Introduction Axillary node fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has the potential to triage women with operable breast cancer to initial\\u000a nodal surgical procedure. Because of variability in the reported accuracy of this test its role and clinical utility in pre-operative\\u000a staging remains controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We retrospectively evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided axillary FNAC in all consecutive clinically T1–2 N0–1 breast\\u000a cancers that
Stefano Ciatto; Beniamino Brancato; Gabriella Risso; Daniela Ambrogetti; Paolo Bulgaresi; Cristina Maddau; Patricia Turco; Nehmat Houssami
Fibromatosis form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. The fibromatosis can be localized or infiltrative and multicentric and can involve internal tissues and organs as the mesentery, retroperitoneum, breast, and almost every organ and region of the body, including the bones, the meninges and the central nervous system. We report a case of 37-year-old male who presented with a right supraclavicular mass with superficial infiltrative type of fibromatosis and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. We report this case because of limited literature of FNAC in fibromatosis and quick role of FNAC in the diagnosis of fibromatosis.
Tanwar, Pranay; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been shown to be second only to surgical biopsy for demonstration of malignancy in thyroid nodules. A prospective study of FNAC for euthyroid uninodular goiter (EUG) was conducted between January 1987 and June 1990, totaling 87 patients of which 61 were submitted to surgical biopsy. FNAC in the latter were interpreted as benign in 41 cases, suspected malignancy in 8, and definitely malignant in 7. The remaining 5 smears were considered technically inadequate for diagnosis. In 39 of the 41 patients with a benign (negative) cytology result, the histopathological diagnosis confirmed the absence of a neoplastic process (2 false negatives). In 12 of the 15 patients with a suspected malignant (positive) cytology result, a subsequent histopathological report confirmed a neoplastic process (3 false positives). Thus FNAC had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 93%. We conclude that FNAC is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of erythroid goiter and could help reduce significantly the number of patients who need to be surgically intervened. PMID:1824158
Pérez, J A; Pisano, R; Kinast, C; Valencia, V; Araneda, M; Mera, M E
Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months’ duration. A chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed a right upper lobe mass lesion with hilar lymphadenopathy. CT-guided FNAC revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. The disease is commonly confused with other chronic suppurative lung diseases and malignancy. An early diagnosis by FNAC prevents difficulties in the management of the disease, as well as considerable physiological and physical morbidity, including unwarranted surgery.
Patel, Keyuri B; Gupta, Gurudutt; Shah, Menka; Patel, Purvesh
Currently, accurate diagnosis of breast lesions depends on a triple assessment approach comprising clinical, imaging and pathologic examinations. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is widely adopted for the pathologic assessment because of its accurracy and ease of use. While much has been written about the atypical and maliganant categories of FNAC diagnosis, little covers the non-malignanat category which represents a sheer number in all FNAC cases. Moreover, any false-negative diagnosis of the non-malignant cases may lead to missed diagnosis of cancer. This paper aims to discuss the issues of smear adequacy, the cytologic features of benign breast lesions and the dilemma of a false-negative aspirate. Much has been suggested about the smear adequacy criterion, including quantifying epithelial clusters, whereas others advocate basing adequacy on qualitative quantum of using noncellular features of FNAC. Various benign lesions could be easily diagnosed at FNAC; however, they have cytologic features overlapped with malignant lesions. False negativity of FNAC does occur; this could be caused by either “true” false-negative cases attributed to suboptimal sampling technique, poor localization of the mass or nonpalpable lesions or “false” false-negative cases due to interpretational errors. Though false-positive cases are less commonly found, they will also be discussed briefly.
Mendoza, Paulo; Lacambra, Maribel; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Tse, Gary M.
Meningiomas are benign tumors derived from arachnoid cells. Most commonly they arise within the cranial cavity, but they may arise extracranially in various anatomic sites. We present four cases of orbital meningiomas diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and confirmed on histopathology. All the cases are presented with orbital mass. FNAC smears showed classical whorling and syncytial pattern of cells, with round to oval nucleus, inconspicuous nucleoli and one each case showed intranuclear inclusion and psammoma bodies. FNAC diagnosis of such lesions is difficult, because cytological features may mimic other soft tissue lesions located in orbital region. Awareness of this entity and its cytological appearance is important to allow correct diagnosis. PMID:21538953
Agrawal, Pallavi; Dey, Pranab; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Gupta, Nalini; Radhika, Srinivasan; Nijhawan, Raje; Rajwanshi, Arvind
We assessed the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in evaluating nonpalpable breast abnormalities by prospectively performing stereotactic mammogra- phy-guided FNAC on 100 women undergoing surgical excisional biopsy. Mammographic and cytologic diagnoses, on a scale of 1 (benign) to 4 (malignant), were assigned for each case and compared with the surgical pathologic diagnosis. Sensitivity and speci- ficity were examined at
Laurie L. Fajardo; John R. Davis; Julie L. Wiens; Douglas C. Trego
Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images
Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J
Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid nodule has become part of accepted practice defining the role of surgery. This study assessed a 5-year period comparing cytologic with histopathologic diagnosis in 256 samples from 234 patients (203 women and 31 men). Inadequate cytologic samples were obtained in 21.1% of cases. The sensitivity and positive predictive values for the detection by FNAC of thyroid neoplasms was 21.1% and 30.8%, respectively, with a specificity and negative predictive value of 79.5% and 70.0%, respectively. The overall FNAC accuracy was 61.9%. It is anticipated that improvement in diagnosis will develop from specific cytopathological training in thyroid FNAC, consideration of the cytopathologist performing the aspiration biopsy, and the development of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques applied to the cytologic smears. The principal inherent difficulty with thyroid FNAC is the inability to confidently distinguish hyperplastic follicular adenomas from microinvasive follicular carcinomas. PMID:20099419
Zbar, Andrew Paul; Dafydd, Lllinos; Samtani, Jay; Alleyne, Walter; Chiappa, Antonio; Jones, Steven R; Prussia, Patsy R
Thyroid cancer is not very common, accounting for 1-2% of all cancers, with a population incidence of about 0.004%. Currently, the ability to discriminate between follicular adenoma and carcinoma represents the major challenge in preclinical diagnosis of thyroid proliferative lesions. Better discrimination between the two would help avoid unnecessary thyroidectomy and save valuable resources. Over the years, galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been proposed as a diagnostic marker with varied success. In this paper, we used Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Immunogold Labelling (ESEM-IGL) to investigate the expression of Gal-3 on Thin-Prep fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We optimized the ESEM-IGL method on thyroid cell lines (RO-82 and FTC-133) comparing our membrane Gal-3 labeling data with Western blot. We evaluated 183 thyroid FNAC from Italian patients with a uncertain pre-surgical diagnosis. ESEM-IGL method marker sensitivity is 71.2%, while specificity is 53.3% and diagnostic efficacy is 61.2%. Our results confirmed that Gal-3 expression is associated with situations of hypertrophy and/or cellular hyperproliferation, pathophysiological situations common both to adenomas and to thyroid carcinomas. The innovation of thyroid FNAC Thin-Prep ESEM-IGL shows the levels of Gal-3 immunolabeling clearly, even through the individual cells of a thyroid nodule. However, Gal-3 alone, as a molecular marker of thyroid cancer, can still have a limited application in pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:23042505
Papale, F; Cafiero, G; Grimaldi, A; Marino, G; Rosso, F; Mian, C; Barollo, S; Pennelli, G; Sorrenti, S; De Antoni, E; Barbarisi, A
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a valuable adjunct to pre-operative screening in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and in most cases, it can distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Aim: To study the cytology of neoplastic thyroid lesions to minimize surgical intervention and for confirmation of the diagnosis by histopathological study. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of thyroid FNAC smears were analyzed and cyto-histopathological correlation was done in 47 cases. Galen and Gambino's method was used to calculate the sensitivity and positive predictive value. Results: Of the 100 cases, 90 were diagnosed as neoplastic lesions by FNAC and ten cases as non-neoplastic lesions, which turned out to be neoplasms on histopathological study. Among 100 cases, 47 were biopsied and subjected to histopathological study. The sensitivity of FNAC was 75.60%, and positive predictive value was 83.78% for malignant lesions. Conclusions: FNAC is a rapid, efficient, cost-effective, relatively painless procedure with a high diagnostic accuracy. It has high rate of sensitivity and positive predictive value in diagnosing thyroid neoplastic lesions. Hence, it is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients.
Rangaswamy, M; Narendra, KL; Patel, S; Gururajprasad, C; Manjunath, GV
Leprosy is a chronic infection affecting mainly the skin and peripheral nerve. Pure neuritic form of this disease manifests by involvement of the nerve in the absence of skin lesions. Therefore, it can sometimes create a diagnostic problem. It often requires a nerve biopsy for diagnosis, which is an invasive procedure and may lead to neural deficit. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of an affected nerve can be a valuable and less invasive procedure for the diagnosis of such cases. We report five suspected cases of pure neuritic Hansen's disease involving the common and superficial peroneal, ulnar, and median nerve, who underwent FNAC. Smears revealed nerve fibers infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells in all cases, presence of epithelioid cells granulomas, and Langhans giant cells in three cases, and acid fast bacilli in two cases. In conclusion, FNAC is a safe, less invasive, and time saving procedure for the diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy.
Kumar, Bipin; Pradhan, Anju
Leprosy is a chronic infection affecting mainly the skin and peripheral nerve. Pure neuritic form of this disease manifests by involvement of the nerve in the absence of skin lesions. Therefore, it can sometimes create a diagnostic problem. It often requires a nerve biopsy for diagnosis, which is an invasive procedure and may lead to neural deficit. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of an affected nerve can be a valuable and less invasive procedure for the diagnosis of such cases. We report five suspected cases of pure neuritic Hansen's disease involving the common and superficial peroneal, ulnar, and median nerve, who underwent FNAC. Smears revealed nerve fibers infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells in all cases, presence of epithelioid cells granulomas, and Langhans giant cells in three cases, and acid fast bacilli in two cases. In conclusion, FNAC is a safe, less invasive, and time saving procedure for the diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy. PMID:21660285
Kumar, Bipin; Pradhan, Anju
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) are widely used in diagnosing breast lesions, with both\\u000a achieving high sensitivity and specificity. Whether FNAC or CNB is better remains highly controversial. In this review, the\\u000a advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods are discussed, especially in relation to specific problematic groups\\u000a of breast lesions. In general, CNB
Gary M. TsePuay-Hoon; Puay-Hoon Tan
Background: Till today, there has been some hesitation to accept the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in pelvic mass. We have tried to study the role of ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) guided FNAC as diagnostic and supportive investigation for ovarian tumors. Aim: To evaluate the current status of image-directed percutaneous aspiration of ovarian neoplasm for the purpose of early detection of malignancy. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four fine needle aspirations of ovarian neoplasms were performed between January 2007 and December 2008 by transabdominal approach under USG and CT guidance and correlated with histopathological findings and tumor markers. Results: A total of 47 (63.5%) cases were assessed as malignant and 21 (28.3%) as benign and 6 (8.1%) as inconclusive. The neoplastic lesions were categorized as per World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Conclusion: With the availability of modern techniques, USG and CT guided FNAC can be an optimum modality for the diagnosis of primary and metastatic ovarian neoplasms and evaluation of recurrent malignant tumors, which has great impact on patient management consequently.
Bandyopadhyay, Anjali; Chakraborty, Jayati; Chowdhury, Anadi Roy; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Bhattachrya, Palas; Chowdhury, MK
Background. Azoospermia due to obstruction of the vaso- epididymal junction is one of the few surgically correctable causes of male infertility. In patients where all clinical and laboratory parameters suggest a vaso-epididymal junction block amenable to surgery, failure to find normal spermatogenesis on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the testis may necessitate a change in treatment modality to the more
RAJEEV KUMAR; GAGAN GAUTAM; N. P. GUPTA; MANJU ARON; RIMA DADA; KIRAN KUCHERIA; SATISH KUMAR GUPTA; ANURAG MITRA
Objective: We investigated the role and turn around time of rapid staining and immediate interpretation of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for women with palpable breast lesions. Study Design: A total of 408 FNAC specimens from 400 patients with palpable breast lesions was analyzed for immediate interpretation and preliminary cytologic diagnosis. All cytological diagnoses were correlated with subsequent alcohol-fixed Papanicolaou-stained slides,
Phui-Ly Liew; Tse-Jia Liu; Mao-Chih Hsieh; Hsiu-Pen Lin; Ching-Fang Lu; Min-Szu Yao; Chi-Long Chen
Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of orbital lesions is now increasingly popular. Because of its unique location and the occurrence of varieties of lesions, diagnosis of orbital lesion is a challenge to the cytopathologists. FNAC of orbital and eyelid tumors is a suitable diagnostic technique that necessitates close co-operation between the ophthalmologist and pathologist. No radical procedure should be planned on the basis of FNAC, but it allows the diagnosis of a new primary lesion or the recurrence or metastasis of a tumor and can be done to identify lesions that require either specific medical therapy, as in nonresectable, inflammatory, and lymphoid tumors, or limited surgery for benign resectable neoplasms. With the help of various ancillary techniques a definitive diagnosis is possible on orbital and adnexal lesions. It is essential to have a detailed knowledge on the FNAC of these lesions and their potential pitfalls. In this present review, we have discussed various orbital lesions, their clinical presentations, cytomorphology, and ancillary techniques to confirm the diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:1000-1011. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23457033
Agrawal, Pallavi; Dey, Pranab; Lal, Anupam
Sebaceous carcinoma of the ocular adnexa is a malignant neoplasm which has aggressive local behavior and can metastasize to regional lymph nodes and distant organs. It is a malignant neoplasm known to masquerade as other benign and less malignant lesions, resulting in delay in diagnosis and relatively high morbidity and mortality. Aspiration cytological features of this neoplasm have not been well characterized in the literature. We report a case of this tumor diagnosed on fine needle aspiration. Clinically, a diagnosis of chalazion was made and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. Cytological diagnosis of a malignant tumor with closest resemblance to sebaceous carcinoma was suggested which was confirmed on histopathology. Eyelid reconstruction was done after histopathological confirmation of tumor-free margins. The article highlights the role of FNAC in early diagnosis and subsequent appropriate surgical management of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma to prevent recurrence and metastasis.
Gill, Meenu; Garg, Shilpa; Kalra, Rajnish; Sen, Rajeev
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy (TS) together in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Data from a series of 357 patients (284 women and 73 men, median age 43 years, range 19-73) with solitary thyroid nodule and no signs of hyperfunction, who had undergone both FNAC and TS prior to surgery, were retrospectively reviewed. FNAC distinguished 3 groups of TN (benign, follicular neoplasm, cancer), while patients with 'cold' TN were considered at risk of having a thyroid tumor. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were: 95%, 21%, 20%, 95% and 34% for TS; 82%, 99%, 96%, 96% and 96% for FNAC; 98%, 99%, 97%, 98%, and 99% for TS and FNAC together, respectively. In conclusion, patients with 'cold' TN and FNAC suggesting follicular neoplasm should be considered at risk of having cancer. PMID:20683059
Lumachi, Franco; Fabbro, Micaela; Tregnaghi, Alberto; Antunovic, Lidija; Bui, Franco; Cecchin, Diego; Zucchetta, Pietro; Fassina, Ambrogio
Background: Methodical and meticulous understanding of clinico-pathological procedures and decision making process of cancer diagnosis and identification of aspects that are well-suited for computer-aided analysis are first steps toward development of assistive computational tool for analysis of breast fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) slides. Aims: To identify variables in practice of FNAC as used for diagnosis of breast lesions and commonly perceived diagnostic significance of cytological features for diagnosis of benign or malignant condition of breast lesions. Materials and Methods: An India-wide questionnaire-based survey of cytopathologists/pathologists’ breast FNAC reporting practices and their opinion on diagnostic significance of cytological features in diagnosis of benign or malignant nature of breast lesion were conducted. Results: Fifty-one experts working with various medical education institutes (~52% of participants), oncological tertiary care centers (~28%) and primary care centers/private diagnostic pathology laboratories (~20%) spread over 13 states of India have participated in the survey. Constants and variables observed in clinico-cytopathological practices and combined opinion of the participants on diagnostic significance of cytological features are presented here. Conclusions: There exist analogous as well as varied components in clinico-pathological procedures and diagnostic interpretation by individuals. These constants and variables in the practice of breast FNAC should be considered, when drawing up specifications for an assistive computational tool for analysis of breast FNAC slides. The estimate for commonly perceived significance of cytological features obtained through this study will help in their selection for computer-aided analysis of breast FNAC slides and further in selection of corresponding feature quantification techniques.
Garud, Hrushikesh Tukaram; Sheet, Debdoot; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Ghosh, Arindam
Carcinoid of the ovary is an uncommon tumor. In the present article we have described the cytological features of carcinoid of the ovary in a 53-year old post-menopausal female. The patient presented with abdominal discomfort and loose stools. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the left adnexal mass showed clusters and also scattered, relatively monomorphic population of tumor cells with vague rosette-like structures. Cytological diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumor possibly sex cord stromal tumor or carcinoid of ovary was offered and subsequent histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of carcinoid. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23456982
Kumar, Mahendra; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Dey, Pranab
Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed in pre-operative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions for many years. Various studies in the existing literature have shown a wide range of sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of cytologic diagnosis. This study was aimed at evaluating salivary gland FNAC for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This study included 80 patients who underwent pre-operative FNAC followed by surgical procedure and histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was considered as the gold standard. FNAC diagnosis was compared with the final histologic impression and concordance assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant lesions were calculated. Results: Of the 80 cases, majority (67.5%) involved the parotid gland. Eight cases (10%) were non-neoplastic lesions, comprised of sialadenitis, retention cyst and sialadenosis. Of a total of 72 neoplasms, 58 were benign and 14 were malignant salivary gland tumors. A cyto-histologic concordance of benign diagnosis was achieved in 85.7% of cases and for malignant lesions in 92.8% of the malignant tumors. FNAC showed a sensitivity of 92.8%, specificity of 93.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.2% and negative predictive value of 98.4% for malignant salivary gland tumors. There was one false-negative diagnosis and four false-positive cases diagnosed on FNAC. Conclusion: FNAC continues to be a reliable diagnostic technique in hands of an experienced cytopathologist. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant lesions is high, though the rate of tumor type-specific characterization is lower, due to variable cytomorphology. In difficult cases, histologic examination may be employed for accurate diagnosis.
Jain, Ritu; Gupta, Ruchika; Kudesia, Madhur; Singh, Sompal
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most highly aggressive neoplasms of the central nervous system. Extra-cranial metastases in GBM are rare. Here we present the case of a 26-year-old man with extra-cranial metastasis of a frontal lobe GBM to the parotid gland, cervical lymph nodes, and bones, with initial diagnosis made by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the parotid gland. FNAC is a reliable technique in the study of primary and secondary parotid gland neoplasms, allowing a presumptive diagnosis in difficult cases. We correlate the cytologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings in this case and discuss previous literature reports. PMID:23637061
Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Amaro, Deirdre; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Olaya, Sandra I
The pathologist forms a very important part of the clinical team in the management of pediatric intra-abdominal masses in giving a rapid, accurate diagnosis for these potentially curable tumors. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an invaluable tool in this regard when interpreted with clinicoradiologic parameters. With this in mind, we decided to evaluate the role of FNAC in pediatric abdominal masses in our institution. A total of 83 of 105 FNAC accessioned in the pathology department over 5 years (2003-2007) were studied. These included only cases where a diagnosis could be offered on cytology. Detailed clinicoradiological features were obtained from hospital records. Cytomorphological features examined included cellularity, architectural pattern, background, key cellular details. Immunocytochemistry were done where necessary. Lesions diagnosed on FNAC included Wilms' tumor (19), lymphoma (10), neuroblastoma (6), hepatoblastoma (5), PNET (5), rhabdomyosarcoma (2), DSRCT (2), germ cell tumor (6), and miscellaneous tumors (7). Definite diagnosis could be offered on cytomorphology in 74.7% (62) cases, while in 25.3% (21) cases only a diagnosis of round cell tumor could be offered. Concordance with final histopathology and biochemical parameters was subsequently obtained in 79/83 (95.5%) of cases. A clinically relevant classification is possible on FNAC in pediatric abdominal tumors when interpreted with clinicoradiologic parameters. This obviates the need for a more time-consuming biopsy procedure in critical situations and in stage II nephroblastoma where it is contraindicated. PMID:19688767
Viswanathan, Seethalakshmi; George, Sophia; Ramadwar, Mukta; Medhi, Seema; Arora, Brijesh; Kurkure, Purna
Objective. This was a comparative study between FNAC and thyroid scan used to diagnose the solitary thyroid nodule and histopathology was used as gold standard to compare the results of both modalities. We hypothesized that Fine needle aspiration cytology and thyroid scan diagnose solitary thyroid nodule (STN) as accurately as histopathology. Materials and Methods. This study comprised of 50 patients with solitary thyroid nodules (STN) presented to OPD. After clinical examination these patients were referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Hospital Lahore for thyroid function tests and thyroid scan (TS). These patients underwent FNAC in the department of Pathology and surgery in Mayo Hospital. The cases were operated and evaluated for histopathological changes. Results. On thyroid scan, 40 patients (80%) having cold nodule were labeled as suspicious 10 patients (20%) had hot nodule. On FNAC 23 patients (46%) had benign lesion, 22 patients (44%) had indeterminate lesion and 5 patients (10%) had malignant lesions. On histopathology, 45 patients (90%) were confirmed to have benign lesions and 5 patients (10%), malignant lesions. After comparison of results of thyroid scan and FNAC with histopathology, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of thyroid scan were 80%, 20%, 10%, 90% and 26%, respectively whereas those of FNAC were 80%, 97.7%, 80%, 97.7% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion. Fine needle aspiration was a significantly better predictor of malignancy than thyroid scan and resulted in a smaller proportion of excisions for benign nodules.
Basharat, Rabia; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Saeed, Shahzad; Hamid, Tahira
The objective of this study was to make an assessment of the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), in a "one-stop" symptomatic breast triple assessment clinic. Controversy surrounds the optimal tissue biopsy methodology in the diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer and the identification of benign disease. FNAC in the context of a Rapid Assessment Breast Clinic (RABC) allows the same day diagnosis and early treatment of breast cancer, with the immediate reassurance and discharge of those with benign disease. We analyzed prospective data accrued at a RABC, over a 4-year period from 2004 to 2007. All patients were triple assessed, with FNACs performed on site by two consultant cytopathologists. Investigations were reported immediately, and clinical data were captured via a database using compulsory data field entry. There were 4487 attendances at our RABC, with 1572 FNACs were performed. The positive predictive value of FNAC with a C5 cancer diagnosis was 100%, 95.6% for a C4 report, with a complete sensitivity of 94%. The full specificity of correctly identified benign lesions was 77.4%, with a false negative rate of 3.85%. This enabled 66% of patients attending the RABC to receive a same day diagnosis of benign disease and discharge. FNAC is highly accurate in the diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer in an RABC. FNAC allows accurate diagnosis of benign disease and immediate discharge of the majority of patients. In this era, when a large majority of patients have benign disease, we believe that FNAC provides an equivalent, if not better, method of evaluation of patients in a triple assessment RABC. PMID:22404050
Smith, Myles J; Heffron, Cynthia C; Rothwell, Jane R; Loftus, Barbara M; Jeffers, Michael; Geraghty, James G
We evaluated the effectiveness and the cost of axillary staging in breast cancer patients by ultrasound-guided fine-needle\\u000a aspiration cytology (US-FNAC), sentinel node biopsy (SNB), and frozen sections of the sentinel node to achieve the target\\u000a of the highest number of immediate axillary dissections. From January 2003 through October 2005, a total of 404 consecutive\\u000a eligible breast cancer patients underwent US-FNAC
Franco Genta; Eugenio Zanon; Marco Camanni; Francesco Deltetto; Mauro Drogo; Rosanna Gallo; Carla Gilardi
To investigate whether clinicopathological features of breast cancer patients could predict the likelihood of lymph node metastases and the likelihood of false-negative results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of suspicious lymph nodes (US+FNAC). Between 2004 and 2009, US+FNAC was performed in 1,150 axillae (18 bilateral breast carcinomas). Based on final histologic diagnosis, the true- and false-negative group of US+FNAC were defined. Subsequently, 11 clinicopathological factors were compared between these two groups. These factors were also compared between patients with and patients without lymph node metastases. Of 1,150 axillae, 429 had lymph node metastases at final histology. US+FNAC indicated metastases in 107 axillae. 1,043 axillae were negative by US+FNAC. Final histology showed metastases in 323 of these 1,043 axillae, resulting in a false-negative group of US+FNAC of 31%. Both age <60 years and a cT2/cT3 breast carcinoma were significantly associated with lymph node metastases and with false-negative results of US+FNAC. Lymph node metastases were found in 59.6% of patients <60 years with a cT2/cT3 breast carcinoma. In these patients, 52.3% of the negative US+FNAC results were falsely negative. In patients <60 years with a cT2/cT3 breast carcinoma, we recommend to omit US+FNAC preoperatively and perform a SNB directly, because lymph node metastases were found in 59.6% of these patients and 52.3% of negative US+FNAC results were falsely negative. PMID:24011125
Leenders, Martijn; Richir, Milan; Broeders, Maud; Moormann, Gisela; Mollema, Robbert; Lopes Cardozo, Alexander; Meijer, Sybren; Schreurs, Hermien
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, cheap and reliable method for diagnosing any accessible lesion. However, there remains a group of malignant undifferentiated neoplasms, which can only be categorized with the help of immunocytochemistry (ICC). The categorization is important due to their vast difference in treatment and prognosis. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of ICC in categorizing the undifferentiated neoplasms diagnosed on routine FNAC smears. Materials and Methods: Thirty six cases of undifferentiated neoplasms were selected from a group of total 78 cytology cases of undifferentiated tumors from different sites like head and neck, lymph node, soft tissue etc. These were then subjected to a panel of ICC markers based on the clinical and cytomorphological features. Results: Of these, 21 were simple, ten were computerized tomography guided and five were ultrasound guided FNACs respectively. All the 78 cases were confirmed by histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. Of the 36 cytological cases, final diagnosis correlated in 30 cases histologically. The six cases were incorrect either due to inadequate material on the smears (three cases) or false positive staining (three cases). Conclusions: Our study found that ICC is a sensitive and specific method for early and definitive diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasms. However, selection of antibodies must be judicious to make it cost effective.
Mandal, Palash Kumar; Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Roy, Shravasti; Adhikari, Anindya; Basu, Nandita; Sinha, Swapan Kumar
Background: Quality of life is an important issue in endocrine tumors because of the high prevalence of benign tumors and the indolent course of most malignant tumors. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and the intensity of pain and anxiety in patients undergoing thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and to identify factors associated with pain. Methods: Single center prospective study in the setting of a one-stop outpatient diagnostic clinic for thyroid nodules. Pain was evaluated using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) immediately following (VAS(1)) and 30 minutes after (VAS(2)) FNAC and was considered significant if ?30. Anxiety symptoms were assessed prior to FNAC using a self-report measure questionnaire: the state form of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, form Y-A). FNAC was performed with a 25-gauge needle and a moderate aspiration and two passes for each nodule. Results: Two hundred eighteen consecutive patients (163 females, 55 males; mean age 53 years, range 12-84 years) undergoing FNAC of one to three nodules were included. VAS(1) was ?30 in 24% of the patients and VAS(2) was ?30 in 13% of the patients. Independent significant factors correlated to a VAS(1) of ?30 were age under 25 years and the number of nodules being biopsied. Independent significant factors correlated to a VAS(2) of ?30 were VAS(1) ?30 and female sex. No correlation was found between pain and nodule size or nodule depth, nor the duration of application of the eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) patch prior to FNAC. The mean STAI score for anxiety was 37±12. The average STAI score was significantly higher in women (39) than in men (33; p=0.01). There was no significant correlation between STAI score and age under 25 years, previous FNAC, number of nodules biopsied, or acetaminophen administration, but the STAI score was significantly correlated to VAS(1) and VAS(2). Conclusions: FNAC-related pain is frequent and correlates with the number of nodules biopsied, age under 25 years, female sex, and anxiety. PMID:23384309
Leboulleux, Sophie; Borget, Isabelle; Labro, Stéphanie; Bidault, Sophie; Vielh, Philippe; Hartl, Dana; Dauchy, Sarah; Chougnet, Cécile N; Girard, Elizabeth; Azoulay, Sandy; Mirghani, Haitham; Berdelou, Amandine; Lumbroso, Jean; Deandreis, Désirée; Baudin, Eric; Schlumberger, Martin; Laurent, Sophie
Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) of the ovary is a distinct subtype of sex cord-stromal tumor, which is derived from the ovarian stroma and, in turn, from the sex cords of the embryonic gonads. It is a benign tumor, predominantly, unilateral in nature and mostly involves the right side of the ovary. Histopathological features are characteristic and are well described in the literature; however to the best of our knowledge fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has not been described previously. We present FNAC findings in a series of three cases of SST and discuss the cytomorphological features. We have described Call-Exner like bodies in one of our cases and hence, suggest that these may not be an exclusive feature of granulosa cell tumor. PMID:21630480
Banik, Tarak; Gupta, Nalini; Dey, Pranab; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur
Objective: The objective of this study was to describe a reliable ultrasound based index scoring system based on ultraound characteristics to identify benign thyroid nodules and avoid unnecessary fine needle aspiration cytology. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for thyroid nodules were evaluated prospectively. A total of 284 patients were evaluated from November 2005 to November 2011. There were 284 nodules. Any solid or partly solid focal nodule in the thyroid gland was included in the study. Cysts with no solid component were excluded. We used LOGIQ 9 (GE Healthcare) scanner equipped with a 10--14 MHz linear matrix transducer with color and power Doppler capability. Four US characteristics were evaluated, i.e., nodule margins, echo texture, vascularity, and calcification. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed on all nodules. The nodules were labeled benign or suspicious using an ultrasound index score and the results compared with FNAC. Follicular neoplasms on fine-needle aspiration cytology were further assessed by excision biopsy and histology. Cytology/histology was used as the final diagnosis. Results: In total 284 nodules were analyzed. All the 234 nodules in US labeled benign category were proven to be benign on cytology/histology. Therefore the specificity of ultrasound in labeling a nodule benign was 100%. Twenty of the 50 nodules that were suspicious on US were malignant. The most significant US differentiating characteristics were nodule margins, vascularity, and microcalcification. Conclusion: Our results show that US can accurately characterize benign thyroid nodules using an index scoring system and therefore preclude FNAC in these patients.
Vinayak, Sudhir; Sande, Joyce A.
Over the past twenty years the use of fine needle aspiration techniques in breast cancer has spread worldwide, becoming a routine examination in the early phase of the study of palpable breast nodules. In this paper, the Authors review the state-of-the-art of fine needle aspiration, illustrating the most common methods and the various modifications made by operators. A new type of metal handle is also described which facilitates the collection of cells for cytological tests. Previously reported studies show that operators must be trained and supplied with suitable instruments in order to obtain valid results and to minimise the number of false positives and false negatives. There are very few complications to fine needle aspiration and none are severe, with the exception of pneumothorax which however has a frequency of under 3%. The majority of Authors agree that there should be more collaboration between the clinician and the anatomopathologist in order to increase the reliability of the technique. Fears of spreading cancer along the path of the needle have been dispelled following clinical experience over time. The survival of patients with breast cancer undergoing fine needle aspiration in the diagnostic phase does not differ from that in other patients. PMID:1852296
Croce, P; Montanari, G
Context: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology [FNAC] of the head and neck region is well accepted as a diagnostic procedure. Various studies in the context of FNAC in the head and neck region are available for the adult population, but only few studies are available for the paediatric age group. Aims: To study the role of fine needle aspiration cytology and its utility in paediatric head and neck lesions. Settings and Design: This was a hospital based, prospective study. Method and Materials: Hundred cases of head and neck lesions of the paediatric age group [0-15 years] were studied for cytomorphology through fine needle aspiration cytology and the results were correlated with the histomorphology. Results: There was a male predominance in the case distribution among both the sexes in children [55%]. The head and neck lesions were most frequent in the age group of 10-15 years, followed by the age group of 5-10 years than the age group of 0-5 years. Lesions in the cervical lymph nodes constituted 81% of the head and neck lesions and 87% of the adequate smears, followed by those in the skin and subcutaneous tissues [3 cases (3.2%)], the thyroid [4 cases (4.3%)] and the salivary gland [1 case (1%)]. 88.17% cases of head and neck lesions in children were diagnosed as benign on their smears and 11.83% cases were diagnosed as malignant, of which 8 cases of malignant lesions were located in the cervical lymph nodes, 1 case was located in the thyroid and 2 cases of malignant lesions were located in the orbits. Conclusions: FNAC is an important and a non-invasive, investigational tool in children for identifying and planning the medical management of inflammatory and infectious conditions. It helped us in indicating the diagnosis of the lesions in congenital or aquired malformations, cystic lesions and benign neoplastic lesions, in which surgical management were needed and we got confirmations on histological examinations. For the malignant lesions, FNAC was a more important investigation tool than an accurate investigation tool, which suggested about the lesions and guided us to do more advanced specific investigations for obtaining the diagnosis.
Mittra, Purnima; Bharti, Rajni; Pandey, Manmohan Krishna
Fungal infections of the orbit represent a small minority of orbital infections. However, due to the virulent nature of some of the fungal species, they can have a devastating effect on ocular functions. Most of these fungi are saprophytes, which cause opportunistic infections. Aspergillus is one such fungus that can cause infection at various sites in an immunosuppressed individual. Sinonasal aspergillus infection with orbital extension and orbital aspergillus infection progress relentlessly. They can have a precipitous clinical course resulting in total loss of vision. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is rarely used as a preoperative diagnostic tool in the investigation of orbital mass lesions. Further, fungal infections of orbit are seldom diagnosed on FNAC. Two cases of fungal infection of the orbital and periorbital tissue diagnosed on FNAC are presented. A 50-year-old diabetic male presented with diminishing vision, pain, and forward protrusion of the left eye. On examination, he had upper eye lid fullness. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with a swelling on the right upper eye lid. The patients were evaluated radiologically and then subjected to FNAC. The smears showed giant cells, histiocytes, epithelioid granulomas, and fungal hyphae. A diagnosis of fungal infection was arrived at which was subsequently confirmed by culture and biopsy. Orbital aspergillus infection can have a precipitous course. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit provide crucial information. However, FNAC can help in making an early definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and thus obviate the need for a biopsy. PMID:21695805
Kuruba, Sree Lakshmi; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Nagarajappa, A H; Biligi, Dayanand S
In this study, we applied artificial neural network (ANN) for the diagnosis of lobular carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material. We selected a total of 64 cases of histology proven breast lesions consisting of 20 fibroadenomas, 28 infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDC), and 16 infiltrating lobular carcinomas (ILC). Detailed cytomorphological features were studied on representative Haematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and May-Grunwald Giemsa stained slides. Image morphometric analysis was performed on Haematoxylin-Eosin stained smears to study nuclear area, diameter, perimeter, roundness, convex area, and convex perimeter. Both the qualitative cytological features and objective morphometric data were collected and a total of 18 variables were studied. Back propagation ANN was designed and this data were used as input values. ANN network was designed as 34-17-3. There were a total of 34 first layers neurons, 17 hidden neurons and three output neurons. The total cases were randomly divided automatically by the program into three groups: training set (40), validation set (8), and test set (16). After the successful training, the program was able to differentiate all the benign and lobular carcinoma cases and majority of the ductal carcinoma cases. In test set, the ANN program successfully classified all the cases of benign, and ILC cases and six of seven IDC cases. A suitably designed ANN may be able to diagnose the lobular carcinoma of breast on FNAC material. ANN is an efficient software program with immense potential. PMID:21987420
Dey, Pranab; Logasundaram, Rajesh; Joshi, Kusum
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a high rating in the assessment of breast lesions. Various methods have been used to diagnose cytology of breast lesions. Aims: Present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of application of systematic pattern analysis based on morphology in diagnosing breast aspirates. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of FNAC of the breast done over a period of 4 years in a tertiary care centre. A total of 225 cases of breast lesions for which FNAC was done with histological follow-up were included in the study. Breast aspirates were provisionally diagnosed based on systematic pattern analysis. Aspirates were grouped into six categories based on predominant cellular pattern, and correlation between cytological and histological diagnosis was assessed. Results: Application of pattern analysis on FNAC of breast lesions in our study had a sensitivity of 94.5%, specificity of 98%, diagnostic accuracy of 97%, positive predictive value of 95.8%, and negative predictive value of 97.4%. Conclusions: Systematic pattern analysis based on morphology of FNAC smears was found to be highly reliable and could be easily reproducible in the assessment of breast masses.
Muddegowda, Prakash H; Lingegowda, Jyothi B; Kurpad, Ramkumar; Konapur, PG; Shivarudrappa, AS; Subramaniam, PM
Comparison and quality control of our experience of thyroid cytology (784 samples) and breast cytology (1,202 samples) were reported. False positive rate and other parameters were superior in breast cytology than thyroid. It may be due to the fact that cytological diagnostic criteria for follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma is not established yet. More suspicious diagnosis in thyroid than breast also give low incidence of malignancy in thyroid suspicious diagnosis. As recommended by a guideline for both thyroid and breast cytology from the Papanicolaou society et al, conservative handling and protective diagnosis may help to reduce false positive and false negative rates. PMID:9564760
Kakudo, K; Taniguchi, E; Nakamura, Y; Yokoi, T; Nunobiki, O; Kaname, A; Sakurai, T
Objectives: To perform a thorough review and meta-analysis of studies that have shown non-image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to be highly sensitive and specific for assessing questionable metastatic melanoma to lymph nodes. Methods: MEDLINE and Scopus were searched for potentially relevant articles with a search string including the words "melanoma" and "fine needle." All relevant articles were screened by two authors (B.J.H. and R.L.S.). Full articles were screened for extractable data, and the data was pooled for analysis. Results: Of 978 unique studies found, 10 (5,518 cases) met our inclusion criteria. In a pooled analysis of palpation and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirations, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.00). The summary estimates for the sensitivity and specificity were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00), respectively. Conclusions: With a sensitivity and specificity of 0.97 and 0.99, the overall diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for metastatic melanoma is quite high, and with a positive and negative likelihood ratio of 58 and 0.03, FNAC for metastatic melanoma should be the first-line option in a patient with a clinically suspected mass and a history of melanoma. PMID:24124141
Hall, Brian J; Schmidt, Robert L; Sharma, Rohit R; Layfield, Lester J
Background: The evaluation and management of various hepatic lesions is a common clinical problem and their appropriate clinical management depends on accurate diagnoses. Aims: To study the cytomorphological features of distinctive non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the liver and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (USG)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of liver diseases. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients with evidence of liver diseases underwent USG-guided, percutaneous FNAC. Cytomorphological diagnoses were correlated with clinical, biochemical and radiological findings, histopathological diagnoses and follow-up information. Results: The age of the patients ranged from eight months to 90 years with 48 males (66.67%) and 24 females (33.33%). Of the 72 cases, the cytological diagnosis was rendered in 71 patients and smears were inadequate for interpretation in one case. Neoplastic lesions (68.06%) were more common than non-neoplastic lesions (30.56%). The majority of the neoplastic lesions were hepatocellular carcinomas (36.12%) followed by metastatic adenocarcinomas (19.45%). Among non-neoplastic lesions, cirrhosis was the commonest lesion (8.34%). The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 97.82% with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.87 and 100% respectively. Conclusion: USG-guided FNAC of the liver is a safe, simple, cost-effective and accurate method for cytological diagnosis of hepatic diffuse, focal/nodular and cystic lesions with good sensitivity and specificity.
