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Sample records for assess body temperature

  1. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    PubMed

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature. PMID:24037397

  2. Validity and Reliability of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Indoor Exercise in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Yeargin, Susan W; McDermott, Brendon P; Boots, Lindsay M; Boyd, Paul W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Context: When assessing exercise hyperthermia outdoors, the validity of certain commonly used body temperature measuring devices has been questioned. A controlled laboratory environment is generally less influenced by environmental factors (eg, ambient temperature, solar radiation, wind) than an outdoor setting. The validity of these temperature measuring devices in a controlled environment may be more acceptable. Objective: To assess the validity and reliability of commonly used temperature devices compared with rectal temperature in individuals exercising in a controlled, high environmental temperature indoor setting and then resting in a cool environment. Design: Time series study. Setting: Laboratory environmental chamber (temperature  =  36.4 ± 1.2°C [97.5 ± 2.16°F], relative humidity  =  52%) and cool laboratory (temperature  =  approximately 23.3°C [74.0°F], relative humidity  =  40%). Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen males and 10 females. Intervention(s): Rectal, gastrointestinal, forehead, oral, aural, temporal, and axillary temperatures were measured with commonly used temperature devices. Temperature was measured before and 20 minutes after entering the environmental chamber, every 30 minutes during a 90-minute treadmill walk in the heat, and every 20 minutes during a 60-minute rest in mild conditions. Device validity and reliability were assessed with various statistical measures to compare the measurements using each device with rectal temperature. A device was considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal and device temperatures) was more than ±0.27°C (±0.50°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Measured temperature from each device (mean and across time). Results: The following devices provided invalid estimates of rectal temperature: forehead sticker (0.29°C [0.52°F]), oral temperature using an inexpensive device (−1.13°C [−2.03°F]), temporal temperature measured according to the instruction

  3. Time for a change to assess and evaluate body temperature in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    2009-08-01

    The definition of normal body temperature as 37 degrees C still is considered the norm worldwide, but in practice there is a widespread confusion of the evaluation of body temperature, especially in elderly individuals. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of normal body temperature as 37 degrees C and consequences in clinical practice. Our conclusion is that body temperature should be evaluated in relation to the individual variability and that the best approach is to use the same site, and an unadjusted mode without adjustments to other sites. If the baseline value is not known, it is important to notice that frail elderly individuals are at risk of a low body temperature. In addition, what should be regarded as fever is closely related to what is considered as normal body temperature. That is, as normal body temperature shows individual variations, it is reasonable that the same should hold true for the febrile range. PMID:19703039

  4. Assessment of body mapping sportswear using a manikin operated in constant temperature mode and thermoregulatory model control mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Del Ferraro, Simona; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Morrissey, Matthew; Rossi, René

    2014-09-01

    Regional sweating patterns and body surface temperature differences exist between genders. Traditional sportswear made from one material and/or one fabric structure has a limited ability to provide athletes sufficient local wear comfort. Body mapping sportswear consists of one piece of multiple knit structure fabric or of different fabric pieces that may provide athletes better wear comfort. In this study, the 'modular' body mapping sportswear was designed and subsequently assessed on a 'Newton' type sweating manikin that operated in both constant temperature mode and thermophysiological model control mode. The performance of the modular body mapping sportswear kit and commercial products were also compared. The results demonstrated that such a modular body mapping sportswear kit can meet multiple wear/thermal comfort requirements in various environmental conditions. All body mapping clothing (BMC) presented limited global thermophysiological benefits for the wearers. Nevertheless, BMC showed evident improvements in adjusting local body heat exchanges and local thermal sensations. PMID:24357489

  5. Assessment of body mapping sportswear using a manikin operated in constant temperature mode and thermoregulatory model control mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Faming; Del Ferraro, Simona; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Morrissey, Matthew; Rossi, René

    2014-09-01

    Regional sweating patterns and body surface temperature differences exist between genders. Traditional sportswear made from one material and/or one fabric structure has a limited ability to provide athletes sufficient local wear comfort. Body mapping sportswear consists of one piece of multiple knit structure fabric or of different fabric pieces that may provide athletes better wear comfort. In this study, the `modular' body mapping sportswear was designed and subsequently assessed on a `Newton' type sweating manikin that operated in both constant temperature mode and thermophysiological model control mode. The performance of the modular body mapping sportswear kit and commercial products were also compared. The results demonstrated that such a modular body mapping sportswear kit can meet multiple wear/thermal comfort requirements in various environmental conditions. All body mapping clothing (BMC) presented limited global thermophysiological benefits for the wearers. Nevertheless, BMC showed evident improvements in adjusting local body heat exchanges and local thermal sensations.

  6. [Perioperative assessment of body temperature in elderly patients during thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Szłyk-Augustyn, Maria; Wujtewicz, Maria; Steffek, Mariusz; Suchorzewska, Janina; Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Kurowski, Krzysktof

    2002-01-01

    Within the last years there is observed the increase in number of elder patients operated in planned terms. Perioperative disorders of thermoregulation are strongly expressed in the group of patients, and the number of complications rises significantly during inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. The aim of this study was estimation of body temperature in patients subjected to thoracosurgical operations. The study was performed in 23 patients older than 65 years, which were divided into 2 groups. In the group I (12 persons) we used usual methods of heat loss prevention. In group II there were used: passive methods of protection against heat loss as well as Hotline blood and fluids warmer with the possibility of intravenous fluids warming. The body temperature was estimated every 30 minutes. The temperature detectors were located on plantar surface of hallux and in nasopharynx. We observed statistically significant decrease in body temperature values in group I. We conclude that there is the necessarity of the using of accessory methods of heat loss prevention in elder patients subjected to thoracosurgery. PMID:12183979

  7. Dinosaur Fossils Predict Body Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew P; Charnov, Eric L

    2006-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 °C at 12 kg to approximately 41 °C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy. PMID:16817695

  8. Central control of body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  9. Central control of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  10. Estimation Method of Body Temperature from Upper Arm Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Arata; Ryu, Kazuteru; Kanai, Nobuyuki

    This paper proposes a method for estimation of a body temperature by using a relation between the upper arm temperature and the atmospheric temperature. Conventional method has measured by armpit or oral, because the body temperature from the body surface is influenced by the atmospheric temperature. However, there is a correlation between the body surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature. By using this correlation, the body temperature can estimated from the body surface temperature. Proposed method enables to measure body temperature by the temperature sensor that is embedded in the blood pressure monitor cuff. Therefore, simultaneous measurement of blood pressure and body temperature can be realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through the actual body temperature experiment. The proposed method might contribute to reduce the medical staff's workloads in the home medical care, and more.

  11. Body temperature regulation in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Sigal, Ronald J; McGinn, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the body's physiological response to thermal stress is a relatively new topic in research. Diabetes tends to place individuals at greater risk for heat-related illness during heat waves and physical activity due to an impaired capacity to dissipate heat. Specifically, individuals with diabetes have been reported to have lower skin blood flow and sweating responses during heat exposure and this can have important consequences on cardiovascular regulation and glycemic control. Those who are particularly vulnerable include individuals with poor glycemic control and who are affected by diabetes-related complications. On the other hand, good glycemic control and maintenance of aerobic fitness can often delay the diabetes-related complications and possibly the impairments in heat loss. Despite this, it is alarming to note the lack of information regarding diabetes and heat stress given the vulnerability of this population. In contrast, few studies have examined the effects of cold exposure on individuals with diabetes with the exception of its therapeutic potential, particularly for type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of diabetes on heat and cold exposure with respect to the core temperature regulation, cardiovascular adjustments and glycemic control while also considering the beneficial effects of maintaining aerobic fitness. PMID:27227101

  12. Body temperature regulation in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Glen P.; Sigal, Ronald J.; McGinn, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the body's physiological response to thermal stress is a relatively new topic in research. Diabetes tends to place individuals at greater risk for heat-related illness during heat waves and physical activity due to an impaired capacity to dissipate heat. Specifically, individuals with diabetes have been reported to have lower skin blood flow and sweating responses during heat exposure and this can have important consequences on cardiovascular regulation and glycemic control. Those who are particularly vulnerable include individuals with poor glycemic control and who are affected by diabetes-related complications. On the other hand, good glycemic control and maintenance of aerobic fitness can often delay the diabetes-related complications and possibly the impairments in heat loss. Despite this, it is alarming to note the lack of information regarding diabetes and heat stress given the vulnerability of this population. In contrast, few studies have examined the effects of cold exposure on individuals with diabetes with the exception of its therapeutic potential, particularly for type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of diabetes on heat and cold exposure with respect to the core temperature regulation, cardiovascular adjustments and glycemic control while also considering the beneficial effects of maintaining aerobic fitness. PMID:27227101

  13. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  14. Body Temperature Regulation in Hot Environments.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Molokwu, Mary Ngozi; Olsson, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Organisms in hot environments will not be able to passively dissipate metabolically generated heat. Instead, they have to revert to evaporative cooling, a process that is energetically expensive and promotes excessive water loss. To alleviate these costs, birds in captivity let their body temperature increase, thereby entering a state of hyperthermia. Here we explore the use of hyperthermia in wild birds captured during the hot and dry season in central Nigeria. We found pronounced hyperthermia in several species with the highest body temperatures close to predicted lethal levels. Furthermore, birds let their body temperature increase in direct relation to ambient temperatures, increasing body temperature by 0.22°C for each degree of increased ambient temperature. Thus to offset the costs of thermoregulation in ambient temperatures above the upper critical temperature, birds are willing to let their body temperatures increase by up to 5°C above normal temperatures. This flexibility in body temperature may be an important mechanism for birds to adjust to predicted increasing ambient temperatures in the future. PMID:27548758

  15. Body Temperature Regulation in Hot Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Molokwu, Mary Ngozi; Olsson, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Organisms in hot environments will not be able to passively dissipate metabolically generated heat. Instead, they have to revert to evaporative cooling, a process that is energetically expensive and promotes excessive water loss. To alleviate these costs, birds in captivity let their body temperature increase, thereby entering a state of hyperthermia. Here we explore the use of hyperthermia in wild birds captured during the hot and dry season in central Nigeria. We found pronounced hyperthermia in several species with the highest body temperatures close to predicted lethal levels. Furthermore, birds let their body temperature increase in direct relation to ambient temperatures, increasing body temperature by 0.22°C for each degree of increased ambient temperature. Thus to offset the costs of thermoregulation in ambient temperatures above the upper critical temperature, birds are willing to let their body temperatures increase by up to 5°C above normal temperatures. This flexibility in body temperature may be an important mechanism for birds to adjust to predicted increasing ambient temperatures in the future. PMID:27548758

  16. Astronaut James Lovell checks body temperature with oral temperature probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 7 pilot Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. has temperature check with oral temperature probe attached to his space suit during final preflight preparations for the Gemini 7 space mission. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts body temperature at any time during the mission.

  17. Human body temperature - Its measurement and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Houdas, Y.; Ring, E.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    The terminology used in thermal physiology is examined, and principles of heat transfer are discussed, taking into account heat quantity, heat flux, temperature, pressure, quantities used in physiology, a number of common definitions, the equivalence between different forms of energy, the release of potential energy in living tissues, heat transfer without change of state, and heat transfer with change of state. Temperature and humidity measurement are considered along with man and his environment, the temperature distribution in the systems and tracts of the human body, physiological changes affecting the temperature distribution, problems of temperature regulation, questions of heat loss and conservation, acclimatization to heat and cold, and disorders of thermoregulation. Attention is given to possible thermal imaging applications, causes of temperature irregularities in the head and neck, common causes of increased temperatures of upper limbs, and thermography in disease. 193 references.

  18. Adiposity and human regional body temperature123

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Design: Obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥ 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18–25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Results: Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography–measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 ± 0.7°C compared with 28.6 ± 0.9°C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography–measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 ± 0.2°C compared with 32.8 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in

  19. Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

  20. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  1. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  2. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-02-17

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures. PMID:23313562

  3. Heart Rates in Hospitalized Children by Age and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bonafide, Christopher P.; Brady, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient’s severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. METHODS: Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients <18 years of age at 2 large freestanding children’s hospitals from July 2011 to June 2012. We selected up to 10 HR-temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. RESULTS: We used 60 863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. PMID:25917984

  4. Temperature regulation and metabolism in rats exposed perinatally to dioxin: permanent change in regulated body temperature?

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Gray, L E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Miller, D B

    1995-07-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been shown to lower thyroxine levels and cause hypothermia in the adult rat; however, there is little known regarding the perinatal effects of TCDD on metabolism and temperature regulation of the offspring. To address this issue, thermoregulatory responses were assessed in adult male rat offspring exposed perinatally to 1.0 micrograms TCDD/kg body wt by gavage on Gestational Day 15. Individual castrated offspring were placed in a gradient-layer calorimeter for 5 hr during their nocturnal period while ambient temperature (Ta) was maintained at 10, 16, 24, or 28 degrees C. Metabolic rate (M), as measured from the total heat loss in the calorimeter, was determined along with evaporative heat loss (EHL), dry thermal conductance, and body core temperature (Tc). Animals exposed to TCDD had a significantly lower body temperature at TaS of 10, 16, and 24 degrees C and a higher thermal conductance. M was unaffected by TCDD, indicating that TCDD did not impair the effector to regulate Tc during cold exposure. EHL was also unaffected by TCDD. Skin blood flow of the interscapular area was measured in anesthetized rats with laser Doppler velocimetry and found to be the same in control and TCDD groups. The reduction in body temperature over a wide range of TaS concomitant with normal thermoregulatory effector function suggests that perinatal exposure to TCDD results in a reduction in the regulated body temperature (i.e., decrease in set-point). PMID:7597705

  5. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  6. Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

  7. Implanted telemeter for electrocardiogram and body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Measuring system requiring one blocking oscillator to generate modulated pulse repetition rate is implantable in the bodies of small animals. Device has life of two years and transmission range of about three feet. EKG sensing unit also is used to sense electromyogram or electrooculogram of laboratory animals.

  8. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses. PMID:25147244

  9. Cholera toxin effects on body temperature changes induced by morphine.

    PubMed

    Basilico, L; Parenti, M; Fumagalli, A; Parolaro, D; Giagnoni, G

    1997-03-01

    The present study evaluates the influence of cholera toxin and its B-subunit on thermic responses to morphine in the rats. The holotoxin (1 microg/rat) and the B-subunit (5 microg) were administered ICV and three days later rats were challenged ICV with morphine and tested for changes of body temperature. Cholera toxin, but not its B-subunit, modified the time course of the hyperthermic response induced by a low dose of morphine (2.5 microg), converted the hypothermia due to a higher dose of morphine (18 microg) to a consistent hyperthermia and only partially reduced the greater hypothermia induced by 36 microg of morphine. Cholera toxin-induced modifications of thermic responses to morphine were paralleled with a decreased Gs(alpha) immunoreactivity and a reduced ability for the toxin to catalyse the "in vitro" ADP-ribosylation of Gs(alpha) in hypothalamic membranes. In contrast, at the same time when morphine-induced effects on body temperature were assessed, no changes in pertussis toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation of Gi(alpha)/Go(alpha), or basal adenylate cyclase activity, or binding of mu-opioid receptor selective ligand [3H]-DAMGO were observed in hypothalamic areas from rats treated with cholera toxin. These findings suggest that adaptative events secondary to prolonged activation of Gs(alpha) play a role in the modifications of thermic responses to morphine induced by CTX. PMID:9077589

  10. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    PubMed

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  11. Body temperature regulation and thermoneutrality in rats.

    PubMed

    Poole, S; Stephenson, J D

    1977-04-01

    Various concepts of thermoneutrality were considered for a proposed study of the role of hypothalamic amines in temperature regulation of rats. The classic definition, the ambient temperature over which metabolic rate is minimum and constant, gave a range of approximately 28 to 32 degrees C. However, within this temperature range rats were inactive, the inactivity apparently representing a behavioural response to heat stress and itself responsible for the reduced metabolic rate; certain thermoregulatory effectors were also activated to increase heat loss. Therefore an alternative range, 18.0 +/- 1.9 (mean +/- S.D.) to 28.1 +/- 1.0 degrees C, was defined in which rats displayed normal activity, behavioural thermoregulations being absent. PMID:585477

  12. Tympanic thermometry for recording basal body temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wolf, G C; Baker, C A

    1993-11-01

    Evaluation of 12 menstrual cycles using oral, rectal, and TM temperature measuring devices (over 2,000 individual readings) confirmed the ovulatory thermal shift was equally detected with TM thermometry compared with the traditional methods. Although a single TM reading was satisfactory, an average of three successive readings provided a smoother graph (decreased variance). The device appears acceptable, and even preferred, for recording BBT charts, primarily because of its nearly instantaneous readings. PMID:8224281

  13. 21 CFR 26.70 - Conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conformity assessment bodies. 26.70 Section 26.70...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.70 Conformity assessment bodies. Each party recognizes that the conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) listed in subpart B of this part fulfill the conditions of eligibility to...

