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Sample records for aspiration eus-fna experience

  1. [EUS-FNA: how to improve biopsy results? An evidence based review].

    PubMed

    Hollerbach, S; Juergensen, C; Hocke, M; Freund, U; Wellmann, A; Burmester, E

    2014-09-01

    Endosonography with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) has become a widespreadly available clinical tool to diagnose numerous different lesions in humans. EUS-FNA is frequently used for tissue-based diagnoses such as lymphatic diseases (ranging from tuberculosis / sarcoidosis to malignant lymphoma) or solid tumors (such as pancreatic carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, sub-epithelial gastrointestinal tumors and others). Outcomes of EUS-FNA results, however, vary which is caused by several different factors ranging from experience of the endoscopist over technical factors such as use of stylet or suction for puncture through the skills of the cyto-pathologist who takes care of the specimen obtained by EUS-FNA. Though introduced since more than 20 years ago EUS-FNA has still not yet been perfectionized and several issues remain controversial among endoscopist. These issues include needle size and type (FNA versus TNB needles), use of a stylet and suction for FNA sampling, pure cytologic assessment versus cyto-histologic techniques, grading of the investigator´s and pathologist´s experience and improvement of EUS training for novices. In this report we briefly review the actual literature and summarize the available evidence on some controversely discussed issues. The results support the view that use of a stylet rarely aids to increase the amount of tissue obtained during EUS-FNA, whereas use of suction can be helpful in certain situations. Novel cutting needles may potentially improve number and size of core biopsies that can be rendered for special histologic tissue processing techniques. An in-room-cytopathologist not necessarily improves outcome of EUS-FNA results but may have a role during build-up of EUS units to become more successful. EUS-FNA education requires skilled endoscopists on both sides and can presumably be improved by objective testing of practical expertise by peer review and introducing objective sampling parameters. Novel techniques and

  2. The integration of single fiber reflectance (SFR) spectroscopy during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) in pancreatic masses: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegehuis, Paulien L.; Boogerd, Leonora S. F.; Inderson, Akin; Veenendaal, Roeland A.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Amelink, Arjen; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2016-03-01

    EUS-FNA can be used for pathological confirmation of a suspicious pancreatic mass. However, performance depends on an on-site cytologist and time between punction and final pathology results can be long. SFR spectroscopy is capable of extracting biologically relevant parameters (e.g. oxygenation and blood volume) in real-time from a very small tissue volume at difficult locations. In this study we determined feasibility of the integration of SFR spectroscopy during EUSFNA procedures in pancreatic masses. Patients with benign and malignant pancreatic masses who were scheduled for an EUS-FNA were included. The working guide wire inside the 19 gauge endoscopic biopsy needle was removed and the sterile single fiber (300 μm core and 700 μm outer diameter, wide-angle beam, NA 0.22) inserted through the needle. Spectroscopy measurements in the visiblenear infrared wavelength region (400-900 nm) and autofluorescence measurements (excitation at 405 nm) were taken three times, and subsequently cytology was obtained. Wavelength dependent optical properties were compared to cytology results. We took measurements in 13 patients with corresponding cytology results (including mucinous tumor, ductal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, and pancreatitis). In this paper we show the first analyzed results comparing normal pancreatic tissue with cancerous tissue in the same patient. We found a large difference in blood volume fraction, and blood oxygenation was higher in normal tissue. Integration of SFR spectroscopy is feasible in EUS-FNA procedures, the workflow hardly requires changes and it takes little time. The first results differentiating normal from tumor tissue are promising.

  3. [KRAS mutation assay on EUS-FNA specimens from pacients with pancreatic mass].

    PubMed

    Bunganič, Bohuš; Hálková, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Belšánová, Barbora; Laclav, Martin; Hrůzová, Martina; Traboulsi, Eva; Frič, Přemysl; Suchánek, Štěpán; Minárik, Marek; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses using EUS FNA is in 1015 % of cases still challenging. Promising method, which helps to distinguish between chronic pancreatitis and cancer, is point mutations of the proto-oncogene KRAS test. This method is not established in routine clinical practice yet.Objectives were the determination of the sensitivity of the KRAS assay using various kinds of samples of patients with pancreatic mass and testing the effect of the presence of KRAS mutations on the prognosis of survival. 147 patients underwent EUS-FNA examination of pancreatic mass, accompanied by blood sampling with subsequent separation of plasma for the detection of circulating tumor DNA. Part of biopsy sample was left native in a stabilizing solution and part as cytological smear. Samples (native aspirates, cytological smears, plasma) were examined for the presence of KRAS mutation by heteroduplex analysis, denaturing capillary electrophoresis.Among 147 patients with pancreatic masses, 118 were diagnosed as a cancer, 26 chronic pancreatitis, 3 neuroendocrine tumor. In total 147 native aspirates, 118 cytological smears and 94 plasma samples were examined. The highest sensitivity of KRAS mutation was reached in the group of pancreatic cancer patients using cytology, in which 90 % of KRAS mutation was detected (106/118 of the samples). When using the native cellular aspirates, mutation was detected in 78 % (92/118 samples), and examination of plasma was positive in 27 % (24/90 samples). In four patients with chronic pancreatitis KRAS mutations was detected, although none has been cytologically confirmed as a cancer. Two of these four patients were confirmed in the course of the disease as a cancer, one patient died because of alcoholic delirium and the last one was indicated for surgery recently.Examination of KRAS mutations can be performed in all patients undergoing EUS-FNA, with the cytology being the most reliable type of sample for genetic tests. KRAS

  4. Endoscopic ultrasonography guided-fine needle aspiration for the diagnosis of solid pancreaticobiliary lesions: Clinical aspects to improve the diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Toru; Yabuuchi, Yohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Sasaki, Keiko; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been applied to pancreaticobiliary lesions since the 1990s and is in widespread use throughout the world today. We used this method to confirm the pathological evidence of the pancreaticobiliary lesions and to perform suitable therapies. Complications of EUS-FNA are quite rare, but some of them are severe. Operators should master conventional EUS observation and experience a minimum of 20-30 cases of supervised EUS-FNA on non-pancreatic and pancreatic lesions before attempting solo EUS-FNA. Studies conducted on pancreaticobiliary EUS-FNA have focused on selection of suitable instruments (e.g., needle selection) and sampling techniques (e.g., fanning method, suction level, with or without a stylet, optimum number of passes). Today, the diagnostic ability of EUS-FNA is still improving; the detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) currently has a sensitivity of 90%-95% and specificity of 95%-100%. In addition to PC, a variety of rare pancreatic tumors can be discriminated by conducting immunohistochemistry on the FNA materials. A flexible, large caliber needle has been used to obtain a large piece of tissue, which can provide sufficient histological information to be helpful in classifying benign pancreatic lesions. EUS-FNA can supply high diagnostic yields even for biliary lesions or peri-pancreaticobiliary lymph nodes. This review focuses on the clinical aspects of EUS-FNA in the pancreaticobiliary field, with the aim of providing information that can enable more accurate and efficient diagnosis. PMID:26811612

  5. Grading of EUS-FNA cytologic specimens from patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: it is time move to tissue core biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Vinayek, Rakesh; Capurso, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (p-NENs) are rare and characterized by an indolent course, with a much better prognosis than non-neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. In the non-functional class of p-NENS, surgery remains the only curative treatment for early localized disease, but there are few therapeutic options for advanced disease. The prognosis of non-functional p-NENs is determined by many clinical criteria. In 2010, however, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a grading system in which determination of the Ki-67 proliferative index has become essential with key role in determining therapeutic decision in both advanced and early diseases. Conventionally, Ki-67 has been assessed on surgical specimens. In last decade, however, the availability of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has provided the opportunity to sample pancreatic lesions and to assess the value of this parameter pre-operatively. The few studies reporting the use of EUS-FNA cytological specimens for Ki-67 measurement showed promising results. As shown by Weynand and colleagues FNA-cytology may underestimate the staging and caution in using this method to classify tumors as low-grade (G1) should be adopted. Thus, Ki-67 expression on cytological specimens remains unsatisfactory and the need for tissue biopsy specimens has been strongly advocated. Based on a recent study that has reported a high concordance of EUS-guided core biopsy for histologic examination and surgical specimens, especially when a cut-off of 5% is used to differentiate G1 and G2 tumors, EUS tissue acquisition by core biopsy is ready for prime time and should be adopted as a standard of practice. PMID:25493252

  6. [A Case of Intra-abdominal Paragonimiasis Mimicking Metastasis of Lung Cancer Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration].

    PubMed

    Oh, Cho Rong; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

    2015-07-01

    Paragonimiasis has been continuously decreasing in Korea. However, it still occurs by ingesting raw or incompletely cooked fresh water crab or crayfish. The diagnosis of paragonimiasis is challenging because of its rarity. It may be confused with other inflammatory disease or carcinomatosis. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has lower risk of complications such as bleeding, perforation than percutaneous fine needle aspiration. EUS-FNA is more accurate and popular method to find mucosal or submucosal tumors and the lesions of several organs. Benign and malignant tumors, infectious diseases have been diagnosed by EUS-FNA, but there was no report describing the use of EUS-FNA for diagnosing paragonimiasis. Herein, we present a 47-year-old male patient with paragonimiasis diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Imaging studies revealed mass lesions in the lung and peritoneal cavity, which was eventually confirmed as paragonimiasis using EUS-FNA. PMID:26194128

  7. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration versus Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosis of Focal Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Naga, Mazen Ibrahim; Esmat, Serag; Naguib, Mohamed; Hassanein, Mohamed; Hassani, Mohamed; El-Kassas, Mohamed; Mahdy, Reem Ezzat; El-Gemeie, Emad; Farag, Ali Hassan; Foda, Ayman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the leading cancer morbidity and mortality world-wide. Controversy has arisen about whether the percutaneous approach with computed tomography/ultrasonography-guidance fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the preferred method to obtain diagnostic tissue. Our purpose of this study is to compare between the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA and percutaneous US-FNA in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 197 patients with pancreatic masses were included in the study, 125 patients underwent US-FNA (Group 1) and 72 patients underwent EUS-FNA (Group 2). Results: EUS-FNA has nearly the same accuracy (88.9%) as US-FNA (87.2%) in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for EUS-FNA was 84%, 100%, 100%, 73.3% respectively. It was 85.5%, 90.4%, 94.7%, 76% respectively for US-FNA. EUS-FNA had a lower complication rate (1.38%) than US-FNA (5.6%). Conclusion: EUS-FNA has nearly the same accuracy as US-FNA of pancreatic masses with a lower complication rate. PMID:24949394

  8. Needle Fracture during Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Suspicious Thoracic Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Manière, Thibaut; Déry, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is used to make a cytopathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions located around the gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe technique with few complications. The most common complications of EUS-FNA are related to pancreatic lesions (pancreatitis, bleeding, and abdominal pain). Rare complications have been noted such as stent malfunction, air embolism, infection, neural and vascular injuries, and tumor cell seeding. There are very few studies examining equipment malfunctions. We report a case of needle fracture during the EUS-FNA of suspicious thoracic lymph nodes in a 79-year-old man investigated for unexplained weight loss. PMID:27555874

  9. Needle Fracture during Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Suspicious Thoracic Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Bartosz; Manière, Thibaut; Déry, Vincent; Désilets, Étienne

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is used to make a cytopathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions located around the gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe technique with few complications. The most common complications of EUS-FNA are related to pancreatic lesions (pancreatitis, bleeding, and abdominal pain). Rare complications have been noted such as stent malfunction, air embolism, infection, neural and vascular injuries, and tumor cell seeding. There are very few studies examining equipment malfunctions. We report a case of needle fracture during the EUS-FNA of suspicious thoracic lymph nodes in a 79-year-old man investigated for unexplained weight loss. PMID:27555874

  10. Efforts to improve the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Shibukawa, Goro; Fujisawa, Mariko; Sato, Ai; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is widely used to obtain a definitive diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Good results have been reported for its diagnostic accuracy, with high sensitivity and specificity of around 90%; however, technological developments and adaptations to improve it still further are currently underway. The endosonographic technique can be improved when several tips and tricks useful to overcome challenges of EUS-FNA are known. This review provides various techniques and equipment for improvement in the diagnostic accuracy in EUS-FNA. PMID:27503153

  11. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A.; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury; Jamil, Laith H.

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy in the adrenal glands. EUS-FNA with biopsy of suspicious masses in either adrenal gland allows for assessment of these lesions while keeping complications relatively rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity, and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of adrenal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to either decrease unnecessary treatment or guide therapy in cancer patients by aiding in either staging of malignancy or treatment of recurrence.v PMID:27366030

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury; Jamil, Laith H

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy in the adrenal glands. EUS-FNA with biopsy of suspicious masses in either adrenal gland allows for assessment of these lesions while keeping complications relatively rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity, and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of adrenal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to either decrease unnecessary treatment or guide therapy in cancer patients by aiding in either staging of malignancy or treatment of recurrence.v. PMID:27366030

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of secondary tumors involving the pancreas: An institution's experience

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Almed K.; Ustun, Berrin; Aslanian, Harry R.; Ge, Xinquan; Chhieng, David; Cai, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic masses may seldom represent a metastasis or secondary involvement by lymphoproliferative disorders. Recognition of this uncommon occurrence may help render an accurate diagnosis and avoid diagnostic pitfalls during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this study, we review our experience in diagnosing secondary tumors involving the pancreas. Materials and Methods: The electronic database of cytopathology archives was searched for cases of secondary tumors involving the pancreas at our institution and a total of 31 cases were identified. The corresponding clinical presentations, imaging study findings, cytological diagnoses, the results of ancillary studies, and surgical follow-up, if available, were reviewed. Results: Nineteen of the patients were male and 12 female, with a mean age of 66 years. Twenty-three patients (74%) had a prior history of malignancy, with the latency ranging from 6 months to 19 years. The secondary tumors involving the pancreas included metastatic carcinoma (24 cases), metastatic sarcoma (3 cases), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (2 cases), and plasma cell neoplasm (2 cases). The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell carcinoma (8 cases) and lung carcinoma (7 cases). Correct diagnoses were rendered in 29 cases (94%). The remaining two cases were misclassified as primary pancreatic carcinoma. In both cases, the patients had no known history of malignancy, and no ancillary studies were performed. Conclusions: Secondary tumors involving the pancreas can be accurately diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Recognizing uncommon cytomorphologic features, knowing prior history of malignancy, and performing ancillary studies are the keys to improve diagnostic performance and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:26955395

  14. Repeat endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration after a first negative procedure is useful in pancreatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Téllez-Ávila, Félix I.; Martínez-Lozano, Jorge Adolfo; Rosales-Salinas, Anamaría; Bernal-Méndez, Ambrosio Rafael; Guerrero-Velásquez, Camilo; Ramírez-Luna, Miguel Ángel; Valdovinos-Andraca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There is no consensus about the ideal method for diagnosis in patients who have already undergone endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), and the inconclusive material is often obtained. The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of the second EUS-FNA of pancreatic lesions. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients with EUS-FNA of pancreatic lesions is performed. All patients who underwent more than one EUS-FNA for the evaluation of suspected pancreatic cancer over a 7-year period were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 296 EUS-FNAs of the pancreas were performed in 257 patients. The diagnostic yield with the first EUS-FNA was 78.6% (202/257). Thirty-nine (13.3%) FNAs were repeated in 34 patients; 17 (50%) patients were women. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 58.8 ± 16.1 years. The location of the lesions in the pancreatic gland, from which the second biopsies were taken, was head of the pancreas, n = 28 (82.4%), body of the pancreas, n = 3 (8.8%), and tail, n = 3 (8.8%). The mean ± SD of the size of the lesion was 36.3 ± 14.6 mm. The second EUS-FNA was more likely to be positive for diagnosis in patients with an “atypical“ histological result in the first EUS-FNA (odds ratio [OR]: 4.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–18.3), in contrast to patients with a first EUS-FNA reported as “normal” (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06–0.71). Overall, the diagnostic yield of the second EUS-FNA was 58.8% (20/34) with an increase to 86.3% overall (222/257). Conclusion: Repeat EUS-FNA in pancreatic lesions is necessary in patients with a negative first EUS-FNA because it improves the diagnostic yield. PMID:27503159

  15. Basic technique in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for solid lesions: How many passes?

    PubMed

    Petrone, Maria Chiara; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has evolved to become an indispensable tool for tissue acquisition in patients with luminal and extra luminal gastrointestinal cancers. Despite the extensive use of EUS-FNA, there still exists a wide variation in the number of samples required to ensure acquisition of diagnostic material from different kind of lesions. There are several factors that may influence the number of fine needle passes made during EUS-FNA, but the main factor seems to be the presence of a Cytopathologist during the EUS procedure. The diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) in most studies exceeds 90%. Nevertheless, ROSE is not available in many centers. Various studies have investigated the adequate number of needle passes that should be performed if ROSE is not used. Differences exist based on the nature of the target lesion: Five to seven passes for pancreatic masses, three passes for lymphnodes, only one pass for pancreatic cystic lesions. Consider using a core biopsy needle or a 19-G FNA needle for histology could improve the diagnostic yield. Even though EUS-FNA is widely available, some patients still do not receive conclusive diagnoses upon initial EUS-FNA. One way to maximize the benefits for patients might be to centralize cases to several well-equipped, high-volume centers with experienced endosonographers that have universal availability of ROSE. PMID:24949407

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of kidney lesions: A review.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Moura, Renata Nobre; Artifon, Everson

    2015-03-16

    Traditionally, treatment of renal lesions is indicated based only on imaging features. Although controversy exists about tissue sampling from small renal masses, renal biopsy is indicated in some cases. In this review, we discuss the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and summarize the recent advances in this field, providing recommendations for the practicing clinician. The use of EUS-FNA appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy. EUS allows assessment and biopsy of masses or lesions within both kidneys and related complications are rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of renal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to decrease unnecessary treatment of small renal masses and to best select tumors for active surveillance and minimally invasive ablative therapies. Additionally, some renal lesions may be ineligible for EUS-guided biopsy because of anatomical limitations. EUS-FNA renal biopsy will probably be best applied to central anterior renal masses, while tumors on the posterior aspect of the kidney, percutaneous access will probably be superior. PMID:25789096

  17. Recurrence of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed using contralateral adrenal biopsy with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    TANIMOTO, AZUSA; TAKEUCHI, SHINJI; YAEGASHI, HIROSHI; KOTANI, HIROSHI; KITAI, HIDENORI; NANJO, SHIGEKI; EBI, HIROMICHI; YAMASHITA, KANAME; MOURI, HISATSUGU; OHTSUBO, KOUSHIRO; IKEDA, HIROKO; YANO, SEIJI

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old female in whom a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lesion was resected 19 years previously presented to our hospital with cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed nodules in the brain, lung, adrenal gland and a pelvic osteolytic lesion. To identify the primary cancer site, the present study performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the left adrenal lesion. Consequently, the pathological findings of the tissue obtained by EUS-FNA were similar to those of the previous nephrectomy specimen, revealing that the adrenal lesion was the recurrence of RCC. The majority of the metastatic lesions in the patient were reduced in size by the multiple kinase inhibitor, pazopanib. Contralateral adrenal metastasis of RCC is rare and the use of EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions remains to be elucidated. This is a rare case of adrenal lesion, diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Therefore, EUS-FNA is considered to be a useful diagnostic modality of adrenal metastases from unidentified primary tumor types. PMID:27073657

  18. Clinical impact of preoperative endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Hideharu; Hara, Kazuo; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hijioka, Susumu; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Sasaki, Yutaka; Yamao, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To reveal the impact of preoperative endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 242 patients who underwent surgery for PDAC at our institution between January 1996 and July 2012. Among them, there were three patients with R2 resection and 30 patients with a follow-up period of less than 1 year, who were excluded because they did not meet the conditions for evaluating recurrence. Consequently, 209 patients were enrolled in the present study. The patients were divided into two groups: 126 patients who underwent preoperative EUS-FNA (FNA group) and 83 patients who did not (non-FNA group) undergo preoperative EUS-FNA. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between FNA and non-FNA groups except mean age (66.6 ± 8.9 years vs. 63.5 ± 8.9 years, respectively, P = 0.02) and the administration rate of gemcitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy (42.9% vs. 18.1%, P < 0.01). Sampling adequacy of preoperative EUS-FNA was 99.2% (125/126) and sensitivity for diagnosis was 92.9% (117/126). The rate of complications related to EUS-FNA was 1.6% (2/126); two patients experienced reduction in hemoglobin (≥2.0 g/dL). These two patients did not have any apparent bleeding and could be managed conservatively. No severe complications were seen. We evaluated long-term outcomes of preoperative EUS-FNA, especially disease-free survival, needle-track seeding and recurrence. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated no significant difference in disease-free survival between the two groups (P = 0.12). The site of recurrence was not significantly different between groups. Needle-track seeding was not observed in this study. Multivariate analysis of recurrence factors showed that preoperative EUS-FNA did not affect postoperative recurrence. Conclusion: Preoperative EUS-FNA for PDAC was shown to be a safe procedure with high diagnostic ability, and not a risk

  19. Effect of the time of day and queue position in the endoscopic schedule on the performance characteristics of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for diagnosing pancreatic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Korenblit, Jason; Tholey, Danielle M.; Tolin, Joanna; Loren, David; Kowalski, Thomas; Adler, Douglas G.; Davolos, Julie; Siddiqui, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Recent reports have indicated that the time of day may impact the detection rate of abnormal cytology on gynecologic cytology samples. The aim of this study was to determine if procedure time or queue position affected the performance characteristics of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosing solid pancreatic malignancies. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study evaluating patients with solid pancreatic lesions in whom EUS-FNA was performed. Three timing variables were evaluated as surrogate markers for endoscopist fatigue: Procedure start times, morning versus afternoon procedures, and endoscopy queue position. Statistical analyses were performed to determine whether the timing variables predicted performance characteristics of EUS-FNA. Results: We identified 609 patients (mean age: 65.8 years, 52.1% males) with solid pancreatic lesions who underwent EUS-FNA. The sensitivity of EUS-FNA was 100% for procedures that started at 7 AM while cases that started at 4 PM had a sensitivity of 81%. Using start time on a continuous scale, each elapsed hour was associated with a 1.9% decrease in EUS-FNA sensitivity (P = 0.003). Similarly, a 10% reduction in EUS-FNA sensitivity was detected between morning and afternoon procedures (92% vs. 82% respectively, P = 0.0006). A linear regression comparing the procedure start time and diagnostic accuracy revealed a decrease of approximately 1.7% in procedure accuracy for every hour later a procedure was started. A 16% reduction in EUS-FNA accuracy was detected between morning and afternoon procedures (100% vs. 84% respectively, P = 0.0009). When the queue position was assessed, a 2.4% reduction in accuracy was noted for each increase in the queue position (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA for solid pancreatic lesions decline with progressively later EUS starting times and increasing numbers of procedures before a

  20. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Adrenal Glands: Analysis of 21 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Choudhary, Narendra S.; Kotecha, Hardik; Misra, Smruti Ranjan; Bhagat, Suraj; Paliwal, Manish; Madan, Kaushal; Saraf, Neeraj; Sarin, Haimanti; Guleria, Mridula; Sud, Randhir

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology of adrenal masses helps in etiological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA of adrenal masses in cases where other imaging methods failed and/or were not feasible. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with adrenal masses, in whom adrenal FNA was performed because conventional imaging modalities failed and/or were not feasible, were prospectively evaluated over a period of 3 years. Results Of the 21 patients (mean age, 56±12.2 years; male:female ratio, 2:1), 12 had pyrexia of unknown origin and the other nine underwent evaluation for metastasis. The median lesion size was 2.4×1.6 cm. Ten patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (shown by the presence of caseating granulomas [n=10] and acid-fast bacilli [n=4]). Two patients had EUS-FNA results suggestive of histoplasmosis. The other patients had metastatic lung carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1), and adrenal lipoma (n=1) and adrenal myelolipoma (n=1). EUS results were not suggestive of any particular etiology. No procedure-related adverse events occurred. Conclusions EUS-FNA is a safe and effective method for evaluating adrenal masses, and it yields diagnosis in cases where tissue diagnosis is impossible or has failed using conventional imaging modalities. PMID:25844346

  1. How good is fine needle aspiration? What results should you expect?

    PubMed

    Eisendrath, Pierre; Ibrahim, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Tissue acquisition plays a key role before treatment decision in most of oncological pathologies but also in several benign diseases. By offering tissue sampling, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become an essential tool in the diagnostic processes. One of the reasons for the success of the technique is related to its excellent diagnostic performance. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA is above 80% for most of the usual indications. These performances are however dependent on some factors related to both the disease and patient's medical history but also related to medical staff expertise. Endoscopist needs to know how to reach a lesion but also how to efficiently acquire good tissue samples. This review aims to report general recommendations available in the literature for high quality EUS-FNA. Sample processing and sample interpretation also influence diagnostic accuracy of FNA. This paper includes a discussion on sample processing and benefits of the on-site pathology examination. It also provides the results reported in the literature of sample adequacy and diagnostic performance of EUS-FNA for most common indications: Pancreatic diseases, sub-mucosal lesion, mucosal thickenings, lymph nodes, cystic lesion and free fluids. PMID:24949404

  2. The usefulness of S100P, mesothelin, fascin, prostate stem cell antigen, and 14-3-3 sigma in diagnosing pancreatic adenocarcinoma in cytological specimens obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Dim, Daniel C; Jiang, Feng; Qiu, Qi; Li, Ting; Darwin, Peter; Rodgers, William H; Peng, Hong Qi

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas is an efficient and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Because of some limitations of EUS-FNA in diagnosis of well-differentiated or early stage cancers, the purpose of this study is to assess the added benefit of immunohistochemistry. We studied five proteins overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, namely, prostate stem cell antigen, fascin, 14-3-3 sigma, mesothelin and S100P utilizing immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections from cellblocks obtained by EUS-FNA. Sixty-two cases of EUS-FNA of the pancreas that had follow-up histological and/or clinical diagnosis and sufficient material in cell blocks were included. Using histological diagnosis and/or clinical outcome as the reference standard, EUS-FNA shows the highest sensitivity (95%) and specificity (91%) and is superior to any marker in this study. Among five antibodies, S100P reveals the best diagnostic characters showing 90% of sensitivity and 67% of specificity. Fascin shows high specificity (92%) but low sensitivity (38%). Mesothelin has a moderate sensitivity (74%) and low specificity (33%), PSCA and 14-3-3 show high sensitivity but zero specificity. S100P and mesothelin were useful in nine indeterminate cases. S100P correctly predicted six of seven cancers and one of one without cancer and mesothelin correctly diagnosed five of seven cancers and one of two noncancers in this group. EUS-FNA cytomorphology is superior to any of the immunohistochemical markers used in this study. Use of S100P and mesothelin in cytologically borderline cases can increase the diagnostic accuracy in this group. PMID:21538952

  3. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  4. Evaluating the Minimal Specimens From Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo Kyung; Kang, Ki Joo; Oh, Cho Rong; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek; Jang, Kee Taek; Park, Sang-Mo; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become one of the most useful diagnostic modalities for the diagnosis of pancreatic mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of analyzing the minimal specimens obtained by EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid masses of pancreas. This study consisted of retrospective and prospective analyses. The retrospective study was performed on 116 patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid masses for cytological smear, histological analysis, and combined analysis including immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In the prospective study, 79 patients were enrolled to evaluate the quality and accuracy of EUS-FNA histological analysis and feasibility of IHC staining. The final diagnoses of all patients included pancreatic cancer (n = 126), nonpancreatic cancer (n = 21), other neoplasm (n = 27), and benign lesions (n = 21). In our retrospective study, the combined analysis was more sensitive than cytological analysis alone (P < 0.01). The overall sensitivity of cytology, histology, and combined analysis was 69.8%, 67.2%, and 81.8%, respectively. In the prospective analysis, 64.2% of all punctures were helpful for determining the diagnosis and 40.7% provided sufficient tissue for IHC staining. Histological analysis was helpful for diagnosis in 74.7% of patients. IHC staining was necessary for a definite diagnosis in 11.4% of patients, especially in the cases of nonmalignant pancreatic mass. Histological analysis and IHC study of EUS-FNA specimens was useful for the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Combined analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity than cytology alone because IHC staining was helpful for a diagnosis in some patients. PMID:27227937

  5. Evaluating the Minimal Specimens From Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Pancreatic Masses.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Kyung; Kang, Ki Joo; Oh, Cho Rong; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek; Jang, Kee Taek; Park, Sang-Mo; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

    2016-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become one of the most useful diagnostic modalities for the diagnosis of pancreatic mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of analyzing the minimal specimens obtained by EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid masses of pancreas.This study consisted of retrospective and prospective analyses. The retrospective study was performed on 116 patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid masses for cytological smear, histological analysis, and combined analysis including immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In the prospective study, 79 patients were enrolled to evaluate the quality and accuracy of EUS-FNA histological analysis and feasibility of IHC staining.The final diagnoses of all patients included pancreatic cancer (n = 126), nonpancreatic cancer (n = 21), other neoplasm (n = 27), and benign lesions (n = 21). In our retrospective study, the combined analysis was more sensitive than cytological analysis alone (P < 0.01). The overall sensitivity of cytology, histology, and combined analysis was 69.8%, 67.2%, and 81.8%, respectively. In the prospective analysis, 64.2% of all punctures were helpful for determining the diagnosis and 40.7% provided sufficient tissue for IHC staining. Histological analysis was helpful for diagnosis in 74.7% of patients. IHC staining was necessary for a definite diagnosis in 11.4% of patients, especially in the cases of nonmalignant pancreatic mass.Histological analysis and IHC study of EUS-FNA specimens was useful for the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Combined analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity than cytology alone because IHC staining was helpful for a diagnosis in some patients. PMID:27227937

  6. Randomized Trial Comparing the Flexible 19G and 25G Needles for Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration of Solid Pancreatic Mass Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Jayapal; Bang, Ji Young; Hebert-Magee, Shantel; Trevino, Jessica; Eltoum, Isam; Frost, Andra; Hasan, Muhammad K.; Logue, Amy; Hawes, Robert; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although a large gauge needle can procure more tissue at endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), its advantage over smaller needles is unclear. This study compared flexible 19G and 25G needles for EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic masses. Methods This was a randomized trial of patients undergoing EUS-FNA of pancreatic masses using flexible 19G or 25G needle. Main outcome measure was to compare median number of passes for on-site diagnosis. Secondary measures were to compare specimen bloodiness, complications, technical failures, and histological core tissue procurement. Results One hundred patients were randomized to EUS-FNA using flexible 19G or 25G needle. Median of 1 pass was required to achieve on-site diagnosis of 96% and 92% (P = 0.68) in 19G and 25G cohorts. There was no significant difference in technical failure (0% vs 2%, P = 0.99) or adverse events (2% vs 0%, P = 0.99) between 19G and 25G cohorts. Although histological core tissue procurement was significantly better with flexible 19G needle (88% vs 44%, P < 0.001), specimens were bloodier (severe bloodiness, 36% vs 4%; P < 0.001). Conclusions As there is no significant difference in the performance of flexible 19G and 25G needles, needle choice for sampling pancreatic masses should be based on endoscopist preference and need for histology. PMID:25232713

  7. Pancreatic metastases from ovarian carcinoma--diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Hadzri, M Hasmoni; Rosemi, Salleh

    2012-04-01

    Pancreatic metastases are very uncommon and originate most commonly from lung, colon, breast and kidney cancer. Ovarian adenocarcinoma has been reported as a primary site of pancreatic metastasis, but its diagnosis has rarely being reported by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We report a case of multiple metastases to the pancreas from ovarian carcinoma occurring four years after original resection of the primary tumour. Our patient presented with severe epigastric pain which was initially treated as acute pancreatitis. Further imaging modalities showed multiple large pseudocystic lesions in the pancreatic head and body. Subsequent EUS-FNA confirmed that the lesions were metastatic disease from an advanced ovarian carcinoma. She underwent palliative chemotherapy and the pancreatic lesion showed receding size. PMID:22822646

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration: Technique and applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Tharian, Benjamin; Tsiopoulos, Fotios; George, Nayana; Pietro, Salvatore Di; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Since its initial report in 1992, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has now been incorporated into the diagnostic and staging algorithm for the evaluation of benign and malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and of adjacent organs. Its introduction constitutes a major breakthrough in the endoscopic field and has gradually transformed EUS from a pure imaging modality into a more interventional procedure. In addition, the possibility of collecting samples, providing a definitive cytological and/or histological evidence of the presence of malignancy, has strongly contributed to changing EUS from a subjective, highly operator dependant procedure into a more objective one. This article will review the instrumentation, technique and the most important clinical applications of EUS-FNA. PMID:23293723

  9. Interobserver agreement among cytopathologists in the evaluation of pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology specimens*

    PubMed Central

    Mounzer, Rawad; Yen, Roy; Marshall, Carrie; Sams, Sharon; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Said, Mohamed Sherif; Obuch, Joshua C.; Brauer, Brian; Attwell, Augustin; Fukami, Norio; Shah, Raj; Amateau, Stuart; Hall, Matthew; Hosford, Lindsay; Wilson, Robert; Rastogi, Amit; Wani, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care in the evaluation of solid pancreatic lesions. Limited data exist on interobserver agreement (IOA) among cytopathologists in assessing solid pancreatic EUS-FNA specimens. This study aimed to evaluate IOA among cytopathologists in assessing EUS-FNA cytology specimens of solid pancreatic lesions using a novel standardized scoring system and to assess individual clinical and cytologic predictors of IOA. Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic lesions at a tertiary care referral center were included. EUS-FNA slides were evaluated by four blinded cytopathologists using a standardized scoring system that assessed final cytologic diagnosis and quantitative (number of nucleated/diagnostic cells) and qualitative (bloodiness, inflammation/necrosis, contamination, artifact) cytologic parameters. Final clinical diagnosis was based on final cytology, surgical pathology, or 1-year clinical follow-up. IOA was calculated using multi-rater kappa (κ) statistics. Bivariate analyses were performed comparing cases with and without uniform agreement among the cytopathologists followed by logistic regression with backward elimination to model likelihood of uniform agreement. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included (49 % males, mean age 64 years, mean lesion size 26 mm). IOA for final diagnosis was moderate (κ = 0.45, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.4 – 0.49) with minimal improvement when combining suspicious and malignant diagnoses (κ = 0.54, 95 %CI 0.49 – 0.6). The weighted kappa value for overall diagnosis was 0.65 (95 %CI 0.54 – 0.76). IOA was slight to fair (κ = 0.04 – 0.32) for individual cytologic parameters. A final clinical diagnosis of malignancy was the most significant predictor of agreement [OR 3.99 (CI 1.52 – 10.49)]. Conclusions: Interobserver agreement among

  10. A randomized controlled cross-over trial and cost analysis comparing endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration and fine needle biopsy*

    PubMed Central

    Aadam, A. Aziz; Wani, Sachin; Amick, Ashley; Shah, Janak N.; Bhat, Yasser M.; Hamerski, Christopher M.; Klapman, Jason B.; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Watson, Rabindra R.; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Keswani, Rajesh N.; Keefer, Laurie; Das, Ananya; Komanduri, Srinadh

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Techniques to optimize endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA) in a variety of lesion types have not yet been established. The primary aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield (DY) of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) to endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) for pancreatic and non-pancreatic masses. Patients and methods: Consecutive patients referred for EUS-TA underwent randomization to EUS-FNA or EUS-FNB at four tertiary-care medical centers. A maximum of three passes were allowed for the initial method of EUS-TA and patients were crossed over to the other arm based on on-site specimen adequacy. Results: A total of 140 patients were enrolled. The overall DY was significantly higher with specimens obtained by EUS-FNB compared to EUS-FNA (90.0 % vs. 67.1 %, P = 0.002). While there was no difference in the DY between the two groups for pancreatic masses (FNB: 91.7 % vs. FNA: 78.4 %, P = 0.19), the DY of EUS-FNB was higher than the EUS-FNA for non-pancreatic lesions (88.2 % vs. 54.5 %, P = 0.006). Specimen adequacy was higher for EUS-FNB compared to EUS-FNA for all lesions (P = 0.006). There was a significant rescue effect of crossover from failed FNA to FNB in 27 out of 28 cases (96.5 %, P = 0.0003). Decision analysis showed that the strategy of EUS-FNB was cost saving compared to EUS-FNA over a wide range of cost and outcome probabilities. Conclusions: Results of this RCT and decision analysis demonstrate superior DY and specimen adequacy for solid mass lesions sampled by EUS-FNB. PMID:27227104

  11. Basic techniques in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for solid lesions: Adverse events and avoiding them

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Larissa L.; Levy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is often the preferred technique for tissue acquisition in the diagnosis of suspected intrathoracic and intraabdominal pathology. Although EUS FNA is a safe and accurate procedure, it has been associated with a low risk of adverse events. The unique properties of the echoendoscope and its ability to acquire tissue outside of the gastrointestinal lumen impart risks that are not associated with routine endoscopic procedures. In this review, we discuss the risk of perforation related to the echoendoscope itself and adverse events related to FNA of solid masses including infections, bleeding, pancreatitis and pancreatic duct leak, bile duct leak and tumor seeding. We also provide tips on how to avoid the most common adverse events related to EUS-FNA. PMID:24949409

  12. Cell-block procedure in endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration of gastrointestinal solid neoplastic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; Todaro, Paolo; Caruso, Rosario Alberto; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed the clinical applications of endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration (EUS-FNA) and the methodological aspects obtained by cell-block procedure (CBP) in the diagnostic approach to the gastrointestinal neoplastic pathology. CBP showed numerous advantages in comparison to the cytologic routine smears; in particular, better preservation of cell architecture, achievement of routine haematoxylin-eosin staining equivalent to histological slides and possibility to perform immunohistochemistry or molecular analyses represented the most evident reasons to choose this method. Moreover, by this approach, the differential diagnosis of solid gastrointestinal neoplasias may be more easily achieved and the background of contaminant non-neoplastic gastrointestinal avoided. Finally, biological samples collected by EUS-FNA CBP-assisted should be investigated in order to identify and quantify further potential molecular markers. PMID:26322154

  13. How to improve the success of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-García, Antonio Z; Elwassief, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is highly accurate for assessing the pancreatic parenchyma and ductal system. Currently, it is the most sensitive imaging procedure for detecting small solid pancreatic masses. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNA) is a safe and highly accurate tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy. Prior to perform an EUS-FNA one should wonder whether the benefits outweigh the potential risks of the procedure. Therefore, it is important to take into account whether the procedure will influence patient management. The diagnostic yield and success rate of EUS-FNA in pancreatic lesions varies greatly depending on many factors including: the characteristics of the lesion itself (location of the mass and consistency of the lesion), technical factors (type of needle size, use of stylet, use of suction and number of needle passes performed) and the availability of immediate cytological assessment of the specimen. The aim of this review is to analyze all these factors for optimizing specimen collection and diagnostic efficiency in dealing with solid pancreatic masses. PMID:22586548

  14. Role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chaoqun; Lin, Rong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Zhen; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an accurate technique for sampling the pancreas and mediastinum; however, limited data are available for other mass lesions. The aim of this study was to explore the value of EUS-FNA in the differential diagnosis of all mass lesions. Data from patients who underwent EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of mass lesions, including pancreatic, mediastinal, celiac and retroperitoneal lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The accuracy was calculated by comparing the results of FNA with the results of pathological examination or follow-up surveillances in non-operated cases. A total of 150 cases were included. The location of the mass varied from the pancreas (n=62) to the mediastinum (n=29), gastrointestinal tract (n=36), celiac cavity and retroperitoneum (n=23). The sensitivity and Youdens index of EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of all lesions were 92.97% and 0.93 respectively. The accuracy of diagnosis of pancreatic, mediastinal, gastrointestinal, celiac and retroperitoneal lesions was 85.48, 89.66, 83.33 and 78.23%, respectively. Masses were categorized into parenchymal organs (n=66), luminal organs (n=36) and enlarged lymph nodes (n=33). Lesions in parenchymal organs were likely to be bigger than those in luminal organs (P=0.03) and enlarged lymph nodes (P=0.01). For solid and cystic masses, which constituted 63.3 and 14.7% of the total masses, no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was observed (P=0.56); however, lesion sizes were significantly different between these two groups (P=0.04) and the majority of cystic masses were identified in women (P=0.03). Malignant lesions were more common in older (P=0.01) and male (P=0.03) patients. In conclusion, EUS-FNA is an effective tool in the diagnosis of unexplained mass lesions; it influences the management of patients by enabling the appropriate treatment to be identified. PMID:27446324

  15. Performance characteristic of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration is unaffected by pancreatic mass size

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Jayapal; Kim, Hwasoon; Reddy, Kartika; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Despite a well-established tool for diagnosis of pancreatic masses, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) studies have shown suboptimal diagnostic performance at divergent mass sizes. Since the impact of gold standard follow-up and presence of on-site evaluation on this observation is unknown, we aimed to study the performance characteristics of EUS-FNA under these strict conditions. Patients and methods: EUS-FNA results from pancreatic mass lesions performed between July 2000 and March 2013 were evaluated. All patients with histological follow-up were then stratified into four groups: Group A ( ≤ 10 mm), Group B (11 – 20 mm), Group C (21 – 40 mm), and Group D (> 40 mm). Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for each group and compared. Results: A total of 612 /3832 (16 %) patients with pancreatic masses who underwent EUS-FNA had histology confirmation. Of these, 81 were excluded due to unavailable lesion size, while the rest formed the study cohort. Mean age (SD) was 65.8 years (9.3) with 51.2 % female. The mean number of passes for the entire cohort was 2.9 (SD 1.9; range 1 – 12); patients in group D had a significantly higher number of passes for on-site diagnosis (P = 0.0124). There was no significant difference between the groups for sensitivity (P = 0.1134) or diagnostic accuracy (P = 0.2111). Proportional trend analysis revealed no significant correlation between size and sensitivity (P = 0.6192). The size of lesion measured by EUS was not associated with sensitivity or specificity after adjusting for age, sex, and pancreatic location. Conclusion: In the presence of rapid on-site cytopathology and when final histology is taken as the gold standard, pancreatic mass size does not affect the performance characteristics of EUS-FNA. PMID:27092323

  16. Clinical utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with signet-ring cells of the pancreas: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Kiichiro; Seishima, Jun; Yamato, Masatoshi; Miyazawa, Masaki; Komura, Takuya; Marukawa, Yohei; Ohta, Hajime; Kasashima, Satomi; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Yano, Masaaki; Unoura, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    A man in his 60s visited our hospital because of a pancreatic head tumor. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed that the tumor consisted of a neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) and adenocarcinoma, including signet-ring cell carcinoma, and that the ratio of these components was approximately 50:50. Therefore, he was diagnosed with mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Because of liver and lymph node metastases, systemic chemotherapy was initiated using a regimen for the NEC component based on an increase in neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Although the patient achieved stable disease after two chemotherapy cycles, the tumor increased in size after three cycles, which was associated with a gradual increase in carcinoembryonic antigen and a decrease in NSE level. An EUS-FNA reexamination revealed that the adenocarcinoma component accounted for 90 % of the tumor. Thus, an adenocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen was started, and a slight reduction in tumor size was observed. Here, we report an extremely rare and remarkable case of MANEC of the pancreas that demonstrates the effectiveness of EUS-FNA for helping to decide the chemotherapy regimen. PMID:26848585

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: The wet suction technique.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nicolas A; Berzosa, Manuel; Wallace, Michael B; Raijman, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become a fundamental tool in obtaining cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. When sampling solid lesions of the pancreas, the endosonographer can use two suction techniques to enhance tissue acquisition; the dry and the wet suction techniques. The standard dry suction technique relies on applying negative pressure suction on the proximal end of the needle after the stylet is removed with a pre-vacuum syringe. The wet suction technique relies on pre-flushing the needle with saline to replace the column of air with fluid followed by aspiration the proximal end by using a prefilled syringe with saline. A new modified wet suction technique (hybrid suction technique) relies on preloading the needle with saline, but having continuous negative pressure with a pre-vacuum syringe to avoid manual intermittent suction. Tissue acquisition can be enhanced by applying fluid dynamic principles to the current aspiration techniques, such as the column of water used in the needle of the wet technique. In this review, we will focus on EUS-FNA using the wet suction technique for sampling of pancreatic solid lesions. PMID:26879162

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: The wet suction technique

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.; Berzosa, Manuel; Wallace, Michael B.; Raijman, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become a fundamental tool in obtaining cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. When sampling solid lesions of the pancreas, the endosonographer can use two suction techniques to enhance tissue acquisition; the dry and the wet suction techniques. The standard dry suction technique relies on applying negative pressure suction on the proximal end of the needle after the stylet is removed with a pre-vacuum syringe. The wet suction technique relies on pre-flushing the needle with saline to replace the column of air with fluid followed by aspiration the proximal end by using a prefilled syringe with saline. A new modified wet suction technique (hybrid suction technique) relies on preloading the needle with saline, but having continuous negative pressure with a pre-vacuum syringe to avoid manual intermittent suction. Tissue acquisition can be enhanced by applying fluid dynamic principles to the current aspiration techniques, such as the column of water used in the needle of the wet technique. In this review, we will focus on EUS-FNA using the wet suction technique for sampling of pancreatic solid lesions. PMID:26879162

  19. Aspirated tracheobronchial foreign bodies: a Jordanian experience.

    PubMed

    Mahafza, Tareq; Khader, Yousef

    2007-02-01

    We conducted a descriptive study of 524 patients who had been suspected of having aspirated a foreign body and who had been evaluated at one of two major hospitals in Jordan from January 1993 through December 2003. A tracheobronchial foreign body was found in 386 of these patients (73.7%). Most of them (66.8%) were younger than 2 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3 to 2. The mean duration between aspiration and diagnosis was 48 hours. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (90.4% of foreign-body-positive patients), diminished air entry (66.8%), and dyspnea (65.0%). The most frequently aspirated objects were seeds (35.4%), particularly watermelon seeds, nuts (26.8%), and vegetables (25.3%). The most common site of foreign-body impaction was the right bronchus (60.9%). Rigid bronchoscopy was used to remove the foreign body in all cases. The complication rate was 3.4%. Our experience with aspirated tracheobronchial foreign bodies in Jordan was not substantially different from that reported in other countries. The only difference was that the most frequently aspirated foreign body in our study was seeds. PMID:17385621

  20. A Case of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor That Underwent Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration with a 25-Gauge Biopsy Needle

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is performed to obtain specimens for pathological analysis. For this procedure, 19-gauge (19G), 22-guage (22G), and 25-guage (25G) needles are available. The needles are classified into aspiration type and biopsy type. A 56-year-old woman underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy that showed a 38-mm-diameter submucosal tumor. The elevated lesion was diagnosed as a submucosal tumor of the stomach. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a low-density area on the luminal surface of the gastric wall, which was covered with a thin layer of gastric mucosa. EUS showed a hypoechoic lesion in the submucosal layer. Color Doppler image showed a pulsating vascular signal extending into the center of the hypoechoic lesion from the periphery. EUS-FNA was performed with a 25G biopsy needle. The specimen tissue consisted of spindle-shaped cells. The cells were positive for CD117 and CD34. The submucosal tumor was diagnosed as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

  1. [Our experiences with early vacuum aspiration (miniinterruption)].