Swamy, Mallikarjuna CM; Arathi, CA; Kodandaswamy, CR
The present study reports the diagnostic utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNAC) in two patients affected by gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) of the stomach. Clinically, the patients demonstrated skin pallor, melena, gastric discomfort and pain that had lasted three days or weeks. The cytological findings are discussed; these were strongly supported by immunocytochemical procedures that were performed on cell blocks and further confirmed following post-surgical histopathological examination. The crucial aim of GIST management is to determine a correct diagnosis in early-phase disease in order to realize an adequate curative surgical resection before the tumour becomes unresectable or metastatic. Moreover, a correct pre-surgical differential diagnosis of GISTs from other mesenchymal neoplasms may be easily made by EUS-FNAC, supported by cytological and immunocytochemical features.
TODARO, P.; CRINO, S.F.; PALLIO, S.; FAZZARI, C.; CONSOLO, P.; TUCCARI, G.
Background: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas (SPTP) is a rare pancreatic tumor of uncertain histogenesis usually affecting young women. Though these tumors have characteristic cytomorphology, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate them from neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. We reviewed cases of SPTP to delineate the diagnostic cytological features and also observed utility of CD 99 (MIC 2) immunostaining to aid in the diagnosis of this tumor. Aims: This study was designed to demonstrate the utility of CD 99 immunostaining along with cytological features for making a pre-operative diagnosis and delineating it from the neuroendocrine tumor of pancreas which is a close mimic. Materials and Methods: Cytomorphological features of 11 cases of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm diagnosed by pre-operative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) at our institute were reviewed. Immunocytochemistry for CD 99 was also performed on the smears. Results: All the cases had cellular smears with monomorphic cells lying singly, as loosely cohesive clusters as well as forming delicate pseudopapillae. Presence of intra and extra-cellular basement membrane material, background foamy macrophages and nuclear grooves were the other salient features. Immunocytochemistry for CD 99 could be performed on eight cases and demonstrated typical paranuclear dot-like positivity. Conclusions: Pre-operative early diagnosis of SPTP can be made by FNAC which can further be aided by CD 99 immunocytochemistry.
Ghosh, Ranajoy; Mallik, Saumya R.; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.
Yolk sac tumour is the most common germ cell tumour in infants and children, with a majority of them arising in the gonads. Rare cases of extra – gonadal germ cell tumours have been described in the literature. We are presenting here, a case of a yolk sac tumour of the cryptorchid testis in a 2 year old child, who initially presented with a mass in the left lobe of the liver, with huge ascites and which posed diagnostic difficulties. The mass was diagnosed as hepatoblastoma on Computed Tomography (CT). Subsequently, CT guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the liver mass showed the features of a yolk sac tumour. The raised serum Alfa Foetoprotein (AFP) levels corroborated with the cytological diagnosis.
Barman, Dilip Chandra; Halder, Aniket; Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Mandal, Krishnendu; Mallick, Sanjay Kumar
In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breast cancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in
J Lamb; T J Anderson; M J Dixon; P A Levack
Primary hydatid cyst of the neck is of extremely rare occurrence even in endemic regions. Clinically mimicking a cold abscess, we report such a case which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. The lesion was removed surgically and at 6-month follow-up visit, the patient was a symptom-free.
Chakrabarti, Indranil; Goswami, Bidyut Krishna
Despite the fact that CNB has been progressively replaced by FNAC in the investigation of nonpalpable lesions or microcalcifications without a clinical or radiological mass lesion, FNAC has yet a role in palpable lesions provided it is associated with the triple diagnosis and experienced cytologist. In these conditions, FNAC is a safe, effective, economical, and accurate technique for breast cancer evaluation. Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses illustrated the advantages and disadvantages of both methods CNB and FNAC. The difference does not seem significant when noninformative and unsatisfactory FNAC was excluded. Recently, cytological methods using liquid-based cytology (LBC) technology improve immunocytological and molecular tests with the same efficiency as classical immunohistochemistry. The indications of FNAC were, for palpable lesions, relative contraindication of CNB (elderly or frailty), staging of multiple nodules in conjunction or not with CNB, staging of lymph node status, newly appearing lesion in patient under neoadjuvant treatment, decreasing of anxiety with a rapid diagnosis, evaluation of biomarkers and new biomarkers, and chronological evaluation of biomarker following the neoadjuvant therapy response.
Garbar, Christian; Cure, Herve
Despite the fact that CNB has been progressively replaced by FNAC in the investigation of nonpalpable lesions or microcalcifications without a clinical or radiological mass lesion, FNAC has yet a role in palpable lesions provided it is associated with the triple diagnosis and experienced cytologist. In these conditions, FNAC is a safe, effective, economical, and accurate technique for breast cancer evaluation. Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses illustrated the advantages and disadvantages of both methods CNB and FNAC. The difference does not seem significant when noninformative and unsatisfactory FNAC was excluded. Recently, cytological methods using liquid-based cytology (LBC) technology improve immunocytological and molecular tests with the same efficiency as classical immunohistochemistry. The indications of FNAC were, for palpable lesions, relative contraindication of CNB (elderly or frailty), staging of multiple nodules in conjunction or not with CNB, staging of lymph node status, newly appearing lesion in patient under neoadjuvant treatment, decreasing of anxiety with a rapid diagnosis, evaluation of biomarkers and new biomarkers, and chronological evaluation of biomarker following the neoadjuvant therapy response. PMID:23936675
Garbar, Christian; Curé, Hervé
In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breast cancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in symptomatic cases. The main factors influencing success were the aspirator, the small size of many cancers, and the occult nature of the lesions seen only on mammography. Retrospective analysis of the figures shows that combining the results of FNA cytology in a triple assessment with physical and mammographical findings for restricted selection means that the number of benign biopsy specimens could be reduced considerably.
Lamb, J; Anderson, T J; Dixon, M J; Levack, P A
In a six year period up to the end of December 1985 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens of the breast were obtained from 562 apparently healthy women invited to participate in a breast cancer screening programme. Of these, 397 had a biopsy and 173 cancers were confirmed histologically. For the diagnosis of cancer, the procedure was less successful than in symptomatic cases. The main factors influencing success were the aspirator, the small size of many cancers, and the occult nature of the lesions seen only on mammography. Retrospective analysis of the figures shows that combining the results of FNA cytology in a triple assessment with physical and mammographical findings for restricted selection means that the number of benign biopsy specimens could be reduced considerably. PMID:3624497
Lamb, J; Anderson, T J; Dixon, M J; Levack, P A
The notes of 129 patients investigated by intraoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy between 1973 and 1977 have been reviewed. Eighty-four of the patients were operated on and punctured at the Department of Surgery, Lund, and 45 at different county hospitals belonging to the region. All aspirates were stained and evaluated at the Department of Cytodiagnostics, Lund. Sixty-four of the 75 patients with pancreatic cancer were correctly diagnosed and in another three patients the cytological diagnosis was "suspicion of cancer." Including these latter cases the sensitivity of the method was 91% in pancreatic cancer. In four out of five patients with endocrine tumors the cytological report was correct i.e., "endocrine tumor." In none of 22 patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cysts the diagnosis was falsely positive. Twenty-seven patients who during the operation were suspected of having a pancreatic lesion were at follow-up (mean 2.8 years) found not to have any significant pancreatic disease. Among these patients no falsely positive reports were given. In nine of the 129 patients (7%) the aspirates even at re-checking were found to be nonrepresentative or the aspiration unsuccessful. Six of these were performed at county hospitals. In 24 patients with pancreatic cancer total pancreatectomy was performed. In the remaining 105 patients no complications which could be related to the puncture were detected.
Ihse, I; Toregard, B M; Akerman, M
The cytologic results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsies (FNB) of the spleen in 42 patients were analyzed retrospectively. A focal lesion was punctured in 28 of them, splenomegaly in 12, and an enlarged accessory spleen in 2. Sufficient material was aspirated for cytologic analysis in 41 (97.6%) cases. A final diagnosis of malignancy was made in 16 (38%), and a benign condition diagnosed in 26 (62%) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the method for differentiating malignancy from benign conditions were 68.8%, 100%, and 88.1%, respectively. No complications occurred. We conclude that ultrasound-guided FNB is a safe, highly specific, but relatively insensitive method of defining splenic pathology. PMID:1562406
Siniluoto, T; Päivänsalo, M; Tikkakoski, T; Apaja-Sarkkinen, M
Background Due to difficulty in confirming clinical suspicions of malignancy in patients presenting with bone tumours, the cost of surgical biopsies where hospital charges are borne almost entirely by patients, competition with bone setters and healing homes with high rate of loss to follow up; we set out to find if sufficient material could be obtained to arrive at reliable tissue diagnosis in patients with clinical and radiological evidence of bone tumours in our hospitals. Methods After initial clinical and plain radiographic examinations, patients were sent for fine needle aspirations. Aspirations were carried out with size 23G needles of varying lengths with 10 ml syringes in a syringe holder (CAMECO, Sebre Medical, Vellinge, Sweden). The aspirates were air dried, stained by the MGG method and examined microscopically. Histology was performed on patients who had subsequent surgical biopsy. These were then correlated with the cytology reports. Results Out of 96 patients evaluated, [57 males, 39 females, Mean age 31.52 years, Age Range 4–76 years,] material sufficient for diagnosis was obtained in 90 patients. Cytological diagnosis of benign lesions was made in 40 patients and malignant in 47. Of these, 27 were metastases, osteogenic sarcoma 16, giant cell tumour 19, infection 11. Histology was obtained in 41 patients. Correct diagnosis of benignity was made in 17 out of 18 cases, malignancy in 21 out of 22 cases. One non-diagnostic case was malignant. The accuracy of specific cytological diagnosis was 36/41 (87.8%) and incorrect in 5/41 (12.2%). Conclusion We conclude that FNAC can be useful in the pre-operative assessment of bone tumours especially where other diagnostic modalities are unavailable.
Nnodu, Obiageli E; Giwa, SO; Eyesan, Samuel U; Abdulkareem, Fatima B
Introduction. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) guidelines in 1996, breast lesions are categorized as C1 to C5 on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Very few studies are available in the English literature analyzing histopathology outcome of C3 (atypical, probably benign) and C4 (suspicious, probably malignant) lesions. Our study aims to correlate FNA cytology of breast lump diagnosed as C3 and C4 lesion with histopathological examination. Methods. During a period of 2 years, 59 cases of C3 and 26 cases of C4 were retrieved from total 1093 cases of breast FNA. All the cases were reviewed by two cytopathologists independently. The final 24 cases of C3 and 16 cases of C4 categories were correlated with histopathological diagnosis. Result. Among C3 category, 37.5% revealed malignant findings, whereas of C4 category, 87.5% were malignant on histopathology. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0017). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive value of C4 category in diagnosing breast malignancy were 60.8%, 88.2%, 87.5%, and 62.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Although FNAC is simple, safe, cost-effective and accurate method for diagnosis of breast masses, one must be aware of its limitations particularly in C3 and C4 categories. Also, since both these categories carry different probabilities of malignancy and thus different management, we therefore, support maintaining C3 and C4 categories.
Goyal, Prashant; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Aggarwal, Deepti; Shukla, Pritesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Gupta, Ruchika; Singh, Sompal
The cytological diagnoses of 27 lymph node aspirates were compared with the histological diagnoses or clinical outcome in 23 HIV positive patients. There was agreement between the cytological and histological diagnoses in 14 of the 16 surgically biopsied cases. The clinical outcome in the remaining 11 cases was consistent with the cytodiagnosis. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a reliable, minimally traumatic, cost effective method with high specificity. It is suitable for an initial rapid diagnosis in HIV positive patients with lymphadenopathy.
Martin-Bates, E; Tanner, A; Suvarna, S K; Glazer, G; Coleman, D V
Myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) is rare malignant salivary gland neoplasm and its cytologic features have been rarely described in the literature. Furthermore, MC shows varied cell types and patterns leading to the wide range of differential diagnosis on cytology. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are necessary to make a definite diagnosis. A 37-year-old female presented with painless, progressive swelling in the infra-auricular region since 2 years. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed and cytological possibilities of cellular pleomorphic adenoma and myoepithelial cell neoplasm were rendered and patient was advised excision and histopathologic examination for final diagnosis and subtyping. Final diagnosis of MC was made on hematoxylin and eosin sections and IHC. MC is rare malignant salivary gland tumor showing a clinic-pathologic diversity. The cytological features of MC are diverse and may lack overt feature of malignancy. Pathologists should be aware of this entity while evaluating cytological smears of salivary gland mass.
Sehgal, Shelly; Goyal, Prashant; Singh, Sompal; Kumar, Awanindra
We performed a retrospective review of 5375 aspirations performed during the last 16 years of noncomplex cysts. Cytology results and outcomes following aspirations of simple and complicated cysts performed by the senior author at our institution were reviewed. Complex cysts with associated solid components which were core biopsied are excluded from this review. We present our data as the largest series to date performed by one breast radiologist at a single institution. Our data separate cysts with atypia or malignant cytology into those sampled concurrently with solid neoplasms and those which were isolated lesions. Various technical issues which have not been previously addressed in the literature are discussed. Noncomplex cysts are benign 99% of the time. Cysts with papillary cytology require no further workup. Margin-negative seromas do not require cytologic analysis of fluid. Sixteen malignancies were revealed (0.3%), eight of which were solitary cysts (0.1%). Atypical cytology predicted malignancy in 21%; therefore, atypical cytology requires further workup. Malignant cytology was associated with breast cancer in 90.9% of patients; therefore, all patients with malignant cytology require biopsy. PMID:22845618
Sanders, Linda M; Lacz, Nicole L; Lara, Jonathan
Peripheral lymphadenopathy in the pediatric age group is screened using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Cases found to have features suspicious for lymphoma on FNAC need to undergo biopsy with immunohistochemistry for characterization and typing. In pediatric age group, peripheral lymph nodes are common in Hodgkin's lymphoma for which biopsy is needed for subtyping. Distinction of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma of lymphocyte rich type from nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma needs biopsy evaluation and a panel of immunostains. T lymphoblastic lymphomas and Burkitt's lymphoma are the common types of non Hodgkin's lymphoma seen in the pediatric age group. All lymphomas require a biopsy evaluation with immunohistochemistry and analysis of molecular genetic markers for proper characterization and selection of optimal treatment which are discussed in detail in this review. PMID:23925793
Iyer, Venkateswaran K
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the spleen is commonly used in the diagnostic evaluation of veterinary patients. Techniques using suction delivered through a 6-20-cm(3) syringe are the most commonly described means of obtaining cytologic samples of the spleen. Comparison studies of various human lesions have shown nonaspiration techniques to produce equal or superior cytologic specimens with less blood than
Casey J. LeBlanc; Laurie L. Head; Michael M. Fry
Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in a 46-year-old female presenting with a breast lump and mammography suggesting a malignancy. The smears were cellular with cohesive clusters and scattered epithelial cells showing moderate nuclear pleomorphism and focal acinar formation. Stromal fragments, benign epithelial cell clusters and a few naked nuclei were noted in the background. Considering the clinical features, mammography findings as well as cytological features, a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma was suggested. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed it to be nodular sclerosing adenosis. The cytohistological correlation of this uncommon lesion, a potential pitfall in breast fine needle aspiration diagnosis which may lead to a false-positive diagnosis is discussed.
Sreedharanunni, S; Das, A; Veenu, S; Srinivasan, R; Singh, G
Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a rare, benign mesenchymal tumor derived from the stroma and tends to occur mainly in middle-aged to elderly men. There are a few cases reported in the literature describing its cytological features. We report the cytological and histological findings of a breast myofibroblastoma in a 68-year-old man. He presented with a palpable nodule of 2-months duration in his left breast. The cytological smears obtained by fine needle aspiration showed less cohesive cellularity in a fascicular arrangement consisting of spindle cells with elongated cytoplasm, occasional nuclear grooves, and intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions associated to fragments of stromal collagen. The cytological diagnosis was a mesenchymal proliferation suggesting the possibility of myofibroblastoma which was confirmed on histopathological examination. The breast myofibroblastoma has distinctive cytological features that in conjunction with the clinical and radiological data allow a specific diagnosis. PMID:21548123
Landeyro, Julieta; Díaz, M Luisa; Raventós, Antoni; Vadillo, Jordi; Martínez, M Salomé
This is a prospective study of breast cancer risk in relation to nipple aspirate fluid cytology in 2,701 volunteer white women from the San Francisco Bay Area first enrolled between 1973 and 1980. The women were not pregnant or lactating and were free of breast cancer within 6 months of entry into the study. The breast cancer status of this
Margaret R. Wrensch; Nicholas L. Petrakis; Eileen B. King; Rei Miike; Lynn Mason; Karen L. Chew; Marion M. Lee; Virginia L. Ernster; Joan F. Hilton; Robert Schweitzer; William H. Goodson
From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue.
Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic tumor with aggressive biological behavior, high recurrence rate, and a complex microscopic appearance with many different histologic patterns. Primary ameloblastoma is also described in extragnathic locations. Because of its wide morphologic spectrum, which is mirrored also in cytologic smears, a thorough study of distinctive features is required to reach a reliable diagnosis. Twelve cases of ameloblastoma were examined both cytologically and histologically. The patients were seven women and five men 24-85 years old, mean age being 64 years. Eleven cases were primary tumors of the mandible and maxilla, and one case was a lung tumor metastatic from the tibia. The epithelial element in the cytologic smears of the various cases was morphologically diverse. The basaloid pattern and minimal nuclear atypia were rather constant findings, and the most helpful features toward reaching a cytological diagnosis. However in most cases, careful consideration of the clinical, radiological, cytological, and occasionally immunocytochemical data was required to rule out other entities with similar cytological findings. In some cases, the final diagnosis was only possible by histologic examination. Due to their variable microscopic morphology, ameloblastomas are quite often misdiagnosed for other entities, both benign and malignant. Nevertheless, when one is aware of their distinctive features, an accurate diagnosis can be made by fine-needle aspiration cytology, in conjunction with clinical and radiological findings. Both the preoperative surgical planning and the postoperative follow-up of the patients benefit significantly from this method. PMID:21965020
Klapsinou, Eirini; Stavros, Archondakis; Smaragda, Angeli; Despoina, Proestou; Dimitra, Daskalopoulou
Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) is an uncommon pancreatic neoplasm with low malignant potential. It occurs predominantly in young women. It is very rare in males and nonrelated pediatrics. In children, SPT commonly present as abdominal mass and pain. A 10-year-old male presented with progressively growing palpable tumor in upper abdomen. SPT of pancreas is diagnosed on preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology. This was subsequently confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Due to rarity, SPT is not the first option to rule out, especially in children. Preoperative cytological diagnosis of SPT helps in management of this surgically curable neoplasm with good prognosis. PMID:23301913
Nasit, Jitendra Gordhanbhai; Jetly, Dhaval; Shah, Manoj
Patients with cervical adenopathy suspicious for malignancy are often referred to the Otolaryngology Service for tissue diagnosis. Confirmation of nodal involvement by upper aero-digestive tract tumors (UADT) is best obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA). Reported studies of FNA for lymphoma diagnosis have yielded conflicting results. Retrospective review of charts and pathology of 161 patients diagnosed with lymphomas yielded 53 patients with cervical adenopathy without apparent UADT. FNA's were performed on 28, and were repeated nine times, for a total of 37. Eleven had Hodgkin's disease and 17 other types of lymphomas. Seven of 37 specimens contained only blood; 15 contained lymphoid cells, nine of which were designated "reactive." Lymphoid cells designated as "atypical" or "suspicious for lymphoma" were found in 13 of the 37 aspirates. Two were diagnostic of lymphoma. Lymphoma was confirmed by histopathologic specimens in all patients, obtained 0-941 days (median 15, mean 73 days) after initial FNA. In lymphoma patients with cervical lymphadenopathy, FNA does not usually suffice for, and often leads to significant delays in diagnosis. PMID:22351165
Khillan, Ratesh; Sidhu, Gurinder; Axiotis, Constantine; Braverman, Albert S
Cytological features of a malignant spindle-cell variant and a benign tubular variant of adenomyoepithelioma were examined to improve diagnosis of this tumor. Fine-needle aspiration cytology, of both a malignant and a benign case, characterized cellular and cohesive cell clusters composed of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The smears of the malignant case were rich in spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells, admixed with a few epithelial cells. In about a fourth of the clusters, atypical cells with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli comprised more than 20% of cells. The smears of the benign case were composed of tubular epithelial cells surrounding one to several layers of myoepithelial cells with clear cytoplasm. Mild atypia was occasionally noticed. A review of the literature showed that a cytological diagnosis of malignancy is not warranted, if nuclear atypia is not generally severe. Focal severe atypia is not definitively indicative of benignity or malignancy. PMID:11782084
A lipoblastoma is a rare benign tumor of immature white fat, and more than 90% of lipoblastomas occur before the age of 3 years. The diagnosis of a lipoblastoma is mostly dependent on a histopathological examination of a surgically excised specimen. However, an accurate preoperative diagnosis is essential for the planning of surgery, particularly for a lesion of the head and neck area. We experienced a case of a cervical lipoblastoma of a 23-month-old boy. A preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed the sample as moderately cellular and showed fragments of mature and immature adipose tissues containing a large number of capillary vessels. There were numerous lipoblast-looking cells with a multivacuolated cytoplasm, and the nuclei were small, compressed by vacuoles, and centrally located. According to the cytological findings, the lesion was diagnosed as a benign adipose tumor suggestive of a lipoblastoma. Subsequent surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis of the fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The cytologic features of lipoblastoma are not well known because of the rarity of the lesion. However, the fine-needle aspiration cytological features of a lipoblastoma are sufficiently characteristic to make a specific preoperative diagnosis. PMID:18528880
Hong, Ran; Choi, Dong-Youl; Do, Nam-Yong; Lim, Sung-Chul
A case of tonsillar extramedullary plasmacytoma in a 53-year-old man with a complaint of lump sensation in the throat is presented. Examination of the oral cavity showed enlargement of the left tonsil. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a solid mass, measuring 3.2 x 2.0 x 3.8 cm, in the left tonsil. Cytologic smear obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy appeared highly cellular and was composed of clusters of plasma cells with varying maturity. Atypical plasma cells had prominent eccentric nuclei with nucleoli and finely granular cytoplasm. Binucleated cells and mitotic figures were also identified. The cytoplasm of mature-looking small plasma cells was also finely granular without a perinuclear halo. A cytologic diagnosis of plasmacytoma was made. Excisional biopsy showed sheets of plasmacytoid cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. Occasional binucleated and pleomorphic cells with giant nuclei and prominent nucleoli were observed. These plasmacytoid cells were diffusely immunoreactive for lambda light chain and IgG, partially positive for epithelial membrane antigen. Metastatic examination finding was negative for multiple myeloma, and the patient was diagnosed as having extramedullary plasmacytoma. Although the diagnosis of plasmacytoma on cytologic smear may be difficult, in the current case, fine-needle aspiration cytology provided a rapid and accurate diagnosis. PMID:18164414
Sakai, Yu; Ikeya, Jun; Morita, Ichiro; Sato, Kimiya
In this prospective study, flow cytometry DNA profile of 169 stage D2 prostatic carcinomas were compared with conventional cytologic data. Two transrectal fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed in each patient. Aspirates were immediately fixed in 2% polyethylene glycol 1500* alcoholic solution (Merck). Suspensions were mixed and studied by a conventional cytologic technique (Papanicolaou) and by flow cytometry (propidium iodide stain on isolated nuclei). A highly significant correlation was found between the DNA profile and the cytologic grade (p less than 0.001). The DNA profile was bimodal in 14% (3/21) of aspirates containing benign or atypical cells, 18% (3/17) of grade I aspirates, 30% (13/43) of grade II aspirates and 71% (24/34) of grade III aspirates. Routine cytologic evaluation of cell suspensions evaluated by flow cytometry is important in clinical practice since both falsely unimodal and falsely bimodal profiles occur. Leukocytes or benign epithelial cells can interfere with the tumor cell population. In fine-needle aspirates, the broad range of non-malignant contaminating cells limits the value of immunocytochemistry and emphasizes the usefulness of routine conventional cytologic evaluation. PMID:2052420
Piaton, E; Bringuier, P P; Devonec, M; Seigneurin, D; Perrin, P
Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.
Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen
Background Pleomorphic carcinoma (PC) is a rare pulmonary malignancy. Because of its rarity and histological heterogeneity, cytopathologists might suspect PC only rarely on the basis of its cytological specimen. In addition, cytological findings from fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens have rarely been described. Hence, we investigated the cytological features of FNA in the cases of PC. Methods We reviewed 7 FNA specimens of PC. The patients had undergone surgical resection at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital between 2007 and 2011. The cytological features of PC were assessed and compared with the histopathological features of the corresponding surgical specimen. Immunocytochemical analysis with cytokeratin and vimentin was performed on the cell blocks. Results The tumor cells were either dispersed or arranged in loose aggregates, and generally lacked any glandular or squamous differentiation. Pleomorphic or spindle shape tumor cells were observed, and mono-, bi-, or multi-nucleated giant cells were frequently observed. The background showed necrosis and contained numerous lymphocytes and neutrophils. Immunocytochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin and vimentin. Conclusions PC displays characteristic cytological features. It might therefore be possible to make an accurate diagnosis of PC by assessing the degree of nuclear atypia.
Choi, Hee Seung; Heo, Il Yeong; Jung, Chang Won; Cho, Soo Youn; Park, Sunhoo; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:22799371
Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika
Schwannoma is the most common neurogenic tumor that is derived from the peripheral nerve sheath. There are no specific serologic markers or characteristic imaging abnormalities associated with schwannoma. Tissue diagnosis and immunohistochemistry are required to diagnose this lesion. We describe a 65-year-old male with a finding of three mass lesions in the superior and middle mediastinum on computed tomography of the chest. The largest lesion measured 4.6 × 5 cm. The patient subsequently underwent endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the lesion and cytology was consistent with spindle cell neoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining of the cytologic specimen was positive for S-100 and negative for pan-cytokeratin, CD34, CD117, calcitonin, smooth muscle actin and desmin. These findings were consistent with schwannoma. This is the second reported case of a mediastinal schwannoma diagnosed by EUS-FNA.
Pakseresht, Kavous; Reddymasu, Savio C.; Oropeza-Vail, Melissa M.; Fan, Fang; Olyaee, Mojtaba
Background Pediatric patients present with thyroid nodules less often than adults, but the rate of malignancy is much higher. This study\\u000a was designed to determine the ability of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) to diagnose accurately and facilitate management\\u000a of thyroid neoplasms in pediatric patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A retrospective study revealed 110 patients <19 years old who had undergone thyroid surgery and FNA biopsy at
Anna E. Bargren; Goswin Y. Meyer-Rochow; Mark S. Sywak; Leigh W. Delbridge; Herbert Chen; Stan B. Sidhu
For tissue diagnosis of suspected pancreatic cancer, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the procedure of choice with high safety and accuracy profiles. However, about 10% of cytologic findings of EUS-FNA are inconclusive. In that situation, careful observation, surgical exploration, or alternative diagnostic tools such as bile duct brushing with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or computed tomography-guided biopsy can be considered. However, some concerns and/or risks of these options render repeat EUS-FNA a reasonable choice. Repeated EUS-FNA may impose substantial clinical impact with low risk.
Hydatid cysts (echinococcosis) are caused by an infestation with larval tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The disease is extensively distributed worldwide, and it has been rarely reported in Korea. We describe the cytologic features of a case of hepatic hydatid cyst in a 28-year-old male. Computed tomography revealed a cystic mass in the right lobe of the liver. A right hemihepatectomy was performed. The aspirated fluid from the hepatic cystic mass was clear. The smears showed protoscolices, hooklets, and a laminated membrane.
Kim, Ae Ri; Park, Seok Ju; Gu, Mi Jin; Kim, Hong Jin
Hydatid cysts (echinococcosis) are caused by an infestation with larval tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The disease is extensively distributed worldwide, and it has been rarely reported in Korea. We describe the cytologic features of a case of hepatic hydatid cyst in a 28-year-old male. Computed tomography revealed a cystic mass in the right lobe of the liver. A right hemihepatectomy was performed. The aspirated fluid from the hepatic cystic mass was clear. The smears showed protoscolices, hooklets, and a laminated membrane. PMID:24009638
Kim, Ae Ri; Park, Seok Ju; Gu, Mi Jin; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Hong Jin
Extramedullary deposits may be the presenting feature of acute myeloid leukemia. An early and accurate diagnosis on cytology will aid in correct patient management. This is especially true for patients with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML M7), where bone marrow aspiration may yield only a dry tap. While cytomorphological features of myeloid sarcoma of other types are well recognized due to its rarity, there are only two case reports discussing the morphological details of megakaryoblastic differentiation on aspiration cytology. We present the case of a 25-year-old patient with extramedullary involvement of lymph node and cerebrospinal fluid by AML M7, describing in detail, the morphological features on aspiration as well as exfoliative cytology.
Chitragar, Sanjeev; Agarwal, Shipra; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Karak, Asis K.; Chharchhodawala, Taher; Sharma, Atul; Bakhshi, Sameer
Purpose. Examine the benefits and limitations of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) used as the definitive diagnostic method before treatment. Method. Review of the 25 year experience at a multidisciplinary musculo-skeletal centre where FNA is the primary diagnostic approach to soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities and trunk wall and the experience of various experts in the field. Results. FNA has several benefits compared with coarse needle or open surgical biopsy. The most important are rapid preliminary diagnosis, no need for hospitalization and anaesthesia, negligible complications and fear for tumour cell spread. With the collected experience gained during the years a reliable diagnosis of sarcoma is the rule in general and specific-type diagnoses are possible in many histotypes, especially when the cytologic examination is supplemented with ancillary diagnostics. The most important limitations are inability to hit small deep-seated sarcoma and some diagnostic pitfalls such as the correct diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms, variants of benign lipomatous tumours and ‘new soft tissue tumour entities’. Discussion. Optimal use of FNA calls for certain requirements such as centralization, experience in soft tissue tumour cytology–histopathology, the FNA technique and close co-operation between the orthopaedic surgeon and cytopathologist.
Objective. To study the correlation of cytomorphological features in fine needle aspiration smears from patients suspected of having tuberculous lymphadenitis with Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN), auramine-rhodamine staining (ARS), and autofluorescence (AF). Methods. A total of 145 lymph nodes were aspirated, 3 air-dried smears were stained with Giemsa, Ziehl-Neelsen, and auramine-rhodamine stains, and 1 smear was wet fixed for Papanicolaou staining. Needle washes were incubated in Lowenstein-Jensen medium for culture. Papanicolaou and auramine-rhodamine stained smears were examined under fluorescent microscope using a blue excitation filter (450–480?nm). Results. Ninety aspirates were reported on cytomorphology as suggestive of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Smear positivity for Mycobacteria by Ziehl-Neelsen method was 26.67% (24/90), while positivity increased to 34.44% (31/90) by auramine-rhodamine and 42.22% (38/90) on autofluorescence. Culture was positive in 27.78% (25/90) aspirates. Using culture as the reference method, the statistical values of ZN, ARS, and AF were as follows: sensitivity 80.0%, 88.0%, 96.0%; specificity 93.85%, 86.15%, 78.46%; positive predictive values 83.33%, 70.97%, 63.16%; and negative predictive values 92.42%, 94.92%, 98.08%, respectively. Conclusion. There is a definite advantage of autofluorescence over Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine which is to detect Mycobacteria, being more sensitive as well as an inexpensive technique. Autofluorescence can be a useful addition to routine cytology for early diagnosis and effective treatment.
Thakur, Brijesh; Mehrotra, Ravi; Nigam, Jitendra Singh
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a recently developed, accurate, safe and cost-effective technique that allows sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes and peribronchial lesions including pulmonary and mediastinal lesions. Its major indications are the nodal staging of non-small cell carcinomas of the lung, their restaging after chemotherapy and/or radiation, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and of metastases from extrathoracic malignancies, and the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and masses of unknown aetiology. From our experience at the University of Minnesota and a comprehensive review of the literature, we discuss technical aspects of the procedure, its advantages and limitations in comparison with other methods of sampling mediastinal lymph nodes, focusing on the role of the cytopathologist in ensuring the effectiveness of the procedure. An algorithmic approach to the cytological diagnosis, starting with the determination of the adequacy of the sample, is also presented. PMID:20015257
Cameron, S E H; Andrade, R S; Pambuccian, S E
Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the larval form of cestode T. solium. It has a worldwide distribution and is potentially harmful with variable clinical manifestations. The patient most commonly presents with subcutaneous and muscle involvement in the form of nodular lesions. The other most commonly involved sites include eye, brain, bladder wall, and heart. Cysticercosis can be diagnosed on serology, and radiologically but confirmatory diagnosis is based on histopathological examination of the involved tissue biopsy specimen. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful low-cost outpatient procedure tool for preoperative diagnosis of cysticercosis and is absolutely essential for diagnosis of the parasitic lesions in a peripheral hospital, one like ours. PMID:24024052
Sawhney, Manav; Agarwal, Shubhra
Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the larval form of cestode T. solium. It has a worldwide distribution and is potentially harmful with variable clinical manifestations. The patient most commonly presents with subcutaneous and muscle involvement in the form of nodular lesions. The other most commonly involved sites include eye, brain, bladder wall, and heart. Cysticercosis can be diagnosed on serology, and radiologically but confirmatory diagnosis is based on histopathological examination of the involved tissue biopsy specimen. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful low-cost outpatient procedure tool for preoperative diagnosis of cysticercosis and is absolutely essential for diagnosis of the parasitic lesions in a peripheral hospital, one like ours.
Sawhney, Manav; Agarwal, Shubhra
Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirates (EBUS-TBNA) has not been compared to final detailed cytological analysis in patients with suspected sarcoidosis. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA with ROSE in patients with suspected sarcoidosis, a prospective two-centre study performed EBUS-TBNA with ROSE of cellular material followed by transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and endobronchial biopsy (EBB). The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was compared to the final cytological assessment and to TBLB and EBB. Analysis confirmed 49 out of 60 cases of sarcoidosis. ROSE sensitivity was 87.8% (specificity 91%, positive predictive value 97.7%). ROSE slide interpretation in combination with the final fixed slide and cell block preparations had a sensitivity of 91.8% (specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%). 67% of patients were confirmed as having sarcoidosis on TBLB and 29% on EBB. Interobserver agreement between cytotechnologists and pathologists was very good (?=0.91, 95% CI 0.80-1.0 and ?=0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.0, respectively). EBUS-TBNA with ROSE has high diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement and informs the bronchoscopist in theatre whether additional diagnostic procedures need to be undertaken. EBUS-TBNA with ROSE should therefore be considered as the first-line investigation of sarcoidosis. PMID:23180586
Plit, Marshall L; Havryk, Adrian P; Hodgson, Alan; James, Daniel; Field, Andrew; Carbone, Sonia; Glanville, Allan R; Bashirzadeh, Farzad; Chay, Anna M; Hundloe, Justin; Pearson, Rebecca; Fielding, David
BACKGROUND: A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSV-PTC) is a rare variant and reports describing the cytological findings are few. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 24 cytological samples from thyroid fine needle aspirates of 20 patients with DSV-PTC. The specimens were taken from 14 non-nodular lesions and 10 nodules. RESULTS: All aspirates taken from both non-nodular lesions and nodules had sufficient cellularity. The carcinoma cells frequently (70-100%) appeared as solid cell balls and hollow balls, and showed a hobnail pattern, squamous differentiation, septate cytoplasmic vacuoles and large unilocular vacuoles. Most of the carcinoma cells seem to be taken from the lumen of dilated lymph vessels. Ground glass nuclear chromatin, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions and grooved nuclei were infrequent (50% or less). In the background, a large number of lymphocytes and abundant psammoma bodies were almost always seen. CONCLUSIONS: Cytological findings of DSV-PTC are as follows: (1) solid cell balls and/or hollow balls containing lymphocytes; (2) hobnail cells; (3) septate cytoplasmic vacuoles; (4) large unilocular vacuoles; (5) squamous differentiation; (6) abundant psammoma bodies; (7) lymphocytic background; and (8) the absence or relative lack of characteristic nuclear features of papillary carcinoma. When DSV-PTC is suspected by ultrasound examination, the aspiration cytology from a non-nodular area of the thyroid can led us to the diagnosis of the variant. PMID:23781895
Takagi, N; Hirokawa, M; Nobuoka, Y; Higuchi, M; Kuma, S; Miyauchi, A
Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common but rare benign tumor-like lesions of the lung arising from the embryonic rest. They are more common in males and in aged. Majority are asymptomatic and seen as coin lesions with popcorn calcification in the chest radiograph. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps to diagnose and distinguish them from the cancerous lesions of the lung. The cytological material is characterized by fibromyxoid stroma, cartilage, bronchial cells, adipose tissue and bone. Bronchial cells with reactive atypia may be a source of false-positive result. Symptomatic cases need surgical intervention such as enucleation or segmental resection. We report a case of a 74-year-old male who had a lung mass that did not progress over 4-year on chest radiograph. The CT-guided FNAC smears showed benign bronchial epithelial cells, fibro-myxoid spindle cell stroma and fat spaces that aided the diagnosis of pulmonary hamartoma avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:23326033
Umashankar, T; Devadas, Acharya K; Ravichandra, G; Yaranal, Parasappa J
An audit was conducted of all patients undergoing thyroid surgery in a district general hospital over the 8-year period during which fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was introduced. Of the 252 patients, 32 (14%) were toxic and 92 (36%) had large multinodular goitres, but 118 (46%) had a solitary thyroid nodule removed to exclude neoplasm. However, only 12.7% of such resected nodules were found to be carcinomas. Where FNAC was used, the accuracy for preoperative diagnosis was 82.6% and the sensitivity for prediction of carcinoma was 87.5%. Cytology correctly predicted 81% of the colloid nodules and these may have been managed without surgery if the patient was agreeable. It is suggested that one-half of the patients with solitary thyroid nodules could have been spared operation. Analysis of the operative procedure shows that one-fifth of the neoplasms may have been more accurately dealt with had FNAC been used, and four patients could have avoided the trauma and risks of a second operation. The study suggests that FNAC and increased specialisation will improve the quality of thyroid surgery in a district general hospital.
Wetzig, N. R.; Giddings, A. E.
AimsTo compare the predictive values of axillary ultrasound (US) combined with fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology with tumour size (T stage) and grade in the preoperative staging of breast cancer. More precise definition of axillary FNA reporting nomenclature is also presented.Patients and Methods314 patients: 119 patients had suspicious US investigated by FNA, 195 patients had normal US not investigated further
Morna MacNeill; Isobel Arnott; Jeremy Thomas
Papillary Hürthle cell carcinoma with lymphocytic stroma is a recent addition to the list of variants of papillary carcinoma\\u000a of the thyroid. We report the aspiration cytology and histology findings of this tumor arising in two patients. The smears\\u000a were cellular, and revealed Hürthle cells arranged in three-dimensional groups, papillary fragments, and as singly dispersed\\u000a cells with a prominent intimately
Zubair W. Baloch; Virginia A. LiVolsi
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma that exhibits a more aggressive clinical course and poorer prognosis than the typical diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this study, we report the case of a 67-year-old man with left cervical lymph node swelling. Aspiration cytology revealed many clusters of cohesive, large, and solitary cells. The tumor cells had abundant cytoplasm and large round-to-oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli. The Giemsa staining specimens exhibited amorphous global bodies adjacent to some clusters. Histologically, large tumor cells occupied the lymph nodes in a sinusoidal pattern, and immunohistochemically, these cells were cytokeratin-, CD19(-) , CD20(-) , CD79a(-) , CD3(-) , CD30(-) , CD138(+) , IgG(-) , IgA(+) , and ALK(+) . Chromogenic in situ hybridization revealed restricted immunoglobulin light-chain expression. Fluorescent in situ hybridization demonstrated translocation of the ALK gene. The tumor cells were negative for Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8. It is important to differentiate ALK+LBCL from metastatic carcinoma and other lymphoma subtypes with similar histological features to ensure a proper treatment strategy and prediction of prognosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23457005
Nakatsuka, Shin-Ichi; Oku, Kazuko; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanamoto, Atsushi; Ito, Mahito; Hashimoto, Koji
Background: Pilomatrixoma (PMX) is a benign, quite uncommon, skin neoplasm, which is frequently misdiagnosed by clinicians. Aim: We have analyzed 25 PMX to determine the agreement between clinical diagnosis, preoperative FNA characteristics, and corresponding histopathological specimens; moreover, reliable cytologic criteria for PMX and the differential diagnosis to avoid cytological pitfalls have been emphasized. Materials and Methods: By fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology a series of consecutive cases of PMX collected during last 5 years were studied. Smears were stained by Papanicolau and May-Grünwald-Giemsa. Results: Patients affected by PMX were 11 males, 14 females (ratio 1:1.27); the mean age was 32.72 years with age range 3-78 years, being 72% (18/25) of patients 40 years or less. PMX was mainly distributed in the head-neck region (52%), scalp (16%), upper/lower arms (28%), and chest (4%). The observed diagnostic cytological features were represented by clusters of basaloid epithelial cells, shadow or ghost cells, inflammatory background, calcification, and giant cells. Unfortunately, not all these morphological aspects were always disclosed in smears, thus making the cytological preoperative diagnosis questionable and problematic. Conclusions: The experience of a well-trained cytopathologist should distinguish the relevant FNA features in terms of smear background, architecture, and cell morphology. The most dangerous mistake in FNA diagnosis of PMX regards a diagnosis of primary malignant or metastatic cutaneous lesions.
