abnormal cervical cytology. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine variations in guideline adherence for women requiring abnormal cervical cytology follow-up. Subjects Subjects of the study are women 18 years or older with an abnormal Pap test in 2000 within a large county healthcare system (n?=?8,571). Measurements Guideline adherence was determined by the presence or absence of the appropriate follow-up procedure within an acceptable time interval for each degree of cytological abnormality. Patients with no follow-up studies were deemed to be lost to follow-up. Results Of study subjects, 18.5% were lost to follow-up care. Of the remaining 6,987 women, 60.3% received optimal care, 9.4% received suboptimal care, and 30.3% received poor care. Follow-up rates were higher for patients with higher degree of cytological abnormality (OR, 1.29, 95% CI, 1.17–1.42), older patients (OR, 1.03, 95% CI, 1.02–1.030) and those receiving the index Pap test at a larger healthcare facility (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01–1.27). Receiving optimal care was positively correlated with higher degree of cytological abnormality (p?cytology are receiving less than optimal care. Further studies are required to determine the specific healthcare delivery practices that need to be targeted to improve guideline adherence for follow-up of abnormal cytology. PMID:18286344

Rubenstein, Lisa V.; Wang, Mingming; Lee, Martin L.; Raza, Anwar; Holschneider, Christine H.

2008-01-01

413

Videofluoroscopic evidence of aspiration predicts pneumonia and death but not dehydration following stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the risk of pneumonia, dehydration, and death associated with videofluoroscopic evidence of aspiration following stroke, the clinical records of 26 patients with aspiration and 33 randomly selected, case-matched, dysphagic controls without videofluoroscopic evidence of aspiration were reviewed. The videofluoroscopic modified barium swallow technique included 5 ml-thin and thick liquid barium, 5 ml barium pudding, and 1\\/4

John Schmidt; Marlene Holas; Kathryn Halvorson; Michael Reding

1994-01-01

414

Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in aspirate, effusions, and cerebrospinal fluid by immunocytochemical detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific antigen MPT64.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunocytochemical staining for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-specific antigen MPT64, in tuberculous lymph node aspirates, cerebrospinal fluid, and effusions from pleura and abdomen. One hundred ninety patients with a diagnosis of tuberculosis (cases) and 80 patients with nontuberculous lesions (controls) were enrolled and differentiated on the basis of clinical features, histology, cytology, clinical biochemistry, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Lowenstein-Jensen culture, and response to antituberculous therapy. Cervical lymph nodes fine-needle aspirate (n = 150), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 27), pleural fluid (n = 41), and peritoneal fluid (n = 52) were collected and stained with anti-MPT64 and anti-BCG antibodies using immunocytochemistry. Nested-PCR for IS6110 was done for comparison and to calculate the diagnostic indices of the ICC staining. ICC staining with anti-MPT64 was positive in 128/190 (67.4%) tuberculous smears and in 4/80 (5%) control smears thus giving sensitivity of 67.4% and the specificity of 95%, while anti-BCG was positive in 112 (58.9%) tuberculous smears and in 16/80 (20%) control smears with sensitivity of 58.9% and specificity of 80%. When diagnostic validation of ICC was done using PCR as the gold standard, the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values for ICC staining in smears with anti-MPT64 was 96, 96, 95, and 97%, respectively, while the corresponding values for anti-BCG were 87, 88, 86, and 88%. ICC staining using anti-MPT64 represents a robust and simple method for establishing an early etiological diagnosis of M. tuberculosis complex infection in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:21416644

Purohit, Manju Raj; Mustafa, Tehmina; Wiker, Harald G; Sviland, Lisbet

2012-09-01

415

Efficacy of Thickened Liquids for Eliminating Aspiration in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective To appraise the current videofluoroscopic evidence on the reduction of aspiration using thickened liquids in the head and neck cancer population. Data Sources Search terms relating to deglutition or dysphagia or swallow and neoplasms and oncology or head and neck cancer and viscosity or texture and apira or residu* were combined with honey or nectar, xerostomia, respiratory aspiration using Boolean operators. Review Methods A multi-engine literature search identified 337 non-duplicate articles of which 6 were judged to be relevant. These underwent detailed review for study quality and qualitative synthesis. Results The articles reviewed in detail predominantly described heterogeneous study samples with small sample sizes, making for difficult interpretation and generalization of results. Rates of aspiration were typically not reported by bolus consistency, despite the fact that a variety of stimulus consistencies was used during VFSS. Studies confirmed that aspiration is a major concern in the head and neck cancer population and reported a trend towards more frequent aspiration post-(chemo)radiotherapy. Conclusion Overall, the literature on thickened liquids as an intervention to eliminate aspiration in the head and neck cancer population is limited. Because aspiration is known to be prevalent in the head and neck cancer population and thickened liquids are known to eliminate aspiration in other populations, it is important to determine the effectiveness of thickened liquids for reducing aspiration in the head and neck cancer population. PMID:25358345