  14. 21 CFR 26.69 - Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies. 26.69... COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.69 Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies. The following shall apply with regard to the monitoring of conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) listed in subpart B of...

  15. Thermal equilibrium and temperature differences among body regions in European plethodontid salamanders.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Canciani, Giancarlo; Scarì, Giorgio; Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Information on species thermal physiology is extremely important to understand species responses to environmental heterogeneity and changes. Thermography is an emerging technology that allows high resolution and accurate measurement of body temperature, but until now it has not been used to study thermal physiology of amphibians in the wild. Hydromantes terrestrial salamanders are strongly depending on ambient temperature for their activity and gas exchanges, but information on their body temperature is extremely limited. In this study we tested if Hydromantes salamanders are thermoconform, we assessed whether there are temperature differences among body regions, and evaluated the time required to reach the thermal equilibrium. During summers of 2014 and 2015 we analysed 56 salamanders (Hydromantes ambrosii and Hydromantes italicus) using infrared thermocamera. We photographed salamanders at the moment in which we found them and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 15min after having kept them in the hands. Body temperature was equal to air temperature; salamanders attained the equilibrium with air temperature in about 8min, the time required to reach equilibrium was longer in individuals with large body size. We detected small temperature differences between body parts, the head being slightly warmer than the body and the tail (mean difference: 0.05°C). These salamanders quickly reach the equilibrium with the environment, thus microhabitat measurement allows obtaining accurate information on their tolerance limits. PMID:27503719

  16. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  17. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation.

  18. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Martin A.S.; Ostrowski, Sisse R.; Overgaard, Anders; Ganio, Matthew S.; Secher, Niels H.; Crandall, Craig G.; Johansson, Pär I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation. Methods Eleven healthy volunteers were subjected to heat stress, sufficient to elevate core temperature, and progressive reductions in CBV by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Changes in hemostasis were evaluated by whole blood haemostatic assays, standard hematologic tests and by plasma biomarkers of coagulation and endothelial activation/disruption. Results Elevated body temperature and decreased CBV resulted in coagulation activation evidenced by shortened activated partial tromboplastin time (−9% [IQR −7; −4]), thrombelastography: reduced reaction time (−15% [−24; −4]) and increased maximum amplitude (+4% (2; 6)), all P < 0.05. Increased fibrinolysis was documented by elevation of D-dimer (+53% (12; 59), P = 0.016). Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline increased 198% (83; 346) and 234% (174; 363) respectively (P = 0.006 and P = 0.003). Conclusions This experiment revealed emerging hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and decreased CBV, whereas no effect on the endothelium was observed. We hypothesize that elevated body temperature and reduced CBV contributes to hypercoagulability, possibly due to moderate sympathetic activation, in critically ill patients and speculate that normalization of body temperature and CBV may attenuate this hypercoagulable response. PMID:23856126

  19. Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.

  20. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  1. Measurement of temperature and emissivity of specularly reflecting glowing bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. P.; Hauge, R. H.; Margrave, J. L.; Krishnan, S.

    1988-01-01

    A new method of measuring the thermodynamic temperature of an object as well as the surface emissivity based on laser reflectivity has been developed. By using rotator analyzer ellipsometry, the light reflected from the sample at a specific angle of incidence can be analyzed for its ellipticity. The normal incidence reflectivity and emissivity are then extracted using standard relations. The thermodynamic temperature of the body is obtained simultaneously by measuring the intensity of emitted light at the same angle of incidence. Room temperature measurements are carried out on selected metals to test the system. Elevated temperature measurements on platinum foils show that this technique is reliable and accurate for monitoring and measuring the temperature and emissivity of specularly reflecting, glowing bodies.

  2. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes.

  3. Environmental stressors during space flight: potential effects on body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Organisms may be affected by many environmental factors during space flight, e.g., acceleration, weightlessness, decreased pressure, changes in oxygen tension, radiofrequency radiation and vibration. 2. Previous studies of change in body temperature--one response to these environmental factors--are reviewed. 3. Conditions leading to heat stress and hypothermia are discussed.

  4. Core body temperature control by total liquid ventilation using a virtual lung temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Vandamme, Jonathan; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herve

    2014-12-01

    In total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are filled with a breathable liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) while a liquid ventilator ensures proper gas exchange by renewal of a tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Given the rapid changes in core body temperature generated by TLV using the lung has a heat exchanger, it is crucial to have accurate and reliable core body temperature monitoring and control. This study presents the design of a virtual lung temperature sensor to control core temperature. In the first step, the virtual sensor, using expired PFC to estimate lung temperature noninvasively, was validated both in vitro and in vivo. The virtual lung temperature was then used to rapidly and automatically control core temperature. Experimentations were performed using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator with a feedback controller to modulate inspired PFC temperature thereby controlling lung temperature. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on seven newborn lambs instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, pulmonary artery, oesophagus, right ear drum, and rectum. After stabilization in conventional mechanical ventilation, TLV was initiated with fast hypothermia induction, followed by slow posthypothermic rewarming for 1 h, then by fast rewarming to normothermia and finally a second fast hypothermia induction phase. Results showed that the virtual lung temperature was able to provide an accurate estimation of systemic arterial temperature. Results also demonstrate that TLV can precisely control core body temperature and can be favorably compared to extracorporeal circulation in terms of speed. PMID:24960422

  5. Body temperature and behavior of tree shrews and flying squirrels in a thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1998-02-15

    The daily rhythms of body temperature, temperature selection, and locomotor activity of tree shrews and flying squirrels were studied in a thermal gradient. In accordance with previous observations in other mammalian species, the rhythm of temperature selection was found to be 180 degrees out of phase with the body temperature rhythm in both species. Comparison of the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm in the presence and absence of the ambient temperature gradient indicated that behavioral temperature selection reduces the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm. This provides support for the hypothesis that the homeostatic control of body temperature opposes-rather than facilitates-the circadian oscillation in body temperature. PMID:9523893

  6. Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

  7. A Microwave Radiometer for Internal Body Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeler, Robert Patterson

    This thesis presents the analysis and design of a microwave radiometer for internal body temperature measurements. There is currently no available method for non-invasive temperature measurement inside the human body. However, knowledge of both relative and absolute temperature variations over time is important to a number of medical applications. The research presented in this thesis details a proof-of-concept near-field microwave radiometer demonstrating relative thermometry of a multi-layer phantom. There are a number of technical challenges addressed in this thesis for radiometric determination of sub-degree temperature variations in the human body. A theoretical approach is developed for determining sensing depth from known complex layered tissues, which is defined as a figure of merit, and is shown to be dependent on frequency, electrical properties of the tissues, and the near-field probe. In order to obtain depth resolution, multiple frequency operation can be used, so multi-frequency probes are designed and demonstrated in this work. The choice of frequencies is determined not only by the tissue material properties, but also by the ever increasing radio interference in the environment. In this work, quiet bands allocated to radio astronomy are investigated. The radiometer and probe need to be compact to be wearable, and several advancements are made towards a fully wearable device: multi-frequency low-profile probes are designed and fabricated on a flexible substrate and the process of on-chip integration is demonstrated by a GaAs MMIC cold noise source for radiometer calibration. The implemented proof-of-concept device consists of two radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 2.7 GHz, designed with commercial inexpensive devices that can enable sufficient sensitivity. The device is tested on a phantom with two water layers whose temperatures are varied in a controlled manner, and focused on the human body temperature range. Measured results are discussed qualitatively

  8. A simple method to predict body temperature of small reptiles from environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mathew; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To study behavioral thermoregulation, it is useful to use thermal sensors and physical models to collect environmental temperatures that are used to predict organism body temperature. Many techniques involve expensive or numerous types of sensors (cast copper models, or temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind speed sensors) to collect the microhabitat data necessary to predict body temperatures. Expense and diversity of requisite sensors can limit sampling resolution and accessibility of these methods. We compare body temperature predictions of small lizards from iButtons, DS18B20 sensors, and simple copper models, in both laboratory and natural conditions. Our aim was to develop an inexpensive yet accurate method for body temperature prediction. Either method was applicable given appropriate parameterization of the heat transfer equation used. The simplest and cheapest method was DS18B20 sensors attached to a small recording computer. There was little if any deficit in precision or accuracy compared to other published methods. We show how the heat transfer equation can be parameterized, and it can also be used to predict body temperature from historically collected data, allowing strong comparisons between current and previous environmental temperatures using the most modern techniques. Our simple method uses very cheap sensors and loggers to extensively sample habitat temperature, improving our understanding of microhabitat structure and thermal variability with respect to small ectotherms. While our method was quite precise, we feel any potential loss in accuracy is offset by the increase in sample resolution, important as it is increasingly apparent that, particularly for small ectotherms, habitat thermal heterogeneity is the strongest influence on transient body temperature. PMID:27252829

  9. Body Temperatures in Dinosaurs: What Can Growth Curves Tell Us?

    PubMed Central

    Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the body temperature (BT) of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR) with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation). The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006). I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today’s crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs), ornithischians (two), theropods (three), prosauropods (three), and sauropods (nine). For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal’s core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed) and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda) studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately

  10. The effect of anesthesia on body temperature control.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The human thermoregulatory system usually maintains core body temperature near 37 degrees C. This homeostasis is accomplished by thermoregulatory defense mechanisms such as vasoconstriction and shivering or sweating and vasodilatation. Thermoregulation is impaired during general anesthesia. Suppression of thermoregulatory defense mechanisms during general anesthesia is dose dependant and mostly results in perioperative hypothermia. Several adverse effects of hypothermia have been identified, including an increase in postoperative wound infection, perioperative coagulopathy and an increase of postoperative morbid cardiac events. Perioperative hypothermia can be avoided by warming patients actively during general anesthesia. Fever is a controlled increase of core body temperature. Various causes of perioperative fever are given. Fever is usually attenuated by general anesthesia. Typically, patients develop a fever of greater magnitude in the postoperative phase. Postoperative fever is fairly common. The incidence of fever varies with type and duration of surgery, patient's age, surgical site and preoperative inflammation. PMID:20515846

  11. Temperature control of thermal radiation from composite bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiliang; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that recent advances in nanoscale thermal transport and temperature manipulation can be brought to bear on the problem of tailoring thermal radiation from wavelength-scale composite bodies. We show that such objects—complicated arrangements of phase-change chalcogenide (Ge2Sb2Te5 ) glasses and metals or semiconductors—can be designed to exhibit strong resonances and large temperature gradients, which in turn lead to large and highly directional emission at midinfrared wavelengths. We find that partial directivity depends sensitively on a complicated interplay between shape, material dispersion, and temperature localization within the objects, requiring simultaneous design of the electromagnetic scattering and thermal properties of these structures. Our calculations exploit a recently developed fluctuating-volume current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that rigorously captures radiation phenomena in structures with strong temperature and dielectric inhomogeneities, such as those studied here.

  12. Diamond stabilization of ice multilayers at human body temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2007-08-01

    Diamond is a promising material for wear-resistant medical coatings. Here we report a remarkable increase in the melting point of ice resting on a diamond (111) surface modified with a submonolayer of Na+ . Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the interfacial ice bilayer melts at a temperature 130K higher than in free ice, and relatively thick ice films ( 2.6nm at 298K and 2.2nm at 310K ) are stabilized by dipole interactions with the substrate. This unique physical effect may enable biocompatibility-enhancing ice overcoatings for diamond at human body temperature.

  13. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  14. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  15. Saturday night fever in ecstasy/MDMA dance clubbers: Heightened body temperature and associated psychobiological changes

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Andrew C; Young, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Aims and rationale: to investigate body temperature and thermal self-ratings of Ecstasy/MDMA users at a Saturday night dance club. Methods: 68 dance clubbers (mean age 21.6 years, 30 females and 38 males), were assessed at a Saturday night dance club, then 2–3 d later. Three subgroups were compared: 32 current Ecstasy users who had taken Ecstasy/MDMA that evening, 10 abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users on other psychoactive drugs, and 26 non-user controls (predominantly alcohol drinkers). In a comparatively quiet area of the dance club, each unpaid volunteer had their ear temperature recorded, and completed a questionnaire on thermal feelings and mood states. A similar questionnaire was repeated 2–3 d later by mobile telephone. Results: Ecstasy/MDMA users had a mean body temperature 1.2°C higher than non-user controls (P < 0.001), and felt significantly hotter and thirstier. The abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA polydrug user group had a mean body temperature intermediate between the other 2 groups, significantly higher than controls, and significantly lower than current Ecstasy/MDMA users. After 2–3 d of recovery, the Ecstasy/MDMA users remained significantly ‘thirstier’. Higher body temperature while clubbing was associated with greater Ecstasy/MDMA usage at the club, and younger age of first use. Higher temperature also correlated with lower elation and poor memory 2–3 d later. It also correlated positively with nicotine, and negatively with cannabis. Conclusions: Ecstasy/MDMA using dance clubbers had significantly higher body temperature than non-user controls. This heightened body temperature was associated with a number of adverse psychobiological consequences, including poor memory.

  16. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, K.R.; MacFarlane, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT) while dogs in group W received warmed (W) irrigation fluid (36°C). A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1) pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2) arrival into theatre, (T3) end of surgery and (T4) arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1) and return to the recovery suite (T4) was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58°C (p<0.001) in group RT and 1.53±0.76°C (p<0.001) group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3) 4/19 (21.1%) of dogs were hypothermic (<37°C). The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses. PMID:26623323

  17. Deep-body temperature changes in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.

    1971-01-01

    Deep-body temperature was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in temperature which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the temperature fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body temperature closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no change or only a small transient increase in temperature when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller temperature response compared to the initial exposure. Implant temperature biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.

  18. Systems Modeling for Crew Core Body Temperature Prediction Postlanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia; Ochoa, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, NASA s latest crewed spacecraft project, presents many challenges to its designers including ensuring crew survivability during nominal and off nominal landing conditions. With a nominal water landing planned off the coast of San Clemente, California, off nominal water landings could range from the far North Atlantic Ocean to the middle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. For all of these conditions, the vehicle must provide sufficient life support resources to ensure that the crew member s core body temperatures are maintained at a safe level prior to crew rescue. This paper will examine the natural environments, environments created inside the cabin and constraints associated with post landing operations that affect the temperature of the crew member. Models of the capsule and the crew members are examined and analysis results are compared to the requirement for safe human exposure. Further, recommendations for updated modeling techniques and operational limits are included.

  19. Involvement of GABA in environmental temperature-induced change in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Poddar, M K

    1988-12-01

    Acute exposure of adult male albino rats (110-120 g) to higher environmental temperature (40 +/- 1 degrees C) increased body temperature (BT). This increase of BT was also dependent on the duration of exposure. Treatment with muscimol (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA agonist, produced hypothermia at room temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C) and resistance to increase the body temperature when exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C). Administration of bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA antagonist, on the other hand, enhanced BT more than that observed in control (normal) rat exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C), although at room temperature bicuculline treatment did not show any effect on BT. Pretreatment with ethanolamine-O-sulfate (EOS) (2 g/kg, s.c.), a GABA transaminase inhibitor, to rats exposed to higher temperature increased BT as in control (normal) rat. Inhibition of central GAD activity with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) (70 mg/kg, i.p.) produced resistance to increase BT during its period of action when rats were exposed to higher environmental temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C). These results thus suggest that central inhibitory neuron, GABA, plays a regulatory role in thermoregulation. PMID:3236943

  20. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  1. Beef cattle body temperature during climatic stress: a genome-wide association study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are sold for use in multiple environments that differ greatly in multiple climactic parameters, making the ability to regulate body temperature across multiple environments essential. Collecting phenotypic body temperature measurements is difficult and expensive, thus a genomics approach is ...

  2. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Astrid; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Pijl, Hanno; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert J; Van Someren, Eus J W; Fronczek, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperature and sleep-wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy and controls. Eight hypocretin-deficient male narcolepsy type 1 patients and eight healthy matched controls underwent temperature measurement of core body and proximal and distal skin twice, and the sleep-wake state for 24 h. After the baseline assessment, 2 × 3 g of sodium oxybate was administered for 5 nights, immediately followed by the second assessment. At baseline, daytime core body temperature and proximal skin temperature were significantly lower in patients with narcolepsy (core: 36.8 ± 0.05 °C versus 37.0 ± 0.05 °C, F = 8.31, P = 0.01; proximal: 33.4 ± 0.26 °C versus 34.3 ± 0.26 °C, F = 5.66, P = 0.03). In patients, sodium oxybate administration increased proximal skin temperature during the day (F = 6.46, P = 0.04) to a level similar as in controls, but did not affect core body temperature, distal temperature or distal-proximal temperature gradient. Sodium oxybate administration normalised the predictive value of distal skin temperature and distal-proximal temperature gradient for the onset of daytime naps (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sodium oxybate administration resulted in a partial normalisation of the skin temperature profile, by increasing daytime proximal skin temperature, and by strengthening the known relationship between skin temperature and daytime sleep propensity. These changes seem to be related to the clinical improvement induced by sodium oxybate treatment. A causal relationship is not proven. PMID:25913575

  3. Sex, season, and time of day interact to affect body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, M.L.; Halstead, B.J.; Gregory, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    1.We examined multiple hypotheses regarding differences in body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake using temperature-sensitive radio telemetry and an information-theoretic analytical approach.2.Giant Gartersnakes selected body temperatures near 30 ??C, and males and females had similar body temperatures most of the year, except during the midsummer gestation period.3.Seasonal differences in the body temperatures of males and females may relate to both the costs associated with thermoregulatory behavior, such as predation, and the benefits associated with maintaining optimal body temperatures, such as successful incubation.