Ieni, A; Todaro, P; Bonanno, A M; Catalano, F; Catalano, A; Tuccari, Giovanni
Preoperative ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (UG-FNAC) of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer emerged after the onset of the surgical sentinel node (SN) procedure. Today it is established as one of the preoperative routine procedures in patients with a cytological or histological confirmation or strong suspicion of breast carcinoma, the interest being that a positive UG-FNAC allows to avoid SLN biopsy or two-stage surgical procedure. Our article reviews the recent data in the literature regarding the diagnostic accuracy of lymph node FNAC in breast cancer staging, and presents the experience of the Breast Diagnostic Centre of Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, Norway, in this context. Nowadays, UG-FNAC is indicated whenever the breast radiologist finds a suspicious or otherwise abnormal axillary lymph node, regardless of the size of the primary tumour. UG-FNAC is a cost effective and safe method. A diagnosis of metastatic malignancy has a very high accuracy and false-positives are virtually non-existent. False-negatives do occur, especially in lymph nodes with partial involvement as micrometastases and isolated tumor cells (ITC), and recent recommendations advocate that in these particular situations the axillary dissection is not necessary. PMID:23244481
Sauer, Torill; Suciu, Voichita
Objectives. The present study was conducted to categorise the morphological features on bone marrow aspirate cytology into common, uncommon, and atypical features in a nonendemic region which would be helpful in clinching an early and correct diagnosis especially in clinically unsuspected cases. Methods. The morphological features on bone marrow were categorized into common, uncommon, and atypical in cases of leishmaniasis from non endemic region. Results. Out of total 27 cases, 77.7% were residents of places at the height of 500?m or above and fever was the most common presentation followed by hepatosplenomegaly. Plasmacytosis, hemophagocytosis were the common cytological features while dysmyelopoiesis, presence of leishmania bodies in nonhistiocytic cells, and granuloma with necrosis were uncommon features. Aggregates of LD bodies in form of ring, floret, or strap shapes along with giant cells constitute the atypical morphological features. Conclusion. The knowledge of common, uncommon, and atypical features on bone marrow aspirate cytology is helpful in clinching an early and correct diagnosis of leishmaniasis especially in non endemic areas where clinical suspicion is low. These features will guide the pathologist for vigilant search of LD bodies in the marrow for definite diagnosis and thus will also be helpful in preventing unnecessary workups.
Chandra, Harish; Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan
Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst. In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment.
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed as a useful technique for the initial diagnosis of soft tissue tumors (STT) as well for the identification of recurrent and metastatic cases. Aim: We conducted this study on soft tissue tumors to find the efficacy of FNAC and to finalize the histological diagnosis with immunostains. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 126 patients of soft tissue tumors. FNAC and histopathology was performed in all the cases. Results: Hundred and five cases (83.3%) were diagnosed as benign and 21 cases (16.7%) as malignant. On FNAC, tumors were divided into six cytomorphological categories i.e. lipomatous, spindle cell, round cell, myxoid, pleomorphic and vascular tumors. Seventeen cases were inconclusive on cytology. In five cases, the type of malignancy was changed on histological examination. There were three false positive and two false negative cases giving a positive predictive value of 97.2 % in terms of malignancy, a sensitivity of 98.1% and a specificity of 96.7%. Conclusions: FNAC has a definite role in forming the initial diagnosis of STT, while histopathology with the aid of immunomarkers provides the final diagnosis.
Beg, Shaham; Vasenwala, Shaista M; Haider, Nazima; Ahmad, S Shamshad; Maheshwari, Veena; Khan, MA
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IVPEH) is an unusual form of intravascular endothelial proliferation. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of IVPEH is quite challenging and only rare reports of the cytopathological features of this entity have been published. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who presented with a mass on her left jaw. FNA of the mass revealed pleomorphic polygonal and spindle cells. A preliminary (onsite) cytological diagnosis of suspicious for malignancy was rendered. Subsequent cell block showed delicate papillae composed of attenuated endothelial cells overlying collagenized cores. The endothelial cells were positive for CD34 and factor VIII, supporting the cytological diagnosis of IVPEH. Surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of IVPEH diagnosed by preoperative FNA.
Kovalovsky, A; Reynders, A; Khurana, KK
We report a case of nodal nevus present in enlarged lymph nodes with changes of dermatopathic lymphadenopathy sampled by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology prior to clinical evaluation of the patient. This lymph node pathology was established later by lymph node excisional biopsy, by which along with a skin biopsy the dermatopathic lymphadenopathy was tentatively attributed to early mycosis fungoides. The FNA revealed fairly atypical melanotic tissue from the dermatopathic lymphadenopathy along with nodules of uniform melanocytic nevoid cells, the presence of which in combination with the dermatopathic atypical tissue provided a tentative diagnosis of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary, with the diagnosis of nodal nevus presented as a less likely possibility. This is to our knowledge the first cytologic report on FNA of nodal nevus, which besides presenting cytologic findings of this entity highlights some of the problems related to providing an accurate diagnosis, if this exceptionally unusual pathologic entity is encountered in lymph nodes sampled for enlargement from pathologies unrelated to this entity. The subject of nevus changes in lymph nodes is briefly discussed. PMID:15349990
Zaharopoulos, Paul; Hudnall, S David
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a rare disease involving the lymph nodes. Extranodal RDD involving the thyroid is extremely rare. So far, six cases of RDD involving thyroid have been reported in the literature; all have occurred in females with a mean age of 56.3 years. Clinically, radiologically and cytologically, all the cases were initially diagnosed as thyroid malignancies with lymph nodal metastasis. The final diagnosis was made histologically only after total thyroidectomy. We herein, present a seventh case of RDD involving the thyroid in a 15-year-old female, diagnosed first on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We conclude that FNAC is a useful diagnostic procedure for RDD involving thyroid; it can avoid an unnecessary thyroidectomy.
Vujhini, Sudhir Kumar; Kolte, Sachin S; Satarkar, Rahul N; Srikanth, Shastry
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is highly accurate for assessing the pancreatic parenchyma and ductal system. Currently, it is the most sensitive imaging procedure for detecting small solid pancreatic masses. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNA) is a safe and highly accurate tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy. Prior to perform an EUS-FNA one should wonder whether the benefits outweigh the potential risks of the procedure. Therefore, it is important to take into account whether the procedure will influence patient management. The diagnostic yield and success rate of EUS-FNA in pancreatic lesions varies greatly depending on many factors including: the characteristics of the lesion itself (location of the mass and consistency of the lesion), technical factors (type of needle size, use of stylet, use of suction and number of needle passes performed) and the availability of immediate cytological assessment of the specimen. The aim of this review is to analyze all these factors for optimizing specimen collection and diagnostic efficiency in dealing with solid pancreatic masses.
Background Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) forms one of the first diagnostic tools in the evaluation of tumors. Its role in diagnosing soft tissue tumors (STT) has been fairly documented, as well as debated. Present study was aimed at evaluating its scope in diagnosing 127 cases of soft tissue tumors. Methods Conventional Pap and MGG staining was available in all the cases. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed in 15 cases. Histopathological details were available in 115 cases. Results 50% cases were referred for a primary diagnosis, while 26.8% & 22.8% cases were evaluated for recurrent and metastatic lesions, respectively. Extremities were the commonest sites. On FNAC, 101 cases (79.5%) were labeled as malignant, whereas 10 cases (7.9%) were labeled as benign. The remaining 16 cases (11%) were not categorized and were labeled as 'unsure/not specified'. Histopathological confirmation in 115 cases, gave a diagnostic accuracy of 98%, with a positive predictive value of 98% in malignant cases and a negative predictive value of 100% in benign cases. Two cases were false positive. Among the various cytological categories, 60 cases (47.2%) were of spindle cell type, followed by 32 (25.2%) of round cell type and 14 cases (11%) of lipomatous type. Other 12 cases (9.4%) were of pleomorphic type; 7 (5.5%) cases of epithelioid type and remaining 2 cases were of myxoid type. All the round cell, pleomorphic and myxoid type of tumors were sarcomas, whereas 73.3% cases of spindle cell type were labeled as 'malignant'. Exact cytological sub typing was offered in 58 cases, with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as the most frequently sub typed tumor. The two false positive malignant cases were of fibromatosis and a pigmented schwannoma, on biopsy. Out of 28 metastatic lesions, lymph nodes were the commonest site for metastasis, with epithelioid tumors that formed highest percentage of metastatic cases. Conclusion FNAC is fairly specific and sensitive in STT diagnoses for primary, recurrent and metastatic lesions. The cytological types, especially round cell and pleomorphic sarcomas, can be quickly identified. Clinicopathological correlation with ICC as an adjunct, are valuable in exact sub typing.
Rekhi, Bharat; Gorad, Biru D; Kakade, Anagha C; Chinoy, RF
Aspiration biopsies were performed on 1536 patients with goiter who showed scintigraphically "cold" nodules. Twelve among them had clinical and cytological positive diagnosis. The remaining 1524 patients had aspiration biopsies without suspicion of the malignant nature of their goiters. Among them, 45 patients had a positive or suspect cytological diagnosis. Fourteen had not been yet operated on. Thirty-one were operated on and 28 malignancies were confirmed histologically. In three patients, cytological diagnosis was false positive. The remaining patients were cytologically negative. Thirty-seven were operated on and four false negative cases were found. The application of aspiration biopsy on every patient with a cold thyroid nodule resulted in the detection and very early diagnosis of clinically unsuspected thyroid neoplasms, the great majority of which were confined to the gland itself without metastasic spread. This fact makes the prognosis better. In addition, it is probable that the early detection of differentiated thyroid neoplasms and their surgical ablation interrupt their natural course towards anaplastic carcinoma, with its grim prognosis. PMID:7351014
Stavri?, G D; Karanfilski, B T; Kalamaras, A K; Serafimov, N Z; Georgievska, B S; Korubin, V H
The basis of breast cancer risk associated with hormonal therapies may lie in the regulation of cell proliferation. In a prospective, double-blind, randomized study postmenopausal women were given continuous combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) either as estradiol valerate 2 mg\\/dienogest 2 mg, (E2V\\/DNG) or estradiol 2 mg\\/noretisterone acetate 1 mg (E2\\/NETA) for 6 months. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies were
P. Conner; G. Söderqvist; L. Skoog; T. Gräser; F. Walter; E. Tani; K. Carlström; B. von Schoultz
Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNA) may provide full-thickness biopsies, adequate for cytology and histology. In the present case report, we describe the first cases of a rare well-differentiated squamous esophageal carcinoma (verrucous esophageal cancer), finally diagnosed by EUS-FNA using a large FNA needle after several upper endoscopies with biopsies negative for malignancy. In this report, we highlight the usefulness of this procedure and EUS features in the diagnosis of suspicious esophageal lesions with negative endoscopic biopsies for malignancy. PMID:23903850
Adrián-de-Ganzo, Zaida; Gimeno-García, Antonio Z; Elwassief, Ahmed; Paquin, Sarto; Sahai, Anand V; García-Castro, Candelaria; Nicolás-Pérez, David; Brito-García, Alejandro; Martín-Corriente, María Del Carmen; Garièpy, Gilles; Quintero, Enrique
Providing data as evidence of good practice is becoming imperative to meet the demands of professional revalidation and clinical governance. Sensitivity and specificity are common performance measures in fine needle aspiration (FNA) but are vulnerable to discordant analytical methods. We introduce a CUSUM technique and show how it may be used to show attainment and maintenance of proficiency in head and neck (H&N) FNA. In addition, we show how it can be used to compare practices and demonstrate different performance for FNAs from different tissues; a fact that must be recognized by anyone devising minimum performance values. PMID:12485168
Robinson, I A; Blackham, R B; Cozens, N J; Sharp, J
A 6-year-old Wirehair Dachshund had a meningioma around the optic nerve that caused exophthalmos. A benign mesenchymal tumor was suspected based on the cytologic pattern of a fine-needle aspirate, and a meningioma was diagnosed by histopathologic examination. In addition to the meningioma cells, the cytologic smears included groups of cells from apparently 4 layers of normal retina. In particular, uniform rod-shaped structures in the cytologic sample could suggest rod-shaped bacteria, but these structures were identified as cylindrical outer segments of photoreceptor rod cells. Other retinal structures recognized included pigmented epithelial layer cells with their uniquely formed pigment granules, the characteristic bi-lobed, cleaved nuclei from the outer nuclear layer, and nerve tissue likely from the outer plexiform layer of the retina. PMID:23656635
Tvedten, Harold; Hillström, Anna
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare neoplasm of uncertain cell of origin. Known to occur in adolescents and young adults, this tumor usually involves the muscles and deep soft tissues of the extremities and trunk. Orbital localization is rare and not yet subjected to cytological assessment, as per our literature search. We present here two cases of ASPS diagnosed by aspiration cytology, one in the orbit and the other in the lower extremity. The cells displayed abundant clear to finely vacuolated cytoplasm, often with disrupted margins and flowing of the cytoplasmic material; prominent nucleoli and scattered bare nuclei were also seen in the background. Two close cytological differential diagnoses include metastatic renal cell carcinoma and paraganglioma. Intracytoplasmic periodic acid schiff (PAS) positive, diastase-resistant, needle-shaped crystals and corresponding rhomboid crystals with regular lattice pattern on ultrastructure are the hallmarks of this neoplasm. Due to its slowly progressive clinical course and poor outcome, preoperative diagnosis of ASPS through fine-needle aspiration cytology may be essential for deciding therapy, especially in rare and difficult locations like orbit, where adjuvant radiation may not be possible.
Majumdar, K; Saran, RK; Tyagi, I; Jain, AK; Jagetia, A; Sinha, S; Singh, A
Lymph node has probably been the first target of Fine Needle Cytology (FNC) and among the latest to be accepted as an affordable diagnostic procedure. In 1912, dr. Hirschfeld performed FNC to diagnose cutaneous lymphomas and other tumours. Subsequently FNC was used to diagnose lymphoblastoma and splenic FNC to diagnose leishmaniasis on Romanowsky-stained smears. One of the first systematic study on lymph node FNC was then performed at John Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore (USA) using FNC and Romanowsky stain on air-dried smears. In the twenties, two independent groups from Memorial Hospital (New York, USA), worked on FNC of a large scale of different human pathologies. One of this study reported 1,405 diagnoses of cancer and other diseases by means of FNC, mainly performed on lymph nodes (662 cases). In the sixties, at the Karolinska Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) a group of cytopathologists started a Cytopathology Service available to the whole Institution, which exploited all fields of FNC. Since then, the procedure spread all over the word and nowadays it is routinely used for the diagnosis of different organs and pathologies including lymph node. Distinguished cytopathologists have worked on lymph nodal FNC producing significant advances and highlighting advantages and inevitable limitations of the technique. Despite some persistent criticism, FNC is a generally accepted procedure in the first diagnosis of lymph nodes enlargement. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that vital cells obtained by FNC are excellent samples suitable for molecular evaluation, offering new challenging application to lymph node FNC. PMID:23069686
Cozzolino, I; Vigliar, E; Vetrani, A; Zeppa, P
Metastatic tumors to the oral and maxillofacial region are relatively rare, they constitute 1% of all malignant tumors of the oral cavity. The purpose of this case report is to evaluate the efficiency of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of metastatic small cell lung carcinoma. A 50-year-old female patient presenting with a 4x5 cm firm, hemorrhagic, tender swelling on the left mandibular bicuspid gingiva was evaluated. Her past medical history revealed a mass measuring 8x5 cm in the left pulmonary hilar area with pleural effusion, which was diagnosed as small cell lung carcinoma. A FNAC was performed to the oral mucosal swelling, and cytological examination revealed metastatic small cell lung carcinoma. The duration between diagnosis of the primary lung and development of metastasis was 6 months. The FNAC is a rapid, non-invasive, and safe diagnostic method when carried out with a proper technique, and proved to be a valuable adjunct to a careful physical and radiological examination of the oro-maxillofacial lesions. PMID:23677273
Pektas, Zafer O; Gunhan, Omer
During 1989-1992, 2,729 fine needle aspiration biopsies were performed; 585 with histologic controls were reviewed. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the incidence of carcinoma in follicular-structured smears without nuclear enlargement, evaluated with planimetric techniques, and to suggest a new cytodiagnostic classification. Of 398 follicular-structured smears, 188 were colloid nodules, 38 were thyreocytic hyperplasias without nuclear atypia, 146 were predominantly follicular lesions (PFL) and 26 were follicular lesions with nuclear pleomorphism. The last showed a high incidence of neoplasia (69.2%) and carcinoma (46.1%) and the largest planimetric values for nuclear area, perimeter and maximum diameter. The second and third categories showed only a difference in the incidence of benign neoplasms (32.9 vs. 15.8%). These results suggest that six months of expectant management might be useful in simple follicular lesions, whereas a follicular pattern with nuclear enlargement requires surgical treatment for the strong possibility of carcinoma. PMID:8526949
Fadda, G; Rabitti, C; Minimo, C; Ieraci, A; Verzì, A; Bianchi, A; Lancia, M; Gullotta, G; Capelli, A
The basis of breast cancer risk associated with hormonal therapies may lie in the regulation of cell proliferation. In a prospective, double-blind, randomized study postmenopausal women were given continuous combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) either as estradiol valerate 2 mg/dienogest 2 mg, (E2V/DNG) or estradiol 2 mg/noretisterone acetate 1 mg (E2/NETA) for 6 months. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies were used for immunocytochemical analysis of breast cell proliferation before and during treatment. From 45 women completing the study 135 biopsies were obtained. In the total material there was a more than 4-fold increase in proliferation between baseline and 3 months (p < 0.001). The mean percentage of MIB-1 positive breast cells increased from 2.2 to 9.1%. In some individual women values were as high as 25%. No further increase was recorded at 6 months. While numerical values were somewhat lower in the E2V/DNG group, there were no significant differences between treatments. There was a positive correlation between breast cell proliferation (MIB-1%) and circulating levels of both estradiol (r(s) = 0.54, p < 0.01) and estrone (r(s) = 0.53, p < 0.01) after 3 and 6 months of treatment. No correlations with other endogenous hormones, proteins or with the two exogenous progestogens dienogest and norethisterone were observed. Increased breast cell proliferation should probably be regarded as an unwanted side-effect during HRT. Means to identify those women with the most pronounced proliferative response should be developed. The FNA biopsy technique may be a useful tool to monitor and evaluate the proliferative response to HRT in the normal breasts of postmenopausal women. PMID:12725416
Conner, P; Söderqvist, G; Skoog, L; Gräser, T; Walter, F; Tani, E; Carlström, K; von Schoultz, B
Background Fine?needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used as a screening test to evaluate lymphadenopathy. The combined use of genetic analysis and flow cytometry for immunophenotyping has increased the accuracy of diagnosis and correct categorisation of lymphomas on cytological preparations. Aim To show the utility of immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the evaluation of cytological preparations of lymph nodes. Methods Fine needle aspirates were obtained from 33 patients (initial presentation, n?=?27; recurrence, n?=?6). Routine examination was undertaken using immunocytochemistry and DNA PCR to detect clonality and specific translocations. The cytodiagnosis and subclassification of lymphoma was correlated with histological diagnosis in the available follow?up biopsies. Results 14 patients had a cytological diagnosis of non?Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 4 had suspected NHL, 2 had atypical lymphoid proliferation and 13 had reactive hyperplasia. A World Health Organization (WHO) subtype was suggested in 8 patients. Incorporating the results of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T?cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements enabled diagnosis of lymphoma in 17 patients, including 5 of the 6 patients suspected to have NHL or an atypical lymphoid proliferation. Identification of the translocations t (14;18) and t (2;5) helped WHO categorisation in 3 of the patients. The cytological findings were confirmed in 12 out of the 13 patients for whom histological follow?up was available. Seven of the 18 lymphoma patients were managed without a subsequent biopsy. We made one false–positive diagnosis of B?cell NHL on cytology. Conclusion The use of immunocytochemistry and PCR is valuable in the definitive diagnosis and subtyping of malignant lymphomas on cytological preparations. The use of these techniques may avoid lymph node biopsies in some cases and allow definitive treatment based on aspirate findings alone.
Venkatraman, L; Catherwood, M A; Patterson, A; Lioe, T F; McCluggage, W G; Anderson, N H
Background The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary lesions is relatively high, but cytologic interpretation might be confusing if the sample is lacking typical cytologic features. Methods There were 77 cases of benign salivary lesions, consisting of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) in 61 cases, Warthin's tumor (WT) in 12 cases, and other benign lesions in 4 cases. The causes of the discrepancies between the FNAC and the histologic diagnoses were evaluated. Results Major discrepancies were noted in 4 of the 61 PA cases, and in 1 of 12 WT cases. The causes of the major discrepancies were a mislabeled site in 1 PA and 1 WT case, and an interpretation error in 3 PA cases. Minor discrepancies were more common in the WT cases (7 of 12 cases) than in the PA cases (11 of 61 cases). The causes of the minor discrepancies were a mislabeled site in 1 PA and 1 WT case, an inadequate sample in 7 PA and 2 WT cases, a lack of typical cytomorphology in 2 PA and 2 WT cases, and an interpretation error in 1 PA and 2 WT cases. Conclusions To increase the diagnostic accuracy in the benign salivary lesions, recognition of both characteristic and less typical cytomorphology is needed.
Jo, Hye Jung; Ahn, Hyo Jung; Jung, Soojin
OBJECTIVE:Organ preserving pancreatic resections are considered whenever malignant disease is ruled out. In tumors of low malignant potential such as cystadenomas and neuroendocrine tumors, the diagnosis is rarely established preoperatively. We studied the feasibility of cytodiagnosis using endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration in determining the operative approach.METHODS:A total of 78 patients (16 female, 62 male; mean age 61.4 yr, range 31–82 yr)
Annette Fritscher-Ravens; Jakob R Izbicki; Parupudi V. J Sriram; Christina Krause; W. Trudo Knoefel; Theodoros Topalidis; Stefan Jaeckle; Frank Thonke; Nib Soehendra
Background Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) protein in the washout of the needle used for fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) has been shown to increase the sensitivity of FNAB-C in identifying cervical lymph node (CLN) metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer (TC). In this study, we evaluated whether routine measurement of Tg protein (FNAB-Tgp), Tg mRNA (FNAB-Tgm) and calcitonin (CT) mRNA (FNAB-CTm) in the FNAB washout of CLN increases the accuracy of FNAB-C in the diagnosis of suspicious metastatic CLN. Methods In this prospective study 35 CLN from 28 patients were examined. Histology showed metastatic papillary TC (PTC) in 26 CLN, metastatic medullary TC (MTC) in 3 CLN, metastatic anaplastic TC (ATC) in 3 CLN and 3 metastatic CLN from extra-thyroidal cancers. Results The overall accuracy of FNAB-C was 84.4%, reaching 95.7% when the analysis was restricted to PTC. Both FNAB-Tgp and FNAB-Tgm compared favorably with FNAB-C and shown diagnostic performances not statistically different from that of FNAB-C. However, FNAB-Tgp and FNAB-Tgm/FNAB-CTm were found useful in cases in which cytology results were inadequate or provided diagnosis inconsistent with patient's clinical parameters. Conclusions We demonstrated that FNAB-C, Tg/CT mRNA and Tg protein determination in the fine-needle washout showed similar accuracy in the diagnosis of metastatic CLN from TC. The results of this study suggest that samples for Tg protein and Tg/CT mRNA measurements from CLN suspicious for metastatic TC should be collected, but their measurements should be restricted to cases in which FNAB-C provides uninformative or inconsistent diagnosis with respect to patient's clinical parameters.
Cystic lesions are common in the head and neck. The most common are the cutaneous cysts, which are referred to as epidermal cysts. These cysts present as nodular and fluctuant subcutaneous lesions and they are seen most commonly in the acne - prone areas like the head, neck and the back. They arise following a localized inflammation of the hair follicle and occasionally after the implantation of the epithelium, following a trauma or surgery. The presence of benign cystic lesions in the salivary glands is rare.We are presenting a rare case of a 55-year-old male who presented with a soft swelling on the left side of the face. A diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst was given on cytology. A superficial parotidectomy was performed and the histopathology confirmed the above diagnosis
Hegde, Panna N.; Prasad H.L., Kishan; Kumar Y., Sunil; Sajitha, K.; Roy, Pooja Sarda; Raju, Mary; Shetty, Vikram
The effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) increases with the number of needle passes, but needle passes are also associated with increased risk of adverse events. The trade-off between needle passes and adequacy has not been well characterized. Clinical studies are limited because of their inherent variability and limited sample size. We developed mathematical models to compare the performance of a variety of sampling protocols under a wide range of conditions. Specifically, we compared the performance of sampling methods using a fixed number of needle passes with sampling methods using a rapid onsite evaluation (ROSE) with a variable number of needle passes. Variable sampling with ROSE generally required fewer needle passes than fixed sample size policies to achieve a desired adequacy rate. Variable sampling policies using ROSE achieve greater per-case adequacy with fewer needle passes than sampling policies using a fixed number of passes if assessor accuracy is high. PMID:23429370
Schmidt, Robert L; Kordy, Michal A; Howard, Kirsten; Layfield, Lester J; Hall, Brian J; Adler, Douglas G
Mucocele-like tumors (MLTs) of the breast are rare, with only 11 cases reported from Japan and 35 cases from other countries. MLTs of the breast were first described by Rosen in 1986. They are believed to be related to atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma, or mucinous carcinoma. It is difficult to diagnose this tumor preoperatively, and especially difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant forms. We report a case of MLT associated with ductal carcinoma in situ, which was initially diagnosed as fibroadenoma by mammography and ultrasonography, and as mucinous carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration cytology. We discuss the characteristic findings of imaging and the appropriate clinical treatment of this tumor. The characteristic image first signals the possibility of this tumor, following which the diagnosis can be confirmed by pathological examination of a fully excised tumor specimen. Breast-conserving surgery is recommended because of the low risk of high-grade malignancy, even when malignancy is confirmed, and lymph node dissection may be avoided. PMID:22237901
Kikuchi, Shoichi; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki
Ectopic cervical thymoma (ECT) is a rare tumor that is frequently misdiagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section. Using conventional light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we characterized the only two cases of ECT found in our institutional files over a period of 20 years. Both tumors were classified as type AB-thymoma. Neoplastic cells expressed cytokeratins but not CD5. Non-neoplastic T-lymphocytes were positive for CD3 and CD5. Lymphocytes expressed CD1a in only one case. One tumor breached the capsule and had positive surgical margins. For this patient, adjuvant radiotherapy was given. The other patient has had an uneventful follow-up for 20 years with no other therapy than surgery. Both cases of ECT showed identical histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of type AB-thymomas originating in the thymus. Short follow-up precludes conclusion on the implication of positive margins in conjunction with adjuvant radiotherapy for one of the patients presented herein.
Yan, Benedict; Lim, Diana
Rapid onsite evaluation (ROSE) has the potential to improve the adequacy rates of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Studies have obtained variable results on the influence of ROSE. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the influence of ROSE on FNA adequacy. We synthesized evidence across all anatomic locations. We only included studies that contained a control arm and compared cohorts with ROSE against cohorts without ROSE at a single location. We screened 2,179 studies and identified 25 studies that met our inclusion criteria. On average, ROSE improves the adequacy rate by 12%, but there was considerable variability across studies. The adequacy rate with ROSE depends on the non-ROSE adequacy rate. Sixty-five percent of the variability in the adequacy rate with ROSE was found to occur because of differences in the adequacy rate without ROSE. Studies with high non-ROSE adequacy rates showed low improvement after ROSE was implemented. Studies must account for the effect of the non-ROSE adequacy rate to determine the effect of ROSE on FNA adequacy rates. PMID:23429365
Schmidt, Robert L; Witt, Benjamin L; Lopez-Calderon, Leslie E; Layfield, Lester J
Background: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a useful method for evaluating multinodular goiter; however, its role is still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of ultrasound-guided thyroid FNA in detecting malignancy in patients with multinodular goiter in Oman. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study where all patients with multinodular goiter seen at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital endocrinology clinic in Oman in 2005 were evaluated. The thyroid FNA results were grouped into either malignancy (positive result) or others (negative result). They were compared to those of final histopathological examination in order to calculate the value of the test in diagnosing malignancy. Analyses were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 272 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 39?13 years with an age range from 5 to 85 years. The majority of the patients were females (n=236; 87%). The results of thyroid FNA revealed that 6% (n=15) of the patients had malignancies while histopathological results showed that the proportion of subjects with malignancies was 18% (n=49). Out of the 15 cases identified to have malignances by thyroid FNA, only 53% (n=8) of the subjects were confirmed to have malignancy by biopsy. Overall, the results of the tests were poor, revealing a sensitivity of 16%, specificity of 97% and a diagnostic accuracy of 82%, with a positive predictive value of 53% and a negative predictive value of 84%. Conclusion: Thyroid FNA is not a useful test in differentiating multinodular goiter from malignancy, as more than 80% of the malignancies go unnoticed.
Al-Yaarubi, Saif; Farhan, Hatem; Al-Futaisi, Abdullah; Al-Qassabi, Salim; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Riyami, Shaden; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD) is a well-recognized inflammatory joint disorder characterized by presence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in intraarticular and periarticular tissue. We report here a case of a 48-year-old male who presented with painless right hand swelling. Clinical suspicion was that of malignant soft tissue tumor. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) yielded chalky white gritty material. Microscopic examination showed large areas of basophilic calcified material, histiocytes, giant cells and characteristic rhomboid shaped crystals. At places, chondroid material was also identified, hence, diagnosis of CPPD was made. This was confirmed on histopathological examination. Tophaceous/ tumoral pseudogout is a rare form of CPPD and it is important to recognize that this form can be diagnosed in FNA cytology (FNAC) and misdiagnosis of benign or malignant cartilaginous lesions can be avoided. PMID:19688761
Kishore, B; Khare, P; Gupta, R Jain; Gupta, C; Khare, V
In clinical practice, animals with lymphadenopathy are eminently suitable candidates for cytology sample collection by FNAB from several enlarged nodes; or, if surgical biopsies are made, imprint smears from the tissue may yield diagnostically useful information to supplement the histological findings. Cytology may reveal the lesion to be reactive, inflammatory, or neoplastic. Cytologically, reactive nodes will contain increased numbers of plasma cells, possibly with some inflammatory cells, along with the resident lymphoid population. If inflammation is present, neutrophils and macrophages also will be found and the type of inflammation may be classified. Any infectious agent such as fungal hyphae, yeasts, bacteria, and protozoa also may be demonstrated. Aspirates may be cultured directly onto blood agar plates or transported in nutrient broth for culture at a referral laboratory. In chronic dermatopathic nodes, a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate is expected, and in pruritic skin disorders, eosinophils usually are plentiful in node aspirates. Increased numbers of eosinophils also may be found in dogs that are microfilaremic with heartworm infection. Background debris of hemosiderin and melanin pigment and other fine particles may occur in some chronic inflammatory lymphadenopathies. Metastatic lesions are identified by the presence of foreign neoplastic cells, but this diagnosis may be missed in early metastatic spread or if the aspirate is not sufficiently cellular. A cytological guide to the classification of the more common diffuse canine lymphomas is provided but full characterization of the lymphoma type may require histology and immunocytochemistry. In practice, a simple differential Romanowsky stain such as Diff Quik is suitable for most purposes. Supplementary stains using 1 per cent toluidine blue may increase the detection of mast cells. Aspirates also may be transferred into suitable media for transport to a referral diagnostic laboratory for cytocentrifugation or further tests such as electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and culture. Although definitive diagnosis by histopathology and other tests still may be required, in many routine cases, diagnoses can be achieved expediently in clinical practice by aspiration cytology. PMID:2672536
Mills, J N
We compared the diagnostic performances of conventional smears and cell block preparations of tissue samples obtained with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. We retrospectively analysed 451 patients (926 lymph nodes) who had undergone endobronchial ultrasound and for whom both smears and cell blocks were available and compared the diagnostic performances of these techniques when used alone and combined. Cell block preparations showed higher diagnostic performance over smears, but the combination was superior to either alone. The combination of smear and cell block techniques achieved a sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of 92.5, 100, 100, 97.7 and 99.4, 95.0, 98.6, and 97.9 % for malignant and benign diseases, respectively. We recommend cell block preparations during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. PMID:23377781
Alici, Ibrahim Onur; Demirci, Nilgün Y?lmaz; Y?lmaz, Ayd?n; Demirag, Funda; Karakaya, Jale
We evaluated the feasibility and usefulness of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fine-needle aspirates for categorization of small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs). A total of 51 cases, including 25 Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), 11 rhabdomyosarcomas, 13 neuroblastomas, and 2 desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) were analyzed. The detection of the EWS-FLI1 (20/25) and EWS-ERG (4/25) fusion transcripts resolved 24 of 25 cases of Ewing sarcoma/PNET. The PAX3/7-FKHR fusion transcript was detected in 2 of 4 cases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and the EWS-WT1 transcript in both cases of DSRCT. Tyrosine hydroxylase and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) decarboxylase transcripts were demonstrated in 10 of 13 cases of neuroblastoma. In comparison, immunocytochemical analysis resolved 19 (76%) of 25 Ewing sarcomas, 9 (82%) of 11 rhabdomyosarcomas, 6 (46%) of 13 neuroblastomas, and 1 (50%) of 2 DSRCTs. Overall, RT-PCR resolved 38 (86%) of 44 vs 35 (69%) of 51 cases by immunocytochemical analysis. RT-PCR is easily applied to fine-needle aspirates of SBRCT and greatly facilitates accurate tumor typing. PMID:20231617
Gautam, Upasana; Srinivasan, Radhika; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Vasishtha, Rakesh Kumar
The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic interest of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP4) in thyroid fine-needle aspirates obtained from 200 resected thyroid lesions (55 colloid nodules, 54 follicular adenomas, 59 papillary cancers, and 32 follicular carcinomas). Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 or TPO expression (% positive cells) and DPP4 staining score (12-point scale) were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and optimal cutoff values for diagnosing malignancy were determined. The TPO ROC curve was consistently higher than the HBME-1 ROC curve. The TPO curve was also higher than the DPP4 curve with regard to sensitivity, but dipped below the DPP4 curve with regard to specificity. Using a cutoff value of <80% positive cells for TPO, >10% positive cells for HBME-1, and staining score > or =1 for DPP4, sensitivity to specificity ratios were 98-83% for TPO, 90-60% for HBME-1, and 88-80% for DPP4. Two particularly interesting findings of this study were the low negative likelihood ratio of TPO (0.02) allowing highly reliable exclusion of malignancy and the 100% specificity of DPP4 staining scores=12. Due to poor performance on follicular lesions, HBME-1 showed no advantage over TPO or DPP4. PMID:18212751
de Micco, C; Savchenko, V; Giorgi, R; Sebag, F; Henry, J-F
Valoración pronóstica del carcinoma ductal infiltrante mamario en PAAF. Estudio comparativo de tres sistemas de graduación citológica Prognostic evaluation of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Comparative study of three cytological grading systems
SUMMARY We have evaluated three different systems of cytologic grading based in morphological parameters in order to define the Cytological Grade (CG) making a correlation with the Histological Grade (HG), Histological Cytological Grade (HCG) and the Histological Mitotic Index (HMI) in 366 FNA biopsies from surgical specimens of the breast without fixation diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma. The sensitivity and
Francisco Javier Torres Gómez; Luis Felipe Calle Cruz; Francisco Javier Torres Oliver
FNA of renal tissue is a rapid and noninvasive diagnostic tool that can be optimized by a thorough understanding of renal diseases, anatomy, and the ultrasonographic appearance of lesions likely to exfoliate for cytology. Signalment, history, and ancillary laboratory tests can narrow the list of differential diagnoses and help to determine whether cytologic evaluation will be sufficient or whether tissue architecture is needed for a definitive diagnosis. Renal cytology is particularly useful for the diagnosis of inflammation and neoplasia, including abscesses, FIP, mycotic infections, lymphoma, carcinoma, and metastatic neoplasia. PMID:12512379
Borjesson, Dori L
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is extensively used in the diagnosis of various clinically palpable lesions of breast and salivary glands. Much interest has been gained in mucosubstances produced in tumors arising from these organs. Aims: To evaluate the utility of Periodic acid Schiff with diastase (PAS-D) and Alcian blue (AB) staining pattern on fine needle aspirates of breast and salivary gland neoplasms. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five cases of different neoplasm of breast and salivary gland were studied. The staining pattern of PAS-D and AB stains on smears of these neoplasm were observed. Results: Among cases of neoplasms of breast, intracytoplasmic PAS-D positive globules were restricted to carcinoma except in one case where PAS-D-positive globules were seen in fibroadenoma. The background substance of both mucinous carcinoma and fibroadenoma with myxoid change stained positive with PAS-D, but the pattern was different. The cases of pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland showed intracytoplasmic PAS-D-positive globules. The cases of pleomorphic adenoma showed stromal positivity which was not seen in basal cell adenoma on smears. Conclusion: Intracytoplasmic PAS-D-positive globules may be useful in differentiating benign and malignant lesions of breast. The presence of PAS-D positive granules are useful in differentiating various lesions of salivary glands. AB staining of stromal fragments in pleomorphic adenoma is useful in differentiating it from basal cell adenoma.
Panicker, NK; Jariwala, PH; Buch, AC; Joshi, M
In summary, aspiration pneumonia is the result of large-volume aspiration into the lower airways of material from the upper\\u000a respiratory or digestive tracts. Aspiration is suspected in approximately 10% of patients hospitalized due to CAP. The syndrome\\u000a is subdivided into three different forms, depending on the nature of the inoculum, and each form has specific clinical presentations\\u000a and therapies. These
Marcio Sa-Borges; Jordi Rello
Gangliocytic paragangliomas are rare tumors primarily found in the duodenum. We report a case of a woman who presented with a retroperitoneal lymph node involved by metastatic gangliocytic paraganglioma. Subsequently, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was used to identify the primary duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma. The smears of the aspirate material were highly cellular and contained a dominant population of epithelioid cells, a second population of ganglion cells and a third population of small, bland spindled cells. To our knowledge, the cytologic features of gangliocytic paraganglioma have not previously been documented. PMID:22102547
Dustin, Simone M; Atkins, Kristin A; Shami, Vanessa M; Adams, Reid B; Stelow, Edward B
The Cancergram focuses on the cytological techniques and methodologies employed in general experimental studies related to cancer research. The cytological technologies involved in preclinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic studies are also included. Specif...