Barbon, Carly E.A.; Steele, Catriona M.

2015-01-01

416

Promotion of cooperation in aspiration-based spatial prisoner’s dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a deterministic aspiration-based learning mechanism into the prisoner’s dilemma game on regular lattices and then investigate the evolution of cooperation for different values of aspiration level A. It is found that the cooperation level exhibits discontinuous phase transition with A and there is a moderate aspiration level that can best favor the cooperative behavior. Besides, the evolution time series show the so-called “ping-pong effect” for both high and low aspiration levels. The evolution of spatial patterns is also investigated. It is found that the cooperator frequency is not sensitive to the initial condition but the evolutionary patterns can be quite different.

Zhang, Jun; Fang, Yi-Ping; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

2011-06-01

417

Perioperative pulmonary aspiration is infrequent and low risk in pediatric anesthetic practice.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported perioperative pulmonary aspiration in pediatric practice to be an uncommon problem associated with low morbidity and mortality. This paper examines the recent publications in both the adult and pediatric literature and looks at some of the potential risk factors involved, both patient and anesthetic, in the development of aspiration of gastric contents. We also look at the risk of severe morbidity following pulmonary aspiration and speculate on possible reasons behind the assertion that pulmonary aspiration in pediatric anesthetic practice is rare and a low-risk event. PMID:25280003

Kelly, Christopher J; Walker, Robert W M

2015-01-01

418

Thrombocytopenia and pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal aspiration syndromes.  

PubMed

Thirty-three of 616 consecutively admitted newborn infants had trombocytopenia (platelet count less than 150,00/mm). Only 16 of these were among the 356 infants with lung disease. However, 12 of the 16 were among the 90 infants with a diagnosis of a perinatal aspiration syndrome. The 12 thrombocytopenic infants were the only infants with PAS considered to have pulmonary hypertension. The duration of significant right-to-left shunting of blood paralleled the duration of thrombocytopenia in these infants; PHN was not associated with thrombocytopenia in other neonatal lung diseases. Thus, platelets appear to be important in the pathogenesis of PHN complicating PAS. PMID:7359282

Segall, M L; Goetzman, B W; Schick, J B

1980-04-01

419

Definite Ocular Sarcoidosis Using Endobronchial Ultrasonography with Transbronchial Needle Aspiration  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To introduce a minimally invasive procedure, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), to obtain a pathologic evidence of a definite ocular sarcoidosis in a patient who initially presented with presumed ocular sarcoidosis with pulmonary involvement. Methods. An EBUS-TBNA procedure was performed at perihilar lymph nodes, subcarina, and right paratrachea of the patient and specimen obtained was sent for histocytopathological studies. Result. Histocytopathological findings revealed aggregates of epithelioid histiocytes forming a noncaseous granuloma, a hallmark of sarcoidosis. Conclusion. EBUS-TBNA should be considered an alternative procedure to provide cytohistopathology proven diagnosis of definite ocular sarcoidosis. PMID:25197595

Warrasak, Sukhuma; Euswas, Ataya; Methasiri, Santa; Nirapathpongporn, Supranee

2014-01-01

420

Granulomatous lung disease in children by aspiration of medications.  

PubMed

Post mortem examinations of 8 infants, 11 d to 5 months old and one 12 year old girl, demonstrated foreign bodies in the lungs which could be identified as orally administered drugs: cholestyramine (Questran) and phenobarbital (Luminal, Gardenal) or phenydantin-components. The microscopic changes caused by such deposits and the histologic methods of identifying medicines are presented. The authors point to the role of aspiration in deposit formation and to the pseudomiliary granulomatous nature of subsequent changes. It is proposed to define the alterations as a separate form of aspiratory lesion in children. PMID:3296546

Ha?ski, W; Figurski, R; Fermus, R

1987-01-01

421

Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723

Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

2010-07-01

422

Between Liberal Aspirations and Market Forces: Obamacare's Precarious Balancing Act.  