  4. The effect of body temperature on the hunting response of the middle finger skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A; Van de Linde, F J; Romet, T T; Ducharme, M B

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between body temperature and the hunting response (intermittent supply of warm blood to cold exposed extremities) was quantified for nine subjects by immersing one hand in 8 degree C water while their body was either warm, cool or comfortable. Core and skin temperatures were manipulated by exposing the subjects to different ambient temperatures (30, 22, or 15 degrees C), by adjusting their clothing insulation (moderate, light, or none), and by drinking beverages at different temperatures (43, 37 and 0 degrees C). The middle finger temperature (Tfi) response was recorded, together with ear canal (Tear), rectal (Tre), and mean skin temperature (Tsk). The induced mean Tear changes were -0.34 (0.08) and +0.29 (0.03) degrees C following consumption of the cold and hot beverage, respectively. Tsk ranged from 26.7 to 34.5 degrees C during the tests. In the warm environment after a hot drink, the initial finger temperature (T(fi,base)) was 35.3 (0.4) degrees C, the minimum finger temperature during immersion (T(fi,min)) was 11.3 (0.5) degrees C, and 2.6 (0.4) hunting waves occurred in the 30-min immersion period. In the neutral condition (thermoneutral room and beverage) T(fi,base) was 32.1 (1.0) degrees C, T(fi,min) was 9.6 (0.3) degrees C, and 1.6 (0.2) waves occurred. In the cold environment after a cold drink, these values were 19.3 (0.9) degrees C, 8.7 (0.2) degrees C, and 0.8 (0.2) waves, respectively. A colder body induced a decrease in the magnitude and frequency of the hunting response. The total heat transferred from the hand to the water, as estimated by the area under the middle finger temperature curve, was also dependent upon the induced increase or decrease in Tear and Tsk. We conclude that the characteristics of the hunting temperature response curve of the finger are in part determined by core temperature and Tsk. Both T(fi,min) and the maximal finger temperature during immersion were higher when the core temperature was elevated; Tsk

  5. Ways to measure body temperature in the field.

    PubMed

    Langer, Franz; Fietz, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    Body temperature (Tb) represents one of the key parameters in ecophysiological studies with focus on energy saving strategies. In this study we therefore comparatively evaluated the usefulness of two types of temperature-sensitive passive transponders (LifeChips and IPTT-300) and one data logger (iButton, DS1922L) mounted onto a collar to measure Tb in the field. First we tested the accuracy of all three devices in a water bath with water temperature ranging from 0 to 40°C. Second, we evaluated the usefulness of the LifeChips and the modified iButtons for measuring Tb of small heterothermic mammals under field conditions. For this work we subcutaneously implanted 14 male edible dormice (Glis glis) with transponders, and equipped another 14 males with data loggers to simultaneously record Tb and oxygen consumption with a portable oxygen analyzer (Oxbox). In one individual we recorded Tb with both devices and analyzed recorded Tb patterns. LifeChips are able to measure temperature within the smallest range from 25 to 40°C with an accuracy of 0.07±0.12°C. IPTT-300 transponders measured temperature between 10 and 40°C, but accuracy decreased considerably at values below 30°C, with maximal deviations of nearly 7°C. An individual calibration of each transponder is therefore needed, before using it at low Tbs. The accuracy of the data logger was comparatively good (0.12±0.25°C) and stable over the whole temperature range tested (0-40°C). In all three devices, the repeatability of measurements was high. LifeChip transponders as well as modified iButtons measured Tb reliably under field conditions. Simultaneous Tb-recordings in one edible dormouse with an implanted LifeChip and a collar-mounted iButton revealed that values of both measurements were closely correlated. Taken together, we conclude that implanted temperature-sensitive transponders represent an appropriate and largely non-invasive method to measure Tb also under field conditions. PMID:24802148

  6. Human body temperature and new approaches to constructing temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines

    PubMed Central

    White, Matthew D.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Duplantis, Barry N.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the live human and animal vaccines that are currently in use are attenuated by virtue of their temperature-sensitive (TS) replication. These vaccines are able to function because they can take advantage of sites in mammalian bodies that are cooler than the core temperature, where TS vaccines fail to replicate. In this article, we discuss the distribution of temperature in the human body, and relate how the temperature differential can be exploited for designing and using TS vaccines. We also examine how one of the coolest organs of the body, the skin, contains antigen-processing cells that can be targeted to provoke the desired immune response from a TS vaccine. We describe traditional approaches to making TS vaccines, and highlight new information and technologies that are being used to create a new generation of engineered TS vaccines. We pay particular attention to the recently described technology of substituting essential genes from Arctic bacteria for their homologues in mammalian pathogens as a way of creating TS vaccines. PMID:21626408

  7. Ultrasound as a Tool to Assess Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound has been used effectively to assess body fat for nearly 5 decades, yet this method is not known as well as many other body composition techniques. The purpose of this review is to explain the technical principles of the ultrasound method, explain the procedures for taking a measurement and interpreting the results, evaluate the reliability and validity of this method for measuring subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, highlight the advantages and limitations of ultrasound relative to other body composition methods, consider its utility to clinical populations, and introduce new body composition-specific ultrasound technology. The focus of this review is adipose, although various tissue thicknesses (e.g., muscle and bone) can be measured with ultrasound. Being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, ultrasound is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited. Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, and accurate. The biggest limitations appear to be a lack of standardization for the measurement technique and results that are highly dependent on operator proficiency. New ultrasound devices and accompanying software designed specifically for the purpose of body composition assessment might help to minimize these limitations. PMID:24062944

  8. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. PMID:27095264

  9. Acclimatization in a hot, humid environment: energy exchange, body temperature, and sweating.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D; Senay, L C; Wyndham, C H; van Rensburg, A J; Rogers, G G; Strydom, N B

    1976-05-01

    Four trained young men, worked for 4 h/day at 43-50% of their maximum aerobic capacity for 3 days at 25 degrees C db, 18 degrees C wb and then for 10 consecutive days at 45 degrees C db, 32 degrees C wb. Their thermal status was assessed using direct calorimetry. As a group, the men showed classical acclimization responses, but there were marked individual differences. The calorimetric analysis revealed that reductions in strain were associated with minor changes in heat balance confined to the first and last hours of exposure. Events occurring within the first 4 days appeared to have little effect on body temperatures. Significant decreases in body temperature took place only when sweat and evaporation rate increased. A 10% increase in evaporation rate was accompanied by a 30% increase in sweat rate and a 200% increase in unevaporated sweat; thus, there is a wasteful overproduction of sweat. By the 10th day skin temperature was confined to the level necessary to evaporate sufficient sweat to achieve thermal balance with a fully wet body surface. The efficiency of heat transport within the body did not change with acclimatization. PMID:931905

  10. Rectal foreign bodies: imaging assessment and medicolegal aspects.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Miele, Vittorio; Pinto, Fabio; Mizio, Veronica Di; Panico, Maria Rita; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia

    2015-02-01

    The amount of patients presenting at the emergency hospitals with retained rectal foreign bodies appears recently to have increased. Foreign objects retained in the rectum may result from direct introduction through the anus (more common) or from ingestion. Affected individuals often make ineffective attempts to extract the object themselves, resulting in additional delay of medical care and potentially increasing the risk of complications. The goals of radiological patient assessment are to identify the type of object retained, its location, and the presence of associated complications. Plain film radiographs still play an important role in the assessment of retained rectal foreign bodies. PMID:25639182

  11. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  12. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established. PMID:26905521

  13. On the average temperature of airless spherical bodies and the magnitude of Earth's atmospheric thermal effect.

    PubMed

    Volokin, Den; ReLlez, Lark

    2014-01-01

    The presence of atmosphere can appreciably warm a planet's surface above the temperature of an airless environment. Known as a natural Greenhouse Effect (GE), this near-surface Atmospheric Thermal Enhancement (ATE) as named herein is presently entirely attributed to the absorption of up-welling long-wave radiation by greenhouse gases. Often quoted as 33 K for Earth, GE is estimated as a difference between planet's observed mean surface temperature and an effective radiating temperature calculated from the globally averaged absorbed solar flux using the Stefan-Boltzmann (SB) radiation law. This approach equates a planet's average temperature in the absence of greenhouse gases or atmosphere to an effective emission temperature assuming ATE ≡ GE. The SB law is also routinely employed to estimating the mean temperatures of airless bodies. We demonstrate that this formula as applied to spherical objects is mathematically incorrect owing to Hölder's inequality between integrals and leads to biased results such as a significant underestimation of Earth's ATE. We derive a new expression for the mean physical temperature of airless bodies based on an analytic integration of the SB law over a sphere that accounts for effects of regolith heat storage and cosmic background radiation on nighttime temperatures. Upon verifying our model against Moon surface temperature data provided by the NASA Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we propose it as a new analytic standard for evaluating the thermal environment of airless bodies. Physical evidence is presented that Earth's ATE should be assessed against the temperature of an equivalent airless body such as the Moon rather than a hypothetical atmosphere devoid of greenhouse gases. Employing the new temperature formula we show that Earth's total ATE is ~90 K, not 33 K, and that ATE = GE + TE, where GE is the thermal effect of greenhouse gases, while TE > 15 K is a thermodynamic enhancement independent of the

  14. TRIAGE DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR PARTIAL-BODY EXPOSURE: DICENTRIC ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Pellmar, Terry C.

    2009-01-01

    Partial-body biodosimetry is likely to be required after a radiological or nuclear exposure. Clinical signs and symptoms, distribution of dicentrics in circulating blood cells, organ-specific biomarkers, physical signals in teeth and nails all can provide indications of non-homogeneous exposures. Organ specific biomarkers may provide early warning regarding physiological systems at risk after radiation injury. Use of a combination of markers and symptoms will be needed for clinical insights for therapeutic approaches. Analysis of dicentrics, a marker specific for radiation injury, is the “Gold standard” of biodosimetry and can reveal partial-body exposures. Automation of sample processing for dicentric analysis can increase throughput with customization of off-the-shelf technologies for cytogenetic sample processing and information management. Automated analysis of the metaphase spreads is currently limited but improvements are in development. Our efforts bridge the technological gaps to allow the use of dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) for risk-based stratification of mass casualties. This article summarizes current knowledge on partial-body cytogenetic dose assessment synthesizing information leading to the proposal of an approach to triage dose prediction in radiation mass casualties, based on equivalent whole-body doses under partial-body exposure conditions and assesses the validity of using this model. An initial screening using only 20 metaphase spreads per subject can confirm irradiation above 2-Gy. A subsequent increase to 50 metaphases improves dose determination to allow risk stratification for clinical triage. Metaphases evaluated for inhomogeneous distribution of dicentrics can reveal partial-body exposures. We tested the validity of this approach in an in vitro model that simulates partial-body irradiation by mixing irradiated and un-irradiated lymphocytes in various proportions. Our preliminary results support the notion that this approach will

  15. Validation of an interpretation bias assessment for body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Mary K; Holzinger, Jayne B; Chasson, Gregory S

    2014-09-01

    Currently, research on interpretation bias and body dissatisfaction is limited. The few experimental paradigms that have been used to explore this phenomenon utilized a method that may not accurately capture the nature of interpretation bias as explained by cognitive theory. The present study investigated the reliability and validity of a novel computerized assessment of interpretation bias (WSAP) for body dissatisfaction, which may more accurately reflect the cognitive processing involved in such bias by implementing the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP), a previously established method of measuring interpretation bias in other clinical populations. Undergraduate females (n=214) completed the WSAP and other measures. Results indicate initial support for the WSAP as a valid, reliable measure of interpretation bias for body dissatisfaction. Although preliminary, this study contributes to the minimal research in this area and serves as the first psychometric investigation of the WSAP to measure such interpretation bias for body dissatisfaction. PMID:25218691

  16. 21 CFR 26.70 - Conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity assessment bodies. 26.70 Section 26.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  17. 21 CFR 26.69 - Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies. 26.69 Section 26.69 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  18. 21 CFR 26.70 - Conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conformity assessment bodies. 26.70 Section 26.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  19. 21 CFR 26.69 - Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies. 26.69 Section 26.69 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  20. Life assessment of high temperature headers

    SciTech Connect

    Nakoneczny, G.J.; Schultz, C.C.

    1995-08-01

    High temperature superheater and reheater headers have been a necessary focus of any boiler life extension project done by the electric utilities. These headers operate at high temperatures in excess of 900 F and are subject to thermal stresses and pressure stresses that can lead to cracking and failure. Babcock and Wilcox Company`s investigation of these problems began in 1982 focusing on P11 materials (1{1/4}Cr-{1/2}Mo). Early assessment was limited to dimensional analysis methods which were aimed at quantifying swell due to creep. Condition assessment and remaining useful life analysis methods have evolved since these initial studies. Experience coupled with improved inspection methods and analytical techniques has advanced the life assessment of these high temperature headers. In the discussion that follows the authors provide an overview of B and W`s approach to header life assessment including the location and causes for header failures, inspection techniques and analysis methods which are all directed at determining the remaining useful life of these high temperature headers.

  1. Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Nag, P K; Dutta, Priya; Nag, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic heat is a major health concern among workers in different occupational pursuits. People in the regions of western India confront frequent heat emergencies, with great risk of mortality and morbidity. Taking account of informal occupational groups (foundry and sheet metal, FSM, N=587; ceramic and pottery, CP, N=426; stone quarry, SQ, N=934) in different seasons, the study examined the body temperature profiling as indicator of vulnerability to environmental warmth. About 3/4th of 1947 workers had habitual exposure at 30.1-35.5°C WBGT and ~10% of them were exposed to 38.2-41.6°C WBGT. The responses of FSM, CP and SQ workers indicated prevailing high heat load during summer and post-monsoon months. Local skin temperatures (T(sk)) varied significantly in different seasons, with consistently high level in summer, followed by post-monsoon and winter months. The mean difference of T(cr) and T(sk) was ~5.2°C up to 26.7°C WBGT, and ~2.5°C beyond 30°C WBGT. Nearly 90% of the workers had T(cr) within 38°C, suggesting their self-adjustment strategy in pacing work and regulating T(cr). In extreme heat, the limit of peripheral adjustability (35-36°C T(sk)) and the narrowing down of the difference between T(cr) and T(sk) might indicate the limit of one's ability to withstand heat exposure. PMID:23411761

  2. Assessment of body composition in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Munday, H S

    1994-06-01

    The assessment of body composition in any species is important to the understanding of subjects such as the control of obesity, the realimentation of sick animals and the evaluation of energy requirements. In most cases our requirement is to assess the chemical constituents of the body by the measurement of the fat and fat-free mass (FFM) of the subject. There may also be a requirement to break down the FFM mass into its component parts and measure the tissue distribution within the body. Clearly in the understanding of the causes and effects of obesity in companion animals, the evaluation of the actual level of obesity is fundamental. Similarly, whilst classifying the effectiveness of a weight loss programme it is vital that the reduction in weight loss and the distribution of tissue types can be accurately recorded by the veterinary surgeon or clinician. This review covers the theory of body composition measurement and the techniques which have been developed, together with their relevance to studies with companion animals. Most techniques are based on indirect methods which use the model of the body being at least two chemically distinct compartments, the fat and the FFM. In more complex analyses four and even six compartment models are considered which include concepts such as protein content, cell and osseous mineral content. The techniques to be covered include the measurement of total body water (for example by the use of isotope dilution), anthropometric techniques (skinfold thickness and dimensional evaluation), densitometry, total body potassium, muscle metabolite markers, absorptiometry, neutron activation analysis, electrical conductance, ultrasound, near infrared interactance, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8087160

  3. Changes in basal body temperature and simple reaction times during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Simić, Nataša; Ravlić, Arijana

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown cyclic changes in the activation levels and performance of different tasks throughout the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to examine if changes in the reaction time to both light and sound stimuli may be associated with basal body temperature changes and subjective assessments of General and High Activation during the different phases of a menstrual cycle characterized by high (preovulatory and midluteal phase) and low (menstrual and early follicular phase) levels of oestrogen and progesterone. The study included measurements of basal body temperature, simple reaction times to light and sound and self-assessment of General and High Activation during the menstrual, early follicular, late follicular and luteal phase. The sample consisted of 19 female subjects with regular menstrual cycles. The results obtained in this study indicate lower basal body temperature values during phases with low sex hormone levels, while the activation assessments suggest stable levels of both General and High Activation throughout the menstrual cycle. Similar patterns of change have been shown for reaction times in visual and auditory sensory modalities. Reaction times were shorter during phases characterized by high sex hormone levels, while phases with low hormone levels were associated with longer reaction times. From the modified text on correlations in the data analysis section, it is evident that they were calculated from averaged data from all phases of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, they do not reflect intraindividual but rather interindividual variations between the observed variables, and are not related to the hypotheses of this paper. PMID:23585200

  4. Article comprising a garment or other textile structure for use in controlling body temperature

    DOEpatents

    Butzer, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    There is disclosed an article for use in cooling body temperature which comprises a garment having a coat and pant, with each having a body section adapted to receive a portion of the torso of the wearer and extensions from the body section to receive the wearer's limbs. The garment includes a system for circulating temperature controlling fluid from a suitable source through patches removably received in pockets in each of body section and extensions.