    PubMed

    Poradovský, K; Ondás, P; Posluch, J

    1982-07-01

    The authors report their experiences with 80 early vacuum aspirations (mini-interruptions) performed at the 1st Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital in Kosice during 1980-81. The procedure was performed between days 36-42 in 15% of the women, between days 43-49 in 52.7% of the women, between days 50-56 in 27.5%, and between days 57-60 in 5% of the women. Interruption of pregnancy did not require general anesthesia or hospitalization of the patients. Complications occurred in 10% of the women, 6.25% due to residua and 2.5% to inflammation. Further experience should reduce the occurrence of complications. The authors consider the method to be advantageous and prospective. (author's modified) PMID:7127164

  2. Assessment of Factors Affecting the Usefulness and Diagnostic Yield of Core Biopsy Needles with a Side Hole in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Sano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A barbed puncture needle with a side hole was recently developed to improve sample quality and quantity in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this study, we retrospectively assessed the usefulness of this puncture needle. Methods Factors affecting diagnostic yield, safety, and diagnostic accuracy were investigated in 76 patients who consecutively underwent EUS-FNA for neoplastic lesions at our hospital between January and December 2013. Results The procedure was successful in all cases; the rates of sample collection and determination of the correct diagnosis were 92.1% and 89.5%, respectively. The mean number of needle passes required for diagnosis was 1.1. Complications included mild intraluminal bleeding in two patients (2.6%). Multivariate analysis revealed that lesion size (≤20 mm) was significantly associated with a decreased chance of determining the correct diagnosis. Conclusions Core biopsy needles with a side hole are safe and provide a satisfactory diagnostic yield. However, the side hole may potentially reduce the rate of making the correct diagnosis in small lesions. PMID:25963081

  3. Role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Ashry, Mahmoud; Imam, Hala M. K.; Ezzat, Reem; Naguib, Mohamed; Farag, Ali H.; Gemeie, Emad H.; Khattab, Hani M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The addition of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to different imaging modalities has raised the accuracy for diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions. We aim to differentiate benign from neoplastic pancreatic cysts by evaluating cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9), and amylase levels and cytopathological examination, including mucin stain. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 77 patients with pancreatic cystic lesions. Ultrasound-FNA (US-FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-FNA (EUS-FNA) was done according to the accessibility of the lesion. The aspirated specimens were subjected to cytopathological examination (including mucin staining), tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9), and amylase level. Results: Cyst CEA value of 279 or more showed high statistical significance in differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous lesions with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 73%, 60%, 50%, 80%, and 65%, respectively. Cyst amylase could differentiate between neoplastic and nonneoplastic cysts at a level of 1043 with sensitivity of 58%, specificity of 75%, PPV of 73%, NPV of 60%, and accuracy of 66%. CA19-9 could not differentiate between neoplastic and nonneoplastic cysts. Mucin examination showed a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 95%, PPV of 92%, NPV of 91%, and accuracy of 91% in differentiating mucinous from non-mucinous lesions. Cytopathological examination showed a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 94%, PPV of 94%, NPV of 83%, and accuracy of 88%. Conclusion: US or EUS-FNA with analysis of cyst CEA level, CA19-9, amylase, mucin stain, and cytopathological examination increases the diagnostic accuracy of cystic pancreatic lesions. PMID:26020048

  4. Postbrushing and fine-needle aspiration biopsy follow-up and treatment options for patients with pancreatobiliary lesions: the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kurtycz, Daniel; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Michaels, Claire; Young, Nancy; Schmidt, C Max; Farrell, James; Gopal, Deepak; Simeone, Diane; Merchant, Nipun B; Field, Andrew; Pitman, Martha Bishop

    2014-04-01

    The papanicolaou society of cytopathology (PSC) has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology, ancillary testing, and postprocedure management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the PSC web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on the follow-up and treatment options for patients after procedures performed for obtaining cytology samples for the evaluation of biliary strictures and solid and cystic masses in the pancreas. These recommendations follow the six-tiered terminology and nomenclature scheme proposed by Committee III. PMID:24639399

  5. Transnational Experience, Aspiration and Family Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zhu; Wei, Li

    2016-01-01

    Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on "within" such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday…

  6. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salla, Charitini; Chatzipantelis, Paschalis; Konstantinou, Panagiotis; Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Pantazopoulou, Akrivi; Dappola, Victoria

    2007-10-14

    We describe the clinical, imaging and cytopathological features of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided (EUS-guided) fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 17-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of an unexplained episodic abdominal pain for 2 mo and a short history of hypertension in the endocrinology clinic. Clinical laboratory examinations revealed polycystic ovary syndrome, splenomegaly and low serum amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. Computed tomography (CT) analysis revealed a mass of the pancreatic tail with solid and cystic consistency. EUS confirmed the mass, both in body and tail of the pancreas, with distinct borders, which caused dilation of the peripheral part of the pancreatic duct (major diameter 3.7 mm). The patient underwent EUS-FNA. EUS-FNA cytology specimens consisted of single cells and aggregates of uniform malignant cells, forming microadenoid structures, branching, papillary clusters with delicate fibrovascular cores and nuclear overlapping. Naked capillaries were also seen. The nuclei of malignant cells were round or oval, eccentric with fine granular chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves in some of them. The malignant cells were periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-Alcian blue (+) and immunocytochemically they were vimentin (+), CA 19.9 (+), synaptophysin (+), chromogranin (-), neuro-specific enolase (-), a1-antitrypsin and a1-antichymotrypsin focal positive. Cytologic findings were strongly suggestive of SPTP. Biopsy confirmed the above cytologic diagnosis. EUS-guided FNA diagnosis of SPTP is accurate. EUS findings, cytomorphologic features and immunostains of cell block help distinguish SPTP from pancreatic endocrine tumors, acinar cell carcinoma and papillary mucinous carcinoma. PMID:17876886

  7. Rapid KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA Mutation Analysis of Fine Needle Aspirates from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Melanie; Talebian Yazdi, Mehrdad; Ruano, Dina; Forte, Giusi I.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Veselic, Maud; Rabe, Klaus F.; Annema, Jouke T.; Smit, Vincent; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Trans-esophageal Ultrasound Scanning with Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) are important, novel techniques for the diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that have been incorporated into lung cancer staging guidelines. To guide and optimize treatment decisions, especially for NSCLC patients in stage III and IV, EGFR and KRAS mutation status is often required. The concordance rate of the mutation analysis between these cytological aspirates and histological samples obtained by surgical staging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the extent to which allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR with hydrolysis probes could be reliably performed on EBUS and EUS fine needle aspirates by comparing the results with histological material from the same patient. We analyzed a series of 43 NSCLC patients for whom cytological and histological material was available. We demonstrated that these standard molecular techniques can be accurately applied on fine needle cytological aspirates from NSCLC patients. Importantly, we show that all mutations detected in the histological material of primary tumor were also identified in the cytological samples. We conclude that molecular profiling can be reliably performed on fine needle cytology aspirates from NSCLC patients. PMID:21408138

  8. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of pulmonary artery tumors: A systematic review (with video).

    PubMed

    Harris, Kassem; Modi, Kush; Kumar, Abhishek; Dhillon, Samjot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS) was originally introduced as a diagnostic and staging tool for lung cancer and subsequently utilized for diagnosis of other malignant and benign mediastinal diseases such as melanoma, lymphoma, and sarcoidosis. More recently, CP-EBUS has been successfully used for the visualization and diagnosis of pulmonary emboli and other vascular lesions including primary and metastatic pulmonary artery (PA) tumors. In this review, we will underline the role of EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial tumors such as sarcomas and tumor emboli. We will concisely discuss the clinical applications of EBUS-TBNA and the types of pulmonary arterial tumors and their different diagnostic modalities. We searched the Cochrane Library and PubMed from 2004 to 2014 to provide the most comprehensive review. Only 10 cases of EBUS-TBNA for intravascular lesions were identified in the literature. Although many cases of EBUS and EUS-guided transvascular tumor biopsies were described in the literature, there were no reported cases of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for intravascular tumor biopsies. Except for one paper, all cases were published as case reports. PMID:26374576

  9. Links between Nonshared Friendship Experiences and Adolescent Siblings' Differences in Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Using a sibling design, this study examined the association between adolescents' friendship experiences and their aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, and financial success. We hypothesized that adolescent siblings would differ in their aspirations and that unique experiences in friendships would be associated with these differences.…

  10. Foreign body aspiration in children: experience of 1160 cases.

    PubMed

    Eren, Sevval; Balci, Akin Eraslan; Dikici, Bünyamin; Doblan, Mehmet; Eren, Mehmet Nesimi

    2003-03-01

    Hospital records of 1160 children aspiration were reviewed. Bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia was performed on all patients. Foreign bodies were successfully removed in 1068 (92%) children. The majority, 885 (76.3%), presented with a definite history of foreign body aspiration. Bronchoscopy was negative in 85 (7.3%) children. Watermelon seeds, found in 414 (38.7%) children, were the most commonly aspirated foreign bodies. Open surgical procedures were required for 21 (1.8%) children. Bronchial rupture related to bronchoscopy occurred in four children, two of whom died post-operatively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%. PMID:12648322

  11. Transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts: our experience over 121 cases.

    PubMed

    Koutlaki, Nikoleta; Nikas, Ioannis; Dimitraki, Marina; Grapsas, Xenofon; Psillaki, Afrodite; Mandratzi, Jeyaver; Liberis, Anastasios; Liberis, Vasilios

    2011-05-01

    We performed an evaluation of ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts as a viable alternative to surgery in 104 reproductive and 17 postmenopausal women. One-hundred and twenty-one patients with a simple >4 cm diameter ovarian cyst, with a benign appearance on ultrasound as well as on clinical and blood examination, underwent transvaginal fine needle aspiration of the cyst under ultrasonographic control. One-hundred and four patients were of reproductive age and 12 were postmenopausal. Sixty women who were of reproductive age and in which OCP treatment was not contraindicated followed a six-month therapy with oral contraceptives after the intervention. In the group of patients of reproductive age under OCP treatment the cyst persisted in nine of the 60 women (recurrence rate 15%). In the other group of patients of reproductive age,under no OCP treatment, the recurrence rate was 47% (21 of the 44 women). In the group of postmenopausal patients, the cyst persisted in ten out of 17 cases (recurrence rate 58,9%). Transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts is a reliable alternative to surgery with many advantages such as excellent tolerance, low risk and cost of complications and recurrence. The OCP treatment after aspiration seems to increase the success rate of expectant management. PMID:21082900

  12. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation. PMID:17112531

  13. Fine Needle Aspiration in Thyroid Nodules - One Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ahmeti, Irfan; Simonovska, Lliljana; Krstevska, Branka; Ristevska, Nevena

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To estimate suspect nodule for benign or malignant characteristics, and to verify cytological features of the node with the fine needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasound. DESIGN: A total of 106 patients were analyzed. FNA biopsy was performed at outpatient clinic via ultrasound. Inform consent was signed for each patient. Preparation of procedure with local anaesthesia was made by assistant nurse. PROCEDURE: Parallel approach of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (USGFNA) was used for each patient. This approach allows the operator to observe needle penetration, location and pathway of the entire needle within the neck, thyroid and nodule, which remain visible on the monitor. As a side effect commonly noticed mild pain and dizziness were recorded. RESULTS: General findings: According the gender, 96 (90.5%) of them were women and 10 (9.5%) men. Median age was 47 ± 9 years. Cytological findings: 5 patients were with papillary carcinoma, 3 with Hurtle cell metaplasia, 1 follicular tumour and 1 with unclear differentiation. CONCLUSION: Close collaboration between endocrinologists, morphologists and surgeons in a multidisciplinary frame is the key to correct preoperative thyroid cancer diagnosis and optimal treatment. FNA biopsy remains the most accurate diagnostic method in detecting thyroid cancer.

  14. Transrectal ultrasound-guided aspiration in the management of prostatic abscess: A single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Jigish B; Ganpule, Sanika A; Ganpule, Arvind P; Sabnis, Ravindra B; Desai, Mahesh R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The safety and efficacy of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided aspiration of prostatic abscess (PA) is known. The objective of this study is to describe a treatment algorithm for management of PA with TRUS-guided aspiration, emphasizing on indications and factors predicting the treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: After the institutional review board approval was obtained, a retrospective study was done of all patients suspected with PA on digital rectal examination (DRE) and confirmed on TRUS. An 18-gauge two-part needle was used for aspiration. The real-time TRUS-guided aspiration of PA was done in the longitudinal axis. The aspiration of pus and the sequential collapse of cavity was seen “real time.” A suprapubic catheter was placed, if the patient had urinary retention, persistent dysuria, and/or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Success was defined as complete resolution of the abscess and/or symptoms. Results: Forty-eight patients were studied with PA, with a mean age of 54.6 ± 14.6 (range 26-79) years. The DRE diagnosed PA in 22 (45.83%) patients, while abdominal sonography diagnosed PA in 13 (27.08%) patients. TRUS revealed a hypoechoic area with internal echoes in all 48 (100%) patients. The diagnosis was confirmed in all 48 cases with aspiration. The mean size of the lesion was 3.2 ± 1.2 (range 1.5-8) cm. Mean volume aspirated was 10.2 ml (range 2.5-30 ml). Complete resolution after first aspiration was observed in 20 (41.66%) patients. An average of 4.1 (range 1-7) aspirations was required for complete resolution which was seen in 41 patients (85.42%). Seven (14.58%) patients required transurethral resection (deroofing) of the abscess cavity. We formulated a treatment algorithm based on the above findings. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm based on our experience suggests that patients with PA larger than 2 cm with severe LUTS and/or leukocytosis benefit from TRUS-guided aspiration. In addition, these patients are

  15. Current role of radial and curved-linear arrayed EUS scopes for diagnosis of pancreatic abnormalities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Atsushi

    2011-05-01

    To elucidate the current status of radial and curved-linear arrayed endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), the author conducted a survey using a questionnaire at different institutions to assess the following. 1. Number of EUS procedures conducted annually for pancreatic malignancies. 2. Role of radial arrayed EUS for pancreatic abnormalities. 3. Role of curved-linear arrayed EUS for pancreatic abnormalities. 4. Indication of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) for pancreatic abnormalities. 5. Percentage of EUS-FNA among the cases carried out with EUS for pancreatic abnormalities. 6. Experience of EUS with contrast harmonic echo for pancreatic malignancies and its indications. 7. Experience of elastography on EUS for pancreatic abnormalities. In Japan, although usage of curved-linear arrayed EUS has become popular for both EUS-FNA and for screening, radial EUS is widely used for diagnosing pancreatic abnormalities. Endosonographers must understand the respective advantages and disadvantages of EUS devices and carry out EUS procedures appropriately. PMID:21535192

  16. Single Center Experience with the AngioVac Aspiration System

    SciTech Connect

    Salsamendi, Jason Doshi, Mehul Bhatia, Shivank; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe AngioVac catheter system is a mechanical suction device designed for removal of intravascular material using extracorporeal veno-venous bypass circuit. The purpose of this study is to present the outcomes in patients treated with the AngioVac aspiration system and to discuss its efficacy in different vascular beds.Materials and MethodsA retrospectively review was performed of seven patients treated with AngioVac between October 2013 and December 2014. In 6/7 cases, the AngioVac cannula was inserted percutaneously and the patient was placed on veno-venous bypass. In one of the cases, the cannula was inserted directly into the Fontan circuit after sternotomy and the patient was maintained on cardiopulmonary bypass. Thrombus location included iliocaval (2), SVC (1), pulmonary arteries (1), Fontan circuit and Glenn shunt with pulmonary artery extension (1), right atrium (1), and IVC with renal vein extension (1).ResultsThe majority of thrombus (50–95 %) was removed in 5/7 cases, and partial thrombus removal (<50 %) was confirmed in 2/7 cases. Mean follow-up was 205 days (range 64–403 days). All patients were alive at latest follow-up. Minor complications included three neck hematomas in two total patients. No major complications occurred.ConclusionAngioVac is a useful tool for acute thrombus removal in the large vessels. The setup and substantial cost may limit its application in straightforward cases. More studies are needed to establish the utility of AngioVac in treatment of intravascular and intracardiac material.

  17. The Relationship Between Work Experience and Occupational Aspirations and Attrition from Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosnell, John W.

    1977-01-01

    It was hypothesized that teachers who were primarily self-supporting and those with blue collar work experience only prior to graduation would have lower rates of attrition, and that those with high occupational aspirations would show a high rate of attrition. (Author/RK)

  18. Schooling Experiences and Career Aspirations of Indigenous Vocational High School Students: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ling

    2012-01-01

    In Taiwan, substantial resources have been invested in upper-secondary vocational education for Aborigines as a solution to their lack of career development opportunities. This study examined the schooling experiences and career aspirations of Taiwanese indigenous vocational high school students. A case study was designed to collect data through…

  19. Internship Experiences for Aspiring Principals: Student Perceptions and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Ginger R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate East Tennessee State University graduate student perceptions on the effectiveness of internship experiences as students explored the implementation of ISLLC Standards and the role of mentor support as they prepared for the principalship. The participating university for this study is…

  20. Transthoracic lung aspiration for the aetiological diagnosis of pneumonia: 25 years of experience from The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Ideh, R C; Howie, S R C; Ebruke, B; Secka, O; Greenwood, B M; Adegbola, R A; Corrah, T

    2011-06-01

    Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children worldwide. Global pneumonia control depends on a good understanding of the aetiology of pneumonia. Percutaneous transthoracic aspiration culture is much more sensitive than blood culture in identifying the aetiological agents of pneumonia. However, the procedure is not widely practised because of lack of familiarity with it and concerns about potential adverse events. We review the diagnostic usefulness and safety of this procedure over 25 years of its use in research and routine practice at the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), The Gambia, and give a detailed description of the procedure itself. Published materials were identified from the MRC's publication database and systematic searches using the PubMed/Medline and Google search engines. Data from a current pneumonia aetiology study in the unit are included together with clinical experience of staff practising at the unit over the period covered in this review. A minimum of 500 lung aspirates were performed over the period of review. Lung aspiration produces a greater yield of diagnostic bacterial isolates than blood culture. It is especially valuable clinically when pathogens not covered by standard empirical antibiotic treatment, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, are identified. There have been no deaths following the procedure in our setting and a low rate of other complications, all transient. Lung aspiration is currently the most sensitive method for diagnosing pneumonia in children. With appropriate training and precautions it can be safely used for routine diagnosis in suitable referral hospitals. PMID:21477423

  1. Pipette aspiration of hyperelastic compliant materials: Theoretical analysis, simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Gong; Cao, Yan-Ping; Li, Guo-Yang; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the pipette aspiration test of hyperelastic compliant materials. Explicit expressions of the relationship between the imposed pressure and the aspiration length are developed, which serve as fundamental relations to deduce the material parameters from experimental responses. Four commonly used hyperelastic constitutive models, e.g. neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Fung, and Arruda-Boyce models, are investigated. Through dimensional analysis and nonlinear finite element simulations, we establish the relations between the experimental responses and the constitutive parameters of hyperelastic materials in explicit form, upon which inverse approaches for determining the hyperelastic properties of materials are developed. The reliability of the results given by the proposed methods has been verified both theoretically and numerically. Experiments have been carried out on an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane, 1:50) and porcine liver to validate the applicability of the inverse approaches in practical measurements.

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration: A novel way to diagnose a solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Husney, Jack; Guttmann, Steven; Anyadike, Nnaemeka; Mayer, Ira; Rahmani, Rabin

    2016-01-01

    via EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) bringing to light an alternative method to its diagnosis. PMID:27080614

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration: A novel way to diagnose a solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Husney, Jack; Guttmann, Steven; Anyadike, Nnaemeka; Mayer, Ira; Rahmani, Rabin

    2016-01-01

    via EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) bringing to light an alternative method to its diagnosis. PMID:27080614

  4. Rare condition of needle tract seeding after EUS-guided FNA for intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Hoshi, Koki; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi; Hojo, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: We report on a 75-year-old man who was admitted due to pancreatic cystic lesion accompanied by a solid mass with liver metastasis. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was performed on the solid mass, and pathological findings revealed the lesion to be an adenocarcinoma diagnosed as intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC). Approximately 3 months after, a cystic subepithelial lesion appeared in the posterior gastric wall where the EUS-FNA had been performed. We performed EUS-FNA again, which revealed that the cystic mass was IPMC with pathology similar to the original lesion. This is a rare case demonstrating needle tract seeding of EUS-FNA for IPMC.

  5. Evaluation of Fibrogenic Potential of Industrial Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Acute Aspiration Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Khaliullin, T. O.; Shvedova, A. A.; Kisin, E. R.; Zalyalov, R. R.; Fatkhutdinova, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Local inflammatory response in the lungs and fibrogenic potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes were studied in an acute aspiration experiment in mice. The doses were chosen based on the concentration of nanotubes in the air at a workplace of the company-producer. ELISA, flow cytometry, enhanced darkfield microscopy, and histological examination showed that multi-walled carbon nanotubes induced local inflammation, oxidative stress, and connective tissue growth (fibrosis). Serum levels of TGF-β1 and osteopontin proteins can serve as potential exposure biomarkers. PMID:25778660

  6. The Therapeutic Use of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Pediatric Patients is Safe: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yi; Maspons, Aldo; Othman, Mohammed O.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim: Despite the safety and high diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS FNA) for the evaluation of gastrointestinal diseases in adults, literature discussing the therapeutic use of EUS FNA in pediatrics remains limited. This study reports our experience with the use of EUS in children with pancreaticobiliary disorders. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate safety, clinical utility, and impact of therapeutic EUS on the management of children (<18 years) at a tertiary referral center. Data were collected from January 1, 2011, to April 30, 2014. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and EUS procedure data were reviewed. Continuous variables were described using the mean and standard deviation. Categorical variables were described using frequencies and percentages. Results: A total of 6 therapeutic EUS procedures were performed in 5 children (3 F/2 M). The mean age was 13 years (range 6–17) with a mean body mass index of 28.2 (range 18.5–38.8). The indications for EUS procedures were abdominal pain with chronic pancreatitis (3) and management of symptomatic pancreaticobiliary cysts/pseudocysts observed on previous imaging (3). All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. The 6 therapeutic procedures performed were celiac plexus block (3), cyst gastrostomy with stents placement (2), and cyst aspiration using EUS FNA (1). A celiac plexus block effectively relieved abdominal pain in 2 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Cyst gastrostomy successfully resulted in pseudocyst resolution in the follow up imaging of 2 patients (up to 6 months after the procedure). Cyst aspiration with EUS guided FNA resulted in cyst resolution and confirmation of the benign nature of the cyst in 1 patient. All the procedures were successfully completed with no reported complications. Conclusion: The therapeutic use of endoscopic ultrasound in the pediatric population is safe and has a high

  7. Early experiences with tachycardia-triggered vagus nerve stimulation using the AspireSR stimulator.

    PubMed

    El Tahry, Riëm; Hirsch, Martin; Van Rijckevorsel, Kenou; Santos, Susana Ferrao; de Tourtchaninoff, Marianne; Rooijakkers, Herbert; Coenen, Volker; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Many epilepsy patients treated with vagus nerve stimulation additionally use an "on-demand" function, triggering an extra stimulation to terminate a seizure or diminish its severity. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients are not able to actively trigger stimulations by use of a magnet, due to the absence of an aura or inability for voluntary actions in the early phase of a seizure. To address this need, a novel implantable pulse generator, the AspireSR VNS system, was developed to provide automated ictal stimulation triggered by a seizure-detecting algorithm. We report our experience with three patients in assessing the functionality of ictal stimulation, illustrating the detection system in practice. Detection of ictal tachycardia and variable additional detections of physiological tachycardia depended on the individual seizure-detecting algorithm settings. PMID:27248796

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with on-site cytopathology versus core biopsy: a comparison of both techniques performed at the same endoscopic session

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michael; Hair, Clark D.; Green, Linda K.; Vela, Stacie A.; Patel, Kalpesh K.; Qureshi, Waqar A.; Shaib, Yasser H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) with bedside cytopathology is the gold standard for assessment of pancreatic, subepithelial, and other lesions in close proximity to the gastrointestinal tract, but it is time-consuming, has certain diagnostic limitations, and bedside cytopathology is not widely available. Aims: The goal of this study is to compare the diagnostic yield of EUS-guided FNA with on-site cytopathology and EUS-guided core biopsy. Methods: Twenty-six patients with gastrointestinal mass lesions requiring biopsy at a tertiary medical center were included in this retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort. Two core biopsies were taken using a 22 gauge needle followed by FNA guided by a bedside cytopathologist at the same endoscopic session. The diagnostic yield and test characteristics of EUS core biopsy and EUS FNA with bedside cytopathology were examined. Results: The mean number of passes was 3.2 for FNA, and the mean procedure time was 39.4 minutes. The final diagnosis was malignant in 92.3 %. Sensitivity and specificity were 83 % and 100 %, respectively, for FNA, and 91.7 % and 100 %, respectively, for core biopsy. Diagnostic accuracy was 92.3 % for FNA and 84.6 % for core biopsy. The two approaches were in agreement in 88.4 % with a kappa statistic of 0.66 (95 % confidence interval 0.33 – 0.99). Conclusions: An approach using two passes with a core biopsy needle is comparable to the current gold standard of FNA with bedside cytopathology. The performance of two core biopsies is time-efficient and could represent a good alternative to FNA with bedside cytopathology. PMID:26135096

  9. Emergency bronchoscopy for foreign-body aspiration in a child with type I mucopolysaccharidosis: a challenging airway management experience.

    PubMed

    Kendigelen, Pinar; Tunali, Yusuf; Tutuncu, Ayse; Ashyralyyeva, Gulruh; Emre, Senol; Kaya, Guner

    2016-08-01

    The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a rare lysosomal storage disease. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) accumulate in musculoskeletal system, connective tissues. Enlarged tongue, short immobile neck, and limited mobility of the cervical spine and temporomandibular joints render the airway management potentially risky. MPS children have high anesthetic risks, especially in airway management of emergency situations. The foreign-body aspiration requiring intervention with rigid bronchoscopy is an urgent and risky clinical situation. We present our experience with a challenging airway management with a three-year-old child with MPS who needed emergency bronchoscopy due to peanut aspiration. PMID:27146659

  10. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  11. Prevention of meconium aspiration syndrome: an update and the Baylor experience

    PubMed Central

    Charsha, Dianne S.; Chiruvolu, Arpitha

    2009-01-01

    The approach to preventing meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in the newborn has changed markedly over the last 30 years. In the late 1970s, all infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAf) had upper-airway suctioning before delivery of the shoulders and then had tracheal intubation and suctioning in the delivery room. Now suctioning of the upper airway is no longer recommended, and only “depressed” infants are intubated for tracheal suctioning. The incidence of MAS and the associated high mortality rate have both declined significantly over time. This is due to improved antepartum and intrapartum obstetrical management as well as the postdelivery resuscitation of the neonate born through MSAf. MAS is no longer considered to be solely a postnatal disorder that is preventable with routine delivery room suctioning of the trachea; rather, it is considered a complex and multifactorial disorder with antenatal as well as intrapartum factors. The incidence and severity of MAS have been positively affected by a combined obstetrical and neonatal approach to the infant born through MSAf. In this article, we detail our experience at Baylor University Medical Center with MAS and its prevention and review the current literature. PMID:19381312

  12. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: Basic principles, present situation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS. PMID:25400439

  13. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy in children: experience in 70 cases.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, A; Castel, V; Torres, V; Olagüe, R; Ferris, J; Esquembre, C; Vallcanera, A; Muro, M D

    1988-01-01

    Results of 70 fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) were evaluated retrospectively in 61 pediatric patients. Over a period of 9 months all mass lesions suspected being malignant were aspirated. Twelve of the 70 aspirations were performed in children having known tumours, in order to exclude recurrence or metastasis. The others were carried out to obtain a diagnosis. Satisfactory specimens were obtained from 58 (83%). There were 21 benign diagnoses, 36 malignant diagnoses, and 1 with suspected malignancy. Correlation of histologic and cytologic diagnoses was possible in 45 cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 80%, respectively. We have found FNAB more accurate in the diagnosis of malignancies than in benign lesions. The results suggest that this is a useful technique for obtaining a first diagnosis of malignancy, as well as for excluding recurrence or metastatic disease. PMID:3352542

  14. Virtual School, Real Experience: Simulations Replicate the World of Practice for Aspiring Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Shakeshaft, Charol

    2013-01-01

    A web-enabled computer simulation program presents real-world opportunities, problems, and challenges for aspiring principals. The simulation challenges areas that are not always covered in lectures, textbooks, or workshops. For example, using the simulation requires dealing--on-screen and in real time--with demanding parents, observing…

  15. Looking toward the Blue Sky: Environmental Education Researchers' Experience, Influences, and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte R.; Wojcik, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) researchers hail from diverse disciplines and sociocultural contexts, work in a range of settings, and envision various outcomes. Desiring to better understand their backgrounds, interests, and aspirations for the field, we surveyed EE researchers to explore their theoretical and educational influences and what they…

  16. Confronting Issues of Gender and Ethnicity: Women's Experiences as Aspiring Urban Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperandio, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This article examines, from a female perspective, the complexities of gender and ethnicity embedded in successful urban school leadership. The authors use qualitative data, collected from female participants in two cohorts of aspiring urban principals in a yearlong experimental leadership preparation program, to discuss issues that arise during…

  17. Postsecondary Educational Aspirations and Enrollment of Students with Learning Disabilities: The Role of Secondary Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Youn Jung

    2013-01-01

    While there have been steady increases in postsecondary education attendance by students with learning disabilities (LD), limited research has examined secondary schooling factors that may affect and promote their postsecondary educational aspirations and enrollment. Drawing on a sample of 370 students with LD from the National Longitudinal…

  18. Estimation of thyroglobulin in lymph node aspirates: Pilot experience from a tertiary referral cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Chauhan, Subhra; Naveen; Latha, B. S.; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kekatpure, Vikram; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Manjunath, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment of cervical lymph node involvement in patients with thyroid cancer either during preoperative surgical mapping or detection of recurrences during follow-up is a crucial step in the management of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs). In most patients, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirms the presence of metastasis in lymph node. However, in cases of paucicellular lymph node aspirate or discordant sonogram and cytology results, thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the lymph node aspirate (FNA-Tg) is useful and a value >1 ng/ml is considered consistent with metastatic disease. Context: The addition of FNAC to the US improves the specificity, but 5–10% are nondiagnostic and 6–8% rate of false-negative results. Several studies have reported that the detection of Tg in FNA-needle washes improves the evaluation of suspicious lymph nodes in patients with DTC.Data from Indian centers on FNA-Tg are limited. Aims: We piloted the utility of FNA-Tg in patients with sonographically suspicious cervical lymph node enlargement in the setting of suspicious thyroid nodule or in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. Settings and Design: Prospective data collection. Results: We measured Tg in 13 lymph node aspirates (12 patients, 10 females) among whom 4 patients had a total thyroidectomy and 1 had a hemithyroidectomy. Eight of the 13 lymph node aspirates had FNA-Tg values >150 ng/ml, all of them had unequivocal malignant cytology and four among them had proven metastatic DTC on surgical pathology. The median FNA-Tg of the patients with malignant cytology was 7550 ng/ml with a range of 162–30,000 ng/ml. Among the remaining 5 lymph node aspirate, 2 lymph nodes showed cytological features suggestive of reactive lymphadenitis (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml) and were not operated, 1 had a high-grade malignancy consistent with anaplastic thyroid cancer (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml), and 2 had nondiagnostic cytology (one had non-caseating granuloma on surgical pathology [FNA-Tg 1

  19. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the management of salivary gland tumors: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Stow, Nicholas; Veivers, David; Poole, Alan

    2004-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 104 cases of salivary gland tumors that were initially assessed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Based on subsequent histopathologic analysis of excised specimens, we found that preoperative FNAB was highly sensitive and specific for both benign and malignant tumors-including the most common, pleomorphic adenomas and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Despite its possible drawbacks, we conclude that preoperative FNAB is a useful tool in the management of salivary gland tumors. PMID:15008447

  1. Possibilities of interventional endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Makoto; Togawa, Osamu; Matsukawa, Miho; Shono, Takashi; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Nakao, Masamitsu; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arai, Shin; Kita, Hiroto

    2012-01-01

    Since endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was developed in the 1990s, EUS has become widely accepted as an imaging tool. EUS is categorized into radial and linear in design. Radial endoscopes provide cross-sectional imaging of the mediastinum, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, and pancreas, which has highly accuracy in the T and N staging of esophageal, lung, gastric, rectal, and pancreatic cancer. Tumor staging is common indication of radial-EUS, and EUS-staging is predictive of surgical resectability. In contrast, linear array endoscope uses a side-viewing probe and has advantages in the ability to perform EUS-guides fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), which has been established for cytologic diagnosis. For example, EUS-FNA arrows accurate nodal staging of esophageal cancer before surgery, which provides more accurate assessment of nodes than radial-EUS imaging alone. EUS-FNA has been also commonly used for diagnose of pancreatic diseases because of the highly accuracy than US or computed tomography. EUS and EUS-FNA has been used not only for TNM staging and cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but also for evaluation of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cystic lesions, and other pancreatic masses. More recently, EUS-FNA has developed into EUS-guided fine needle injection including EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis, celiac plexus block, and other “interventional EUS” procedures. In this review, we have summarized the new possibilities offered by “interventional EUS”. PMID:22816010

  2. Possibilities of interventional endoscopic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Makoto; Togawa, Osamu; Matsukawa, Miho; Shono, Takashi; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Nakao, Masamitsu; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arai, Shin; Kita, Hiroto

    2012-07-16

    Since endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was developed in the 1990s, EUS has become widely accepted as an imaging tool. EUS is categorized into radial and linear in design. Radial endoscopes provide cross-sectional imaging of the mediastinum, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, and pancreas, which has highly accuracy in the T and N staging of esophageal, lung, gastric, rectal, and pancreatic cancer. Tumor staging is common indication of radial-EUS, and EUS-staging is predictive of surgical resectability. In contrast, linear array endoscope uses a side-viewing probe and has advantages in the ability to perform EUS-guides fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), which has been established for cytologic diagnosis. For example, EUS-FNA arrows accurate nodal staging of esophageal cancer before surgery, which provides more accurate assessment of nodes than radial-EUS imaging alone. EUS-FNA has been also commonly used for diagnose of pancreatic diseases because of the highly accuracy than US or computed tomography. EUS and EUS-FNA has been used not only for TNM staging and cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but also for evaluation of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cystic lesions, and other pancreatic masses. More recently, EUS-FNA has developed into EUS-guided fine needle injection including EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis, celiac plexus block, and other "interventional EUS" procedures. In this review, we have summarized the new possibilities offered by "interventional EUS". PMID:22816010

  3. MR-guided fine needle aspiration of breast lesions: Initial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, D.S.; Weinreb, J.C.; Newstead, G.; Flyer, M.; Bose, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive procedure that is used to obtain cytologic specimens of suspicious lesions in the breast. The goal of this study was to evaluate the logistics and limitations of MR-guided FNA using a prototype breast localization coil. MR-guided FNAs were attempted on 18 lesions (detected on mammography and/or palpation) in 16 patients. Patients were prone with their compressed mediolaterally between two plates in a circularly polarized RF coil. Lesion position was determined by reference to fiducial makers that corresponded to a grid of holes placed at 5 mm intervals in compression plate. FNA was performed with a 22G non-ferromagnetic needle. FNA was successful for 11 of 18 lesions (61%). Of the seven unsuccessful cases, there were four in which the lesions were too posteriorly placed to be accessed through the compression plate by the needle. Three cases were too anteriorly placed to be effectively immobilized and, although successfully localized, were insufficiently sampled by the FNA technique. MR-guided FNA is possible using a prototype breast localization device in a select group of patients. Current coil design limits its use in performing MR-guided FNA on the most anteriorly and posteriorly placed breast lesions. Unique requirements of FNA under MR guidance as compared to needle localization and biopsy have been identified. Modifications in localization hardware and cytology aspiration needles should overcome these restrictions. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  4. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  5. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... unconscious or semi-conscious) after a stroke or brain injury Problems with swallowing ... how ill the person is before the aspiration (chronic illness). Sometimes a ventilator (breathing machine) is needed ...

  6. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with an echobronchoscope in undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy: First experience from India

    PubMed Central

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Singh, Navneet; Gupta, Dheeraj; Behera, Digamber; Gupta, Nalini; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Several studies have reported the performance of combining endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration with an echobronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA), with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Herein we report our initial experience with this technique. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, we report the outcome of patients who underwent EUS-B-FNA with or without EBUS-TBNA during the same session. Details of the lymph nodes sampled, number of passes, duration of the procedure, results of the cytological examination, and the final diagnosis of all the patients are presented. Results: Eleven patients underwent EUS-B-FNA during the study period. EUS-B-FNA and EBUS-TBNA together yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 72.7 and 100%, respectively. The number of lymph nodes sampled per patient and the number of passes per lymph node were significantly higher with EBUS-TBNA compared to EUS-B-FNA. The mean duration of procedure was also significantly higher in the EBUS-TBNA group. The most common reason (five patients (45.5%)) for resorting to EUS-B-FNA was the patient being unfit for EBUS-TBNA or the inability of the operator to complete the procedure. Sarcoidosis was the most frequent final diagnosis in the study patients (four cases), followed by bronchogenic carcinoma (three cases). Conclusions: EUS-B-FNA is a useful additional tool for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In combination with EBUS-TBNA, it has a fairly good diagnostic yield and is a good alternative in situations where EBUS-TBNA is not feasible. PMID:25624588

  7. The Broken Pipeline for Female Midlevel Administrators in Higher Education: The Effect of Self-Efficacy and Personal Identities on Professional Experiences and Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany E.