The Cancergram focuses on the cytological techniques and methodologies employed in general experimental studies related to cancer research. The cytological technologies involved in preclinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic studies are also included. Specif...
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an economical procedure that allows prompt evaluation of a thyroidal mass. Careful attention to each step of the aspiration will allow good specimens to be obtained. The cytopathologist should obtain the aspirates or else should accompany the clinician performing the aspirations. Unsatisfactory specimens should constitute less than 5% of the total. Reliable diagnoses can be
Yolanda C Oertel; James E Oertel
[A case of hepatocellular carcinoma showed the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology using the cell block technique for differential diagnosis of gastric submucosal tumor].
A mass lesion presenting difficulty in differential diagnosis between a tumor in the lateral segment of the liver and a gastric submucosal tumor (SMT) was found in a 59-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B. For differential diagnosis between the 2 lesions, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was performed. EUS showed a tumor exhibiting a mosaic pattern with a halo derived from the lateral segment of the hepatic left lobe in contact with the stomach. FNA using the cell block technique revealed findings consistent with HCC. No examination-associated complications developed. In patients with HCC that is in contact with the stomach and shows extrahepatically protruding growth, which is difficult to differentiate from gastric SMT, EUS-FNA is a method worthy of trying. PMID:22688172
Kida, Akihiko; Matsuda, Koichiro; Hirai, Satoshi; Shimatani, Akiyoshi; Horita, Yousuke; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Matsuda, Mitsuru; Ogino, Hiderou; Shimizu, Kouichi; Ishizawa, Shin; Noda, Yatsugi
The purpose of our study is to determine if (1) success in collecting nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) increases with experience, (2) NAF biomarkers (cytology, ploidy, cell cycle parameters, and prostate-specific antigen, PSA) change in response to treatment w...
E. R. Sauter
The purpose of our study is to determine if: (1) success in collecting nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) biomarkers increases with experience, (2) NAF biomarkers (cytology, ploidy, cell cycle parameters, and prostate-specific antigen, PSA) change in response to...
E. R. Sauter
A 5-year-old, neutered male, Shar Pei dog was presented with weight loss, anorexia, lethargy, stranguria, and distal limb edema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included anemia, an inflammatory leukogram, azotemia, icterus, urinary tract infection, and hepatomegaly with a markedly hypoechoic liver. Cytologic findings in a fine-needle aspirate of the liver included large amounts of amorphous, pink, extracellular matrix between hepatocytes. The amorphous material
Bente Flatland; Rebecca R. Moore; Christina M. Wolf; Stephen M. Yeomans; Robert L. Donnell; Michael M. Fry
The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) website provides free access to 22 interactive science labs with downloadable simulations for use in grades 4-9. Half of the simulations are related to Astronomy and half pertain to general topics such as simple machines, force and motion, momentum, and kinetic energy. Each interactive lab is designed to be visually attractive and fun, yet mentally challenging for students in the middle grades. Materials include complete lesson plans which were authored collaboratively by teachers and research scientists.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease affecting predominantly children. The course of the disease varies, from spontaneous resolution to a progressive multisystem disorder with organ dysfunction and potential life-threatening complications. Diagnosis of LCH is often difficult and may be delayed because of its rarity and especially so if it occurs with unusual presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a 4 year old male child, a case of LCH is presented with a purpose of highlighting the characteristic cytological features. A high index of suspicion, awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH and its differential diagnoses is necessary. This can obviate the need of biopsy and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry if available can be performed on cytology smear and cell block. PMID:23661952
Chandekar, Sushama A; Shah, Vinaya B; Kavishwar, Vikas
Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in adolescent girls and young women with a peak incidence in the second and third decades of life. Carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is rare and is usually discovered incidentally. We describe a case of clinging type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising within a fibroadenoma. Clinging carcinoma, a variant of DCIS is an under recognized entity. Diagnosis of DCIS is made based on architecture and cytology. This case report highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of this entity coexisting in a fibroadenoma.
Swetha, N; Geetha, CH; Prayaga, Aruna K
Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in adolescent girls and young women with a peak incidence in the second and third decades of life. Carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is rare and is usually discovered incidentally. We describe a case of clinging type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising within a fibroadenoma. Clinging carcinoma, a variant of DCIS is an under recognized entity. Diagnosis of DCIS is made based on architecture and cytology. This case report highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of this entity coexisting in a fibroadenoma. PMID:23661951
Swetha, N; Geetha, Ch; Prayaga, Aruna K
Cell cannibalism is defined as the ability of a cell to phagocytose another cell. Malignant tumor cells may develop phagocytic property and demonstrate phagocytosis of own cells or cells of other series like neutrophils and lymphocytes. We report 11 cases in which the tumor cells showed evidence of neutrophil phagocytosis/emperipolesis on FNAC smears. Cases of malignancies diagnosed on FNA over a period of 1 year were retrieved, and smears were examined for neutrophil phagocytosis by tumor cells. These cases were classified according to type and differentiation of malignancy. The cytomorphological features and background inflammation were also studied at both primary and metastatic site. Of 362 malignant cases diagnosed on FNA smears, in 11 cases (3.09%), tumor cells showed neutrophil phagocytosis. The background showed increase in polymorphs in all cases. All the cases were associated with metastasis at presentation and were high-grade tumors cytologically. There were three cases of anaplastic carcinoma, two cases of adenocarcinoma, two cases of carcinoma breast, two cases of anaplastic non-Hodgkins lymphoma, one case each of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma from larynx and lung, respectively. Phagocytic activity by tumor cells is uncommon and usually seen in high-grade/poorly differentiated malignancies. It is frequently associated with metastatic disease. On cytology smears, true phagocytosis of neutrophils by tumor cells has to be distinguished from superimposed inflammatory cells from the background. The tumor cells also need to be distinguished from histiocytes displaying phagocytosis. PMID:20949458
Singhal, Niti; Handa, Uma; Bansal, Cherry; Mohan, Harsh
Cytologic methods have been used in the pathologic investigation of the posterior (vitreous) compartment of the eye in specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration, as well as by surgical procedures. The vitreous body, which is in a semiliquid gel state, lends itself to pathologic investigation by cytologic methods. We report on a case of reparative eye surgery for complications of previous cataract extraction; vitrectomy was performed for vitreous opacities, which, by cytologic examination, were diagnostic of asteroid hyalosis, a relatively uncommon condition affecting the elderly. The cytologic findings diagnostic of this disease are described. Observations are made on the cytologic findings commonly encountered in specimens obtained from the posterior (vitreous) compartment of the eye. PMID:12561028
Zaharopoulos, Paul; Schnadig, Vicki
While abdominal ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology are often combined to help determine the type of liver disease in dogs, little is known about the relationship that may exist between the results of these tests. We hypothesized that specific sonographic findings, or combinations of findings, may predict results of liver ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Hepatic and extrahepatic sonographic findings were recorded prospectively using a standardized form in 70 dogs with clinically suspected liver disease and in which liver ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed. The predictive value of sonographic findings in regard to the category of cytology results was assessed with stepwise logistic regression analysis. Sonographic detection of a hepatic mass (> or = 3cm; risk ratio [RR] 3.83, 95% Wald confidence intervals [95% CI] 2.42-3.93, P = 0.0036), ascites (RR 3.82, 95% CI 1.94-4.28, P = 0.0044), abnormal hepatic lymph node(s) (RR 3.01, 95% CI 1.22-4.88, P= 0.0262), and abnormal spleen (RR 3.26, 95% CI 1.20-3.85, P = 0.0274) were the most predictive of liver neoplasia on cytology. Conversely, sonographic detection of hepatic nodules (< 3cm; RR 1.97, 95% CI 0.95-2.96, P = 0.0666) was most predictive of vacuolar hepatopathy on cytology. In dogs with suspected liver disease, several sonographic findings, alone or combined, are thus predictive of liver ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology results. In the light of the fact that ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the liver has limitations, these predictabilities could influence the selection of diagnostic tests to reach a reliable diagnosis. PMID:19788037
Guillot, Martin; Danjou, Marc-André; Alexander, Kate; Bédard, Christian; Desnoyers, Michel; Beauregard, Guy; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E
Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was used in establishing the diagnosis in 4 cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Sonographic and cytologic characteristics are discussed. Because of its availability and ease of use, axillary ultrasonography with fine needle aspiration can be an initial diagnostic step for suspected brachial plexus tumors.
da Costa, Ronaldo C.; Parent, Joane M.; Dobson, Howard; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Holmberg, David; Duque, M. Carolina; Poma, Roberto
Bone surface is an exceptional location for chondromyxoid fibroma. Only 14 cases of juxtacortical chondromyxoid fibroma have been reported to date and, to our knowledge, none of these cases are documented with imprint cytology. We report a case of periosteal chondromyxoid fibroma located in the distal tibial metaphysis of a 4-yr-old boy. The clinical diagnosis was metaphyseal fibrous defect. Cytologic examination revealed a mixoid matrix, with stellate and spindle-shaped cells seen singly, focus of chondroid material, and epithelioid cells. Multinucleate giant cells were not seen. The diagnosis of periosteal chondromyxoid fibroma can be made by fine-needle aspiration or imprint cytology with clinico-radiologic correlation. PMID:16299740
Estrada-Villaseñor, E; Cedillo, E Delgado; Martínez, G Rico; Chávez, R Delgado
... e-book) Your Path to a Career in Medicine Get answers to 16 key questions about becoming a medical professional in this interactive PDF. Download now Follow Aspiring Docs Like Aspiring Docs Follow @aspiring_docs More AAMC social media 2450 N Street, NW Washington, DC 20037 Contact ...
The cytological picture of medullary carcinoma of the thryoid is characterized by so-called triangular cells with abundant cytoplasm and eccentrically situated nuclei. In the May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained smear the cytoplasm may contain azurophilic granules. Amyloid can usually be demonstrated. In this paper cytological features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid showing spindle cell pattern are presented. The cytological smears, obtained by thin needle aspiration did not contain amyloid. The diagnosis medullary carcinoma was confirmed by the demonstration of amyloid in the histological sections of the tumour and by raised serum calcitonin levels. PMID:697542
Blonk, D I; Talerman, A; Visser-van Dijk, M N
Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the breast is a rare tumor and it is classified by World Health Organization in 2003 classification under ‘mucin producing carcinomas’. Pure form of SRCC breast is an extremely rare entity and very few cases have been reported in literature so far. We present a case of pure primary SRCC of the breast in a 70-year-old female, which was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytological features generally show cellular smears with tumor cells showing eccentrically placed large, irregular nuclei showing indentations at places with cytoplasmic vacuoles. This case is being presented in view of its characteristic cytological features and its rarity.
Sandhu, Jashan; Dubey, V. K.; Makkar, Manisha; Suri, Vijay
Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA). Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.
Granja, Nara M; Begnami, Maria D; Bortolan, Jeni; Filho, Adhemar Longatto; Schmitt, Fernando C
Aspiration is prevalent in the elderly but its association with impairment of oral intake and gastroesophageal reflux is often\\u000a misunderstood. This paper describes the causes, pathophysiology, and consequences of aspiration and their unique features\\u000a in aged persons. It also explains how videofluoroscopic evaluation can assess current function while limiting factors that\\u000a result in misinformation. The management of aspiration is discussed,
Michael J. Feinberg; Janice Knebl; Joann Tully; Linda Segall
The discovery of activating mutations in EGFR and KRAS in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas was a major advance in our understanding of lung adenocarcinoma biology, and has led to groundbreaking studies that have demonstrated the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Fine-needle aspirates and other cytologic procedures have become increasingly popular for obtaining diagnostic material in lung carcinomas. However,
Sinchita Roy Chowdhuri; Liqiang Xi; Trinh Hoc-Tran Pham; Jeffrey Hanson; Jaime Rodriguez-Canales; Arlene Berman; Arun Rajan; Giuseppe Giaccone; Michael Emmert-Buck; Mark Raffeld; Armando C Filie
|The article accounts for the phenomenon of aspiration in Jaffna Tamil, a dialect distinct form South Indian dialects of Tamil. Not being distinctive orphonologically determined, aspiration is dealt with as a prosodic feature affecting voiceless stops in various positions. Distribution and symbolic representation are handled; kymographic evidence…
Background: Breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers occurring in the female population world-wide. Normal cells gradually transform to form the cancer cells through several stages. Nuclear changes occurring during these transformational steps need to be assessed objectively. Hence nuclear morphometry can be used as a diagnostic tool. Aim: To compare the nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant breast aspirates. Study Design: Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from the breast lumps in to malignant (30 cases), and benign (30 cases). Nuclear parameters were calculated using the Image J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analyzed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, compactness, and concave points were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) parameters in differentiating benign, and malignant aspirates. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus, a useful objective tool in the differentiating benign, and malignant breast lesions.
Narasimha, Aparna; Vasavi, B; Kumar, Harendra ML
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. This study evaluates the cytomorphologic features of endometriosis in various cytologic specimen types [fine-needle aspiration (FNA), effusion cytology (EF), touch imprint (ToP), and cervical smear (PAP)], and assesses the key elements helpful in recognizing this lesion. A total of 18 cases (8 FNA, 4 EF, 5 ToP, and 1 PAP) of cytologically diagnosed and histologically/clinically confirmed endometriosis diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 comprises the material for this study. The morphologic features evaluated of the three components included: cellularity, presence of sheets of glandular cells, three-dimensional (3D) glandular clusters, tubular structures, single cells, syncytial groups of stromal cells, stromal cells entrapped within basement membrane (BM)-like material, cytologic atypia, presence of mitotic figures, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes. Endometrial glands, stroma, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes were all identified in 14/18 (77.8%) cases. FNA specimens were more cellular than that of both EF and ToP specimens. Tubular structures, 3D glandular clusters, stromal cells entrapped in BM and syncytial stromal groups were more common in FNAs, and ToPs compared with the EFs. The ratio of the endometrial glandular and stromal cells was similar in all specimen types. Atypia and mitotic figures were rarely encountered. Diagnosis of endometriosis could be made independently on either smears/ThinPrep(™) slides or on cell blocks in all cases where these preparations were available. On follow up, none of the patients developed malignancy. Endometriosis can be reliably and safely diagnosed in various cytologic materials. Cytologic atypia is uncommon. Components of endometriosis could show minor morphologic alterations in different specimen types. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:936-942. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23529978
Barkan, Güliz A; Naylor, Bernard; Gattuso, Paolo; Küllü, Sevgi; Galan, Kristine; Wojcik, Eva M
Summary Studies of cytologic and biochemical constituents of nipple aspirates of breast fluid have contributed to understanding the natural history of benign and malignant breast disease. We conducted multivariate analyses using 1428 women from a recent case-control study of breast disease to determine which factors were independently associated with the ability to obtain breast fluid from nonlactating women. We then
Margaret R. Wrensch; Nicholas L. Petrakis; Larry D. Gruenke; Virginia L. Ernster; Rei Miike; Eileen B. King; Walter W. Hauck
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of this tumor has only been reported in a few cases. In most of these cases, the diagnosis was made using fine-needle aspiration cytology. Most DSRCTs resemble disseminated carcinomatoses in their clinical manifestation as well as cytomorphologically, even in young-adult patients. These authors report a case of using peritoneal-washing and pleural-effusion ThinPrep cytology to diagnose DSRCT, with extensive glandular differentiation and mucin vacuoles. We found that fibrillary stromal fragment, clinical setting, and adjunctive immunocytochemical staining were most helpful for avoiding misdiagnosis. PMID:23667380
Kim, Hyun-Jung; Sohn, Byeong Seok; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Park, Kyeongmee
There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century. PMID:2080255
Scharf, J H
Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.
Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.
Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Trans-esophageal Ultrasound Scanning with Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) are important, novel techniques for the diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that have been incorporated into lung cancer staging guidelines. To guide and optimize treatment decisions, especially for NSCLC patients in stage III and IV, EGFR and KRAS mutation status is often required. The concordance rate of the mutation analysis between these cytological aspirates and histological samples obtained by surgical staging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the extent to which allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR with hydrolysis probes could be reliably performed on EBUS and EUS fine needle aspirates by comparing the results with histological material from the same patient. We analyzed a series of 43 NSCLC patients for whom cytological and histological material was available. We demonstrated that these standard molecular techniques can be accurately applied on fine needle cytological aspirates from NSCLC patients. Importantly, we show that all mutations detected in the histological material of primary tumor were also identified in the cytological samples. We conclude that molecular profiling can be reliably performed on fine needle cytology aspirates from NSCLC patients.
Schrumpf, Melanie; Talebian Yazdi, Mehrdad; Ruano, Dina; Forte, Giusi I.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Veselic, Maud; Rabe, Klaus F.; Annema, Jouke T.; Smit, Vincent; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom
The soft tissue aspiration experiment has been further developed for application during laparoscopic surgery. The new setup has been tested and validated under lab-conditions and came then to in vivo operation. It is to our knowledge the first time ever a mechanical experiment has been performed under laparoscopic conditions on the human, which enables determining corresponding constitutive model equations. As most important results, the feasibility of laparoscopic tissue aspiration has been demonstrated and, based on an ad hoc parameter for the tissue stiffness, the liver and the stomach gave significantly different responses. Furthermore, the determined constitutive behavior for one healthy human liver was in line with results obtained from tissue aspiration during open surgery. Eventually, laparoscopic tissue aspiration might qualify as minimally invasive testing method for tactile feedback systems. The presented results are preliminary and more research is required. PMID:23876854
Hollenstein, Marc; Bugnard, Guillaume; Joos, Renzo; Kropf, Saskia; Villiger, Peter; Mazza, Edoardo
Background Cytologists are often under time pressure due to a constant need and a demand for quick despatch of reports, which calls for an early assessment of sample adequacy. Objective To study whether unstained smears are effective in evaluation of sample adequacy of cytology aspirates. Materials and Methods The study had 3 groups. Assessment of sample adequacy of cytology aspirates was done on unstained smears in Group I (200 cases), Group II (100 cases out of Group I) and Group III ( 80 cases out of Group II ) by a Professor, Assistant Professor and a junior resident respectively. The results were compared with assessment of adequacy on stained smears and statistical analysis was done. Results Evaluation of adequacy of cytology aspirates by examination of unstained and stained smears by 3 observers of varied experience revealed no significant difference between the observers and between the stained and unstained smears (p<0.001). Conclusion Unstained smear study offered advantages over the stained smears in the evaluation of sample adequacy. Hence, it maybe recommended as a routine practice in cytology clinics.
A.L., Hemalatha; M.K., Umarani; U., Asha; M.N., Gayathri
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) in the preoperative diagnostic management of patients with solitary or dominant thyroid nodules. This study was performed on 1054 patients followed for various thyroid disorders during a three year period (1992-1995). One hundred thirty eight patients were surgically treated, 61 after cytological indication and 77 after clinical indication, of these, 67 were cytologically negative and 10 were not conclusive. The cytological diagnosis was compared to the final histological result. Among the 138 cases, 27 were malignant, 39 were adenomas and 72 were benign lesions. Of the 67 cytologically negative cases, 63 (94%) were histologically benign, three were papillary carcinomas and one was an oxyphilic adenoma. Of the 45 cytologically suspicious aspirates, four were malignant neoplasias, 38 were follicular adenomas, two were hyperplastic goiters and one was an Hashimoto thyroiditis. All the 16 cytologically positive cases, were confirmed histologically. The limits of FNAB, which emerge from our and other studies, were based mainly in the difficulty of discriminating follicular adenomas from well differentiated follicular carcinomas. Nevertheless, FNAB with ultrasonographic support, has been unanimously accepted as a guide test in the selection of patients with thyroidal pathology who need surgery. PMID:9854487
Giovagnoli, M R; Pisani, T; Drusco, A; Scardella, L; Antonaci, A; Vecchione, A
Filariasis is major public health hazard particularly in tropical countries like India. The presence of microfilaria using fine needle aspiration cytology has been reported from various sites. However, the presence of the adult gravid filarial worm with a surrounding host response has rarely been reported on breast aspirates. Here, we report a unique case in which aspiration cytology from a breast lump clinically suspicious of fibroadenosis of the breast, showed adult filarial worms with numerous microfilariae and a granulomatous inflammatory host response. The filarial worm appears to be ubiquitous in endemic areas, and the presence of an unexplained granulomatous lesion in breast should prompt a careful consideration of the filarial etiology in our country. Therapy with diethylcarbamazine, albendazole, and antibiotics are sufficient for treatment of this type of lesion.
Chakrabarti, I; Das, V; Halder, B; Giri, A
Background Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm. Although this tumor has been well characterized histologically, the morphological patterns in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology have not been well defined. Unlike ductal adenocarcinomas, endocrine tumors, and solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas with their characteristic FNA cytological features, acinar cell carcinomas pose a particular diagnostic challenge by sharing many cytomorphologic features with endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Case presentation A 37-year-old man presented with lower chest and left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a 7.8 × 7.3 cm irregular, partially cystic mass in the body and tail of the pancreas, and two lesions in the liver compatible with metastases. Subsequently, the patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration on one of the two metastatic liver masses. FNA cytology revealed abundant, loosely cohesive clusters of malignant epithelial cells with vaguely acinar and trabecular formations. The pleomorphic nuclei had fine granular chromatin and occasionally small nucleoli. There were scant to moderate amounts of cytoplasm. Scattered, strikingly large tumor cells with giant nuclei, prominent mitoses and associated necrosis were evident. A pancreatic endocrine tumor was suspected initially, but acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. Conclusion We describe a case of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with unusual cytomorphologic features mimicking an endocrine tumor of pancreas, encountered in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a metastatic liver mass and discuss the diagnostic approach for this unusual pancreatic tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology.
Peng, Hong Q; Darwin, Peter; Papadimitriou, John C; Drachenberg, Cinthia B
INTRODUCTION Cytological analysis of thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) is aided by the ‘Thy’ classification. However, there is often confusion surrounding the management of patients with a Thy3 classification. A subdivision of Thy3 has been created to help reduce this dilemma but its use within the UK appears to by infrequent. This paper analyses the management of patients with Thy3 cytology from FNA of a thyroid nodule in a UK case series and reviews the relevant literature. It also describes the results of a survey of selected UK ENT departments on the use of the Thy3 classification and its subdivisions. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of a case series of patients was undertaken. In addition, a telephone survey of local/regional pathology departments was conducted to assess the utilisation of the Thy classification and to assess the awareness and usage of the Thy3 subdivisions. RESULTS A total of 39 Thy3 results (11 males, 28 females) were identified from 2007 to 2009. Of these, 24 patients went on to have surgery, 8 had a further FNA, 2 had a Tru-cut biopsy and 5 were lost to follow-up. Eleven (28.2%) patients were subsequently diagnosed with a thyroid malignancy. The survey identified that none of the departments had adopted the Thy3 subclassifications and only 40% were aware of them. CONCLUSIONS Thy3 results from thyroid FNA have a significant risk of malignancy but there remains confusion surrounding their management. This district general hospital has adopted and recommends the use of the Thy3 (i) and Thy3 (ii) subdivisions in order to assist decision-making and avoid delays in treatment or unnecessary surgery.
Lakhani, Raj; Rourke, Thomas; Jefferis, Anthony; Perry, Louise; Ghiacy, Sabour; Wood, Stephen
Joint aspiration/injection is an invaluable procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. The knee is the commonest site to require aspiration although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining synovial fluid. Septic arthritis and crystal arthritis can be readily diagnosed by aspirating synovial fluid. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids produces rapid resolution of inflammation in most injected joints and is a well established procedure in rheumatological practice. The technique involves only a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used it is a safe procedure. This chapter addresses the indications, technical principals, expected benefits and risks of intra-articular corticosteroid injection. The use of other intra-articular injections including osmic acid, radioisotopes and hyaluronic acid, which are less universally utilised than intra-articular corticosteroid, will also be addressed. PMID:15939363
Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael
There are limited reports on the cytology of desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCT). Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings in seven aspirates from four cases of histologically and immunohistochemically confirmed cases were analyzed with the main intention of ascertaining if cytological diagnosis of DSRCT is possible. Also assessed were the immunocytochemistry(ICC) findings in these cases. The basic cytological impression was that of a cohesive small round cell tumor. Nuclei showed granular chromatin with grooves, nuclear molding and inconspicuous nucleoli. Stromal fragments were noted in all four cases. In two cases, awareness of cytological features in the appropriate clinical context led to a suggestion of the diagnosis of DSRCT on cytology itself. ICC on destained smears showed positivity for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), desmin and WT-1 in two cases. In conclusion, given the right clinical setting, a cytological diagnosis of DSRCT is plausible and in conjunction with ICC may help in documenting the polyphenotypic nature and thereby confirming the diagnosis. PMID:15880716
Dave, Brijal; Shet, Tanuja; Chinoy, Roshni
The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures.
Drury, J L; Dembo, M
|In the past several years, "Science and Children" has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations.…
Plummer, Donna M.
Extragonadic germinal tumors are frequently mixed tumors. When a metastatic sacrococcygeal teratoma is clinically suspected in children, a yolk-sac tumor component could be judiciously demonstrated by either an elevated serum level of alphafoetoprotein (AFP), or fine needle aspiration cytology. We report the case of a 25 month aged girl presenting a metastatic sacrococcygeal tumor (lymph node and bone metastasis) with high level of AFP (34.100 microg/ml). Fine needle aspiration cytology identified the yolk sac tumor component, characterized by papillae and glandular clusters, composed of pale isomorphic cells with vesicular and nucleolated nucleus and some intracytoplasmic hyaline globules. The yolk sac tumor component could not be identified in the sacrococcygeal surgical specimen, exclusively composed of immature teratoma. PMID:15567952
Mrad, Karima; Abid, Leila; Oubiche, Faysal; Driss, Maha; Abbes, Imene; Sassi, Samia; Ben Romdhane, Khaled
Primary sarcoma of breast are rare. Diagnosis by aspiration cytology is difficult due to nonspecific cytomorphologic features. An initial presentation with neurological symptoms due to metastasis of breast sarcoma to the brain has not been previously reported. Here, we describe a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with headache, dizziness and convulsion and was subsequently diagnosed with undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma of breast with cerebellar metastasis. PMID:23914101
Chakrabarti, Indranil; Ghosh, Nilanjana; Giri, Amita
Testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA) has proven to be a simple and minimally invasive procedure, which allows assessments of cytological parameters of seminiferous epithelium/tubules more accurately in a short time. Though this technique does not cause negative effects on sperm quality or any damage to testicular tissue, its use is very limited in male animal infertility diagnostics. Report on the use of this technique in South American Camelids (SAC) is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TFNA for identification of different testicular cells and cell indices, and their correlation with that of impression cytology. A total of 98 slides were prepared from testes of six adult alpaca males, collected immediately after slaughter. Aspiration samples were performed by inserting a fine butterfly needle (21 G) connected to a 50 ml syringe into a testicle and multiple plane aspirations were carried out to obtain the materials destined to the smear. Three different imprints on slides were taken from each testicle. All slides were air-dried, stained with modified May--Grünwald--Giemsa (MGG) stain and then examined under light microscope with 1000× magnifications. Spermatogenic cells such as, spermatogonia (Sg), primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatids (ab), late spermatids (cd) and spermatozoa, and Sertoli cells were counted. The spermatozoa percentage was expressed as spermatic index (SI) and the number of Sertoli cells, counted apart, was expressed as sertoli cell index (SEI). There was not any significant difference between the spermatogenic cell parameters obtained from the two types of slides, but SEI were significantly different in two types of smears. The results of the study provide support for the use of TFNA as a useful minimally invasive modality to identify different spermatogenetic cell classes in alpaca. Moreover, the possibility to standardize this method might provide a greater impulse to the clinical diagnostics of SAC male infertility. PMID:21493020
Stelletta, C; Juyena, N S; Ponce Salazar, D; Ruiz, J; Gutierrez, G
The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413
Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil
This interactive tutorial features an inquiry-based approach to promote understanding of moon phases. Part of the Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE), the tutorial opens with a diagram of the Earth-Moon system. The user "spins" the Earth, then determines which sections of Earth and Moon are receiving sunlight. In Part 2, users investigate how sunlight reflecting off the Earth is related to moon phases. The animation divides Earth into 8 sections and places the direction of incoming sunlight. Using only the images in the diagram, students must correctly label the moon phases. Part 3 puts everything together as Moon orbits around Earth. This resource is part of ASPIRE, an interactive lab project designed to be visually attractive and fun, yet mentally challenging for students in the middle grades. Materials include complete lesson plans authored collaboratively by teachers and research scientists.
Background This study was designed to investigate the role of BRAFV600E mutation status in cytology specimens and ultrasonography (US) when planning surgery for thyroid nodules with cytologic results\\u000a suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods From July 2008 to November 2008, 91 consecutive patients with cytologic results of suspicious for PTC underwent thyroidectomy.\\u000a Before surgery, all patients received US-guided fine needle aspiration
Hee Jung Moon; Jin Young Kwak; Eun-Kyung Kim; Jong Rak Choi; Soon Won Hong; Min Jung Kim; Eun Ju Son
To date the pneumoperitoneum has been passively created by instrumentally monitored introduction of a gas, such as carbon dioxide gas. The abdominal cavity expander ACE developed already in 1991 produces an active pneumoperitoneum by suctioning air into the abdominal cavity; this is achieved by a modified and automated form of the ACE. A modified myoma drill elevates the abdominal wall for primary aspiration of air into the abdominal cavity by means of a Veress needle. PMID:8582586
In the past several years, Science and Children has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations. Your participation in this survey will provide you with an understanding of how your students perceive potential careers.
Plummer, Donna M.
During the last years, HER-2 status kits and protocols for chromogen visualization of hybridization signals have come on the market. The first generation using chromogen visualization used single color probes. The second generation, now emerging on the market, uses dual chromogen visualization. The aim of this study has been to test a new dual color chromogen kit (Ventana INFORM HER2 Dual Colour ISH Roche®) and compare the results with our in-house method(s). The material consisted primarily of cytological material from invasive breast carcinomas in 49 women. Dual SISH was done on all 49 cytological and histological specimens. The histological specimens were treated according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. The procedure was modified in several steps in order to adapt it to the cytological material. Hybridization failed in two cytological specimens. Dual SISH showed concordant results on cytological and histological material as to amplified/not amplified. The included cases had the same HER-2 expression in the invasive and the in situ components on histology. Four IDC showed HER-2 amplification (8.5%). Polysomy was found in two cases. All dual SISH results except for one concurred with the results of the in-house method(s) (1/47=2.1%). The dual SISH is suitable for cytological examination of HER-2 status. The protocol must be optimized for cytological material.
Beraki, Elsa; Sauer, Torill
The technique of fine-needle biopsy (fine-needle aspiration or fine-needle fenestration) for cytologic evaluation can be extended to many sites beyond the traditional lymph node and skin. Intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and bone lesions can be easily and rapidly evaluated cytologically. Percutaneous fine-needle aspiration and fine-needle fenestration are useful, accurate, and inexpensive techniques with a rapid turnaround time, and outpatient applicability. For most pets, these minimally invasive techniques do not require anesthesia or analgesia. Although risks are inherent with any invasive procedure, complications are uncommon even with visceral and intrathoracic fine-needle biopsy. Attention to appropriate technique and close patient monitoring minimize the morbidity and improve the diagnostic utility. The low cost, low risk, minimal invasiveness, and high diagnostic yield make fine-needle biopsy particularly attractive to clients. In combination with ultrasound guidance and newer staining techniques, these diagnostic procedures are invaluable to the veterinary clinician. PMID:21596347
Wypij, Jackie M
Background: EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) permits both morphologic and cytologic analysis of lesions within or adjacent to the GI tract. Despite increasing use of this technique, the safety and overall complication rates remain poorly defined. Methods: During a period of 20 months, 322 consecutive patients underwent EUS-FNA in 2 centers. All procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia.
Dermot O'Toole; Laurent Palazzo; Ramuntçho Arotçarena; Alain Dancour; Alain Aubert; Pascal Hammel; Juan Amaris; Philippe Ruszniewski
BACKGROUND: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) cytology enables sample quality assessment in the procedure room and facilitates the process of examination. While its use for mammary lesions in one-stop breast clinics has been reported, its usefulness as a cytologic diagnostic tool has not been fully explored. METHODS: A total of 1500 examinations of core-needle biopsy imprint/fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed for outpatients with breast lesions. The slides were immediately processed with modified Shorr's stain, which can be completed within a few minutes yet produces specimens of similar staining quality as the Papanicolaou (Pap) stain. The adequacy of sampling was evaluated on site, and a cytologic diagnosis was also made. ROSE cytologic findings were classified into five grades: class 1, inadequate; class 2, benign; class 3, indeterminate; class 4, suspicious for malignancy; class 5, malignant. If enough epithelial cells could not be obtained despite repeated examinations, the sample was scored as ineligible. These scores were utilized for patient management. Final cytologic diagnoses were made with conventional Pap stains. RESULTS: Reproducibility of scores between both staining methods was excellent (weighted ? statistic = 0.985). When compared class by class, concordance of cytologic diagnoses was particularly high in class 2 and 5 Shorr scores, in which the agreement with Pap diagnoses was 92.8 and 93.6 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our modified Shorr's staining protocol was useful to reduce the time for the diagnosis and treatment planning of breast lesions suspected of being breast cancer. It is beneficial for both the patients and clinicians. PMID:23733595
Sakuma, Takahiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Morishima, Hirotaka; Matsunami, Nobuki
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a common condition among the elderly but not systematically explored. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a highly prevalent clinical finding in elderly patients with pneumonia and is an indicator of disease severity in older patients with pneumonia. Dysphagia may cause a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia. Clinical screening methods should be
M. Cabré; J. Almirall; P. Clavé
Objective Aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the lower respiratory tract is a common event in critically ill patients, and can lead to pneumonia or pneumonitis. Aspiration pneumonia is the leading cause of pneumonia in the intensive care unit and is one of the leading risk factors for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndromes. Despite its frequency, it remains largely a disease of exclusion, characterized by ill defined infiltrates on the chest radiograph and hypoxia. An accurate ability to diagnose aspiration is paramount as different modalities of therapy, if applied early and selectively, could change the course of the disease. This article reviews definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, including animal models of aspiration-induced lung injury, and evidence-based clinical management. Additionally, a review of current and potential biomarkers which have been tested clinically in humans is provided. Data Sources Data were obtained from a PubMed search of the medical literature. PubMed “related articles” search strategies were employed. Summary and Conclusions Aspiration in the intensive care unit is a clinically relevant problem requiring expertise and awareness. A definitive diagnosis of aspiration pneumonitis or pneumonia is challenging to make. Advances in specific biomarker profiles and prediction models may enhance the diagnosis and prognosis of clinical aspiration syndromes. Evidence-based management is supportive, including mechanical ventilation, bronchoscopy for particulate aspiration, consideration of empiric antibiotics for pneumonia treatment, and lower respiratory tract sampling to define pathogenic bacteria that are causative.
Raghavendran, Krishnan; Nemzek, Jean; Napolitano, Lena M.; Knight, Paul R.
A randomized, controlled clinical trial, of sequential design, was undertaken to determine whether fine catheter aspiration cytology of the peritoneal cavity, using the percentage of neutrophils in the sample as the main test marker, reduces errors about urgent laparotomy in patients admitted to a surgical unit with acute abdominal pain. One hundred and forty-four patients with acute abdominal pain were studied. Of these, 26 were excluded because the test was unlikely to be useful and 20 did not consent. Conventional clinical assessment was undertaken and then the subjects were randomly allocated to have a peritoneal cytology test or not. After the test result was made available, the surgeon(s) decided whether to operate or continue conservative treatment. The correct decision was later ascertained by a blinded clinical referee. With the entry of the 98th patient the difference between the groups achieved the 5% significance level. The groups were well-matched in regard to demographic and other variables. The decision about urgent laparotomy was incorrect in only 8.2% of the test patients, compared with 28.6% of the others. It is concluded that fine catheter aspiration cytology of the peritoneal cavity is likely to reduce the numbers of unnecessary or delayed laparotomies when used in most patients admitted with acute abdominal pain. PMID:3060065
Stewart, R J; Gupta, R K; Purdie, G L; Holloway, L J; Isbister, W H
A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage. PMID:20872354
Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim
Summary During the last 20 years an ever increasing number of nonpalpable breast lesions (NPBL) have been identified. A cytohistological definition is required to establish the correct diagnostic classification of these lesions and the suitable therapy to be used. The Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), the Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation (ABBI) system or the Vacuum Assisted Core Biopsy (VACB) represent valid alternatives
Vittorio Altomare; Gabriella Guerriero; Laura Giacomelli; Cleonice Battista; Rita Carino; Marilena Montesano; Donata Vaccaro; Carla Rabitti
IntroductionTriple assessment of breast lesions usually involves the use of core biopsy (CB) or fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Punch Biopsy (PB) is a technique widely used by dermatologists and can be used in superficial breast lesions with dermal involvement. We studied the utilization of PB in a rapid diagnosis breast clinic.
B. N. Modi; J. T. Machin; D. Ravichandran
We aspirated the retrocalcaneal bursa in cadavers to determine the characteristics of bursal fluid. A small amount of clear, viscous fluid was constantly present in the bursa. Leucocyte count was low, and the mucin clot test was good. With the same technique we aspirated the retrocalcaneal bursae of 4 patients. Three had Reiter's syndrome; the bursal fluid was inflammatory, and symptoms promptly resolved after local corticosteroid injection. The fourth patient presented with heel pain; intracellular, positively birefringent crystals were present in the aspirate, consistent with the diagnosis of pseudogout. PMID:6712303
Canoso, J J; Wohlgethan, J R; Newberg, A H; Goldsmith, M R
Fine needle aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) is commonly used to diag- nose thyroid tumors. In some clinical situations, however, accurate diagnosis requires a more objective method than cytological exami- nation alone. Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) derive from C cells in the thyroid and express some specific messenger RNAs (mRNA), such as those transcribed from the RET proto-oncogene, the calcitonin gene, and
TORU TAKANO; AKIRA MIYAUCHI; FUMIO MATSUZUKA; GANG LIU; TAKUYA HIGASHIYAMA; TAMOTSU YOKOZAWA; KANJI KUMA; NOBUYUKI AMINO
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kras gene mutations are crucial for discriminating patients responsive to anti-EGFR drugs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. The majority of NSCLCs come to clinical attention at an advanced stage when surgery is no longer recommended and a considerable number of them are diagnosed by cytology only. A large number of metastatic CRCs are also diagnosed by imaging and minimally invasive techniques such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Here, we report our experience in the mutation analysis of EGFR and Kras on cytological material obtained from superficial and deep lesions of NSCLC and CRC. Our series included 63 cytological specimens from primary or metastatic lesions of 42 NSCLCs and 21 CRCs. The cytological material was adequate for the mutation analysis in 39/42 (93%) NSCLCs and in 20/21(95%) CRCs. EGFR and Kras mutations were found in 9 (23%) and 9 (23%) NSCLC cases, respectively. Kras mutations were found in 9/20 (45%) CRC specimens. Histological samples from the primary tumors were available in 9/42 NSCLCs and in 17/21 CRCs. The agreement of EGFR and Kras mutational status in cytological vs. histological samples was 100% for NSCLC and 88% for CRC. Our results suggest that standard cytology provides adequate material for the assessment of EGFR and Kras mutational status in NSCLC and CRC patients and could be specifically indicated in patients not eligible for surgery but candidate to anti-EGFR therapy. PMID:22833420
Bozzetti, Cecilia; Negri, Francesca V; Azzoni, Cinzia; Naldi, Nadia; Nizzoli, Rita; Bortesi, Beatrice; Zobbi, Valentina; Bottarelli, Lorena; Tiseo, Marcello; Silini, Enrico Maria; Ardizzoni, Andrea
Background The identification of malignant cells in effusions by conventional cytology is hampered by its limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as adjuncts to conventional cytologic examination in patients with malignant pleural effusions. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 93 inpatients with pleural effusions (72 malignant pleural effusions metastatic from 11 different organs and 21 benign) over 23 months. All the patients came from Chinese northeast areas. Aspirated pleural fluid underwent cytologic examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for aneuploidy. We used FISH in single-colour or if appropriate in dual-colour evaluation to detect chromosomal aberrations (chromosomes 7, 11, and 17) in effusion cells as markers of malignancy, to raise the diagnostic yield and identified the efficiency by diagnostic biopsy. Predominant cytogenetic anomalies and patterns of intratumor cytogenetic heterogeneity were brought in relation to overall survival rate. Results Cytology alone confirmed malignant pleural effusions in 45 of 72 patients (sensitivity 63%), whereas FISH alone positively identified 48 of 72 patients (sensitivity 67%). Both tests had high specificity in predicting benign effusions. If cytology and FISH were considered together, they exhibited 88% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in discriminating benign and malignant effusions. Combined, the two assays were more sensitive than either test alone. Although the positive predictive value of each test was 94.5%, the negative predictive value of cytology and FISH combined was 78%, better than 47% and 44% for FISH and cytology alone, respectively. There was a significantly prolonged survival rate for patients with aneuploidy for chromosome 17. Conclusions FISH in combination with conventional cytology is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for detecting malignant cells in pleural effusions . The high sensitivity and specificity may be associated with geographic area and race. Simple numeric FISH anomalies may be prognostic.