  5. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, Laura N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  6. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate.

    PubMed

    Amos, William; Filipe, Laura N S

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  7. Body Adiposity Index: Its Relevance and Validity in Assessing Body Fatness of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2014-01-01

    Background. One of the limitations of body mass index is its accuracy to assess body fatness. To address this limitation, a new index, body adiposity index, has been developed. However its validity needs to ascertained. Objective. Our aim was to investigate sex-specific relationship between BAI, BMI, and percent body fat in an endogamous population of Delhi, India. Method. Data was collected from 578 adults on bodyweight, height, skinfold thicknesses, hip circumference, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Pearson's correlations were calculated for BAI and BMI with PBF. Differences in the correlation coefficients were examined using Fisher's z tests. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and to determine optimal cut-off values. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the risk of having hypertension using the proposed cut-off points. Results. The correlations of PBF with BMI (men: r = 0.83; women: r = 0.71) were stronger than those with BAI (men: r = 0.66; women: r = 0.58). In men, the sensitivity and specificity of BAI to predict hypertension were higher than other anthropometric markers but lower than BMI. In women, the sensitivity of BAI was higher than BMI and WC. Conclusions. BAI can be used as an additional marker for screening population; however its validity needs to be demonstrated on other populations too. PMID:24587942

  8. Effects of repeated surgical stress on daily changes of body core temperature in mice.

    PubMed

    Kanizsai, P; Vámos, Z; Solymár, M; Garami, A; Szelényi, Z

    2010-06-01

    Daily body core temperature rhythm has been known to become blunted for several days following intra-abdominal implantation of biotelemetry transmitters in small rodents and about a week is required for re-establishment of stable body core temperature oscillation. In the present study carried out on mice it was found that a repetition of the same minor surgical intervention (laparotomy) several days apart could speed up the stabilization of body temperature oscillations. Melatonin supplied with the drinking water continuously was found to speed up the return of stable daily body temperature rhythm further on consecutive laparotomies, while daily injections of methylprednisolone resulted in some delay in the development of stable body core temperature oscillations. It is concluded that in C57BL/6 mice possessing low plasma levels of melatonin exhibit an adaptive response to repeated stresses influencing the dynamics of daily body temperature rhythm. PMID:20511129

  9. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 °C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg-1, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  10. Estimation of the temperature of a radiating body by measuring the stationary temperatures of a thermometer placed at different distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragán, V. M.; Villaluenga, J. P. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Pérez-Cordón, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method for determining the temperature of a radiating body. The experimental method requires only very common instrumentation. It is based on the measurement of the stationary temperature of an object placed at different distances from the body and on the application of the energy balance equation in a stationary state. The method allows one to obtain the temperature of an inaccessible radiating body when radiation measurements are not available. The method has been applied to the determination of the filament temperature of incandescent lamps of different powers.

  11. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Bae, David D.; Brown, P. Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2007-01-01

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (∼0.6°C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs. PMID:17466279

  12. In utero heat stress increases postnatal core body temperature in pigs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J S; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Seibert, J T; Ross, J W; Lucy, M C; Safranski, T J; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

    2015-09-01

    In utero heat stress (IUHS) negatively impacts postnatal development, but how it alters future body temperature parameters and energetic metabolism is not well understood. Future body temperature indices and bioenergetic markers were characterized in pigs from differing in utero thermal environments during postnatal thermoneutral (TN) and cyclical heat stress (HS) exposure. First-parity pregnant gilts ( = 13) were exposed to 1 of 4 ambient temperature (T) treatments (HS [cyclic 28°C to 34°C] or TN [cyclic 18°C to 22°C]) applied for the entire gestation (HSHS, TNTN), HS for the first half of gestation (HSTN), or HS for the second half of gestation (TNHS). Twenty-four offspring (23.1 ± 1.2 kg BW; = 6 HSHS, = 6 TNTN, = 6 HSTN, = 6 TNHS) were housed in TN (21.7°C ± 0.7°C) conditions and then exposed to 2 separate but similar HS periods (HS1 = 6 d; HS2 = 6 d; cycling 28°C to 36°C). Core body temperature (T) was assessed every 15 min with implanted temperature recorders. Regardless of in utero treatment, T increased during both HS periods ( = 0.01; 0.58°C). During TN, HS1, and HS2, all IUHS pigs combined had increased T ( = 0.01; 0.36°C, 0.20°C, and 0.16°C, respectively) compared to TNTN controls. Although unaffected by in utero environment, the total plasma thyroxine to triiodothyronine ratio was reduced ( = 0.01) during HS1 and HS2 (39% and 29%, respectively) compared with TN. In summary, pigs from IUHS maintained an increased T compared with TNTN controls regardless of external T, and this thermal differential may have practical implications to developmental biology and animal bioenergetics. PMID:26440331

  13. Influence of exposure to a prolonged hyperdynamic field on body temperature in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gravitational loading on the regulation of body temperature is examined. Five adult male squirrel monkeys were exposed to a 2-G environment twice for 48 hours, once beginning in the middle of their light cycle and the second time in the middle of their dark cycle. It is observed that a reduction in body temperature occurs during the light cycle phase and at night there is an insignificant change in body temperature. The rhythmic characteristics of the light and dark cycles are analyzed. The data reveal that the body temperature in animals at 2 G is influenced more during the active phase of the animals 24-hour cycle.

  14. Circadian rhythm of body temperature during prolonged undersea voyages.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, W P; Paine, M W; Fort, A

    1978-05-01

    Circadian rhythms of oral temperature were assessed in 12 watchkeepers during a prolonged submarine voyage and compared with a "standard" rhythm obtained from nonwatchkeepers ashore. Initially, the parameters of the rhythms were similar to those of the standard; however, among eight ratings working 4-h watches in a rapidly rotating cycle, considerable changes in the rhythms occurred as the voyage progressed, and concurrent alterations in sleep patterning were observed. The most characteristic change in the rhythm was a marked decline in its amplitude. In most subjects, the rhythm also tended to depart from its original circadian pattern; in at least one case, it effectively disintegrated. One subject's rhythm appeared to "free-run" with a period greater than 24 h. A strong circadian rhythm was maintained in only one of these eight subjects. In four officers whose watch times were at fixed hours, adaptation of the rhythm to unusual times of sleep occurred in 2 of 3 cases where the schedule demanded it. The results are discussed in relation to the design of optimal watchkeeping systems for submariners. PMID:655989

  15. [The temperature and temperature gradient distribution in the thermophysical model of the rabbit body subjected internal and external changes of temperature].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2002-03-01

    In a laboratory heat-physical model of the rabbit reflecting basic heat-physical parameters of animal body (weight, heat absorption and heat production, size of a relative surface, capacity heat-production etc.), the changes of radial distribution of temperature and size of a cross superficial temperature gradient of the body were investigated with various parities (ratio) of environmental temperature and size of capacity heat production imitated by an electrical heater. Superficial layer of the body dependent from capacity heat production and environmental temperature can serve for definition of general heat content changes in the body for maintaining its thermal balance within the environment. PMID:12013736

  16. Regulation of body temperature and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis by bombesin receptor subtype-3

    PubMed Central

    Lateef, Dalya M.; Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) regulates energy homeostasis, with Brs3 knockout (Brs3−/y) mice being hypometabolic, hypothermic, and hyperphagic and developing obesity. We now report that the reduced body temperature is more readily detected if body temperature is analyzed as a function of physical activity level and light/dark phase. Physical activity level correlated best with body temperature 4 min later. The Brs3−/y metabolic phenotype is not due to intrinsically impaired brown adipose tissue function or in the communication of sympathetic signals from the brain to brown adipose tissue, since Brs3−/y mice have intact thermogenic responses to stress, acute cold exposure, and β3-adrenergic activation, and Brs3−/y mice prefer a cooler environment. Treatment with the BRS-3 agonist MK-5046 increased brown adipose tissue temperature and body temperature in wild-type but not Brs3−/y mice. Intrahypothalamic infusion of MK-5046 increased body temperature. These data indicate that the BRS-3 regulation of body temperature is via a central mechanism, upstream of sympathetic efferents. The reduced body temperature in Brs3−/y mice is due to altered regulation of energy homeostasis affecting higher center regulation of body temperature, rather than an intrinsic defect in brown adipose tissue. PMID:24452453

  17. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  18. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, M.B. ); Takahashi, Y. ); Ainsworth, R.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Described is the background work performed jointly by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom with the purpose of developing a high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for reactor components. Existing creep-fatigue crack-growth models are reviewed, and the most promising methods are identified. Sources of material data are outlined, and results of the fundamental deformation and crack-growth tests are discussed. Results of subcritical crack-growth exploratory tests, creep-fatigue crack-growth tests under repeated thermal transient conditions, and exploratory failure tests are presented and contrasted with the analytical modeling. Crack-growth assessment methods are presented and applied to a typical liquid-metal reactor component. The research activities presented herein served as a foundation for the Flaw Assessment Guide for High-Temperature Reactor Components Subjected to Creep-Fatigue Loading published separately. 30 refs., 108 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Low-temperature softening in body-centered cubic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pink, E.; Arsenault, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    In the low-temperature range, bcc alloys exhibit a lower stress-temperature dependence than the pure base metals. This effect often leads to a phenomenon that is called 'alloy softening': at low temperatures, the yield stress of an alloy may be lower than that of the base metal. Various theories are reviewed; the most promising are based either on extrinsic or intrinsic models of low-temperature deformation. Some other aspects of alloy softening are discussed, among them the effects on the ductile-brittle transition temperature.

  20. ["In vivo" body composition assessment; part I: a historic overview].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elvis A; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Giráldez García, Manuel Avelino; Sardinha, Luis B

    2015-01-01

    The study of body composition (BC) has gained in relevance over the last decades, mainly because of its important health- and disease- related applications within both the clinical and the sports setting. It is not a new area, and its especial relevance as an area of biology dates from the second half of the nineteenth century. In this paper, we have reviewed the three historic periods of BC, with special reference to the most important advances in in vivo assessment. Even though the earliest findings about human BC date from antiquity, the first (or 'early') stage of discovery began in 1850. Said early stage was mainly characterized by data obtained from the dissection of cadavers and by the application of biochemical methods in vivo. Longitudinal changes in body composition were also a concern. The second (so called 'recent') stage, in the second half of the twentieth century, was marked by milestones such as the formulation of the first mathematical models for the estimation of body components, and technological advances. Within the third ('contemporary' or 'current') stage of research, several groups have focused on validating the classical BC models in specific populations, on analysis of the genetic determinants (i.e. phenotypes and, more recently genotypes) of body composition, and on re-instigating the study of dynamic BC. PMID:25929363

  1. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

  2. Body size change in various nematodes depending on bacterial food, sex and growth temperature.

    PubMed

    So, Shuhei; Garan, Yohei; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported significant body size change in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, depending on the food strain of E. coli. Here, we examined this body size change in 11 other nematode species as well, and found that it is common to most of these nematodes. Furthermore, this food-dependent body size change is influenced by sex and growth temperature. PMID:24058830

  3. Body size change in various nematodes depending on bacterial food, sex and growth temperature

    PubMed Central

    So, Shuhei; Garan, Yohei; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported significant body size change in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, depending on the food strain of E. coli. Here, we examined this body size change in 11 other nematode species as well, and found that it is common to most of these nematodes. Furthermore, this food-dependent body size change is influenced by sex and growth temperature. PMID:24058830

  4. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  5. Is there an association between body temperature and serum lactate levels in hip fracture patients?

    PubMed

    Murtuza, F; Farrier, A J; Venkatesan, M; Smith, R; Khan, A; Uzoigwe, C E; Chami, G

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Hyperlactataemia is associated with adverse outcomes in trauma cases. It is thought to be the result of anaerobic respiration during hypoperfusion. This produces much less energy than complete aerobic glycolysis. Low body temperature in the injured patient carries an equally poor prognosis. Significant amounts of energy are expended in maintaining euthermia. Consequently, there may be a link between lactate levels and dysthermia. Hyperlactataemia may be indicative of inefficient energy production and therefore insufficient energy to maintain euthermia. Alternatively, significant amounts of available oxygen may be sequestered in thermoregulation, resulting in anaerobic respiration and lactate production. Our study investigated whether there is an association between lactate levels and admission body temperature in hip fracture patients. Furthermore, it looked at whether there is a difference in the mean lactate levels between hip fracture patients with low (<36.5°C), normal (36.5-37.5°C) and high (>37.5°C) body temperature on admission, and for patients who have low body temperature, whether there is a progressive rise in serum lactate levels as body temperature falls. Methods The admission temperature and serum lactate of 1,162 patients presenting with hip fracture were recorded. Patients were divided into the euthermic (body temperature 36.5-37.5°C), the pyrexial (>37.5°C) and those with low body temperature (<36.5°C). Admission lactate and body temperature were compared. Results There was a significant difference in age between the three body temperature groups (p=0.007). The pyrexial cohort was younger than the low body temperature group (mean: 78 vs 82 years). Those with low body temperature had a higher mean lactate level than the euthermic (2.2mmol/l vs 2.0mmol/l, p=0.03). However, there was no progressive rise in serum lactate level as admission temperature fell. Conclusions The findings suggest that in hip fracture patients, the body

  6. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  7. Efficacy comparison of Korean ginseng and American ginseng on body temperature and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Mi-Hwi; Kim, Eung-Hwi; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Park, In-Sun; Yang, Duck-Choon; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng has beneficial effects in cancer, diabetes and aging. There are two main varieties of ginseng: Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). There are anecdotal reports that American ginseng helps reduce body temperature, whereas Korean ginseng improves blood circulation and increases body temperature; however, their respective effects on body temperature and metabolic parameters have not been studied. We investigated body temperature and metabolic parameters in mice using a metabolic cage. After administering ginseng extracts acutely (single dose of 1000 mg/kg) or chronically (200 mg/kg/day for four weeks), core body temperature, food intake, oxygen consumption and activity were measured, as well as serum levels of pyrogen-related factors and mRNA expression of metabolic genes. Acute treatment with American ginseng reduced body temperature compared with PBS-treated mice during the night; however, there was no significant effect of ginseng treatment on body temperature after four weeks of treatment. VO 2, VCO 2, food intake, activity and energy expenditure were unchanged after both acute and chronic ginseng treatment compared with PBS treatment. In acutely treated mice, serum thyroxin levels were reduced by red and American ginseng, and the serum prostaglandin E2 level was reduced by American ginseng. In chronically treated mice, red and white ginseng reduced thyroxin levels. We conclude that Korean ginseng does not stimulate metabolism in mice, whereas a high dose of American ginseng may reduce night-time body temperature and pyrogen-related factors. PMID:24467543

  8. The effect of myostatin genotype on body temperature during extreme temperature events.

    PubMed

    Howard, J T; Kachman, S D; Nielsen, M K; Mader, T L; Spangler, M L

    2013-07-01

    Extreme heat and cold events can create deleterious physiological changes in cattle as they attempt to cope. The genetic background of animals can influence their response to these events. The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of myostatin genotype (MG) on body temperature during periods of heat and cold stress. Two groups of crossbred steers and heifers of unknown pedigree and breed fraction with varying percentages of Angus, Simmental, and Piedmontese were placed in a feedlot over 2 summers and 2 winters. Before arrival, animals were genotyped for the Piedmontese-derived myostatin mutation (C313Y) to determine their MG as either homozygous normal (0 copy; n = 84), heterozygous (1 copy; n = 96), or homozygous for inactive myostatin (2 copy; n = 59). Hourly tympanic and vaginal temperature measurements were collected for steers and heifers, respectively, for 5 d during times of anticipated heat and cold stress. Mean (±SD) ambient temperature for summer and winter stress events were 24.4 (±4.64) and -1.80 (±11.71), respectively. A trigonometric function (sine + cosine) with periods of 12 and 24 h was used to describe the diurnal cyclical pattern. Hourly body temperature was analyzed within a season, and fixed effects included MG, group, trigonometric functions nested within group, and interaction of MG with trigonometric functions nested within group; random effects were animal and residual (Model [I]). A combined analysis of season and group was also investigated with the inclusion of season as a main effect and the nesting of effects within both group and season (Model [C]). In both models, the residual was fitted using an autoregressive covariance structure. A 3-way interaction of MG, season, and trigonometric function periodicities of 24 h (P < 0.001) and 12 h (P < 0.02) for Model [C] indicate that a genotype × environment interaction exists for MG. For MG during summer stress events the additive estimate was 0.10°C (P < 0.01) and

  9. Spectral-based inferential measurement of grey-body's temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Liying; Zhu, Lingxi; Huan, Kewei; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    Aiming at the problems of temperature measurement and the defects of radiance thermometry theory, one method of spectral-based inferential measurement is proposed, which adopts the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) functional model as the temperature measurement model. Then, the radiance thermometry theory and inferential measurement technology are discussed comparatively. Temperatures of some targets, such and tungsten lamp and solar surface, are measured by spectral-based inferential measurement.