    2013-01-01

    Women's roles in higher education have increased; however, women remain underrepresented in upper-level administrative positions. This qualitative study examined how personal identities are related to self-efficacy, and subsequently, the professional experiences and aspirations of female midlevel higher education administrators. Midlevel…

  8. Positive Experiences and Life Aspirations among Adolescents with and without Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Zipora

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of 79 normally hearing and 42 hearing-impaired adolescents found no differences regarding the intensity of their remembered positive experiences. Hearing-impaired subjects reported more positive interpersonal experiences, rarely experienced positive experiences "with self," and showed less desire for transpersonal commitment, even with…

  9. The STEM Pipeline: The Role of Summer Research Experience in Minority Students' Ph.D. Aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Pender, Matea; Marcotte, Dave E.; Sto. Domingo, Mariano R.; Maton, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    Practical research experience has been seen as an important tool to enhance learning in STEM fields and shape commitment to science careers. Indeed, this was a prominent recommendation of the Boyer Commission. Further, there is evidence this is especially important for minority students. In this paper, we examine the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority undergraduates in STEM fields. We focus on the link between summer research and STEM Ph.D. program matriculation. We examine evidence on this question using detailed data on students participating in the Meyerhoff Scholarship Program over a 14 year period at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. Our results provide evidence of strong positive effects of summer research on participation in STEM Ph.D. programs. Further, we show that the effects of summer research vary with the frequency and timing of these experiences. The evidence that educational strategies such as summer research experiences improve academic outcomes of minorities is vital, given concern about the science pipeline in the U.S. and the continuing growth in the racial/ethnic diversity of the college-age population. PMID:21841903

  10. Infant Care in England: Mothers' Aspirations, Experiences, Satisfaction and Caregiver Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jacqueline; Leach, Penelope; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates non-maternal infant care in the first year of life, examining the relationships between child care ideals, attitudinal, sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of mothers at three months postpartum and their child care experiences at 10 months. Predictors of child care use, satisfaction with non-maternal care and…

  11. [Starch aspiration].

    PubMed

    Volk, O; Neidhöfer, M; Schregel, W

    1999-06-01

    Starch is a white, neutral smelling, insoluble and harmless powder. The case of a 24-year old worker with a pronounced bronchospasm and arterial hypoxaemia after a collapse and aspiration during working in a silo filled with corn starch will be reported. Medication consisted mainly in mucolytics. Intensive airway clearing consisted of repeated bronchoscopies, bedding, tapotement and vibration massage. The patient has made a complete recovery in 3 days. PMID:10429779

  12. [Aspiration pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Clavé, Pere

    2007-09-29

    The incidence and the prevalence of aspiration pneumonia (AP) in the community is poorly defined. It increases in direct relation with age and underlying diseases. The pathogenesis of AP presumes the contribution of risk factors that alter swallowing funtion and predispose the orofaringe and gastric region to bacterial colonization. The microbial etiology of AP involves Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae for community-acquired aspiration pneumonia and Gram-negative aerobic bacilli in nosocomial pneumonia. It is worth bearing in mind the relative unimportance of anaerobic bacterias in AP. When we choose the empirical antibiotic treatmentant we have to consider some pathogens identified in orofaríngea flora. Empirical treatment with antianaerobics should only be used in certain patients. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies should be used to determine the nature and extent of any swallow disorder and to rule out silent aspiration. Assessment of swallowing disorders is cost-effective and results in a significant reduction in overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:17927938

  13. Optimizing Diagnostic Yield for EUS-Guided Sampling of Solid Pancreatic Lesions: A Technical Review

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has a higher diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic cancer than other techniques. This article will review the current advances and considerations for optimizing diagnostic yield for EUS-guided sampling of solid pancreatic lesions. Preprocedural considerations include patient history, confirmation of appropriate indication, review of imaging, method of sedation, experience required by the endoscopist, and access to rapid on-site cytologic evaluation. New EUS imaging techniques that may assist with differential diagnoses include contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS, EUS elastography, and EUS spectrum analysis. FNA techniques vary, and multiple FNA needles are now commercially available; however, neither techniques nor available FNA needles have been definitively compared. The need for suction depends on the lesion, and the need for a stylet is equivocal. No definitive endosonographic finding can predict the optimal number of passes for diagnostic yield. Preparation of good smears and communication with the cytopathologist are essential to optimize yield. PMID:23935542

  14. Re-Envisioned Contributions: Experiences of Faculty Employed at Institutional Types That Differ from Their Original Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terosky, Aimee LaPointe; Gonzales, Leslie D.

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the theory of figured worlds, this qualitative study focuses on 18 faculty members employed at community colleges, broad access liberal arts, comprehensives, and regional research universities, who have constructed professionally and personally meaningful careers at institutions that differ from their original aspirations and/or their…

  15. Opinion: How to manage subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract?

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Schulz, Ricardo Teles; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-01-01

    Subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are relatively frequent findings in patients undergoing an upper GI endoscopy. These tumors, which are located below the epithelium and out of reach of conventional biopsy forceps, may pose a diagnostic challenge for the gastroenterologist, especially when SELs are indeterminate after endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The decision to proceed with further investigation should take into consideration the size, location in the GI tract, and EUS features of SELs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an example of an SEL that has a well-recognized malignant potential. Unfortunately, EUS is not able to absolutely differentiate GISTs from other benign hypoechoic lesions from the fourth layer, such as leiomyomas. Therefore, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an important tool for correct diagnosis of SELs. However, small lesions (size < 2 cm) have a poor diagnostic yield with EUS-FNA. Moreover, studies with EUS-core biopsy needles did not report higher rates of histologic and diagnostic yields when compared with EUS-FNA. The limited diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA and EUS-core biopsies of SELs has led to the development of more invasive endoscopic techniques for tissue acquisition. There are initial studies showing good results for tissue biopsy or resection of SELs with endoscopic submucosal dissection, suck-ligate-unroof-biopsy, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. PMID:26675266

  16. Opinion: How to manage subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract?

    PubMed

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Schulz, Ricardo Teles; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-12-10

    Subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are relatively frequent findings in patients undergoing an upper GI endoscopy. These tumors, which are located below the epithelium and out of reach of conventional biopsy forceps, may pose a diagnostic challenge for the gastroenterologist, especially when SELs are indeterminate after endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The decision to proceed with further investigation should take into consideration the size, location in the GI tract, and EUS features of SELs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an example of an SEL that has a well-recognized malignant potential. Unfortunately, EUS is not able to absolutely differentiate GISTs from other benign hypoechoic lesions from the fourth layer, such as leiomyomas. Therefore, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an important tool for correct diagnosis of SELs. However, small lesions (size < 2 cm) have a poor diagnostic yield with EUS-FNA. Moreover, studies with EUS-core biopsy needles did not report higher rates of histologic and diagnostic yields when compared with EUS-FNA. The limited diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA and EUS-core biopsies of SELs has led to the development of more invasive endoscopic techniques for tissue acquisition. There are initial studies showing good results for tissue biopsy or resection of SELs with endoscopic submucosal dissection, suck-ligate-unroof-biopsy, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. PMID:26675266

  17. Diagnostic potency of EUS-guided FNA for the evaluation of pancreatic mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Amir Houshang Mohammad; Shahrokh, Shabnam; Hadizadeh, Mohammad; Padashi, Maryam; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Diagnosis of pancreatic lesions remains a clinical challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in pancreatic mass lesions. Patients and Methods: Clinical data, laboratory tests, and cytopathological and imaging reports were collected from 185 pancreatic EUS cases performed from March 2010 to January 2014. The final diagnosis was based on surgical findings, EUS-FNA or computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy. Results: A total of 100 pancreatic FNAs were obtained by EUS. Most positive diagnoses of malignancy were pancreatic adenocarcinomas (n = 61). The site of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was the head in 50 (82.0%), body in seven (11.5%), and tail in four (6.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of EUS-FNA for diagnosing adenocarcinoma were 80.3%, 92.3%, 94.2%, and 75.0%, respectively. Discussion: We concluded that EUS-FNA of pancreatic lesion accurately diagnoses pancreatic adenocarcinoma and should be considered for the standard management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26879164

  18. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  19. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Endocrinology: Imaging of the Adrenals and the Endocrine Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kann, Peter Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of adrenal glands and its application to diagnostic procedures of adrenal diseases has been reported since 1998. It can be considered a relevant advantage in the field of adrenal diseases. Indeed, EUS allows the detection of adrenal lesions (even very small ones) and their characterization, the assessment of malignancy criteria, the early detection of neoplastic recurrences, the preoperative identification of morphologically healthy parts of the glands, the differentiation of extra-adrenal from adrenal tumors, and of the pathological entities associated with adrenal insufficiency, and the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) of suspicious lesions. At the same time, its clinical relevance depends on the experience of the endosonographer. Moreover, EUS is also by far the best and most sensitive imaging technique to detect and assess the follow-up of pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 disease. It furthermore enables the preoperatively localization of insulinomas and critical structures in their neighborhood, and may be relevant in planning surgical strategy. A positive EUS in a case of insulinoma furthermore confirms the endocrine diagnosis, especially considering the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia factitia by oral antidiabetics. It can be supplemented by EUS-FNA. Again, it has to be considered that EUS may reveal false positive and false negative results, and the quality of the findings largely depends on the endosonographer's skills and experience. The most important technical details together with the advantages and limitations of EUS, and the pathognomonic characteristic of benign and malignant disorders of the adrenals and pancreas are presented here. PMID:27003412

  20. Management of Patients With Pancreatic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ali; Loren, David; Mertz, Howard R.; Mallat, Damien; Haddad, Nadim; Malhotra, Nidhi; Sadowski, Brett; Lybik, Mark J.; Patel, Sandeep N.; Okoh, Emuejevoke; Rosenkranz, Laura; Karasik, Michael; Golioto, Michael; Linder, Jeffrey; Catalano, Marc F.; Al-Haddad, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Goals: To examine the utility of integrated molecular pathology (IMP) in managing surveillance of pancreatic cysts based on outcomes and analysis of false negatives (FNs) from a previously published cohort (n=492). Background: In endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of cyst fluid lacking malignant cytology, IMP demonstrated better risk stratification for malignancy at approximately 3 years’ follow-up than International Consensus Guideline (Fukuoka) 2012 management recommendations in such cases. Study: Patient outcomes and clinical features of Fukuoka and IMP FN cases were reviewed. Practical guidance for appropriate surveillance intervals and surgery decisions using IMP were derived from follow-up data, considering EUS-FNA sampling limitations and high-risk clinical circumstances observed. Surveillance intervals for patients based on IMP predictive value were compared with those of Fukuoka. Results: Outcomes at follow-up for IMP low-risk diagnoses supported surveillance every 2 to 3 years, independent of cyst size, when EUS-FNA sampling limitations or high-risk clinical circumstances were absent. In 10 of 11 patients with FN IMP diagnoses (2% of cohort), EUS-FNA sampling limitations existed; Fukuoka identified high risk in 9 of 11 cases. In 4 of 6 FN cases by Fukuoka (1% of cohort), IMP identified high risk. Overall, 55% of cases had possible sampling limitations and 37% had high-risk clinical circumstances. Outcomes support more cautious management in such cases when using IMP. Conclusions: Adjunct use of IMP can provide evidence for relaxed surveillance of patients with benign cysts that meet Fukuoka criteria for closer observation or surgery. Although infrequent, FN results with IMP can be associated with EUS-FNA sampling limitations or high-risk clinical circumstances. PMID:27332745

  1. Pathologic evaluation of a new endoscopic ultrasound needle designed to obtain core tissue samples: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Douglas G.; Witt, Benjamin; Chadwick, Barbara; Wells, Jason; Taylor, Linda Jo; Dimaio, Christopher; Schmidt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Standard endoscopic ultrasound-fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) needles are in widespread use. Meaningful differences between the available needles have been difficult to identify. Recently, a new EUS needle (Shark Core®, Covidien, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland), has been introduced in an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, tissue yield, and to potentially obtain a core tissue sample. We performed a pilot study prospectively to evaluate this new needle when compared to a standard EUS-FNA needle. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the first 15 patients undergoing EUS-FNA with the Shark Core needle was performed and it was compared to EUS-FNA in 15 patients who underwent EUS-FNA with a standard needle. Results: The Shark Core needle required fewer needle passes to obtain diagnostic adequacy than the standard needle [(χ2(1) = 11.3, P < 0.001]. The Shark Core needle required 1.5 passes to reach adequacy, whereas the standard needle required three passes. For cases with cell blocks, the Shark Core needle produced diagnostic material in 85% of cases [95% confidence interval (CI): 54–98], whereas the standard needle produced diagnostic material in 38% of the cases (95% CI: 9-76). The Shark Core needle produced actual tissue cores 82% of the time (95% CI: 48–98) and the standard needle produced no tissue cores (95% CI: 0-71) (P = 0.03). Conclusion: This pilot study found that the Shark Core needle had a high rate of producing adequate cytologic material for the diagnosis of pancreatic and peri-pancreatic lesions sampled by EUS with fewer passes required to obtain a definitive diagnosis and with a high rate of tissue cores being obtained when compared to a standard FNA needle.

  2. The emerging role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided core biopsy for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, M; Koduru, P; Lanke, G; Bruno, M; Maitra, A; Giovannini, M

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment but only 20% are eligible for resection at the time of diagnosis. Early detection of cancer is of paramount importance in the management. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the preferred modality for obtaining tissue diagnosis of pancreatic masses. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA may be limited by several factors like availability of onsite cytopathology, adequacy of tissue core for histology, location of the mass, presence of underlying chronic pancreatitis, and experience of the endoscopist. Modern oncology is focusing on personalizing treatment based on tissue analysis of genetic aberrations and molecular biomarkers which are now available. Core tissue also aids in the diagnosis of disease entities like lymphoma, metastatic tumors, neuroendocrine tumors and autoimmune pancreatitis whose diagnosis rely on preserved tissue architecture and immunohistochemistry. Making accurate diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses is critical to avoid unnecessary resections in patients with benign lesions like focal lesions of chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis which mimic cancer. To overcome the limitations of FNA and to obtain adequate core tissue, a Tru-Cut biopsy needle was developed which met with variable success due to stiffness, cumbersome operation and technical failure using it in the duodenum/pancreatic head. More recently fine needle biopsy needles, with reverse bevel technology have become available in different sizes (19, 22, 25-gauge). The aim of this article was to review the emerging role of core biopsy needles in acquiring tissue in solid pancreatic masses and discuss its potential role in personalized medicine. PMID:25675155

  3. Remote Possibilities: Rural Children's Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Caitlin W.

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the influence of rural context on youth's life chances, this study takes up the question of rural children's educational aspirations. The experience of rural life may, as some claim, limit students' educational aspirations. Yet there are indications that rural communities simultaneously generate important social benefits that…

  4. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  5. Liposuction: more curettage than aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    1991-01-01

    After infiltration with epinephrine solution in each adipose area, an 8- or 10-mm cannula, without the suction tube connected, was introduced. With a curettage maneuver and by directing the cannula upward, the fat began to come out spontaneously. After obtaining a considerable amount of fat, the suction tube was connected and the remaining fat tissue aspirated at low suction power (250 mm Hg). With this curettage maneuver adiposity of the abdomen, knees, and trochanteric areas can be reduced. However, in the back, buttocks, or thighs, where adiposity is more fibrous, aspiration is needed from the start in almost every case, but always at low-power suction. This procedure is indicated in particular for the face and neck and for secondary liposuction. The fact that fat comes out easily through the cannula (without suction) demonstrates that the curettage maneuver is more important than the aspiration. Only with curettage can a considerable amount of fat be removed. No fat is removed when aspiration of 1 atm without a curettage maneuver is used. Suction only helps to remove fat already mobilized and free in the cannula. Our experience includes 34 patients. PMID:1897413

  6. Aspiration-related lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Prather, Andrew D; Smith, Tristan R; Poletto, Dana M; Tavora, Fabio; Chung, Jonathan H; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

    2014-09-01

    Aspiration is a common but underrecognized clinicopathologic entity, with varied radiographic manifestations. Aspiration represents a spectrum of diseases, including diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonitis, airway obstruction by foreign body, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, and aspiration pneumonia with or without lung abscess formation. Many patients who aspirate do not present with disease, suggesting that pathophysiology is related to a variety of factors, including decreased levels of consciousness, dysphagia, impaired mucociliary clearance, composition of aspirate, and impaired host defenses. In this pictorial essay, we will review the different types of aspiration lung diseases, focusing on their imaging features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24911122

  7. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  8. Gastric Aspiration Models

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Bruce A.; Alluri, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The procedures described below are for producing gastric aspiration pneumonitis in mice with alterations for rats and rabbits described parenthetically. We use 4 different injury vehicles delivered intratracheally to investigate the inflammatory responses to gastric aspiration: Normal saline (NS) as the injury vehicle controlNS + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid)NS + gastric particles, pH ≈ 5.3 (part.)NS + gastric particles + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid + part.) The volume, pH, and gastric particle concentration all affect the resulting lung injury. In mice, we generally use an injury volume of 3.6 ml/kg (rat: 1.2 ml/kg, rabbit: 2.4 ml/kg), an injury pH (for the acid-containing vehicles) of 1.25, and a gastric particulate concentration (in the particulate-containing vehicles) of 10 mg/ml (rat: 40 mg/ml). In our hands this results in a maximal, non-lethal lung injury with ≤ 10% mortality for the most injurious vehicle (i.e., acid + part.) The maximum tolerable particulate concentration needs to be determined empirically for any new strains to be used, especially in genetically-altered mice, because an altered inflammatory response may have detrimental affects on mortality. We have extensive experience utilizing these procedures in the outbred strain, CD-1, as well as many genetically-altered inbred stains on the C57BL/6 background. Choice of strain should be carefully considered, especially in terms of strain-specific immune bias, to assure proper data interpretation. The size of the mouse should be ≥ 20 g at the time of injury. Smaller mice can be attempted, if necessary, but the surgical manipulation becomes increasingly more difficult and the surgery survival rate decreases substantially. There are no size or strain constraints for rat and rabbit models, but we generally use Long-Evans rats at 250–300 g and New Zealand White rats at ≈ 2 kg at the time of initial injury.

  9. Clinical Experience Using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability for Identification of Patients at Risk for Aspiration in a Mixed-Disease Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Sein, Michael T.; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the clinical performance characteristics of the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA) for predicting aspiration (determined by videofluoroscopic swallowing study [VFSS]) in a mixed population. Method: We selected 133 cases clinically evaluated using MASA and VFSS from January through June 2007. Ordinal risk rating…

  10. Bone marrow aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Bain, B

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow aspiration biopsies are carried out principally to permit cytological assessment but also for immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, molecular genetic, and other specialised investigations. Often, a trephine biopsy is carried out as part of the same procedure. Bone marrow aspirations should be carried out by trained individuals who are aware of the indications, contraindications, and hazards of the procedure. They should follow a standard operating procedure. The operator should have made an adequate assessment of clinical and haematological features to ensure both that appropriate indications exist and that all relevant tests are performed. For the patient's comfort and safety, the posterior iliac crest is generally the preferred site of aspiration. Films of aspirated marrow and, when appropriate, films of crushed particles should be made and labelled. Once thoroughly dry, films should be fixed and stained. As a minimum, a Romanowsky stain and a Perls' stain are required. A cover slip should be applied. The bone marrow films should be assessed and reported in a systematic manner so that nothing of importance is overlooked, using a low power, then intermediate, then high power objective. A differential count should be performed. An interpretation of the findings, in the light of the clinical and haematological features, should be given. The report should be signed or computer authorised, using a secure password, and issued in a timely manner. Key Words: bone marrow aspirate • haematological diagnosis PMID:11533068

  11. Degree Aspirations of Two-Year College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laanan, Frankie Santos

    2003-01-01

    Examines the extent to which both internal and external factors--such as background characteristics, high school experiences, and selected affective measures--influence, or explain, the educational aspirations of students at public and private two-year colleges. Describes a study of more than 13,000 freshmen students' educational aspirations and…

  12. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography for assessment of lymph node metastases in pancreatobiliary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Takeshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Kamata, Ken; Imai, Hajime; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Nisida, Naoshi; Harwani, Yogesh; Murakami, Takamichi; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS) for lymph node metastasis in pancreatobiliary carcinoma. METHODS: All patients suspected of pancreatobiliary carcinoma with visible lymph nodes after standard EUS between June, 2009 and January, 2012 were enrolled. In the primary analysis, patients with successful EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) were included. The lymph nodes were assessed by several standard EUS variables (short and long axis lengths, shape, edge characteristic and echogenicity), color Doppler EUS variable [central intranodal blood vessel (CIV) presence] and CH-EUS variable (heterogeneous/homogeneous enhancement patterns). The diagnostic accuracy relative to EUS-FNA was calculated. In the second analysis, N-stage diagnostic accuracy of CH-EUS was compared with EUS-FNA in patients who underwent surgical resection. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients (143 lymph nodes) fulfilled the criteria. The short axis cut-off ≥ 13 mm predicted malignancy with a sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 85%, respectively. These values were 72% and 63% for the long axis cut-off ≥ 20 mm, 62% and 75% for the round shape variable, 81% and 30% for the sharp edge variable, 66% and 61% for the hypoechogenicity variable, 70% and 72% for the CIV-absent variable, and 83% and 91% for the heterogeneous CH-EUS-enhancement variable, respectively. CH-EUS was more accurate than standard and color Doppler EUS, except the short axis cut-off. Notably, three patients excluded because of EUS-FNA failure were correctly N-staged by CH-EUS. CONCLUSION: CH-EUS complements standard and color Doppler EUS and EUS-FNA for assessment of lymph node metastases. PMID:27022220

  13. EUS-guided FNA for biliary disease as first-line modality to obtain histological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Saori; Ogura, Takeshi; Kurisu, Yoshitaka; Masuda, Daisuke; Sano, Tatsushi; Takagi, Wataru; Fukunishi, Shinya; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few reports have described endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) for biliary lesions. In addition, adverse events were not completely examined in previous reports, due to the inclusion of cases in which biliary stents had already been placed. The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic yield and adverse events of EUS-FNA for biliary lesions as the first-line diagnostic modality for consecutive prospectively registered patients. Methods: Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) patients with suspected cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) based on computed tomography or other imaging modalities; (2) patients who had not previously undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or EUS-FNA; (3) absence of surgically altered anatomy, such as Roux-en-Y anastomosis or duodenal obstruction caused by tumor invasion, through which an endoscope could not pass; and (4) provision of written informed consent to all procedures associated with the study. Results: A total of 47 consecutive patients with suspected CCA were registered to this study. Sensitivity and accuracy were 89% and 87%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, puncture site was the only factor associated with reduced diagnostic yield (hazard ration, 6.879; 95% confidence interval, 1.172–40.374; P = 0.033). Remarkably, no adverse events such as bleeding or bile leakage were associated with EUS-FNA in any of the 47 patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that EUS-FNA can be safely performed for biliary disease without biliary stenting. Furthermore, this procedure may warrant use as the first-line diagnostic method, although our results need to be validated in future prospective studies. PMID:27134660

  14. Therapeutic aspects of endoscopic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Timothy A.

    1999-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a technology that had been used primarily as a passive imaging modality. Recent advances have enabled us to move beyond the use of EUS solely as a staging tool to an interventional device. Current studies suggest that interventional applications of EUS will allow for minimally invasive assessment and therapies in a cost-effective manner. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been demonstrated to be a technically feasible, relatively safe method of obtaining cytologic specimens. The clinical utility of EUS- FNA appears to be greatest in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer and in the nodal staging of gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. In addition, EUS-FNA has demonstrated utility in the sampling pleural and ascitic fluid not generally appreciated or assessable to standard interventions. Interventional applications of EUS include EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage, EUS-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia, and EUS- guided celiac plexus neurolysis in the treatment of pancreatic cancer pain. Finally, EUS-guided fine-needle installation is being evaluated, in conjunction with recent bimolecular treatment modalities, as a delivery system in the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tumors.

  15. Emerging applications of endoscopic ultrasound in gastrointestinal cancers.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Lyndon V; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2008-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been adopted into numerous interventional techniques and strategies that promise to improve diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is recommended as a procedure of choice for tissue diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Potential benefits of EUS-FNA in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer include the ability to detect small, discrete lesions compared with conventional imaging and the ability to provide staging information by examination of blood vessels surrounding the pancreas. EUS-FNA currently is being evaluated in strategies for improving diagnosis in pancreatic cancer through analysis of molecular markers, including strategies for distinguishing malignant pancreatic cysts. EUS-guided fineneedle injection currently is being investigated in a broad range of settings in GI cancers, including use in intratumoral injection in pancreas and esophageal cancers, ethanol lavage for nonmalignant pancreatic cystic tumors, and brachytherapy in nonresectable pancreatic cancer. Other applications of EUS currently being evaluated include EUS-guided biliary access in patients with unsuccessful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and EUS-guided anastamoses in the GI tract. EUS-guided interventions have enormous potential to advance diagnosis and treatment of GI cancers. PMID:19259286

  16. EUS-Guided Needle-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Novel Technique With Emerging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Pramoda; Joshi, Virendra; Karstensen, John G.; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Giovannini, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an excellent tool for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, as well as surrounding structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care for the tissue sampling of a variety of masses and lymph nodes within and around the gut, providing further diagnostic and staging information. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method that enables imaging at a subcellular level of resolution during endoscopy, allowing up to 1000-fold magnification of tissue and providing an optical biopsy. A new procedure that has been developed in the past few years is needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE), which involves a mini-CLE probe that can be passed through a 1 9-gauge needle during EUS-FNA. This enables the real-time visualization of tissue at a microscopic level, with the potential to further improve the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA. The device has been studied in animals as well as in humans, and the results so far have been promising. Recently, this method has also been used for the visualization of regulatory proteins and receptors in the pancreas, setting a cornerstone for nCLE in molecular imaging. The aim of this article is to review the role of EUS-guided nCLE in modern endoscopy and its implications in molecular imaging. PMID:27099595

  17. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  18. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

  19. Aspirations for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, P. G.; Western, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The first phase of a longitudinal study of effects of social origins, schooling, perceived influence of significant others, and self-concept on college aspiration is more explanatory for men than women but shows parent, teacher, and peer influence to have a major impact for all. The social-psychological theory is criticized. (MSE)

  20. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  1. Assessing Children's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    In the past several years, "Science and Children" has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations.…

  2. Aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Lee, Joyce S; Pianosi, Paolo T; Ryu, Jay H

    2015-03-01

    Aspiration of foreign matter into the airways and lungs can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders with various presentations. The type of syndrome resulting from aspiration depends on the quantity and nature of the aspirated material, the chronicity, and the host responses. Aspiration is most likely to occur in subjects with a decreased level of consciousness, compromised airway defense mechanisms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and recurrent vomiting. These aspiration-related syndromes can be categorized into airway disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction, large airway obstruction with a foreign body, bronchiectasis, bronchoconstriction, and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, or parenchymal disorders, including aspiration pneumonitis, aspiration pneumonia, and exogenous lipoid pneumonia. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, aspiration has been implicated in disease progression and acute exacerbation. Aspiration may increase the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in patients who have undergone a lung transplant. Accumulating evidence suggests that a causative role for aspiration is often unsuspected in patients presenting with aspiration-related pulmonary diseases; thus, many cases go undiagnosed. Herein, we discuss the broadening spectrum of these pulmonary syndromes with a focus on presenting features and diagnostic aspects. PMID:25732447

  3. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  4. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  5. GROUP ASPIRATIONS AND GROUP COPING BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEDOW, HERMAN; ZANDER, ALVIN

    THIS RESEARCH PROJECT WAS CONCERNED WITH THE EFFECTS OF CERTAIN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONDITIONS UPON THE SELECTION OF A GROUP'S LEVEL OF ASPIRATION AND THE EFFECTS OF THESE CONDITIONS ON MEMBERS' COPING BEHAVIOR. SEVEN EXPERIMENTS WERE DESIGNED WHICH UTILIZED MALE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF SUBURBAN SCHOOLS AS SUBJECTS. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE…

  6. Automated micropipette aspiration of single cells.

    PubMed

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Yu

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a system for mechanically characterizing single cells using automated micropipette aspiration. Using vision-based control and position control, the system controls a micromanipulator, a motorized translation stage, and a custom-built pressure system to position a micropipette (4 μm opening) to approach a cell, form a seal, and aspirate the cell into the micropipette for quantifying the cell's elastic and viscoelastic parameters as well as viscosity. Image processing algorithms were developed to provide controllers with real-time visual feedback and to accurately measure cell deformation behavior on line. Experiments on both solid-like and liquid-like cells demonstrated that the system is capable of efficiently performing single-cell micropipette aspiration and has low operator skill requirements. PMID:23508635

  7. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

  8. Influence of secondary aspiration on human aspiration efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K.R.; Anthony, T. Renee

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the contribution of secondary aspiration to human aspiration efficiency estimates using a humanoid model with realistic facial features. This study applied coefficient of restitution (CoR) values for working-aged human facial skin to the facial regions on the humanoid CFD model. Aspiration efficiencies for particles ranging from 7 to 116 μm were estimated for bounce (allowing for secondary aspiration) and no-bounce (CoR=0) simulations. Fluid simulations used the standard k–epsilon turbulence model over a range of test conditions: three freestream velocities, two breathing modes (mouth and nose breathing, using constant inhalation), three breathing velocities, and five orientations relative to the oncoming wind. Laminar particle trajectory simulations were used to examine inhaled particle transport and estimate aspiration efficiencies. Aspiration efficiency for the realistic CoR simulations, for both mouth- and nose-breathing, decreased with increasing particle size, with aspiration around 50% for 116 μm particles. For the CoR=0 simulations, aspiration decreased more rapidly with increasing particle size and approached zero for 116 μm compared to realistic CoR models (differences ranged from 0% to 80% over the particle sizes and velocity conditions). Differences in aspiration efficiency were larger with increasing particle size (>52 μm) and increased with decreasing freestream velocity and decreasing breathing rate. Secondary aspiration was more important when the humanoid faced the wind, but these contributions to overall aspiration estimates decreased as the humanoid rotated through 90°. There were minimal differences in aspiration between uniform CoR values of 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 and realistic regionally-applied CoR values, indicating differences between mannequin surfaces and between mannequin and human skin will have negligible effect on aspiration for facing-the-wind orientation. PMID:26778849

  9. Musculoskeletal Aspiration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

    2012-01-01

    With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800

  10. Does large needle aspiration biopsy add pain to the thyroid nodule evaluation?

    PubMed

    Carpi, Angelo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Nicolini, Andrea; Iervasi, Giorgio; Russo, Matteo; Mechanick, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid large needle aspiration biopsy is disregarded because it is thought to be associated with pain. This is in contrast with our 32 years long experience. We surveyed reports of pain in patients examined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (78, 87.2% women, mean age 59 years) or FNAB+large needle aspiration biopsy (48, 87.5% women, mean age 60 years). Each patient was questioned regarding a) no unpleasant sensation (score "0"); b) unpleasant sensation ("1"); c) mild pain (no analgesic used; "2"); or d) pain (analgesic used; "3"). The mean size of the needle used was for FNAB 22.3±0.7 or 20.8±1 gauge in the fine needle aspiration or fine needle aspiration plus large needle aspiration biopsy group, respectively (p<.0001). The number of percutaneous punctures was higher in the fine needle aspiration plus large needle aspiration biopsy group. However, the pain score in the fine needle aspiration biopsy or fine needle aspiration biopsy plus large needle aspiration biopsy group was not significantly different. Large needle aspiration biopsy after fine needle aspiration biopsy does not add any discomfort or pain and therefore in light of the demonstrable benefits, should be included in clinical algorithms for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:23536779

  11. The Astrophysics Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, J.

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.

  12. [Up-to-date experience with the international classification system Bethesda 2010 for thyroid fine-needle aspirate: a review].

    PubMed

    Ludvíková, Marie; Kholová, Ivana

    2014-07-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) was introduced in thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in 2010. A six-tier system is generally accepted. Bethesda categories include morphologic description, risk of malignancy and follow-up suggestions in each group. The system has its advantages and disadvantages, that are discussed. The most problematic are the categories of "Atypia of undetermined significance" or "Follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (AUS/FLUS). The group is heterogenous and overused thus far. The possibilities of its improvement are discussed. The Bethesda system does not include any prognostic and predictive markers. However, they represent the promising direction in the improved version of the BSRTC. Novel molecular methods and alternative techniques such as core needle biopsy are briefly discussed. PMID:25186598

  13. Clinical usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients less than 20 years old: a 10-year experience at a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunzoo; Jang, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the spectrum of cytological diagnoses and evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) in patients less than 20 years old. The subjects were selected by retrospectively reviewing records from 1999 to 2009. Selected patients less than 20 years old underwent FNA. Cytological and histological slides of samples from the subjects were reviewed. Our study included a total of 909 subjects with a mean age of 14.6 years. The majority of the FNA samples were taken from lymph nodes (n = 448, 49.3%), with the remaining aspirates obtained from the thyroid gland (n = 247, 27.2%), soft tissues of head and neck masses (n = 106, 11.7%), salivary glands (n = 75, 8.3%), breasts (n = 18, 1.9%), skins (n = 9, 1.0%) and soft tissues of extremity (n = 6, 0.7%). The majority (87.6%, n = 796) of the FNA samples were categorized as ‘benign’, with the remaining designated as ‘atypical lesion’ (n = 18, 2.0%), ‘malignant’ (n = 24, 2.6%), or ‘inadequate specimen’ (n = 71, 7.8%). FNA accuracy was 92% for diagnosing cancer. Specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 63%, respectively. Our study first revealed that FNA has a high specificity for diagnosing cancer in various anatomical locations in young patients and can be confidently used as an effective tool for diagnosing malignancies in young individuals with a clinically suspicious lesion. PMID:24294385

  14. Micropipette aspiration of an inflated fluid-filled spherical membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Touqeer; Tang, Tian; Nadler, Ben

    2012-08-01

    The micropipette technique has been widely used to determine the mechanical response of living cells. Cell is a complex structure and has highly nonlinear behavior when aspirated by the micropipette. Different models exist in the literature to determine the physical properties of the cells from the micropipette aspiration. In this work, we model the cell's response during micropipette aspiration using continuum nonlinear membrane theory. The peripheral surface of the cell is modeled as a nonlinear membrane. The membrane is homogenous, isotropic, and of hyper-elastic material. The cytoplasm of the cell is modeled as an incompressible fluid. Our results show good agreement with the experiments reported in the literature.

  15. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  16. Pulmonary aspiration in perioperative medicine.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative aspiration into the lungs is an infrequent but potentially serious cause of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. It is still a leading cause of death from pulmonary complications. Aspiration occurs in approximately three per 10.000 anesthetic procedures with higher incidences in special patient populations and emergency situations. Any patient with symptoms following aspiration that last for more than two hours in the recovery room should be admitted to an intensive care unit for further observation and therapy. This article reviews incidence, morbidity and mortality of perioperative aspiration as well as risk factors and preventive measures. Among preventive measures the use of drugs designed to increase gastric pH, recent developments in supraglottic airway devices and application of rapid sequence induction with cricoid pressure are discussed. Also, international fasting guidelines and clinical management following aspiration are provided. PMID:23767172

  17. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  18. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute

    PubMed Central

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. Methods We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005–2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Results Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005–2011] and second period [2012–2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. Conclusions The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist’s skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a

  19. Assessment of Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Breast Carcinoma Using Thin-Prep Cytology Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology FISH Experience From China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Yuan, Peng; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Linlin; Ying, Jianming; Wang, Mingrong; Zhao, Huan; Pan, Qinjing; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) overexpression can be used to predict patient prognosis in breast cancer (BC). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a reliable predictive marker in invasive breast cancer (IBC). Thin-Prep (TP) specimens are commonly utilized for immunocytochemistry (ICC) in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thus, we sought to investigate if the incorporation of molecular diagnosis performed on TP-processed specimens is applicable in clinical practice. Hormone receptors (HRs) and HER2 immunocytochemistry was performed on 542 primary breast cancer FNAC specimens using the TP method. One hundred fourteen HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on HER2 ICC 2+ FNAC specimens and the corresponding tissue samples. HRs results of TP slides and those of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slides were correlated well for ER (concordance rate = 93.3%, kappa value = 0.85) and PR (concordance rate = 88.6%, kappa value = 0.75). HER2 results for the TP slides and those of the matched FFPE slides also correlated well (concordance rate = 80.0%, kappa value = 0.62). The specificity of HER2 was 97.3%; however, the sensitivity was only 67.1%. Cytological specimens and histological samples showed a strong correlation (concordance rate = 99.1%, kappa value = 0.98) while being used to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. FNAC is a minimally invasive technique that can be used as an alternative method to collect tissue especially in cases where an excisional or core biopsy is difficult to obtain, or when recurrence is present. The results of ICC HRs in FNAC TP specimens may be used instead, but HER2 assessment may not be reliable enough for clinical use. FISH testing is necessary in this setting.

  20. Creative Aspirations or Pipe Dreams? Toward Understanding Creative Mortification in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Dilley, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    What experiences influence the development of creativity in children and adolescents? One experience is the mortification of creative aspirations. Creative mortification (CM) refers to the loss of one's willingness to pursue a particular creative aspiration following a negative performance outcome. The purpose of this article is to introduce an…

  1. [Prevention of Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    To prevent perioperative aspiration pneumonitis, it is necessary to reduce the volume and acidity of gastric content. The guideline for preoperative fasting published by Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists recommends fasting from intake of clear fluids, breast milk and nonhuman milk at least 2h, 4h and 6h, respectively, before elective procedures requiring general anesthesia, regional anesthesia or sedation/analgesia. Gastrointestinal stimulants, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, antacids, antiemetics, anticholinergics are effective for reduction of the volume or acidity of gastric content. However, the routine preoperative use of these drugs to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration in patients who have no apparent increased risk for pulmonary aspiration is not recommended. PMID:27004383

  2. Aspirations and Capabilities of Rural Youth in Relation to Present and Projected Labor Market Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Max F.; And Others

    A study was conducted to: determine the aspirations and capabilities of rural youth in selected low-income counties in Arkansas; relate aspirations, capabilities, and the discrepancy between the two to the experience background of the youths studied; and relate the youths' occupational plans to present and projected labor market requirements. The…

  3. Training Your Own: The Impact of New York City's Aspiring Principals Program on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Weinstein, Meryle

    2012-01-01

    The New York City Leadership Academy represents a unique experiment by a large urban school district to train and develop its own school leaders. Its 14-month Aspiring Principals Program (APP) selects and prepares aspiring principals to lead low-performing schools. This study provides the first systematic evaluation of achievement in APP-staffed…

  4. Aspiring Teachers Take up Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishall

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Teacher Residency program is a yearlong, selective preparation route that trains aspiring teachers, many of them career-changers, to take on jobs in some of the city's highest-needs schools. The program, which fits neither of the two most common types of teacher preparation--alternative routes and traditional teacher education…

  5. Sex Differences in Educational Aspirations and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney; Greenberger, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Goals for educational attainment were studied in eleventh grade students. The males aspired to and expected higher levels of attainment. At higher aspiration levels, the discrepancy between aspiration and expectation was greater for females. Both socioeconomic background and academic ability had a greater effect on educational ambition for males.…

  6. Shaping the Aspirations of Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1983-01-01

    This study examined specific variables in relation to the level of aspiration (LOA) of American female youth. Young women with high aspiration levels achieve their goals more often than those with lower aspirations. More awareness by parents, counselors, and teachers will help younger women shape their LOA. (MD)

  7. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  8. An Empirical Model of Human Aspiration in Low-Velocity Air Using CFD Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, T. Renée; Anderson, Kimberly R.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to investigate the aspiration efficiency of the human head in low velocities to examine whether the current inhaled particulate mass (IPM) sampling criterion matches the aspiration efficiency of an inhaling human in airflows common to worker exposures. Data from both mouth and nose inhalation, averaged to assess omnidirectional aspiration efficiencies, were compiled and used to generate a unifying model to relate particle size to aspiration efficiency of the human head. Multiple linear regression was used to generate an empirical model to estimate human aspiration efficiency and included particle size as well as breathing and freestream velocities as dependent variables. A new set of simulated mouth and nose breathing aspiration efficiencies was generated and used to test the fit of empirical models. Further, empirical relationships between test conditions and CFD estimates of aspiration were compared to experimental data from mannequin studies, including both calm-air and ultra-low velocity experiments. While a linear relationship between particle size and aspiration is reported in calm air studies, the CFD simulations identified a more reasonable fit using the square of particle aerodynamic diameter, which better addressed the shape of the efficiency curve’s decline toward zero for large particles. The ultimate goal of this work was to develop an empirical model that incorporates real-world variations in critical factors associated with particle aspiration to inform low-velocity modifications to the inhalable particle sampling criterion. PMID:25438035

  9. ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2009-09-09

    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  10. How to increase the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a relatively sensitive, accurate, and safe technique in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. There are many factors influencing the yield of TBNA, such as location and the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN), types of the needle used and the experience of the bronchoscopist. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomy, guidance, availability of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) and the number of aspirates, preparation of specimen and interpretations of the cytology and histology of specimens all play important roles. Especially, whether an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is required for TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses is currently a disputed subject.

  11. Subject Choice and Occupational Aspirations among Pupils at Girls' Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky; Hutchings, Merryn; Archer, Louise; Amelling, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Various studies have found that British girls' curriculum subject preferences and future aspirations have changed and diversified in recent years. Other work has suggested that girls educated in single-sex schools might have a different (perhaps less gender-stereotypical) experience of education in comparison with their contemporaries at…

  12. [Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approach of Pulmonary Aspiration].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kanji

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration is one of the serious adverse events in general anesthesia. Aspiration induced lung injury varies according to the nature of the contents of aspirates (acid or small particles in gastrointestinal tract, bile acid), amount of aspirates, and host-defense status. Early inflammatory responses to acid and small particles from gastrointestinal contents are categorized as aspiration pneumonitis causing rapid respiratory deterioration with early restoration of lung injury within a couple of days. Late phase lung injury is usually "aspiration pneumonia" caused by bacteria colonized in the aspirates. Treatment mainstream is to support respiratory function until the lung resolves from injury. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is another promising therapeutic option for cases with severe lung damage to keep the "lung rest" during fulminant lung injury, avoiding further lung damage by injurious ventilation. Empirical administration of antibiotics covering wide spectrum followed by meticulous bacteriological studies to either de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics is crucial. PMID:27004380

  13. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  14. Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America. A Nationwide Poll To Assess Self Esteem, Educational Experiences, Interest in Math and Science, and Career Aspirations of Girls and Boys Ages 9-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Women, Washington, DC.

    The American Association of University Women (AAUW) sponsored a national survey research project that polled school aged children to study the interaction of self-esteem and education and career aspirations in adolescent girls and boys in today's society. Three thousand children between grades 4 and 10, in 12 locations nationwide, were surveyed.…

  15. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign Bodies.