Background: Metastatic cancer infrequently involves the pancreas. When the pancreas hosts a metastatic tumor, cytopathological evaluation of fine-needle aspirate material is a crucial part of the diagnostic process. In this study, we show two institutions' experience with cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic metastasis. Methods: Databases of institutional experience at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Ohio State University Medical Center were queried for cases of metastatic tumors in the pancreas that underwent fine-needle aspiration. Demographic and pathological features were compiled and the cytomorphology was reviewed. Results: Forty-two cases of tumor metastasis to the pancreas were found. Over the time of this review, 5,495 aspirates were performed, and 43% (2,389/5,495) had malignant cytological findings. Thus, the 42 cases of metastatic disease to the pancreas comprised 0.8% of all pancreas aspirates and 1.8% of the malignant ones. Renal cell carcinoma was the most common metastasis, followed by melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Among the other tumors in this series, 2 cases each of rare metastases such as the fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma and solitary fibrous tumor were also seen. Conclusion: The pancreas is rarely involved with metastatic disease, but when it is involved the most common tumor is renal cell carcinoma followed by melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical history and awareness of the primary pancreatic mimickers are necessary for arriving at the correct diagnosis. As conventional pancreatic adenocarcinoma is uncommon in children and young adults, history of other tumors - even ones that usually follow an indolent course - is essential. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24021904
Olson, Matthew T; Wakely, Paul E; Ali, Syed Z
\\u000a Aspiration of foreign bodies into the respiratory tract can occur at any age, but is most common in young children and in\\u000a the elderly population. Foreign body aspiration is the most frequent pediatric domestic accident, and has serious and sometimes\\u000a fatal sequelae (Black et al. 1994; Fitzpatrick and Guarisco 1998; Bhana et al. 2000; Ciftci et al. 2003). Most cases
Benjamin Z. Koplewitz; Jacob Bar-Ziv
...2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests Â§ 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing Â§ 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493...Specialty and Subspecialty Â§ 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic examinations. (a...gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test...
...2009-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing Â§ 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...
...2009-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493...These Tests Â§ 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493...Specialty and Subspecialty Â§ 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic examinations. (a...gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. 493...Complexity Testing Â§ 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified...
...2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities...Testing Â§ 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the...
Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare carcinoma of the thyroid or adjacent soft tissue of the neck with a histologic resemblance to thymic epithelial tumors. Although the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a central role in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, few reports about the cytologic findings of CASTLE have been found according to a review of literatures. We report cytologic findings of a case of CASTLE. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of sore throat. The FNA showed that the smear was composed of three dimensional clusters and sheets. The tumor cells were round to ovoid with high nuclear : cytoplasmic ratios. The nuclei were vesicular with small nucleoli. There were some tumor cells showing keratinization. Some lymphocytes were found on the background and within clusters. The presence of poorly-differentiated tumor cells with a focal keratinization and a lymphocytic background on the FNA is suggestive of CASTLE.
Joo, Mee; Kim, Hanseong
Mesocestoides cestode infections in dogs are well known for causing severe peritonitis with larvae or larval fragments (metacestodes, tetrathyridia, or calcareous corpuscles) frequently observed cytologically in peritoneal fluid samples. This case report describes the cytologic and clinical features of 2 dogs infected with cestode larvae, with one case confirmed and the other presumed to be Mesocestoides sp. In these 2 unusual cases, cestode larvae or larval fragments were found in fine-needle aspirates of the liver and a mesenteric lymph node, but no organisms were found in peritoneal fluid samples. The data presented in this report indicate that clinical pathologists should not rule out Mesocestoides sp cestodiasis based on the absence of larvae in peritoneal fluid samples from dogs. PMID:23278428
Patten, Penny K; Rich, Lon J; Zaks, Karen; Blauvelt, Melissa
During a 3.5-year period (January 1, 1987, to June 30, 1990) 420 percutaneous fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies were performed on 390 patients (309 males, 81 females) suffering from one or more intrathoracic, radiologically visible lesions. Aspirations were carried out using 21- or 23-gauge Chiba needles under fluoroscopic or computed tomographic control. The aspirates were used to make minibiopsies and cytologic smears. Diagnosis was possible in 373 cases (95.64%): on the first pass in 344 cases, on the second in 28 cases and on the third in 1. In 17 cases (4.36%) the aspirate was inadequate for diagnosis. There were complications in 10 cases (2.56%) (9 pneumothorax and 1 hemophtysis) requiring intensive care. The 373 percutaneous FNA biopsy diagnoses included 256 malignant tumors (68.63%), of which 234 were primary and 22 were secondary, and 117 benign lesions (31.37%), 5 of them neoplastic and 112 nonneoplastic. Three hundred two of 373 percutaneous FNA biopsy diagnoses were followed (80.96%). One hundred twenty-three follow-ups were histologic (40.73%), including secondary tumors, which could be compared with the primary histotype. Twenty-eight follow-ups were cytologic (9.27%), and 151 were clinical (50.00%), using progression of the disease or the beginning of chemoradiotherapy as a criterion for malignancy and a stable condition or regression of the lesion with nononcologic medical treatment as a criterion for benignity. Percutaneous FNA biopsy diagnoses were confirmed in 288 cases (221 true positives and 67 true negatives) and unconfirmed in 14 (1 false positive and 13 false negatives). Specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and total diagnostic accuracy were, respectively, 98.52, 94.44, 83.75, 99.54 and 95.36%. The histologic typing accuracy of percutaneous FNA biopsy on 70 specimens of surgically removed malignant epithelial neoplasias was 70.00%. These results confirm that percutaneous FNA biopsy is a reliable method of diagnosing intrathoracic masses and reduces the need for diagnostic thoracotomy. PMID:1580129
Cristallini, E G; Ascani, S; Farabi, R; Paganelli, C; Peciarolo, A; Bolis, G B
Primary (spontaneous) umbilical endometriosis is very rare with an estimated incidence of 0.5-1% of all patients with endometrial ectopia. Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition, the pelvis being the most common site of the disease. Extrapelvic site is less common and even more difficult to diagnose due to the extreme variability in presentation. A 38-year-old woman presented with a blackish nodule over the umbilicus of 3 years duration. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the lesion showed cells in clusters and sheets with background of scant stromal fragment, hemosiderin laden macrophages and RBCs, leading to a suggestion of umbilical endometriosis. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion confirmed the same.
Fernandes, Hilda; Marla, Nisha J; Pailoor, Kirana; Kini, Reshma
Objective: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by cytoreduction has now become a part of standard care for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Cytologic changes of the cancer cells induced by NACT, however, sometimes may cause confusion in terms of pathologic diagnosis and therefore inappropriate management. The objective of this study was to characterize the histologic or cytologic features of the ovarian cancers from those patients who received NACT in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and reduce unnecessary clinical workup. Methods: Specimens from 120 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who received NACT were studied. All 120 cases had either cytologic samples from ascites (n=108) or fine needle aspiration (n=12) and the diagnosis of consistent with cancers of ovarian origin was made prior to NACT. There were 70 (58.3%) patients received subsequent tumor debulking surgery after NACT. The time frame between NACT and debulking surgery ranged from 28 to 65 with an average of 45 days. Among the 70 cases with cytoreductive surgery, 48 cases containing both pre-NACT cytology/histology and subsequent debulking specimens were suitable for the study. All 48 post-NACT ovarian cancers were reviewed and the characteristic pathologic features in gross were summarized. Microscopic evaluation and immunohistochemical stainings with antibodies against ER, PR, p53, WT1, PAX8, CK7, CK20, and CDX2 were performed to confirm the primary site and histologic type of the cancers. Results: Grossly, tumor size within the ovaries from those debulking specimens ranged from 2.3 to 6.5 cm in greatest dimension. The cancers were mainly solid (average of 65%) and cystic areas had more or less hemorrhagic appearance. Extensive tumor necrosis and some with fibrosis were present. Microscopically, the non-necrotic cancer cells were arranged in cords, islands and sometimes as scattered single large cells with large amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm with vacuoles. The viable cancer cells contained more or less vacuolated cytoplasm in almost all post chemotherapy cases. Multinucleated tumor giant cells were noted in close to half of the cases. The cancer cells commonly had large hyperchromatic bizarre nuclei with coarse chromatin clumping and sometimes prominent nucleoli. Due to the unusual cytologic changes after NACT, there was a concern of non-ovarian origin or the different histologic type of the cancers. Therefore, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with the antibodies against ER, PR, PAX8, WT1, CK7, CK20, and CDX2 was performed in all 48 pairs of the cases. The 48 paired samples showed identical immunophenotype in pre- and post-NACT cancers, confirming there was no metastatic or new primary cancer involved in the study. Conclusions NACT can apparently induce significant cytologic/histologic changes in ovarian cancer. Aware of such NACT induced changes will be useful to make correct diagnosis for those patients who have received NACT. IHC with appropriate panels of the antibodies will be helpful to aid the diagnosis, particularly when nuclear change is dramatic and the clinical history of ovarian cancer is not available.
Wang, Yiying; Wang, Yue; Zheng, Wenxin
Objective: This study explores the potential use of high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an ancillary diagnostic technique for papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies. The method has already been shown to be effective in the classification of various other nonthyroid cancers. Study Design: Twenty-six samples (13 paired cytologic and histologic samples) from patients being
Kate W. Jordan; Christen B. Adkins; Leo L. Cheng; William C. Faquin
Background:EGFR and KRAS are the target genes for tumour response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors.Aims:To investigate EGFR and KRAS mutational status with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis applied to cytological material obtained from trans-thoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) in order to better select patients for targeted therapy.Methods:DNA was extracted from fixed material of 108 TTNAs under CT guidance, from
A Fassina; A Gazziero; D Zardo; M Corradin; E Aldighieri; G P Rossi
Cytologic sampling of the ultrasonographically normal spleen and liver is not implemented routinely in the clinical staging of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and normal ultrasound findings are often accepted as sufficient evidence for ruling out splenic or liver metastasis. Our objective was to define the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound findings for diagnosis of mast cell infiltration when verified with cytologic evaluation, and to define the prognostic role of cytologic evaluation of liver and splenic aspirates. Dogs with a diagnosis of clinically aggressive grade II, or grade III mast cell tumor treated with a combination vinblastine/CCNU chemotherapy protocol, were selected retrospectively based on availability of cytologic evaluation of spleen plus or minus liver for staging. Out of 19 dogs, 10 dogs had a grade II tumor and nine a grade III tumor. Seven dogs had mast cell infiltration of the spleen, liver, or both. The sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting mast cell infiltration was 43% for the spleen and 0% for the liver. Dogs with positive cytologic evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had significantly shorter survival (100 vs. 291 days) than dogs without evidence of mast cell infiltration (P<0.0001). Routine splenic aspiration should be performed regardless of ultrasonographic appearance in dogs with a clinically aggressive mast cell tumor. PMID:21689203
Book, Alison P; Fidel, Janean; Wills, Tamara; Bryan, Jeffrey; Sellon, Rance; Mattoon, John
The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of abnormal squamous cells (ASCs) in urinary cytology to clarify whether finding of ASCs could improve diagnostic accuracy. A total of 3,812 urine specimens were reviewed. We focused on three parameters of ASCs, necrotic debris, and ASC clusters, and linked them to histological diagnosis and clinical information. ASCs were identified in 34 (0.9%) specimens from 21 different patients. The incidence of ASCs was higher in females than in males. The 34 urine specimens were categorized as voided urine (16 cases), bladder-catheterized urine (17 cases), and bladder-washed fluid (1 case). Six (28.6%) of 21 patients were histologically diagnosed as having combined urothelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Eight patients (38.1%) were histologically diagnosed as having SCC originating from sites other than the urinary tract; those urine specimens showed ASCs that were likely to have been exfoliated from malignant lesions. Necrotic debris and ASC clusters were identified in 12 specimens (35.3%) from 11 patients and 4 specimens (11.8%) from 4 patients, respectively, from a total of 34 specimens. Our results indicate that a great amount of care is needed for cytological diagnosis when attempting to recognize ASCs in urine specimens because ASCs were identified in not only SCC of the bladder but also in carcinoma or nonmalignant lesions of nonurinary tracts. Necrotic debris was found not only in patients who had malignant bladder tumors but also in those who had malignant lesions in locations other than the bladder. PMID:21309015
Hattori, Manabu; Nishimura, Yukari; Toyonaga, Masumi; Kakinuma, Hirokuni; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Ohbu, Makoto
Purpose: To investigate the ultrasonographic (US) features of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and the diagnostic performance of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) therein. Materials and Methods: Eighteen cases of ATC diagnosed between January 2001 and May 2011 were included. FNAB was performed in all cases. Initial FNAB results were divided into three groups: 1) the cytological ATC group, cytological diagnosis of ATC; 2) the underestimated group, cytological diagnoses of malignancy other than ATC; and 3) the false negative group, cytological diagnoses of atypical, benign and non-diagnostic lesions. We retrospectively reviewed US findings and compared treatment modalities between each group. Results: Among the 18 patients, there were nine in the initially cytological ATC group, four in the underestimated group and five in the false negative group. The most common US features of ATC were a solid (64.7%) and irregular shaped (88.2%) mass with lymph node involvement (76.4%). However, except for lymph node involvement (p=0.003), US findings for each group were not statistically different. The initial cytological diagnostic accuracy of ATC was 50% (9/18). Surgery was performed less in the ATC group (11%) and the false negative group (20%) than the underestimated group (75%). Conclusion: The US features of ATC were not especially different from other types of aggressive thyroid cancer. A correct diagnosis of ATC by initial US-FNAB was made in 50% of the patients, which is significant in that therapeutic surgery can be undertaken in lower numbers if correctly diagnosed. PMID:24142644
Suh, Hee Jung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Choi, Ji Soo; Kim, Eun-Kyung
In fire death cases the usual aspiration in the trachea and bronchi is soot, and this provides indisputable evidence that the decedent had inhaled smoke and had thus been alive in the fire. In some fire death cases, however, fire fighting material such as water or the material in the fire extinguisher, or some foreign bodies such as small metallic pieces of the melted window-frame, may be seen in the trachea and bronchi, and these unusual aspirations may provide the evidence that the decedent had been alive for a while in the flame. PMID:7705738
Suzuki, T; Takahashi, H; Umetsu, K
Background Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB) is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years) with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Results Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6%) had NSCLC and 55 (28.4%) had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p < 0.001, CEA: 92.1% versus 83.5%, p = 0.002, SCC: 91.4% versus 83.5%, p = 0.003). Accuracy improved significantly for NAB combined with cytological CYFRA 21–1 compared with NAB alone (95.9% versus 88.1%, p < 0.001). The area under curve (AUC) of NAB with cytological CYFRA 21–1 was significantly larger than for NAB alone (0.966 versus 0.917, p = 0.009). Conclusion Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC.
We studied the role of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in 11 patients with lymphadenopathy and compared findings with corresponding histologic material. Molecular genetic analysis for T-cell clonality by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on all aspirates. Immunophenotyping was successful in 4 of 7 cases in which flow cytometry was attempted from the aspirated material. Cytologic evaluation of FNA samples correlated strongly with histologic rating of involvement based on numbers of atypical cerebriform lymphocytes in the nodal specimen. Of 7 nodal specimens with scattered or small groups of atypical cells in the background of dermatopathic lymphadenopathy (LN1-2), the cytologic diagnosis was interpreted as reactive in all instances. Of 4 specimens with highly suspect (LN3) or definite histologic involvement (LN4), the cytologic diagnosis was likewise suspect or malignant. The correlation between molecular genetic studies on FNA samples and studies on tissue was not significant; in 2 cases, a T-cell clone was detected in the nodal tissue sample but not in the FNA sample, suggesting undersampling. A T-cell clone was detected by PCR in 5 of 7 nodal specimens judged reactive by FNA biopsy or histologic assessment. FNA for cytologic and molecular genetic analysis is a useful method to evaluate lymphadenopathy associated with CTCL and may obviate the need for surgical biopsy. PMID:10874888
Galindo, L M; Garcia, F U; Hanau, C A; Lessin, S R; Jhala, N; Bigler, R D; Vonderheid, E C
The development and use of an 8-point, equalappearing interval scale to describe, penetration and aspiration events are described. Scores are determined primarily by the depth to which material passes in the airway and by whether or not material entering the airway is expelled. Intra-and interjudge reliability have been established. Clinical and scientific uses of the scale are discussed.
John C. Rosenbek; Jo Anne Robbins; Ellen B. Roecker; Jame L. Coyle; Jennifer L. Wood
After infiltration with epinephrine solution in each adipose area, an 8- or 10-mm cannula, without the suction tube connected, was introduced. With a curettage maneuver and by directing the cannula upward, the fat began to come out spontaneously. After obtaining a considerable amount of fat, the suction tube was connected and the remaining fat tissue aspirated at low suction power
Antonio Aldo Mottura
Using data on sibling pairs, this study shows that families are closely linked to the educational aspirations of children. About three quarters of the variance lies between families, but is not explained by socioeconomic status. Sex and ordinal position of siblings do not alter this relationship. (Author/EMK)
Teachman, Jay D.; Paasch, Kathleen
...diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and (vi) Gynecologic cases where any...
...diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and (vi) Gynecologic cases where any...
Subepithelial lesions are frequently encountered and remain a diagnostic challenge. Imaging of subepithelial lesions using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis of the lesion; however, definitive diagnosis typically requires tissue. Many methods for acquiring tissue exist including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration, Trucut biopsy, and fine needle biopsy. Obtaining adequate tissue is important for cytologic and histologic exams including immunohistochemical stains, thus a great deal of effort has been made to increase tissue acquisition in order to improve diagnostic yield in subepithelial lesions.
Incidental pancreatic cysts are being increasingly recognized recently with incremented concern about health and frequent health check-up. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as the principal modality for imaging pancreas for various pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cyst. But imaging alone cannot accurately identify the exact nature of the pancreatic cyst. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration is a useful adjunctive procedure to differentiate pancreatic cystic lesions. Cystic fluid analysis with cytologic evaluation is important to diagnose etiology of pancreatic cystic lesions, helping the clinician to more accurately assess the presence or potential for malignancy.
Clancy, James; Hasan, Muhammad K.
Chordomas are rare, slow-growing malignant bone tumours arising from cellular remnants of the notochord. These tumours are locally invasive but have also a metastastic potential. Chordomas are characterized by the presence of physaliferous cells in a myxofibrillary stromal background. In cytological aspirates, these characteristic cells are usually absent, revealing only clusters of cells with varying degrees of vacuolation. This makes definitive diagnosis of chordoma difficult as the tumor can mimic other myxoid neoplasms including renal cell carcinomas and well-differentiated chondrosarcomas. In such situations, a confident diagnosis of chordoma requires comparison with histology of the primary tumor. We describe the first case of metastatic chordoma diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA).
Fearon, Conor; Fabre, Aurelie; Heffernan, Eric J.; Skehan, Stephen J.; Swan, Niall; Keane, Michael P.
We recently published a study aiming to verify the frequency of amyloid deposits in the bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who did not present any signs or symptoms of systemic amyloidosis, applying the Congo red technique on bone marrow smears obtained by aspiration from the posterior iliac spine. The results suggested that nearly 40% of patients affected by MM may have amyloid deposits in their bone marrow. Subsequently, this finding has not been confirmed by another study performed with histological specimens of bone marrow in a similar clinical setting. To explain this discrepancy, we performed a comparative study on the bone marrows of 36 patients affected by MM, evaluated by both cytological and histological techniques. The results of this study confirm the high frequency of amyloid deposits in the bone marrow of patients affected by MM when the analysis is made on cytological smears, and indicate that the presence of amyloid on marrow smears is confirmed by core biopsies simultaneously performed in only 25% of cases. Should further studies confirm our findings, cytological assessment could be considered a sensitive technique to detect bone marrow amyloid deposits. PMID:21718137
Petruzziello, Fara; Zeppa, Pio; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Fernandez, Laura Sosa; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Musto, Pellegrino; D'Auria, Fiorella; Vita, Giulia; Morabito, Fortunato; Piro, Eugenio; Ponti, Maria Rita Costanza; Pettinato, Guido; Ciancia, Rosanna; Pane, Fabrizio; Catalano, Lucio
AIM—To evaluate both the number and the average distribution of goblet cells, which are responsible for the production of the mucin layer of the tear film, in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with Down's syndrome. Previous research had used the ferning test to indicate an alteration in Down's syndrome, but had not determined which film layer was involved.?METHODS—The presence of goblet cells in the bulbar conjunctiva of 30 subjects (15 with Down's syndrome, and 15 normal control subjects) was evaluated using impression cytology.?RESULTS—A marked reduction of goblet cells was found in the Down's syndrome group (81.4 per mm2) when compared with the control group, where (209.8 per mm2) was found.?CONCLUSION—The deficit observed appears to be the cause of the tear film alterations observed in Down's syndrome. In turn, this may often lead to the formation of dry spots, and to consequent frequent infections of the anterior segment of the eye. While it is further hypothesised that the alteration of the conjunctival epithelium in Down's syndrome may be due to an altered metabolism of some element or elements, such as vitamin A, further research will be necessary to corroborate this.??
Filippello, M; Cascone, G; Zagami, A; Scimone, G
Background Myoepithelioma of the breast is a rare tumor and the cytologic features have only been described in one previous report. Case presentation The present case comprises a 70 year old woman with a mammographic equivocal and ultrasonographic suspicious lesion. The aspirates were cellular and consisted mainly of single spindle or polymorphic, polygonal cells. The nuclei were generally large, ranging from 2 - > 5 × RBC. Most nuclei had a distinct medium-sized nucleolus. The nuclear outlines were irregular with buds and folds. The chromatin was granular. In the background there was abundant granular metachromatic ground substance and some metachromatic stromal fragments. A few mitotic figures were found. The cytologic diagnosis was suspicious for malignancy and a metaplastic carcinoma where only the non-epithelial component had been aspirated, or a non-epithelial lesion, was suggested. Macroscopically the tumor was round, seemingly well circumscribed, firm and with a white cut surface. The lesion consisted of spindled and polygonal cells with distinct pleomorphism. There were 6–9 mitoses per high power field (HPF). The tumor infiltrated in the surrounding fatty tissue. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin, keratin MNF 116 and vimentin. Desmin and S-100 were negative. Ultrastructurally, there were abundant tonofilaments, including globular filamentous bodies and granulated endocytoplasmic reticulum with many dilated cisterns. The histologic diagnosis was malignant myoepithelioma. Conclusion The case mirrors completely the WHO definition and the previous cytological and histological descriptions of malignant myoepitheliomas in the literature which describe a spindle cell population with unequivocal nuclear atypia, metachromatic background substance and mitoses.
Germ cell tumors (GCT) are neoplasms that originate predominately in the ovary and testis. Tumors of germ cell origin only very uncommonly arise in extragonadal sites. We have diagnosed ten primary malignant extragonadal GCT arising in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, liver, and sacrococcygeal region by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Patient ages ranged from 1 to 54 years; the majority were males. Our series included three seminomas, three yolk sac tumors (YST), one choriocarcinoma, one embryonal carcinoma, and two mixed, poorly differentiated GCT. In aspirates, seminomatous elements are dissociated with uniform mononucleate cells having large vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli. A tigroid background is produced with Diff-Quik-stained smears. YST yields cohesive clusters of cells with large nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, and extracellular hyaline matrix (spheres or hyaline globules). Giant multinucleate tumor cells are seen in choriocarcinoma. Embryonal carcinoma yields cellular smears of hyperchromatic cells with scant cytoplasm arranged predominantly in glandular or papillary formations. Ultrastructural (four cases) and immunocytochemical (seven cases) studies of aspirated material corroborated our cytologic interpretations. Aneuploid tumor cells were found by flow cytometry in aspirated material from a YST. Subsequent histologic examinations were performed on eight, and all were confirmatory. Although extragonadal GCT are relatively uncommon, they need to be considered in FNAB material from midline mass lesions. Ancillary studies were useful in confirming their diagnosis. PMID:7621717
Collins, K A; Geisinger, K R; Wakely, P E; Olympio, G; Silverman, J F
Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a relatively common and serious condition that can result in a spectrum of presentations ranging from incidental to acutely life-threatening. Described here is a case of aspiration of a tracheo-oesophageal speaking valve through a permanent tracheostomy that went unnoticed for a number of years, and an overview of the technique used for its removal. A 70-year-old ex-heavy smoker with a permanent tracheo-oesophageal fistula presented with a relatively recent history of increasing shortness of breath, sputum purulence and haemoptysis. Further investigation with a CT scan and bronchoscopy revealed the presence of a foreign body within his right lower lobe bronchus which was later removed by advancing a flexible bronchoscope over a rigid one. PMID:23861275
Schembri, John; Cortis, Kelvin; Mallia Azzopardi, Charles; Montefort, Stephen
Ultrasound-guided core biopsy provides many benefits compared with fine-needle aspiration cytology and has begun to emerge as part of the diagnostic work-up for a salivary gland lesion. Although the increased potential for tumor-seeding and capsule rupture has been extensively discussed, the safety of this procedure is widely accepted based on infrequent reports of tumor-seeding. In fact, a review of the literature shows only 2 cases of salivary tumor seeding following biopsy with larger-gauge needle characteristics, with 2 reported cases of salivary tumor seeding following fine-needle aspiration cytology. However, the follow-up interval of such studies (<7 years) is substantially less than the 20-year follow-up typically necessary to detect remote recurrence. Studies on tumor recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland lesion, suggest that as many as 16% of tumor recurrences occur at least 10 years following initial surgery, with average time to recurrence ranging anywhere from 6.1 to 11.8 years postoperatively. Despite the benefits of ultrasound-guided core biopsy over fine-needle aspiration biopsy, which include both improved consistency and diagnostic accuracy, current studies lack adequate patient numbers and follow-up duration to confirm comparable safety profile to currently accepted fine-needle aspiration cytology. In this report we: (1) compare the relative benefits of each procedure, (2) review evidence regarding tumor seeding in each procedure, (3) discuss time course and patient numbers necessary to detect tumor recurrence, and (4) describe how these uncertainties should be factored into clinical considerations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 35: 1657-1661, 2013. PMID:23109044
Douville, Nicholas J; Bradford, Carol R
Cervical and vaginal smears were obtained from 160 women who had delivered one to eight days prior to cytologic examination. Preparations were examined for general morphology and graded for malignancy. The degree of cytologic abnormality was found to corr...
H. B. Soloway
Objective: To compare the outcomes and evaluate the relative risk of thyroid cancer by using the UK thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytological diagnostic categories, with the main objective being the clarity of patient management. Study Design: Results of thyroid FNA reported as Thy3a, Thy3f, Thy4, and Thy5 were correlated with histological outcomes. The specificity and positive predictive value (PPV; risk
Claudia Lobo; Andrew McQueen; Tim Beale; Gabrijela Kocjan
Previously, we reported that the accuracy of cytological diagnosis of breast lesions could be augmented through the quantitative\\u000a assessment of DNA methylation of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) washings. Herein, we aimed at the evaluation of the prognostic\\u000a value of quantitative promoter methylation at three gene loci (APC, CCND2, and RASSF1A) in a large series of FNA washings from breast lesions. Methylation
Ana Teresa Martins; Paula Monteiro; João Ramalho-Carvalho; Vera L. Costa; Mário Dinis-Ribeiro; Conceição Leal; Rui Henrique; Carmen Jerónimo
Although the number of alternative programs is ever increasing, shortages in the number of qualified science teachers continue. These programs have not solved the teacher shortage problem alone, but they should not bear full responsibility. Numerous societal and financial reasons make teaching a less desirable profession. The more contentious issue is whether alternative programs prepare qualified teachers or, in terms of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), "highly qualified" teachers. Initially, the authors believed that alternative programs did not produce competent teachers when they started their review. However, the limited research appears to indicate otherwise. This chapter discusses the aspirations and realities of alternative certification.
Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.
Students’ interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern.\\u000a In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10–14\\u000a (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire exploring students’ aspirations\\u000a was developed,
Jennifer Dewitt; Louise Archer; Jonathan Osborne; Justin Dillon; Beatrice Willis; Billy Wong
Background: The presence of microcalcification is highly suggestive of malignancy; however, the association of macrocalcification with cancer remains unclear and controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and accuracy of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules with macrocalcifications and to investigate the association between macrocalcification subtype and malignancy risk. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed sonographic findings and pathologic results of thyroid nodules with macrocalcification in patients who underwent US-guided FNA in our hospital from January 2009 through December 2010. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (i) malignant or benign nodules confirmed on histologic examination of surgical specimens after US-guided FNA and (ii) nodules not histologically confirmed that were subjected to FNA at least twice and follow-up US examinations for 2 years. Thyroid nodules with macrocalcification were classified into four groups: smooth total (eggshell) calcification, smooth partial calcification, irregular calcification, and nodular calcification. The diagnostic yield of FNA for thyroid nodules with macrocalcification was determined by cytology. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of preoperative FNA cytology were calculated and compared with those of histologic examination of surgical specimens. Results: There were 188 nodules with macrocalcification in 167 patients; of these, 95 were benign, 80 were malignant, and 13 were nondiagnostic. The diagnostic yield of FNA for thyroid nodules with macrocalcification was 93.08%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 98.51%, 90.91%, 95.65%, and 96.77%, respectively. The false-positive value and false-negative value were 9.09% and 1.49%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was 96%. There was no statistically significant difference in the association between macrocalcification subtype and malignancy risk (p>0.05). Conclusions: Macrocalcification associated with thyroid nodules is not a reliable criterion for malignancy. FNA of thyroid nodules with macrocalcification had a high diagnostic yield and a reliable accuracy. Consistency between cytology and histology was almost perfect. Therefore, FNA is a good screening method for malignancy of thyroid nodules with macrocalcification. PMID:23311668
Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang-Hoon; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Lee, Ok-Jun
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients. PMID:23722512
Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G
Aim. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology for follicular lesions of undetermined significance (FLUS), the risk of cancer and diagnostic improvement with use of immunocytochemistry. Methods. For each FLUS diagnosis, we analyzed the cytological criteria (9 Bethesda criteria), secondary fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results, surgical procedures, contribution of immunocytochemistry with the antibodies cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and monoclonal anti-human mesothelial cell (HBME1). Results. Among patients with 2,210 thyroid FNAs, 244 lesions (337 nodules) were classified as FLUS (11% of all thyroid FNAs). The 3 criteria most often applied were cytological atypia suggesting papillary carcinoma (36%), microfollicular architecture but sparse cellularity (23.1%), cytological atypia (21.5%). With secondary FNA, 48.8% of nodules were reclassified as benign. For about half of all cases (41.4% for the first FNA, 57.6% for the second FNA), immunocytochemistry helped establishing a diagnosis favoring malignant or benign. No benign immunocytochemistry results were associated with a malignant lesion. In all, 22.5% of the 39 removed nodules were malignant. Conclusion. The FLUS category is supported by well-described criteria. The risk of malignancy in our series was 22.5%. Because we had no false-negative immunocytochemistry results, immunocytochemistry could be helpful in FLUS management.
Ratour, J.; Polivka, M.; Dahan, H.; Hamzi, L.; Kania, R.; Dumuis, M. L.; Cohen, R.; Laloi-Michelin, M.; Cochand-Priollet, B.
The fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is distinguished from other hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) by its unique clinical and pathologic features. Cytological features for this tumor on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of primary tumors have been described earlier. We present here a unique case of metastatic FL-HCC diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of mediastinal adenopathy. A 32-year-old woman with a history of oral contraceptive use presented with nausea and severe abdominal pain but no ascites or stigmata of cirrhosis. She had a past history of resection of a liver lesion. Serial computed tomography scans revealed mediastinal lymphadenopathy and the patient was referred for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). A transesophageal EUS-FNA was performed and tissue was collected for cytological evaluation by an on-site pathologist with no knowledge of prior history. Based on morphology correlated with prior history received later, a final diagnosis of metastatic FL-HCC in the retrocardiac lymph node was rendered on the EUS-FNA samples. There are very few reports in the literature where a diagnosis of FL-HCC is rendered at unusual sites. This case highlights that EUS-FNA is a relatively non-invasive, rapid, accurate and effective modality in obtaining tissue from otherwise hard-to-reach areas. It also suggests that metastasis of FL-HCC can be observed in mediastinal nodes and that diagnosis based on cytological features can be rendered even when the tumor is identified at unusual locations. PMID:21369523
Crowe, Amanda; Knight, Carrie S; Jhala, Darshana; Bynon, Steve J; Jhala, Nirag C
Students' interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern. In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10-14 (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire…
DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy
During a two-year period, 69 positive prostatic fine-needle cyto-aspirates were selected for a comparison between the cytological grade and the clinical data, and also with the Gleason score and grade obtained with needle-biopsy. The cytological grade is independent of stage, except for grade III that indicates an advanced tumor (T3-T4). On the other hand, the cytological grade provides valuable indications on the histopathological differenciation according to Gleason, with no grade II inferior to Gleason score 5, and no grade III inferior to Gleason 7. 90% of cytological grades III are Gleason grade 4. According to recent studies, we believe that the cytological grade I is related to invasive or in-situ carcinoma, but also to high-grade intra-ductal dysplasia. Thus, it is not surprising to find no correlation between grade I and the clinical status, nor between grade I and the Gleason score and grade, though grade I (or DIC 3) has a good diagnostic value. PMID:2212719
Piaton, E; Mouriquand, J; Berger, N; Mouriquand, P; Seigneurin, D; Devonec, M; Perrin, P
The management of thyroid nodules is multi-disciplinary and involves head and neck surgeons, pathologists and radiologists. Ultrasound is easy to perform, widely available, does not involve ionizing radiation and is readily combined with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). It is therefore an ideal investigation of choice for evaluating thyroid nodules. It evaluates specific features that help in identifying the nature of the nodule and FNAC helps in diagnostic accuracy. In addition, following treatment for thyroid cancer ultrasound provides a safe tool for disease surveillance. This paper discusses the role of ultrasound in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.
Wong, K T; Ahuja, Anil T
Estrogen vaginal cream was given to 10 postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of genuine stress urinary incontinence. Clinical evaluation and urethral cytology from the midurethra were performed before and after 6 weeks of estrogen treatment. A favorable clinical response was obtained in 50% of the treated patients, in whom signs and symptoms of incontinence disappeared or significantly improved, by subjective
Arieh Bergman; Mickey M. Karram; Narender N. Bhatia
A system for screening cervical cytological preparations is described which employs the Leitz Texture Analyzer System (E. Leitz, Rockleigh, N. J.) quantitative staining with acridine orange, and a fluorescence standard. The instrumentation scans cells on microscope slides and detects objects which it interprets to be nuclei with excess total nuclear green fluorescence intensity (Previous results employing manual measurements have indicated
JAMES F. GOLDEN; SEYMOUR S. WEST; HUGH M. SHINGLETON; ACE K. ECHOLS
Nasal cytology is a very useful diagnostic tool in nasal disorders, being able to detect both the cellular modifications of the nasal epithelium caused by either allergen exposure or irritative stimuli (that may be physical or chemical, acute or chronic), or inflammation. Over these past few years, nasal cytology has allowed to identify new disorders, such as the non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils (NARES), the non-allergic rhinitis with mast cells (NARMA), the non-allergic rhinitis with neutrophils (NARNE), and the non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils and mast cells (NARESMA). The rhinocytogram is actually able to distinguish the different forms of allergic rhinitis and to suggest the appropriate treatment, such as antinflammatory drugs or allergen immunotherapy. The technique is easy to perform and nasal cytology is therefore particularly suitable even for children. Such a consideration suggests the utility of a systematic use of nasal cytology in the diagnostic work-up of nasal disorders in children, in order to reach a proper defined diagnosis and to set a rational therapeutic approach: in facts, these two elements are fundamental in order to prevent from complications and to improve the patient's quality of life. PMID:23009215
Matteo, Gelardi; Luigi, Marseglia Gian; Amelia, Licari; Massimo, Landi; Ilaria, Dell'albani; Cristoforo, Incorvaia; Franco, Frati; Nicola, Quaranta
...device designed to remove materials from the endometrium (the mucosal lining of the uterus) by suction with a syringe, bulb and pipette, or catheter. This device is used to study endometrial cytology (cells). (b) Classification. Class II. The...
Background The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. DNA integrity index has been reported to be a marker of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid DNA integrity index in the diagnosis of MPE. Methods We studied 75 pleural fluid and matched serum samples from consecutive subjects. Pleural fluid and serum ALU DNA repeats [115bp, 247bp and 247bp/115bp ratio (DNA integrity index)] were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Pleural fluid and serum mesothelin levels were quantified using ELISA. Results Based on clinico-pathological evaluation, 52 subjects had MPE (including 16 mesotheliomas) and 23 had benign effusions. Pleural fluid DNA integrity index was higher in MPE compared with benign effusions (1.2 vs. 0.8; p<0.001). Cytology had a sensitivity of 55% in diagnosing MPE. If cytology and pleural fluid DNA integrity index were considered together, they exhibited 81% sensitivity and 87% specificity in distinguishing benign and malignant effusions. In cytology-negative pleural effusions (35 MPE and 28 benign effusions), elevated pleural fluid DNA integrity index had an 81% positive predictive value in detecting MPEs. In the detection of mesothelioma, at a specificity of 90%, pleural fluid DNA integrity index had similar sensitivity to pleural fluid and serum mesothelin (75% each respectively). Conclusion Pleural fluid DNA integrity index is a promising diagnostic biomarker for identification of MPEs, including mesothelioma. This biomarker may be particularly useful in cases of MPE where pleural aspirate cytology is negative, and could guide the decision to undertake more invasive definitive testing. A prospective validation study is being undertaken to validate our findings and test the clinical utility of this biomarker for altering clinical practice.
A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…
This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils’ educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below?average examination results and low rates of continuing in full?time education after the age of 16. Schools were
Steve Strand; Joe Winston
Bronchoscopic transbronchial fine needle aspiration of the mediastinum is generally known as a safe procedure. Complications such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, major bronchial haemorrhage and significant bleeding after a major vessel puncture are rare events. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of life-threatening cardiac tamponade following transbronchial fine needle aspiration in precarinal location.
Andreas Gross; Andreas Henri Diacon
|This study investigated some of the differences in a perceptual discrimination performance task due to: (1) sex and (2) level of aspiration of each group of subjects. It was found that there is an interaction effect between femaleness, maleness, and aspiration level. (Author)|
Peretti, Peter O.