  10. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds

    PubMed Central

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S.; Hazel, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1–3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38oC, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal temperatures

  11. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    PubMed

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  12. Body temperatures and behavior of American alligators during cold winter weather

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, I.L., Jr.; Standora, E.A.; Vargo, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Data from two large (188 and 135 kg) male alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) indicated that 4-5 C seemed to be the lowest body temperatures that they could endure with subsequent recovery. Although one animal in shallow water managed to keep a breathing hole open for several days, in ice that was 1.5 cm thick, it later died following a decrease of its body temperature to 4.0 C. The second alligator which was located in a deeper portion of the reservoir used both terrestrial and aquatic basking behavior to raise its body temperature and level of activity. Except in the case of basking events, there was not clear evidence of significant evaluations of the body temperatures of either the live or dead alligators above those of their adjacent water. When located side-by-side, diurnal cycles of deep body temperatures exceeding adjacent water temperatures to a maximum extent near dawn and usually falling below water temperatures during the afternoon and early evening hours. The physical properties and thermal inertia of the bodies of such large alligators, when placed in appropriate microclimates, may be sufficient in themselves to explain the general patterns and levels of body temperature changes observed at these low temperatures.

  13. Comparison of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Pediatric Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nilesh M.; Raphael, Bram; Guteirrez, Ivan; Quinn, Nicolle; Mitchell, Paul D.; Litman, Heather J.; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the agreement of multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry with reference methods for body composition assessment in children with intestinal failure (IF). Methods We conducted a prospective pilot study in children 14 years of age or younger with IF resulting from either short bowel syndrome (SBS) or motility disorders. Bland Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between BIA and deuterium dilution in measuring total body water (TBW) and lean body mass (LBM); and between BIA and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) techniques in measuring LBM and FM. Fat mass (FM) and percent body fat (%BF) measurements by BIA and anthropometry, were also compared in relation to those measured by deuterium dilution. Results Fifteen children with IF, median (IQR) age 7.2 (5.0, 10.0) years, 10 (67%) male, were studied. BIA and deuterium dilution were in good agreement with a mean bias (limits of agreement) of 0.9 (-3.2, 5.0) for TBW (L) and 0.1 (-5.4 to 5.6) for LBM (kg) measurements. The mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF measurements were 0.4 (-3.8, 4.6) kg and 1.7 (-16.9, 20.3)% respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 12/14 (86%) subjects for TBW and LBM, and in 11/14 (79%) for FM and %BF measurements. Mean bias (limits) for LBM (kg) and FM (kg) between BIA and DXA were 1.6 (-3.0 to 6.3) kg and -0.1 (-3.2 to 3.1) kg, respectively. Mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF between anthropometry and deuterium dilution were 0.2 (-4.2, 4.6) and -0.2 (-19.5 to 19.1), respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 10/14 (71%) subjects. Conclusions In children with intestinal failure, TBW and LBM measurements by multifrequency BIA method were in agreement with isotope dilution and DXA methods, with small mean bias. In comparison to deuterium dilution, BIA was comparable to anthropometry for FM and %BF assessments with small mean bias. However, the limits of agreement

  14. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1991-01-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed.

  15. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-12-15

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism's size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the temperature-dependent physical properties of water (e.g. viscosity) in determining swimming speed is poorly understood. Here we propose a semi-mechanistic model to describe how biological rates, size and the physics of the environment contribute to the temperature dependency of microbial swimming speed. Data on the swimming speed and size of a predatory protist and its protist prey were collected and used to test our model. Data were collected by manipulating both the temperature and the viscosity (independently of temperature) of the organism's environment. Protists were either cultured in their test environment (for several generations) or rapidly exposed to their test environment to assess their ability to adapt or acclimate to treatments. Both biological rates and the physics of the environment were predicted to and observed to contribute to the swimming speed of protists. Body size was not temperature dependent, and protists expressed some ability to acclimate to changes in either temperature or viscosity. Overall, using our parameter estimates and novel model, we are able to suggest that 30 to 40% (depending on species) of the response in swimming speed associated with a reduction in temperature from 20 to 5°C is due to viscosity. Because encounter rates between protist predators and their prey are determined by swimming speed, temperature- and viscosity-dependent swimming speeds are likely to result in temperature- and viscosity-dependent trophic interactions. PMID:21113003

  16. New reusable elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M.-V.; Chaset, L.; Bittner, P. A.; Barthod, C.; Passard, M.

    2013-04-01

    The development of telemedicine requires finding solutions of reusable electrodes for use in patients' homes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relevance of reusable elastomer electrodes for measuring body composition. We measured a population of healthy Caucasian (n = 17). A measurement was made with a reference device, the Xitron®, associated with AgCl Gel electrodes (Gel) and another measurement with a multifrequency impedancemeter Z-Metrix® associated with reusable elastomer electrodes (Elast). We obtained a low variability with an average error of repeatability of 0.39% for Re and 0.32% for Rinf. There is a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 200 ml between extracellular water Ve measured with Gel and Elast in supine and in standing position. For total body water Vt, we note a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 100 ml and 2.2 1 respectively in supine and standing position. The results give low dispersion, with R2 superior to 0.90, with a 1.5% maximal error between Gel and Elast on Ve in standing position. It looks possible, taking a few precautions, using elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition.

  17. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  18. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. Methods The effect of environmental temperature (4–33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3-/y, lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. Results Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature. The amounts of energy expenditure due to basal metabolic rate (calculated via a novel method), thermic effect of food, physical activity, and cold-induced thermogenesis were determined as a function of environmental temperature. The measured resting defended body temperature matched that calculated from the energy expenditure using Fourier's law of heat conduction. Mice defended a higher body temperature during physical activity. The cost of the warmer body temperature during the active phase is 4–16% of total daily energy expenditure. Parameters measured in diet-induced obese and Brs3-/y mice were similar to controls. The high post-mortem heat conductance demonstrates that most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms. Conclusions At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis. PMID:26042200

  19. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  20. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  1. Effects of body mass and water temperature on routine metabolism of American paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J T; Mims, S D; Wright, R A

    2013-04-01

    This study quantified the effects of temperature and fish mass on routine metabolism of the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Thermal sensitivity, as measured by Q(10) value, was low in P. spathula. Mean Q(10) was 1·78 while poikilotherms are generally expected to have Q(10) values in the 2·00-2·50 range. Mass-specific metabolism did not decrease with increased fish size to the extent that this phenomenon is observed in teleosts, as evidenced by a mass exponent (β) value of 0·92 for P. spathula compared with 0·79 in a review of teleost species. Other Acipenseriformes have exhibited relatively high β values for mass-specific respiration. Overall P. spathula metabolism appears to be more dependent on body mass and less dependent on temperature than for many other fishes. An equation utilizing temperature and fish mass to estimate gross respiration for P. spathula was derived and this equation was applied to respiratory data from other Acipenseriformes to assess inter-species variation. Polyodon spathula respiration rates across water temperature and fish mass appear most similar to those of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. PMID:23557305

  2. Quantitative assessment of human body shape using Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Martin; Rohlf, F. J.; Hsiao, Hongwei

    2004-04-01

    Fall protection harnesses are commonly used to reduce the number and severity of injuries. Increasing the efficiency of harness design requires the size and shape variation of the user population to be assessed as detailed and as accurately as possible. In light of the unsatisfactory performance of traditional anthropometry with respect to such assessments, we propose the use of 3D laser surface scans of whole bodies and the statistical analysis of elliptic Fourier coefficients. Ninety-eight male and female adults were scanned. Key features of each torso were extracted as a 3D curve along front, back and the thighs. A 3D extension of Elliptic Fourier analysis4 was used to quantify their shape through multivariate statistics. Shape change as a function of size (allometry) was predicted by regressing the coefficients onto stature, weight and hip circumference. Upper and lower limits of torso shape variation were determined and can be used to redefine the design of the harness that will fit most individual body shapes. Observed allometric changes are used for adjustments to the harness shape in each size. Finally, the estimated outline data were used as templates for a free-form deformation of the complete torso surface using NURBS models (non-uniform rational B-splines).

  3. Low Temperature and Polyploidy Result in Larger Cell and Body Size in an Ectothermic Vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hermaniuk, Adam; Rybacki, Mariusz; Taylor, Jan R E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that low temperatures result in increases in both cell size and body size in ectotherms that may explain patterns of geographic variation of their body size across latitudinal ranges. Also, polyploidy showed the same effect on body size in invertebrates. In vertebrates, despite their having larger cells, no clear effect of polyploidy on body size has been found. This article presents the relationship between temperature, cell size, growth rate, and body size in diploid and polyploid hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus reared as tadpoles at 19° and 24°C. The size of cells was larger in both diploid and triploid tadpoles at 19°C, and triploids had larger cells at both temperatures. In diploid and triploid froglets, the temperature in which they developed as tadpoles did not affect the size of their cells, but triploids still had larger cells. Triploid tadpoles grew faster than diploids at 19°C and had larger body mass; there was no clear difference between ploidies in growth rate at 24°C. This indicates better adaptation of triploid tadpoles to cold environment. This is the first report on the increase of body mass of a polyploid vertebrate caused by low temperature, and we showed relationship between increase in cell size and increased body mass. The large body mass of triploids may provide a selective advantage, especially in colder environments, and this may explain the prevalence of triploids in the northern parts of the geographic range of P. esculentus. PMID:27082722

  4. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J

    2013-09-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies. PMID:23790072

  5. Cobalt excretion test for the assessment of body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Sorbie, J; Olatunbosun, D; Corbett, W E; Valberg, L S

    1971-05-01

    Iron absorption is under delicate control and the level of absorption is adjusted to comply with the body's need for iron. To measure the intestinal setting for iron absorption, and thereby indirectly assess body iron requirements, cobaltous chloride labelled with (57)Co or (60)Co was given by mouth and the percentage of the test dose excreted in the urine in 24 hours was measured in a gamma counter. Seventeen control subjects with normal iron stores excreted 18% (9-23%) of the dose. Increased excretion, 31% (23-42%), was found in 10 patients with iron deficiency anemia and in 15 patients with depleted iron stores in the absence of anemia. In contrast, 12 patients with anemia due to causes other than iron deficiency excreted amounts of radiocobalt within the normal control range. In patients with iron deficiency, replenishment of iron stores by either oral or parenteral iron caused the previously high results to return to normal.Excretion of the test dose was normal in portal cirrhosis with normal iron stores but it was markedly increased in patients with cirrhosis complicated by either iron deficiency or endogenous iron overload. It was also raised in primary hemochromatosis. Excretion of the dose was reduced in gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Gastrointestinal surgery and inflammatory disease of the lower small intestine had no effect on the results except that some patients with steatorrhea had diminished excretion.The cobalt excretion test provides the clinician with a tool for the assessment of iron absorption, the detection of a reduction in body iron stores below the level that is normal for the subject in question, the differentiation of iron deficiency anemia from anemia due to other causes, and the investigation of patients with iron-loading disorders. PMID:5578125

  6. 16 CFR 1112.11 - What are the types of third party conformity assessment bodies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... assessment bodies? 1112.11 Section 1112.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS PERTAINING TO THIRD PARTY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT BODIES General Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies § 1112.11 What are the types of third...

  7. 21 CFR 26.68 - Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.68 Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies. The... assessment body (CAB): (a) A party proposing to withdraw a CAB listed in subpart B of this part shall...

  8. 21 CFR 26.67 - Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.67 Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies. The following procedures shall apply with regard to the suspension of a conformity assessment body (CAB)...

  9. Changes in Body Temperature in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury by Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Gyu; Won, Yu Hui; Park, Sung-Hee; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in the core temperature and body surface temperature in patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI). In incomplete SCI, the temperature change is difficult to see compared with complete spinal cord injuries. The goal of this study was to better understand thermal regulation in patients with incomplete SCI. Methods Fifty-six SCI patients were enrolled, and the control group consisted of 20 healthy persons. The spinal cord injuries were classified according to International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. The patients were classified into two groups: upper (neurological injury level T6 or above) and lower (neurological injury level T7 or below) SCIs. Body core temperature was measured using an oral thermometer, and body surface temperature was measured using digital infrared thermographic imaging. Results Twenty-nine patients had upper spinal cord injuries, 27 patients had lower SCIs, and 20 persons served as the normal healthy persons. Comparing the skin temperatures of the three groups, the temperatures at the lower abdomen, anterior thigh and anterior tibia in the patients with upper SCIs were lower than those of the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. No significant temperature differences were observed between the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. Conclusion In our study, we found thermal dysregulation in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, body surface temperature regulation was worse in upper SCIs than in lower injuries. Moreover, cord injury severity affected body surface temperature regulation in SCI patients. PMID:26605167

  10. [The temperature and temperature gradients distribution in the rabbit body thermophysical model with evaporation of moisture from its surface].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2004-04-01

    On created in laboratory heat-physical model of a rabbit body reflecting basic heat-physical parameters of the body such as: weight, size of a relative surface, heat absorption and heat conduction, heat capacity etc., a change of radial distribution of temperature and size was found across a superficial layer of evaporation of water from its surface, that simulates sweating, with various ratio of environmental temperature and capacity of electrical heater simulating heat production in animal. The experiments have shown that with evaporation of moisture from a surface of model in all investigated cases, there is an increase of superficial layer of body of a temperature gradient and simultaneous decrease of temperature of a model inside and on the surface. It seems that, with evaporation of a moisture from a surface of a body, the size of a temperature gradient in a thin superficial layer dependent in our experiments on capacity for heat production and environmental temperature, is increased and can be used in a live organism for definition of change in general heat content of the body with the purpose of maintenance of its thermal balance with environment. PMID:15296069

  11. Changes in body core temperatures and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Shido, Osamu

    1994-03-01

    Changes in body core temperature ( T cor) and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were investigated in 5 volunteers under the following conditions: (1) an ambient temperature ( T a) of 20 °C or (2) 35 °C, and (3) T a of 25 °C with a leg skin temperature of 30°C or (4) 35°C. The leg skin temperature was controlled with water perfusion devices wound around the legs. Rectal ( T re), tympanic ( T ty) and esophageal ( T es) temperatures, skin temperatures (7 sites) and oxygen consumption were measured. The intensity of LBNP was adjusted so that the amount of blood pooled in the legs was the same under all conditions. When a thermal balance was attained during LBNP, application of LBNP was suddenly halted. The skin temperatures increased significantly after the release of LBNP under all conditions, while oxygen consumption hardly changed. The release of LBNP caused significant falls in T cor s under conditions (1) and (3), but lowered T cor s very slightly under conditions (2) and (4). The changes in T es were always more rapid and greater than those of T ty and T re. The falls in T ty and T re appeared to be explained by changes in heat balance, whereas the sharp drop of T es could not be explained especially during the first 8 min after the release of LBNP. The results suggest that a fall in T cor after a release of LBNP is attributed to an increase in heat loss due to reflexive skin vasodilation and is dependent on the temperature of venous blood returning from the lower body. It is presumed that T es may not be an appropriate indicator for T cor when venous return changes rapidly.

  12. REVIEW OF TERMS FOR REGULATED VERSUS FORCED, NEUROCHEMICAL-INDUCED CHANGES IN BODY TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deviations of the body temperature of homeothermic animals may be regulated or forced. A regulated change in core temperature is caused by a natural or synthetic compound that displaces the set-point temperature. A forced shift occurs when an excessive environmental or endogenous...