    PubMed

    Green, S Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal and aspirated foreign bodies have important clinical significance, and both should be considered carefully when the history or physical examination findings raise sufficient suspicion. The published evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of foreign body ingestion or aspiration is weighted disproportionately with observational studies, case controls, expert opinion, and systematic reviews. Most of the publications would receive a categorization of C (observational studies including case-control and cohort design) and D (expert opinion, case reports, and clinical reasoning). One of the few prospective studies examining the diagnostic evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children could be considered level B evidence (randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, or diagnostic studies with minor limitations). This study found that the medical history is the most important predictive part of the evaluation. There is evidence for considering bronchoscopy if there is significant history suggestive of foreign body aspiration, even in the setting of normal physical examination findings. (28). Most ingested foreign bodies spontaneously pass without incident. However, special attention should be paid to objects in the esophagus as well as to batteries and magnets. Based on a systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) and the potential for rapid and life-threatening damage, batteries in the esophagus should be removed immediately. (10) Other objects, such as coins, may be observed for passage in an asymptomatic patient. In addition, given the high risk of significant complications, ingestion of high-powered magnets should be quickly and carefully evaluated. Although single magnets are likely to pass without complication, multiple magnets or magnets ingested with other metal objects can cause significant damage and should be removed if there is any concern for mural entrapment, bowel perforation, or failure to progress. (10

  16. An overview of endoscopic ultrasound equipment.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, J K

    2008-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound imaging technology has significantly improved over the last decade. Innovative design of equipment and devices has broadened the utility of EUS as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Lesions as small as 3 mm can be imaged and targeted for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). EUS imaging with the latest generation electronic radial and linear scopes is excellent and does not vary significantly between models. Miniprobes should not be used in place of routine EUS echoendoscopes when available and technically feasible. The drawbacks of ultrasound miniprobes are the inability to perform fine needle aspiration and the limited depth of imaging. Transpapillary intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) improves staging of biliary tumors and improves imaging of biliary and pancreatic duct strictures. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis or block (EUS-CPN/CPB) can be performed with the EUS-FNA needle or a specially designed celiac plexus block needle which distributes the neurolytic agent into the celiac plexus in a radial fashion. Use of the core biopsy needle is safe and should be used with a therapeutic linear scope through the gastric wall. PMID:18319690

  17. Prediction of aspiration in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Wilma J; Wiebe, Samuel; Colton-Hudson, Angela; Moosa, Tas; Smith, Dean; Bach, David; Nicolle, Michael W

    2004-02-01

    Prediction of the risk of dysphagia and aspiration is important in the management of myasthenia gravis (MG). We assessed the ability of four bedside clinical tools to predict aspiration in 20 MG patients. Patients completed a self-directed questionnaire, underwent clinical neurological assessment and a bedside speech pathology assessment, and were assessed with the quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score. The ability of these tools to predict aspiration was compared with the results of a modified barium swallow. Seven patients aspirated, 4 silently. The total self-directed questionnaire score, two specific questions on the self-directed questionnaire, the prediction based on clinical neurological assessment, and the QMG bulbar subset score all correlated with aspiration. The speech pathology prediction was highly sensitive but less specific. This pilot study shows that simple clinical tools can predict which MG patients are at risk of aspiration. PMID:14755491

  18. Investigating the stationarity of paediatric aspiration signals.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tom; Chau, Doug; Casas, Michael; Berall, Glenn; Kenny, David J

    2005-03-01

    An aspiration signal is the time-varying anterior-posterior acceleration measured infero-anterior to the thyroid notch when foreign material enters the airway during inspiration. The hypothesis of weak stationarity is tested on aspiration signals by the reverse arrangements test. Results indicate that aspiration signals cannot be uniformly regarded as weakly stationary. Forty-five percent of the examined signals violated the stationarity hypothesis. For these signals, time-varying variance and spectral density structure are identified as major sources of nonstationarity. Stationarity test results generally corroborate qualitative clinical descriptions of aspiration. However, stationarity analysis indicates that aspiration signals are highly heterogenous, a finding which poses significant challenges to the automatic detection of aspirations by accelerometry. PMID:15813411

  19. Contrast enhancement and elastography in endoscopic ultrasound: an update of clinical applications in pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Serrani, Marta; Lisotti, Andrea; Caletti, Giancarlo; Fusaroli, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    It is well established that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is fundamental in the characterization of many diseases concerning different organs, i.e. pancreaticobiliary diseases, gastrointestinal pathologic conditions, and lymph nodes of unknown origin. It is also well known that many factors can hamper the accuracy of EUS, i.e. biliary stents, chronic pancreatitis, poor operator's expertise. These factors can also lead to suboptimal accuracy when cytological confirmation through EUS-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is indicated. In recent years, new technological tools have rapidly increased their clinical impact improving the diagnostic power of EUS and EUS-FNA. Among these new tools, the most investigated and useful ones are represented by contrast harmonic-EUS (CH-EUS) and EUS-elastography (EUS-E). The purpose of this paper is to provide, through a review of the literature, an update of the applications of CH-EUS and EUS-E in the routine clinical practice in pancreatic diseases. We discussed the first reports and applications of these techniques in our previous review published in Minerva Medica. The applications of CH-EUS and EUS-E to the study of pancreatic diseases appear feasible and safe. The use of both techniques is very simple and does not require any relevant additional workload for the endoscopic personnel. CH-EUS is now considered an important and accurate tool in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses and in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions. CH-EUS targeted FNA is an active field of research. However the available studies show that CH-EUS increases FNA accuracy by a little extent, without statistical significance; moreover, CH-EUS FNA showed a trend toward being more efficient vs. simple EUS FNA (less needle passes and more abundance in cytological material) but this trend did not reach statistical significance. On the other hand, the clinical impact of EUS-E in terms of differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses is still under

  20. Aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis of benign lesions. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  1. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    PubMed

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? PMID:27543477

  2. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  3. High Aspirations but Low Progression: The Science Aspirations-Careers Paradox amongst Minority Ethnic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Students' interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern. In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10-14 (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire…

  4. The internet, adolescent males, and homemade blowgun darts: a recipe for foreign body aspiration.

    PubMed

    Walz, Patrick C; Scholes, Melissa A; Merz, Meredith N; Elmaraghy, Charles A; Jatana, Kris R

    2013-08-01

    We describe our experience with blowgun dart aspiration via an illustrative case series and review the resources available to teach children how to construct these objects. A 15-year-old boy presented with cough, wheeze, and eventually admitted to aspiration of a homemade blowgun dart. This instance heightened the awareness of our experience with blowgun dart aspiration as 3 cases presented within a 3-month period. Patients uniformly presented with cough and reported aspiration, and wheezing was noted in 2 of the 3. Although all ultimately admitted their behavior, 2 were initially reluctant to admit aspirating the blowgun dart. Radiographic findings of a needle-shaped metallic airway foreign body were consistent in all patients. Each admitted to finding instructions for blowgun dart construction on the Internet. Emergent rigid bronchoscopy with blowgun dart removal resulted in symptom resolution in all without complication. This represents the largest series of blowgun dart aspiration to date. During deep inhalation, when preparing to propel a blowgun dart, the vocal folds maximally abduct, leading to increased risk for aspiration. Twenty websites were identified providing instructions for the construction of homemade blowgun darts. With the accessibility of the Internet and number of instructional websites, this clinical entity may become more common in the future. Unfortunately, only a few of the websites provide any safety warnings. Certainly, prompt treatment can result in good outcomes; however, serious potential complications, including death, could occur especially given the hesitance our patients showed in divulging the truth of the inciting event. PMID:23878050

  5. Eliminating the Residual Negative Pressure in the Endoscopic Ultrasound Aspirating Needle Enhances Cytology Yield of Pancreas Masses

    PubMed Central

    Aadam, A Aziz; Oh, Young S; Shidham, Vinod B; Khan, Abdul; Hunt, Bryan; Rao, Nagarjun; Zhang, Ying; Tarima, Sergey; Dua, Kulwinder S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prior to withdrawing the EUS-FNA needle from the lesion, the stopcock of the suction-syringe is closed to reduce contamination. Residual negative pressure (RNP) may persist in the needle despite closing the stopcock. AIMS To determine if neutralizing RNP before withdrawing the needle will improve the cytology yield. METHODS Bench-top testing was done to confirm the presence of RNP followed by a prospective, randomized, cross-over study on patients with pancreas mass. Ten-mL suction was applied to the FNA needle. Before withdrawing the needle from the lesion, the stopcock was closed. Based on randomization, the first pass was done with the stopcock either attached to the needle (S+) or disconnected (S−) to allow air to enter and neutralize RNP and accordingly the second pass was crossed over to S+ or S−. On-site cytopahtologist was blinded to S+/S−. RESULTS Bench tests confirmed the presence of RNP which was successfully neutralized by disconnecting the syringe (S−) from the needle. Sixty patients were enrolled, 120 samples analyzed. S+ samples showed significantly greater GI-tract contamination compared to S− samples (16.7% vs. 6.7%, p=0.03). Of the 53 patients confirmed to have pancreas adenocarcinoma, FNA using S− approach was positive in 49 (93%) compared to 40 using the S+ approach (76%, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS Despite closing the stopcock of the suction-syringe, RNP is present in the FNA needle. Neutralizing RNP prior to withdrawing the needle from the target lesion significantly decreased GI-tract contamination of the sample thereby improving the FNA cytology yield. PMID:26346997

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  7. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  8. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator....

  9. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator....

  10. Thin needle aspiration biopsy of endocrine organs.

    PubMed

    Koss, L G

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the fine needle aspiration technique in reference to the endocrine organs. The principles of technique and interpretation are presented. The application of aspiration biopsies to the breast, the prostate, the pancreas and the thyroid are briefly discussed. PMID:485094

  11. Grades, Aspirations, and Postsecondary Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Milla, Joniada; Stengos, Thanasis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we exploit a rich longitudinal data set to explore the forces that, during high school, shape the development of aspirations to attend university and achieve academic success. We then investigate how these aspirations, along with grades and other variables, impact educational outcomes such as going to university and graduating. It…

  12. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Meenal V.; Phatke, Anjali S.; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Rane, Sharda R.; Kulkarni, Kalpana K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality. PMID:27011435

  13. Aspirator increases relief valve poppet stroke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Addition of an aspirator to a relief valve increases the valve poppet stroke under dynamic flow conditions. The aspirator allows poppet inlet dynamic forces to overcome relief valve spring force. It reduces the fluid pressure in the skirt cavity by providing a low pressure sense probe.

  14. Capital, Agency, Family and the Diaspora: An Exploration of Boys' Aspirations towards Higher Education in Urban Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockfelt, Shawanda

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses factors impacting on boys' educational aspirations at two case-study schools in urban Jamaica. It focuses on boys' experience of their educational environment in relation to social, cultural and economic factors, which shapes the nature of their aspirations towards higher education. The study utilised Bourdieu's…

  15. Primary stentriever versus combined stentriever plus aspiration thrombectomy approaches: in vitro stroke model comparison

    PubMed Central

    Mokin, Maxim; Ionita, Ciprian N; Nagesh, Swetadri Vasan Setlur; Rudin, Stephen; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-01-01

    Background Artificial stroke models can be used for testing various thrombectomy devices. Objective To determine the value of combined stentriever–aspiration thrombectomy compared with the stentriever-alone approach. Methods We designed an in vitro model of the intracranial circulation with a focus on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that closely resembles the human intracranial circulation. After introducing fresh clot in the MCA, we used conventional biplane angiography and microangiographic fluoroscopy to compare recanalization rates and occurrence of emboli in new, unaffected territory for thrombectomy approaches in which a stentriever (Solitaire flow restoration stentriever, Covidien) was used alone or in combination with continuous manual aspiration through a Navien catheter (Covidien). Results In a total of 22 experiments (11 for each approach), successful clot delivery to the MCA was achieved in all cases. Successful angiographic recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of 2b–3) was achieved more frequently with the combined stentriever–aspiration approach than with the stentriever-alone approach (in 10 vs 4 experiments, p=0.023). Emboli in new territory occurred in three experiments with the stentriever-alone approach, and none were seen with the combined approach (p=0.21). Conclusions The combined stentriever–aspiration approach to thrombectomy leads to better angiographic recanalization rates than use of the stentriever alone. Further experiments are needed to test the value of balloon-guide catheters and aspiration performed using other types of catheters and modes of aspiration. PMID:24789594

  16. Clinical factors predicting risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration among patients with Stroke1

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Morais, Huana Carolina Cândido; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the association of risk factors with the Risk for aspiration nursing diagnosis and respiratory aspiration. Method: cross-sectional study assessing 105 patients with stroke. The instrument used to collect data addressing sociodemographic information, clinical variables and risk factors for Risk for aspiration. The clinical judgments of three expert RNs were used to establish the diagnosis. The relationship between variables and strength of association using Odds Ratio (OR) was verified both in regard to Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. Results: risk for aspiration was present in 34.3% of the patients and aspiration in 30.5%. The following stood out among the risk factors: Dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex, Neurological disorders, and Impaired physical mobility, all of which were statistically associated with Risk for aspiration. Note that patients who develop such a diagnosis were seven times more likely to develop respiratory aspiration. Conclusion: dysphagia, Impaired or absent gag reflex were the best predictors both for Risk for aspiration and respiratory aspiration. PMID:26039291

  17. Increasing faculty diversity: How institutions matter to the PhD aspirations of undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deangelo, Linda Teresa

    This study used a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model (HGLM) to investigate how the experiences a student has in college and the college they attend affects the likelihood that they will aspire to the PhD at the completion of college. This study was particularly interested in ascertaining in what ways postsecondary institutions support or thwart the PhD aspirations of underrepresented racial minority students, and how institutions might improve PhD aspiration outcomes for underrepresented racial minority students, thereby increasing faculty diversity. A three-pronged theoretical lens was used. Status attainment was used to examine how students background characteristics and significant others such as faculty influence PhD aspirations. Relative deprivation and anticipatory socialization were used to explore how institutional characteristics affect PhD aspirations. The longitudinal data came from the Higher Education Research Institute's (HERI) 1994 freshmen and 1998 follow-up survey. Five sample groups -- All Students, underrepresented racial minority students, Caucasian students, initial PhD aspirants, and other initial degree aspirants -- were derived from this dataset. Frequent faculty encouragement for graduate study was the single most important determinant of who aspires to the PhD for all of the student groups, but was particularly important to underrepresented racial minority students and students who begin college as PhD aspirants. Underrepresented racial minority students are more likely to be encouraged frequently at low selectivity institutions, and the encouragement for graduate study they receive at low selectivity institutions is a sort of equalizer that makes up for effects of attending this institutional type. The mean level of initial degree aspirations was the strongest factor at the institutional level for all of the student groups, and the magnitude of the effect was largest for underrepresented racial minority students. Attending a high

  18. ASPIRE outreach and informal education - high impact outreach on a budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Julie; Christiansen, Peter; Sims, Pace

    2010-10-01

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research & Education (ASPIRE) provides hands-on activities for K-12 students and teachers to use in the classroom through immersive Flash activities as well as traveling kits. These projects and techniques are a successful way to contact groups of people either in the classroom or in an informal situation. The ASPIRE team presents information about the development of Flash activities and creating hands-on experiments that have the potential to reach large audiences with minimal finances.

  19. Deep high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of full organs: the benefit of ultraminiature confocal miniprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, France; Le Nevez, Arnaud; Genet, Magalie; Osdoit, Anne; Lacombe, François

    2009-02-01

    Background: Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) based on ultraminiature miniprobes (Cellvizio®, Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France) is able to image the inner microstructure of retroperitoneal full organs punctured during EUS-FNA procedures, such as pancreas, liver or lymph nodes. Therefore, pCLE can provide an easy-to-use and precise adjunct tool to ultrasonographic interventions in order to target suspicious areas for biopsies in EUS-FNA. Material and Methods: Probe-based CLE (pCLE) was performed on ex-vivo surgically resected specimens after topical application of fluorophores in standard 19G and 22G needles. Two prototype miniprobes ("S-probe" 300 microns diameter, field of view 400*280 microns, and "S-probe" 650 microns diameter, field of view 500*600 microns) were then inserted into the needles and enabled visualization of the inner microstructures of uterus, lung, kidney, stomach and esophagus, in both healthy and cancerous conditions. Then, pCLE was performed in-vivo on four pigs during three NOTES and one EUS-FNA procedures after intravenous injection of 2-7mL fluorescein 1-10% using the prototype "S-probe" 350 microns diameter inserted in 19G FNA needles. Liver, pancreas and spleen were imaged. Results: During the ex-vivo experiments, pCLE made it possible to distinguish microstructures, such as alveoli and macrophages in the lungs. During the in-vivo experiments, Cellvizio® video sequences showed hepatic lobules and the portal vein in the liver, and red and white pulp in the spleen. Conclusion: pCLE provides in vivo cellular information about full organs. It has the potential to help target biopsies during EUSFNA, which suffers from a high rate of false negatives, thus increasing its sensitivity.

  20. New endoscopic ultrasonography techniques for pancreaticobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ken; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Miyata, Takeshi; Minaga, Kosuke; Yamao, Kentaro; Imai, Hajime; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:27214660

  1. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of Pancreas; A Case Series and Review Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirminachi, Babak; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Information regarding solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is limited in Iran. We aimed to review the clinicocytopathological features and follow-up of patients with SPN of pancreas who were diagnosed in a single center in Iran. METHODS Seven patients with SPN of the pancreas were diagnosed during January 2010 to March 2015 at the Digestive Disease Research Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The patients were reviewed prospectively. RESULTS Six out of the 7 patients were female and the mean age of all the patients was 29.4 years ranging from 15 to 61 years. The most common clinical presentation was nonspecific abdominal pain (N=6). The tumors were located mostly in head and neck of the pancreas. SPN was diagnosed in all patients by fine needle aspiration through endosonography (EUS-FNA). All patients underwent surgery. Histological findings of surgical tissues were consistent with EUS-FNA. The postoperative follow-up period of about 14 months was uneventful. CONCLUSION SPN of the pancreas is a rare pancreatic tumor which affects primarily young women. EUS-guided FNA could play an important role in preoperative diagnosis of SPN of the pancreas. PMID:27252816

  2. Endoscopic ultrasonography for gastric submucosal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Kourikou, Anastasia; Rösch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) are a rather frequent finding, occurring in about 0.36% of routine upper GI-endoscopies. EUS has emerged as a reliable investigative procedure for evaluation of these lesions. Diagnostic Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has the ability to differentiate intramural tumors from extraluminal compressions and can also show the layer of origin of gastric SMTs. Tumors can be further characterized by their layer of origin, echo pattern and margin. EUS-risk criteria of their malignant potential are presented, although the emergence of EUS-guided fne needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has opened new indications for transmural tissue diagnosis and expanded the possibilities of EUS in SMTs of the stomach. Tissue diagnosis should address whether the SMT is a Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) or another tumor type and evaluate the malignant potential of a given GIST. However, there seems to be a lack of data on the optimal strategy in SMTs suspected to be GISTs with a negative EUS-FNA tissue diagnosis. The current management strategies, as well as open questions regarding their treatment are also presented. PMID:21772939

  3. New endoscopic ultrasonography techniques for pancreaticobiliary diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:27214660

  4. [Prophylaxis of Pulmonary Aspiration during General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mori, Yosuke; Sumikura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents is uncommon; however, it is one of the most severe complications in the perioperative period. The aspiration is associated with possible clinical outcomes, ranging from mild asymptomatic limited episodes of bronchial injury up to the development of a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. To reduce the incidence of pulmonary aspiration, rapid sequence induction and intubation and awake tracheal intubation are commonly chosen anesthetic techniques for the management of patients at risk of aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents. Although there have been innumerable reports that describe prophylaxis of pulmonary aspiration, currently, there is insufficient evidence to prevent passive regurgitation in at-risk anesthetized patients. Some techniques to prevent pulmonary aspiration entered medical practice on a limited evidence base, but with common sense supporting its use. Properly applied techniques are probably effective at preventing regurgitation in the perioperative period although more randomized controlled trials are awaited to confirm this. Pulmonary aspiration should be prevented using multidisciplinary techniques and considerations that have been shown to improve effectiveness of prophylaxes. However, further research is necessary to support this strategy. PMID:27004384

  5. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future.

    PubMed

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny; Argento, A Christine

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18-62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3(rd) Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that "in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)". In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  6. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  7. Aspirations, ability, and support: consumers' perceptions of attending college.

    PubMed

    Stein, Catherine H

    2005-08-01

    Research examines aspirations and plans for college, perceptions of social support and acceptance, and perceived intellectual and emotional capacity for college reported by 80 adults with coping with serious mental illness. The role of consumers' age, prior college experience, hospitalization history, and feelings of personal loss due to mental illness in accounting for their views about college is examined. In general, consumers expressed strong aspirations for college, provided a positive assessment of their intellectual abilities, and mixed feelings about their emotional capacity to attend college. Participants were generally very optimistic about the level of acceptance from faculty and students and support from family and friends if they were to attend college. Amount of personal loss expressed by consumers accounted for a significant amount of variance in their reported aspirations and perceived capacity for college beyond that of age, prior college experience, and number of recent psychiatric hospitalizations. Participants' perceptions of support and acceptance were not related to total number of reported hospitalizations, but were positively related to the number of hospitalizations reported in the past year. PMID:16335353

  8. Firefighters and paramedics: years of service, job aspirations, and burnout.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S A; Beaton, R D; Pike, K C; Cain, K C

    1994-11-01

    1. Data were collected from an anonymous mail survey of over 2,000 paramedics and firefighters to determine the relationships among years of service and four occupational outcomes, including burnout. 2. Paramedics had poorer outcomes than firefighters. Job title, not percent of emergency service runs per se, significantly differentiated the groups with respect to burnout and job aspiration variables. 3. After adjusting for age, years of service correlated negatively with three measures of job aspirations: job satisfaction, work related morale, and career goal attainment in both groups. 4. If signs and symptoms of burnout occur throughout the worker's life cycle rather than with increasing years of experience, the findings have implications for both prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:7695798

  9. Fire-eating: hazards of hydrocarbon aspiration.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, M; Steinke, K

    2007-12-01

    A 30-year-old male fire eater presented following aspiration of hydrocarbon fuel during a performance. A plain chest radiograph carried out 2 h after aspiration showed left lower lobe consolidation. The patient subsequently developed worsening shortness of breath, haemoptysis, fever and myalgia and a repeat plain chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral pulmonary consolidation with mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. Computed tomography showed features consistent with necrotizing pneumonia. The clinical course was complicated by the development of large pleural effusions, pneumatocoeles and a spontaneous pneumothorax. Early abnormalities on a plain chest radiograph following suspected hydrocarbon aspiration require close monitoring for the development of further life-threatening complications. PMID:17958694

  10. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  11. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25657850

  12. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... under your shoulders and your neck extended. The biopsy site is cleaned. A thin needle is inserted ...

  13. Creative Aspirations or Pipe Dreams? Toward Understanding Creative Mortification in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beghetto, Ronald A; Dilley, Anna E

    2016-01-01

    What experiences influence the development of creativity in children and adolescents? One experience is the mortification of creative aspirations. Creative mortification (CM) refers to the loss of one's willingness to pursue a particular creative aspiration following a negative performance outcome. The purpose of this article is to introduce an empirically testable model of CM. Specifically, the model highlights how CM can result from interpreting a negative performance outcome through the lens of internal attributions, fixed ability beliefs, and the experience of shame. The model further posits that young people's level of aspirational commitment, the feedback they receive, and their sociocultural context can moderate their interpretations and experiences of negative performance outcomes and CM. PMID:26994727

  14. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for hydrocarbon aspiration.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, A J; Weber, T R; Jaeger, R W; Connors, R H; Thompson, M W

    1990-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a pulmonary bypass procedure that has been employed in adults to provide temporary treatment for reversible acute pulmonary and cardiac insufficiency. The technology of membrane oxygenation has been used since 1977 in neonates with predictably fatal pulmonary failure due to respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, meconium aspiration syndrome, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in older children with other pulmonary disorders has been limited. We report two cases of hydrocarbon aspiration involving petroleum-based products, both successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A 15-month-old male infant who aspirated baby oil (light mineral oil) is particularly unusual owing to the generally expected low risk of aspiration with a hydrocarbon of such viscosity (greater than 60 Saybolt Universal Seconds). The second patient is a 16-month-old male infant who aspirated furniture polish (mineral seal oil). In both children severe intractable hypoxemia developed despite intensive ventilatory support, and they became candidates for alternative therapy. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides a potentially life-saving option when a patient fails to respond to conventional therapy for hydrocarbon aspiration. PMID:2378332

  15. Thrombus aspiration in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Karim D; Zijlstra, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The success of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is often hampered by incomplete microvascular myocardial reperfusion owing to distal embolization of thrombus resulting in microvascular obstruction. To address this problem, thrombus aspiration devices have been developed that can be used to evacuate coronary thrombus either manually or mechanically. Thrombus aspiration has the potential to reduce the local thrombus load, minimize the need for balloon predilatation, facilitate direct stenting, prevent distal embolization, and ultimately improve myocardial reperfusion. Furthermore, thrombus aspiration has enabled us to study coronary thrombus in vivo, and has facilitated recognition of distinct mechanisms of coronary thrombosis. Clinical trials focusing on manual thrombus aspiration in primary PCI have generally shown improved myocardial reperfusion. However, in two large trials powered for clinical end points, no reduction in 1-year mortality or other adverse clinical events was observed with the use of this strategy. Moreover, one of these trials showed a marginally increased risk of stroke. Consequently, current guidelines do not recommend routine use of thrombus aspiration. Future studies should focus on the identification of subgroups of patients with STEMI who might derive benefit from manual thrombus aspiration, and establish the effect of operator performance on the efficacy and safety of the procedure. PMID:26961064

  16. Modified aspirated internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder; valves for controlling gas entry and exit; ignition for initiating and timing combustion in each combustion chamber; a crankshaft rotatably mounted to the engine block, the crankshaft having at least one crank arm; connecting rod between each piston and the crank arm for translating reciprocation of each piston into rotation of each crankshaft; mounting means for rotatably mounting crankshaft to the engine block, the mounting means at each mounting location comprising: a crankshaft journal located on the crankshaft, the crankshaft journal having a crankshaft cross-section and an off-set portion, the off-set portion having a maximum which is equal to a predetermined off-set, the maximum off-set being located on a predetermined side of the crankshaft, the off-set portion smoothly decreasing from the maximum to a minimum from each side of the maximum, the minimum being equal to a zero off-set, the minimum off-set being located on the crankshaft opposite maximum off-set; and an engine block bearing connected with the engine block, wherein the crankshaft rotates in relation to the engine block about an eccentric centerline passing axially through the crankshaft journal cross-section, the eccentric centerline being displaced from a true centerline passing axially through said crankshaft cross-section by a distance equal to one-half the off-set, wherein the crank arm has a predetermined radial length centered on the eccentric centerline, and wherein the modified crankshaft has at least one output shaft portion axially aligned with the eccentric centerline.

  17. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  18. To Aspire: A Systematic Reflection on Understanding Aspirations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Aspirations for higher education by people from low socioeconomic status backgrounds are now a focus of government policy in many OECD nations. This is part of a global trend emphasizing the perceived benefits of "raising" aspirations among under-represented groups as a social inclusion strategy to widen university participation, but…

  19. Career Paths, Career Aspirations, Networking, and Mentoring among Special Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly J.; And Others

    This paper examines the perceptions and experiences of rural special education administrators with regard to career advancement. A 31-item questionnaire was developed that focused on administrator attitudes and experiences regarding networking, mentoring, career paths, and career aspirations. The survey was completed by 15 special education…

  20. Aspirations and Actions: Early Childhood from Policy to Practice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores early childhood experience in Scotland in terms of how readily the aspirations of policy convert to day-to-day practices. Ambitions to improve the lives of children and families have been high on the political agenda. Policy may be understood as a tool that aims to influence childhood experience in positive ways. If this is to…

  1. Characterizing cell adhesion by using micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Brenna; Babataheri, Avin; Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I; Husson, Julien

    2015-07-21

    We have developed a technique to directly quantify cell-substrate adhesion force using micropipette aspiration. The micropipette is positioned perpendicular to the surface of an adherent cell and a constant-rate aspiration pressure is applied. Since the micropipette diameter and the aspiration pressure are our control parameters, we have direct knowledge of the aspiration force, whereas the cell behavior is monitored either in brightfield or interference reflection microscopy. This setup thus allows us to explore a range of geometric parameters, such as projected cell area, adhesion area, or pipette size, as well as dynamical parameters such as the loading rate. We find that cell detachment is a well-defined event occurring at a critical aspiration pressure, and that the detachment force scales with the cell adhesion area (for a given micropipette diameter and loading rate), which defines a critical stress. Taking into account the cell adhesion area, intrinsic parameters of the adhesion bonds, and the loading rate, a minimal model provides an expression for the critical stress that helps rationalize our experimental results. PMID:26200857

  2. Characterizing Cell Adhesion by Using Micropipette Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Brenna; Babataheri, Avin; Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I.; Husson, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a technique to directly quantify cell-substrate adhesion force using micropipette aspiration. The micropipette is positioned perpendicular to the surface of an adherent cell and a constant-rate aspiration pressure is applied. Since the micropipette diameter and the aspiration pressure are our control parameters, we have direct knowledge of the aspiration force, whereas the cell behavior is monitored either in brightfield or interference reflection microscopy. This setup thus allows us to explore a range of geometric parameters, such as projected cell area, adhesion area, or pipette size, as well as dynamical parameters such as the loading rate. We find that cell detachment is a well-defined event occurring at a critical aspiration pressure, and that the detachment force scales with the cell adhesion area (for a given micropipette diameter and loading rate), which defines a critical stress. Taking into account the cell adhesion area, intrinsic parameters of the adhesion bonds, and the loading rate, a minimal model provides an expression for the critical stress that helps rationalize our experimental results. PMID:26200857

  3. Effects of aspiration vacuum and needle diameter on cumulus oocyte complex morphology and developmental capacity of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Bols, P E; Van Soom, A; Ysebaert, M T; Vandenheede, J M; de Kruif, A

    1996-04-01

    The effects of aspiration vacuum and needle diameter on the morphology of the cumulusoocyte-complex (COC) and developmental capacity of the oocyte after IVF was studied in 2 experiments using a disposable ovum pick-up needle guidance system whose construction permits its use in vitro. In Experiment 1, the relationship was determined between the aspiration vacuum, expressed in millimetre of mercury, and the actual amount of water aspirated by the system, expressed in millilitre per minute. In Experiment 2, five different levels of aspiration vacuum for 3 different needle diameters (18g, 19g and 21g) were tested in slaughterhouse ovaries. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into 3 categories: 1) oocytes with a compact cumulus, 2) oocytes with an expanded cumulus and 3) naked oocytes. The results show that a change of needle diameter can triple the amount of fluid actually aspirated. The highest oocyte recovery rates are obtained when using the thickest needle (18-g), regardless of the aspiration vacuum. On the average, for all needle types, more oocytes are recovered at the highest aspiration vacuum. For all needle diameters, the proportion of oocytes surrounded by a compact cumulus decreases progressively as the vacuum increases. Regardless of the vacuum applied, thinner needles result in a higher proportion of recovered COCs with a compact cumulus. At a high aspiration vacuum, naked oocytes become predominant regardless of the needle diameter. The prevalence of blastocysts, expressed in proportion to the recovered COCs, decreases as the aspiration vacuum increases, being especially noticeable between 70 and 130 mm Hg. PMID:16727859

  4. Aspiring Architects Draft Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    As the drafting instructor at Tri-County Career Center (TCCC) in Nelsonville, Ohio, the author is proud and pleased to give students real-life drafting experiences that apply learned theory. One of the best experiences his students have had involves taking part in building a custom home. Another is producing authentic house plans. The author also…

  5. Novel treatment of coronary artery fistulae concealing severe coronary artery lesion: using thrombus aspiration catheter as a delivery guide.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Levent; Acar, Zeydin; Dursun, Ihsan; Akyüz, Ali Rıza; Korkmaz, Ayca Ata

    2014-03-01

    In this case report, we present the occlusion of multiple coronary artery fistulae originating from proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and right sinus valsavla and empting to the pulmonary artery at the same place. We occluded LAD fistulae by using thrombus aspiration catheter as a delivery guide. To the best of our knowlege, this is the first case of occlusion of coronary fistulae with the help of thrombus aspiration catheter. Our experience may suggest that thrombus aspiration catheters can be used in treating coronary artery fistulae with difficult anotomy. PMID:24748888

  6. Novel treatment of coronary artery fistulae concealing severe coronary artery lesion: using thrombus aspiration catheter as a delivery guide

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Levent; Acar, Zeydin; Dursun, İhsan; Akyüz, Ali Rıza; Korkmaz, Ayca Ata

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, we present the occlusion of multiple coronary artery fistulae originating from proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and right sinus valsavla and empting to the pulmonary artery at the same place. We occluded LAD fistulae by using thrombus aspiration catheter as a delivery guide. To the best of our knowlege, this is the first case of occlusion of coronary fistulae with the help of thrombus aspiration catheter. Our experience may suggest that thrombus aspiration catheters can be used in treating coronary artery fistulae with difficult anotomy. PMID:24748888

  7. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  8. Inadequate fine needle aspiration biopsy samples: Pathologists versus other specialists

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Macías, GS; Garza-Guajardo, R; Segura-Luna, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a simple, sensitive, quick and inexpensive method in which operator experience is essential for obtaining the best results. Methods: A descriptive study in which the aspiration biopsy cases of the Pathology and Cytopathology Service of the University Hospital of the UANL (2003–2005) were analyzed. These were divided into three study groups: Group 1, FNAB performed by a pathologist; Group 2, FNAB performed by specialists who are not pathologists, Group 3, FNAB guided by an imaging study with immediate evaluation by a pathologist. The samples were classified as adequate and inadequate for diagnosis, the organ, the size and characteristics of the lesions were taken into consideration. Results: A total of 1905 FNAB were included. In Group 1: 1347 were performed of which 1242 (92.2%) were adequate and 105 (7.7%) were inadequate. Of the 237 from Group 2, 178 were adequate (75.1%) and 59 inadequate (24.8%); in Group 3 there were 321 of which 283 (88.1%) were adequate and 38 (11.8%) inadequate. A statistically significant difference was found between FNAB performed by Group 1 (p< 0.001) and the other groups. A multivariate analysis was done where the organ punctured, the study groups, the size and characteristics of the lesion by study group were compared, finding that the most important variable was the person who performed the procedure. Conclusion: The experience and training of the person performing the aspiration biopsy, as well as immediate evaluation of the material when it is guided, substantially reduces the number of inadequate samples, improving the sensitivity of the method as well as reducing the need for open biopsies to reach a diagnosis. PMID:19621092

  9. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  10. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  11. A Conversation on Mobility, Aspiration and Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critical Studies in Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On 11 and 12 October 2010, the National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education held its second annual "Student Equity in Higher Education National Conference" in Melbourne, Australia. The conference theme was "Aspiration, Mobility, Voice". During the conference the three keynote speakers--Gareth Parry (University of Sheffield, UK), Jane…

  12. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060... endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent cesarean section, and (3) The sampling component is covered within vagina....

  13. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060... endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent cesarean section, and (3) The sampling component is covered within vagina....

  14. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060... endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine perforation, or a recent cesarean section, and (3) The sampling component is covered within vagina....

  15. A Forlorn Aspiration? The Story of SUCSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, John

    2003-01-01

    In 1971 the Scottish Universities Council for Studies in Education (SUCSE) was formally constituted as a representative voice of the Scottish university departments of education. One aspiration was to coordinate degree courses across the universities as a distinctive Scottish MEd degree with credit transfer to promote mobility. However, the…

  16. Explaining the Aspirations of Working Class Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    Until recently research on women's educational and occupational aspirations has ignored the role of sex role ideology (SRI) and has concentrated primarily on college women. This study was implemented with 270 grade 12 girls, 25 percent of whom were from lower class backgrounds. Four scales of SRI were administered: femininity, power, division of…

  17. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies. PMID:26811557

  18. Gender-related Change in Occupational Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Xiaoling; Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes change in the occupational aspirations of young people in the United States between the late 1960s and 1970s. Reveals that the most significant change occurred among women. Argues that this was primarily a manifestation of cultural change resulting from the resurgence of the women's movement. (MJP)

  19. Educational Aspirations, What Matters? A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deosaran, Ramesh

    The literature review attempted to identify: 1) what we know and don't know about post-secondary aspirations, expectations, and access; and 2) where and how it is possible for us to embark on solutions or further investigation. The research in this area has been heavily sociological. Socio-economic background, family size, community origins,…

  20. Appreciating Aspirations in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Aspiration for higher education (HE) is no longer a matter solely for students and their families. With OECD nations seeking to position themselves more competitively in the global knowledge economy, the need for more knowledge workers has led to plans to expand their HE systems to near universal levels. In Australia, this has required the…

  1. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

  2. SOME DEVELOPMENTAL ANTECEDENTS OF LEVEL OF ASPIRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROWNE, DOUGLAS P.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY REPORTS CHILDREARING PRACTICES AND CHILD BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBSEQUENT LEVEL OF ASPIRATION (LOA). ANTECEDENT MEASURES WERE CHILDREARING ATTITUDES REPORTED BY 379 MOTHERS OF FIVE-YEAR OLDS IN AN EARLIER STUDY. AT THE TIME OF THIS STUDY, THE 83 SUBJECTS WERE 18 YEARS OLD. THEY WERE ADMINISTERED TWO PERSONALITY SCALES AND THE…

  3. Level of Occupational Aspiration: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Archibald; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Data from 34,118 American high school students were used to determine patterns of responses to an indicator of level of occupational aspiration (LOA). LOA was found to be a general dimension composed of idealistic-realistic goal-region aspects and of short-and long-term temporal aspects. LOA response patterns were essentially the same for both…

  4. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  5. The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

  6. Aspirator modification for the removal of mosquitoes from tight spaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect aspirator was modified to remove mosquitoes that entered an animal-baited experimental cage-within-a-cage. The modified aspirator is easy to maneuver inside tight spaces, powerful enough to aspirate mosquitoes but not remove scales or fluorescent marking powders, and will run continuously...

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lesions of liver and gallbladder: An analysis of 400 consecutive aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Barbhuiya, Mustafa; Bhunia, Shushruta; Kakkar, Manisha; Shrivastava, Braj; Tiwari, Pramod K; Gupta, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients presenting with mass lesions of liver and gallbladder are a common occurrence in a cancer hospital in north central part of India. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) serves as first line of pathological investigations, but there are pros and cons involved. Aim: The main objective of the present study was to establish adequacy of the procedure and to find out diagnostic pitfalls. An attempt was made to analyze inconclusive and inadequate aspirations. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 consecutive fine-needle aspirates of liver, belonging to 328 cases over a period of 2 years, were analyzed. Hematoxylin and eosin and May-Grόnwald-Giemsa stains were used. Chi-square test was carried out to compare significant degree of difference in different kind of diagnosis. Results: Out of 400 aspirations, 289 (72.2%) were adequate, 75 (18.7%), inconclusive and 36 (9%), inadequate. Among positive aspirations the most common was metastatic adenocarcinoma, 128 (44.2%). The positive diagnosis and adequate aspirations were significantly high (P < 0.0001). Major differential diagnostic problems were: Distinguishing the poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from the metastatic adenocarcinoma; and leukemia/lymphoma from other malignant round cell tumors. Common diagnostic pitfalls were repeated aspirations from the necrotic area and aspiration of atypical, disorganized and reactive hepatocytes, adjacent to a metastasis. No complications were observed. Conclusion: FNAC can be used successfully for the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder lesions, thus avoiding open biopsy. Study indicates the potential of using FNAC in clinical intervention where the incidence of gall-bladder and liver cancer is very high and open biopsy and surgery are not an option. PMID:25190979

  8. A light bulb moment: an unusual cause of foreign body aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Lau, C T; Lan, Lawrence; Wong, Kenneth; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang

    2015-01-01

    A 15-month-old girl developed persistent cough with no associated history of foreign body aspiration. Chest X-ray showed a U-shaped radiopaque foreign body, which was initially thought to be a hairpin, in the right main bronchus. Rigid bronchoscopy was performed and the foreign body turned out to be a light-emitting diode (LED) bulb. In this article, we report our experience of LED bulb aspiration in children, with the view to raise the awareness of clinicians about this potentially life-threatening emergency. PMID:26311014

  9. How Religious, Social, and Cultural Capital Factors Influence Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fadhli, Hussain M.; Kersen, Thomas Michael

    2010-01-01

    Data from 2008 Monitoring the Future were used to test how well religious, family, and cultural social capital influenced 8th and 10th grade student aspirations, future plans, and prior academic experience. This study focused only on a sample of 4,273 African American students. Results indicated a strong association between family social capital…

  10. Mini-aspirator: A new device for collection and transfer of small arthropods to plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of collecting and/or infesting plants with a designated number of small arthropods in biological experiments is tedious and laborious. We developed a modified mini-aspirator, powered with a vacuum pump and fitted with a specially adapted (removeable) collecting vial to reduce the handli...

  11. A Novel Approach for Performing Bone Marrow Aspiration at the Time of Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Reyes, Diane K.; Gorin, Michael A.; Hortopan, Steven; Partin, Alan W.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Ross, Ashley E.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment represents a “metastatic niche” in which prostate cancer cells may persist and evade cytotoxic therapy. In order to study the biology of prostate cancer dissemination, we have established a safe and efficient method for performing pubic bone marrow aspiration at the time of radical prostatectomy. We herein describe our experience with this technique. PMID:27175343

  12. Positioning Oneself for Leadership: Feelings of Vulnerability among Aspirant School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter; Lacey, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    The research context for this article is the difficulty being experienced by a number of school systems, especially in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia, in recruiting principals. In our discussion we draw on preliminary findings from ongoing research into the experiences of a cohort of aspiring primary and secondary school principals. Our data…

  13. Curriculum and Aspirations as Elements of Transition Patterns between Schooling and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul B.

    A study focused on determination of the tenability of competing hypotheses about the effect of curriculum pathway in high school upon occupational aspirations. Data were provided by a sample of respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience--New Youth Cohort (NLS Youth), supplemented by their high school transcripts.…

  14. The Contributions of Vocational Education to Career Aspirations, Work Attitudes, and Academic Achievement in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the relationship between participation in marketing education, a vocational program, and the development of skills and attitudes with lifelong relevance. The conclusion was that high school vocational experience did not influence occupational aspirations for marketing education students. (JOW)

  15. Place-Based Stewardship Education: Nurturing Aspirations to Protect the Rural Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallay, Erin; Marckini-Polk, Lisa; Schroeder, Brandon; Flanagan, Constance

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we examine the potential of place-based stewardship education (PBSE) for nurturing rural students' community attachment and aspirations to contribute to the preservation of the environmental "commons." Analyzing pre- and post-experience surveys (n = 240) and open-ended responses (n = 275) collected from…

  16. A Finite Element Study of Micropipette Aspiration of Single Cells: Effect of Compressibility

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Bidhendi, Amirhossein; Korhonen, Rami K.