This risk.paper considers a simple learning process for decision problems under All behaviour change derives from the reinforcing or deterring effect of instantaneous payoff experiences. Payoff experiences are reinforcing or deterring depending on whether the payoff exceeds an aspiration level or falls short of it. The aspiration level is endogenous. Over time it is adjusted into the direction of the
Tilman Börgers; Rajiv Sarin
A submucosal lesion, more appropriately a subepithelial lesion, is hard to diagnose. Endoscopic ultrasonography is good to differentiate the nature of submucosal lesion. For definite diagnosis, tissue acquisition from submucosal lesion is necessary, and many methods have been introduced for this purpose mainly by endoscopic ultrasonography, such as endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS-guided Trucut Biopsy (TCB), and EUS-guided fine needle biopsy (FNB). For EUS-FNA, adequate processing of specimen is important, and for proper diagnosis of EUS-FNA specimen, both cytologic and histologic examinations, including immunohistochemical stains, are important. All gastrointestinal stromal tumors have some degree of malignant potential, so there have been a lot of efforts and methods to increase diagnostic yields of submucosal lesion. We herein review the current hot topics on EUS-FNA for submucosal tumor, such as needles, on-site cytopathologists, immunohistochemical stains, EUS-TCB, EUS-FNB, Ki-67 labelling index, DOG1, and combining EUS-FNA and EUS-TCB.
Recognizing and managing the different types of aspiration events remain a challenging task due to the lack of distinguishing clinical or laboratory characteristics. Numerous biomarkers in serum, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage have been studied, and their role in the recognition of aspiration remains controversial at this time. Recent animal investigations using an array of biomarkers based on distinct pathogenic features of each aspiration event have produced promising results; however, they have not been validated in humans. Newer markers are being introduced as diagnostic and prognostic tools in conditions such as community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, but they have not been examined in aspiration. The present review summarizes the different biomarkers that have been studied in aspiration and those who might have a potential clinical use in the future. PMID:20370588
Jaoude, Philippe Abou; Knight, Paul R; Ohtake, Patricia; El-Solh, Ali A
Recognizing and managing the different types of aspiration events remain a challenging task due to the lack of distinguishing clinical or laboratory characteristics. Numerous biomarkers in serum, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage have been studied, and their role in the recognition of aspiration remains controversial at this time. Recent animal investigations using an array of biomarkers based on distinct pathogenic features of each aspiration event have produced promising results; however, they have not been validated in humans. Newer markers are being introduced as diagnostic and prognostic tools in conditions such as community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, but they have not been examined in aspiration. The present review summarizes the different biomarkers that have been studied in aspiration and those who might have a potential clinical use in the future.
Jaoude, Philippe Abou; Knight, Paul R; Ohtake, Patricia; El-Solh, Ali A
Background: Retroperitoneal tumors constitute a difficult diagnostic category as they are not easily accessible. The advent of image-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has resolved this problem significantly. Aims: We present a short study based on guided aspiration of retroperitoneal tumors, in which we have tried to assess the role of image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology as a tool for pre-operative diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal masses. FNA was performed under image guidance with the help of ultrasonography and/or computed tomography; smears were prepared and meticulously screened according to a fixed protocol. The results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficacy of cytopathological diagnosis using image-guided FNA techniques. Results: We assessed 38 patients with retroperitoneal masses. In all cases, adequate cellular material was obtained. No major complications were encountered. Statistical analysis was carried out in 35 cases; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100% in these cases. Conclusion: FNA under image guidance should be considered a first-line diagnostic approach for retroperitoneal and other abdominal tumors, although caution should be exercised in case selection. In areas where advanced tests are not available, the cytotechnologist and cytopathologist have a very important role to play in ensuring accurate diagnoses.
Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Afzal, Sheerin; Ansari, Hena A; Ahmad, Ibne
A 73-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of intermittent nausea, vomiting, central abdominal discomfort and a 17-pound weight loss over the past year. Laboratory testing, including a complete blood count with differential, liver function testing, amylase and lipase studies were normal. A CT scan showed a bilobed cystic lesion inferior to the body of the pancreas. An endoscopic ultrasound revealed a 5.3×3.9 cm, anechoic, bilobed cystic lesion, extrinsic to the body of the pancreas with a 1-2 mm septation and a normal pancreas. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a milky-white aspirate with negative cytology. Laboratory assessment of the cystic aspirant revealed carcinoembryonic antigen 1.7 ng/mL, amylase 148 units/L, cholesterol 300 mg/dL, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 3 units/mL. He underwent resection of the mass, with the histopathology confirming a diagnosis of peripancreatic lymphangioma. He did well after the surgery with interval resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24092605
Tanimu, Sabo; Rafiullah; Resnick, Jeffrey; Onitilo, Adedayo A
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a standard tool for imaging the gastrointestinal tract and adjacent structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) allows the endosonographer easy access to these structures for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We describe a case of metastatic lesion, adherent to a stented right ureter, which was imaged with transrectal EUS, with successful cytologic identification after EUS-guided FNA. EUS and EUS-guided FNA can be valuable tools in the evaluation of some soft-tissue abnormalities of the pelvis. PMID:15100956
Schmulewitz, N; Hawes, R
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is the most sensitive imaging modality for solid pancreatic lesions. The specificity, however, is low (about 75%). It can be increased to 100% with an accuracy of 95% by the addition of fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Cytopathology plays an important role. The final diagnosis is based upon the correlation of clinical, EUS, and cytologic features. A close interaction with the cytopathologist is required in improving the diagnostic yield. In this paper, we present an overview of the role of EUS-guided FNA and importance of close interaction with the cytopathologist. Day to day examples of different solid pancreatic lesions have been presented at the end.
Iqbal, Shahzad; Friedel, David; Gupta, Mala; Ogden, Lorna; Stavropoulos, Stavros N.
Mammary invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a rare variant of mammary carcinoma that was recently recognized in dogs. The cytologic features and biologic behavior of such neoplasms in dogs have not yet been widely discussed in the veterinary literature. We report the clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a canine micropapillary carcinoma in a 13-year-old female mongrel dog. The mammary region presented with extreme local pain, severe edema and erythema, and multifocal epidermal ulceration, which is typical for an inflammatory mammary carcinoma. Fine-needle aspirates were highly cellular and consisted of individual cells and papillary cell clusters with characteristics of malignant epithelial cells. Histologic examination revealed neoplastic cells arranged in small papillae without fibrovascular cores, sometimes inside clear lymphatic spaces, indicating lymphovascular invasion. Regional lymph node evaluation revealed metastatic cells. Due to deteriorating clinical condition the dog was euthanatized 5 months after mastectomy. At necropsy, metastatic neoplastic mammary cells were found in popliteal and mediastinal lymph nodes, the right femoral biceps muscle, liver, heart, lungs, and urinary bladder. PMID:23919629
Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Colodel, Márcia M; Figueiroa, Fernanda C; Soares, Luisa M; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S
Thirty seven prostatic carcinomas at a D2 metastatic stage were studied after transrectal fine-needle aspiration in a prospective multicentric study. The number and the distribution of nucleoli were compared, in each cytological grade, to the flow cytometric nuclear DNA content. In 9 grade I, 13 grade II and 15 grade III the proportion of bimodal DNA profiles was 11%, 30.7% and 66.7%. The total number of nucleoli per 100 nuclei was respectively 114.11 (SD = 8.12), 158.31 (SD = 47.97) and 194.40 (SD = 58.42). A statistically significant difference (t = 2.78; P = 0.009) was found between the total number of nucleoli of unimodal (22 cases) and bimodal DNA profiles (15 cases). However, no significant difference in nucleolar parameters was found between unimodal (14 cases) and bimodal DNA profiles (14 cases) in cytological grades II and III. These results suggest that the nucleolar parameters do not necessarily parallel the increase in the nuclear DNA content, and that the two factors are independent of one another. PMID:1768939
Piaton, E; Bringuier, P P; Seigneurin, D; Perrin, P; Devonec, M
Cytology is a fundamental part of marine mammal veterinary medicine that is involved in preventive medicine programs in captive animals and in the health assessment of wild populations. Marine mammals often exhibit few clinical signs of disease; thus, the cost-effective and widely accessible nature of cytologic sampling renders it one of the most important diagnostic procedures with these species. Many of these mammals are endangered, protected, and located in developing nations in which resources may be scarce. This article can be used as a field guide to advise a veterinarian, biologist, or technician working with cetaceans or sirenians. A simplistic cost-effective staining technique is used, which is ideal for situations in which funds, facilities, or time may be a limiting factor in clinical practice. PMID:17198961
Varela, René A; Schmidt, Kimberly; Goldstein, Juli D; Bossart, Gregory D
The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.
Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.
Background Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare neoplasm confined to the meninges without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventriculoperitoneal shunt may be used as a therapeutic modality. Herein, we describe the first report of cytologic findings of a case of this neoplasm with shunt-related peritoneal metastasis. Case presentation A 19-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of severe headaches. He had bilateral papilledema on physical exam. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was negative. Four months later a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Shortly thereafter, he was diagnosed with primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis based on the biopsy of an intradural extramedullary lesion adjacent to the lumbar spinal cord at a referral cancer center. The histology featured an infiltrating growth pattern of pleomorphic astrocytes with diffuse positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein. A couple of months later he presented at our institution with ascites and an anterior peritoneal mass. Repeat cerebrospinal fluid cytology and fine needle aspiration of the mass confirmed disseminated gliomatosis. Cytologic characteristics included clusters of anaplastic cells of variable size, high nuclear to cytoplasm ratio and scant to moderate cytoplasm. Occasional single bizarre multinucleated cells were seen with eccentric "partial wreath-like" nuclei, clumped chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Patient expired 13 months after initial presentation. Conclusion Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic aseptic meningitis and in the presence of a peritoneal tumor in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Immunocytochemistry may be of diagnostic value.
Bilic, Masha; Welsh, Cynthia T; Rumboldt, Zoran; Hoda, Rana S
Quantitative ultrasound (US) elastography (Q-USE), able to evaluate tissue stiffness has been indicated as a new diagnostic tool to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Aim of this prospective study, conducted at the Department of Surgical Sciences, of the “Sapienza” University of Rome, was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Q-USE, compared with US parameters, in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (Thy3).The case study included 140 nodules from 140 consecutive patients. Patient’s thyroid nodules were evaluated by Q-USE, measuring the strain ratio (SR) of stiffness between nodular and surrounding normal thyroid tissue, and conventional US parameters prior fine-needle aspiration cytology. Those with Thy3 diagnosis were included in the study. Forty of the nodules analyzed harbored a malignant lesion. Q-USE demonstrated that malignant nodules have a significant higher stiffness with respect to benign one and an optimun SR cut-off value of 2.05 was individuated following ROC analysis. Univariate analysis showed that hypoechogenicity, irregular margins and SR >2.05 associated with malignancy, with an accuracy of 67.2%, 81,0% and 89.8%, respectively. Data were unaffected by nodule size or thyroiditis. These findings were confirmed in multivariate analysis demonstrating a significant association of the SR and the irregular margins with thyroid nodule’s malignancy. In conclusion, we demonstrated the diagnostic utility of Q-USE in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology that, if confirmed, could be of major clinical utility in patients’ presurgical selection.
Guaitoli, Eleonora; De Vito, Corrado; Caruso, Riccardo; Mocini, Renzo; D'Andrea, Vito; Ascoli, Valeria; Antonaci, Alfredo; Catalano, Carlo; Nardi, Francesco; Redler, Adriano; Ricci, Paolo; De Antoni, Enrico; Sorrenti, Salvatore
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status has been shown to predict response to anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In patients with advanced-stage NSCLC, evaluation of mutational status is increasingly requested on biopsy or fine-needle aspiration specimens, which often have limited material. There are limited data on the suitability of cytology cell blocks (CB) for EGFR mutation testing. In this study, we report our institutional experience with cytology cell block material for EGFR mutation testing. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR mutation analyses performed on 234 surgical (SP) and cytology (CB) from October 2007 to May 2010. One hundred ninety-two SP specimens and 42 CB specimens were evaluated for EGFR mutation. CB specimens were evaluated for overall specimen size based on aggregate cellularity in comparison to small biopsy specimens, and percent tumor. Of the 192 SP and 42 CB specimens, 31 (16.1%) and 11 (26.2%) were positive for EGFR mutation, respectively; there does not appear to be an association between mutation detection rate and the source of the specimen (P = 0.124). Limited DNA was obtained from 70.0% (29/42), including 81.8% (9/11) of those which were mutation positive. Additionally, 45.4% (5/11) of mutation positive specimens had extremely low DNA yields. Although 16.6% (7/42) of CB specimens had <10% tumor, all 11 mutation positive CB cases had >10% tumor. These data indicate that CB specimens provide an alternative source for molecular evaluation of NSCLC, and that tumor percentage may be more important than specimen size and/or DNA yield in determining the suitability of these specimens for testing. PMID:22102479
Aisner, D L; Deshpande, C; Baloch, Z; Watt, C D; Litzky, L A; Malhotra, B; Sepulveda, A R; Langer, C; Evans, T; Van Deerlin, V M
Accidental aspiration of kerosene is a common problem among children in developing countries. This descriptive study involved the retrospective analysis of children admitted with kerosene aspiration in a tertiary care hospital in South India for a year. Kerosene aspiration contributed to 60.4% of poisoning cases. Boys aged less than three years and from a rural background formed a significant proportion. Tachypnoea, cough and crepitations were the predominant clinical findings. Male gender and malnutrition (weight for age <80%) were significantly associated with prolonged hospital stay. PMID:21724690
Venkatesh, C; Sriram, P; Adhisivam, B; Mahadevan, S
The objectives were to characterize postpartum endometrial cytology and to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometrial inflammation and its impact on reproduction in beef cows. Samples for endometrial cytology (low-volume uterine lavage) were obtained from 135 of 137 Angus cows (2-87d postpartum) in northern Minnesota, 26d before breeding started. Agreement between examiners for subjective inflammation scores was very high (kappa=0.971); the correlation between these scores and PMN counts was high (r=0.83; P<0.001), validating subjective categorization. The proportion of PMN and large mononuclear cells (principally macrophages) declined with postpartum interval (P<0.001), whereas small mononuclear cells were consistently present (and not significantly affected by postpartum interval). Pregnancy rate to fixed-time AI was 29% and overall pregnancy rate was 89%. There was no association between cell type and ultimate pregnancy status or day of conception (P>0.10). Although inflammation later in the postpartum period apparently impaired subsequent reproduction in dairy cows, in cows >50 d postpartum at sample collection in the present study, no cytological parameter significantly predicted final pregnancy status or day of conception. Previous twinning increased the risk of subclinical endometritis (P=0.02), but not the probability of becoming pregnant (P=0.14). In conclusion, we inferred that beef cows had the ability to clear uterine inflammation after resumption of ovarian cyclicity. PMID:18992934
Santos, N R; Lamb, G C; Brown, D R; Gilbert, R O
Objectives: The field of cytopathology has been rapidly advancing in the era of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. On-site cytologic evaluation for adequacy and triaging specimens for small core biopsy or fine-needle aspiration (FNA) are often required. Cytopathologists face the challenge of how to best triage small specimens for diagnosis, molecular testing, and personalized treatment. Owing to its minimally invasive nature, FNA alone or combined with core biopsy for lymphoproliferative disorders and soft tissue tumors has gained popularity. Methods: Literature review and author's institutional experience are used for this review article. This article will focus mainly on lymphoproliferative disorders and soft tissue tumors. Results: Evaluation combining cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and/or molecular pathology is often needed to accurately diagnose and classify lymphomas and soft tissue tumors. Many molecular tests have been performed on cytologic specimens, such as tests for BRAF and RET in thyroid FNA. Conclusions: Molecular pathology has been widely integrated into conventional cytopathology for diagnosing lymphoproliferative disorders and soft tissue tumors, and the diagnostic value of FNA on those tumors has increased significantly. Cytology will play a more important role in the era of personalized medicine. PMID:24045541
Zhang, Songlin; Gong, Yun
Background The purpose of this work was to investigate whether clinical cytology could be useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis. Methods This study involved the prospective collection of samples derived from the endometrium and the uterine cervix, and retrospective data analysis. Nine patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic actinomycosis were enrolled. The clinical and hematological characteristics of patients were recorded, and detection of actinomyces was performed by cytology, pathology, and bacteriological culture of samples and by imprint intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) cytology. Results The detection rate of actinomyces was 77.7% by combined cervical and endometrial cytology, 50.0% by pathology, and 11.1% by bacterial culture. Conclusion The higher detection rate of actinomyces by cytology than by pathology or bacteriology suggests that careful cytological examination may be clinically useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.
Matsuda, Katsuya; Nakajima, Hisayoshi; Khan, Khaleque N; Tanigawa, Terumi; Hamaguchi, Daisuke; Kitajima, Michio; Hiraki, Koichi; Moriyama, Shingo; Masuzaki, Hideaki
Thymic carcinoma developing in a pre-existing thymic cyst has rarely been reported in literature. The diagnosis of this entity in the past has always been established after surgery. We are reporting a case of thymic carcinoma that developed in a pre-existing multilocular thymic cyst in an elderly male. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
Lal, Anupam; Srinivasan, Radhika; Duggal, Rajan; Khandelwal, Niranjan
Thymic carcinoma developing in a pre-existing thymic cyst has rarely been reported in literature. The diagnosis of this entity in the past has always been established after surgery. We are reporting a case of thymic carcinoma that developed in a pre-existing multilocular thymic cyst in an elderly male. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). PMID:23050117
Singhal, Manphool; Lal, Anupam; Srinivasan, Radhika; Duggal, Rajan; Khandelwal, Niranjan
Background: The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses - including the maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses are collectively referred to as the sinonasal tract. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of paranasal sinus lesions for early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions is difficult due to closed architecture, and only one study has been documented in the literature. Aims: To find the efficacy of intra-operative cytology and frozen section for frequently encountered tumor and tumor-like lesions of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Materials and Methods: Thirty cases were included in this study. The material for cytologic examination and frozen sections were taken per-operatively. Cytological smears were prepared by imprint/squash methods from the representative tissue pieces and stained with Leishman-Giemsa and Papanicolaou. Frozen section and paraffin-embedded section were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. A rapid opinion regarding the benign or malignant nature of the lesion and the type of tumor was given. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of imprint cytology, squash cytology, and frozen section were 100%, 100%, and 100%; 100%, 96.15%, and 80.0%; and 100%, 96.15%, and 80.0%, respectively. Overall diagnostic accuracy of imprint smears, squash smears, and frozen section was100%, 96.7%, and 96.7%, respectively. Imprint smears had better specificity as cells morphology could be more accurately appreciated. Conclusions: Intra-operative cytology and frozen section examinations of lesions of nose and paranasal sinuses are useful, quick, and reliable diagnostic technique for rapid diagnosis in the operation theatre and can be used as an adjunct to histopathology for better management of patients.
Nigam, JS; Misra, V; Dhingra, V; Jain, S; Varma, K; Singh, A
In the former Soviet Union, pathologists usually do not examine cytological specimens. Cytology belongs to another field of practice: laboratory medicine. Not all cytologists find enough time to compare their reports with histopathological ones, while histological and cytological specimens are hardly ever confronted; this opportunity of quality control is therefore lost. There are no nationwide programs of cervical cancer prevention. There are almost no laboratory technicians for screening of cytological smears. Overall, there are grounds for optimism: the improved economy makes it possible today to acquire modern equipment and literature, while broadening international co-operation is already attracting foreign expertise into the country.
Jargin, Sergej V.
In the former Soviet Union, pathologists usually do not examine cytological specimens. Cytology belongs to another field of practice: laboratory medicine. Not all cytologists find enough time to compare their reports with histopathological ones, while histological and cytological specimens are hardly ever confronted; this opportunity of quality control is therefore lost. There are no nationwide programs of cervical cancer prevention. There are almost no laboratory technicians for screening of cytological smears. Overall, there are grounds for optimism: the improved economy makes it possible today to acquire modern equipment and literature, while broadening international co-operation is already attracting foreign expertise into the country. PMID:20200657
Jargin, Sergej V
Since its initial report in 1992, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has now been incorporated into the diagnostic and staging algorithm for the evaluation of benign and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. Its introduction constitutes a major breakthrough in the endoscopic field and has gradually transformed EUS from a pure imaging modality into a more interventional procedure. In addition, the possibility of collecting samples, providing a definitive cytological and/or histological evidence of the presence of malignancy, has strongly contributed to changing EUS from a subjective, highly operator dependant procedure into a more objective one. This article will review the instrumentation, technique and the most important clinical applications of EUS-FNA.
Tharian, Benjamin; Tsiopoulos, Fotios; George, Nayana; Pietro, Salvatore Di; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto
We report here a mediastinal infectious complication after endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) that was successfully treated using intravenous antibiotic therapy. EBUS-TBNA was performed for a 59-year old man with mediastinal adenopathy 8 years after left pneumonectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. A single-needle pass produced an adequate cytology and histology sample, and the lesion was diagnosed as small-cell lung cancer. The procedure itself was uneventful, but the patient developed a nightly fever after the biopsy. Finally, he was readmitted, and intravenous antibiotic therapy was required for 4 weeks to treat a mediastinal infection after EBUS-TBNA before chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer. PMID:23814134
Gochi, Fumiaki; Chen, Fengshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Date, Hiroshi
Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti - TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20-75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy controls were also examined for the same parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for its anti - TPO levels. FNAC reports confirmed patients as having duct cell carcinoma. They had raised serum anti - TPO levels compared to controls. FNAC results of others (n=26) were reported as fibroadenoma whose anti - TPO levels were less than the controls. PMID:23105847
Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna
Cytology slides are often unique and irreplaceable. Unlike surgical pathology cases, where additional paraffin sections can be cut, cytology slides often cannot be duplicated because there are only a few direct smears or the diagnostic material is present on a single slide. Cytology slides are often "sent out" to other physicians, laboratories or hospitals, typically so that the pathologist at the institution where the patient will receive treatment can review the slides. Less often, a cytology lab sends out the slides for a second opinion or as part of the discovery process in a lawsuit, where they may or may not be defendants. Rarely, unique and irreplaceable cytology slides are lost. This article presents a hypothetical scenario that is based on reported state appellate court decisions. The article discusses some of the legal issues that will affect the defendant cytologist/cytology lab and the "expert cytologist," and suggests some steps a cytologist/cytology lab can take to minimize the risk of repercussions from a lost unique and irreplaceable cytology slide.
Gatter, Ken M
Accurate evaluation of the extent of disease is essential to ac- curately stage gynecologic cancers. Methods to assess the spread of such tumors include random biopsies of the serosal surfaces, lymph node sampling, and obtaining direct cytologic smears of large areas of the peritoneum (1). Peritoneal fluid cytology results play an important role in the staging and prog- nostication of
Virginia A. LiVolsi
Purpose: Touch imprint cytology (TIC) facilitates rapid diagnosis of breast diseases in women attending triple assessment clinics. Some pathologists, in our centre, feel that pathological interpretation of TIC slides is contentious when the lesions are radiologically indeterminate (R3), as these can lead to potentially higher false positive or false negative cytology results. We hypothesised that: ‘(R3) lesions are more likely
Vimal Raj; T. Sivashanmugam; S. Gupta; K. Clarkson; E. Denton; M. Al-Attar
Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is now widely used as a primary tool in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy in both the mediastinum and abdomen. A sympathetic ganglion may be mistaken for an enlarged lymph node on endoscopic ultrasound and are rarely sampled as such. A 51-year-old female presented with a history of weight loss, vomiting for several months, and right upper quadrant discomfort. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed a dilated common bile duct (CBD) with a possible periampullary mass, paraaortic, and pericelial lymph nodes suspicious for metastatic disease. Endosonography revealed a 17 mm oval hypoechoic structure with distinct margins in the para-aortic, celiac axis region suggestive of an enlarged lymph node. An EUS-FNA was done. Cytology revealed ganglion cells with large oval epithelial-like cells with round nuclei and prominent nucleoli consistent with a benign sympathetic ganglion. It is crucial for the cytopathologist to be aware of the fact that the endoscopist might have sampled a celiac ganglion instead of a celiac lymph node and be able to distinguish the cytological features of a benign sympathetic ganglion from a malignant process.
Xia, Di; Gilbert-Lewis, Kidada N; Bhutani, Manoop S; Nawgiri, Ranjana S
We conducted a descriptive study of 524 patients who had been suspected of having aspirated a foreign body and who had been evaluated at one of two major hospitals in Jordan from January 1993 through December 2003. A tracheobronchial foreign body was found in 386 of these patients (73.7%). Most of them (66.8%) were younger than 2 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3 to 2. The mean duration between aspiration and diagnosis was 48 hours. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (90.4% of foreign-body-positive patients), diminished air entry (66.8%), and dyspnea (65.0%). The most frequently aspirated objects were seeds (35.4%), particularly watermelon seeds, nuts (26.8%), and vegetables (25.3%). The most common site of foreign-body impaction was the right bronchus (60.9%). Rigid bronchoscopy was used to remove the foreign body in all cases. The complication rate was 3.4%. Our experience with aspirated tracheobronchial foreign bodies in Jordan was not substantially different from that reported in other countries. The only difference was that the most frequently aspirated foreign body in our study was seeds. PMID:17385621
Mahafza, Tareq; Khader, Yousef
Background Fine needle aspiration biopsy represents the critical initial diagnostic test used for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Our objectives were to determine the cytological distribution, the utility of clinicopathologic characteristics for predicting malignancy and the true proportion of cancer among individuals who presented with indeterminate cytology and had undergone thyroid surgery for suspicion of cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1040 consecutive primary thyroid operations carried out over an 8-year period at a tertiary care endocrine referral centre. Follicular neoplasm (FN), Hürthle cell neoplasm (HN), neoplasms suspicious for but not diagnostic of papillary carcinoma (IP) and neoplasms with cellular atypia (IA) were reviewed. Results In all, 380 individuals presented with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Of these, 252 (66%) patients had FN, 47 (12%) HN, 44 (12%) IP, 26 (7%) IA and 11 (4%) had mixed diagnoses. Biopsied lesions were found to be malignant on pathological evaluation in 102 (27%) patients: 49 (19%) with FN, 11 (23%) HN, 28 (64%) IP and 9 (35%) with IA. Hemithyroidectomy was adequate definitive treatment in 196 of 225 (87%) patients with FN and 39 of 42 (93%) with HN. Significant associations with a cancer diagnosis were identified for smaller tumour size in patients with FN (p = 0.004) and right thyroid lobe location in patients with IP (p = 0.012), although these factors were nonsignificant in the corrected analyses for multiple comparisons. Conclusion In a review of the experience at a Canadian centre, 4 operations were carried out to identify each cancer, and hemithyroidectomy was the optimal initial and definitive surgical approach for most patients.
Chiu, Connie G.; Yao, Reina; Chan, Simon K.; Strugnell, Scott S.; Bugis, Samuel; Irvine, Robert; Anderson, Donald; Walker, Blair; Jones, Steven J.; Wiseman, Sam M.
Win–stay, lose–shift strategies in repeated games are based on an aspiration level. A move is repeated if and only if the outcome, in the previous round, was satisficing in the sense that the pay-off was at least as high as the aspiration level. We investigate the conditions under which adaptive mechanisms acting on the aspiration level (selection, for instance, or learning) can lead to an efficient outcome; in other words, when can satisficing become optimizing? Analytical results for 2 times 2-games are presented. They suggest that in a large variety of social interactions, self-centred rules (based uniquely on one's own pay-off) cannot suffice.
Posch, M.; Pichler, A.; Sigmund, K.
Abstract While people may belong to multiple psychological communities, each has a have primary community which reinforces norms, values, identities and, provide structures,and,social,support,systems,that,are,crucial,to the,well-being,of its members. In some situations, people aspire to membership of a community, but are,rejected.,This,paper,examines,the,responses,of coloured,South,Africans,and Anglo-Indians,in their,aspirations,to membership,of European,communities.,By the use of status borrowing, relative advantage, and social comparison, these groups,tried,to enhance,the,importance,of the,language,and,culture,they,shared with the Europeans,
Adrian T. Fisher; Christopher C. Sonn
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of breast is a minimally invasive sampling procedure with a proven value in the initial evaluation of patients with palpable breast lesions. FNAB is a simple, cost-effective, and relatively nontraumatic procedure that has replaced open surgical biopsy in majority of academic institutions across the world. There are, however, inherent limitations in the ability of FNAB to reliably diagnose small percentage of cases that are difficult to diagnose by cytomorphology alone and require excisional biopsy. This shortcoming may be minimized if the morphology can be complemented by a reliable diagnostic adjunct. This retrospective study was designed to assess the added value of telomerase immunostain in interpretation of breast FNABs. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that has been shown to be activated in different malignant tumors, including breast cancer. Immunocytochemical detection of this molecular marker on cytologic smears and cellblocks may be helpful for interpretation of FNAB specimens. In our retrospective study, we found that 56% of the malignant breast cases (28/50) showed positive telomerase immunostaining while only 4% of the negative cases (2/50) stained with telomerase (positive predictive value: 93%, negative predictive value: 69%). Expression of telomerase on highly suspicious breast fine-needle aspirations may upgrade the diagnosis to malignancy. However, a negative telomerase cannot exclude the possibility of carcinoma. PMID:17854082
Fischer, Gabor; Tutuncuoglu, Osman; Bakhshandeh, Maryam; Masood, Shahla
Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies. Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management. We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry. The cytological diagnoses were: medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman, melanoma in a 26-year-old man, and an exceptional case of ovarian sarcoma originating from a granulosa cell tumor with metastases to both breasts. A metastatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a palpable mass in the breast, especially if there is a history of an extramammary malignant neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice for the management of these cases. Whenever possible the exam of the material obtained should be compared to the previous biopsy, which is usually enough to arrive at a correct diagnosis, thus preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.
Raquel, Garza-Guajardo; Nora, Mendez-Olvera; Pablo, Flores-Gutierrez Juan; Silvia, Hernandez-Martinez; Michelle, Candanosa-Mc Cann; Jesus, Ancer-Rodriguez; Oralia, Barboza-Quintana
Thyroid cancer accounts for 1.5% of all malignancies in the U.S., and it is the most common endocrine malignancy. Detection of thyroid cancer mostly relies on evaluation of thyroid nodules, which are very common but only 5%–7% harbor malignancy. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is currently the most important tool for the evaluation of thyroid nodules; however, it is limited in that it provides only a cytology assessment of the aspirated cells, and indeterminate diagnoses are present in up to 30% of FNAB results. This limitation can be overcome by the molecular analysis of FNAB, and more specifically with the use of microRNAs (miRs). miRs constitute a class of endogenous small noncoding RNA fragments that regulate gene expression, and in vitro studies have shown that miRs play a significant role in cancer and regulate major processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Several studies have investigated the miR expression signature in different thyroid cancers, and data support its use as a diagnostic tool that is highly accurate for thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to review the accumulated data on miR dysregulation in the different thyroid cancer types, critically assess its diagnostic utility, and conclude with future study strategies.
Infection due to Coccidioides spp., a dimorphic fungal pathogen, usually presents as a chronic pulmonary disease, occasionally with pulmonary nodules. On cytology, large spherules filled with endospores are typically seen. We report an unusual case of coccidioidomycosis in a 39-year-old female from an area nonendemic for Coccidioides and without other known risk factors for infection. Fine-needle aspiration of the patient's cavitary lung lesion revealed Coccidioides spp., which demonstrated atypical delicate septate hyphal forms and chains of conidia, with none of the large spherules typical of Coccidioides spp. Atypical hyphal and other forms of Coccidioides spp. have been reported in several studies, primarily from biopsy or tissue resection specimens. However, this is the first case to our knowledge that the organism has presented solely as conidial and atypical hyphal forms in an aspirated specimen. Pathologists who are unfamiliar with this atypical hyphal formation may misdiagnose the organism as several different fungi, including Aspergillus spp. or Fusarium spp. It is important to differentiate among fungi, as antifungal treatments may vary. Cytologists should be aware of the diverse morphologies demonstrated by Coccidioides spp. and include this organism in their differential diagnosis, even in patients seemingly devoid of pertinent risk factors. PMID:21309010
Schuetz, Audrey N; Pisapia, David; Yan, Jiong; Hoda, Rana S
It has been observed in research on the group level of aspiration that social pressures arising outside a group influence the aspiration level members chose; pressures toward improvement in group performance appear to be more effective than those toward n...
A. Zander C. Ulberg
|Investigates the influence of psychological variables upon female college students' aspirations for leadership positions in their future careers. Results demonstrated that connectedness needs, gender role, self-esteem, and fears of negative evaluation accounted for a significant amount of the variance in predicting college women's leadership…
Boatwright, Karyn J.; Egidio, Rhonda K.
Relations between adolescents' perceptions of school environments and their educational and occupational aspirations in different family environments were examined. Results indicated ethnic group differences in the relationship among the variables which suggest that results from investigations of family-school influences on children's school…
AbstractAfter nearly a century of dominance of the international monetary system, has the US dollar finally met its match in the euro? When Europe's economic and monetary union (EMU) came into existence in 1999, many observers predicted that the euro would soon join America's greenback at the peak of global finance. Achievements, however, have fallen short of aspiration. After an
BENJAMIN J. COHEN
|At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…
The paper questions the traditional image of the secretarial role as supportive and non-decision making and highlights the scope for managerial activities. Particular concern centres on whether the traditionally established occupational image discourages students with managerial aspirations from taking secretarial\\/clerical courses. Research evidence drawn from a study of female students attending such courses, showed that the majority did express an
Thomas E Lloyd; Suzanne Richbell
Staging for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires accurate assessment of the mediastinal lymph nodes which determines treatment and outcome. As radiological staging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity, it is necessary to sample the mediastinal nodes. Traditionally, mediastinoscopy has been used for evaluation of the mediastinum especially when radical treatment is contemplated, although conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)
A. R. L. Medford; J. A. Bennett; C. M. Free; S. Agrawal
|This article reports on a study that is concerned with surveying the aspirations of some students in an Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) College and developing strategies to address issues arising from the surveys. The study is essentially a series of surveys, thought it has an action learning aspect because of its developmental…
Thompson, Doug; Nevard, Jennifer
|School library media specialists are the first to witness the malaise that permeates American schools threatening the future of our society. Believing that personal lack of aspirations, our failure to encourage reading for pure enjoyment, and society's disrespect toward education has left a void in our children that is filled with apathy.|
Brown, Donna W.
Infectious bronchiolitis, as a sole component or more frequently as a constellation of histologic findings related to diseases\\u000a of more proximal airways or alveolated parenchyma, can be caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial organisms, and Aspergillus species. Infectious bronchiolitis and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis (DAB) most commonly appear on
Kyung Soo Lee
A report is given on the application of an ultrasound aspirator for the removal of cerebral tumours. After the description of physical and surgical fundamentals, a report is given on the respective patients. Then hazards an advantages are described as far as they can be summarized already today. PMID:6528767
Schöche, J; Wehner, W; Hohrein, D; Braun, E; Stöckel, R; Müller, W; Neumann, A; Fritzsch, G; Füssel, J
|This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…
Background The current study correlates cytologic morphology with histologic type and describes immunophenotypes with a focus on epithelial, neuroendocrine, and lymphoid characteristics in an institutional series of surgically excised thymomas. Methods Fine needle aspirates (FNAs) and surgical specimens were retrospectively analyzed, and immunohistochemical stains were performed for EMA, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, CD57 CD5, bcl-2, calretinin, vimentin, CD3, CD20, CD1a, CD99 and Ki67. Tumors were classified by WHO criteria. Results There were eleven male and six female patients with an age range of 41 to 84 years (mean, 61 years) and a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. Four thymomas (4/17, 23.5%) were associated with neuromuscular disease: myasthenia gravis (n = 3) and limbic encephalitis (n = 1). FNA, under CT guidance, was performed in 7 cases. The positive predictive value for thymoma by FNA cytology was 100% and the sensitivity was 71%. Thymomas associated with neuromuscular disorders were WHO types B2 (n = 1) and B3 (n = 3), and showed a strong expression of CD57 in the majority of neoplastic epithelial cells accompanied by large numbers of CD20+ intratumoral B lymphocytes. Two of seventeen (11.7%) thymomas (all sporadic B3 type) contained numerous neoplastic epithelial cells positive for CD5 and bcl-2. Conclusion Our results suggest that thymomas associated with autoimmune disorders contain a significant population of CD20+ intratumoral B lymphocytes. Strong CD57 positivity in thymomas may suggest a concomitant neuromuscular disorder, notably myasthenia gravis. CD5 expression is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of primary thymic epithelial neoplasms since both thymic carcinomas and thymomas may express CD5.
Alexiev, Borislav A; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Burke, Allen P
The diagnosis of melanoma can be challenging, especially in metastatic lesions, due to the ability of melanoma cells to morphologically mimic carcinoma, sarcoma and even lymphoma cells. Moreover, melanomas can exhibit negative immunostaining for the melanoma markers HMB-45 and MART-1/Melan-A, often used in the diagnosis of this tumor. KBA.62 is a recently described antibody that reacts with benign and malignant melanocytic proliferations. In this study, we report our experience with KBA.62 and S100 protein immunostaining in the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma on fine-needle aspiration and effusion samples. We reviewed 60 cytology samples from 58 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our results showed that KBA.62 stained 75% of the cases and S100 protein 87% of the cases. KBA.62 and S100 protein stained the majority of metastatic melanomas that were negative for HMB-45 and MART-1; KBA.62 stained 73% of the cases and S100 protein 73% of the cases. The majority (85%) of the cases negative for HMB-45 and MART-1 were positive for KBA.62 and/or S100 protein. Additionally, we also observed that KBA.62 staining was positive in the majority of epithelioid and spindle cell type melanoma cells. In conclusion, the performances of KBA.62 and S100 protein were similar and both markers are useful in the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma in cytology material, especially when the tumor cells lack expression of HMB-45 and MART-1. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:847-851. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23554410
Erdag, Gulsun; Chowdhuri, Sinchita Roy; Fetsch, Patricia; Erickson, Dana; Hughes, Marybeth S; Filie, Armando C
Cytology is increasingly being used in the evaluation of lung lesions. There are several potential pitfalls and mimics encountered in the evaluation of respiratory cytology specimens, making interpretation of respiratory cytology challenging. Familiarity with the mimics and the pitfalls is essential in avoiding a misdiagnosis because a false positive or false negative diagnosis may have significant management implications. This article focuses on the main classification of primary lung carcinoma - small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma - with potential mimics discussed under each tumor category. We have attempted to separate pitfalls from common potential mimics and have suggested general rules when such pitfalls are encountered.