PubMed

The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents a milestone in U.S. health care policy. The ACA moves the American health care system away, in important respects, from market-driven health care, including imposing new regulations on health insurers. Yet the ACA also relies, in other respects, on market forces to achieve its aims, including its embrace of health plan competition and high-deductible insurance. This article explores how the ACA balances liberal aspirations and market principles, and the implications for health reform implementation and the future of U.S. health care. PMID:25565611

Oberlander, Jonathan

2014-12-01

423

Human papillomavirus ‘reflex' testing as a screening method in cases of minor cytological abnormalities  

PubMed Central

The aim was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) ‘reflex genotyping' in cases of minor cytological abnormalities detected in the gynaecological screening programme in Stockholm, Sweden. Liquid-based cytology samples showing minor cytological abnormalities were analysed using HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche diagnostics). Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were obtained and the HPV test results were correlated with the histological results. In all, 63% (70/112) of the samples were high-risk (HR) HPV (HR-HPV) positive. A statistically significant correlation was found between high-grade cervical lesions and HR-HPV (P=0.019), among which HPV 16, 18, and 31 were the most important. The negative predictive value of HR-HPV detection for histologically confirmed high-grade lesions was 100%. An age limit for HPV reflex testing may be motivated in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL), because of high HR-HPV prevalence among younger women. By using HPV reflex genotyping, additional extensive workup can safely be avoided in about 50% of all cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and LSIL among women ?30 years. This screening strategy could potentially reduce the total abnormal cytology-reporting rate in the Swedish screening programme by about 1% and provide more accurately directed follow-up, guided by cytological appearance and HPV test results. PMID:18682715

Fröberg, M; Johansson, B; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S

2008-01-01

424

Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00), as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99), whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively). Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples. PMID:25029648

Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia

2014-01-01

425

Mechanosensitive shivering of model tissues under controlled aspiration  

PubMed Central

During embryonic development and wound healing, the mechanical signals transmitted from cells to their neighbors induce tissue rearrangement and directional movements. It has been observed that forces exerted between cells in a developing tissue under stress are not always monotonically varying, but they can be pulsatile. Here we investigate the response of model tissues to controlled external stresses. Spherical cellular aggregates are subjected to one-dimensional stretching forces using micropipette aspiration. At large enough pressures, the aggregate flows smoothly inside the pipette. However, in a narrow range of moderate aspiration pressures, the aggregate responds by pulsed contractions or “shivering.” We explain the emergence of this shivering behavior by means of a simple analytical model where the uniaxially stretched cells are represented by a string of Kelvin–Voigt elements. Beyond a deformation threshold, cells contract and pull on neighboring cells after a time delay for cell response. Such an active behavior has previously been found to cause tissue pulsation during dorsal closure of Drosophila embryo. PMID:21771735

Guevorkian, Karine; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Carlier, Camille; Dufour, Sylvie; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

2011-01-01

426

Kinematics of red cell aspiration by fluorescence-imaged microdeformation.  

PubMed Central

Maps of fluorescing red cell membrane components on a pipette-aspirated projection are quantitated in an effort to elucidate and unify the heterogeneous kinematics of deformation. Transient gradients of diffusing fluorescent lipid first demonstrate the fluidity of an otherwise uniform-density bilayer and corroborate a "universal" calibration scale for relative surface density. A steep but smooth and stable gradient in the densities of the skeleton components spectrin, actin, and protein 4.1 is used to estimate large elastic strains along the aspirated skeleton. The deformation fields are argued to be an unhindered response to loading in the surface normal direction. Density maps intermediate to those of the compressible skeleton and fluid bilayer are exhibited by particular transmembrane proteins (e.g., Band 3) and yield estimates for the skeleton-connected fractions. Such connected proteins appear to occupy a significant proportion of the undeformed membrane surface and can lead to steric exclusion of unconnected integral membrane proteins from regions of network condensation. Consistent with membrane repatterning kinematics in reversible deformation, final vesiculation of the projection tip produces a cell fragment concentrated in freely diffusing proteins but depleted of skeleton. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889146

Discher, D E; Mohandas, N

1996-01-01