    2012-01-01

    Micropipette aspiration (MA) technique has been widely used to measure the viscoelastic properties of different cell types. Cells experience nonlinear large deformations during the aspiration procedure. Neo-Hookean viscohyperelastic (NHVH) incompressible and compressible models were used to simulate the creep behavior of cells in MA, particularly accounting for the effect of compressibility, bulk relaxation, and hardening phenomena under large strain. In order to find optimal material parameters, the models were fitted to the experimental data available for mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, through Neo-Hookean porohyperelastic (NHPH) material model for the cell, the influence of fluid flow on the aspiration length of the cell was studied. Based on the results, we suggest that the compressibility and bulk relaxation/fluid flow play a significant role in the deformation behavior of single cells and should be taken into account in the analysis of the mechanics of cells. PMID:22400045

  17. Percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of intra-abdominal masses.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, C. S.; Tao, L. C.; McLoughlin, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed in 51 patients with various intra-abdominal masses localized by palpation, radiologic studies, ultrasonography or radioisotope scanning. Biopsy specimens were considered positive for malignant disease in 35 (85%) of the 41 patients with such disease, including 26 (96%) of the 27 with metastases. There was one false-positive diagnosis of malignant disease from the biopsy specimens. Surgery became unnecessary as a result of aspiration biopsy in at least 12 patients. One patient showed evidence of intrahepatic bleeding during liver biopsy but recovered spontaneously, and the liver appeared normal at laparotomy 3 weeks later. Aspiration biopsy is an accurate, relatively painless, inexpensive and safe method of establishing a diagnosis of intraabdominal malignant disease. Considerable experience of the cytologist is necessary for good results. PMID:737606

  18. Bright Futures in Malawi's New Dawn: Educational Aspirations as Assertions of Identity.

    PubMed

    Frye, Margaret

    2012-05-01

    Imagined futures, once a vital topic of theoretical inquiry within the sociology of culture, have been sidelined in recent decades. Rational choice models cannot explain the seemingly irrational optimism of youth aspirations, pointing to the need to explore other alternatives. This article incorporates insights from pragmatist theory and cognitive sociology to examine the relationship between imagined futures and present actions and experiences in rural Malawi, where future optimism appears particularly unfounded. Drawing from in-depth interviews and archival sources documenting ideological campaigns promoting schooling, the author shows that four elements are understood to jointly produce educational success: ambitious career goals, sustained effort, unflagging optimism, and resistance to temptation. Aspirations should be interpreted not as rational calculations, but instead as assertions of a virtuous identity, claims to be "one who aspires." PMID:23645932

  19. Bright Futures in Malawi’s New Dawn: Educational Aspirations as Assertions of Identity1

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Imagined futures, once a vital topic of theoretical inquiry within the sociology of culture, have been sidelined in recent decades. Rational choice models cannot explain the seemingly irrational optimism of youth aspirations, pointing to the need to explore other alternatives. This article incorporates insights from pragmatist theory and cognitive sociology to examine the relationship between imagined futures and present actions and experiences in rural Malawi, where future optimism appears particularly unfounded. Drawing from in-depth interviews and archival sources documenting ideological campaigns promoting schooling, the author shows that four elements are understood to jointly produce educational success: ambitious career goals, sustained effort, unflagging optimism, and resistance to temptation. Aspirations should be interpreted not as rational calculations, but instead as assertions of a virtuous identity, claims to be “one who aspires.” PMID:23645932

  20. A finite element study of micropipette aspiration of single cells: effect of compressibility.

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Amirhossein Jafari; Korhonen, Rami K

    2012-01-01

    Micropipette aspiration (MA) technique has been widely used to measure the viscoelastic properties of different cell types. Cells experience nonlinear large deformations during the aspiration procedure. Neo-Hookean viscohyperelastic (NHVH) incompressible and compressible models were used to simulate the creep behavior of cells in MA, particularly accounting for the effect of compressibility, bulk relaxation, and hardening phenomena under large strain. In order to find optimal material parameters, the models were fitted to the experimental data available for mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, through Neo-Hookean porohyperelastic (NHPH) material model for the cell, the influence of fluid flow on the aspiration length of the cell was studied. Based on the results, we suggest that the compressibility and bulk relaxation/fluid flow play a significant role in the deformation behavior of single cells and should be taken into account in the analysis of the mechanics of cells. PMID:22400045

  1. MDCT-Guided Transthoracic Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Lung Using the Transscapular Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Umberto G. Seitun, Sara; Ferro, Carlo

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to report our preliminary experience using MDCT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy using the transscapular approach in the upper posterolateral lung nodules, an area that it is difficult or hazardous to reach with the conventional approach. Five patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy of the lung via the transscapular approach. A coaxial needle technique was used in all patients. Biopsy was successful in all patients. No major complications were encountered. One patient developed a minimal pneumothorax next to the lesion immediately after biopsy, which resolved spontaneously. MDCT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy of the lung via the transscapular approach is an effective and safe procedure that reduces the risk of pneumothorax in selected patients.

  2. Effects of needle tip bevel and aspiration procedure on the morphology and developmental capacity of bovine compact cumulus oocyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Bols, P E; Ysebaert, M T; Van Soom, A; de Kruif, A

    1997-04-15

    Effects of the needle tip bevel and the aspiration procedure on the morphology of cumulusoocyte-complexes (COCs) and the developmental capacity of the oocytes after IVF were studied in 2 in vitro oocyte pick-up (OPU) simulations using a disposable ovum pick-up needle guidance system. In Experiment 1, the influence of the length of the needle bevel was investigated using a short and a long bevelled 20-g disposable needle. After being aspirated from slaughterhouse ovaries, the retrieved COCs were divided into 3 categories: 1) oocytes surrounded by a compact cumulus, 2) oocytes with an expanded cumulus, 3) partially naked oocytes. In Experiment 2, the influence of 5 different levels of aspiration vacuum for 3 different needle diameters (18-g, 19-g, 20-g) and 2 different needle bevels (long, short) was tested on the recovery and on the morphology of the cumulus investment of a fixed number of previously scored compact cumulus oocytes complexes (CCOCs), retrieved after slicing slaughterhouse ovaries. The re-retrieved COCs were allocated to Categories 1 and 3. The results show that the length of the needle bevel has a significant effect on oocyte recovery, in favor of the long-bevelled needle. As soon as higher aspiration vacua are used, a decrease of the number of CCOCs can be observed, which is less prominent for the short-bevelled needle compared to the long-bevelled one. The final number of blastocysts is similar for both needle types. In Experiment 2, the disposable needle system proved to be highly effective since nearly 80% of the CCOCs were retrieved. At low aspiration vacuum, up to 90% of the CCOCs withstand the aspiration procedure undamaged. Increasing the aspiration vacuum results in a decrease of the number of CCOCs, which is less pronounced using thinner needles. Averaged over all needle types, the prevalence of blastocysts expressed relative to the number of recovered oocytes decreases with higher aspiration vacuum. PMID:16728071

  3. Risk and outcome of aspiration pneumonia in a city hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J.

    1993-01-01

    Because aspiration pneumonia contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, this study was undertaken to identify risk factors for morbidity and mortality associated with aspiration pneumonia. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia in 1985 and 1990 were studied. Factors associated with death from aspiration pneumonia were: altered mental status, cerebrovascular accident, endotracheal intubation, tachycardia, and hypoxemia. Fever, cough, and unilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph were associated with survival. Attention to proper positioning of comatose patients, aggressive treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and strict attention to endotracheal tubes and tracheostomies should decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with aspiration pneumonia. PMID:8350375

  4. A radial basis classifier for the automatic detection of aspiration in children with dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon; Blain, Stefanie; Casas, Mike; Kenny, Dave; Berall, Glenn; Chau, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Background Silent aspiration or the inhalation of foodstuffs without overt physiological signs presents a serious health issue for children with dysphagia. To date, there are no reliable means of detecting aspiration in the home or community. An assistive technology that performs in these environments could inform caregivers of adverse events and potentially reduce the morbidity and anxiety of the feeding experience for the child and caregiver, respectively. This paper proposes a classifier for automatic classification of aspiration and swallow vibration signals non-invasively recorded on the neck of children with dysphagia. Methods Vibration signals associated with safe swallows and aspirations, both identified via videofluoroscopy, were collected from over 100 children with neurologically-based dysphagia using a single-axis accelerometer. Five potentially discriminatory mathematical features were extracted from the accelerometry signals. All possible combinations of the five features were investigated in the design of radial basis function classifiers. Performance of different classifiers was compared and the best feature sets were identified. Results Optimal feature combinations for two, three and four features resulted in statistically comparable adjusted accuracies with a radial basis classifier. In particular, the feature pairing of dispersion ratio and normality achieved an adjusted accuracy of 79.8 ± 7.3%, a sensitivity of 79.4 ± 11.7% and specificity of 80.3 ± 12.8% for aspiration detection. Addition of a third feature, namely energy, increased adjusted accuracy to 81.3 ± 8.5% but the change was not statistically significant. A closer look at normality and dispersion ratio features suggest leptokurticity and the frequency and magnitude of atypical values as distinguishing characteristics between swallows and aspirations. The achieved accuracies are 30% higher than those reported for bedside cervical auscultation. Conclusion The proposed aspiration

  5. Aspiration-Related Deaths in 57 Consecutive Patients: Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaowen; Yi, Eunhee S.; Ryu, Jay H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspiration can cause a diverse spectrum of pulmonary disorders some of which can lead to death but can be difficult to diagnose. Patients and Methods The medical records and autopsy findings of 57 consecutive patients in whom aspiration was the immediate cause of death at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) over a 9-yr period, from January 1 2004 to December 31 2012 were analyzed. Results The median age at death was 72 years (range, 13–95 years) and included 39 (68%) males. The most common symptom before death was dyspnea (63%) and chest radiography revealed bilateral infiltrates in the majority (81%). Most common precipitating factors for aspiration were depressed consciousness (46%) and dysphagia (44%). Aspiration-related syndromes leading to death were aspiration pneumonia in 26 (46%), aspiration pneumonitis in 25 (44%), and large airway obstruction in 6 patients (11%). Aspiration was clinically unsuspected in 19 (33%) patients. Antimicrobial therapy had been empirically administered to most patients (90%) with aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis. Conclusion We conclude aspiration-related deaths occur most commonly in the elderly with identifiable risks and presenting bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. One-third of these aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes were clinically unsuspected at the time of death. PMID:25076409

  6. Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D. C.; Irwin, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Four patients between 58 and 81 years of age undergoing investigation and endoscopic biopsy for gastric carcinoma also were subjected to direct-vision fine needle aspiration cytology of their mucosal lesions which yielded malignant cells. The relevance of this technique is discussed regarding both intrinsic and extrinsic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Images Fig 1. (a) Fig 1. (b) Fig 2. (a) Fig 2. (b) PMID:9414941

  8. Transbronchial needle aspiration. An underused diagnostic technique.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Mehta, A C

    1999-03-01

    (by watching video) Review pathology slides Acquisition of skills with cytology needles should precede the use of the histology needle. Increasing education and experience can also increase diagnostic yields. Transbronchial needle aspiration has been proven to be accurate in staging lung cancers, identifying inoperable carcinomas, and diagnosing a variety of lung diseases. Few complications have been encountered and the technique is less invasive and less costly than surgical procedures. Drawing on evidence from published literature, we suggest the following guidelines for TBNA: All patients presenting with mediastinal or hilar adenopathy or both, should have 22-ga and/or 19-ga TBNA as the initial procedure. These procedures would help diagnose malignant and nonmalignant diseases, and stage lung cancers. All patients with evidence of submucosal and peribronchial disease should have 22-ga needle cytology sampling. In patients with visible endobronchial disease, 22-ga TBNA should be optional. In the presence of a necrotic or a hemorrhagic tumor, or in a patient with a bleeding diathesis, TBNA would be helpful. In all patients with Type III and IV peripheral nodules, TBNA should be the initial diagnostic procedure. There remains no doubt about the diagnostic usefulness of TBNA. Guidelines must be developed to ensure that pulmonary fellows are adequately trained in this procedure. Regional workshops with hands-on experience targeted to practicing pulmonologists organized by the ACCP would help popularize the procedure. Initial low yields should not discourage pulmonologists from using the procedure. Collaboration between thoracic surgeons, oncologists, and pulmonary physicians is essential to set up TBNA programs within institutions. With time, as more and more pulmonologists attain expertise in TBNA, the full potential of this nonsurgical, cost-effective, and safe procedure will be realized. PMID:10205716

  9. "I Was Told It Was Going to Be Hard Work but I Wasn't Told It Was Going to Be This Much Work": The Experiences and Aspirations of Undergraduate Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma; Cooke, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The recruitment and training of scientists is an area of international concern. Much of the research and policy focus around this issue in the UK has been on how science is taught in schools and in particular on the structure of the school science curriculum. Much less attention has been devoted to the undergraduate student experience and the…

  10. In vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen by using high-resolution microendoscopy system under endoscopic ultrasound guidance: A preliminary study using a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rei; Shin, Dongsuk; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Coghlan, Lezlee; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is useful to obtain specimens from lesions underlying deep parts of the liver and spleen. However, the development of novel ancillary techniques must be explored to reduce the number of needle passes and potential adverse effects during this procedure. We conducted an animal study using a swine to demonstrate technical feasibility of in vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen using the high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) system under EUS guidance. We successfully performed the study. No significant acute adverse events occurred during the procedure. The HRME system could obtain clear images representing cytology-level morphology of spleen and liver. Hence, it is found out that in vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen using the HRME system under EUS guidance is technically feasible. PMID:27503155

  11. A report of three cases of surgical removal of esophageal schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiankai; Liu, Xianben; Fu, Huaiping; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixiang; Wang, Zongfei; Zheng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal schwannomas are rarely observed, and the most frequent presenting symptom is dysphagia. In such cases, esophageal endoscopy shows a mucosal protrusion with normal esophageal mucosa. Esophagography shows a protruding smooth mass in the middle thoracic esophagus. Both fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and endoscopic ultrasonography-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) are limited for diagnosing the case. Diagnosis of this condition before surgery is difficult. The most common and effective treatment is enucleation through surgery or endoscopy. Thoracoscopic surgery is gradually becoming used more often, and the prognosis is particularly good. In comparison, thoracoscopy surgery is less invasive, with a shorter length of hospital stay, and reduced pain at the surgical wound site. Extended lymph node dissection was not performed. The positive expression of S-100 on immunohistochemistry examination indicates the nature of the schwannoma. In the present cases, the postoperative course was uneventful, and no evidence of recurrence has been noted. PMID:27162699

  12. Integration of single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy into ultrasound-guided endoscopic lung cancer staging of mediastinal lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; van der Leest, Cor; Aerts, Joachim G. J. V.; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Kaščáková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Amelink, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    We describe the incorporation of a single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy probe into the endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedure utilized for lung cancer staging. A mathematical model is developed to extract information about the physiological and morphological properties of lymph tissue from single-fiber reflectance spectra, e.g., microvascular saturation, blood volume fraction, bilirubin concentration, average vessel diameter, and Mie slope. Model analysis of data from a clinical pilot study shows that the single-fiber reflectance measurement is capable of detecting differences in the physiology between normal and metastatic lymph nodes. Moreover, the clinical data show that probe manipulation within the lymph node can perturb the in vivo environment, a concern that must be carefully considered when developing a sampling strategy. The data show the feasibility of this novel technique; however, the potential clinical utility has yet to be determined.

  13. Dysphagia, dystussia, and aspiration pneumonia in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Hideki; Miyagi, Midori; Ebihara, Takae; Okazaki, Tatsuma

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development and wide distribution of guidelines for pneumonia, death from pneumonia is increasing due to population aging. Conventionally, aspiration pneumonia was mainly thought to be one of the infectious diseases. However, we have proven that chronic repeated aspiration of a small amount of sterile material can cause the usual type of aspiration pneumonia in mouse lung. Moreover, chronic repeated aspiration of small amounts induced chronic inflammation in both frail elderly people and mouse lung. These observations suggest the need for a paradigm shift of the treatment for pneumonia in the elderly. Since aspiration pneumonia is fundamentally based on dysphagia, we should shift the therapy for aspiration pneumonia from pathogen-oriented therapy to function-oriented therapy. Function-oriented therapy in aspiration pneumonia means therapy focusing on slowing or reversing the functional decline that occurs as part of the aging process, such as “dementia → dysphagia → dystussia → atussia → silent aspiration”. Atussia is ultimate dysfunction of cough physiology, and aspiration with atussia is called silent aspiration, which leads to the development of life-threatening aspiration pneumonia. Research pursuing effective strategies to restore function in the elderly is warranted in order to decrease pneumonia deaths in elderly people. PMID:27076964

  14. ASPIRE - Cloud Chambers as an Introduction to Cosmic Ray Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Julie; Matthews, John; Jui, Charles

    2012-03-01

    ASPIRE is the K12 - Education & Public Outreach program for the Telescope Array ultra-high energy cosmic ray research project in Utah. The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra-high energy cosmic rays with an array of ˜500 surface scintillator detectors and three fluorescence telescope stations observing over 300 square miles in the West Desert of Utah. Telescope Array is a collaboration of international institutions from the United States, Japan, Korea, Russia and Belgium. Cloud chambers are an inexpensive and easy demonstration to visually observe evidence of charged particles and cosmic ray activity both for informal events as well as for K12 classroom activities. Join us in building a cloud chamber and observe cosmic rays with these table-top demonstrations. A brief overview of the Telescope Array project in Millard County, Utah will also be presented.

  15. Aspiration-induced reconnection in spatial public-goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-04-01

    In this letter, we introduce an aspiration-induced reconnection mechanism into the spatial public-goods game. A player will reconnect to a randomly chosen player if its payoff acquired from the group centered on the neighbor does not exceed the aspiration level. We find that an intermediate aspiration level can promote cooperation best. This optimal phenomenon can be explained by a negative feedback effect, namely, intermediate aspiration level is able to result in a weak peak of reconnection, which will effectively change the downfall of cooperators and facilitate the fast spreading of cooperation. While insufficient reconnection and excessive reconnection induced by low and high aspiration levels are not conductive to such an effect. Moreover, we find that the intermediate aspiration level can lead to the heterogeneous distribution of degree, which will be beneficial to the evolution of cooperation.

  16. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Frye, Margaret; Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  17. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  18. Effectiveness of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyung Kil; Bang, Byoung Wook; Kim, Sang Gu; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound (CH-EUS) in differentiating between pancreatic adenocarcinomas and other pancreatic disease. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated 90 patients who were seen between November 2010 and May 2013. All these patients had solid pancreatic masses that had a hypoechoic appearance on EUS. All patients underwent CH-EUS to evaluate this diagnostic method’s usefulness. The mass lesions observed on CH-EUS were classified into three categories based on their echo intensity: hypoenhanced, isoenhanced, and hyperenhanced lesions. We adjusted the sensitivity and the specificity of each category for detecting malignancies. We also estimated the accuracy of CH-EUS by comparing it to a pathological diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients, 62 had a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Fifty-seven out of 62 pancreatic adenocarcinomas showed a hypoenhanced pattern on CH-EUS. The sensitivity was 92%, the specificity 68% and the accuracy approximately 82%. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic analysis for CH-EUS was 0.799. There is a significant association between the hypoenhanced pattern on CH-EUS and pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (χ2 = 35.264, P < 0.001). In pathological examinations, the number of specimens for EUS-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was considered insufficient for diagnosis in three patients, and in two patients, the results were reported to be negative for malignancy. Pancreatic masses in all five patients revealed a hypoenhanced pattern with CH-EUS. Three patients were diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma based on the pathology results of a biopsy, and the remaining two patients were clinically diagnosed with malignancy. CONCLUSION: CH-EUS is useful for distinguishing between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and other pancreatic disease. When a pancreatic mass shows a hypoenhanced pattern on CH-EUS but involves either insufficient samples or negative

  19. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia induced by aspiration of insecticide.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, Keisuke; Kamitani, Takeshi; Matsuo, Yoshio; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Sunami, Shunya; Jinnouchi, Mikako; Nagao, Michinobu; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disorder caused by inhalation and/or aspiration of oil-based substances. The confirmed diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia is difficult, especially in cases for which it is impossible to ascertain a history of inhalation or aspiration. We present a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia due to aspiration of insecticide, for which the computed tomography findings of fat attenuation within the lesion were helpful in reaching a correct diagnosis. PMID:21952608

  20. Respiratory complications following hydrocarbon aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Makrygianni, Evanthia A; Palamidou, Fani; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2016-06-01

    Accidental hydrocarbon ingestion may lead to aspiration and chemical pneumonitis in children. In this review article, the clinical course of hydrocarbon pneumonitis, chest radiographic abnormalities, complications, and treatment interventions are summarized. Most children remain asymptomatic and without complications following ingestion of a hydrocarbon. In approximately 15% of ingestions, aspiration pneumonitis occurs and evolves over the first 6-8 hr presenting with fever, tachypnea, hypoxemia, and tachycardia. A symptom zenith is reached within 48 hr followed by progressive improvement. Up to 5% of pneumonitis cases progress rapidly to acute respiratory failure. Chest radiographic abnormalities develop by 4-8 hr after ingestion, but they are not always predictive of clinical pneumonitis. Patients with history of hydrocarbon ingestion should be monitored for 6-8 hr in the emergency department and a chest radiogram should be obtained at the end of the observation period. Spontaneous or induced emesis and gastric lavage have been related to aspiration pneumonitis. Children who are symptomatic are admitted to the hospital for cardiorespiratory status monitoring and supportive care. Approximately 90% of hospitalized patients have a benign clinical course. Increased work of breathing with or without altered sensorium and seizures are indications for admission to the intensive care unit. Hypoxemia unresponsive to supplemental oxygen and/or severe central nervous system involvement require mechanical ventilation. Corticosteroids do not seem to offer any benefit and antibiotics are administered in cases of bacterial superinfection. Pneumatoceles may become evident after the first 6-10 days of symptoms on follow-up chest radiograms and they resolve up to 6 months later. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:560-569. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910771

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology of epididymal nodules

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vinaya B; Shet, Tanuja M; Lad, Shilpa K

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non neoplastic lesions are much more common in epididymis. Clinically, epididymal nodules are easily accessible to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) procedure. There are very few literature reports documenting the role of cytology in evaluation of epididymal nodules. Thus, we studied patients presenting with palpable epididymis nodules in the out patient department (OPD) from a tertiary care general hospital. Aim: This study is aimed to put forth the diagnostic utility of FNAC in palpable lesions of epididymis. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 palpable epididymal nodules were aspirated as a routine OPD procedure as part of this study. Smears were fixed in isopropyl alcohol and air dried. In all the cases, wet fixed papanicoloau stained and air dried giemsa stained smears were studied. Zeihl Neelsen stain was performed in cases which yielded caseous aspirate. Results: Except for two cases of adenomatoid tumor of epididymis all other lesions were nonneoplastic and included 14 cases (35%) of tuberculous granulomatous inflammation, 10 (25%) cystic nodules (9 spermatoceles and 1 encysted hydrocele), 5 (12.5%) of nonspecific inflammations, 3 (7.5%) filarial infection, 3 (7.5%) sperm granulomas and 3 (7.5%) adenomatous hyperplasia of rete testes. Except for the two tumors, one adenomatous hyperplasia and one tuberculous lesion, no other lesion was excised. Follow up and response to therapy was available in 78% patients and resolution indicated appropriateness of the diagnosis Conclusions: Thus, as most of the lesions in epididymis are non neoplastic responding to medical line of treatment and FNAC served to aid diagnosis of non specific inflammation and avoid surgical excision in most cases. PMID:21897542

  2. Image-Guided Fine Needle Cytology with Aspiration Versus Non-Aspiration in Retroperitoneal Masses: Is Aspiration Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Rajiv Kumar; Mitra, Shaila; Jain, Rishav Kumar; Vahikar, Shilpa; Bundela, Archana; Misra, Purak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although using fine needle cytology with aspiration (FNC-A) for establishing diagnoses in the retroperitoneal region has shown promise, there is scant literature supporting a role of non-aspiration cytology (FNC-NA) for this region. We assessed the accuracy and reliability of FNC-A and FNC-NA as tools for preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses and compared the results of both techniques with each other and with histopathology. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with retroperitoneal masses were subjected to FNC-A and FNC-NA. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and hematoxylin and eosin stain. An individual slide was objectively analysed using a point scoring system to enable comparison between FNC-A and FNC-NA. Results: By FNC-A, 91.7% accuracy was obtained in cases of retroperitoneal lymph node lesions followed by renal masses (83.3%). The diagnostic accuracy of other sites by FNC-A varied from 75.0%–81.9%. By FNC-NA, 93.4% diagnostically accurate results were obtained in the kidney, followed by 75.0% in adrenal masses. The diagnostic accuracy of other sites by FNC-NA varied from 66.7%–72.8%. Conclusions: Although both techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages, FNC-NA may be a more efficient adjuvant method of sampling in retroperitoneal lesions. PMID:25812734

  3. Centrifugal cytology of nipple aspirate cells.

    PubMed

    Leif, R C; Bobbitt, D; Railey, C; Guarino, V; DerHagopian, R; Ng, A B; Silverman, M

    1980-01-01

    Two improvements in the methodology for obtaining and preparing nipple aspirates from nonlactating women are reported. The first is the development and use of a new breast pump with a controllable vacuum and cups of various sizes. The second is the use of centrifugal cytology to prepare the dispersions. Twenty-one of 24 breasts of patients in the age range 30 to 49 years produced cellular dispersions which contained foam cells; of them, 13 contained ductal cells. A comparison of glutaraldehyde and ethanol fixation indicated that the cells appeared substantially the same. PMID:6931468

  4. [Stereotactic aspiration of Spirometra mansonides larvae].

    PubMed

    Caballero, Joel; Morales, Losmill; García, Diana; Alarcón, Idelmys; Torres, Anay; Sáez, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Brain sparganosis is a non-common parasite infection by Diphyllobothrium or Spirometra mansonoides larvae. This last one is responsible for most of the infestations in humans. We report a 19 years male patient bearer of a brain sparganosis. The patient presented with headache and left hemiparesis. CT diagnosis of right thalamic lesions was made and aspiration biopsy was performed using stereotactic system, obtaining a whole and death larvae. Histopathology confirms a CNS parasitism and it was treated initially with albendazol. ELISA test confirmed Spirometra spp. infestation. The patient developed asymptomatic with total remission of the lesions. It constitutes the second report in Cuba of brain sparganosis. PMID:26436792

  5. Evolution of transbronchial needle aspiration technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Ben, Su-Qin; Xia, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an established technique to collect cell and tissue specimens from lesions outside the airway wall, generally guided by flexible bronchoscope under the direct visualization of the puncture site. TBNA has been utilized for 30 years, and now there is renewed interest in utilizing it in conjunction with endobronchial ultrasound. Although the basic operational principles have remained the same, conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided TBNA (EBUS-TBNA) have been greatly improved over the years with the increased application in clinic and the advance of new technology. In this article we briefly discussed the evolution of TBNA technique and its future. PMID:26807269

  6. Fine-needle aspiration by vacuum tubes.

    PubMed

    Holmquist, N D

    1989-07-01

    Fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous masses, accepted in many parts of Europe and the Americas as a routine diagnostic technique, employs a syringe holder to facilitate the creation of a vacuum to withdraw cells. This investigation demonstrates that a vacuum tube used in venipuncture can be used to supply the negative pressure to suck cells into the needle. This apparatus is more readily available than a syringe holder in hospitals and clinics, and particularly provides the operator with a more dexterous approach to the mass because the fingers holding the needle can be much closer to the mass being immobilized by the other hand. PMID:2750713

  7. Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

  8. Chiari malformations: An important cause of pediatric aspiration.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jennifer C; Sinha, Sumi; Caruso, Paul A; Hersh, Cheryl J; Butler, William E; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic aspiration poses a major health risk to the pediatric population. We describe four cases in which work up for chronic aspiration with a brain MRI revealed a Chiari I malformation, a poorly described etiology of pediatric aspiration. All patients had at least one non-specific neurologic symptom but had swallow studies more characteristic of an anatomic than a neurologic etiology. Patients were referred to neurosurgery and underwent posterior fossa decompression with symptom improvement. A high index of suspicion for Chiari malformation should be maintained when the standard work up for aspiration is non-diagnostic, particularly when non-specific neurologic symptoms are present. PMID:27497399

  9. [An Overview of Incidence and Outcome of Perioperative Pulmonary Aspiration].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koichi; Shinoda, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Examination of the literature suggests that the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the perioperative period is relatively infrequent. Since Mendelson's report of aspiration pneumonitis in 1946, the factors that contribute to the likelihood of aspiration have been identified, and numerous attempts for preventions for regurgitation or pulmonary aspiration have been made. The low incidence of major morbidity of anesthesia-related pulmonary aspiration may be due to adopting quality measures, applying practice guidelines for preoperative fasting, and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. More systematic preoperative checking and more careful selection of patients are necessary when a supraglottic airway is used in preference to a tracheal tube. Second generation supraglottic airways may not reduce the risk of regurgitation, but may reduce the chance of aspiration if the mask position is correct and drain tube works well. Because the mortality and morbidity of aspiration pneumonia remain relatively high, the preoperative risk evaluation is very important to avoid regurgitation or aspiration. PMID:27004379

  10. Effects of aspiration on fundamental frequency in Taiwanese syllables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yuwen; Jongman, Allard

    2005-04-01

    The perturbation effect on vowel fundamental frequency (F0) by voiceless aspirated and unaspirated prevocalic obstruents is investigated in Taiwanese. It is well known that F0 is significantly higher after voiceless than voiced stops. However, the perturbation effect caused by aspiration has received much less attention. Twenty-eight minimal pairs contrasting in prevocalic aspiration across three different places of articulation from seven tonal categories in Taiwanese were recorded from two male and two female speakers. An acoustic study was conducted on a total of 1120 syllables. Onset, offset, and mean F0 as well as contours of the tones after the aspirated and unaspirated obstruents were compared. Results indicate that the onset and mean F0 are significantly higher when following aspirated obstruents but no difference was found in offset F0. Tonal contour comparison shows that the F0 raising effect triggered by aspirated obstruents disappears at 50-60% of the tone. Higher larynx and faster airflow rate are posited as the major factors for the higher F0 after voiceless aspirated obstruents. The present results warrant a reconsideration of the traditional theory of aspiration-induced tonal split according to which a tonal split resulted from the lowering of F0 due to aspiration.

  11. Aspirations langagieres: Negociation et apprentissage du francais (Language Aspirations: Negotiation and Learning French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepetit, Daniel; Cichocki, Wladyslaw

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 130 beginning French students at the University of Windsor (Canada) focused on their second language aspirations, expectations, and anticipated needs. Interpersonal relations appear to be the primary motivator, with travel and instrumental motivation secondary. (20 references) (Author/MSE)

  12. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  13. Early mechanical ventilation is deleterious after aspiration-induced lung injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hermon, Michael M; Wassermann, Esther; Pfeiler, Claudia; Pollak, Arnold; Redl, Heinz; Strohmaier, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether mechanical ventilation after aspiration is deleterious when started before surfactant therapy. Gas exchange and lung mechanics were measured in rabbits after aspiration either mechanically ventilated before or after lavage with diluted surfactant or Ringer's solution. Lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of 2 mL/kg of a betain/HCl pepsin mixture. After 30 min of spontaneous breathing, ventilation was started in 12 rabbits, which were then treated by lavage with diluted surfactant (15 mL/kg body weight; 5.3 mg/mL, group MVpre S) or with Ringer's solution (1 mL/kg; group MVpre R). Another 12 rabbits were treated by lavage while spontaneously breathing and were then connected to the ventilator (MVpost S and MVpost R). Sham control rabbits were mechanically ventilated for 4 h. At the end of experiment, PaO2/FiO2 ratio in MVpost S was five times higher than in MVpre S (P=0.0043). Lung mechanics measurements showed significant difference between MVpre S and MVpost S (P=0.0072). There was histopathologic evidence of decreased lung injury in MVpost S. Immediate initiation of ventilation is harmful when lung injury is induced by aspiration. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether the timing of lavage with diluted surfactant has an impact on the treatment of patients with aspiration or comparable types of direct lung injury. PMID:15614133

  14. A novel pneumatic micropipette aspiration method using a balance pressure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qili; Wu, Ming; Cui, Maosheng; Qin, Yanding; Yu, Jin; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel micropipette aspiration (MA) method based on a common pneumatic micro-injection system. This method is the first to quantify the influence of capillary effect on aspiration pressure using a balance pressure model, and in return, uses the capillary effect to quantify the aspiration pressure. Subsequently, the seal between the cell and the micropipette is detected to judge and exclude the ineffective MA attempts. The rationality of the balance pressure model is validated by the designed micropipette-filling experiments. Through applied to elasticity-determination of the cells with different sizes, the feasibility and versatility of this MA method are proved. With abilities to quantify aspiration pressures and detect the seam between the cell and the micropipette, our method is expected to advance the application of the commercial pneumatic injector in the MA of cells. Moreover, with the quantified volume of the liquid entering into the micropipette during MA process, our method also has a potential applicability to the study of the permeability of the cell membrane in the future.

  15. Influences to post-graduation career aspirations and attainment in STEM doctoral candidates and recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Deborah S.

    As the realities of the academic job market have forced some PhD recipients to accept less-preferable position types, there has been increasing concerns that these students are not prepared for their careers, especially in STEM fields. However, aside from the labor market, few studies have explored the influences on career aspiration and attainment among doctoral degree holders. This study utilized the socialization theory framework to identify aspects of the doctoral education process that are predictive of the likelihood of certain career aspirations among science and engineering doctoral candidates and career attainment among STEM doctoral recipients by utilizing nationally representative datasets: The National Research Council's Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs student questionnaire and the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates. This study identified field of study, research productivity rank of doctoral programs, primary type of finding doctoral students received, level of satisfaction with research experiences, and their sense of belonging within their doctoral program as factors that predict the likelihood of certain career aspirations compared with a career in education. Doctoral candidates' background characteristics that were significant predictors of career aspirations were gender, marital status, dependent status, race, age, and citizenship status. Further, this study identified participant's field of study, the Carnegie Rank of institutions attended, primary type of funding received, length of time to PhD, gender, marital status, dependent status, race, citizenship stats, and age as factors that predict the likelihood of the career outcomes investigated in this study, including doctoral recipients' employment field and primary work activity.

  16. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized Following Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Festic, Emir; Park, Pauline K.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Dabbagh, Ousama; Adesanya, Adebola; Gajic, Ognjen; Bartz, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary aspiration is an important recognized cause of ARDS. Better characterization of patients who aspirate may allow identification of potential risks for aspiration that could be used in future studies to mitigate the occurrence of aspiration and its devastating complications. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Lung Injury Prediction Score cohort to better characterize patients with aspiration, including their potential risk factors and related outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 5,584 subjects at risk for ARDS and who required hospitalization, 212 (3.8%) presented with aspiration. Subjects who aspirated were likely to be male (66% vs 56%, P < .007), slightly older (59 years vs 57 years), white (73% vs 61%, P = .0004), admitted from a nursing home (15% vs 5.9%, P < .0001), have a history of alcohol abuse (21% vs 8%, P < .0001), and have lower Glasgow Coma Scale (median, 13 vs 15; P < .0001). Aspiration subjects were sicker (higher APACHE [Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation] II score), required more mechanical ventilation (54% vs 32%, P < .0001), developed more moderate to severe ARDS (12% vs 3.8%, P < .0001), and were twofold more likely to die in-hospital, even after adjustment for severity of illness (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6). Neither obesity nor gastroesophageal reflux was associated with aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Aspiration was more common in men with alcohol abuse history and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale who were admitted from a nursing home. It is independently associated with a significant increase in the risk for ARDS as well as morbidity and mortality. Findings from this study may facilitate the design of future clinical studies of aspiration-induced lung injury. PMID:24811480

  17. Students' Aspirations, Expectations and School Achievement: What Really Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), this study examines how different combinations of aspirations, expectations and school achievement can influence students' future educational behaviour (applying to university at the age of 17-18). The study shows that students with either high aspirations or high expectations have…

  18. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  19. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…

  20. Study of Educational Aspirations of Preparatory School Students in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.

    To identify causes for low enrollment in secondary agricultural schools in Yemen, the United States Agency for International Development and the Yemen Ministry of Education surveyed 990 preparatory (junior high) students, examining their educational aspirations, differences between rural and urban youth, major influences on student aspirations,…

  1. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an...

  3. Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2006-01-01

    Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations are…

  4. Factors Influencing the Vocational Aspirations of Victorian Year 9 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrom, Linda K.

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…

  5. Sociological Theory and Youth Aspiration Research: A Critical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; Wells, Richard H.

    Reviewing sociological theories relative to youth aspiration research, the following thesis was presented: "pre-path analysis aspiration research was characterized by a person-centered, middle-range functionalist approach which eventually shifted to a person-centered, functionalist-system approach with the introduction of the path model…

  6. The Relationship between Gender and Aspirations to Senior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzky, Barrie; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender, work factors, and non-work factors with aspirations to positions in senior management. A process model of senior management aspirations was developed and tested. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via an online survey that resulted in a sample of 368 working…

  7. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE--THEORY, STRUCTURE AND CORRELATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALLER, ARCHIBALD O.; MILLER, IRWIN W.

    A SCALE TO MEASURE THE LEVEL OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION (LOA) OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A PREDICTIVE TOOL IN FUTURE OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE IS PRESENTED AND EXTENSIVELY EVALUATED IN THIS MONOGRAPH. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE IS AN EASILY ADMINISTERED INSTRUMENT WHICH FOCUSES ON IDEALISTIC AND REALISTIC EXPRESSION LEVELS AS WELL AS ON…

  8. Calculating Student Aspiration: Bourdieu, Spatiality and the Politics of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a recent study of aspirations for higher education by secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds in regional Australia. At the same time, it goes in search of explanations that transcend a Bourdieuian account of aspirations as produced by and reproductive of cultural histories and dominance, given the apparent…

  9. Life Chances, Lifestyle and Everyday Aspirational Strategies and Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Hickey-Moody, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The notion of raising the aspirations of socially disadvantaged students is a key policy strategy in for enhancing such students' participation in higher education. However, this strategy runs the risk of being simplistic and ineffective unless it is informed by research on the links between aspirations and such students' changing life experiences…

  10. Difficult Career Counseling Cases: I - Unrealistic Vocational Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; McKenna, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Focuses on the perceptual distortions of both clients and career counselors and reviews the contribution of such distortions to unrealistic vocational aspirations. Provides several suggestions for dealing with unrealistic aspirations and for assisting clients to develop a balanced perception of reality. (Author/JAC)

  11. An Analysis of Taiwanese Aboriginal Students' Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Hsiao-I; Huang, Chia-Kai

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the national data from the Junior Survey of the Taiwan Higher Education Dataset, this study identified significant variables influencing the educational aspirations of aboriginal students at technical and vocational institutions. The study shows that several variables are predictive of the educational aspirations of aboriginal…

  12. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspected metastatic cancers to the posterior uvea.

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, J J

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents the author's experience with diagnostic intraocular fine needle aspiration biopsy in 18 patients with a suspected metastatic choroidal or ciliary body tumor. The author has reviewed the literature on biopsy of intraocular tumors and has specified what he believes to be valid indications for diagnostic biopsy of posterior uveal tumors. He has evaluated the accuracy, limitations, and complications of diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy in this series and others, and he has suggested methods for improving the recovery of sufficient cells for cytologic diagnosis and lessening the risks of tumor cell seeding during the biopsy. The author has concluded that fine needle aspiration biopsy appears to be a relatively safe, generally reliable means of establishing the pathologic diagnosis of a choroidal or ciliary body tumor in highly selected patients suspected of having metastatic cancer. In spite of its apparent safety and reliability, however, the author has cautioned against the routine use of fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with posterior uveal tumors since its long-term safety has not been established. The author has suggested that diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy of posterior uveal tumors be performed only in medical centers where there can be input from and cooperation among ophthalmologists, ophthalmic pathologists, and cytopathologists who are experienced in the diagnosis of intraocular malignancies. Images FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 8 D FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 PMID:2979028

  13. Videofluoroscopic predictors of aspiration in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Perlman, A L; Booth, B M; Grayhack, J P

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between aspiration and seven other variables indicative of pharyngeal stage dysphagia. Additionally, we looked at the relationship between aspiration and oral stage dysphagia. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified five independent predictors of aspiration that were significant at the p = 0.05 level: vallecular stasis, reduced hyoid elevation, deviant epiglottic function, diffuse hypopharyngeal stasis, and delayed initiation of the pharyngeal stage of the swallow. A linear trend was observed in that, as the severity of vallecular stasis, pyriform sinus stasis, diffuse hypopharyngeal stasis, or delayed initiation of the pharyngeal stage of the swallow increased, the proportion of patients who aspirated also increased. A stepwise logistic regression model furnished estimates of the odds ratio for each independent variable and can be used by clinicians to calculate the risk of aspiration in patients who demonstrate pharyngeal stage dysphagia. PMID:8005013

  14. The usefulness of bone marrow aspiration in the diagnosis of Niemann–Pick disease type C in infantile liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, A F; Gray, R G; Preece, M A; Brown, R; Hill, F G; Baumann, U; McKiernan, P J

    2006-01-01

    Background Niemann–Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which may present in infancy with cholestatic jaundice and/or hepatosplenomegaly. In cholestatic patients with splenomegaly, a bone marrow aspirate has been advocated as a relatively accessible tissue to demonstrate storage phenomena. Typically in patients with NPC, macrophages with abnormal cholesterol storage, so called foam cells, can be detected in the bone marrow. Aim To review our experience of bone marrow aspiration in children with NPC presenting with infantile liver disease. Methods A retrospective analysis of 11 consecutive children (8 males) from Birmingham Children's Hospital with NPC presenting with infantile liver disease was undertaken. The diagnosis of NPC was confirmed in all cases by demonstrating undetectable or low rates of cholesterol esterification and positive filipin staining for free cholesterol in cultured fibroblasts. Results The median age at presentation was 1.5 months (range 0.5–10). Bone marrow aspirates showed storage cells in only 7/11 cases. Bone marrow aspirates which had storage cells were undertaken at a median age of 11 months while those with no storage cells were undertaken at median age 2.3 months. The overall sensitivity of bone marrow aspirates for detecting storage cells in children presenting with infantile liver disease was 64%; however, for children who had bone marrow aspirates in the first year of life it was only 57%. Conclusions The sensitivity of bone marrow aspirate for the diagnosis of NPC disease in patients presenting with infantile liver disease was lower than previously reported. Where NPC is suspected clinically, definitive investigations should be undertaken promptly. There is a need to develop sensitive screening methods for NPC in children presenting with infantile liver disease. PMID:16737996

  15. Acid aspiration-induced airways hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gilman B; Leclair, Timothy R; von Reyn, Jessica; Larrabee, Yuna C; Cloutier, Mary E; Irvin, Charles G; Bates, Jason H T

    2009-12-01

    The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH (1.8) equivalent to the upper range of typical gastric contents would lead to AHR in naive mice. We further speculated that modest reductions in aspirate acidity to a level expected during gastric acid suppression therapy (pH 4.0) would impede aspiration-induced AHR. BALB/c female mice were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane and allowed to aspirate 75 microl of saline with HCl (pH 1.8, 4.0, or 7.4) or underwent sham aspiration. Mice were re-anesthetized 2 or 24 h later, underwent tracheostomy, and were coupled to a mechanical ventilator. Forced oscillations were used to periodically measure respiratory impedance (Zrs) following aerosol delivery of saline and increasing doses of methacholine to measure for AHR. Values for elastance (H), airways resistance (R(N)), and tissue damping (G) were derived from Zrs. Aspirate pH of 1.8 led to a significant overall increase in peak R(N), G, and H compared with pH 4.0 and 7.4 at 2 and 24 h. Differences between pH 7.4 and 4.0 were not significant. In mice aspirating pH 1.8 compared with controls, airway lavage fluid contained more neutrophils, higher protein, and demonstrated higher permeability. We conclude that acid aspiration triggers an acute AHR, driven principally by breakdown of epithelial barrier integrity within the airways. PMID:19797689

  16. Acid aspiration-induced airways hyperresponsiveness in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Timothy R.; von Reyn, Jessica; Larrabee, Yuna C.; Cloutier, Mary E.; Irvin, Charles G.; Bates, Jason H. T.