Idowu, Michael O; Powers, Celeste N
Updating cross-cultural research of the past decade on the relationship between life aspirations and wellbeing, we compared Romanian (N=69) and US (N=64) undergraduates on the contribution of the importance and likelihood of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations to psychological maladjustment and life satisfaction, and on the qualitative meaning they assign to financial success. Similarly to prior studies, we found that extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations tended to be either negatively or positively correlated with life satisfaction, respectively; however, wealth predicted life satisfaction for Romanian students. Unlike previous research, we found generally negative relationships between intrinsic aspirations and psychological maladjustment. Although there were no differences between Romanian and US undergraduates on extrinsic and intrinsic orientation, on the overall importance of attaining aspirations, or on specific extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations, Romanian students expressed weaker expectations of fulfilling intrinsic aspirations than did US students. Finally, the groups produced similar rankings of aspirations and assigned similar meaning to financial success. The results favored a social cognitive rather than a self-determination model of psychological wellbeing in that expectations for attaining aspirations were more often predictive of life satisfaction than were their content. We interpret these findings and their convergence and departure from earlier research in terms of political economic, demographic, and cultural factors. We encourage future cross-cultural investigations of the social construction of aspirations, subsidiation of seemingly contradictory aspirations to each other, and cognitive and ecological mediation of the complex relationship of aspirations to psychological functioning. PMID:22046989
Stevens, Michael J; Constantinescu, Petru-Madalin; Butucescu, Andreea
The ultrastructure of preovulatory granulosa cells may be distinct in follicles containing competent as opposed to non-competent oocytes. To test this assumption, granulosa cells were looked for in 36 follicular fluid aspirates from 8 patients taking part in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer program. Granulosa cells were absent from 16 aspirates and present in 20. Both aspirate types
Katharina Spanel-Borowski I; Karl Sterzik
This paper reviews areas of risk management and aspirational ethics as related to the relatively new practice of court-appointed parenting coordinators. Risk management and aspirational ethics are defined and related to this area of post-divorce professional activity. Incidence data concerning licensure board complaints and civil lawsuits are reviewed. Guidelines which incorporate risk management and aspirational ethics regarding parenting coordinating are
Karl Kirkland; Kale E. Kirkland
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between aspiration and seven other variables indicative of pharyngeal stage dysphagia. Additionally, we looked at the relationship between aspiration and oral stage dysphagia. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified five independent predictors of aspiration that were significant at thep=0.05 level: vallecular stasis, reduced hyoid elevation, deviant epiglottic function, diffuse hypopharygeal stasis,
Adrienne L. Perlman; B. M. Booth; J. P. Grayhack
Background: Headscarf pin aspiration is a common and unique form of foreign body aspiration among young Moslem women. Rigid bronchoscopy (RB) is considered the standard procedure for retrieval. There are little data on the role of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in the retrieval of aspirated headscarf pins. Objectives: The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the utility of
Musa A. K. Al-Ali; Basheer Khassawneh; Firas Alzoubi
Students from a school in Hong Kong (n?=?199) responded to 22 items asking about their school motivation and aspirations in a survey. Structural equation models found four school motivation factors consistent with the task, effort, competition, and praise scales of the Inventory of School Motivation, one education aspiration factor, one career aspiration factor, and significant relations of the motivation factors
Alexander Seeshing Yeung; Dennis M. McInerney
Background Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the breast is a minimally invasive yet maximally diagnostic method. However, the clinical use of FNAB has been questioned. The purpose of our study was to establish the overall value of FNAC in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Methods After a review and quality assessment of 46 studies, sensitivity, specificity and other measures of accuracy of FNAB for evaluating breast lesions were pooled using random-effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall accuracy. The sensitivity and specificity for the studies data (included unsatisfactory samples) and underestimation rate of unsatisfactory samples were also calculated. Results The summary estimates for FNAB in diagnosis of breast carcinoma were as follows (unsatisfactory samples was temporarily exluded): sensitivity, 0.927 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.921 to 0.933); specificity, 0.948 (95% CI, 0.943 to 0.952); positive likelihood ratio, 25.72 (95% CI, 17.35 to 28.13); negative likelihood ratio, 0.08 (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.11); diagnostic odds ratio, 429.73 (95% CI, 241.75 to 763.87); The pooled sensitivity and specificity for 11 studies, which reported unsatisfactory samples (unsatisfactory samples was considered to be positive in this classification) were 0.920 (95% CI, 0.906 to 0.933) and 0.768 (95% CI, 0.751 to 0.784) respectively. The pooled proportion of unsatisfactory samples that were subsequently upgraded to various grade cancers was 27.5% (95% CI, 0.221 to 0.296). Conclusions FNAB is an accurate biopsy for evaluating breast malignancy if rigorous criteria are used. With regard to unsatisfactory samples, futher invasive procedures are required in order to minimize the chance of a missed diagnosis of breast cancer.
ObjectiveTo estimate the current cervical cytology screening practices of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Fellows, to establish a baseline for tracking future changes in practice.
Kenneth L Noller; Barbara Bettes; Stanley Zinberg; Jay Schulkin
The Third Soviet-French Symposium on Space Cytology, which was organized within the framework of collaboration in the area of medicine and medical technology between the USSR Ministry of Health and French National Institute of Health and Medical Research,...
I. B. Krasnov
A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for indistinct consciousness, progressive dyspnea, night sweats and fever of 2 weeks duration. Hypoxemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase were found. Computed tomography was negative except for a small bilateral pleural effusion. Chest perfusion scintigraphy showed inhomogeneous perfusion thought unlikely to be pulmonary artery thromboembolism. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma was suspected, and a pulmonary microvascular cytology specimen was obtained that contained numerous large lymphoma cells. Because the patient's condition was rapidly deteriorating, we started chemotherapy on the basis of the pulmonary microvascular cytology findings, and he improved. Later, atypical lymphocytes similar to those in the pulmonary microvascular cytology specimen were found in a bone marrow specimen. He was diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Because lymphoma cells were found in the pulmonary microvasculature, intravascular lymphoma was also diagnosed. Pulmonary microvascular cytology was helpful to detect lymphoma cells in the pulmonary microvasculature. PMID:19687591
Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Kagiyama, Naho; Saito, Hiroo; Sugita, Yutaka; Kojima, Masaru
The objective of this study was to compare qualitative cytomorphology and morphometric characteristics of parotid gland tumor cells, with the aid of a computer-assisted system of image analysis. Routine qualitative cytologic and quantitative morphometric results from 64 parotid gland tumors were compared. Ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens were taken from 54 patients. Eleven conventionally used morphometric parameters were studied: area, perimeter, convex area, convexity, maximal and minimal radius, length, breadth, form factor (FF), elongation factor, and nuclear- cytoplasmatic (N/C) ratio. Two newly introduced nuclear form factors were also measured: area symmetry factor and perimeter symmetry factor. The following nuclear morphometric parameters were significantly different between malignant and benign tumors: area, perimeter, convex area, convexity, maximal and minimal radius, length, breadth, FF, elongation factor, area symmetry factor, and perimeter symmetry factor. Comparing the cutoff values and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves the following nuclear morphometric parameters were found most useful in separating benign from malignant tumors: area, perimeter, convex area, maximal radius, length, and FF. The following whole cell morphometric parameters were significantly different between malignant and benign tumors: minimal and maximal radius, convexity, breadth, FF, and elongation factor. N/C ratio was significantly higher in malignant tumors. The quantitative morphometric analysis is a useful tool in the cytological differentiation between benign and malignant parotid gland tumors. Computerized image analysis may add to morphological evaluation by turning qualitative data into quantitative values. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:776-784. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23341155
Obad-Kova?evi?, Dragica; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Jeli?-Puškari?, Biljana; Vidjak, Vinko; Blaškovi?, Darko
Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon tumor and is believed to be of schwannian origin. GCT is benign but rare malignant cases are recorded. GCT occurs in almost any part of the body. The common sites are the tongue, skin, and subcutaneous tissue. GCT of hand is an extremely rare. Till date only 17 cases are reported in the literature. Preoperative diagnosis of GCT is important, because GCT mimics dermal adnexal tumor in subcutaneous tissue, other soft tissue tumor or inflammatory lesions. GCT is composed of large polygonal cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and these cells are often immunoreactive for the S-100 protein. Fine-needle aspiration cytology has been suggested to be diagnostic modality of choice and this would undoubtedly aid the correct diagnosis. Excision with wide surgical margins is curative for benign GCT. Recurrence and malignant transformation requires regular follow-up. Here, this communication documents a case of cytological diagnosis of the granular cell tumor of hand in a 21-year-old female, clinically suspected to be a dermal adnexal tumor.
Nasit, Jitendra G.; Chauhan, Sanjaykumar; Dhruva, Gauravi
Large three-dimensional cell aggregates and psammoma bodies are usually encountered in benign serous effusions (mesothelial hyperplasia and endosalpingiosis), mesotheliomas, and metastatic papillary carcinomas. We report a case of pulmonary small-cell carcinoma occurring in an 88-year-old woman that initially presented with a malignant pleural effusion characterized cytologically by a predominance of large three-dimensional neoplastic cell aggregates ("cannonballs"), associated with rare psammoma bodies. Although the crowded three-dimensional tumor-cell aggregates did not allow detailed cytologic examination, the diagnosis of metastatic small-cell carcinoma could be established noting the characteristic chromatin features of the occasional single neoplastic cells and the characteristic "cell-in-cell" and "stack-of-coins" arrangements of rare small clusters of neoplastic cells. Immunoperoxidase stains showing positivity of the tumor cells for CD56, synaptophysin, and TTF1 further supported this diagnosis. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of a mediastinal lymph node subsequently confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary small-cell carcinoma. Metastatic pulmonary small-cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of serous effusions showing large three-dimensional neoplastic cell aggregates and psammoma bodies to prevent a potential diagnostic pitfall. PMID:21987407
Conway, Andrea B; Hart, Melissa K; Jessurun, Jose; Pambuccian, Stefan E
An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210
Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan
Myositis ossificans is a reactive, ossifying process within soft tissues, which by its clinical and histological features is considered a pseudosarcomatous lesion. There are few reports that describe the cytologic findings in myositis ossificans, and each of these mentions different cellular composition. We describe the cytology of a case of myositis ossificans in a 14-year-old boy with clinical diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, and analyze the most common cytologic findings reported previously of this entity. We conclude that the different cellular composition reported, reflects the different histologic components of this lesion according to the area (zonation phenomenon), and that clinico-radiologic correlation is essential for the cytological diagnosis. PMID:18064693
Estrada-Villaseñor, E; Cedillo, E Delgado; Martínez, G Rico
Challenges and controversies in the diagnosis of mesothelioma: Part 1. Cytology-only diagnosis, biopsies, immunohistochemistry, discrimination between mesothelioma and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia, and biomarkers.
The detection of neoplastic invasion remains the linchpin for a clear diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. Cytology-only diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma on aspirated effusion fluid remains controversial. A major problem is poor sensitivity, although cytodiagnosis is achievable in many cases at a high order of specificity, especially when a large volume of effusion fluid is submitted for cytological evaluation, enabling the preparation of cell-block sections for immunohistochemical investigation and when the cytological findings can be correlated with imaging studies to assess the anatomical distribution of the lesion and evidence of nodularity of the pleural disorder and, in some cases, to demonstrate evidence of invasion. Although 'positive' and 'negative' immunohistochemical markers have proved remarkably effective in distinguishing between epithelioid mesothelioma and secondary carcinoma and other malignant tumours metastatic to serosal membranes, no mesothelial marker has 100% sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma diagnosis, so that panels of 'positive' antibodies and markers with negative predictive value are required. At present, no tissue or serum marker (including the molecular detection of p16/CDKN2A) has been proved to have sufficient specificity, consistency and reproducibility that it can replace evidence of invasion as the decisive marker for diagnosis when there is any uncertainty concerning a diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma and in the case of atypical fibrous lesions of the pleura (especially collagen-rich lesions, namely fibrous pleuritis vs desmoplastic mesothelioma), in which even the assessment of invasion can be problematical as illustrated in part 2 of this review. PMID:23814259
Henderson, Douglas W; Reid, Glen; Kao, Steven C; van Zandwijk, Nico; Klebe, Sonja
Malingering is a voluntary production and presentation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms in an attempt to achieve secondary gain which otherwise is difficult to reach. Dissimulation means concealment of genuine psychiatric or other medical symptoms in an attempt to present a picture of psychiatric or organic health. Secondary gain is prominent, yet, primary gain exists as well. Aspiration is a higher degree of dissimulation, whereby the person not only denies having symptoms but pretends to be much healthier than he actually is and even more than all the healthy people surrounding him. Aspiration is mostly driven by primary gain. Secondary gain strengthens the primary one by the positive feedback the individual receives in considering him to be healthy and strong, deserving appropriate social, professional and financial attitudes. The article discusses these three phenomenological concepts with their possible medico-legal aspects, illustrating each by clinical vignettes. PMID:22026051
Durst, Rimona; Fastovsky, Natasha; Michnik, Tatiana; Raskin, Sergey
A practical method of screening for pre-clinical xerophthalmia due to vitamin A deficiency, called conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), is described as it is being used in a training stage in the Philippines. The noninvasive technic consists of touching the conjunctiva with a filter paper disc, and fixing and staining the disc on a slide for histology. Normally goblet cells with mucin spots are seen among sheets of epithelial cells. In abnormal conjunctiva from vitamin A deficient individuals, the epithelial cells are enlarged, and goblet cells are lacking. These specimens may be obtained from areas of the conjunctiva that appear clinically normal. The equipment needed is millipore paper, a hand-held suction pump with 5 feet of tubing, tissue or gauze, screw-top vials, labels, fixative, Papanicolaou stain, and a microscope. Vitamin A supplements can be given to affected children, or to the whole population at risk. With CIC training materials donated by International Center for Epidemiologic and Preventive Ophthalmology (ICEPO) at the Wilmer Institute, and the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, the 1st training class was certified by the Nutrition Center of the Philippines. Twice yearly training of physicians and technologists has been recommended. PMID:12284665
Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.
Aly, Fatima Zahra; Tabbarah, Abeer Z.; Voltaggio, Lysandra
The study has been performed in order to give a contribution to the knowledge of the conjunctival cytology in Sjögren's syndrome. Exfoliated cells were obtained by a tampon from the inferior conjunctival sac of 11 patients affected by primary or secondary Sjögren's syndrome; the material was placed onto a microscope slide and it was stained with May-Grumwald-Giemsa, after the ferning test had been performed. Tear production had been previously assessed in all patients by Schirmer's I test and basic secretion test that showed an evident tear fluid hyposecretion. Cytoanalysis of tear fluid showed, in all patients, a marked lymphocytosis, presence of epithelial cells (sometimes cell-adhesion) and a number of "snake-cells", with a nucleus-cytoplasm ratio in favour of cytoplasm. Some of those cells have a thicker cytoplasmic membrane and/or a spindle-shaped peripheral nucleus, characteristic finding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. In all cases we found mucus and fibrin (sometimes with included cells), organic debris and big crystals, some of which aggregated. PMID:9264901
Sallì, L; Damiani, S; Jacò, V; Compagno, M; Pappalardo, A
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in the tyrosine kinase domain is known to be a predictor of the response to gefitinib or erlotinib in lung cancer; thus, a non-surgical procedure of tumor specimen collection is critical for mutation analysis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the EGFR, KRAS and BRAF status in limited cytological material. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the quantitative scale of tumor cells and the percentage of tumor cells in cytological material were evaluated at the early stages of pathomorphological material qualification for EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutation analysis. Our results revealed that even 100–1,000 tumor cells from fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples provided reliable results of mutation analysis when sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used. EGFR mutations were detected in 10% (7/71) and KRAS mutations were detected in 35% (19/54) of the lung adenocarcinoma cases. In addition, we reported the most common inhibiting mutation (p.T790M) found in coexistence with p.L858R in an FNA sample from a patient, for whom short-term improvement after erlotinib treatment was observed before further progression of the disease. Subsequently, mutual exclusion of EGFR and KRAS mutations was observed. Cytological samples with a small number of tumor cells obtained via FNA, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) or brushing are suggested to be used for diagnostic purposes after careful selection by cytopathologists and analysis using a validated, sensitive real-time PCR method.
LEWANDOWSKA, MARZENA ANNA; JOZWICKI, WOJCIECH; JOCHYMSKI, CEZARY; KOWALEWSKI, JANUSZ
Capsule endoscopy has revolutionized the investigation of small intestinal pathology with an increasing repertoire of indications. We present the first reported case of an aspirated capsule presenting after a long asymptomatic period that was removed with no permanent pulmonary sequelae. This report highlights a cohort of patients who could be susceptible to this rare complication. The report also encourages the development of local/national guidelines to investigate misplaced/lost capsules during the procedure.
Singh, Rohit A.; Pai, Krishnanand R.; Satur, Chris M.R.
Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was recently reported to be significantly correlated with a higher incidence of otitis media during infancy. In order to verify this connection, a case-control study was performed on 71 pairs of infants, with and without meconium aspiration, matched for gestational age, birth weight and sex. Data were collected by questionnaire or telephone, the response rate being 88,7%.
L. Jaber; R. Gabriel; P. Merlob
Use of a few simple office laboratory procedures can provide accurate diagnosis of several forms of common diseases of joints. The average physician can discover unsuspected joint disease in this way, thereby avoiding expensive laboratory tests and delay in making the diagnosis. An adequate history and physical examination are needed in conjunction with analysis of fluid aspirated from the joint. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.
Meyers, Marvin H.
Fine-needle aspiration cytology has been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the distal extremities with an accuracy of ?70% for the specific diagnosis of tumors of the hand. Despite this accuracy, some cases may be misinterpreted as to the type of lesion present. A 34-year-old male presented with a 1.5 cm mass in the soft tissue of his right middle finger. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed and produced cellular smears with a myxoid background. The majority of cells were of a short "spindle" or polygonal shape but a number of large pleomorphic cells were also present. A diagnosis of pleomorphic myxoid sarcoma was given. Subsequent incisional biopsy revealed an inflammatory myxohyaline tumor of the distal extremities (IMTDE). FNA, core needle biopsy, and even small incisional biopsies may result in misdiagnosis of IMTDE as pleomorphic sarcoma, an inflammatory condition or even Hodgkin's disease. Careful attention to the myxoid background, prominence of inflammatory cells, nature of the pleomorphic cells, and location of the lesion should favor the diagnosis of IMTDE. PMID:21500374
Layfield, Lester J
Granulocytic sarcoma is a rare variant of a myeloid malignancy, which shows an extra-medullary tumour mass which is composed of myeloblasts and myeloid precursors with varying degrees of differentiation. It occurs most commonly in bone, periosteum, soft tissue, lymph nodes, and skin; although it can occur anywhere throughout the body. Here, we are reporting two cases of orbital granulocytic sarcoma in children, which presented clinically with proptosis and periorbital swellings, which were first diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC). Later, peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate examinations revealed the evidence of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML). These cases are being documented to demonstrate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in evaluation of this entity, in cases of unsuspected AML. Recognition of this rare entity is important, because giving an early aggressive chemotherapy can cause regression of the tumour and thus improve the patient survival. PMID:24086883
Thakur, Brijesh; Varma, Kachnar; Misra, Vatsala; Chauhan, Smita
Granulocytic sarcoma is a rare variant of a myeloid malignancy, which shows an extra-medullary tumour mass which is composed of myeloblasts and myeloid precursors with varying degrees of differentiation. It occurs most commonly in bone, periosteum, soft tissue, lymph nodes, and skin; although it can occur anywhere throughout the body. Here, we are reporting two cases of orbital granulocytic sarcoma in children, which presented clinically with proptosis and periorbital swellings, which were first diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC). Later, peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate examinations revealed the evidence of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML). These cases are being documented to demonstrate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in evaluation of this entity, in cases of unsuspected AML. Recognition of this rare entity is important, because giving an early aggressive chemotherapy can cause regression of the tumour and thus improve the patient survival.
Thakur, Brijesh; Varma, Kachnar; Misra, Vatsala; Chauhan, Smita
Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown origin and a distinct clinicopathologic entity also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. The disease can involve extranodal tissues and rarely can present as salivary gland enlargement without significant lymphadenopathy. Involvement of the extranodal head and neck sites appears to be more common in patients with immunologic abnormalities. The disease was first described in 4 patients in 1969, and with later descriptions of more patients, the disease was established as a well-defined clinicopathologic entity. The characteristic pathologic feature of this disease is proliferation of distinctive histiocytic cells that demonstrate emperipolesis in the background of a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, consisting of moderately abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy can be helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis, since surgical treatment is not necessary other than obtaining tissue for definitive diagnosis. We describe cytologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease that involved a major salivary gland without significant lymphadenopathy in a 48-year-old patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. We also briefly discuss possible causes and pathogenesis and review the literature. PMID:11570913
Juskevicius, R; Finley, J L
In the airways, iron pill-induced mucosal injury is uncommon and can lead to necrosis and stricture of the respiratory tracts. The process is characterized by mucosal ulceration with deposition of crystalline iron particles, and the diagnosis is usually made on tissue biopsies. We report a case of iron-sulfate-induced mucosal injury in the bronchial washing and biopsy of a patient receiving therapeutic oral iron supplementation with no known aspiration event. Clinically, the patient presented with hemoptysis, and bronchoscopy detected ulcerated main stem bronchus mucosa clinically suspicious for a neoplastic process. Bronchial washings revealed reactive epithelial cells and numerous histiocytes with both intracellular and extracellular refractile brown crystalline material, which was positive on iron stain. The histologic findings on biopsy showed mucosal ulceration with deposits of extracellular crystalline iron particles. These histologic changes are similar to those seen in iron pill-induced mucosal injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with "iron pill" gastritis. The cytologic and histologic features of iron pill-induced airway injury clinically can mimic cancer. The presence of extracellular and intracellular crystalline iron in the airway lumen and/or mucosa with associated varying degrees of ulceration and inflammation confirms the diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:901-903. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22508539
Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Illei, Peter B
The Impact of Benign Gene Expression Classifier Test Results on the Endocrinologist-Patient Decision to Operate on Patients with Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytopathology
Background Seventy-five percent of thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology are found to be benign postoperatively. A novel genomic test, the Afirma® gene expression classifier (AGEC), has been available for clinical use in the United States, since late 2010. In 2010, two modest-sized validation studies showed that the AGEC could identify a benign gene expression signature in indeterminate cytology thyroid FNA samples with a negative predictive value >95%. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the AGEC impacted the joint decision of the endocrinologist and patient to operate when FNA cytology was indeterminate, but the AGEC reading of the nodule was benign. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, data were contributed retrospectively by 51 endocrinologists at 21 practice sites that had previously obtained ?3 benign AGEC readings in ?1?cm nodules with indeterminate FNA cytology readings. Information regarding demographic data, nodule size and location, decision to operate, surgery type (hemithyroidectomy [HT] or total thyroidectomy [TT]), and reason for recommending surgery was retrospectively collected. Results Compared to a 74% previous historical rate of surgery for cytologically indeterminate nodules, the operative rate fell to 7.6% during the period that AGEC were obtained in the clinical practices, a highly significant reduction in the decision to operate (p<0.001). The rate of surgery on cytologically indeterminate nodules that were benign by the AGEC reading did not differ from the historically reported rate of operation on cytologically benign nodules (p=0.41). The four primary reasons reported by the physicians for operating on nodules with a benign AGEC reading, in descending order: large nodule size (46.4%), symptomatic nodules (25.0%), rapidly growing nodules (10.7%), or a second suspicious or malignant nodule in the same patient (10.7%). These reasons are concordant with those typically given for operation on cytologically benign nodules. Conclusions In a substantial group of medical practices, obtaining an AGEC test in patients with cytologically indeterminate nodules was associated with a striking reduction in the rate of diagnostic thyroidectomy. Approximately, one surgery was avoided for every two AGEC tests run on thyroid FNAs with indeterminate cytology.
Duick, Daniel S.; Klopper, Joshua P.; Diggans, James C.; Friedman, Lyssa; Kennedy, Giulia C.; McIver, Bryan
Foreign body aspiration continues to be a serious problem in childhood and adolescent period with significant rate of morbidity and rarely mortality. Half of the foreign body aspiration cases have no history of aspiration. The main foreign bodies inhaled are food fragments and different kinds of metallic objects. A 12-year-old girl was referred to the pediatric pulmonology department for chronic cough and hemoptysis. She had persistent infiltration and cavitary lesion mimicking cavitary tuberculosis. There was no contact history with tuberculosis in her family and acid resistant bacillus was not found in the sputum examination. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed for persistent infiltration and hemoptysis and inflamed thread was found in right lower lobe bronchus. This is the first case of thread inhalation mimicking cavitary tuberculosis in an adolescent patient. PMID:22577799
Cakir, Erkan; Torun, Emel; Uyan, Zeynep Seda; Akca, Ozge; Soysal, Omer
Foreign body aspiration continues to be a serious problem in childhood and adolescent period with significant rate of morbidity and rarely mortality. Half of the foreign body aspiration cases have no history of aspiration. The main foreign bodies inhaled are food fragments and different kinds of metallic objects. A 12-year-old girl was referred to the pediatric pulmonology department for chronic cough and hemoptysis. She had persistent infiltration and cavitary lesion mimicking cavitary tuberculosis. There was no contact history with tuberculosis in her family and acid resistant bacillus was not found in the sputum examination. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed for persistent infiltration and hemoptysis and inflamed thread was found in right lower lobe bronchus. This is the first case of thread inhalation mimicking cavitary tuberculosis in an adolescent patient.
Head and neck metastasis from glioblastoma is rare event usually seen in patients with previous and repeated surgery. We present the case of a 35 yr-old-female suffering from metastatic glioblastoma in cervical lymph node that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration. During the last 4 yr, she had four separate craniotomies for the recurrent brain tumors. Cytological diagnosis was made by light microscopy with immunostaining with glial fibrillay acid protein. Chemotherapy with vincristine and procarbazine was performed. The cervical masses were decreased in size and some disappeared while the intracranial glioblastoma continued to grow during chemotherapy. We discuss possible explanations for these different courses after chemotherapy in extraneural metastatic glioblastoma and primary intracranial glioblastoma. PMID:15608410
Moon, Kyung-Sub; Jung, Shin; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, In-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Jung-Kil; Kim, Tae-Sun
The role of hepatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has evolved. Advances in imaging modalities have obviated the need for tissue confirmation in most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). There is risk of needle-tract seeding. Increasingly, small nodules are being detected on ultrasound surveillance of high-risk patients. Diagnostic challenges associated with cirrhosis include distinction of benign hepatocellular nodules, namely, large regenerative nodules and dysplastic nodules, from reactive hepatocytes; and distinction of well-differentiated HCCs from benign hepatocellular nodules. This paper will discuss (i) controversies regarding preoperative/pretransplantation FNA diagnosis of HCC, (ii) update of biological evolution, nomenclature, and histopathologic criteria for diagnosis of precancerous nodules and small HCCs, and (iii) algorithmic approach to FNA diagnosis of hepatocellular nodules. Optimal results depend on dedicated radiologist-cytopathologist team, on-site cytology service; combined cytohistologic approach, immunohistochemistry, and clinicopathologic correlation. Hepatic FNA is likely to be incorporated as a point of care as we move towards personalized medicine.
A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis.
Kos, Sebastian, E-mail: email@example.com; Bilecen, Deniz [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology (Switzerland); Baumhoer, Daniel [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Pathology (Switzerland); Guillaume, Nicolas [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine (Switzerland); Jacob, Augustinus L. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology (Switzerland)
Background. There is a current debate in the medical literature about plasma calcitonin screening in patients with nodular goiter (NG). We decided on analyzing our 20-year experience with patients in an iodine-deficient region (ID). Patients and Methods. 22,857 consecutive patients with NG underwent ultrasonography and aspiration cytology (FNAC). If FNAC raised suspicion of medullary cancer (MTC), the serum calcitonin was measured. Results. 4,601 patients underwent surgery; there were 23 patients among them who had MTC (0.1% prevalence). Significantly more MTC cases were diagnosed cytologically in the second decade than in the first: 11/12 and 6/11, respectively. The frozen section was of help in 2 cases out of 3. Two patients suffered from a 3-year delay in proper therapy, and reoperation was necessary in 1 case. FNAC raised the suspicion of MTC in 20 cases that were later histologically verified and did not present MTC. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing MTC was 99.2%. Two false-positive serum calcitonin tests (one of them in a hemodialyzed patient) and one false-negative serum calcitonin test occurred in 40 cases. Conclusion. Regarding the low prevalence of MTC in ID regions, calcitonin screening of all NG patients does not only appear superfluously but may have more disadvantages than advantages.
Solymosi, Tamas; Lukacs Toth, Gyula; Nagy, Dezso; Gal, Istvan
Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare tumors of the pancreas, which are increasingly diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this retrospective study, we assessed the performance of EUS-FNA in diagnosing PNETs. Materials and Methods: We identified 48 cases of surgically resected PNETs in which pre-operative EUS-FNA was performed. The clinical features, cytological diagnoses, and surgical follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of EUS-FNA was analyzed as compared to the diagnosis in the follow-up. The cases with discrepancies between cytological diagnosis and surgical follow-up were analyzed and diagnostic pitfalls in discrepant cases were discussed. Results: The patients were 20 male and 28 female with ages ranging from 15 years to 81 years (mean 57 years). The tumors were solid and cystic in 41 and 7 cases, respectively, with sizes ranging from 0.5 cm to 11 cm (mean 2.7 cm). Based on cytomorphologic features and adjunct immunocytochemistry results, when performed, 38 patients (79%) were diagnosed with PNET, while a diagnosis of suspicious for PNET or a diagnosis of neoplasm with differential diagnosis including PNET was rendered in the 3 patients (6%). One case was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm (2%). The remaining 6 patients (13%) had non-diagnostic, negative or atypical diagnosis. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that EUS-FNA has a relatively high sensitivity for diagnosing PNETs. Lack of additional materials for immunocytochemical studies could lead to a less definite diagnosis. Non-diagnostic or false negative FNA diagnosis can be seen in a limited number of cases, especially in those small sized tumors.
Bernstein, Jane; Ustun, Berrin; Alomari, Ahmed; Bao, Fang; Aslanian, Harry R.; Siddiqui, Uzma; Chhieng, David; Cai, Guoping
Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the results and complication rate in CT guided percutaneous trans-thoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and core biopsies of lung lesions, and to determine the applicability of these needles. Patients and methods In 242 patients (166 males; 76 females) with mean age of 58.9 years (13–84 years) CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were performed on dual slice CT equipment. The average diameter of lung lesion was 2.9 cm (1.2–6.3 cm). For FNAB’s 20 – 22 G Chiba needles and for core biopsies 14 G biopsy needles were used. The samples were sent for the histological analysis. The cytological or histological results and the eventual complications were compared. Results FNAB’s cytological samples were adequate for definitive diagnosis in 117 patients (79.60 %) and inadequate in 30 patients (20.40 %). Core biopsies samples were adequate in 92 (96.85 %) patients and non- representative (necrotic tissue) in 3 (3.15 %). Pneumothorax as the most frequent complication was detected in 14 (9.7 %) of the patients in the group of FNAB’s and in 30 (31.5 %) of the patients with the core biopsy group. Conclusions The results showed that percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were an effective and safe procedure in the diagnosis of lung lesions. Core biopsy gives a higher percentage of representative samples than FNAB, and is a preferred method regardless of the higher rate of complications.
Beslic, Serif; Zukic, Fuad; Milisic, Selma
The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively cytologic screening for cancers and precancerous lesions of the cervix and to research whether biopsy is overused among women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). We examined 28 469 smears obtained over 5 years. The patients were referred when the result of the smear was abnormal for a colposcopic biopsy, endocervical curettage, or a repeat Papanicolaou smear. The results of the screening of 28 469 smears are as follows: 699 (2.45%) ASCUS, 67 (0.23%) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), 43 (0.15%) high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL), 1 epidermoid carcinoma, 31 (0.10%) atypical glandular cells, and 1 adenocarcinoma. Histologic examination of the cervix was done in 119 patients (17.0%) of ASCUS, 13 patients (10.9%) of LGSIL, and 15 patients (12.6%) of HGSIL and cervical carcinoma. In the 119 women with histological examination, histologic examination was generally performed in patients with ASCUS neoplastic Papanicolaou smear, and histologic diagnosis of low-grade, high-grade, or invasive lesion of the cervix was made in 23.5% of women with ASCUS; in these patients, 46.4% were cytologic LGSIL and 53.5 % were cytologic HGSIL and cervical carcinoma. In the aspect of these findings, we concluded that for patients with a cytologic diagnosis of ASCUS, more aggressive interventions should be performed. PMID:15823114
Yalti, S; Gürbüz, B; Bilgiç, R; Cakar, Y; Eren, S
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012; © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22807408
Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M
Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors.
Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, R?dvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet
Background: In the recent years, the advances in digital methods in pathology have resulted in the use of telecytology in the immediate assessment of fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. However, there is a need for organ-based and body site-specific studies on the use of telecytology for the immediate assessment of FNA to evaluate its pitfalls and limitations. We present our experience with the use of telecytology for on-site evaluation of ultrasound-guided FNA (USG-FNA) of axillary lymph nodes in a remote breast care center. Materials and Methods: Real-time images of Diff-Quik-stained cytology smears were obtained with an Olympus digital camera attached to an Olympus CX41 microscope and transmitted via ethernet by a cytotechnologist to a pathologist who rendered preliminary diagnosis while communicating with the on-site cytotechnologist over the Vocera system. The accuracy of the preliminary diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis, retrospectively. Results: A total of 39 female patients (mean age: 50.5 years) seen at the breast care center underwent USG-FNA of 44 axillary nodes. Preliminary diagnoses of benign, suspicious/malignant, and unsatisfactory were 41, 52, and 7%, respectively. Only one of the 23 cases that were initially interpreted as benign was reclassified as suspicious on final cytologic diagnosis. Seventeen of 18 suspicious/malignant cases on initial cytology corresponded with a malignant diagnosis on final cytology. One suspicious case was reclassified as benign on final cytologic diagnosis. All unsatisfactory cases remained inadequate for final cytologic interpretation. The presence of additional material in the cell block and interpretative error were the main reasons for discrepancy, accounting for the two discrepant cases. Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrates that the on-site telecytology evaluation of USG-FNA of axillary lymph nodes in patients at a remote breast care center was highly accurate compared with the final cytologic evaluation. It allows pathologists to use their time more efficiently and makes on-site evaluation at a remote site possible.
Khurana, Kamal K.; Kovalovsky, Andra; Masrani, Deepa
. The traditional bedside dysphagia evaluation has not been able to identify silent aspiration because the pharyngeal phase\\u000a of swallowing could not be objectively assessed. To date, only videofluoroscopy has been used to detect silent aspiration.\\u000a This investigation assessed the aspiration status of 400 consecutive, at risk subjects by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation\\u000a of swallowing (FEES). Our study demonstrated that 175
Steven B. Leder; Clarence T. Sasaki; Morton I. Burrell
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disease characterized by choreatic and hypokinetic movements, disturbed behaviour, and cognitive decline. Pneumonia is the most common cause of death, followed by cardiovasculair diseases. It has been suggested that choking is the causative underlying factor for pneumonia in HD. As a detailed specification of the type of pneumonia has never been performed, we analyzed the records of our Brain Bank containing 224 cases to determine the exact cause of death and type of pneumonia. The conclusion is that the majority (86.8%) of our HD patients where the cause of death could be identified died from aspiration pneumonia. PMID:22307361
Heemskerk, Anne-Wil; Roos, Raymund A C
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary aspiration is a life-threatening complication of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, the incidence of which has not been determined. Endoscopy-related aspiration has not been studied in procedures in which patients swallow a radiolabelled potential aspirate immediately before endoscopy and undergo nuclear scanning postprocedure. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted in which 200 MBq of non-absorbable technetium-99m phytate in 10 mL of water was administered orally to 50 patients who were about to undergo endoscopy. Gamma camera images were obtained to ensure that there had been no aspiration before endoscopy. After endoscopy, a repeat scan was performed. Fluid aspirated through the endoscope was also collected and analyzed for radioactivity using a hand-held radiation monitor. RESULTS: No evidence of pulmonary aspiration was found in any of the patients studied. The mean estimated percentage of the initially administered radioactivity aspirated through the endoscope was 2.66% (range 0% to 10.3%). CONCLUSION: The present pilot study confirms earlier observations that clinically significant aspiration in the context of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is uncommon. The incidence of aspiration may, however, be different in acutely bleeding patients undergoing endoscopy. For logistic reasons, this group could not be studied.
Thomson, A; Tye-Din, J; Tonga, S; Scott, J; Mclaren, C; Pavli, P; Lomas, F
Blood damage caused by traditional vacuum-operated suction tubes, particularly when air is aspirated along with the blood, usually exceeds damage from all other components. In addition to platelet injury, there is a high degree of hemolysis, which leads to high plasma hemoglobin levels and reduces the number of red blood cells available for reinfusion during cases of blood conservation, such as autologous transfusion and cardiac bypass. This work was undertaken to minimize hemolysis, and the accompanying platelet destruction, during aspiration, with the design of a jet-driven aspirator that separates and removes air from blood immediately within the suction tip. The jet-driven aspirator can suction blood at a range of rates from 100 to at least 700 ml/min, separates and removes 80-100% of aspirated air, operates at any orientation, and generates subatmospheric pressures on the order of only 1 inch H2O. In-vitro hemolysis testing showed a significant reduction in average plasma hemoglobin release, from 19.4 mg/dl to 1.8 mg/dl, when air was removed during blood aspiration. In comparative testing with a conventional vacuum suction tube, the jet-driven aspirator showed significantly less hemolysis than the conventional aspirator at comparable rates of air and blood aspiration. PMID:7496409
Clague, C T; Blackshear, P L
The low incidence and the non-specific clinical symptoms led us to conclude that the diagnosis of a sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid often occurs very late. Sebaceous carcinoma of the ocular adnexa is a malignant neoplasm which can exhibit aggressive local behavior, can have pagetoid spread and can metastasize to regional lymph nodes and distant organs. The neoplasm is known to masquerade as other benign and less malignant lesions, and has relatively high morbidity and mortality. Scrape cytology was done in a 70-year-old female with a tumor in left upper lid. Cytological smears were suggestive of sebaceous carcinoma. Subsequently, histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of sebaceous gland carcinoma. The article highlights the role of scrape cytology in early diagnosis and subsequent appropriate surgical management of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma, to prevent recurrence and metastasis.
Arathi, CA; Vijaya, C
There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Dr?gan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114
Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocm?reanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F
Assaying parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the washing liquid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) seems to be a valid approach to locate parathyroid tissue. PTH-FNAB was evaluated in 47 patients with a clinical picture of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) and ultrasonography (US) suggestive of parathyroid lesion. The patients were subdivided into two groups on the basis of the absence or presence of US thyroid alterations. The result of PTH-FNAB was compared with those of cytology, scintigraphy and, in 24 patients, surgical outcome. PTH-FNAB samples with a value higher than that recorded in the serum and higher than our institutional cut-off were deemed to be probable samples of parathyroid tissue. Cytology proved diagnostic for benign thyroid lesions, non-diagnostic for thyroid lesions, hyperplastic parathyroid tissue, undetermined or malignant thyroid lesions and other lesions in 45%, 30%, 17%, 4%, and 4% of cases, respectively. In 47% of cases, PTH-FNAB indicated that the sample had been taken in parathyroid tissue. In patients without US alterations, the diagnostic accuracy of PTH-FNAB was greater than that of scintigraphy. After surgery, comparison between the results of PTH-FNAB and scintigraphy, in terms of positive predictive value (PPV), revealed the superiority of PTH-FNAB; PPV was 94% for FNAB and 71% for scintigraphy, while sensitivity was 83% and 69%, respectively. PTH-FNAB evaluation after FNAB appears to be more diagnostic than cytology and scintigraphy. Of all the procedures used, PTH-FNAB appears to be the method of choice when the target is US suggestive and reachable. PTH-FNAB appears to be a useful method of guiding surgical intervention.
Giusti, Massimo; Dolcino, Mara; Vera, Lara; Ghiara, Carla; Massaro, Francesca; Fazzuoli, Laura; Ferone, Diego; Mussap, Michele; Minuto, Francesco
This contains the 465 presentation and poster abstracts for the XVI Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, March 1993. Plenary Sessions included the following: Industrial Cytometry; Clinical Issues (in Cytology); Molecular Pathology; biotechnology; new biology; temporal cytometry.
Mayall, B.H.; Landay, A.L.; Shapiro, H.M.; Visser, J.W.M. [eds.