  13. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  14. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, D J; Gilbert, C; Thierry, A-M; Currie, J; Le Maho, Y; Ancel, A

    2013-06-23

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40' S 140° 01' E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate. PMID:23466479

  15. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, D. J.; Gilbert, C.; Thierry, A.-M.; Currie, J.; Le Maho, Y.; Ancel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40′ S 140° 01′ E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate. PMID:23466479

  16. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. PMID:26724197

  17. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring. PMID:26214379

  18. A review of terms for regulated vs. forced, neurochemical-induced changes in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J

    1983-03-21

    Deviations of the body temperature of homeothermic animals may be regulated or forced. A regulated change in core temperature is caused by a natural or synthetic compound that displaces the set-point temperature. A forced shift occurs when an excessive environmental or endogenous heat load, or heat sink, exceeds the body's capacity to thermoregulate but does not affect set-point. A fever is the paradigm of a regulated increase in body temperature, but the term fever has acquired a strict pathological definition over the past two decades. Consequently, other forms of nonpathological, regulated elevations in body temperature have generally been classified as hyperthermia; and decreases in core temperature--either forced or regulated--have generally been classified as hypothermia. Since the terms hyperthermia and hypothermia fail to distinguish a regulated vs. a forced temperature change, a confusion of terms has been created in the literature. It would appear that "resisted or unregulated hyperthermia" and "hypothermia," respectively, are appropriate terms for describing a forced increase and decrease in core temperature. A nonpathological but regulated elevation in temperature may be defined as unresisted or regulated hyperthermia, whereas a regulated decrease in temperature may be termed unresisted or regulated hypothermia. This simple scheme appears to be the most practical means for distinguishing between forced and regulated changes in core temperature. PMID:6339853

  19. Prostaglandins, endotoxin and lipid A on body temperature in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Feldberg, W; Saxena, P N

    1975-01-01

    1. In unanaesthetized restrained rats kept at an ambient temperature of 21-23degrees C, rectal temperature was continuously monitored and the temperature effects of injections of prostaglandins, endotoxin from Salmonella abortus equi, lipid A, and antipyretics were examined. 2. Fever occurred when prostaglandin E1, E2, F1alpha or F2alpha (PGE1, PGE2, PGF1alpha, PGF2alpha) was injected into the cerebral ventricles in doses of 200 ng and 2 mug. PGE2 was the most potent prostaglandin followed in descending order by PGE1, PGF2alpha, and PGF1alpha. The fever produced by 2 mug of PGE1 and PGE2 was short and followed by a fall in temperature to below the pre-injection level. 3. I.V. injections of endotoxin and lipid A in doses of 3 or 10 mug usually caused a long lasting fall in temperature, but when injected into the cerebral ventricles in doses of 400 ng or 1 mug, they produced long lasting fevers. 4. Injected I.V. or I.P., indomethacin and paracetamol had a hypothermic action of their own. Indomethacin was more potent than paracetamol and both were more potent than injected I.P. 5. I.V. and I.P. injections of indomethacin and paracetamol did not reverse the hypothermia in response to I.V. endotoxin or lipid A, but the fever responses to their injection into the cerebral ventricles were prevented and abolished by the antipyretics. 6. It is concluded that in rats endotoxin and lipid A, or the endogenous pyrogens produced by them, do not readily pass through the blood-brain barrier into the brain tissue. If they do reach brain tissue, as when injected into the cerebral ventricles, they stimulate synthesis and release of prostaglandin in rats as they do in other species, and thereby produce fever. The hypothermia in response to I.V. endotoxin or lipid A, on the other hand, is thought to be independent of prostaglandin synthesis and to result from a direct toxic action on the skin vessels. PMID:1177107

  20. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Hardy, A.C. NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX )

    1991-07-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed. 13 refs.

  1. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    PubMed

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (p<0.05). In contrast, we observed that both SLA and Tb were higher during the dark-phase (p<0.01). Notably, the correlation analysis between the amount of SLA and the running capacity observed at each phase of the daily cycle revealed that, regardless of the time of the day, both types of locomotor physical activity have an important inherent component (r=0.864 and r=0.784, respectively, p<0.01) without a direct relationship between them. This finding provides further support for the existence of specific control mechanisms for each type of physical activity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the relationship between the body temperature and different types of physical activity might be affected by the light/dark cycle. These results mean that, although exercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  2. Effects of room temperature on physiological and subjective responses during whole-body bathing, half-body bathing and showering.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Ni, Furong; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    The effects of bathroom thermal conditions on physiological and subjective responses were evaluated before, during, and after whole-body bath (W-bath), half-body bath (H-bath) and showering. The air temperature of the dressing room and bathroom was controlled at 10 degrees C, 17.5 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 min under nine conditions on separate days. The water temperature of the bathtub and shower was controlled at 40 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body weight loss and blood characteristics (hematocrit: Hct, hemoglobin: Hb) were evaluated. Also, thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort (TC) and thermal acceptability (TA) were recorded. BP decreased rapidly during W-bath and H-bath compared to showering. HR during W-bath was significantly higher than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.01). The double products due to W-bath during bathing were also greater than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.05). There were no distinct differences in Hct and Hb among the nine conditions. However, significant differences in body weight loss were observed among the bathing methods: W-bath > H-bath > showering (p < 0.001). W-bath showed the largest increase in Tre and Tsk, followed by H-bath, and showering. Significant differences in Tre after bathing among the room temperatures were found only at H-bath. The changes in Tre after bathing for H-bath at 25 degrees C were similar to those for W-bath at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C. TS and TC after bathing significantly differed for the three bathing methods at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C (TS: p < 0.01 TC: p < 0.001). Especially, for showering, the largest number of subjects felt "cold" and "uncomfortable". Even though all of the subjects could accept the 10 degrees C condition after W-bath, such conditions were intolerable to half of them after showering. These results suggested that the

  3. Effects of GABA agonists on body temperature regulation in GABAB(1)−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Quéva, Christophe; Bremner-Danielsen, Marianne; Edlund, Anders; Jonas Ekstrand, A; Elg, Susanne; Erickson, Sven; Johansson, Thore; Lehmann, Anders; Mattsson, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    Activation of GABAB receptors evokes hypothermia in wildtype (GABAB(1)+/+) but not in GABAB receptor knockout (GABAB(1)−/−) mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the hypothermic and behavioural effects of the putative GABAB receptor agonist γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. In addition, basal body temperature was determined in GABAB(1)+/+, GABAB(1)+/− and GABAB(1)−/− mice. GABAB(1)−/− mice were generated by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Correct gene targeting was assessed by Southern blotting, PCR and Western blotting. GABAB receptor-binding sites were quantified with radioligand binding. Measurement of body temperature was done using subcutaneous temperature-sensitive chips, and behavioural changes after drug administration were scored according to a semiquantitative scale. GABAB(1)−/− mice had a short lifespan, probably caused by generalised seizure activity. No histopathological or blood chemistry changes were seen, but the expression of GABAB(2) receptor protein was below the detection limit in brains from GABAB(1)−/− mice, in the absence of changes in mRNA levels. GABAB receptor-binding sites were absent in brain membranes from GABAB(1)−/− mice. GABAB(1)−/− mice were hypothermic by approximately 1°C compared to GABAB(1)+/+ and GABAB(1)+/− mice. Injection of baclofen (9.6 mg kg−1) produced a large reduction in body temperature and behavioural effects in GABAB(1)+/+ and in GABAB(1)+/− mice, but GABAB(1)−/− mice were unaffected. The same pattern was seen after administration of GHB (400 mg kg−1). The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (2 mg kg−1), on the other hand, produced a more pronounced hypothermia in GABAB(1)−/−mice. In GABAB(1)+/+ and GABAB(1)+/− mice, muscimol induced sedation and reduced locomotor activity. However, when given to GABAB(1)−/− mice, muscimol triggered periods of intense jumping and wild running. It is concluded that

  4. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Hyun, Seogang; Kang, Jongkyun; Jeong, Kyunghwa; Paik, Donggi; Chung, Jongkyeong; Kim, Jaeseob

    2008-08-01

    Homoiotherms, for example mammals, regulate their body temperature with physiological responses such as a change of metabolic rate and sweating. In contrast, the body temperature of poikilotherms, for example Drosophila, is the result of heat exchange with the surrounding environment as a result of the large ratio of surface area to volume of their bodies. Accordingly, these animals must instinctively move to places with an environmental temperature as close as possible to their genetically determined desired temperature. The temperature that Drosophila instinctively prefers has a function equivalent to the 'set point' temperature in mammals. Although various temperature-gated TRP channels have been discovered, molecular and cellular components in Drosophila brain responsible for determining the desired temperature remain unknown. We identified these components by performing a large-scale genetic screen of temperature preference behaviour (TPB) in Drosophila. In parallel, we mapped areas of the Drosophila brain controlling TPB by targeted inactivation of neurons with tetanus toxin and a potassium channel (Kir2.1) driven with various brain-specific GAL4s. Here we show that mushroom bodies (MBs) and the cyclic AMP-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway are essential for controlling TPB. Furthermore, targeted expression of cAMP-PKA pathway components in only the MB was sufficient to rescue abnormal TPB of the corresponding mutants. Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants. PMID:18594510

  5. Comparison of remotely acquired deep-body and subdermal temperature measurements for detecting fever in cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Seawright, G.L.; Brown, R.R.; Campbell, K.; Levings, R.L.; Araki, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    Results of two studies in which deep-body and subdermal temperatures were compared with fevers that were experimentally induced with viruses are given. In the first study, test animals were held indoors where ambient temperatures were stable; in the second study, animals were held outdoors during the winter months when temperatures were highly variable. A computerized temperature telemetry system used for the studies is described for the first time. (PSB)

  6. On Noise Assessment for Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L; Thomas, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    A system noise study is presented for the blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft configured with advanced technologies that are projected to be available in the 2025 timeframe of the NASA N+2 definition. This system noise assessment shows that the noise levels of the baseline configuration, measured by the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL), have a large margin of 34 dB to the aircraft noise regulation of Stage 4. This confirms the acoustic benefits of the BWB shielding of engine noise, as well as other projected noise reduction technologies, but the noise margins are less than previously published assessments and are short of meeting the NASA N+2 noise goal. In establishing the relevance of the acoustic assessment framework, the design of the BWB configuration, the technical approach of the noise analysis, the databases and prediction tools used in the assessment are first described and discussed. The predicted noise levels and the component decomposition are then analyzed to identify the ranking order of importance of various noise components, revealing the prominence of airframe noise, which holds up the levels at all three noise certification locations and renders engine noise reduction technologies less effective. When projected airframe component noise reduction is added to the HWB configuration, it is shown that the cumulative noise margin to Stage 4 can reach 41.6 dB, nearly at the NASA goal. These results are compared with a previous NASA assessment with a different study framework. The approaches that yield projections of such low noise levels are discussed including aggressive assumptions on future technologies, assumptions on flight profile management, engine installation, and component noise reduction technologies. It is shown that reliable predictions of component noise also play an important role in the system noise assessment. The comparisons and discussions illustrate the importance of practical feasibilities and constraints in aircraft

  7. Thermal Imaging of Body Surface Temperature Distribution in Women with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The drastic reduction in body weight observed in anorexia nervosa (AN) leads to various endocrine changes and consequently to disturbance in thermoregulation mechanisms and body temperature. Thermography allows for a noninvasive diagnosis of the distribution of skin surface temperatures, which is especially important for difficult patients such as women with AN, who are often very sensitive and difficult to treat. The main aim of this study was to measure the mean temperatures (Tmean ) of selected body areas in young women diagnosed with AN and identify those areas where the temperature differences were particularly significant between healthy women and them. Additionally, we determined the relationships between body mass index, body composition (especially subcutaneous and VFM) and the value of mean surface temperature (Tmean ) in AN woman. In the subjects with AN, Tmean of the abdomen, lower back and thighs were significantly higher than in the reference group, while Tmean of the hands were significantly lower. Among other things, analysis showed a significant negative correlation between Tmean of the abdomen, lower back and thighs, and the mass of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The lower Tmean of the hand was directly proportional to the reduced anthropomorphic parameters. The direct evaluation of body surface temperature distribution could provide clinical implications for the treatment of anorexic patients, including the potential use of thermotherapy in stimulating the circulatory system, especially in hypothermia, bradycardia and hypotension. PMID:26234441

  8. Body temperature-related structural transitions of monotremal and human hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Digel, I; Maggakis-Kelemen, Ch; Zerlin, K F; Linder, Pt; Kasischke, N; Kayser, P; Porst, D; Temiz Artmann, A; Artmann, G M

    2006-10-15

    In this study, temperature-related structural changes were investigated in human, duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, body temperature T(b) = 31-33 degrees C), and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus, body temperature T(b) = 32-33 degrees C) hemoglobin using circular dichroism spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The average hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) and fractional (normalized) change in the ellipticity (F(obs)) at 222 +/- 2 nm of hemoglobin were measured. The temperature was varied stepwise from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C. The existence of a structural transition of human hemoglobin at the critical temperature T(c) between 36-37 degrees C was previously shown by micropipette aspiration experiments, viscosimetry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on light-scattering measurements, this study proves the onset of molecular aggregation at T(c). In two different monotremal hemoglobins (echidna and platypus), the critical transition temperatures were found between 32-33 degrees C, which are close to the species' body temperature T(b). The data suggest that the correlation of the structural transition's critical temperature T(c) and the species' body temperature T(b) is not mere coincidence but, instead, is a more widespread structural phenomenon possibly including many other proteins. PMID:16844747

  9. Considerations for the measurement of core, skin and mean body temperatures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Tipton, Michael J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-12-01

    Despite previous reviews and commentaries, significant misconceptions remain concerning deep-body (core) and skin temperature measurement in humans. Therefore, the authors have assembled the pertinent Laws of Thermodynamics and other first principles that govern physical and physiological heat exchanges. The resulting review is aimed at providing theoretical and empirical justifications for collecting and interpreting these data. The primary emphasis is upon deep-body temperatures, with discussions of intramuscular, subcutaneous, transcutaneous and skin temperatures included. These are all turnover indices resulting from variations in local metabolism, tissue conduction and blood flow. Consequently, inter-site differences and similarities may have no mechanistic relationship unless those sites have similar metabolic rates, are in close proximity and are perfused by the same blood vessels. Therefore, it is proposed that a gold standard deep-body temperature does not exist. Instead, the validity of each measurement must be evaluated relative to one's research objectives, whilst satisfying equilibration and positioning requirements. When using thermometric computations of heat storage, the establishment of steady-state conditions is essential, but for clinically relevant states, targeted temperature monitoring becomes paramount. However, when investigating temperature regulation, the response characteristics of each temperature measurement must match the forcing function applied during experimentation. Thus, during dynamic phases, deep-body temperatures must be measured from sites that track temperature changes in the central blood volume. PMID:25455943

  10. 16 CFR 1112.25 - What are a third party conformity assessment body's recordkeeping responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conformity assessment body must make copies of the original (non-English language) available to the CPSC... body's recordkeeping responsibilities? 1112.25 Section 1112.25 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... § 1112.25 What are a third party conformity assessment body's recordkeeping responsibilities? (a)...

  11. A comparison of rectal and subcutaneous body temperature measurement in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Cilia, J; Piper, D C; Upton, N; Hagan, J J

    1998-07-01

    Two methods of measuring body temperature were compared in common marmosets. Subcutaneous temperatures were measured remotely via previously implanted subcutaneous microchips (Plexx BV, IPTT-100) prior to measurement of rectal temperature using a conventional rectal probe. Marmosets were treated with saline or the brain penetrant, 5-HT1A/B/D receptor agonist SKF-99101H (3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-4-chloro-5-propoxyindole hemifumarate) (0.3-3 mg/kg SC), which has previously been shown to induce hypothermia in guinea pigs. Body temperature was sampled immediately before drug administration and at 30-min intervals thereafter for a period of 2.5 h. SKF-99101H dose-dependently induced hypothermia in the common marmoset and there was close agreement between rectal and subcutaneous body temperatures, with an average difference in absolute body temperature of 0.26+/-0.02 degrees C. The data show that subcutaneously implanted microchips provide a simple, reliable measure of body temperature in common marmosets which is sensitive to pharmacological intervention, minimizes handling induced stress, and is minimally invasive. PMID:9920530

  12. An assessment of body appreciation and its relationship to sexual function in women.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Reece, Michael; Dennis, Barbara; Sanders, Stephanie; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2012-01-01

    Objectification theory posits internalization of an observer's gaze may negatively impact women's feelings about their bodies, which may subsequently affect their sexual function. Subjective body image and body size (i.e., body mass index [BMI]) have mixed relationships to women's sexuality, but assessment of positive body image as a sign of resistance to objectification has not been researched. This study explored relations between body appreciation and sexual function in women and assessed whether body size impacted this relationship. Cross-sectional data were collected online from 247 women, ages 18 to 58. Body appreciation scores were modestly negatively correlated with BMI, while BMI was not related to sexual function scores. After controlling for sexual orientation, partner status, and age, body appreciation predicted the arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction aspects of sexual function. Practitioners' encouragement of body appreciation may improve sexual function in a way that encouraging a reduction in body size may not. PMID:22018776

  13. Body Temperature Monitoring Using Subcutaneously Implanted Thermo-loggers from Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.; Bok, J. D.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, D.; Lee, I.; Kang, S. K.; Choi, Y. J.