    2009-01-01

    The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH (1.8) equivalent to the upper range of typical gastric contents would lead to AHR in naive mice. We further speculated that modest reductions in aspirate acidity to a level expected during gastric acid suppression therapy (pH 4.0) would impede aspiration-induced AHR. BALB/c female mice were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane and allowed to aspirate 75 μl of saline with HCl (pH 1.8, 4.0, or 7.4) or underwent sham aspiration. Mice were re-anesthetized 2 or 24 h later, underwent tracheostomy, and were coupled to a mechanical ventilator. Forced oscillations were used to periodically measure respiratory impedance (Zrs) following aerosol delivery of saline and increasing doses of methacholine to measure for AHR. Values for elastance (H), airways resistance (RN), and tissue damping (G) were derived from Zrs. Aspirate pH of 1.8 led to a significant overall increase in peak RN, G, and H compared with pH 4.0 and 7.4 at 2 and 24 h. Differences between pH 7.4 and 4.0 were not significant. In mice aspirating pH 1.8 compared with controls, airway lavage fluid contained more neutrophils, higher protein, and demonstrated higher permeability. We conclude that acid aspiration triggers an acute AHR, driven principally by breakdown of epithelial barrier integrity within the airways. PMID:19797689

  17. Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.

    PubMed

    Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge. PMID:25518800

  18. Transbronchial needle aspiration: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Wang, Ko-Pen

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer, as the leading cause of cancer-related motility and mortality worldwide, usually ends up with poor prognosis, despite abundant progress of therapeutic approaches. Early diagnosis and staging is extremely critical and directly affects clinical managements and outcomes. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), serving as an effective tool, has been widely used for mediastinal and hilar lung cancer staging. Recent advance in bronchoscopy introduces ultrasound probe to regular bronchoscope, resulting in TBNA procedures real-time visualized. Here, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and ultrasound-guided TBNA by comparing the instruments, methodology as well as the anatomy. We believe these two techniques are not competitive but complementary, judging the indications of patients for different technique would be a raising issue applied for pulmonologists. PMID:24255782

  19. Religiosity and Migration Aspirations among Mexican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    International migration has become an important topic of discussion from a policy and humanitarian perspective. Part of the debate includes a renewed interest in understanding the factors that influence decisions about migration to the US among Mexican youth still residing in their country of origin. The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge specifically about internal and external religiosity and their influence on youths' migration aspirations. The data for this study were collected in 2007 from students enrolled in an alternative high school program located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The findings indicated that as external religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA decreases. Furthermore, as internal religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA and plans to migrate increase. The results are interpreted and discussed in light of previous research on religious and cultural norm adherence. PMID:25663825

  20. Knowledge Transformation and Impact: Aspirations and Experiences from TLRP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the intentions and strategies adopted by the UK's Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) in its attempts to maximise the impact of its research portfolio. The Programme's early commitment to user engagement and to an 'interactive, iterative, constructive, distributed and transformative' impact strategy is described. The…

  1. Coupling Optimization Design of Aspirated Compressor Airfoil and Aspirated Scheme Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and CST Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xiaodong; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on creating a new design method optimizing both aspirated compressor airfoil and the aspiration scheme simultaneously. The optimization design method is based on the artificial bee colony algorithm and the CST method, while the flow field is computed by one 2D computational program. The optimization process of the rotor tip and stator tip airfoil from an aspirated fan stage is demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the new coupling method. The results show that the total pressure losses of the optimized stator tip and rotor tip airfoil are reduced relatively by 54% and 20%, respectively. Artificial bee colony algorithm and CST method indicate a satisfying applicability in aspirated airfoil optimization design. Finally, the features of aspirated airfoil designing process are concluded.

  2. Performance of the forward-view echoendoscope for pancreaticobiliary examination in patients with status post-upper gastrointestinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fusaroli, Pietro; Serrani, Marta; Lisotti, Andrea; D’Ercole, Maria Cristina; Ceroni, Liza; Caletti, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Failures of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of the head of the pancreas (HOP) and the common bile duct (CBD) have been reported in up to 50% of patients with status postsurgery (e.g., Billroth II and Roux-en-Y). This is attributable to inability to intubate the afferent limb or the duodenum. Recently, a forward-view (FV) echoendoscope has become available. The frontal endoscopic and ultrasound field of view theoretically allow easier manipulation throughout the gastrointestinal tract compared to the traditional echoendoscopes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and performance of the FV echoendoscope for the investigation of the biliary tree and the pancreas, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA), in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation of a prospectively maintained database. All EUS procedures were performed at our institution by one experienced endosonographer from March to September 2009 under conscious sedation. The FV echoendoscope was used for all procedures. Results: Twenty-five (25) out of 37 presented status post-Billroth II and 12 out of 37 with status post-Roux-en-Y surgery. Overall, HOP and CBD were adequately visualized in 28 out of 37 (75.7%). All the failures occurred in the Roux-en-Y patients. EUS-FNA was successfully performed in 16 patients. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions: The FV echoendoscope proved to be safe and effective in reaching the periampullary area in patients with previous Billroth II, allowing complete exploration of the HOP and the CBD and performance of EUS-FNA. However, FV EUS was unsuccessful in the majority of patients with Roux-en-Y, which still remains a challenging condition. PMID:26643703

  3. Promoting positive youth development by examining the career and educational aspirations of African American males: implications for designing educational programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Felecia A; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia R; Carmack, Chakema; Roberts, Shani R; Basore, Polly

    2011-01-01

    African American males experience poor academic performance, high absenteeism at school, and are at increased risk of being involved in violence than other racial groups. Given that the educational outlook for African American males appears bleak, it is important to assess the aspirations of these adolescent males in order to find the gap between aspirations and educational attainment. In order to promote positive development within this population, it is essential that factors that affect African American males be identified. A survey was administered to male students attending elementary, middle, and high schools in a local school district. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the career and educational aspirations of African American males. A total of 473 males were surveyed: 45% African American, 22% Caucasian, 13% biracial, and 19% Other (including Asian American, Hispanic, Native American). The results revealed that African American males aspired to attend college at the same rate as other ethnic groups. Also, African American males were more likely to aspire to be professional athletes than males from other ethnic groups. Important factors to consider when designing a program are discussed as well as future research and limitations. PMID:21992020

  4. Young People with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Mainstream and Segregated Schooling: Perceived Stigma, Social Comparison and Future Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, G.; Jahoda, A.; Gumley, A.; Knott, F.

    2006-01-01

    `Mainstream schooling is a key policy in the promotion of social inclusion of young people with learning disabilities. Yet there is limited evidence about the school experience of young people about to leave mainstream as compared with segregated education, and how it impacts on their relative view of self and future aspirations. Methods: Sixty…

  5. Usefulness Of Glucocorticoids In The Management Of Foreign Body Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pagán Rivera, Bryan L; Anselmi, Francisco Jaume; Torres, Maria Del Mar; Segarra, Amaury; Rivera, Jose Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration can be a life-threatening emergency. An aspirated solid or semi-solid object may lodge in the larynx, trachea or other breathing airways. If the object is large enough to cause nearly complete obstruction of the airway, asphyxia may rapidly cause death. We report a 19-year old man admitted with right lower lobe pneumonia who spontaneously expelled a foreign body, one day after admission and glucocorticoids administration. Glucocorticoids should be considered in foreign body aspiration management because improvement of the inflammatory reaction may facilitate expontaneous expulsion or foreign body extraction PMID:26742192

  6. Aspiring to physical health: The role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess aspirations for physical health over 18 months. To examine whether maintained importance of aspirations for physical health mediated and/or moderated the effect of an intensive intervention on long-term tobacco abstinence. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention based on self-determination theory or to community care, and provided data at baseline and at 18 and 30 months post-randomization. Results Aspirations for physical health were better maintained over 18 months among participants in the intervention (mean change = .05), relative to community care (mean change = -.13), t = 2.66, p < .01. Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health partially mediated the treatment condition effects on seven-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence (z′ = 1.68, p < .01) and the longest number of days not smoking (z′ = 2.16, p < .01), and interacted with treatment condition to facilitate the longest number of days not smoking (β = .08, p < .05). Conclusion Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health facilitated tobacco abstinence. Practice implications Smokers may benefit from discussing aspirations for physical health within autonomy-supportive interventions. Patients may benefit from discussing aspirations during counseling about therapeutic lifestyle change and medication use. PMID:18838243

  7. Prevention of suicide: aspirations and evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, D.; Frankel, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Health of the Nation white paper set a target for 15% reduction in overall suicide rates by the year 2000. If the targets are to be achieved interventions must be identified which are of proved effectiveness. This paper examines the evidence on the available interventions and points of access to the population at risk. No single intervention has been shown in a well conducted randomised controlled trial to reduce suicide. The greatest potential seems to arise from limiting the availability of methods. In particular it is likely that the introduction of the catalytic convertor will lead to reduced lethality of care exhausts and reductions in suicide using this method. General practitioner education programmes, the effectiveness of lithium and maintenance antidepressants, and limits on the quantity of medicines available over the counter or on prescription should all be evaluated. Particular high risk groups include people recently discharged from psychiatric hospitals and those with a history of parasuicide. Many social processes affect suicide rates and these rather than specific interventions may help or hinder the ability to realise the Health of the Nation targets. Well conducted trials are essential to distinguish complex social processes from the effects of specific interventions for suicide prevention. This review of the available evidence offers little support for the aspiration that the posited targets can be achieved on the basis of current knowledge and current policy. Images p1229-a p1233-a PMID:8080520

  8. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  9. Peripartum general anasthesia without tracheal intubation: incidence of aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ezri, T; Szmuk, P; Stein, A; Konichezky, S; Hagai, T; Geva, D

    2000-05-01

    This study estimated the incidence of pulmonary aspiration during general anasthesia for obstetric procedures performed in the peripartum period (Caesarean sections were not studied). The records of 1870 patients anasthetised without tracheal intubation were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis of aspiration was based on the anasthetist's written remarks and the postoperative course. Eighty per cent of patients received ketamine and a benzodiazepine, and the remaining 20% received methohexital or thiopental and fentanyl. No cricoid pressure or tracheal intubation was performed. A single case of mild aspiration was detected in a woman anasthetised with methohexital (an incidence of 0.053%). These results suggest that the risk of aspiration during general anasthesia without tracheal intubation, during and immediately after delivery, may not be higher in obstetric patients in the peripartum period, as has been reported previously. PMID:10792131

  10. Interpersonal Influences on Educational Aspirations: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, William A.

    1976-01-01

    This article, using Bolivian data to test a model based on American theoretical formulations, shows that interpersonal influences mediate the effects of structural variables on educational aspirations. (Author/DE)

  11. Occupational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies Among High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogie, Donald W.

    1976-01-01

    High School seniors reporting discrepancies between occupational "aspirations" and "expectations" are analyzed in relation to family socioeconomic status, intelligence test scores, scholastic performance, and socioeconomic area of residence. (Author)

  12. Transbronchial needle aspiration in the staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Benov, E; Michev, K; Kostadinov, D; Vlasov, V

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of transbronchial needle aspiration biopsy (TBNA) for the diagnosis of mediastinal involvement, we have prospectively examined 316 patients with morphologically verified bronchogenic carcinoma. The percentage of positive aspirations (149 of 316) from the three basic lymph node groups in the mediastinum was not significantly different. Tumor cells were aspirated from the mediastinum in 75 of 112 patients with radiologically positive findings and in patients with 74 of 204 radiologically negative findings. Mediastinal involvement was verified even in 61 of 196 patients with a normal endoscopic picture. Metastases were proved in 14 of 39 patients with peripheral versus 135 of 277 patients with central carcinoma. Tumor cells were aspirated in 47 of 76 patients with undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, 92 of 227 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 10 of 13 patients with adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that TBNA being a highly diagnostic and less invasive method, will prove its clinical importance. PMID:18493418

  13. Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Staging of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Benov, Emil; Kostadinov, Dimitar; Vlasov, Vesselin

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of transbronchial needle aspiration biopsy (TBNA) for the diagnosis of mediastinal involvement, we have prospectively examined 316 patients with morphologically verified bronchogenic carcinoma. The percentage of positive aspirations (149 of 316) from the three basic lymph node groups in the mediastinum was not significantly different. Tumor cells were aspirated from the mediastinum in 75 of 112 patients with radiologically positive findings and in patients with 74 of 204 radiologically negative findings. Mediastinal involvement was verified even in 61 of 196 patients with a normal endoscopic picture. Metastases were proved in 14 of 39 patients with peripheral versus 135 of 277 patients with central carcinoma. Tumor cells were aspirated in 47 of 76 patients with undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, 92 of 227 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 10 of 13 patients with adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that TBNA being a highly diagnostic and less invasive method, will prove its clinical importance. PMID:18493418

  14. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

  15. From Educational Aspirations to College Enrollment: A Road with Many Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Educational aspiration is one of the most important factors influencing an individual's educational attainment. Although students' aspirations are changeable and the stability of their aspirations is important for their goal reaching, previous studies are rather limited in their ability to capture aspiration changes due to their incomplete…

  16. Endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration and its practical application.

    PubMed

    Currie, G P; McKean, M E; Kerr, K M; Denison, A R; Chetty, M

    2011-08-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has emerged over the past decade as one of the most exciting and innovative developments in the field of respiratory medicine. This procedure allows sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes and masses in both malignant and benign disease and overcomes some of the disadvantages associated with mediastinoscopy and blind transbronchial needle aspiration. We describe the clinical use, indications for and limitations of EBUS-TBNA along with several illustrated clinical examples. PMID:21546452

  17. Endoscopic and endosonography guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Antillon, M R; Chang, K J

    2000-10-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration is emerging as the preferred technique for the cytologic diagnosis of various gastrointestinal lesions. This technique may not be routinely available, but there is still a role for endoscopic or endoscopic ultrasound-assisted fine-needle aspiration. This article provides an overview of the evolution of these various techniques and discusses the advantages, disadvantages, indications, and contraindications of each. PMID:11036536

  18. Survey of Foreign Body Aspiration in Airways and Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Samarei, R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Foreign body aspiration is a very serious problem and the diversity of clinical protests in each geographic region has its own characteristics and common problems of childhood that is an important cause of mortality and morbidity. No area is separate from this problem and conducting this research is due to achieve basic information regarding foreign body aspiration. Materials and Methods: This was performed as descriptive - cross sectional study on 200 cases that has been hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia due to foreign body aspiration problem from 2009 to 2011. And all cases of foreign body aspiration records extracted and analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: Foreign body aspiration under 4 years was 57% and was more common in males than females; approximately 74% of patients were hospitalized in the first 10 days and 13% of patients did not remember the initial incident that led to the aspiration. Cough and shortness of breath and reduced lung sounds and wheezing were common symptoms. Chest radiographic findings are not specific and can be normal of a high percentage. The most common aspirated foreign body was food especially sunflower seeds. Right bronchus with 55% of cases was more common than the left bronchus and all patients were treated with rigid bronchoscopy, 24% of patients had complications, 15% had hospitalized with pneumonia. Totally, 75% of patients were urban residents. Discussion: We need to understand all the aspects related to foreign body aspiration and education to the community, to recognize symptoms and type of foreign body in terms of geographical area and to create a strong clinical suspicion in physicians and awareness of its prevalence that by reducing the incidence and early detecting and treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity and prevent additional expenses. PMID:25363168

  19. Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M.; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics. PMID:24598208

  20. [Aspiration in a specialised weaning unit--an underestimated problem].

    PubMed

    Zenner, M; Meurer, D; Baumann-Emmel, S; Brand, M; Berndt, U; Rheinbay, G; Kienast, K H

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective case series shows that 45 % of patients aspirated straight after removal of the tracheal cannula. The present case series includes 82 patients with long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) admitted to a specialised weaning unit. Aspiration was proven after patients sipped water coloured with patent blue V. Colour was detected with a bronchoscope after passing through the tracheostoma and directed toward the VC. The aspiration rate in this study is in good agreement with other reports in the literature.We could find no significant statistical differences concerning age (p = 0.97), gender (47 % vs. 49), number of bronchoscopies (p = 0.91) and comorbidities (p = 0.326) between patients with and without aspiration. The duration of the stay at the ward and the duration of ventilation as well as the parameter Hb at the time of admission (p = 0.566), CO2(p = 0.288/p = 0.716), HCO3 (p = 0.915/p = 0.612) and CRP (p = 0.402/p = 0.523) at the time of admission and discharge also showed no significant differences.The Kaplan Meier curves show a considerable divergence between patients with and without aspiration. However, the Log Rank Test (p = 0.348) and the univariate Cox Regression (HR 1.4, 95 % CI 0.689 - 2.849) were not significant. We believe that this can be attributed to the event rate, which was too low in our collective. This trend to a higher mortality of patients with aspiration might be due to weakness of the respiratory muscles when there is reduced coughing. Proof of aspiration in these patients is only one aspect of a multidimensional problem. Larger, prospective cohort studies are needed to show whether aspiration can serve as a prognostic marker. PMID:25599139

  1. Aspiration of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Horne, R; Bishop, C J; Reeves, G; Wood, C; Kovacs, G T

    1996-01-01

    An aspiration system, incorporating a regulated vacuum pump, was used to examine, in vitro, some factors that may affect oocyte collection. In an open aspiration system, as the length of the needle was increased, or the internal diameter decreased, the velocity (and flow rate) of aspirated fluid decreased. There was a difference, however, between experimental flows and those predicted by Hagen-Poiseuille's Law. Upon application of vacuum to a closed aspiration system, employing isolated bovine ovaries, there was an initial rapid increase in the collection tube vacuum to 85% of the selected pump vacuum followed by a more gradual rise to 100%. The vacuum within the needle similarly rose rapidly to approximately half the selected vacuum, while the vacuum at the needle tip was approximately 5% of selected vacuum. The vacuums throughout the system briefly equilibrated as maximum flow/velocity was reached. Flow/velocity slowed dramatically as the follicle collapsed, and stopped as the needle tip was blocked. If vacuum was maintained during the withdrawal of the needle from the follicle, there was a dramatic forward flow of fluid toward the collection tube. The morphological appearance of bovine cumulus after in-vitro aspiration was generally unaltered by vacuums commonly utilized in oocyte collection, providing the cumulus was regular, compact and refractile. The cumulus was less resistant to aspiration if it was damaged or had degenerated. These results suggest that an intact cumulus may offer protection during oocyte collection. PMID:9079405

  2. Cytological diagnosis of metastatic malignant melanoma by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Kathryn G; Ingram, Courtney; Bergeron, Joseph; Yang, Jack

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased surveillance and public awareness, the incidence of melanoma is increasing. Frequently, fine-needle aspiration is employed for the diagnosis of metastatic disease, and aspirated material is used for cytogenetic and molecular studies to guide treatment options. The pairing of a significant diagnosis with the numerous morphologic variants of melanoma can make the cytologic evaluation disquieting. We present selected examples of our experiences and a brief review of the literature to provide cytodiagnostic clues for this malignancy. The clinical history is foremost, although the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of metastatic melanoma can provide a diagnosis before identification of the primary lesion in up to 20% of cases. If a history of melanoma is assured, negative results in sampling of pulmonary and subcutaneous nodules should be suspected as false negatives. The smearing pattern usually features poorly cohesive cells. Frankly malignant, spindled, and epithelioid cell shapes are most common, and cytoplasmic vacuoles, if sought on Romanowsky-stained specimens, can usually be found. The telltale feature of melanin production, although diagnostic, is only present in 50% of cases. Finally, eccentric placement of nuclei, nucleoli, and nuclear pseudoinclusions are accessory features for the cytologic interpretation of melanoma. Numerous morphologic patterns of melanoma are potentially seen, but a stepwise approach to diagnosis usually produces a successful result. PMID:27199077

  3. Science-related Aspirations Across the Primary-Secondary Divide: Evidence from two surveys in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    Students' engagement with science and the numbers pursuing further study of science continue to be a concern among policy-makers, particularly in Western countries. Previous research reflects that most children have positive attitudes to science at age 10 but that, by age 14, attitudes towards and interest in further pursuit of science have declined. The Science Aspirations and Career Choice (ASPIRES) project, a 5-year longitudinal study, seeks to trace and track changes in students' interest in science and in scientific careers over the key period of ages 10-14. Building on an initial survey (consisting primarily of Likert-type items) of over 9,000 children in their last year of primary school, we explore shifts in attitudes and aspirations in science as reflected in a second survey of students from this cohort (over 5,600 students), completed when children were in their second year of secondary school (ages 12-13). Survey findings are supplemented by longitudinal interview data from 85 children. Contrary to previous research, descriptive, multivariate and multi-level modelling (MLM) analyses of the data indicate that the majority of our sample enjoy school science in secondary school and hold positive views of scientists. However, as with the primary school data, these positive attitudes also continue not to translate into an interest in 'being' a scientist. Attention is drawn to the importance of families and student experiences of school science in helping to explain this gap.

  4. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration of hyperreactio luteinalis avoids laparoscopic untwisting of ovarian torsion.

    PubMed

    Sakae, C; Sato, Y; Taga, A; Satake, Y; Emoto, I; Maruyama, S; Kim, T

    2015-08-01

    Hyperreactio luteinalis (HL) is characterized by multicystic bilateral enlargement of the ovaries and is a self-limiting benign condition associated with pregnancy or trophoblastic disease. Since HL regresses spontaneously over time, it should be managed conservatively as long as the patient's condition permits; torsion of the enlarged ovaries is believed to be the only exception that mandates surgical intervention. Here, we describe a case of HL complicated by ovarian torsion that was treated successfully without surgical intervention. A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital owing to acute abdomen. Nine days previously, she had had a stillbirth caused by hydrops fetalis at 24 weeks' gestation. The characteristic findings observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) led to the diagnosis of HL complicated by torsion of the enlarged left ovary. Emergency laparoscopic detorsion of the ischemic left ovary was planned. Aiming to reduce the risk of cystic injury and bleeding at the trocar insertion site, volume reduction of the left ovarian cyst was performed by percutaneous aspiration. The patient's pain diminished rapidly and laparoscopic surgery was deferred. Subsequent MRI revealed that gadolinium enhancement of the left ovarian tumor had been restored, indicating spontaneous detorsion of the left ovary. The patient remained asymptomatic and was discharged from the hospital 12 days after aspiration of the cyst. From this experience, we propose that, in cases of ovarian torsion occurring in large functional cysts, including HL, volume reduction by percutaneous cyst aspiration should be considered before performing emergency laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25810122

  5. Comparison of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Mihashi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Akihiko; Kage, Masayoshi; Kojiro, Masamichi; Nakashima, Tadashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Sakamoto, Kikuo; Chiziwa, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 115 patients with salivary gland epithelial tumors who had undergone preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary glands and had been diagnosed by postoperative histopathological examination. We compared the findings of preoperative FNAC with their histopathological types in salivary gland tumors, and discuss the results and problems. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of preoperative FNAC of salivary glands were 98.2%, 88.2%, and 100%, respectively. The percentage of inadequate specimens was 6.1%. The rates of agreement in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, and basal cell adenoma were 96%, 92.9%, and 55.5%, respectively. The rate of agreement of histopathological types in the malignant tumors was 30%. We realized again not only that the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative FNAC for salivary gland tumors was high, but also that it was a safe, easy-to-perform, clinically very useful diagnostic procedure. However, this study exposed several problems which are the inadequate sampling rate and the difficulty in diagnosing malignant tumors. We have been making efforts to take appropriate specimens by writing comments on the cytological report indicating a re-examination, or by the presence of the clinical laboratory technician at the FNAC procedure. We consider it necessary to adequately re-aspirate the solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration, or to re-perform FNAC at a later date, and to improve the diagnostic accuracy by further experience with more patients. PMID:17043392

  6. Primary paraspinal hydatid cyst treated with puncture, aspiration, injection and re-aspiration (PAIR) technique: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Serkan; Sehirlioglu, Ali; Safaz, Ismail; Ozkan, Huseyin

    2008-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic tapeworm infection that usually involves liver and lungs. Primary skeletal muscle hydatid cyst without liver and lung involvement is rare. En bloc resection without inducing rupture and spreading the daughter cyst is recommended treatment strategy and accepted to be curative for intramuscular hydatid cyst. We report a case of primary hydatid cyst of the erector spinae muscle which was treated successfully with ultrasonography guided puncture, aspiration, injection of 95% ethanol and re-aspiration (PAIR) technique. PMID:18696124

  7. Primary paraspinal hydatid cyst treated with puncture, aspiration, injection and re-aspiration (PAIR) technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Serkan; Kose, Ozkan; Sehirlioglu, Ali; Safaz, Ismail; Ozkan, Huseyin

    2009-07-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic tapeworm infection that usually involves liver and lungs. Primary skeletal muscle hydatid cyst without liver and lung involvement is rare. En bloc resection without inducing rupture and spreading the daughter cyst is recommended treatment strategy and accepted to be curative for intramuscular hydatid cyst. We report a case of primary hydatid cyst of the erector spinae muscle which was treated successfully with ultrasonography guided puncture, aspiration, injection of 95% ethanol and re-aspiration (PAIR) technique. PMID:18696124

  8. Where are the women? Campus climate and the degree aspirations of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Phyllis

    Women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) at all levels of higher education, which has become a concern in the competitive global marketplace. Using both quantitative and qualitative analysis, this dissertation sought to learn more about how the campus climate and self-concept influence the degree aspirations of female undergraduate students majoring in STEM programs. Using the Beginning Post-Secondary dataset, regression analyses showed that a student's initial degree aspirations, SAT scores, and interactions with faculty were all positively related to their degree aspirations three years later. Interviews with seven current STEM undergraduates confirmed the importance of interaction with faculty and suggested undergraduate research and classroom experiences also play a role in the degree aspirations of STEM students. Three of the seven students interviewed began their undergraduate educations as non-STEM majors, suggesting that the traditional STEM pipeline may no longer be the norm. These findings suggest that both future research and current practitioners should focus on undergraduate STEM classroom and research experiences. Additionally, the characteristics of students who switch into STEM majors should be explored so that we may continue to expand the number of students pursuing STEM degrees.

  9. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    PubMed

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  10. Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Toshie; Teramoto, Shinji; Tamiya, Nanako; Okochi, Jiro; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Aspiration pneumonia is a dominant form of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and a leading cause of death among ageing populations. However, the risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in older adults have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia among the elderly. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medical and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76%) who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an episode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL), and major illnesses were compared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample) were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univariate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the following were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16–22.62, p < 0.001), daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39–15.65), feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27–10.48, p < 0.001), and urinary catheterization (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81–5.91, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 subjects each) were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910–5.619), deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948–6.952), dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720–23.643), and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031–2.539). Conclusion The risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were sputum suctioning, deterioration of swallowing function, dehydration, and dementia

  11. Fluoresceinated estrone binding by cells from human breast cancers obtained by needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, N; Zheng, S; Fisher, B

    1983-10-01

    Despite widespread use there are disadvantages associated with biochemical methods for ER determination. Since there is increasing emphasis on earlier detection of primary breast cancers there is clearly a need for a method which requires only small numbers of tumor cells. A variety of other clinical situations exist in which the availability of a technic that could supply information regarding tumor ER from a small cell population would be helpful. This report presents our experience with 17-fluoresceinated estrone (17-FE) binding for detecting the proportion of estrone binding cells in samples obtained by fine-needle aspiration of tumors prior to their removal. The findings from the aspirated cells employing 17-FE were compared with results obtained from aliquots of the same tumors following their removal using both cytochemical (17-FE) and biochemical (3H-estradiol binding) methods for ER determination. When biochemically determined ER values (fmol/mg cytosol protein) were compared to the proportion of fluorescent cells observed either in cells from needle aspirates prior to tumor removal or in cells from the removed tumor there was no direct quantitative relationship. That lack of correlation is to be expected and does not indicate that one or the other method is inappropriate. It was found, however, that 100% of tumors having ER levels greater than or equal to 10 fmol had greater than or equal to 10% marker positive cells. Fifty-four percent of tumors with a negative or borderline (less than 10 fmol) ER level had less than 10% marker positive cells. The less satisfactory correlation in biochemically ER negative tumors may be related to false negative biochemical determinations. The better correlation between results from the biochemical method and those with 17-FE binding using needle aspirates than between the former and the latter when cells from fragments of removed tumor were used for cytochemical analysis, and the lack of concordance in 17-FE binding by

  12. Diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis: analysis of 20 consecutive patients*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaowen; Yi, Eunhee Suh; Ryu, Jay Hoon

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aspiration can cause a variety of pulmonary syndromes, some of which are not well recognized. The objective of this study was to assess the demographic, clinical, radiological, and histopathological correlates of diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis (DAB), a bronchiolocentric disorder caused by recurrent aspiration. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 20 consecutive patients with DAB seen at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, between January 1, 1998 and June 30, 2014. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 56.5 years (range, 22-76 years), and the male/female ratio was 2.3:1.0. In 18 patients, the diagnosis of DAB was based on the results of a lung biopsy; in the 2 remaining patients, it was based on clinical and radiological features, together with documented aspiration observed in a videofluoroscopic swallow study. In 19 patients (95%), we identified predisposing factors for aspiration, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), drug abuse, and dysphagia. Common presenting features included cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and fever. Twelve patients (60%) had a history of recurrent pneumonia. In all of the patients, chest CT revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates consisting of micronodules and tree-in-bud opacities. In the majority of patients, interventions aimed at preventing recurrent aspiration (e.g., anti-GERD therapies) led to improvement in the symptoms of DAB. CONCLUSIONS: Young to middle-aged subjects with recognizable predisposing factors for aspiration and who report a history of recurrent pneumonia are at increased risk for DAB. Although DAB is not well recognized, certain chest CT features are characteristic of the disorder. PMID:25972969

  13. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during routine endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    La France, N.D.; Cole, P.; Wolfe, E.; Giardello, F.; Wagner, H.N.

    1985-05-01

    Radioactive tracer studies are a sensitive means to detect occult pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. A complication of diagnostic endoscopy is aspiration of contents even in fasted patients. The authors have studied 21 hospitalized patients who underwent elective endoscopy (END) for suspected UGI pathology. Fifteen minutes before END, and prior to pharygeal anesthesia, 1 mCi Tc-99m-sulfur colloid, added to the usual 30cc of simethicone routinely administered before END, was given orally. END was performed as usual and 2 hours later anterior 100,000 count images of the chest were obtained. All the studies were interpreted without history or clinical information. Fever developed within 24 hours (and septic shock in 1) in both patients with positive studies while no fever occurred in the remaining patients with negative studies (rho<.001). The authors conclude that oral radionuclide pulmonary aspiration studies may; detect aspiration not recognized by the endoscopist, reveal evidence of aspiration that preceeds adverse clinical signs and symptoms, and be influenced by systemic pre-END drugs known to affect GI secretions and motility.

  14. Model for Probing Membrane-Cortex Adhesion by Micropipette Aspiration and Fluctuation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alert, Ricard; Casademunt, Jaume; Brugués, Jan; Sens, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    We propose a model for membrane-cortex adhesion which couples membrane deformations, hydrodynamics and kinetics of membrane-cortex ligands. In its simplest form, the model gives explicit predictions for the critical pressure for membrane detachment and for the value of adhesion energy. We show that these quantities exhibit a significant dependence on the active acto-myosin stresses. The model provides a simple framework to access quantitative information on cortical activity by means of micropipette experiments. We also extend the model to incorporate fluctuations and show that detailed information on the stability of membrane-cortex coupling can be obtained by a combination of micropipette aspiration and fluctuation spectroscopy measurements.

  15. Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Terrence R.

    1991-07-01

    Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

  16. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  17. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    PubMed

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. PMID:11977938

  18. Transbronchial needle aspiration: development history, current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huizhen; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ko-Pen

    2015-01-01

    Background Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) technology was underutilized by clinicians because it is “blind”. Recent development of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) renewed the interest and confident of TBNA. TBNA without EBUS is referred as conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA). Methods This paper focuses on C-TBNA technology development history, present situation and future development to do a detailed introduction. Results TBNA is a simple, cost effective and minimally invasive technique for diagnosing disease of the mediastinum and lung in adult as well as children patients. Conclusions More improvements of TBNA technology should be made, including employing technological advances to perfect the instruments and techniques, focusing on patient comfort, optimizing yield, simplifying instruments, maximizing ease of use and minimizing training requirements for the pulmonologist. The ideal TBNA scope deserves further evaluation and study. PMID:26807275

  19. Significance of nuclear morphometry in benign and malignant breast aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Narasimha, Aparna; Vasavi, B; Kumar, Harendra ML

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers occurring in the female population world-wide. Normal cells gradually transform to form the cancer cells through several stages. Nuclear changes occurring during these transformational steps need to be assessed objectively. Hence nuclear morphometry can be used as a diagnostic tool. Aim: To compare the nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant breast aspirates. Study Design: Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from the breast lumps in to malignant (30 cases), and benign (30 cases). Nuclear parameters were calculated using the Image J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analyzed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, compactness, and concave points were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) parameters in differentiating benign, and malignant aspirates. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus, a useful objective tool in the differentiating benign, and malignant breast lesions. PMID:23776836

  20. "Diesel siphoner's lung": Exogenous lipoid pneumonia following hydrocarbon aspiration.

    PubMed

    Venkatnarayan, Kavitha; Madan, Karan; Walia, Ritika; Kumar, Jaya; Jain, Deepali; Guleria, Randeep

    2014-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an unusual and uncommon form of pneumonia caused by aspiration of fatty substances. Hydrocarbon pneumonitis following aspiration of diesel is a form of exogenous lipoid pneumonia wherein, aspirated diesel reaches the alveoli rapidly without evoking any significant cough, but initiates an intense inflammatory reaction in the pulmonary parenchyma. This is a rarely described clinical scenario, although the practice of diesel siphonage from automobiles is a common practice in developing countries. We herein describe a 40-year-old male patient, in whom the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia was delayed for a long duration and highlight the importance of taking a detailed occupational exposure history in patients with non-resolving pneumonia to rule out the underlying possibility of this rare clinical entity. PMID:24669087

  1. Project ASPIRE: Incorporating Integrative Medicine Into Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Haq; Via, Christina M; Ali, Ather; Rosenberger, Lisa D

    2015-11-01

    Griffin Hospital, a community hospital affiliated with Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Medicine, received Health Resources and Services Administration funding to strengthen and improve its combined internal medicine and general preventive medicine residency program by incorporating an integrative medicine curriculum. The purpose of project ASPIRE (Advancing Skills of Preventive medicine residents through Integrative medicine Education, Research and Evaluation) was to create, implement, and evaluate a needs-based, innovative training curriculum in integrative medicine. Through this robust new training, the authors aimed to produce preventive medicine-trained physicians with competencies in integrative medicine to collaboratively work with other integrative medicine practitioners in interdisciplinary teams to provide holistic, patient-centered care. The multifaceted collaborative curriculum was composed of didactics, grand rounds, journal club, objective structured clinical examinations, and two new practicum rotations in integrative medicine. The new practicum rotations included block rotations at the Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital and the Yale Stress Center. Between 2012 and 2014, three cohorts participated in the curriculum; two of these cohorts included three advanced preventive medicine residents each and the fourth included four residents. Project faculty conducted 14 lectures and journal clubs, and two grand rounds. Six of the ten participating residents (60%) completed integrative medicine clinical rotations. Residents' attitudes toward integrative medicine were evaluated through self-assessment using the Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire; data were analyzed in 2015. This article describes the results of this prospective observational study based on single-institution experience over the course of the 2-year project period. PMID:26477907

  2. Project ASPIRE: Incorporating Integrative Medicine Into Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Haq; Via, Christina M.; Ali, Ather; Rosenberger, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    Griffin Hospital, a community hospital affiliated with Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Medicine, received Health Resources and Services Administration funding to strengthen and improve its combined internal medicine and general preventive medicine residency program by incorporating an integrative medicine curriculum. The purpose of project ASPIRE (Advancing Skills of Preventive medicine residents through Integrative medicine Education, Research and Evaluation) was to create, implement, and evaluate a needs-based, innovative training curriculum in integrative medicine. Through this robust new training, the authors aimed to produce preventive medicine-trained physicians with competencies in integrative medicine to collaboratively work with other integrative medicine practitioners in interdisciplinary teams to provide holistic, patient-centered care. The multifaceted collaborative curriculum was composed of didactics, grand rounds, journal club, objective structured clinical examinations, and two new practicum rotations in integrative medicine. The new practicum rotations included block rotations at the Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital and the Yale Stress Center. Between 2012 and 2014, three cohorts participated in the curriculum; two of these cohorts included three advanced preventive medicine residents each and the fourth included four residents. Project faculty conducted 14 lectures and journal clubs, and two grand rounds. Six of the ten participating residents (60%) completed integrative medicine clinical rotations. Residents’ attitudes toward integrative medicine were evaluated through self-assessment using the Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire; data were analyzed in 2015. This article describes the results of this prospective observational study based on single-institution experience over the course of the 2-year project period. PMID:26477907

  3. Foreign body aspiration – Sometimes a tough nut to crack

    PubMed Central

    Sandhofer, Michael J.; Salzer, Hans; Kulnig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening event. We report the case of a 24-month old boy, who was initially presented with an episode of obstructive bronchitis to the family pediatrician. Then, while being treated with empiric antibiotics, he aspirated a peanut. Although resulting in a coughing episode, the mother did initially not ascribe any relevancy to it. Since the diagnosis of obstructive bronchitis had already been established, only an in-depth history taking session with the mother could help figure out, why the boy's symptoms got worse instead of better. This article underlines the importance of accurate history taking and clinical examination. PMID:26236592

  4. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in

  5. Structure of a micropipette-aspirated vesicle determined from the bending-energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The structure of the system consisting of an aspirating pipette and an aspirated vesicle is investigated with fixed total vesicle volume, total vesicle surface area, and aspirated volume fraction, based on the bending-energy model. Through an energetic consideration, the usage of an aspirated volume fraction can be converted to the aspirating pressure for the determination of a phase diagram; the procedure identifies a first-order transition, between a weakly aspirated state and the strongly aspirated state, as the pressure increases. The physical properties of the system are obtained from minimization of the bending energy by an implementation of the simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure, which searches for a minimum in a multivariable space. An analysis of the hysteresis effects indicates that the experimentally observed aspirating and releasing critical pressures are related to the location of the spinodal points.

  6. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Schoolchildren's Educational Aspirations in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Dong-Beom; Chung, Il-Hwan

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationships between maternal employment and schoolchildren's educational aspirations in Korea. Found that children whose mothers were working full-time had lower educational aspirations, although maternal involvement and parents' educational expectations mitigated these effects. (JPB)

  7. The Path Taken: Consequences of Attaining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspirations in Post-College Life

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Life goals, or aspirations, organize and direct behavior over extended periods of time. The present study, guided by self-determination theory, examined the consequences of pursuing and attaining aspirations over a one-year period in a post-college sample. Results indicated that placing importance on either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations related positively to attainment of those goals. Yet, whereas attainment of intrinsic aspirations related positively to psychological health, attainment of extrinsic aspirations did not; indeed, attainment of extrinsic aspirations related positively to indicators of ill-being. Also as predicted, the association between change in attainment of intrinsic aspirations and change in psychological health was mediated by change in the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Discussion focuses on the idea that not all goal attainment is beneficial; rather, attainment of aspirations with different contents relates differentially to psychological health. PMID:20161160

  8. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  9. Sex Differences in the Determination of Adolescent Aspirations: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1978-01-01

    Factors influencing levels of adolescent aspiration are reviewed, including socioeconomic background, academic ability, number of siblings, parental encouragement, mother's employment, academic performance, peer aspirations, dating, and participation in school activities. Although sex differences affect the formation of both educational and…

  10. Understanding Supervision: An Exploration of Aspiring Supervisors' Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes results of a study offering both retrospective and prospective views of supervision, based on graduate students' definitions of supervision. Four emergent themes included the domains of supervision, supervisory tasks, supervisory relationships, and supervisor traits. Findings suggest that aspiring supervisors confuse administration with…

  11. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in pediatric ophthalmic tumors and pseudotumors.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, B J; Ehya, H; Shields, J A; Augsburger, J J; Shields, C L; Eagle, R C

    1993-01-01

    In an eight-year period (1983-1990) approximately 500 fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of eye lesions were processed in our laboratory. Eighty-one of the cases, obtained from 77 pediatric patients (ranging from 4 weeks to 16 years of age), were the subject of this study. The specimens included 73 intraocular and 8 orbital aspirates. Forty-four of the specimens were from diagnostic procedures, whereas 37 were obtained from surgical specimens immediately after enucleation. Eight FNABs (four diagnostic and four postenucleation) were deemed inadequate for cytologic diagnosis. Of the remaining 73 cases, 38 were diagnosed as malignant (34 retinoblastomas, 3 medulloepitheliomas, 1 rhabdomyosarcoma), and all were confirmed upon subsequent histologic examination. Four cases were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy; all of them proved to be malignant (two retinoblastomas, two rhabdomyosarcomas). One orbital aspirate contained cells suggestive of a glial origin and was confirmed histologically as pilocytic astrocytoma. Ten cases were reported as compatible with Coats' disease; all were confirmed to be benign by histologic examination (three cases) or clinical follow-up (seven cases). The remaining 20 benign aspirates (13 with inflammatory cells, 6 with macrophages and 1 with blood) proved to be from benign conditions by histologic examination (4 cases) or clinical follow-up (16 cases). There were no false-positive diagnoses. The overall accuracy of FNAB was 95%, and the accuracy of cytologic interpretation was 100%. We conclude that FNAB is a reliable and accurate diagnostic modality in the assessment of selected pediatric ophthalmic diseases. PMID:8465629

  12. Aspirator Gun for High-Throughput Mosquito Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe an innovative aspirator gun designed to transfer anaesthetized mosquitoes directly into glass bioassay tubes. The gun has been used for thousands of transfers with extremely low associated mortality and is the central component of a high-throughput bioassay system. The gun is constructed...