Clear cell carcinoma of the thymus is a rare tumor. Few cases of clear-cell carcinoma of thymus have been documented (Truong et al., 1990 and Wolfe III et al., 1983). All these cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the tissue. Diagnosis of thymic clear cell carcinoma on cytology is extremely challenging. Here we report the first case of thymic clear cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytological examination of the pericardial fluid with the help of immunocytochemistry. Differential diagnosis included adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and thymic clear cell carcinoma. Thymic carcinoma with clear cell features has an aggressive clinical behavior including our case, where it was already metastasized at the time of presentation.
Lale, Seema A.; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G.; Aziz, Mohamed
Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. PMID:24144097
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The authors take this opportunity to report two cases of GISTs of large bowel diagnosed on cytology and confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:21563325
Maheshwari, Veena; Alam, Kiran; Varshney, Manoranjan; Jain, Anshu; Asif Siddiqui, Farhan; Bhargava, Shruti
Recent advances in therapy for non–small cell lung carcinoma have shown that a personalized approach to treatment has the potential to significantly reduce lung cancer mortality. Concurrently, endoscopic ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration has emerged as an accurate and sensitive tool for the diagnosis and staging of this disease. As knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer progression increases, the amount of information that must be derived from a tumor specimen will also increase. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that small specimens acquired by endoscopic ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration are sufficient for molecular testing if specimen acquisition and processing are done with these needs in mind. Optimum use of this procedure requires a coordinated effort between the bronchoscopist and the cytopathologist to collect and triage specimens for diagnostic testing. When feasible, rapid onsite evaluation should be performed to assess the specimen for both diagnostic quality and quantity and to allocate the specimen for cell-block and possible immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. It is necessary for pulmonologists and bronchoscopists to understand the rationale for histologic and molecular testing of lung cancer diagnostic specimens and to ensure that specimens are acquired and processed in a fashion that provides information from small cytologic specimens that is sufficient to guide treatment in this era of targeted therapy.
Bulman, William; Saqi, Anjali
Aspiration pneumonia is a serious problem for the elderly institutionalized person, often requiring transfer to a hospital and a lengthy stay there. It is associated with a high mortality rate and is very costly to the health care system. The current study sought to determine the key predictors of aspiration pneumonia in a nursing home population with the hope that
Susan E. Langmore; Kimberly A. Skarupski; Pil S. Park; Brant E. Fries
|Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations…
Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.
Past research has shown that teenagers with less educated parents and teenagers with lower academic aspirations are more likely than their peers to smoke. This study was conducted to provide additional descriptive data concerning the relationships of smoking to parents' education and students' educational aspirations and to provide preliminary…
Waldron, Ingrid; Lye, Diane
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender, work factors, and non-work factors with aspirations to positions in senior management. A process model of senior management aspirations was developed and tested. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via an online survey that resulted in a sample of 368…
Litzky, Barrie; Greenhaus, Jeffrey
We report a case of complete airway obstruction due to aspiration of muddy water. An innovative approach to clear the airway is described, which may be a potentially life saving manoeuver in similar cases of suspected muddy water aspiration. PMID:23125309
Schober, Patrick; Christiaans, Herman M T; Loer, Stephan A; Schwarte, Lothar A
A lot is expected of Slovenian principals, yet very little is known about aspiring principals' own expectations of principalship. Currently there is no Slovenian study of aspiring principals, although they represent the majority of those enrolled on the "certification programme" of the National School for Leadership in Education. The purpose of…
Trnavcevic, Anita; Vaupot, Silva Roncelli
Kerosene ingested, intentionally or accidentally, is toxic. Data is scarce on complications and outcomes of hydrocarbon poisoning following kerosene aspiration in adults and there has been no known case of bilateral hemorrhagic effusion occurring due to it in literature. We, hereby, report a case of a bilateral hemorrhagic pleural effusion secondary to hydrocarbon aspiration in a 40-year old adult.
Prasad, Rajendra; Karmakar, Saurabh; Sodhi, Rakhee; Karmakar, Shilpi
The classical micro-pipette aspiration technique, applied for measuring the membrane bending elasticity, is in the present work reviewed and extended to span the range of pipette aspiration pressures going through the flaccid (low pressures) to tense (high pressures) membrane regime. The quality of the conventional methods for analysing data is evaluated using numerically generated data and a new method for
J. R. Henriksen; J. H. Ipsen
Individuals who are supportive of social justice efforts are not always effective in their anti-oppression efforts. Some who genuinely aspire to act as social justice allies are harmful, ultimately, despite their best intentions, perpetu- ating the system of oppression they seek to change. Different underlying motivations of those who aspire to be allies can lead to differences in effectiveness, consistency,
Keith E. Edwards
Investigates students' persistence regarding career aspirations in science and engineering (SE) professional careers as a function of race and sex. In a sample of 8th graders, men were more likely to persist in SE career aspirations. Academic proficiency and math self-efficacy were 2 of the strongest predictors of persistence in SE careers.…
A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…
Schrom, Linda K.
Many studies have examined factors influencing the career aspirations of high school students, but little has been done to explore this issue with primary school students. This study investigated factors that might influence the career aspirations of children across a broad age spectrum. Students (N=150) from grades 2, 5, 8, and 12 completed…
Canale, Joseph R.; Dunlap, Linda L.
Urban indicators must tell us how the urban system is doing. Objective indices are limited; inherent factors in the situation demand that subjective data from those affected by social planning be considered. Because the city exists only to serve human needs, the question of satisfactions becomes crucial. But satisfactions depend on aspirations, and aspirations depend on how a person perceives
Cytological and molecular analysis of meiotic cells from two bull clones and three non-clones was performed in order to detect effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNCT) on the meiotic process. Pachytene cells were analyzed by immunohistology using antibodies against the synaptonemal complex pr...
Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...
The infection of cucumber leaves by Colletotrichum lagenarium was studied using cytological methods. Its progress in untreated plants was compared with that in plants in which systemic resistance had been induced by pre-infecting the first true leaf with the same fungus. In induced plants, a reduction of fungal development was observed at the leaf surface, in the epidermis, and in
Kati Kovfits I; Andres Binder; Hans R. Hohl
Conjunctival epithelium was systematically investigated with impression cytology in clinically asymptomatic wearers of soft contact lenses who had been using their lenses for several years. Severe abnormalities were observed, which had so far only been seen in diseases of the ocular surface mainly in dry eye syndromes. All patients showed evidence of squamous metaplasia with distinctly enlarged, flattened cells without
Erich Knopl; Horst Brewitt
Background Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS?FNA) has proven to be an effective diagnostic modality for the detection and staging of pancreatic malignancies. In recent years EUS?FNA has also been used to diagnose lesions of non?pancreatic sites such as structures in close proximity to the gut wall within the mediastinum, abdomen, pelvis and retro?peritoneum. Aims To evaluate experience with EUS?FNA of non?pancreatic sites at a large university medical centre. Methods The study cohort included 234 patients who underwent EUS?FNA of 246 lesions in non?pancreatic sites (122 peri?pancreatic and coeliac lymph nodes; 9 peri?pancreatic masses; other sites: mediastinum 12, gastric 25, liver 27, oesophagus 17, duodenum/colon/rectum 15, retro?peritoneum 8, lung 7, miscellaneous 4). Results The cytology diagnoses were classified as non?neoplastic/reactive in 82 (33%), atypical/suspicious for malignancy in 25 (10%), malignant in 86 (35%) and non?diagnostic in 53 (22%) cases. Surgical pathology follow?up was available in 75 (31%) cases. Excluding the non?diagnostic cases there were 7 false negative and 3 false positive cases. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of EUS?FNA in the diagnosis of lesions of non?pancreatic sites was 92%, 98% and 97%, respectively. Conclusions EUS?FNA can be effectively used as a diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of lesions from non?pancreatic sites.
Anand, Dipti; Barroeta, Julieta E; Gupta, Prabodh K; Kochman, Michael; Baloch, Zubair W
Tracheoesophageal puncture prostheses (TEPPs) are an integral aspect of speech rehabilitation for many patients who have undergone total laryngectomy. Because one flange of the prosthesis sits in the trachea and the other in the esophagus, these devices can be aspirated or swallowed if dislodged. Five cases of prosthesis aspiration that occurred in 4 veterans within a 16-month period are described. The 5 aspirated TEPPs resulted in highly variable clinical presentations ranging from complaints of "lost" TEPPs in asymptomatic patients to near-asphyxiation. Furthermore, the aspirated TEPPs were not reliably demonstrated on chest radiographs, often leading to delayed diagnosis. Aspiration of TEPPs may be more common than formerly recognized, and chest computed tomography or bronchoscopy is indicated in cases of missing TEPPs not demonstrated on plain films. PMID:18217505
Brenner, Michael J; Floyd, Larry; Collins, Sharon L
We introduce a deterministic win-stay-lose-shift rule into the spatial public goods game, according to which a player will change its current strategy only if its payoff is below a predefined aspiration level. Simulation results on the square lattice and scale-free network indicate that the aspiration level greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. For small multiplication factors, the frequency of cooperation increases to 0.5 as the aspiration level increases. For large multiplication factors, intermediate levels of aspiration prove optimal for the successful evolution of public cooperation. Some qualitative analyses are provided to explain the above results. Besides, we have found that there exists a ping-pong vibration of cooperation at some specific values of multiplication factors and aspiration levels.
Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Lu, Pei-Min; Zeng, Yong-Zhi
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between aspiration and seven other variables indicative of pharyngeal stage dysphagia. Additionally, we looked at the relationship between aspiration and oral stage dysphagia. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified five independent predictors of aspiration that were significant at the p = 0.05 level: vallecular stasis, reduced hyoid elevation, deviant epiglottic function, diffuse hypopharyngeal stasis, and delayed initiation of the pharyngeal stage of the swallow. A linear trend was observed in that, as the severity of vallecular stasis, pyriform sinus stasis, diffuse hypopharyngeal stasis, or delayed initiation of the pharyngeal stage of the swallow increased, the proportion of patients who aspirated also increased. A stepwise logistic regression model furnished estimates of the odds ratio for each independent variable and can be used by clinicians to calculate the risk of aspiration in patients who demonstrate pharyngeal stage dysphagia. PMID:8005013
Perlman, A L; Booth, B M; Grayhack, J P
The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.
Background The objective of this study was to compare the utility of Thin-Prep (TP) cytologic preparation with that of Cell Block (CB) preparation in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, mainly follicular epithelial lesions, by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Feasibility of using the TP slides for immunocytochemical stains is also discussed. Methods A total of 126 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with TP slides and 128 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with CB slides were reviewed blindly by two cytopathologists. The presence of colloid, follicular cells, macrophages and lymphocytes/plasma cells were recorded and scored 0–4 on each case based on TP or CB slide review. The cytologic diagnoses were grouped as follows: cyst, colloid nodule, colloid nodule with cystic change, chronic thyroiditis, atypical/neoplastic and non-diagnostic. Results The TP slides had higher diagnostic rate than CB slides. The diagnostic yield was 68% of the TP slides whereas only 24% of the CB slides were diagnostic. Also, only 4 atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the TP slides and the corresponding direct smears, while 5 cases of atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the smears but could not be diagnosed on the corresponding CB slides. Additionally, the TP slides revealed cytologic features that were not observed on the direct traditional smears of the same case. Conclusion In thyroid FNAB cases, TP slide preparation is superior to CB slide preparation and is more likely to have greater cellularity for diagnosis and detect atypical/neoplastic thyroid lesions, particularly those of follicular cell origin. Furthermore, TP slides appear to detect helpful diagnostic cytologic features and should be considered complementary to, rather than replacing, direct smears.
Saleh, Husain A; Hammoud, Jamal; Zakaria, Richard; Khan, Aurang Zeb
The incidence and prevalence of aspiration pneumonia (AP) are poorly defined. They increase in direct relation with age and underlying diseases. The pathogenesis of AP presumes the contribution of risk factors that alter swallowing function and predispose to the oropharyngeal bacterial colonization. The microbial etiology of AP involves Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae for community-acquired AP and Gram-negative aerobic bacilli in nosocomial pneumonia. It is worth bearing in mind the relative unimportance of anaerobic bacteria in AP. When we choose the empirical antibiotic treatment, we have to consider some pathogens identified in oropharyngeal flora. Empirical treatment with antianaerobics should only be used in certain patients. According to some known risks factors, the prevention of AP should include measures in order to avoid it. PMID:23052002
Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Clavé, Pere
Sarcomatoid variant of urothelial carcinoma (SV-UC) is characterized by the presence of biphasic malignant neoplastic components exhibiting morphological and/or immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. SV-UC is a rare variant of UC and the cytological features of this tumor have not been well described. In the present study, we analyzed the cytological features of a series of SV-UC cases; 6 voided urine specimens from 3 patients with SV-UC were reviewed. Several characteristic cytological features were revealed: i) tumor cells were abundant in a necrotic background and while single tumor cells were predominant, small clusters of cells were occasionally present; ii) tumor cells were large-sized and round to polygonal in shape with ill-defined cell borders; iii) tumor cells had a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and enlarged round to oval nuclei containing coarse chromatin and occasional nucleoli; and iv) spindle-shaped atypical cells were rarely identified (1/6 specimens). The cytological features of i), ii) and iii) are indistinguishable from those of conventional invasive high-grade UC. We hypothesize that these tumor cells originated from the conventional high-grade UC component of SV-UC as this component is usually present in this type of lesion, particularly on the surface of the tumor. Moreover, the sarcomatoid component of SV-UC is usually present in the deeper portion of the tumor and therefore detection of this component in the voided cytological specimen is low. Although cytodiagnosis of SV-UC is extremely difficult, cytodiagnosis of malignancy may prove possible due to the presence of a conventional UC component. PMID:23255892
Arita, Namie; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Iwai, Muneo; Okabe, Hidetoshi
Nine trees of Cryptomeria japonica from six elite tree clones with a broad range of heartwood colors were selected. The profiles of pit aspiration percentage (ASP) of earlywood and latewood from pith to bark for green and air-dry conditions were determined to study the relationship between heartwood color and pit aspiration. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observations showed that the
Junji Matsumura; Yoko Yamasaki; Kazuyuki Oda; Yoshitake Fujisawa
This case study compares two different clinical outcomes for a patient with a long-standing psychotic disorder prescribed clozapine on two occasions. During the first trial, clozapine was used at a higher dose for this patient (350-450mg/day) and included clinically significant sialorrhea, pneumonia, and pneumonia-like illnesses requiring immediate medical intervention including hospitalization. There were also patient complaints of fatigue, cough, choking, and constipation leading to poor adherence. Clozapine was discontinued when the patient withdrew his consent due to side effects, despite his awareness of its benefits, including reduction of command hallucinations and irritability. The second clozapine trial was associated with lower daily doses and therapeutic serum blood levels. The patient was actively participating in and adhering to the medication plan. A very narrow window of clozapine dose was exceeded for two days and the patient complained of hypersalivation, cough, and lethargy. He was subsequently hospitalized for a two week period to treat aspiration pneumonia. This hospitalization helped establish the ideal daily dose of clozapine for this patient and also brought the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and clozapine to the attention of the psychiatrist and medical specialist. Once the appropriate dosage for this patient was established, his psychotic and affective symptoms were controlled, he was not hampered by adverse side effects, and he started to actively participate in social and recreational activities and plans that culminated in discharge from a state psychiatric facility to a supportive community residence. It is our hope that the lessons we have learned from our shared experience with this patient will be of benefit to other clinicians and patients.
Grace, Jeffery; Szymanski, Herman; Bhullar, Jaspinder; Lee, Claudia; Watson, Thomas
BACKGROUND: Training for advanced bronchoscopic procedures is acquired during the interventional pulmonology (IP) Fellowship. Unfortunately a number of such programs are small, limiting dissemination of formal training. OBJECTIVE: We studied success of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) in the hands of physicians without formal IP training. METHODS: A technique of C-TBNA was learned solely from the literature, videos and practicing on inanimate models at “Hands-On” courses. Conventional TBNA with 21 and/or 19 gauge Smooth Shot Needles (Olympus®, Japan) was performed on consecutive patients with undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (male 23), mean age 54.9 ± 11.8 years underwent C-TBNA. Twenty-two patients had nodes larger than 20 mms. Suspected diagnoses were malignancy in 20 and nonmalignant conditions in 14. Final diagnoses were malignancy 17, sarcoidosis 4, reactive lymph nodes 12, and tuberculosis 1. Final diagnosis was established by C-TBNA in 14 (11 malignancy, 3 sarcoidosis; yield 41.1%), mediastinoscopy in 14, transthoracic needle aspiration in 3, peripheral lymph node biopsies in 2 and by endobronchial biopsy in 1. Nodal size had an impact on outcome (P = 0.000) while location did not (P = 0.33). C-TBNA was positive in 11/20 when malignancy was suspected (yield 55%), while 3/14 when benign diagnosis was suspected (yield 21.4%) (P = 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy were 66.6%, 100%, 100%, 65%, and 79.4%, respectively. There were no complications or scope damage. CONCLUSION: Conventional-TBNA can be learned by the books and by practicing on inanimate models without formal training and results similar to those published in the literature could be achieved.
Kupeli, Elif; Memis, Leyla; Ozdemirel, Tugce S.; Ulubay, Gaye; Akcay, Sule; Eyuboglu, Fusun O
Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPT) is a rare and fascinating entity of elusive histogenesis and unpredictable biology. It has a peculiar proclivity to afflict young females and involve the pancreatic body-tail region. Cytology diagnosis of these rare neoplasms remains a challenge. We analyzed the cytology features of all SPT cases diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from 2003 to 2009 along with their histopathology slides. Nineteen consecutive cases were diagnosed as SPT on FNAC. Fifteen out of nineteen cases were confirmed as true SPT on histopathology. Amongst the true SPT, all except one occurred in females. Age ranged from 14 to 50 years. Pseudopapillae bearing stout branches terminating in bulbous tips and enclosing transgressing vessels, separated from a collar of tumor cells by a clear zone of myxohyaline coat were pathognomonic of SPT. Singly dispersed monomorphic tumor cells with bland chromatin formed the second diagnostic component of SPT. Nuclear grooves and hyaline globules were in addition helpful in segregating SPT from its close differentials. In four cases diagnosed as SPT on FNAC, histopathology revealed a different final diagnosis (one case each of paraganglioma, extragastrointestinal stromal tumor, metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor). Conversely, one case of SPT had been erroneously diagnosed as neuroendocrine tumor on FNAC. Six cases (40%) developed metastasis; commonest site being liver. In conclusion, cytology in conjunction with clinico-radiologic findings plays a key role in making a correct diagnosis. Awareness of unique cytomorphological features is important in distinguishing this tumor from its diverse mimics. PMID:23008277
Bal, Munita Meenu; Deodhar, Kedar; Shrikhande, Shailesh; Shukla, Parul; Arya, Supreeta; Ramadwar, Mukta
Hospital records of 1160 children
Eren, Sevval; Balci, Akin Eraslan; Dikici, Bünyamin; Doblan, Mehmet; Eren, Mehmet Nesimi
Objective To assess aspirations for physical health over 18 months. To examine whether maintained importance of aspirations for physical health mediated and/or moderated the effect of an intensive intervention on long-term tobacco abstinence. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention based on self-determination theory or to community care, and provided data at baseline and at 18 and 30 months post-randomization. Results Aspirations for physical health were better maintained over 18 months among participants in the intervention (mean change = .05), relative to community care (mean change = -.13), t = 2.66, p < .01. Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health partially mediated the treatment condition effects on seven-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence (z? = 1.68, p < .01) and the longest number of days not smoking (z? = 2.16, p < .01), and interacted with treatment condition to facilitate the longest number of days not smoking (? = .08, p < .05). Conclusion Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health facilitated tobacco abstinence. Practice implications Smokers may benefit from discussing aspirations for physical health within autonomy-supportive interventions. Patients may benefit from discussing aspirations during counseling about therapeutic lifestyle change and medication use.
Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.; Williams, Geoffrey C.
Anovlar induces a mitodepressive effect, producing abnormal prophases and a considerable number of micronuclei, i.e. Anovlar can produce major cytological abnormalities. On the other hand, Lyndiol induces minor abnormalities leaving the process of mitosis to proceed almost normally. Microgynon 30 did not show any effect on any of the mitotic stages. Our conclusion may offer an explanation for the contradictory results found in the literature upon the cytological effect of oral contraceptives, although the major chemical constitution of all contraceptives used is the same, still there are minor differences in their chemical structure. These minor differences in chemical structure may be the deciding cause whether or not a contraceptive is harmful. PMID:6708960
Kabarity, A; Mazrooei, S
Clear cell carcinoma of the thymus is a rare tumor. Few cases of clear-cell carcinoma of thymus have been documented (Truong et al., 1990 and Wolfe III et al., 1983). All these cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the tissue. Diagnosis of thymic clear cell carcinoma on cytology is extremely challenging. Here we report the first case of thymic clear cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytological examination of the pericardial fluid with the help of immunocytochemistry. Differential diagnosis included adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and thymic clear cell carcinoma. Thymic carcinoma with clear cell features has an aggressive clinical behavior including our case, where it was already metastasized at the time of presentation. PMID:24175107
Lale, Seema A; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G; Aziz, Mohamed
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a recently recognized clinicopathologic entity that has a predilection for adolescent males and usually affects the abdominal cavity. Due to its uncommon nature, many pathologists lack experience with this tumor. The literature regarding DSRCT is reviewed with special attention to its histologic and cytologic diagnosis. Morphologic features of DSRCT and its immunohistochemical and cytogenetic profile are summarized and differential diagnosis with other small round cell tumors is discussed. As observed by both histologic and cytologic examinations, small round blue cells and fibrosclerotic stroma are the striking morphologic features of DSRCT. The typical immunohistochemical profile is characterized by coexpression of epithelial, mesenchymal, myogenic, and neural markers. Cytogenetically, this tumor harbors a specific karyotypic abnormality, namely t(11;22)(p13;q12). These features distinguish DSRCT from other members of the family of small round cell tumors. PMID:16683894
The effects of different oral contraceptive combined preparations (Serial, Ovanon, Delpregnin, Lyndiol 2.5, Ovulen mite, Primovlar, Gentrol, and Anovlar) on vaginal cytology during different phases of the menstrual cycle were studied. The karyopyknotic index was determined by phase contrast in 1301 patients and in 2213 controls. The results revealed great differences in estrogen activity and individual modes of action of progestin based on the cyclical pattern. It was established that vaginal cytology is an applicable and convenient method of comparing biological and especially estrogenic activities of different OCs as well as the reciprocal effect of different progestational steroids, and it is recommended that this method should be used in testing new preparations. PMID:4441026
Kauraniemi, T V; Hirvonen, E
Drosophila nigricruria has a distribution ranging from northern Mexico to Chile. It is a relatively rare species, primarily limited to cactus deserts or pine-oak associations at altitudes of 1200 to 2100 meters above sea level. The species comprises two cytological races with a zone of hybridization in the Oaxaca and Puebla regions of Mexico. Despite the zone of hybridization, gene flow for chromosome 4 genes is limited, or non-existent, between the two races. Sexual isolation tests were run using a population from the northern race, a hybrid population, and a population that is essentially southern. Sexual discrimination among these strains was on the same order of magnitude as that found between geographical populations of other species. There was no evidence to indicate that sexual isolation is any stronger between the cytological races of nigricruria than one might expect between any two geographical populations within a species. PMID:874304
Wasserman, M; Koepfer, H R
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a common deep mycosis in South America. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We report a case of a 47-year-old Brazilian man with oral lesions due to paracoccidioidomycosis, which was diagnosed by exfoliative cytology without any special staining. We highlight this diagnostic tool as a simple, low-cost, painless, non-invasive and fast method for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:18254758
Talhari, Carolina; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Parreira, Vilmar José; Reinel, Dieter; Talhari, Sinésio
The Ulvophyceae, one of the four classes of the Chlorophyta, is of particular evolutionary interest because it features an unrivaled morphological and cytological diversity. Morphological types range from unicells and simple multicellular filaments to sheet-like and complex corticated thalli. Cytological layouts range from typical small cells containing a single nucleus and chloroplast to giant cells containing millions of nuclei and chloroplasts. In order to understand the evolution of these morphological and cytological types, the present paper aims to assess whether the Ulvophyceae are monophyletic and elucidate the ancient relationships among its orders. Our approach consists of phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) of seven nuclear genes, small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA and two plastid markers with carefully chosen partitioning strategies, and models of sequence evolution. We introduce a procedure for fast site removal (site stripping) targeted at improving phylogenetic signal in a particular epoch of interest and evaluate the specificity of fast site removal to retain signal about ancient relationships. From our phylogenetic analyses, we conclude that the ancestral ulvophyte likely was a unicellular uninucleate organism and that macroscopic growth was achieved independently in various lineages involving radically different mechanisms: either by evolving multicellularity with coupled mitosis and cytokinesis (Ulvales-Ulotrichales and Trentepohliales), by obtaining a multinucleate siphonocladous organization where every nucleus provides for its own cytoplasmic domain (Cladophorales and Blastophysa), or by developing a siphonous organization characterized by either one macronucleus or millions of small nuclei and cytoplasmic streaming (Bryopsidales and Dasycladales). We compare different evolutionary scenarios giving rise to siphonous and siphonocladous cytologies and argue that these did not necessarily evolve from a multicellular or even multinucleate state but instead could have evolved independently from a unicellular ancestor. PMID:20368268
Cocquyt, Ellen; Verbruggen, Heroen; Leliaert, Frederik; De Clerck, Olivier
Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification.
Saxena, R. B.
Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing by Hybrid Capture II (Digene Diagnostics Inc., Silver Spring, MD) with regard to detecting biopsy-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or high-grade CIN in women with mild atypia, compared with the efficiencies of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot hybridization, and cytology.Methods: We prospectively studied 378 women with atypical squamous cells
Christine Bergeron; Dominique Jeannel; Jean-Dominique Poveda; Patricia Cassonnet; Gérard Orth
This paper presents a practical combination of image processing and pattern recognition techniques in order to identify pathological\\u000a and atypical cells in phase contrast cytological images. The algorithms involved in the processing cover: oriented edge detection,\\u000a ridge following, contour grouping and ellipse fitting. The Hough Transform and other techniques are discussed for comparison.\\u000a Various pattern recognition techniques are tested and
Marcin Smereka; Grzegorz Glab
In this study quantitative techniques have been applied to smears collected from the buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth. The results display an encouraging success rate for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. 'Intrapatient' normal smears provide a satisfactory control for comparison with pathological smears. Early results indicate that quantitative cytology could be of great value for monitoring and follow-up of suspicious lesions and provide an excellent additional diagnostic test for detecting early oral malignancy.
Cowpe, J G; Longmore, R B; Green, M W
The aim of this study was to investigate the staining characteristics of Victoria Blue B in alcohol solutions. Cytological specimens (liver and spleen tissue imprints, blood smears) were stained with methanol solutions of commercially available Victoria Blue B-Cl and with pure Victoria Blue B-BF4. The dye concentration, staining time, and protone concentration of the dye solution were varied. The dye
E. Schulte; D. Wittekind; V. Kretschmer
Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.
Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.
The Health of the Nation white paper set a target for 15% reduction in overall suicide rates by the year 2000. If the targets are to be achieved interventions must be identified which are of proved effectiveness. This paper examines the evidence on the available interventions and points of access to the population at risk. No single intervention has been shown in a well conducted randomised controlled trial to reduce suicide. The greatest potential seems to arise from limiting the availability of methods. In particular it is likely that the introduction of the catalytic convertor will lead to reduced lethality of care exhausts and reductions in suicide using this method. General practitioner education programmes, the effectiveness of lithium and maintenance antidepressants, and limits on the quantity of medicines available over the counter or on prescription should all be evaluated. Particular high risk groups include people recently discharged from psychiatric hospitals and those with a history of parasuicide. Many social processes affect suicide rates and these rather than specific interventions may help or hinder the ability to realise the Health of the Nation targets. Well conducted trials are essential to distinguish complex social processes from the effects of specific interventions for suicide prevention. This review of the available evidence offers little support for the aspiration that the posited targets can be achieved on the basis of current knowledge and current policy. Images p1229-a p1233-a
Gunnell, D.; Frankel, S.
... (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity or remove a crystalline lens. (b) Classification....
We describe an innovative aspirator gun designed to transfer individual anesthetized mosquitoes directly into glass bioassay tubes. The gun has been used for thousands of transfers with extremely low associated mortality and is the central component of a ...
K. J. Linthicum R. L. Aldridge S. C. Britch W. W. Wynn
One way to remove lodged bubbles in small vena is to force the bubble to be completely aspirated into a fine needle. We study the aspiration of a bubble into a vertical capillary tube, for different bubble size relative to the capillary diameter (i.e. bubble confinement) and low Bond numbers (pipette diameter << capillary length). In this case, there is a critical condition of flow rate depending on the bubble confinement and the capillary number Ca beyond which the bubble is aspirated completely into the capillary. Below this value, the bubble breaks-up forming a liquid slug at the entrance of the tube. A simple model which takes into account the draining time of the annular liquid thin film and the characteristic time of the capillary instability, explains the observed experimental results and establish the characteristic time to aspirate completely the bubble.
Durth, Melanie; Clanet, Christophe; Fernandez, Juan
This exploratory case study is designed to provide information regarding the trigenerational aspirations of Mexican-American women. The study specifically examines each mother's role in relation to her daughter's academic aspiration. Nine mother, daughter, and grandmother triads were interviewed and administered questionnaires. Variables examined include: (a) family characteristics, (b) career aspirations, (c) support of academic aspirations, (d) feelings of self-esteem, and
Arthur Hernandez; Linda Vargas-Lew; Cynthia L. Martinez
A study was conducted to assess and account for high school student aspirations for post-secondary education. This study intends to shed some light as to why or why not a Vermont high school student will aspire to further education, the content of that aspiration, and factors which determine that aspiration. Major topics discussed include: (1)…
Hochschild, Steven F.; Johnston, James Gilbert
A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose of facilitating future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and linked to other registries (histology, cancer, and vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval from ethical review boards. A CCB constitutes a nearly inexhaustible resource to perform fundamental and applied biologic research. In particular, it can contribute in answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage. PMID:20949396
Arbyn, Marc; Andersson, Kristin; Bergeron, Christine; Bogers, John-Paul; von Knebel-Doebertitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim
We examined the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a sample of Brazilian women presenting normal cervical cytology. Possible interactions between patient characteristics and HPV infection were analyzed in order to provide background data to improve cervical cancer screening and prophylaxis. Cervical samples of 399 women, received for routine evaluation in the Health Department of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, were subjected to HPV-DNA testing by PCR with MY09/11 primers. HPV-positive specimens were typed by RFLP. A structured epidemiological questionnaire was administered to each woman. HPV prevalence among these cytologically normal women was 11%. Twelve viral types were detected, the most common being HPV-16, -6, -61, -83, and -66. HPV was more prevalent in younger women; high-risk viral types were detected in 61% of the infected women and 27% of the infected women had multiple HPV infections. Significant associations of HPV infection were found with age, literacy, residence, marital status, lifetime number of sexual partners, and parity. We detected a great diversity of HPV types in women with normal cytology. This kind of information about local populations is useful for HPV prevention and vaccination strategies. PMID:22843052
Miranda, P M; Pitol, B C V; Moran, M S; Silva, N N T; Felix, P M; Lima-Filho, J L; Carneiro, C M; Silva, I D C G; Carvalho, R F; Lima, A A; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C
Aims and Objectives: To analyze testicular histopathology in men diagnosed as idiopathic obstructive azoospermia (IOA) based on normal spermatogenesis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) but with absence of sperms in the epididymis during surgical exploration. Materials and Methods: Men presenting with infertility due to IOA during the study period from July 2008 to July 2010 were prospectively evaluated. Clinical examination, semen analysis, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testicular FNAC were done. Men with normal volume azoospermia with normal spermatogenesis on FNAC and palpable vas were offered scrotal exploration for microsurgical vasoepididymal anastomosis (VEA). Patients in whom reconstruction was not feasible intraoperatively were analyzed for the causes of failure. The FNAC, FSH and biopsy of these patients were compared. Results: 77 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In 38 men, sperm was present in the epididymal fluid and VEA was performed. In 39 men, reconstruction was not feasible. Thirty-four of these 39 men had normal FSH and testicular volume. In 5 of these 39 men, serum FSH was high (mean 17.48 mIU/ml) and testes were small in size (mean volume 14.5 ml). Testicular biopsy in two of these five men showed patchy areas of atrophy, while the other three men had hyalinized seminiferous tubules with thickened basement membrane, maturation arrest and normal spermatogenesis, respectively. Conclusion: FNAC was discordant with histopathological examination (HPE) in four out of five patients of negative surgical exploration with raised FSH. Therefore, among men with idiopathic azoospermia, only those with both normal FSH and normal FNAC should be diagnosed as obstructive azoospermia and explored.
Sahay, Shailesh C.; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Kumar, Rajeev
Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations are influenced by factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, race, parents' occupation
Desirae M. Domenico; Karen H. Jones
As part of an effort to characterize the uncertainties associated with temperature measurements in fire environments, models of bare bead, single-shielded aspirated, and double-shielded aspirated thermocouples were developed and used to study the effects of varying the gas and average effective surroundings temperatures on the thermocouple error of each configuration. The models were developed for steady-state conditions and hence provide
Linda G. Blevins; William M. Pitts
Does individual well-being depend on the absolute level of income and consumption or is it relative to one’s aspirations? In a direct empirical test, it is found that higher income aspirations reduce people’s utility, ceteris paribus. Individual data on reported satisfaction with life are used as a proxy measure for utility, and income evaluation measures are applied as proxies for
Capsule endoscopy is a novel tool for the diagnosis of small intestinal disorders. Recently, a new complication of the procedure in the form of the capsule's aspiration into the lungs has been reported. The aspiration of capsule endoscope can lead to a variety of complications including respiratory failure. A low threshold to suspect this complication and urgent bronchoscopic extraction in appropriate patients can prevent serious sequelae. PMID:23207536
Girdhar, Ankur; Usman, Faisal; Bajwa, Abubakr
Aspiration of food during ingestion is the entry of material into the airway below the true vocal folds. It may occur as the\\u000a result of a number of anatomical and physiological disturbances in deglutition in the oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal stages.\\u000a In order for aspiration to be treated effectively and efficiently, it should be defined according to its etiology and
Jeri A. Logemann
Embryonal carcinoma affects young males in the prime of life with a majority of these tumors already having metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Subcutaneous metastasis from embryonal carcinoma are very rare and often associated with wide spread disease and poor prognosis. We report a case of chest wall subcutaneous metastasis of embryonal carcinoma in a 27 year-old man that was the first presentation of the disease and was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Subsequent search led to the discovery of the primary in the testis. The cytomorphological features of embryonal carcinoma are quite distinctive and FNAC plays a vital role in early diagnosis. The criteria for diagnosis includes presence of cellular smears exhibiting disperse cells as well as cell aggregates forming microglandular patterns. Cells have large nuclei with prominent nucleoli and pale indistinct often vacuolated cytoplasm. Early diagnosis and treatment with platinum based chemotherapy in conjunction with radiotherapy and surgery have high cure rate.
Khan, Lubna; Verma, Shubhra; Singh, PK; Agarwal, Asha
The golden standard in non-operative breast cancer diagnosis is the triple test, a combination of clinical evaluation, mammography/ultrasound and needle biopsy, either fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological core biopsy. FNAC and core biopsy both have advantages and disadvantages but neither of them can act as a decisive diagnostic procedure on its own. The final diagnosis should always be a consensus between the three diagnostic modalities in the triple test. Quality assurance of the pathological diagnosis is a must. The number of uncertain diagnoses i.e. atypia or suspicion of malignancy should be kept at a minimum. These diagnostic categories call for additional diagnostic procedures and thereby cause a delay in reaching the final diagnosis leading to definitive treatment. PMID:17953876
Rasmussen, Birgitte Bruun; Bak, Martin; Rank, Fritz E
Thyroid cancer harbours in about 5% of thyroid nodules. The majority of them are well-differentiated cancers originating from the follicular epithelium, and are subdivided into papillary and follicular carcinomas. Undifferentiated carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas arising from C cells are less common. Although most thyroid nodules are benign, distinguishing thyroid cancer from benign lesions is crucial for an appropriate treatment and follow-up. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) allows the diagnosis of nature of thyroid nodules in the majority of cases. However, FNAC has some limitations, particularly in the presence of follicular lesions which can appear dubious in rare instances even at histology. In an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy and offer new prognostic criteria, several immunohistochemical and molecular markers have been proposed. However, most of them have to be validated on large series before being used in routine practice.
Ruggeri, Rosaria M.; Campenni, Alfredo; Baldari, Sergio; Trimarchi, Francesco; Trovato, Maria
Objective: We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. Methods: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000–2005) were retrieved from our institution’s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed
Opeyemi Adegboyega Falebita; Garry Lee; Paul Sweeney
Although criteria have been established to assess the quality of sputum specimens, no criteria for assessing the quality of endotracheal suction aspirates (ETSA) exist. Therefore, we compared the Gram stain (GS) and culture results for 504 consecutive ETSA specimens. Results recorded for GS included the numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SEC) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) per low-power field (LPF) (magnification, x100) as well as the quantities and types of organisms per high-power field (HPF) (magnification, x1,000). Culture results were quantitated by organism. Only 15% of ETSA specimens tested by GS contained > 10 SEC per LPF, and 21, 20, and 59% had < or = 10, 11 to 24, and > or = 25 PML per LPF, respectively. For 40% of ETSA specimens, no organisms were visible by GS. Of these specimens, 40% were sterile, 48% grew normal oropharyngeal flora (NF) only, 5% grew 1+ NF (i.e., > 10 colonies in the first quadrant) and 1+ gram-negative rods (GNR), and 7% grew < or = 1+ GNR either alone or in mixed culture. The mean numbers of organisms recovered from ETSA with < or = 10 SEC per LPF and > 10 SEC per LPF were 2.35 and 4.05, respectively. We therefore recommend that ETSA specimens that show no organisms by GS be rejected, in addition to those with > 10 SEC per LPF. Application of these rejection criteria enabled us to reject 847 (41%) of 2,068 ETSA specimens over a 6-month period. This represents a saving of approximately $66,000/year in unnecessary laboratory charges to patients.
Morris, A J; Tanner, D C; Reller, L B
Coughing is a physiologic response to aspiration in normal healthy individuals. However, there are published records that report no cough in response to aspiration (i.e., silent aspiration) in dysphagic patients. In this retrospective study, for more than 2 years in two acute care hospitals we examined frequency of the cough response in patients identified as aspirators by using videofluoroscopy. One thousand one hundred one patients underwent videofluorographic evaluation of their swallowing during this 2-year period; 469 aspirated; 276 were silently aspirating. Two hundred twenty-four of these silent aspirators aspirated once during a swallow and 52 silently aspirated more than once during a swallow. These two groups of patients were analyzed separately. Univariate (chi-square and Fisher's exact tests) and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of silent aspiration to age, gender, medical diagnosis, timing of aspiration, and etiology of aspiration. In univariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.004), and medical diagnosis (p = 0.05) were significantly associated with silent aspiration in the group who aspirated once during a swallow. No significant associations were seen in the group of patients who aspirated more than once during a swallow. PMID:9828268
Smith, C H; Logemann, J A; Colangelo, L A; Rademaker, A W; Pauloski, B R
Transesophageal, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning are new modalities for staging non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the roles of which are still being defined. A 78-year-old man with a right lower lobe (RLL) mass and mediastinal adenopathy seen on CT scan had a PET scan that revealed only a RLL hypermetabolic area. EUS/FNA cytology of a subcarinal lymph node (LN) revealed the presence of NSCLC. This is a case of a false-negative PET scan for nodal involvement in NSCLC that was diagnosed with EUS/FNA. Patients with NSCLC and suspicious lymphadenopathy may benefit from EUS/FNA of enlarged posterior mediastinal LNs, even with negative findings of PET scanning. PMID:12226060
Rosenberg, Jana M; Perricone, Anthony; Savides, Thomas J