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature (BT) monitoring in cattle could be used to early detect fever from infectious disease or physiological events. Various ways to measure BT have been applied at different locations on cattle including rectum, reticulum, milk, subcutis and ear canal. In other to evaluate the temperature stability and reliability of subcutaneous temperature (ST) in highly fluctuating field conditions for continuous BT monitoring, long term ST profiles were collected and analyzed from cattle in autumn/winter and summer season by surgically implanted thermo-logger devices. Purposes of this study were to assess ST in the field condition as a reference BT and to determine any location effect of implantation on ST profile. In results, ST profile in cattle showed a clear circadian rhythm with daily lowest at 05:00 to 07:00 AM and highest around midnight and rather stable temperature readings (mean±standard deviation [SD], 37.1°C to 37.36°C±0.91°C to 1.02°C). STs are 1.39°C to 1.65°C lower than the rectal temperature and sometimes showed an irregular temperature drop below the normal physiologic one: 19.4% or 36.4% of 54,192 readings were below 36.5°C or 37°C, respectively. Thus, for BT monitoring purposes in a fever-alarming-system, a correction algorithm is necessary to remove the influences of ambient temperature and animal resting behavior especially in winter time. One way to do this is simply discard outlier readings below 36.5°C or 37°C resulting in a much improved mean±SD of 37.6°C±0.64°C or 37.8°C±0.55°C, respectively. For location the upper scapula region seems the most reliable and convenient site for implantation of a thermo-sensor tag in terms of relatively low influence by ambient temperature and easy insertion compared to lower scapula or lateral neck. PMID:26732455

  14. Body Temperature Monitoring Using Subcutaneously Implanted Thermo-loggers from Holstein Steers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Bok, J D; Lee, H J; Lee, H G; Kim, D; Lee, I; Kang, S K; Choi, Y J

    2016-02-01

    Body temperature (BT) monitoring in cattle could be used to early detect fever from infectious disease or physiological events. Various ways to measure BT have been applied at different locations on cattle including rectum, reticulum, milk, subcutis and ear canal. In other to evaluate the temperature stability and reliability of subcutaneous temperature (ST) in highly fluctuating field conditions for continuous BT monitoring, long term ST profiles were collected and analyzed from cattle in autumn/winter and summer season by surgically implanted thermo-logger devices. Purposes of this study were to assess ST in the field condition as a reference BT and to determine any location effect of implantation on ST profile. In results, ST profile in cattle showed a clear circadian rhythm with daily lowest at 05:00 to 07:00 AM and highest around midnight and rather stable temperature readings (mean±standard deviation [SD], 37.1°C to 37.36°C±0.91°C to 1.02°C). STs are 1.39°C to 1.65°C lower than the rectal temperature and sometimes showed an irregular temperature drop below the normal physiologic one: 19.4% or 36.4% of 54,192 readings were below 36.5°C or 37°C, respectively. Thus, for BT monitoring purposes in a fever-alarming-system, a correction algorithm is necessary to remove the influences of ambient temperature and animal resting behavior especially in winter time. One way to do this is simply discard outlier readings below 36.5°C or 37°C resulting in a much improved mean±SD of 37.6°C±0.64°C or 37.8°C±0.55°C, respectively. For location the upper scapula region seems the most reliable and convenient site for implantation of a thermo-sensor tag in terms of relatively low influence by ambient temperature and easy insertion compared to lower scapula or lateral neck. PMID:26732455

  15. A study on the measurement of the core body temperature change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through MR temperature mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Yu, Young; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the change in the heat generated during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a self-manufactured phantom and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the change in the temperature of the core body and the tissues surrounding the phantom. In this experiment, the image and the phase image were obtained simultaneously from a gradient echo-based sequence using 1.5-Tesla MRI equipment and a 12-channel head coil. The temperature mapping technique was used to calculate the change in temperature. The regions of interest (ROIs) (ROI 1 - ROI 6) were set with a focus on the area where the RFA was performed, according to the temperature distribution, before monitoring the temperature change for one hour in time intervals of five minutes. The results showed that the temperature change in the ROI with time was largest in the ROI 1 and smallest in the ROI 5. In addition, after the RFA procedure, the temperature decreased from the initial value to 0 °C in one hour. The temperature changes in the core body and the surrounding tissues were confirmed by MRI temperature mapping, which is a noninvasive method.

  16. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  17. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    PubMed

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  18. Improvements in X-band transmitter phase stability through Klystron body temperature regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the techniques used and experimental results obtained in improving transmitter stability by control of the klystron body temperature. Related work in the measurement of klystron phase control parameters (pushing factors) is also discussed. The contribution of wave guide temperature excursions to uplink phase stability is presented. Suggestions are made as to the direction of future work in this area.

  19. Improvements in X-band transmitter phase stability through klystron body temperature regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the techniques used and experimental results obtained in improving transmitter stability by control of the klystron body temperature. Related work in the measurement of klystron phase control parameters (pushing factors) is also discussed. The contribution of waveguide temperature excursions to uplink phase stability is presented. Suggestions are made as to the direction of future work in this area.

  20. In utero heat stress increases postnatal core body temperature in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In utero heat stress (IUHS) negatively impacts postnatal development, but how it alters future body temperature parameters and energetic metabolism is not well-understood. Objectives were to characterize future temperature indices and bioenergetic markers in pigs originating from differing in utero...

  1. Body temperature changes induced by huddling in breeding male emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Caroline; Maho, Yvon Le; Perret, Martine; Ancel, André

    2007-01-01

    Huddling is the key energy-saving mechanism for emperor penguins to endure their 4-mo incubation fast during the Antarctic winter, but the underlying physiological mechanisms of this energy saving have remained elusive. The question is whether their deep body (core) temperature may drop in association with energy sparing, taking into account that successful egg incubation requires a temperature of about 36 degrees C and that ambient temperatures of up to 37.5 degrees C may be reached within tight huddles. Using data loggers implanted into five unrestrained breeding males, we present here the first data on body temperature changes throughout the breeding cycle of emperor penguins, with particular emphasis on huddling bouts. During the pairing period, core temperature decreased progressively from 37.5 +/- 0.4 degrees C to 36.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C, associated with a significant temperature drop of 0.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C during huddling. In case of egg loss, body temperature continued to decrease to 35.5 +/- 0.4 degrees C, with a further 0.9 degrees C decrease during huddling. By contrast, a constant core temperature of 36.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C was maintained during successful incubation, even during huddling, suggesting a trade-off between the demands for successful egg incubation and energy saving. However, such a limited drop in body temperature cannot explain the observed energy savings of breeding emperor penguins. Furthermore, we never observed any signs of hyperthermia in huddling birds that were exposed to ambient temperatures as high as above 35 degrees C. We suggest that the energy savings of huddling birds is due to a metabolic depression, the extent of which depends on a reduction of body surface areas exposed to cold. PMID:16959865

  2. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the body flap subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbiter Body Flap (BF) subsystem hardware are documented. The BF is a large aerosurface located at the trailing edge of the lower aft fuselage of the Orbiter. The proper function of the BF is essential during the dynamic flight phases of ascent and entry. During the ascent phase of flight, the BF trails in a fixed position. For entry, the BF provides elevon load relief, trim control, and acts as a heat shield for the main engines. Specifically, the BF hardware comprises the following components: Power Drive Unit (PDU), rotary actuators, and torque tubes. The IOA analysis process utilized available BF hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 35 failure modes analyzed, 19 were determined to be PCIs.

  3. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  4. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the ventilatory response to rising body temperature during exercise.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keiji; Kawashima, Takayo; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of menstrual cycle on the ventilatory sensitivity to rising body temperature, ten healthy women exercised for ~60 min on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake during the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, minute ventilation, and tidal volume were all significantly higher at baseline and during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. On the other hand, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly lower during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. Plotting ventilatory parameters against esophageal temperature revealed there to be no significant menstrual cycle-related differences in the slopes or intercepts of the regression lines, although minute ventilation and tidal volume did significantly differ during exercise with mild hyperthermia. To evaluate the cutaneous vasodilatory response, relative laser-Doppler flowmetry values were plotted against mean body temperature, which revealed that the mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly higher in the luteal phase than the follicular phase, but there were no significant differences in the sensitivity or peak values. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle phase influences the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise and the ventilatory response at rest and during exercise with mild hyperthermia, but it does not influence ventilatory responses during exercise with moderate hyperthermia. PMID:22604882

  5. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds. PMID:26462135

  6. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. PMID:22370094

  7. Body temperature of the parasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera) during host location by vibrational sounding.

    PubMed

    Kroder, Stefan; Samietz, Jörg; Stabentheiner, Anton; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The pupal parasitoid Pimpla turionellae (L.) uses self-produced vibrations transmitted on the plant substrate, so-called vibrational sounding, to locate immobile concealed pupal hosts. The wasps are able to use vibrational sounding reliably over a broad range of ambient temperatures and even show an increased signal frequency and intensity at low temperatures. The present study investigates how control of body temperature in the wasps by endothermic mechanisms may facilitate host location under changing thermal environments. Insect body temperature is measured with real-time IR thermography on plant-stem models at temperature treatments of 10, 18, 26 and 30 °C, whereas behaviour is recorded with respect to vibrational host location. The results reveal a low-level endothermy that likely interferes with vibrational sound production because it occurs only in nonsearching females. At the lowest temperature of 10 °C, the thoracic temperature is 1.15 °C warmer than the ambient surface temperature whereas, at the high temperatures of 26 and 30 ° C, the wasps cool down their thorax by 0.29 and 0.47 °C, respectively, and their head by 0.45 and 0.61 °C below ambient surface temperature. By contrast, regardless of ambient temperature, searching females always have a slightly elevated body temperature of at most 0.30 °C above the ambient surface temperature. Behavioural observations indicate that searching females interrupt host location more frequently at suboptimal temperatures, presumably due to the requirements of thermoregulation. It is assumed that both mechanisms, producing vibrations for host location and low-level endothermy, are located in the thorax. Endothermy by thoracic muscle work probably disturbs signal structure of vibrational sounding, so the processes cannot be used at the same time. PMID:22140295

  8. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Jill I.; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C.; Raymond, Richard M.; Opp, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24 – 48 hours. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6–72 hour post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are

  9. A Macintosh and Windows program for assessing body-image disturbance using adjustable image distortion.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji

    2002-02-01

    Body image is one of the most important concepts in the study of eating disorders. The assessment and treatment of body-image issues are considered to be integral aspects of assessment and clinical management of eating disorders (Thompson, 1996b). The program, BodyImage, is software for the assessment of body-image disturbance. It uses an image-distorting technique to estimate body size. The image of the whole body or parts of the body can be captured as a digital image by a digital camera. Response data from participants are recorded as ASCII files so that other computer programs such as spreadsheets or word processing programs can handle the data. BodyImage works on personal computers, both Macintosh and Windows. It is available at no cost, and it can be obtained from the following URL: http://homepage2.nifty.com/s_shibata/softwares/bodyimage.html. PMID:12060995

  10. Assessing stream temperature response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature controls aquatic ecosystem function by directly influencing water quality, ecosystem productivity, and the physiological functioning of aquatic organisms. To date, there are limited studies of the impacts of environmental disturbance on stream temperature, particularly on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. This region provides key habitat for native salmonid species such as westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are listed as ‘threatened’ and ‘species of special concern’, respectively. Increases in stream temperature could limit habitat availability, reduce competitive advantage, and potentially increase mortality rates for these native species. This study uses field data collected at high spatiotemporal resolution to develop a spatial stream temperature model that simulates the mass and energy balance of the stream system. Preliminary field results demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability in processes governing stream temperature in three study stream reaches. Groundwater/surface water interactions, topographic setting, and local meteorological conditions all contribute in determining stream thermal regimes. This work discusses how these primary drivers of stream temperature can be incorporated into a physically based spatial model, and demonstrates how depending on the scale of interest, the temperature of a stream can be governed by very different contributing factors.

  11. The temperature of unheated bodies in a high-speed gas stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E; Weise, W

    1941-01-01

    The present report deals with temperature measurements on cylinders of 0.2 to 3 millimeters diameter in longitudinal and transverse air flow at speeds of 100 to 300 meters per second. Within the explored test range, that is, the probable laminar boundary layer region, the temperature of the cylinders in axial flow is practically independent of the speed and in good agreement with Pohlhausen's theoretical values; Whereas, in transverse flow, cylinders of certain diameter manifest a close relationship with speed, the ratio of the temperature above the air of the body to the adiabatic stagnation temperature decreases with rising speed and then rises again from a Mach number of 0.6. The importance of this "specific temperature" of the body for heat-transfer studies at high speed is discussed.

  12. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program. PMID:24675759

  13. Locatable-Body Temperature Monitoring Based on Semi-Active UHF RFID Tags

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program. PMID:24675759

  14. Biophysical Assessment and Predicted Thermophysiologic Effects of Body Armor

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Adam W.; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Karis, Anthony J.; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Military personnel are often required to wear ballistic protection in order to defend against enemies. However, this added protection increases mass carried and imposes additional thermal burden on the individual. Body armor (BA) is known to reduce combat casualties, but the effects of BA mass and insulation on the physical performance of soldiers are less well documented. Until recently, the emphasis has been increasing personal protection, with little consideration of the adverse impacts on human performance. Objective The purpose of this work was to use sweating thermal manikin and mathematical modeling techniques to quantify the tradeoff between increased BA protection, the accompanying mass, and thermal effects on human performance. Methods Using a sweating thermal manikin, total insulation (IT, clo) and vapor permeability indexes (im) were measured for a baseline clothing ensemble with and without one of seven increasingly protective U.S. Army BA configurations. Using mathematical modeling, predictions were made of thermal impact on humans wearing each configuration while working in hot/dry (desert), hot/humid (jungle), and temperate environmental conditions. Results In nearly still air (0.4 m/s), IT ranged from 1.57 to 1.63 clo and im from 0.35 to 0.42 for the seven BA conditions, compared to IT and im values of 1.37 clo and 0.45 respectively, for the baseline condition (no BA). Conclusion Biophysical assessments and predictive modeling show a quantifiable relationship exists among increased protection and increased thermal burden and decreased work capacity. This approach enables quantitative analysis of the tradeoffs between ballistic protection, thermal-work strain, and physical work performance. PMID:26200906

  15. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2009-10-22

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design to investigate relationships between growth/development and macronutrient utilization (conversion of ingesta to body mass) as a function of temperature. A range of macronutrient intake values for insects at 26, 32 and 38 degrees C was achieved by offering individuals high-protein diets, high-carbohydrate diets or a choice between both. Locusts placed in a thermal gradient selected temperatures near 38 degrees C, maximizing rates of weight gain; however, this enhanced growth rate came at the cost of poor protein and carbohydrate utilization. Protein and carbohydrate were equally digested across temperature treatments, but once digested both macronutrients were converted to growth most efficiently at the intermediate temperature (32 degrees C). Body temperature preference thus yielded maximal growth rates at the expense of efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:19625322

  16. Assessing the Impact of Temperature on Grape Phenolic Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the impact of fruit temperature on the phenolic metabolism of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) grown under field conditions with controlled exposure to sunlight. Individual cluster temperatures were manipulated in situ. Diurnal temperature fluctuation was damped by da...

  17. Calculation of temperatures in microwave-heated two-dimensional ceramic bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.W. . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1993-08-01

    Temperatures are calculated in a ceramic material exposed to microwaves. The method entails calculation of electromagnetic fields by integral formulation and subsequent solution of the heat conduction equation for temperatures in a ceramic piece. The solution of the equations is numerical and the parameters used are estimates for properties of SiC. The results include a case where the complex dielectric constant is varied with temperature. The computed results demonstrate that SiC can be heated to high temperatures (1,000-1,500 K) and that both the temperature and the temperature gradient can be controlled by varying the power density of the microwaves and the external cooling. The results also exhibit high sensitivity of temperatures to the dimensions of the material and the orientation in which microwaves impinge on the ceramic body.

  18. Energy intake and the circadian rhythm of core body temperature in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Blache, D; Fuller, A

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that different levels of energy intake would alter the circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Tc) in ovariectomized sheep. We measured arterial blood temperature every 5 min while ten sheep were offered a maintenance diet, 70% of maintenance requirements, or 150% of maintenance requirements, for 12 days, and later fasted for 2 days. The rhythmicity of Tc was analyzed for its dominant period and then a least-squares cosine wave was fitted to the data that generated a mesor, amplitude, and acrophase for the rhythm. When energy intake was less than maintenance requirements we observed a significant decrease in the mesor and minimum, and a significant increase in the amplitude and goodness of fit, of the body temperature rhythm. Fasting also resulted in a decrease in the maximum of the body temperature rhythm. Feeding the sheep to excess did not affect the mesor or maximum of the rhythm, but did result in a decrease in the goodness of fit of the rhythm in those sheep that consumed more energy than when they were on the maintenance diet, indicating that circadian rhythmicity was decreased when energy intake increased. Our data indicate that modulation of the circadian rhythm of body temperature, characterized by inactive-phase hypothermia, occurs when energy intake is reduced. The response may be an adaptation to energy imbalance in large mammals. PMID:24303185

  19. A Pilot Study to Examine Maturation of Body Temperature Control in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Robin B.; Levy, Janet; Katz, Laurence; Guenther, Bob; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low birth weight (EBLW) infants. Design A case study design. Setting The study took place in a level four neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. Participants Four ELBW infants, less than 29 weeks gestational age at birth. Methods Physiologic data were measured every minute for the first 5 days of life: peripheral perfusion using perfusion index by Masimo and body temperature using thermistors. Body temperature was also measured using infrared thermal imaging. Stimulation and care events were recorded over the first 5 days using video which was coded with Noldus Observer software. Novel analytical models using the state space approach to time series analysis were developed to explore maturation of neural control over central and peripheral body temperature. Results/Conclusion Results from this pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using multiple instruments to measure temperature and perfusion in ELBW infants. This approach added rich data to our case study design and set a clinical context with which to interpret longitudinal physiological data. PMID:24004312

  20. Chronic functional ethanol tolerance in mice influenced by body temperature during acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Alkana, R.L.; Bejanian, M.; Syapin, P.J.; Finn, D.A.