  13. Career Aspirations of Undergraduate Mathematics Majors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Hemasinha, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    There has been much research attention on ability level, motivation, and self-efficacy of students at schools of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). However, there is scant research on vocational choice, career development and aspirations of these students. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by asking…

  14. Self-Esteem in Rural Schools: Dreams and Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deirdra J.

    A study comparing the effects of student self-concept, classroom environment, and socioeconomic status on student aspirations and achievement surveyed 3,397 students in 28 rural and urban high schools in Western Australia over a period of 3 years. Government and nongovernment schools in metropolitan areas and in four categories of rural and remote…

  15. The Realization of Life Aspirations through Vocational Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krau, Edgar

    This book, which is intended for career counselors, is based on studies extending over 40 years that examined people living under different socioeconomic regimens in various parts of the world. It discusses the formation and implementation of life aspirations from adolescence onward. The book begins with an analysis of the phenomenon of…

  16. Academic Aspirations of Appalachian Seventh Graders and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Chadwick, Kristine L.; Whittaker, Denise

    Parent and student surveys were conducted in nine primarily rural West Virginia counties to gather baseline information on incoming seventh-grade students' and parents' awareness of and aspirations for postsecondary education. The surveys are administered each year as part of Fairmont State College's GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness…

  17. Infrared Thermal Imaging During Ultrasonic Aspiration of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, D. J.; Woodworth, G.; Gupta, S. V.; Manandhar, P.; Schwartz, T. H.

    Ultrasonic surgical aspirator tips target removal of bone in approaches to tumors or aneurysms. Low profile angled tips provide increased visualization and safety in many high risk surgical situations that commonly were approached using a high speed rotary drill. Utilization of the ultrasonic aspirator for bone removal raised questions about relative amount of local and transmitted heat energy. In the sphenoid wing of a cadaver section, ultrasonic bone aspiration yielded lower thermal rise in precision bone removal than rotary mechanical drills, with maximum temperature of 31 °C versus 69 °C for fluted and 79 °C for diamond drill bits. Mean ultrasonic fragmentation power was about 8 Watts. Statistical studies using tenacious porcine cranium yielded mean power levels of about 4.5 Watts to 11 Watts and mean temperature of less than 41.1 °C. Excessively loading the tip yielded momentary higher power; however, mean thermal rise was less than 8 °C with bone removal starting at near body temperature of about 37 °C. Precision bone removal and thermal management were possible with conditions tested for ultrasonic bone aspiration.

  18. Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

  19. Aspirator gun for high-throughput mosquito bioassays.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Robert L; Wynn, W Wayne; Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2012-03-01

    We describe an innovative aspirator gun designed to transfer individual anesthetized mosquitoes directly into glass bioassay tubes. The gun has been used for thousands of transfers with extremely low associated mortality and is the central component of a high-throughput bioassay system. The gun is constructed using readily obtainable materials and can be modified for a range of insects. PMID:22533090

  20. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jana Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at four-year colleges and universities. Using College Choice and College Outcomes models as a theoretical foundation, I examined whether eight good…

  1. Women Teachers' Aspirations to School Leadership in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperandio, Jill; Kagoda, Alice Merab

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The under-representation of women in the leadership of secondary schooling is a problem common to many developing countries, raising issues of social justice and sustainable development. It has its roots in societal understandings about leadership, the schooling and career aspirations of girls, the organizational characteristics of the…

  2. Effects of coda voicing and aspiration on Hindi vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampp, Claire; Reklis, Heidi

    2001-05-01

    This study reexamines the well-attested coda voicing effect on vowel duration [Chen, Phonetica 22, 125-159 (1970)], in conjunction with the relationship between vowel duration and aspiration of codas. The first step was to replicate the results of Maddieson and Gandour [UCLA Working Papers Phonetics 31, 46-52 (1976)] with a larger, language-specific data set. Four nonsense syllables ending in [open-o] followed by [k, kh, g, gh] were read aloud in ten different carrier sentences by four native speakers of Hindi. Results confirm that longer vowels precede voiced word-final consonants and aspirated word-final consonants. Thus, among the syllables, vowel duration would be longest when preceding the voiced aspirate [gh]. Coda voicing, and thus, vowel duration, have been shown to correlate negatively to vowel F1 in English and Arabic [Wolf, J. Phonetics 6, 299-309 (1978); de Jong and Zawaydeh ibid, 30, 53-75 (2002)]. It is not known whether vowel F1 depends directly on coda voicing, or is determined indirectly via duration. Since voicing and aspiration both increase duration, F1 measurements of this data set (which will be presented) may answer that question.

  3. Archival Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytopathology (FNAC) Samples

    PubMed Central

    Killian, J. Keith; Walker, Robert L.; Suuriniemi, Miia; Jones, Laura; Scurci, Stephanie; Singh, Parvati; Cornelison, Robert; Harmon, Shannon; Boisvert, Nichole; Zhu, Jack; Wang, Yonghong; Bilke, Sven; Davis, Sean; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Smith, William I.; Meltzer, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Microarray technologies provide high-resolution maps of chromosome imbalances and epigenomic aberrations in the cancer cell genome. Such assays are often sensitive to sample DNA integrity, voiding the utility of many archival pathology specimens and necessitating the special handling of prospective clinical specimens. We have identified the remarkable preservation of higher-molecular weight DNA in archival fine-needle aspiration cytopathology specimens from patients greater than 10 years of age. We further demonstrate the outstanding technical performance of 57 fine-needle aspiration cytopathology samples for aberration detection on high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization array, DNA methylation, and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping platforms. Forty-four of 46 malignant aspirates in this study manifested unequivocal genomic aberrations. Importantly, matched Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik fine-needle aspiration cytopathology samples showed critical differences in DNA preservation and DNA integrity. Overall, this study identifies a largely untapped reserve of human pathology specimens for molecular profiling studies, with ramifications for the prospective collection of clinical biospecimens. PMID:20959611

  4. Needed: A Valid Measure of Women's Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Linda P.

    As part of a longitudinal study of women's and coeducational college graduates, women's career salience ratings and aspirations were compared. Participants were 1979 female graduates of 15 small, private, liberal arts colleges in the northeastern United States that had three selectivity levels: selective, very selective, and highly selective. A…

  5. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of superficial lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, M R

    1989-01-01

    A series of 244 enlarged superficial lymph nodes was examined by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Twenty-nine smears (11.9%) were inadequate for study. Of the remaining 215, 108 were negative, 13 suspicious for malignancy, and 94 positive. Forty-five excisional biopsies were performed correlating the cytologic and histologic findings. There were two cytologic false-negative results; both were patients who had been treated for carcinoma and whose aspirates were cytologically negative. Of the 13 samples reported as suspicious for malignancy, there were three epidermoid carcinomas, nine reactive hyperplasias, and one non-Hodgkin's lymphocytic lymphoma. Of the positive cases, 83 were metastatic tumors, and 11 were malignant lymphomas (two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and nine Hodgkin's lymphomas). The criteria used in the interpretation of these aspirates and the problems of differential cytological diagnosis are discussed. In spite of the drawbacks of inadequate and false-negative smears, fine-needle aspiration cytology is valuable in preliminary diagnosis of diseased lymph nodes and subsequent management. PMID:2776599

  6. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy. When is it most beneficial?

    PubMed

    Peterson, I M; Brink, W J

    1990-09-01

    When fine-needle aspiration biopsy is done skillfully, it is an accurate, efficient, and cost-effective method for diagnosing many diseases in selected patients. This article describes its uses for palpable masses of the thyroid, breast, and peripheral lymph nodes and some nonpalpable lesions. The authors also discuss its advantages and disadvantages and technical considerations that affect accuracy. PMID:2399196

  7. Adolescent Boys' Science Aspirations: Masculinity, Capital, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Willis, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread international concern about post-16 participation rates in science, with women's under-representation constituting a particular issue. This paper contributes to these debates through a novel, critical examination of the role of masculinity within boys' negotiations of science aspirations. Drawing on a UK longitudinal…

  8. Aspiring Principal Development Programme Evaluation in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is to…

  9. Forecasting Student Dropout: The Utility of Academic Aspirations and Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford E.; Erickson, Edsel L.

    1970-01-01

    Tests predictions of dropout potential based on education plans, aspirations, and both--on the basis of data collected during the 1960-61 school year from approximately 1500 eighth graders in the four junior high schools of a midwestern city. (JM)

  10. Uncertainty in Early Occupational Aspirations: Role Exploration or Aimlessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2010-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socio-economic attainment if it signifies "role exploration," characterized by career development, continued education and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to…

  11. Equipping Aspiring Principals for the Principalship in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2013-01-01

    The quality of school principals is of paramount importance for quality education. This article examines the leadership capacities of a group of 228 aspiring principals who participated in a training programme for the principalship in four cohorts. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions in six core areas of leadership was constructed and…

  12. Desired Mobility or Satisfied Immobility? Migratory Aspirations among Knowledge Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Among the aspects discussed within the globalisation process, the international mobility of professional workers assumes considerable relevance. This paper focuses on migratory aspirations among knowledge workers within the context of economic globalisation and market restructuring in Romania. Due to a lack of literature dealing with these issues,…

  13. Aspirations for a Master's-Level Teaching Profession in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates aspirations for a master's-level teaching profession in England, providing key stakeholder perceptions in one densely populated region within a multiple case study. Although this intended move to a master's-level profession represented a major shift in teachers' professional development in England, only limited…

  14. Parental Involvement, Children's Aspirations, and Achievement in New Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eunjoo; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationships among multiple aspects of parental involvement (English proficiency, school involvement, control and monitoring of children), children's aspirations, and achievement in new immigrant families in the United States. They used data on immigrant parents and school-age children (N = 1,255) from the New…

  15. Educational Aspirations and Attainment of Southern Rural Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkelberger, J. E.; And Others

    In 1965, a youth aspiration study was initiated in six southern states. Data were first collected in 1966 from 10th grade students in selected high schools. In 1968, 12th grade students attending the same schools completed questionnaires. Then, in 1972, a stratified random sample was taken of 1,226 young adults who were previously examined. This…

  16. Critical Issues as Identified by Aspiring, Novice and Experienced Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Thelma; Schweinle, William; Styron, Ron

    In spring 2003, more than 130 aspiring, novice, and experienced K-12 principals from public, private, and parochial schools were asked to identify in rank order the top 10 most critical issues facing schools. The issue most frequently identified as most critical was accountability, with staffing next, followed by discipline, time, funding,…

  17. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  18. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... powered device, which may use ultrasound, intended to remove vitreous matter from the vitreous cavity...

  1. Counseling Implications of Black Women's Market Position, Aspirations and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Pruitt, Anne

    The major premise of this paper is that career and educational counseling for women, and particularly for black women, needs to be based on an understanding of their market position. Data on black women's options and choices in a discriminatory market, on their occupational and educational aspirations, and on the role of expectations in their work…

  2. Aspire Public Schools: Building the Organizational Capacity for Healthy Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Amy; Perigo, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Two years into an aggressive expansion plan, Aspire Public Schools was on track in terms of school openings, but behind on its goals to add a layer of management. The schools were performing well, but the nonprofit's leaders were stretched paper thin and concerned about the organization's ability to perform in the face of more growth. Determined…

  3. Searching for Autonomy: Young Black Men, Schooling and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Ian; Finney, Sarah; Swann, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between being young and black, and educational and career aspirations, drawing on new research evidence from two recent studies carried out in two urban locations in Northern England. The first of these studies forms part of a wider research project concerned with analysing the connections between aspects of…

  4. Level of Aspiration: A Behavioral Expression of Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Richard S.; Felker, Donald W.

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of expectations in self-concept and level of aspiration (LOA) behavior. Specifically, the focus was to investigate self-concept and LOA as covariates and to describe the nature of the relationship if, in fact, one existed. A sample of 80 third and fourth grade students was selected from three…

  5. The Career Aspirations of Rural Appalachian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contributions of several social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors in predicting the career aspirations of a group of high school students living in the central part of rural Appalachia. Sixty-three high school students completed measures assessing their vocational/educational…

  6. Adolescents' Attainability and Aspiration Beliefs for Famous Musician Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivaldi, Antonia; O'Neill, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role that adolescents' competence beliefs and subjective task values for music have in relation to their aspirations and expectations for becoming like their musician role models. A total of 381 adolescents (aged 13-14) completed a questionnaire about their competence beliefs and values for music, the musicians they admired…

  7. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jana M.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at 4-year colleges and universities in the USA. We examined whether eight good teaching practices (non-classroom interactions with faculty, prompt…

  8. The Hierarchical Personality Structure of Aspiring Creative Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslej, Marta M.; Rain, Marina; Fong, Katrina; Oatley, Keith; Mar, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies of personality traits in creative writers have demonstrated mixed findings, perhaps due to issues of sampling, measurement, and the reporting of statistical information. The goal of this study is to quantify the personality structure of aspiring creative writers according to a modern hierarchal model of trait personality. A…

  9. Money Aspirations about Living Well: Middle School Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Ivan; Beutler, Lucy; McCoy, J. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent aspirations associated with perceptions of "living well" were qualitatively evaluated based on 187 middle school student responses. Using grounded theory methodology, 976 words and phrases were coded and grouped; 41.9% were extrinsic, 36.3% were intrinsic, and 21.8% of the passages were merely descriptive. Extrinsic coded…

  10. Aspiration Levels and Educational Choices: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lionel; Garboua, Louis Levy; Montmarquette, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The explanation of social inequalities in education is still a debated issue in economics. Recent empirical studies tend to downplay the potential role of credit constraint. This article tests a different potential explanation of social inequalities in education, specifically that social differences in aspiration level result in different…

  11. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-04-15

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

  12. Aspirating Seal Development: Analytical Modeling and Seal Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagepalli, Bharat

    1996-01-01

    This effort is to develop large diameter (22 - 36 inch) Aspirating Seals for application in aircraft engines. Stein Seal Co. will be fabricating the 36-inch seal(s) for testing. GE's task is to establish a thorough understanding of the operation of Aspirating Seals through analytical modeling and full-scale testing. The two primary objectives of this project are to develop the analytical models of the aspirating seal system, to upgrade using GE's funds, GE's 50-inch seal test rig for testing the Aspirating Seal (back-to-back with a corresponding brush seal), test the aspirating seal(s) for seal closure, tracking and maneuver transients (tilt) at operating pressures and temperatures, and validate the analytical model. The objective of the analytical model development is to evaluate the transient and steady-state dynamic performance characteristics of the seal designed by Stein. The transient dynamic model uses a multi-body system approach: the Stator, Seal face and the rotor are treated as individual bodies with relative degrees of freedom. Initially, the thirty-six springs are represented as a single one trying to keep open the aspirating face. Stops (Contact elements) are provided between the stator and the seal (to compensate the preload in the fully-open position) and between the rotor face and Seal face (to detect rub). The secondary seal is considered as part of the stator. The film's load, damping and stiffness characteristics as functions of pressure and clearance are evaluated using a separate (NASA) code GFACE. Initially, a laminar flow theory is used. Special two-dimensional interpolation routines are written to establish exact film load and damping values at each integration time step. Additionally, other user-routines are written to read-in actual pressure, rpm, stator-growth and rotor growth data and, later, to transfer these as appropriate loads/motions in the system-dynamic model. The transient dynamic model evaluates the various motions, clearances

  13. Simulations of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton at large deformation. II. Micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed

    Discher, D E; Boal, D H; Boey, S K

    1998-09-01

    Coarse-grained molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane's spectrin cytoskeleton are presented in Monte Carlo simulations of whole cells in micropipette aspiration. The nonlinear chain elasticity and sterics revealed in more microscopic cytoskeleton models (developed in a companion paper; Boey et al., 1998. Biophys. J. 75:1573-1583) are faithfully represented here by two- and three-body effective potentials. The number of degrees of freedom of the system are thereby reduced to a range that is computationally tractable. Three effective models for the triangulated cytoskeleton are developed: two models in which the cytoskeleton is stress-free and does or does not have internal attractive interactions, and a third model in which the cytoskeleton is prestressed in situ. These are employed in direct, finite-temperature simulations of erythrocyte deformation in a micropipette. All three models show reasonable agreement with aspiration measurements made on flaccid human erythrocytes, but the prestressed model alone yields optimal agreement with fluorescence imaging experiments. Ensemble-averaging of nonaxisymmetrical, deformed structures exhibiting anisotropic strain are thus shown to provide an answer to the basic question of how a triangulated mesh such as that of the red cell cytoskeleton deforms in experiment. PMID:9726959

  14. Simulations of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton at large deformation. II. Micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Discher, D E; Boal, D H; Boey, S K

    1998-01-01

    Coarse-grained molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane's spectrin cytoskeleton are presented in Monte Carlo simulations of whole cells in micropipette aspiration. The nonlinear chain elasticity and sterics revealed in more microscopic cytoskeleton models (developed in a companion paper; Boey et al., 1998. Biophys. J. 75:1573-1583) are faithfully represented here by two- and three-body effective potentials. The number of degrees of freedom of the system are thereby reduced to a range that is computationally tractable. Three effective models for the triangulated cytoskeleton are developed: two models in which the cytoskeleton is stress-free and does or does not have internal attractive interactions, and a third model in which the cytoskeleton is prestressed in situ. These are employed in direct, finite-temperature simulations of erythrocyte deformation in a micropipette. All three models show reasonable agreement with aspiration measurements made on flaccid human erythrocytes, but the prestressed model alone yields optimal agreement with fluorescence imaging experiments. Ensemble-averaging of nonaxisymmetrical, deformed structures exhibiting anisotropic strain are thus shown to provide an answer to the basic question of how a triangulated mesh such as that of the red cell cytoskeleton deforms in experiment. PMID:9726959

  15. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  16. Structural and Socio-Psychological Influences on Adolescents' Educational Aspirations and Subsequent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Arephin, Muna; Klineberg, Emily; Cattell, Vicky; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature indicates that educational aspirations are an important predictor of achievement at school and beyond. This paper examines the factors that are associated with high educational aspirations. It also looks at the relationship between aspirations and achievement at the General Certificate of Secondary Education in a deprived area…

  17. The Role of Aspirations in Young Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Vanessa; Flouri, Eirini; Joshi, Heather; Sullivan, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a large UK cohort (n = 11,656), we investigated the determinants of 7-year-old children's aspirations, and the role of these aspirations in emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by both parents and teachers. Aspirations were classified to reflect their occupational status, masculinity/femininity and intrinsic/extrinsic…

  18. [Scintigraphic demonstration of aspiration in long-term ventilation patients with tracheotomy].

    PubMed

    Schönhofer, B; Geibel, M; Wenzel, M; Haidl, P; Köhler, D

    1999-10-01

    The main complication of enteral feeding in prolonged mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy is the subsequent aspiration pneumonia. We used a scintigraphic method for the detection of enteral feeding aspiration and compared the results with clinical evidence of aspiration. The study population consisted of 62 consecutive tracheotomised patients (16 females, age: 64.1 +/- 11.1 years). The swallowing test was done in an upright or semirecumbent body position with the patients spontaneously breathing. The standard feed consisted of a liquid, semiliquid and solid meal which was labelled by 100 MBQ 99 TC. Scintigraphic aspiration (SA) was defined as positive if radioactivity was detected in the bronchial system. Clinical aspiration (CA) was defined as positive if there was cough, choking and distress after swallowing; furthermore, when receiving enteral feeding during suctioning or bronchoscopy. Both clinically significant aspiration (CA) and scintigraphic aspiration (SA) were found to be identical in 10 of 62 (16%) patients. CA, but not SA: 4/62 (6.5%). SA, but not CA (Subclinical aspiration): 4/62 (6.5%). Nor CA neither SA: 44/62 (71%) patients. Radiolabelled feed can be used as a feasible marker to detect aspiration. The test is a useful screening test and strategy to minimize aspiration. The scintigraphic method failed to identify all tracheotomised patients with clinically significant aspiration. However, scintiscanning did suggest that some patients had subclinical aspiration. PMID:10613062

  19. Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…

  20. Parental Influence on Mainland Chinese Children's Career Aspirations: Child and Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianwei; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Career aspirations developed in childhood may impact on future career development in adolescence and adulthood. Family is an important context in which children develop their career aspirations. This study examined how parents influence children's career aspirations in mainland China from both the parents' and children's perspectives. Eight…

  1. Percutaneous aspiration of fluid for management of peritonitis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Nicolaou, S.; Campbell, M. R.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Melton, S.; Beck, G.; Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a medical emergency that can affect even well-screened, healthy individuals, peritonitis developing during a long-duration space exploration mission may dictate deviation from traditional clinical practice due to the absence of otherwise indicated surgical capabilities. Medical management can treat many intra-abdominal processes, but treatment failures are inevitable. In these circumstances, percutaneous aspiration under sonographic guidance could provide a "rescue" strategy. Hypothesis: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid can be performed in microgravity. METHODS: Investigations were conducted in the microgravity environment of NASA's KC-135 research aircraft (0 G). The subjects were anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs weighing 50 kg. The procedures were rehearsed in a terrestrial animal lab (1 G). Colored saline (500 mL) was introduced through an intra-peritoneal catheter during flight. A high-definition ultrasound system (HDI-5000, ATL, Bothell, WA) was used to guide a 16-gauge needle into the peritoneal cavity to aspirate fluid. RESULTS: Intra-peritoneal fluid collections were easily identified, distinct from surrounding viscera, and on occasion became more obvious during weightless conditions. Subjectively, with adequate restraint of the subject and operators, the procedure was no more demanding than during the 1-G rehearsals. CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid collections is feasible in weightlessness. Treatment of intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions in spaceflight might rely on pharmacological options, backed by sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration for the "rescue" of treatment failures. While this risk mitigation strategy cannot guarantee success, it may be the most practical option given severe resource limitations.

  2. Cultural Knowledge: A Foundation for Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    This story describes how my immigrant parents from Mexico City transmitted their Mexican cultural knowledge to their U.S. born children to inspire us to understand the wealth of our culture. Their experiences and stories helped us to navigate as bilingual and bicultural Chicanos. We were a family that was very proud of our Mexican heritage; we…

  3. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  4. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  5. The Values Adolescents Aspire to, Their Well-Being and the Values Parents Aspire to for Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Ferran; Figuer, Cristina; Gonzalez, Monica; Malo, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between the psychological well-being of Spanish adolescents from 12 to 16 years old and the values they aspire to for the future (N = 1,618). Adolescents' well-being is explored through (a) their satisfaction with 19 specific life domains, (b) the Personal Well-Being Index (Cummins, "Social…

  6. An Analysis of the Relationship between Educational Aspiration, Cross-Cultural Sensitivity, and Field of Study of Chinese Student-Teachers at the University of Macau.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Ramsey D.

    This study examined the relationship among educational aspiration, cross-cultural sensitivity, and field of study of 196 Chinese student teachers enrolled in the Faculty of Education for Fall 1994 and Spring 1995 at the University of Macau (China). The study investigated other patterns of cross-cultural experience and activities, including average…

  7. Job Training and Fulfillment Study. An Examination of Aspirations, Needs and Solutions for ADC Mothers in the Cincinnati, Ohio Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innovative Consultants, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.

    A study was conducted to provide much-needed, in-depth qualitative information and direction regarding the experiences, attitudes, value systems, and aspirations of various segments of the Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) recipients. Eight focus groups, each composed of 8 to 10 persons, were conducted in May 1990 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Discussion…

  8. "Where I Came From, Where I Am Now, and Where I'd Like to Be": Aspiring Administrators Reflect on Issues Related to Equity, Diversity, and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Frank; Marshall, Joanne M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores student reflections about issues related to equity, diversity, and social justice from an educational foundations course. Online reflections and course assignments were analyzed from 15 aspiring administrators for patterns. Findings indicate that (1) students were willing to engage and reflect on their experiences and cultural…

  9. "My Parents Have Stressed that since I Was a Kid": Young Minority Ethnic British Citizens and the Phenomenon of Aspirational Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates retrospectively and prospectively the educational and career aspirations and experiences of young minority ethnic British citizens. It focuses on one aspect of a larger mixed methods study, that is, qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with a stratified sample of 20 young men and women of minority ethnic…

  10. Aspiration after percutaneous gastrostomy. Assessment by Tc-99m labeling of the enteral feed.

    PubMed

    Cole, M J; Smith, J T; Molnar, C; Shaffer, E A

    1987-02-01

    Aspiration pneumonia, a recognized complication of enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube, is considered uncommon with percutaneously placed gastrostomy tube feeding. We report aspiration pneumonia during enteral alimentation in a neurologically compromised but conscious patient. Aspiration continued despite changing the route of enteral feeding from nasogastric to percutaneous gastrostomy. Quantitative scintigraphic studies with Tc-99m-labeled enteral infusion demonstrated frequent episodes of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration of gastric contents, which increased when the infusion rate was speeded up for nutritional replacement. Gastric retention also occurred at the higher infusion rate. Thus, percutaneous gastrostomy may not decrease the frequency of aspiration in patients at risk. PMID:3104444

  11. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit gastric aspiration lung injury and inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Jiang, Liyan; Long, Xuan; Fu, Cuiping; Wang, Xiangdong; Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Zilong; Zhu, Fen; Shi, Jindong; Li, Shanqun

    2016-09-01

    Gastric aspiration lung injury is one of the most common clinical events. This study investigated the effects of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on combined acid plus small non-acidified particle (CASP)-induced aspiration lung injury. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+) ) or EGFP(-) BMSCs or 15d-PGJ2 were injected via the tail vein into rats immediately after CASP-induced aspiration lung injury. Pathological changes in lung tissues, blood gas analysis, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of the lung, levels of total proteins and number of total cells and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment significantly reduced alveolar oedema, exudation and lung inflammation; increased the arterial partial pressure of oxygen; and decreased the W/D of the lung, the levels of total proteins and the number of total cells and neutrophils in BALF in the rats with CASP-induced lung injury. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and the expression of p-p65 and increased the levels of interleukin-10 and 15d-PGJ2 and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in the lung tissue in CASP-induced rats. Tumour necrosis factor-α stimulated BMSCs to secrete 15d-PGJ2 . A tracking experiment showed that EGFP(+) BMSCs were able to migrate to local lung tissues. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 also significantly inhibited CASP-induced lung inflammation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results show that BMSCs can protect lung tissues from gastric aspiration injury and inhibit lung inflammation in rats. A beneficial effect might be achieved through BMSC-derived 15d-PGJ2 activation of the PPAR-γ receptor, reducing the production of

  12. [The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in suspected neoplastic salivary gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Schoengen, A; Binder, T; Krause, H R; Stussak, G; Zeelen, U

    1995-04-01

    Imaging offers little support in the management of salivary gland masses suggestive of a neoplastic lesion. There are also contraindications for a surgical biopsy in many cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not yet widely recognized as a diagnostic tool. To date, 206 FNAC were carried out from 1986 through 1993 on 181 consecutive patients and were reviewed in the present study. Histological confirmation was possible in 174 tests, while 32 were confirmed on clinical follow-up. In sum, 192 samples were sufficient for interpretation, 10 were questionable by our standards and 4 were non-diagnostic. One hundred-seventy-one samples were true-negative, 27 true-positive, 4 false-negative and 4 false-positive. Sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity 97.7%. Out of 141 primary diagnostic procedures in which a final histologic diagnosis was available, FNAC was able to determine histogenesis in 113/124 benign lesions and 9/17 malignant masses. These included 65/67 pleomorphic adenomas and 21/22 adenolymphomas. In 8 cases a diagnosis of "adenoma" was made. Difficulties in interpretation were found in lesions that were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and, in part, adenoid cystic carcinomas. No complications occurred. Provided that there was sufficient experience in performing the aspiration technique and in cytologic interpretation, FNAC was found to be a quick, reliable, low-cost, easy-to-perform method with low risk in the management of nearly all benign and most malignant salivary gland lesions. PMID:7790235

  13. Acute hydrocarbon pneumonia after white spirit aspiration: sequential HRCT findings.

    PubMed

    Facon, David; Coumbaras, Jean; Bigot, Emmanuelle; Bahlouli, Fouad; Boissonnas, Alain; Bellin, Marie-France

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocarbon pneumonia is a very uncommon condition resulting from aspiration of mineral oil into the lung. We report the first description of early and sequential high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of hydrocarbon pneumonia following attempted suicide by white spirit aspiration. Initial HRCT showed patchy opacities of coalescing masses with well-defined walls. They were visible in the middle lobe, lingula and lower lobes. Follow-up CT showed regression of the alveolar opacities, the presence of pneumatoceles and right asymptomatic pneumothorax. After 23 months of follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic, and the follow-up CT scan was considered normal. The radiological features and a review of the relevant literature are briefly discussed. PMID:15252749

  14. Suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among youth in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  15. Suicidal Ideation and Migration Aspirations among Youth in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  16. Transtracheal aspiration in the horse: a photo essay.

    PubMed

    Krpan, M K

    1984-05-01

    Transtracheal aspiration is used to obtain samples for culture and cytologic examination of respiratory tract secretions and exudates. A 15-cm-long area of the ventral midcervical region is surgically prepared, a small site infiltrated SC with 2-3 ml lidocaine, and a stab incision made in the skin. A trocar with cannula is inserted through the incision and annular ligament into the trachea and the trocar removed. An 8-Fr polypropylene catheter is inserted about 35-40 cm down the trachea and attached to a 30-ml syringe, containing 20 ml sterile saline, with a 3-way stopcock . The saline is rapidly injected and a 3- to 4-ml sample is aspirated after the horse coughs and as the catheter is slowly withdrawn. The catheter and cannula are withdrawn, the area covered with antibacterial ointment and gauze sponges, and elastic tape applied. Complications are rare but include SC emphysema or infection, pneumomediastinum and cartilage ring damage. PMID:6738501

  17. Advances in the Management of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swarnam, Kamala; Soraisham, Amuchou S.; Sivanandan, Sindhu

    2012-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a common cause of severe respiratory distress in term infants, with an associated highly variable morbidity and mortality. MAS results from aspiration of meconium during intrauterine gasping or during the first few breaths. The pathophysiology of MAS is multifactorial and includes acute airway obstruction, surfactant dysfunction or inactivation, chemical pneumonitis with release of vasoconstrictive and inflammatory mediators, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN). This disorder can be life threatening, often complicated by respiratory failure, pulmonary air leaks, and PPHN. Approaches to the prevention of MAS have changed over time with collaboration between obstetricians and pediatricians forming the foundations for care. The use of surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has led to the decreased mortality and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use. In this paper, we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and management of MAS. PMID:22164183

  18. Behavior of liquid metal droplets in an aspirating nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Mason, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of particle size, velocity, and relative mass flux were made on spray field produced by aspirating liquid tin into 350{degrees}C argon flowing through a venturi nozzle via a small orifice in the throat of the nozzle. Details of the aspiration and droplet formation process were observed through windows in the nozzle. The spatial distribution of droplet size, velocity, and relative number density were measured at a location 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Due to the presence of separated flow in the nozzle, changes in nozzle inlet pressure did not significantly effect resulting droplet size and velocity. This suggests that good aerodynamic nozzle design is required if spray characteristics are to be controlled by nozzle flow. 5 refs.

  19. Behavior of liquid metal droplets in an aspirating nozzle. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Mason, T.A.

    1990-12-31

    Measurements of particle size, velocity, and relative mass flux were made on spray field produced by aspirating liquid tin into 350{degrees}C argon flowing through a venturi nozzle via a small orifice in the throat of the nozzle. Details of the aspiration and droplet formation process were observed through windows in the nozzle. The spatial distribution of droplet size, velocity, and relative number density were measured at a location 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Due to the presence of separated flow in the nozzle, changes in nozzle inlet pressure did not significantly effect resulting droplet size and velocity. This suggests that good aerodynamic nozzle design is required if spray characteristics are to be controlled by nozzle flow. 5 refs.

  20. Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Zevin, D.; Thrall, L.; Croft, S.; Raftery, C.; Shackelford, R.

    2015-11-01

    Led by U.C. Berkeley's Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory in partnership with U.C. Berkeley Astronomy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the YMCA of the Central Bay Area, Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE) is a NASA EPOESS-funded program mainly for high school students that explores NASA science through art and highlights the need for and uses of art and visualizations in science. ASPIRE's aim is to motivate more diverse young people (especially African Americans) to learn about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) topics and careers, via 1) Intensive summer workshops; 2) Drop-in after school workshops; 3) Astronomy visualization-focused outreach programming at public venues including a series of free star parties where the students help run the events; and 5) A website and a number of social networking strategies that highlight our youth's artwork.

  1. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  2. Joint aspiration and injection and synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Joint aspiration/injection and synovial fluid (SF) analysis are both invaluable procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. This chapter addresses: (1) the indications, the technical principles and the expected benefits and risks of aspiration and injection of intra-articular corticosteroid; and (2) practical aspects relating to SF analysis, especially in relation to crystal identification. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids is a well-established procedure that produces rapid pain relief and resolution of inflammation in most injected joints. The knee is the most common site to require aspiration, although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining SF. The technique requires a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used, it is very safe. Analysis of aspirated SF is helpful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis and is the definitive method for diagnosis of septic arthritis and crystal arthritis. The gross appearance of SF can provide useful diagnostic information in terms of the degree of joint inflammation and presence of haemarthrosis. Microbiological studies of SF are the key to the confirmation of infectious conditions. Increasing joint inflammation is associated with increased SF volume, reduced viscosity, increasing turbidity and cell count, and increasing ratio of polymorphonuclear: mononuclear cells, but such changes are non-specific and must be interpreted in the clinical setting. However, detection of SF monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, even from un-inflamed joints during intercritical periods, allow a precise diagnosis of gout and of calcium pyrophosphate crystal-related arthritis. PMID:19393565

  3. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  4. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine. PMID:15040903

  5. Proteinase-antiproteinase balance in tracheal aspirates from neonates.

    PubMed

    Sluis, K B; Darlow, B A; Vissers, M C; Winterbourn, C C

    1994-02-01

    We wanted to identify the inhibitors of neutrophil elastase, quantify their activities in the upper airways of neonates, and relate these to the presence of active elastase and the likelihood of elastolytic injury occurring due to inhibitory capacity being overwhelmed. Activities of neutrophil elastase and its inhibitors were measured in tracheal aspirates from 17 infants, 10 of whom subsequently developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. All aspirates contained immunologically detectable alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI), but their inhibitory capacity against neutrophil elastase ranged from being undetectable to being in excess of the amount of alpha 1-PI detected immunologically. When the alpha 1-PI was removed from each of the aspirates, using a specific antibody, from 0-50% of the original activity remained, indicating the presence of another elastase inhibitor. Its properties were consistent with it being the low molecular mass, secretory leucoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI), also known as bronchial antileucoproteinase. The alpha 1-PI was from 0-100% active. Most of the inactive inhibitor was shown by western blotting to be complexed with elastase, with a small amount of cleaved material. There was no evidence of major oxidative inactivation. Free elastase was detected in only three of the aspirates; these had little or no detectable elastase inhibitory capacity, and most of their alpha 1-PI was complexed. Elastase load, comprising the sum of free and complexed elastase, correlated closely with myeloperoxidase activity, a recognized marker of inflammatory activity. Active SLPI levels showed a positive correlation with gestational age (r = 0.66). We conclude that most neutrophil elastase in the upper airways of ventilated infants is complexed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7909297

  6. Removing particulates from aspiration air during coke dry quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanenko, V.T.; Lysenko, T.v.; Voronkova, T.I.; Gracheva, O.L.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of recovery of coke dust are due to the relatively large size of the particles and their highly abrasive nature. The use of wet dust traps is not feasible due to the difficulties arising from the necessity of treating the sludge water. It is feasible to use dry methods of purifying the aspiration air. As dust traps one may recommend type SDK-TsN-33 or SK-TsN-34 conical cyclones, as well as vertical electrofilters.

  7. Fatal and near-fatal grape aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Feltbower, Stephen; McCormack, Jon; Theilen, Ulf

    2015-06-01

    Choking remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Whole seedless grapes are a popular fruit snack to give to young children.We present 3 cases of grape aspiration, discussing the emergency care from basic life support to specialist treatment.The lessons learned will be applicable to a wide range of health professionals from frontline emergency medical service personnel to physicians and nurses working in a hospital. PMID:26035496

  8. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ernest W; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-01-01

    We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. PMID:25375634

  9. Management of ovarian cysts with percutaneous aspiration and methotrexate injection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate ultrasonographic-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from November 2007 to October 2009. It included 132 female patients (age range, 15–72 years; mean, 38.7 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0–10.6 cm) at ultrasonic examinations. We performed puncture and aspiration followed by methotrexate injection into the cyst. All patients were followed for 12 months. None was lost to follow-up. Results: At follow-up ultrasonography, cysts had disappeared in 120 patients (90.90%) and persisted in 12 patients (9%). No major complications were observed in our study population during or after the procedure. Only 10 patients reported mild pelvic pain, and four others reported dizziness or nausea during or after the procedure. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. We did not observe any cases of infection after the procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases. PMID:27185974

  10. Thrombus aspiration in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Meneguz-Moreno, R A; Costa, R A; A, A; Ribamar Costa, J; Abizaid, A

    2015-12-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the treatment of choice in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) throughout the last years. A significant number of studies have demonstrated a morbidity and mortality benefit over thrombolysis, which has been attributed to better coronary perfusion in patients undergoing primary PCI. Even though it usually achieves normal flow in the affected epicardial vessel, myocardial reperfusion is not fully restored in a significant percentage of patients. This is commonly the result of distal thrombus embolization with subsequent impairment of myocardial microcirculation. Recognition of this has led to the development of a number of devices with different mechanisms, including thrombus aspiration catheters, in order to reduce distal embolization and therefore improve myocardial perfusion. Recent studies indeed demonstrate that the use of such devices offer additional clinical advantage in patients undergoing primary PCI in comparison to the standard PCI, whether in other trials it could not be proved. This paper focuses on general mechanisms of thrombus formation and discusses favorable and unfavorable studies towards thrombus aspiration in STEMI and its main aspects and it comes up with specific subjects that could benefit or not from the procedure of thrombus aspiration. PMID:26603617

  11. Pneumonitis and pneumatoceles following accidental hydrocarbon aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, Gabriela H; Eber, Ernst; Zach, Maximilian S

    2005-02-01

    Accidental ingestion and aspiration of hydrocarbons in children are common. Among the various clinical and pathological manifestations of hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, pneumonitis is the most significant and occurs in up to 40% of children, whereas formation of pneumatoceles is believed to be a rare event. We report two children with HC pneumonitis and pneumatoceles as a reversible complication after ingestion and aspiration of lamp oil with very low viscosity. Patient 1, a 21-month-old boy, started to cough and developed tachypnea, sternal retractions and mild cyanosis immediately after aspiration. Patient 2, a 24-month-old girl, was asymptomatic during the first days after the accident; subsequently, she started to cough and developed fever, dyspnea and chest pain. Chest x-ray and computed tomography revealed multiple patchy infiltrates in both cases; after several days, these confluent infiltrates developed into pneumatoceles. Both children were treated with antibiotics and steroids. They recovered within three and four weeks, respectively, with complete remission of the radiologic abnormalities and had an uneventful follow-up after discharge. PMID:15847196

  12. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, S.; Ennico, K.; Abe/Aspire Science Team

    The AstroBiology Explorer ABE and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer ASPIRE Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions 1 Where do we come from and 2 Are we alone as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity abundance and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to 1 Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions and the young stellar planetary systems that form in them 2 Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows 3 Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids comets and the planets and their satellites 4 Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution abundance and change with environment 5 Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type and 6 Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE s core mission and adds tasks that 7 Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry and 8 Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials ABE ASPIRE achieves these goals using a highly sensitive cryogenically-cooled telescope in an

  13. Controlled aspiration and positioning of biological cells in a micropipette.

    PubMed

    Zhang, XuPing; Leung, Clement; Lu, Zhe; Esfandiari, Navid; Casper, Robert F; Sun, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Manipulating single cells with a micropipette is the oldest, yet still a widely used technique. This paper discusses the aspiration of a single cell into a micropipette and positioning the cell accurately to a target position inside the micropipette. Due to the small volume of a single cell (picoliter) and nonlinear dynamics involved, these tasks have high skill requirements and are labor intensive in manual operation that is solely based on trial and error and has high failure rates. We present automated techniques in this paper for achieving these tasks via computer vision microscopy and closed-loop motion control. Computer vision algorithms were developed to detect and track a single cell outside and inside a micropipette for automated single-cell aspiration. A closed-loop robust controller integrating the dynamics of cell motion was designed to accurately and efficiently position the cell to a target position inside the micropipette. The system achieved high success rates of 98% for cell detection and 97% for cell tracking (n = 100). The automated system also demonstrated its capability of aspirating a single cell into a micropipette within 2 s (versus 10 s by highly skilled operators) and accurately positioning the cell inside the micropipette within 8 s (versus 25 s by highly skilled operators). PMID:22231148

  14. The Perceived Value of Education and Educational Aspirations in the Czech Republic: Changes in the Determination of Educational Aspirations between 1989 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the changes in the determination of educational aspirations from the end of the communist period in 1989 to 2003, focusing on a single postcommunist country, the Czech Republic. The Czech case is particularly relevant for comparative research on educational inequality and aspirations, as previous studies have shown…

  15. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONAL SCALE--THEORY, STRUCTURE, AND CORRELATES OF AN INSTRUMENT DESIGNED TO MEASURE DIFFERENTIAL LEVELS OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION, FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALLER, ARCHIBALD O.; AND OTHERS

    A STUDY WAS MADE TO DEVELOP A QUICK AND ACCURATE METHOD FOR MEASURING OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS, ADDING TO KNOWN EXPLANATORY AND PREDICTIVE TECHNIQUES CONCERNING THE OCCUPATIONAL SELECTION PROCESS. "LEVEL OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION" (LOA) WAS THE CONCEPTUAL FOCAL POINT OF THIS PROJECT. SUBJECTS OF THE PROJECT, APPROXIMATELY 450 17-YEAR-OLD BOYS,…

  16. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided cumulus oocyte complexes aspiration and in vitro embryo production in suckled beef and lactating dairy cattle on pasture-based management conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratto, M H; Peralta, O A; Mogollon, G; Strobel, P; Correa, J

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the use of repeated transvaginal ultrasound-guided cumulus oocyte complex (COC) aspiration on COC recovery rate, in vitro embryo production (IVP) and subsequent pregnancy rates in Holstein Friesian (HF) and Aberdeen Angus (AA) cows (Experiment 1), and in pregnant and non-pregnant Holstein Friesian cows (Experiment 2). Cycling, non-pregnant HF (n=17) and AA (n=32) cows with 40-70 days postpartum, between 3 and 5 years of age were used in the Experiment 1. All cows were submitted to repeated transvaginal ultrasound-guided COC aspiration twice a week for 5-7 weeks. Cumulus ooctye complexes (COC) were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured for 8 days. An overall of 100 and 350 embryos from HF and AA cows respectively were cryopreserved using a conventional slow freezing (Experiment 1). A total of 81 and 285 frozen-thawed embryos from HF and AA cows respectively were transferred to recipient cows. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 60 and 150 days of gestation using transrectal ultrasonography. In Experiment 2, cycling non-pregnant (n=9) and pregnant (n=8) HF cows were submitted to repeated ultrasound-guided COC aspiration and COC were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured as in Experiment 1, except that embryos were cryopreserved but not thawed and transferred as described for Experiment 1. The results of this study indicate that COC recovery rate and blastocyts production are affected by the breed of the donor cow. The quality of blastocyts produced from both breed did not differ in terms of pregnancy and calving rates (Experiment 1). The physiologic state of pregnancy did not affect COC recovery rate and blastocysts production per donor/session (Experiment 2). The use of ultrasound-guided COC aspiration and IVP could be a powerful technique to improve the genetic of beef and dairy cattle managed under pasture-based conditions management in the southern Chile. PMID:22030337

  17. Metastatic tumor: the complementary role of the marrow aspirate and biopsy.

    PubMed

    Atac, B; Lawrence, C; Goldberg, S N

    1991-10-01

    To determine whether bone marrow aspiration or biopsy is more sensitive in the detection of nonhematologic metastatic involvement of marrow, all 1569 consecutive paired biopsy and aspirate samples obtained between January 1975 and January 1, 1986 in an 800 bed municipal hospital were reviewed. At least eight aspirate slides and 10 biopsy cross sections were examined for each pair. In 39 samples, both biopsy and aspirate identified metastatic tumor. No biopsies contained tumor that was not also seen on the aspirate. However, five aspirate slides contained metastatic malignancies not identified on biopsy. The hematologist or oncologist viewing individual cells in a monolayer at 1000 x magnification has the advantage of identifying very small clusters of tumor cells. That accounted for three of the five positive aspirate samples in which the biopsies were negative. The other two positive aspirate slides each contained tumor on only one of eight slides. The results of our study indicate that when carefully reviewed, the aspirate is at least as sensitive as the marrow biopsy for identifying metastatic tumor. Our results indicate that marrow aspirates and biopsies are useful and complementary examinations for identifying metastatic malignancy. PMID:1928232

  18. Aspiration Therapy Leads to Weight Loss in Obese Subjects: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Shelby; Stein, Richard; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa; Mullady, Daniel; Edmundowicz, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obese patients rarely achieve long-term weight loss with only lifestyle interventions. We evaluated the use of endoscopic aspiration therapy for obesity. Aspiration therapy involves endoscopic placement of a gastrostomy tube (A-Tube) and the AspireAssist siphon assembly (Aspire Bariatrics, King of Prussia, PA) to aspirate gastric contents 20 minutes after meal consumption. Methods We performed a pilot study of 18 obese subjects who were randomly assigned (2:1) to groups that underwent aspiration therapy for 1 year plus lifestyle therapy (n = 11; mean body mass index, 42.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2) or lifestyle therapy only (n = 7; mean body mass index, 43.4 ± 2.0 kg/m). Lifestyle intervention comprised a 15-session diet and behavioral education program. Results Ten of the 11 subjects who underwent aspiration therapy and 4 of the 7 subjects who underwent lifestyle therapy completed the first year of the study. After 1 year, subjects in the aspiration therapy group lost 18.6% ± 2.3% of their body weight (49.0% ± 7.7% of excess weight loss [EWL]) and those in the lifestyle therapy group lost 5.9% ± 5.0% (14.9% ± 12.2% of EWL) (P < .04). Seven of the 10 subjects in the aspiration therapy group completed an additional year of therapy and maintained a 20.1% ± 3.5% body weight loss (54.6% ± 12.0% of EWL). There were no adverse effects of aspiration therapy on eating behavior and no evidence of compensation for aspirated calories with increased food intake. No episodes of binge eating in the aspiration therapy group or serious adverse were reported. Conclusions In a pilot study, aspiration therapy appears to be a safe and effective long-term weight loss therapy for obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT00773903. PMID:24012983

  19. An examination of factors related to aspiration and silent aspiration in older adults requiring long-term care in rural Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K; Hirano, H; Watanabe, Y; Tohara, H; Sato, E; Sato, K; Katakura, A

    2016-02-01

    Swallowing disorders are a growing problem among the elderly in long-term care (LTC), and they can cause aspiration pneumonia. In order to detect swallowing disorders early, simple tools are needed to assess aspiration and silent aspiration (SA). To compile a sample of elderly people requiring LTC, and categorise them as having suspected aspiration and/or SA using simple screening tools. In addition, oral ability, severity of dementia, vital functions and nutritional status were compared in these groups. A total of 393 elderly people in LTC (89 men and 304 women; age ranging from 65 to 100 years) were included in the study. The modified water swallow test, cervical auscultation and cough test were used to assess swallowing function. The participants were categorised as having suspected aspiration and/or SA, and the following assessments were performed: (i) oral ability (lips function, tongue function, rinsing and gargling ability), (ii) dementia severity, (iii) vital functions and (iv) nutritional status. Suspected aspiration was apparent in 50.5% of patients, of which 24.0% had suspected SA. Those with suspected aspiration showed worsened oral ability, dementia severity, vital functions and nutritional status. Similarly, those with suspected SA showed worsened dementia severity, vital functions and nutritional status. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lip closure, lingual movement and rinsing ability were significantly associated with suspected aspiration. Dementia severity was the best predictor of suspected SA. Simple screening tools can be used to identify suspected aspiration and SA, which may facilitate early detection of aspiration pneumonia or swallowing disorder risk. PMID:26432521

  20. Model for probing membrane-cortex adhesion by micropipette aspiration and fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alert, Ricard; Casademunt, Jaume; Brugués, Jan; Sens, Pierre

    2015-04-21

    We propose a model for membrane-cortex adhesion that couples membrane deformations, hydrodynamics, and kinetics of membrane-cortex ligands. In its simplest form, the model gives explicit predictions for the critical pressure for membrane detachment and for the value of adhesion energy. We show that these quantities exhibit a significant dependence on the active acto-myosin stresses. The model provides a simple framework to access quantitative information on cortical activity by means of micropipette experiments. We also extend the model to incorporate fluctuations and show that detailed information on the stability of membrane-cortex coupling can be obtained by a combination of micropipette aspiration and fluctuation spectroscopy measurements. PMID:25902428

  1. Duodenal aspiration via flexible endoscope for diagnosis of giardiasis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Roudebush, P; Delivorias, M H

    1985-07-15

    A 1-year-old male Pointer was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhea and mild weight loss. An aspirate of duodenal contents was obtained after infusing 0.9% Na Cl through a flexible endoscope passed into the proximal portion of the duodenum. Examination of the aspirated duodenal contents revealed a Giardia trophozoite, and the dog improved with metronidazole therapy. Duodenal aspiration via a flexible endoscope offers a new diagnostic technique for giardiasis. PMID:4030451

  2. Granulomatous lung disease in children by aspiration of medications.

    PubMed

    Hański, W; Figurski, R; Fermus, R

    1987-01-01

    Post mortem examinations of 8 infants, 11 d to 5 months old and one 12 year old girl, demonstrated foreign bodies in the lungs which could be identified as orally administered drugs: cholestyramine (Questran) and phenobarbital (Luminal, Gardenal) or phenydantin-components. The microscopic changes caused by such deposits and the histologic methods of identifying medicines are presented. The authors point to the role of aspiration in deposit formation and to the pseudomiliary granulomatous nature of subsequent changes. It is proposed to define the alterations as a separate form of aspiratory lesion in children. PMID:3296546

  3. Foreign body aspiration through tracheotomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Figueiredoi, Ricardo R; Machado, Walter S

    2005-01-01

    A 70 year-old man, with a 7-year tracheotomy because of a laryngeal tumor, had an accident during daily canulla cleansing procedure, aspirating a piece of the cleaning brush. Chest radiograph showed metallic foreign body at the right inferior bronchus. Rigid bronchoscopy was performed under general anesthesia, with no resistance in passing the tube through the glottis. The foreign body was easily removed and the patient had no complications. After leaving the hospital, the patient was sent to the ENT service where he used to be followed up. PMID:16446923

  4. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723

  5. Sclerosing hemangioma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jennifer; Zhou, Fang; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Kovacs, Sandor; Simsir, Aylin; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung is a benign neoplasm with a widely debated histogenesis. It has a polymorphic histomorphology characterized by a biphasic cell population of “surface cells” and “round cells” arranged in four general patterns: Papillary, solid, angiomatous, and sclerotic. This variability in histomorphology makes it difficult to diagnose sclerosing hemangioma by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We present a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed on FNA with immunohistochemistry performed on an accompanied cell block. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:27168758

  6. Aspiration of tracheoesophageal prosthesis in a laryngectomized patient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The voice prosthesis inserted into a tracheoesophageal fistula has become the most widely used device for voice rehabilitation in patients with total laryngectomy. Case presentation We describe a case of tracheoesophageal prosthesis’ (TEP) aspiration in a laryngectomized patient, with permanent tracheal stoma, that appeared during standard cleaning procedure, despite a programme of training for the safe management of patients with voice prosthesis. Conclusions The definitive diagnosis and treatment were performed by flexible bronchoscopy, that may be considered the procedure of choice in these cases, also on the basis of the literature. PMID:22958961

  7. Meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal outcome in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Malik, A S; Hillman, D

    1994-01-01

    The outcome in 148 inborn meconium-stained neonates was studied prospectively over a 5-month period. Fifty-three infants (38.5%) developed meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). There was a significantly higher rate of MAS (p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (p < 0.016) and hospital stay (p < 0.016) in neonates with meconium in the trachea than in neonates with no meconium in the oropharynx. The incidence of MAS was significantly higher and the duration of hospital stay longer in outborn than in inborn infants (p < 0.022). PMID:7516134

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Ganjei, P

    1995-09-01

    FNA cytology has been shown to be highly accurate in diagnosing malignant tumors. In gynecology, an overall accuracy of 94.5% in the differentiation between benign and malignant tumors has been reported. Despite many controversial views regarding its safety, aspiration cytology has been accepted as an innocuous procedure that can be accomplished with minimal discomfort or complications and, in association with laparoscopy, assist in the management of ovarian cysts and masses. Although FNA cannot be considered the first-hand diagnostic procedure for ovarian cancer in postmenopausal patients, it may be extremely helpful in young women, even during pregnancy, to safely differentiate functional and other benign ovarian cysts from malignant ones. In postmenopausal women, especially those in the high risk group for surgical procedures and those undergoing a "second look" intervention following radiation or chemotherapy, aspiration cytology may provide sufficient information to warrant abandoning unnecessary surgery. During laparotomy for suspected unilateral disease, FNA may provide sufficient data about the opposite ovary to allow that organ to remain in place, thus preserving its function in a young patient. The pathologist must be familiar with the cytology of normal pelvic structures and the diagnostic criteria used to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, as well as potential diagnostic pitfalls, such as interpretation based on very few cells or the absence of appropriate clinical information. Although proper classification of ovarian masses can be achieved through FNA, the pathologist should be aware of its limitations, such as difficulties in differentiating adenomas from non-neoplastic cysts, and tumors of low malignant potential from well-differentiated carcinomas. Descriptive histologic terminology should be applied, and terms such as "suspicious" or "atypical" avoided. The aspirated material may not only be used for the diagnosis and classification of

  9. The radionuclide salivagram in children with pulmonary disease and a high risk of aspiration.

    PubMed

    Bar-Sever, Z; Connolly, L P; Treves, S T

    1995-11-01

    Purpose. We wanted to demonstrate the utility of the radionuclide salivagram in assessing children whose underlying medical problems suggest that aspiration of oral contents is a factor contributing to otherwise unexplained lung disease or recurrent pneumonias. Materials and methods. Following sublingual administration of 300 μCi (11.1 MBq) of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in a drop of saline, serial images were obtained for 60 min and evaluated for entrance of tracer into the major airways and lung parenchyma. Thirty-four studies were performed on 31 patients (age: 3 weeks - 16.7 years, mean 5.5 years) with recurrent pneumonias or unexplained lung disease. All had medical conditions, most frequently neurological, predisposing to aspiration. Results. Pulmonary aspiration was detected in eight patients. All positive studies demonstrated aspirated tracer distal to the tracheal bifurcation, either in bronchi or in bronchi and lung parenchyma. Aspiration was bilateral in six cases. Clearance of aspirated tracer was noted in one patient. Conclusion. The salivagram is an effective tool for demonstrating aspiration of oral contents and the level to which aspirated fluid penetrates the tracheobronchial tree. Additionally, by allowing for the evaluation of clearance of aspirated tracer, the salivagram may provide information on the status of airway-protective mechanisms. PMID:8577521

  10. Double aspiration/single irrigation system for bimanual lens cortex removal in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Luis; Henriquez, Maria A; McCarthy, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a bimanual double aspiration/single irrigation system (DASIS) for cataract surgery that efficiently and safely performs aspiration of the entire cortex, including subincisional space. DASIS uses standard and common instruments such as an irrigation/aspiration handpiece in one hand and a single-aspiration handpiece in the other, joined with a short silicone tube using a three-way stopcock. DASIS allows access to 360° of the cortex without a hand exchange, reducing wound leakage and maintaining chamber stability. PMID:21117583

  11. A Case Report of Esophageal Bronchogenic Cyst and Review of the Literature With an Emphasis on Endoscopic Ultrasonography Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chaoqun; Lin, Rong; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jun; Ding, Zhen; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Esophageal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare. Here we report a more rare type of both presence of intra- and paraesophageal bronchogenic cyst that was safely removed via surgical resection. A 31-year-old male patient with space-occupying lesions in the mediastinum suddenly presented with persistent chest pain for 2 days and then transferred to dysphagia >1 week. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a hypoechoic cystic-solid mass arising from the muscularis propria and local hyperechoic area in the deeper portion of cyst, concomitant with a heterogeneous center and tube-like structure lesion in mediastinum. Turbid coffee color paste contents were aspirated inside the tumor under endoscopic ultrasonography guided-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). A subsequent surgery was performed and histologic finding was diagnostic of esophageal bronchogenic cyst. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the cyst was positive for carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125). At a follow-up visit 3 months later, the patient had a regular diet and no complaint. This study is to summarize the clinical manifestations and EUS features of esophageal bronchogenic cyst by retrospectively reviewing the literature and simultaneously to provide guide for the correct examination scheme. The appearance of esophageal bronchogenic cyst can be great variation; EUS seems to be a valuable option for diagnosis and surveillance. PMID:26986156

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound characteristics of pancreatic lymphoepithelial cysts: A case series from a large referral center

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Kunal S.; DeWitt, John M.; Sherman, Stuart; Cramer, Harvey M.; Tirkes, Temel; Al-Haddad, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) of the pancreas are benign lesions that can mimic cystic neoplasms on imaging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) features have not been well described. We aimed to describe the clinical and EUS characteristics of LECs and the present outcomes of management at a high-volume referral center. Materials and Methods: We identified patients who underwent EUS and were found to have LECs based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology or surgical pathology from existing databases. EUS features, imaging characteristics, and pathology results were described. Results: Sixteen patients were found to have 17 LECs. The mean size was 33 mm ± 15 mm. Locations within the pancreas included 10 lesions in the tail, 3 in the body, 1 in the uncinate process; the remaining 3 were exophytic. Six lesions were anechoic, 6 were hypoechoic, and 5 had mixed echogenicity. Nine lesions had mixed solid/cystic components, 7 were purely cystic, and 1 was solid. Cyst fluid was thick or viscous in six cases and thin in three. Eleven patients had diagnostic cytopathology. Six patients ultimately underwent surgery due to symptoms, nondiagnostic FNA, or other clinical concerns for malignancy. Conclusions: Pancreatic LECs have variable morphology and echogenicity on EUS, but the appearance of a cyst with variable solid and cystic components combined with the appearance of thick, turbid, and viscous aspirate should raise suspicion for an LEC. The majority of patients with LECs at our center avoided surgery for LECs on the basis of diagnostic EUS-FNA. PMID:27503157

  13. Ultrasound techniques in the evaluation of the mediastinum, part I: endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and transcutaneous mediastinal ultrasound (TMUS), introduction into ultrasound techniques

    PubMed Central

    Annema, Jouke Tabe; Clementsen, Paul; Cui, Xin Wu; Borst, Mathias Maximilian; Jenssen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained importance in pulmonary medicine over the last decades including conventional transcutaneous ultrasound (TUS), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Mediastinal lymph node staging affects the management of patients with both operable and inoperable lung cancer (e.g., surgery vs. combined chemoradiation therapy). Tissue sampling is often indicated for accurate nodal staging. Recent international lung cancer staging guidelines clearly state that endosonography (EUS and EBUS) should be the initial tissue sampling test over surgical staging. Mediastinal nodes can be sampled from the airways [EBUS combined with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)] or the esophagus [EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)]. EBUS and EUS have a complementary diagnostic yield and in combination virtually all mediastinal lymph nodes can be biopsied. Additionally endosonography has an excellent yield in assessing granulomas in patients suspected of sarcoidosis. The aim of this review, in two integrative parts, is to discuss the current role and future perspectives of all ultrasound techniques available for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinal staging of lung cancer. A specific emphasis will be on learning mediastinal endosonography. Part I is dealing with an introduction into ultrasound techniques, mediastinal lymph node anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques and part II with the clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography. PMID:26543620

  14. Endoscopic mediastinal staging of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Kay-Leong; Ho, Khek-Yu

    2011-04-01

    The advent of endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling procedures such as endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has lead to significant advances in the mediastinal diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. These endoscopic techniques can be performed in the outpatient setting under conscious sedation and local anesthesia, in contrast to the surgical standard, mediastinoscopy (MS), which requires operating theatre time and general anesthesia. Proponents of mediastinoscopy have always emphasized the advantages of mediastinoscopy, namely its sensitivity even with a low prevalence of mediastinal metastases and its low false negative rate. Newer endoscopic techniques such as EBUS-TBNA are showing sensitivities exceeding that of mediastinoscopy, even in the setting of an equally low prevalence of mediastinal metastases. However, endoscopic techniques have double the false negative rate of mediastinoscopy. As the tracheobronchial route and esophageal route provide almost complete access to mediastinal lymph nodes, these endoscopic techniques are complementary rather than competing. When used in combination, it is possible mediastinoscopy may be superseded. The challenge however, is how best to select the appropriate endoscopic procedures to accurately stage lung cancer in the most cost-effective manner. PMID:21130638

  15. Ultrasound techniques in the evaluation of the mediastinum, part 2: mediastinal lymph node anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques, clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Christian; Annema, Jouke Tabe; Clementsen, Paul; Cui, Xin-Wu; Borst, Mathias Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained importance in pulmonary medicine over the last decades including conventional transcutaneous ultrasound (TUS), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) staging affects the management of patients with both operable and inoperable lung cancer (e.g., surgery vs. combined chemoradiation therapy). Tissue sampling is often indicated for accurate nodal staging. Recent international lung cancer staging guidelines clearly state that endosonography should be the initial tissue sampling test over surgical staging. Mediastinal nodes can be sampled from the airways [endobronchial ultrasound combined with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)] or the esophagus [endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)]. EBUS and EUS have a complementary diagnostic yield and in combination virtually all MLNs can be biopsied. Additionally endosonography has an excellent yield in assessing granulomas in patients suspected of sarcoidosis. The aim of this review in two integrative parts is to discuss the current role and future perspectives of all ultrasound techniques available for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinal staging of lung cancer. A specific emphasis will be on learning mediastinal endosonography. Part 1 deals with an introduction into ultrasound techniques, MLN anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques and part 2 with the clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography. PMID:26623120

  16. Adolescent girls' life aspirations and reproductive health in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Malhotra, A; Mehta, M

    2001-05-01

    The study described in this paper takes a participatory and positive approach to improving adolescent reproductive health in a rural and urban community in Nepal. It shows that adolescent girls in these communities have dreams and aspirations for a better future and that adults acknowledge and support these ideals. However, social norms and institutions are restrictive, especially for girls, who are often unable to realise their hopes for continuing education, finding better-paid work or delaying marriage and childbearing, and this directly impacts reproductive outcomes. Insight into the broader context of adolescent girls' lives provides a valuable framework for designing positive programmatic actions which take as their entry point the disjuncture between girls' aspirations and realities. Interventions begun in these communities include youth clubs for safe social interaction and literacy classes; training of peer educators to teach life-skills, including for married adolescents; forums for parents, teachers and health service providers to discuss their own concerns and those of adolescents; and work with the community to design programmes that will contribute to greater financial independence and employment opportunities for adolescents. PMID:11468851

  17. [Aspiration pneumonitis after fire-eating: fire-eater's lung].

    PubMed

    Harding, Femke M; Hiddinga, Birgitta I; Eijsvogel, Michiel M M; van Baarlen, Joop; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard

    2010-01-01

    On the emergency department we saw two men aged 19 and 26 with symptoms of lipoid pneumonitis (fire-eater's lung) following aspiration of petroleum during fire-eating. They were both admitted to hospital and treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Both patients were clinically recovered within a few days. Following aspiration of petroleum there is often a period of latency from 8-24 hours before the symptoms occur; it is recommended that patients should be admitted for observation. Known symptoms are coughing, shortness of breath, thoracic pain, fever, tachypnoea and sometimes haemoptysis. Apart from chest radiographs and laboratory values, taking into account the specific history, unless complications are expected additional diagnostic tests are often considered unnecessary. Treatment is symptomatic: administration of oxygen, pain relief, bronchodilation and potentially antibiotics if a bacterial superinfection is suspected. Clinical recovery is usually quick. Temporary restrictive disorders of lung function and reduced diffusion capacity have been described. Recovery of lung function and radiological recovery are seen within weeks to months. Mortality is less than 1%. PMID:21118594

  18. Mechanosensitive shivering of model tissues under controlled aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Guevorkian, Karine; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Carlier, Camille; Dufour, Sylvie; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development and wound healing, the mechanical signals transmitted from cells to their neighbors induce tissue rearrangement and directional movements. It has been observed that forces exerted between cells in a developing tissue under stress are not always monotonically varying, but they can be pulsatile. Here we investigate the response of model tissues to controlled external stresses. Spherical cellular aggregates are subjected to one-dimensional stretching forces using micropipette aspiration. At large enough pressures, the aggregate flows smoothly inside the pipette. However, in a narrow range of moderate aspiration pressures, the aggregate responds by pulsed contractions or “shivering.” We explain the emergence of this shivering behavior by means of a simple analytical model where the uniaxially stretched cells are represented by a string of Kelvin–Voigt elements. Beyond a deformation threshold, cells contract and pull on neighboring cells after a time delay for cell response. Such an active behavior has previously been found to cause tissue pulsation during dorsal closure of Drosophila embryo. PMID:21771735

  19. Kinematics of red cell aspiration by fluorescence-imaged microdeformation.

    PubMed

    Discher, D E; Mohandas, N

    1996-10-01

    Maps of fluorescing red cell membrane components on a pipette-aspirated projection are quantitated in an effort to elucidate and unify the heterogeneous kinematics of deformation. Transient gradients of diffusing fluorescent lipid first demonstrate the fluidity of an otherwise uniform-density bilayer and corroborate a "universal" calibration scale for relative surface density. A steep but smooth and stable gradient in the densities of the skeleton components spectrin, actin, and protein 4.1 is used to estimate large elastic strains along the aspirated skeleton. The deformation fields are argued to be an unhindered response to loading in the surface normal direction. Density maps intermediate to those of the compressible skeleton and fluid bilayer are exhibited by particular transmembrane proteins (e.g., Band 3) and yield estimates for the skeleton-connected fractions. Such connected proteins appear to occupy a significant proportion of the undeformed membrane surface and can lead to steric exclusion of unconnected integral membrane proteins from regions of network condensation. Consistent with membrane repatterning kinematics in reversible deformation, final vesiculation of the projection tip produces a cell fragment concentrated in freely diffusing proteins but depleted of skeleton. PMID:8889146

  20. Kinematics of red cell aspiration by fluorescence-imaged microdeformation.

    PubMed Central

    Discher, D E; Mohandas, N

    1996-01-01

    Maps of fluorescing red cell membrane components on a pipette-aspirated projection are quantitated in an effort to elucidate and unify the heterogeneous kinematics of deformation. Transient gradients of diffusing fluorescent lipid first demonstrate the fluidity of an otherwise uniform-density bilayer and corroborate a "universal" calibration scale for relative surface density. A steep but smooth and stable gradient in the densities of the skeleton components spectrin, actin, and protein 4.1 is used to estimate large elastic strains along the aspirated skeleton. The deformation fields are argued to be an unhindered response to loading in the surface normal direction. Density maps intermediate to those of the compressible skeleton and fluid bilayer are exhibited by particular transmembrane proteins (e.g., Band 3) and yield estimates for the skeleton-connected fractions. Such connected proteins appear to occupy a significant proportion of the undeformed membrane surface and can lead to steric exclusion of unconnected integral membrane proteins from regions of network condensation. Consistent with membrane repatterning kinematics in reversible deformation, final vesiculation of the projection tip produces a cell fragment concentrated in freely diffusing proteins but depleted of skeleton. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889146

  1. Mechanosensitive shivering of model tissues under controlled aspiration.

    PubMed

    Guevorkian, Karine; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Carlier, Camille; Dufour, Sylvie; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2011-08-16

    During embryonic development and wound healing, the mechanical signals transmitted from cells to their neighbors induce tissue rearrangement and directional movements. It has been observed that forces exerted between cells in a developing tissue under stress are not always monotonically varying, but they can be pulsatile. Here we investigate the response of model tissues to controlled external stresses. Spherical cellular aggregates are subjected to one-dimensional stretching forces using micropipette aspiration. At large enough pressures, the aggregate flows smoothly inside the pipette. However, in a narrow range of moderate aspiration pressures, the aggregate responds by pulsed contractions or "shivering." We explain the emergence of this shivering behavior by means of a simple analytical model where the uniaxially stretched cells are represented by a string of Kelvin-Voigt elements. Beyond a deformation threshold, cells contract and pull on neighboring cells after a time delay for cell response. Such an active behavior has previously been found to cause tissue pulsation during dorsal closure of Drosophila embryo. PMID:21771735

  2. Iatrogenic Aspiration of Custom-Made Keel: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharouny, Hadi; Omar, Rahmat Bin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Laryngeal stenosis has various causes and treatment options. Endoscopic resection of the stenotic part with CO2 laser is one of the treatment options of laryngotracheal stenosis. Keels are useful for preventing adhesion formation, restenosis and web formation, which may happen during the later stage. They can be put in place either via the endoscopic approach or through a micro thyroidotomy and are held in place with a heavy suture through cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. They are left in place for two to four weeks, and then removed through the endoscopic approach under general anesthetics. Case Presentation: We report on a case of anterior glottis stenosis with keel aspiration for two weeks, after endoscopic CO2 laser resection of the stenotic section and keel placement. The patient was admitted to our center, where bronchoscopy was performed and the keel was removed. A new custom-made silastic keel was properly placed in raw areas and fixed to the skin with suture through the cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. The keel was removed three weeks later. Conclusions: Endoscopic keel placement should be done with heavy suture through cricothyroid and thyrohyoid membranes. Surgeons should suture the keel to the anterior laryngeal wall with specially designed Lichtenberger’s needle-carriers to prevent complications such as keel aspiration, adhesion formation and imposing a second trip under general anesthetics, which put the patient at increased risk. The false vocal cord microflaps, as biological keels and a relatively new method may replace silastic keel placement in the future. PMID:25763237

  3. Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, K.; Girish, H. C.; Murgod, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087

  4. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA. PMID:25998234

  5. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

  6. Meconium aspiration in the midtrimester fetus: an autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Elin; Kearney, Michael Shelley

    2009-01-01

    We studied the incidence, severity, and significance of intrauterine meconium aspiration (IUMA) in the midtrimester fetus. Lung sections from 219 midtrimester fetuses were examined for meconium, identified by finding meconium corpuscles. There were 21 cases (9.6%) with IUMA. Gestational age ranged from 13 to 23 weeks (mean 18.7 weeks); 11 were female, and 10 were male. Eighteen were spontaneous abortions, 11 of which were macerated, and 1 of these was associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device. There were 3 terminations of pregnancy, 2 for fetal abnormality and 1 for severe preeclampsia. One fetus was conceived by in vitro fertilization. Fifteen cases (71.4%) showed slight IUMA, 5 cases (23.8%) showed moderate IUMA, and in 1 case (4.8%) IUMA was massive. The incidence of IUMA in an autopsy series of midtrimester fetuses was 9.6%. The amount of aspirated meconium was usually small and possibly physiologic. When IUMA was moderate or massive, it was associated with severe abnormality of the umbilical cord or placenta, particularly subchorionic hematoma. PMID:19323599

  7. The Educational and Employment Aspirations of Adolescents from Areas of High Deprivation in London.

    PubMed

    Frostick, Caroline; Phillips, Gemma; Renton, Adrian; Moore, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents from areas of high deprivation are often assumed to have low aspirations for the future. However, recent research has suggested otherwise and there have been calls for more substantial investigation into the relationship between poverty and aspiration. This article reports levels and variation in aspiration from 1214 adolescents (49.5 % male; 50.5 % female) living in areas of high deprivation across 20 London boroughs. A strength of this study is our large and diverse population of low socio-economic status (SES) adolescents, comprising of white British (22 %), black African (21 %), black Caribbean (9 %), Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi/Other Asian (24 %), mixed ethnicity (9 %), and 15 % defining themselves as Other. Our measures indicated a high group level of reported aspiration with notable variations. Females reported higher educational (but not occupational) aspirations than males; white British students reported lower educational and occupational aspirations than other ethnic groups; and black African children reported the highest educational aspirations. Perceived parental support for education had the largest positive association with aspirations. In contrast to previous findings from studies carried out in the United States, aspirations were found to be negatively associated with perceptions of school and school peer environment. These measures explored feelings of safety, happiness and belonging within the school environment and school peer group. We discuss possible explanations for this unexpected finding within our population of adolescents from UK state schools and how it might affect future policy interventions. This study makes an important contribution to the literature on adolescent aspirations because of the unique nature of the data sample and the multiple domains of functioning and aspiration measured. PMID:26346034

  8. Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Ying; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chou, Pesus; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Chu, Dachen

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine gland malignancy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy is widely used for thyroid nodule evaluation. Repeated aspiration biopsies are needed due to plausible false-negative results. This study aimed to investigate the overall relationship between aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis, and to explore factors related to shorter diagnostic time. Methods This nationwide retrospective cohort study retrieved data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Subjects without known thyroid malignancies and who received the first thyroid aspiration biopsy after 2004 were followed-up from 2004 to 2009 (n = 7700). Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards model were used for data analysis. Results Of 7700 newly-aspirated patients, 276 eventually developed thyroid cancer (malignancy rate 3.6%). Among the 276 patients with thyroid cancer, 61.6% underwent only one aspiration biopsy and 81.2% were found within the first year after the initial aspiration. Cox proportional hazards model revealed that aspiration frequency (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.08), ultrasound frequency (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), older age, male sex, and aspiration biopsies arranged by surgery, endocrinology or otolaryngology subspecialties were all associated with shorter time to thyroid cancer diagnosis. Conclusions About 17.4% of thyroid cancer cases received more than two aspiration biopsies and 18.8% were diagnosed one year after the first biopsy. Regular follow-up with repeated aspiration or ultrasound may be required for patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules. PMID:26020790

  9. The Value of Overseas Experiences to the International Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Madhav P.

    1984-01-01

    Findings of a study indicate that cosmopolitan world outlook, understanding of U.S. culture, international career aspirations, and political liberalism are all significantly related to international experiences. (JB)

  10. Science dual enrollment: An examination of high school students' post-secondary aspirations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Chelsia

    The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in science dual enrollment courses influenced African American high school students' post-secondary aspirations that will lead to college attendance. The investigation examined the relationship between African American students' learning experiences and how their self-efficacy and outcome expectations impact their goal setting. The goal was to determine the impact of the following variables on African American students' plan to pursue a bachelor's or advanced degree: (a) STEM exposure, (b) Algebra 1 achievement, (c) level of science class, and (d) receiving science college credit for dual enrollment course. The social cognitive career theory framed this body of research to explore how career and academic interests mature, are developed, and are translated into action. Science dual enrollment participation is a strategy for addressing the lack of African American presence in the STEM fields. The causal comparative ex post facto research design was used in this quantitative study. The researcher performed the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric analysis of variance and Pearson's chi-square tests to analyze secondary data from the High School Longitudinal Study first follow-up student questionnaire. The results indicate that STEM exposure and early success in Algebra 1 have a statistically significant impact on African American students' ambition to pursue a bachelor's or advanced degree. According to the Pearson's chi-square and independent sample Kruskal-Wallis analyses, level of students' science class and receiving college credit for dual enrollment do not significantly influence African American students' postsecondary aspirations.

  11. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  12. The Realism and Sex Type of Four- to Five-Year-Old Children's Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Care, Esther; Deans, Jan; Brown, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Research on career development has focused primarily on adolescents and adults. However, in Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise (2002) it is proposed that career aspirations originate in the preschool years and that the earliest work aspirations of children are sex typed in relation to the activities of same sex adults. This…

  13. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  14. Comparisons of Undergraduate Borrowing and Its Effects on Graduate School Aspirations and Graduate School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyermann, Therese S.; Kim, Dongbin

    The factors that affect graduate school aspirations and attendance were studied in light of the fact that student loan borrowing has more than doubled in the past decade. Using data from two surveys conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute, this study investigated the educational degree aspirations of two separate college cohorts, one…

  15. Young Children's Aspirations in Science: The unequivocal, the uncertain and the unthinkable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Archer, Louise; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2013-04-01

    Students' lack of interest in studying science and in science-related careers is a concern in the UK and worldwide. Yet there is limited data, particularly longitudinal, on the sources and development of science-related aspirations. In response, the ASPIRES (Science Aspirations and Career Choice: Age 10-14) longitudinal study is investigating the development of students' educational and occupational aspirations over time. In the first phase of the project, a questionnaire exploring science-related aspirations and interests was completed by over 9,000 primary school students across England. This survey allowed us to explore possible associations between attitudes and aspirations, links which have not been investigated in previous attitudinal studies of this scope. Overall, students expressed positive attitudes to science, reported positive parental attitudes to science and held very positive images of scientists. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that aspirations in science were most strongly related to parental attitudes to science, attitudes to school science and self-concept in science, and are also associated with students' gender, ethnicity and cultural capital. However, the images students held of scientists were not as closely related to aspirations. These factors are discussed in more detail within the paper, alongside a consideration of possible school-related effects.

  16. The Effect of Social Programs and Exposure to Professionals on the Educational Aspirations of the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiapa, Carlos; Garrido, Jose Luis; Prina, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Investment in human capital is an important tool for reducing poverty. However, the poor may lack the capacity to aspire, which often results in underinvestment in their children's education. This paper studies the effect of a social program on the educational aspirations poor parents have for their children, and explores the role of exposure to…

  17. Developing Conceptual Understandings of the Capacity to Aspire for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prodonovich, Samuel; Perry, Laura B.; Taggart, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research and theory relating to aspirations for higher education as a cultural capacity. Understanding the social and cultural dimensions of aspirations for higher education is important as they are increasingly becoming part of social commentary and more recently educational policy, research and practice. This paper synthesises…

  18. Future Aspirations of Urban Adolescents: A Person-in-Context Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk; Diemer, Matthew; Jackson, Lisa; Gonsalves, Lisa; Howell, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Recognizing the importance future aspirations play in the developmental outcomes of adolescents, this study illuminates the role that individual and contextual factors play in the formation of future aspirations among urban youth. The data for this study were collected prior to the implementation of an intervention program at an urban high school.…

  19. Constructing New Identities? The Role of Gender and Education in Rural Girls' Life Aspirations in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on rural and indigenous girls and their mothers in Peru, examining how they position schooling and education in their current life and future aspirations, in order to better understand girls' increasing participation in education. It is argued here that the high educational aspirations girls and their families have are not only…

  20. The Relationship between Career Variables and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Australian High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study surveyed 925 Australian high school students enrolled in grades 8 through 12 on measures of occupational aspirations, occupational expectations, career status aspirations, and career status expectations; it tested the association between these variables and career maturity, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy, and…

  1. Independent School Department Heads: The Influence of Role Ambiguity, Relationships, and Professional Development on Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Little research exists on the career aspirations of department heads in independent schools. What does exist focuses on public school teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom. This study sought to determine the career aspirations, job satisfaction, and job efficacy of department heads. Using data from an original survey instrument…

  2. Aspiration, Identity and Self Belief: Snapshots of Social Structure at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Richard, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the evidence gathered from original interviews to show how the aspirations of young people develop in light of their social circumstances. Those who attend independent schools will find that the relationship between what goes on at home and at school makes it socially almost impossible not to have achievable aspirations for a…

  3. Longitudinal Influences of Educational Aspirations and Romantic Relationships on Adolescent Women's Vocational Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinster, Martha O.; Rose, Karen C.

    2001-01-01

    A 4-year study followed 92 female students from private, single-sex high schools. Over time, all increased their interest in traditional female occupations. Those with lower educational aspirations who dated more had a lower and less-differentiated interest profile. Those with higher aspirations valued career over family. Dating was unrelated to…

  4. ''Fake It 'Til You Make It'': Why Community College Students' Aspirations ''Hold Steady''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Sociologists of education have explored the relationship between students' postsecondary aspirations and their propensity to get "cooled out" in community colleges. However, researchers have directed little attention to students whose aspirations remain stable over long periods of time or to the different roles that college degree goals…

  5. A Comparison Study of 12th Grade Hispanic Students' College Anticipations, Aspirations, and College Preparatory Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Aliber; Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the differences in educational aspirations and educational anticipations between four groups (AVID, GEAR UP, AVID/GEAR UP, and Control) of high school seniors who participated in a previous study as 10th graders (Watt, Huerta, & Lozano, 2007). It also measured whether any change in aspirations and anticipations occurred within…

  6. Impoverished Students with Academic Promise in Rural Settings: 10 Lessons from Project Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Project Aspire was created to identify poor rural students with academic potential and to provide them with academic and counseling support in advanced placement courses and prerequisites. This article describes Project Aspire and its foundations; the relevant lessons learned from the literature on poverty, small schools, rural schools, and gifted…

  7. Image Theory and Career Aspirations: Indirect and Interactive Effects of Status-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Dahling, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study applied Image Theory (Beach, 1990) to test how different components of a person's value image (i.e., perceived social status identity and conformity to masculine and feminine gender role norms) interact to influence trajectories toward high career aspirations (i.e., high value for status in one's work and aspirations for…

  8. Sex-Role Ideology and the Aspirations of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1977-01-01

    Variables specifically related to sex-role definitions in our society must be considered in accounting for the generally lower aspirations of women since after controlling the variables of social class and academic achievement, sex continues to make a difference in the aspiration levels of high school girls. (MJB)

  9. Bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute ferrous sulphate tablet aspiration.

    PubMed

    Maw, Matthew; Chiu, Robert; Lim, Albert Yick Hou

    2012-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman accidentally aspirated an iron tablet. She was successfully treated with early endobronchial removal of the iron tablet remnants, oral corticosteroids and antibiotics. We describe the bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute iron tablet aspiration and highlight the importance of early intervention to avoid complications. PMID:23257641

  10. Development Patterns of Occupational Aspirations in Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gregg, Noel; Gemici, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the longitudinal development of occupational aspiration prestige scores over a 12-year period (Grade 8 to 8 years postsecondary) to better understand this aspect of career choice from adolescence into adulthood for people with high-incidence disabilities. A curvilinear trajectory was detected where aspirations increased during…

  11. The Counselor-Client Contact Variable and Occupational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogie, Donald W.; Bogie, Cheryl E.

    1976-01-01

    This research assesses the importance of counselor-client contact in occupational aspiration-expectation discrepancies. Subjects are 1835 high school seniors. The study finds the more counselor-client contact there is, the less discrepant is the client's career aspiration and expectation. This relationship remains after controlling for variables…

  12. The Early Bird Goes to College: The Link between Early College Aspirations and Postsecondary Matriculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Patricia; Cofer, James; VanderPutten, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Examines how 8th and 10th grade student and parent attitudes and aspirations affected postsecondary attendance. Two-year and four-year students differed by socioeconomic status; educational aspirations; and concerns about college costs, reputations, and admission standards. Recommends early intervention to effect long-term systemic change in the…

  13. Aspiring Principals' Perception of the Challenges of Beginning Principals and the Support That They Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory research project about the perception of aspiring principals regarding the challenges of beginning principals and the support that they need. These aspiring principals are participants on the Leaders in Education Programme (LEP) in Singapore. According to the research findings, the LEP participants…

  14. Using Propensity Score Matching to Determine the Efficacy of Secondary Career Academies in Raising Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gemici, Sinan

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 database was used to determine the effects of career academy participation in grades 9 or 10 on educational aspirations. Propensity score matching was used to obtain initially equivalent groups for analysis. No statistically significant differences in postsecondary educational aspirations were…

  15. Intrinsic aspirations and personal meaning across adulthood: conceptual interrelations and age/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life, Accomplished Life, Principled Life, Valued Life). Predictions were made in line with humanistic and gerontology theories, which suggest that sources of personal meaning consolidate across the life span toward intrinsically motivated pursuits. Findings supported these predictions, showing that although there was a tendency for aspirations to decline with age, the proportion of intrinsically motivated aspirations increased, as did total meaning and the interrelationship between meaning and intrinsic aspirations. There were also gender differences in personal meaning and aspirations, which suggested a more pronounced midlife dip in intrinsic and purposive goal striving for men, and a greater focus on intrinsic aspirations in women. Developmental and cohort interpretations of these findings and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:22799579

  16. Development of Predicted Paths for ACT Aspire Score Reports. WP-2014-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial development of the predicted score paths for ACT Aspire reporting. The paths provide predicted score ranges for the next two years--as well as predicted ACT score ranges for tests administered at grades 9 and 10. Longitudinal ACT Aspire data for students tested in spring 2013 and spring 2014, as well as…

  17. Understanding the Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents: Child, Family, and Community Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…

  18. "There Was Something about Aspiration": Widening Participation Policy Affects in England and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Storan, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the emergence of aspiration as a keyword linked to higher education equity policy in England and Australia since 1997. Aspiration serves multiple purposes when constructed as a problematic site in which policy must intervene. For example, it can be understood as a vector for new technologies of governance that operate through…

  19. Structuring Opportunity: The Role of School Context in Shaping High School Students' Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Perna, Laura W.; Swan, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the occupational aspirations of high school students planning to attend college by drawing on a multilayered model of college enrollment, social cognitive career theory, and multiple descriptive case studies of 15 high schools. Students' occupational aspirations and their understanding of the education required to achieve these…

  20. Occupational and Educational Levels of Aspiration of Mexican-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Hoyos, Arturo

    Studies of levels of aspiration have made some important contributions to the understanding of the relationship between social structure and personality. In this type of study, however, minority groups have almost been neglected. The present study was designed to investigate the differentials in levels of occupational and educational aspiration of…