    1987-07-27

    Previous studies have found that body temperature during intoxication influences brain sensitivity to ethanol with the sensitivity being less at cool than at warm body temperatures. If this effect of temperature reflects alterations in the acute membrane perturbing action of ethanol, as suggested by in vitro studies, then body temperature reduction during tolerance acquisition should reduce the effectiveness of a given ethanol concentration and, in turn, should reduce the development of chronic functional ethanol tolerance. To test this hypothesis, adult drug-naive C57BL/6J mice were injected i.p. once daily for five days with 3.6 g/kg ethanol and were exposed to 34C or 25C for five hours following injection. On day 6, both ethanol acquisition groups and naive mice were injected i.p. with 4.0 g/kg ethanol and exposed to 25C. During acquisition, the group exposed to 34C had significantly higher body temperatures than the mice exposed to 25C, and there were no statistically significant differences in blood ethanol concentrations between treatment conditions. The extent of tolerance on day 6 was significantly greater in the 34C acquisition group than in the 25C acquisition group. 31 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  1. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by "the…

  2. Complexity analysis of the temperature curve: new information from body temperature.

    PubMed

    Varela, Manuel; Jimenez, Leticia; Fariña, Rosa

    2003-05-01

    An attempt was made to develop a truly quantitative approach to temperature, based on models derived from nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. Three different procedures for measuring the degree of complexity of the temperature curve were compared, and the possible correlations between these measurements and certain physiopathologically relevant parameters in healthy subjects were examined. Twenty-three healthy subjects (10 males, 13 females) between 18 and 85 years of age had their temperature measured every 10 min for at least 30 h. These time series were used to determine the approximate entropy (ApEn), a detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and the fractal dimension by the compass method (FD(c)). There was good correlation between the different methods of measuring the complexity of the curve [ r=-0.603 for ApEn vs. DFA ( p=0.002), r=0.438 for ApEn vs. FDc ( p=0.04) and r=-0.647 for DFA vs. FDc ( p=0.0008)]. Both the fractal dimension and the approximate entropy were inversely correlated with age [ r=-0.637 ( p=0.001) and r=-0.417 ( p=0.03), respectively], while the DFA increased with age ( r=0.413, p=0.04). The results thus suggest that complexity of the temperature curve decreases with age. The complexity of the temperature curve can be quantified in a consistent fashion. Age is associated with lower complexity of the temperature curve. PMID:12736830

  3. Risperidone alters food intake, core body temperature, and locomotor activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Mark B.; Li, Xingsheng; Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia; DiCostanzo, Catherine A.; Jamison, Wendi G.; Kesterson, Robert A.; Allison, David B.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2009-01-01

    Risperidone induces significant weight gain in female mice; however, the underlying mechanisms related to this effect are unknown. We investigated the effects of risperidone on locomotor activity, core body temperature, and uncoupling protein (UCP) and hypothalamic orexin mRNA expression. Female C57BL/6J mice were acclimated to individual housing and randomly assigned to either risperidone (4 mg/kg BW*day) or placebo (PLA). Activity and body temperature were measured over 48-hour periods twice a week for 3 weeks. Food intake and body weights were measured weekly. UCP1 (BAT), UCP3 (gastrocnemius), and orexin (hypothalamus) mRNA expressions were measured using RT-PCR. Risperidone-treated mice consumed more food (p=0.050) and gained more weight (p=0.0001) than PLA-treated mice after 3 weeks. During the initial 2-days of treatment, there was an acute effect of treatment on activity (p=0.046), but not body temperature (p=0.290). During 3 weeks of treatment, average core body temperatures were higher in risperidone-treated mice compared to controls during the light phase (p=0.0001), and tended to be higher during the dark phase (p=0.057). Risperidone-treated mice exhibited lower activity levels than controls during the dark phase (p=0.006); there were no differences in activity during the light phase (p=0.47). UCP1 (p<0.01) and UCP3 (p<0.05) mRNA expressions were greater in risperidone-treated mice compared to controls, whereas, orexin mRNA expression was lower in risperidone-treated mice (p<0.01). These results suggest that risperidone-induced weight gain in mice is a consequence of increased energy intake and reduced activity, while the elevation in body temperature may be a result of thermogenic effect of food intake and elevated UCP1, UCP3, and a reduced hypothalamic orexin expression. PMID:19084548

  4. Thermal regime and temperature stresses in bodies during thermoradiational heating. [application of perturbation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chistopyanova, N. V.; Chumakov, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    An approach is developed to the application of the perturbation method for the solution of problems with essential external nonlinearities, based on identification in the boundary condition of a small nonlinear complex which is considered a perturbing function. The solutions obtained in the first approximation with error of 1 to 2% in calculating the unsteady temperature fields are then used to determine the temperature stresses and deformations in solid bodies of classical form.

  5. 21 CFR 26.68 - Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies. 26.68 Section 26.68 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.68 Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies....

  6. 21 CFR 26.67 - Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies. 26.67 Section 26.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.67 Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies....

  7. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations. PMID:26779953

  8. Kangen-karyu raises surface body temperature through oxidative stress modification

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Aki; Okamoto, Takuya; Kimura, Satomi; Nagano, Yumiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tomita, Tsutomu; Oowada, Shigeru; Aoyagi, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    Kangen-karyu, a prescription containing six herbs, has been shown to achieve its pharmacological effect through oxidative stress-dependent pathways in animal models. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the antioxidative effect and pharmacological mechanisms of Kangen-karyu, specifically its body temperature elevating effect in humans. Healthy human volunteers, age 35 ± 15 years old, were enrolled in this study. Surface body temperature, serum nitrite, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities, and inflammatory cytokines were investigated before and 120 min after Kangen-karyu oral intake. Kangen-karyu significantly increased the surface-body temperature of the entire body; this effect was more remarkable in the upper body and continued for more than 120 min. Accompanying this therapeutic effect, serum nitrite levels were increased 120 min after oral administration. Serum ROS scavenging activities were enhanced against singlet oxygen and were concomitantly decreased against the alkoxyl radical. Serum nitrite levels and superoxide scavenging activities were positively correlated, suggesting that Kangen-karyu affects the O2•−-NO balance in vivo. Kangen-karyu had no effect on IL-6, TNF-α and adiponectin levels. These results indicate that the therapeutic effect of Kangen-karyu is achieved through NO- and ROS-dependent mechanisms. Further, this mechanism is not limited to ROS production, but includes ROS-ROS or ROS-NO interactions. PMID:27257340

  9. Individual and demographic consequences of reduced body condition following repeated exposure to high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janet L; Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J; Clayton, Mark; Peters, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Although the lethal consequences of extreme heat are increasingly reported in the literature, the fitness costs of exposure to sublethal high air temperatures, typically identified in the 30-40 degrees C range, are poorly understood. We examine the effect of high (> or = 35 degrees C) daily maxima on body condition of a semiarid population of White-plumed Honeyeaters, Ptilotula penicillatus, monitored between 1986 and 2012. During this 26-yr period, temperature has risen, on average, by 0.06 degrees C each year at the site, the frequency of days with thermal maxima > or = 35 degrees C has increased and rainfall has declined. Exposure to high temperatures affected body condition of White-plumed Honeyeaters, but only in low-rainfall conditions. There was no effect of a single day of exposure to temperatures > or = 35 degrees C but repeated exposure was associated with reduced body condition: 3.0% reduction in body mass per day of exposure. Rainfall in the previous 30 d ameliorated these effects, with reduced condition evident only in dry conditions. Heat-exposed males with reduced body condition were less likely to be recaptured at the start of the following spring; they presumably died. Heat-exposed females, regardless of body condition, showed lower survival than exposed males, possibly due to their smaller body mass. The higher mortality of females and smaller males exposed to temperatures > or = 35 degrees C may have contributed to the increase in mean body size of this population over 23 years. Annual survival declined across time concomitant with increasing frequency of days > or = 35 degrees C and decreasing rainfall. Our study is one of few to identify a proximate cause of climate change related mortality, and associated long-term demographic consequence. Our results have broad implications for avian communities living in arid and semiarid regions of Australia, and other mid-latitudes regions where daily maximum temperatures already approach physiological

  10. Self sterilization of bodies during outer planet entry. [atmospheric temperature effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Jaworski, W.; Taylor, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    As a body encounters the atmosphere of an outer planet, whether accidentally or by plan, it will be subjected to heat loads which could result in high temperature conditions that render terrestrial organisms on or within the body non-viable. To determine whether an irregularly shaped entering body, consisting of several different materials, would be sterilized during inadvertent entry at high velocity, the thermal response of a typical outer planet spacecraft instrument was studied. The results indicate that the Teflon-insulated cable and electronic circuit boards may not experience sterilizing temperatures during a Jupiter, Saturn, or Titan entry. Another conclusion of the study is that small plastic particles entering Saturn from outer space have wider survival corridors than do those at Jupiter.

  11. Central actions of calcitonin on body temperature and intestinal motility in rats: evidence for different mediations.

    PubMed

    Fargeas, M J; Fioramonti, J; Buéno, L

    1985-06-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of calcitonin and PGE2 on intestinal motility and body temperature were examined in conscious rats chronically fitted with intraparietal electrodes in the small intestine, a cannula in a cerebral lateral ventricle and a subcutaneous thermistor probe. Both calcitonin and PGE2 restored the fasted pattern of intestinal motility in fed rats and induced an increase in body temperature. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase with calcium antagonistic properties, and TMB-8, an intracellular calcium antagonist, blocked the effects of calcitonin on intestinal motility and body temperature. Piroxicam, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase which does not affect calcium uptake blocked the thermic but not the intestinal effects of calcitonin. TMB-8 but not indomethacin or piroxicam partially blocked the effects of PGE2 on both intestinal motility and body temperature. It is concluded that the central hyperthermic effect of calcitonin is mediated through the formation and the release of prostaglandins whereas the central action of calcitonin on digestive motility results from intracerebral effects on calcium fluxes. PMID:3875880

  12. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues. PMID:26954265

  13. Body core temperature of rats subjected to daily exercise limited to a fixed time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shido, O.; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Sakurada, Sotaro; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Nagasaka, Tetsuo

    Several timed daily environmental cues alter the pattern of nycthemeral variations in body core temperature in rodents. The present study investigated the effect of timed exercise on variations of daily body core temperature. Male rats were housed in cages with a running wheel at an ambient temperature of 24° C with a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. Timed daily exercise rats (TEX) were allowed access to the wheel for 6 h in the last half of the dark phase, freely exercising rats (FEX) could run at any time, and sedentary rats (NEX) were not allowed to run. After a 3-week exercise period, all animals were denied access to the wheel. The intraabdominal temperatures (Tab) and spontaneous activities of rats were measured for 6 days after the exercise period. The Tab values of the TEX rats were significantly higher than those of the other two groups only in the last half of the dark phase, while Tab in the FEX and NEX rats showed no significant difference. The specific Tab changes in the TEX rats lasted for 2 days after the exercise period. Spontaneous activity levels were higher in the TEX rats than the FEX and NEX rats in the last half of the dark phase for 1 day after the exercise period. The results suggest that daily exercise limited to a fixed time per day modifies nycthemeral variations of body core temperature in rats so that the temperature increases during the period when the animals had previously exercised. Such a rise in body core temperature is partly attributed to an increase in the spontaneous activity level.

  14. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis. PMID:27068136

  15. Effects of Heat Wave on Body Temperature and Blood Pressure in the Poor and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ahn, Byungok; Choi, Kyusik

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate the acute effects of heat stress on body temperature and blood pressure of elderly individuals living in poor housing conditions. Methods Repeated measurements of the indoor temperature, relative humidity, body temperature, and blood pressure were conducted for 20 elderly individuals living in low-cost dosshouses in Seoul during hot summer days in 2010. Changes in the body temperature, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) according to variations in the indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA controlling for age, sex, alcohol, and smoking. Results Average indoor and outdoor temperatures were 31.47℃ (standard deviation [SD], 0.97℃) and 28.15℃ (SD, 2.03℃), respectively. Body temperature increased by 0.21℃ (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.26℃) and 0.07℃ (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.10℃) with an increase in the indoor and outdoor temperature of 1℃. DBP decreased by 2.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.05 to 4.05 mmHg), showing a statistical significance, as the indoor temperature increased by 1℃, while it increased by 0.20 mmHg (95% CI, -0.83 to 1.22 mmHg) as outdoor temperature increased by 1℃. SBP decreased by 1.75 mmHg (95% CI, -1.11 to 4.61 mmHg) and 0.35 mmHg (95% CI, -1.04 to 1.73 mmHg), as the indoor and outdoor temperature increased by 1℃, respectively. The effects of relative humidity on SBP and DBP were not statistically significant for both indoor and outdoor. Conclusions The poor and elderly are directly exposed to heat waves, while their vital signs respond sensitively to increase in temperature. Careful adaptation strategies to climate change considering socioeconomic status are therefore necessary. PMID:22888472

  16. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, J; Teller, C; Andersen, S L; Jensen, F B; Hyldig, T; Nielsen, B

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature (Tes) = 35.9 +/- 0.2, 37.4 +/- 0. 1, or 38.2 +/- 0.1 (SE) degrees C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 +/- 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40 degrees C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05 degrees C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0 degrees C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40. 1-40.2 degrees C, muscle temperature = 40.7-40.9 degrees C, skin temperature = 37.0-37.2 degrees C) and cardiovascular strain (heart rate = 196-198 beats/min, cardiac output = 19.9-20.8 l/min). Time to exhaustion was inversely related to the initial body temperature: 63 +/- 3, 46 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2 min with initial Tes of approximately 36, 37, and 38 degrees C, respectively (all P < 0.05). Similarly, with different rates of heat storage, all subjects reached exhaustion at similar Tes and muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40. 7-40.9 degrees C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C during high vs. low rate of heat storage, respectively, P < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was significantly shorter at the high than at the lower rate of heat storage (31 +/- 4 vs. 56 +/- 11 min, respectively, P < 0.05). Increases in heart rate and reductions in stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40 degrees C), with skin blood flow plateauing at Tes of approximately 38 degrees C. These

  17. Using pairs of physiological models to estimate temporal variation in amphibian body temperature.

    PubMed

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A

    2014-10-01

    Physical models are often used to estimate ectotherm body temperatures, but designing accurate models for amphibians is difficult because they can vary in cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss. To account for this variability, a recently published technique requires a pair of agar models that mimic amphibians with 0% and 100% resistance to evaporative water loss; the temperatures of these models define the lower and upper boundaries of possible amphibian body temperatures for the location in which they are placed. The goal of our study was to develop a method for using these pairs of models to estimate parameters describing the distributions of body temperatures of frogs under field conditions. We radiotracked green-eyed treefrogs (Litoria serrata) and collected semi-continuous thermal data using both temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters with an automated datalogging receiver, and pairs of agar models placed in frog locations, and we collected discrete thermal data using a non-contact infrared thermometer when frogs were located. We first examined the accuracy of temperature-sensitive transmitters in estimating frog body temperatures by comparing transmitter data with direct temperature measurements taken simultaneously for the same individuals. We then compared parameters (mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviation) characterizing the distributions of temperatures of individual frogs estimated from data collected using each of the three methods. We found strong relationships between thermal parameters estimated from data collected using automated radiotelemetry and both types of thermal models. These relationships were stronger for data collected using automated radiotelemetry and impermeable thermal models, suggesting that in the field, L. serrata has a relatively high resistance to evaporative water loss. Our results demonstrate that placing pairs of thermal models in frog locations can provide accurate estimates of the distributions of temperatures

  18. The physiological equivalent temperature - a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Höppe, P

    1999-10-01

    With considerably increased coverage of weather information in the news media in recent years in many countries, there is also more demand for data that are applicable and useful for everyday life. Both the perception of the thermal component of weather as well as the appropriate clothing for thermal comfort result from the integral effects of all meteorological parameters relevant for heat exchange between the body and its environment. Regulatory physiological processes can affect the relative importance of meteorological parameters, e.g. wind velocity becomes more important when the body is sweating. In order to take into account all these factors, it is necessary to use a heat-balance model of the human body. The physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is based on the Munich Energy-balance Model for Individuals (MEMI), which models the thermal conditions of the human body in a physiologically relevant way. PET is defined as the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting (without wind and solar radiation), the heat budget of the human body is balanced with the same core and skin temperature as under the complex outdoor conditions to be assessed. This way PET enables a layperson to compare the integral effects of complex thermal conditions outside with his or her own experience indoors. On hot summer days, for example, with direct solar irradiation the PET value may be more than 20 K higher than the air temperature, on a windy day in winter up to 15 K lower. PMID:10552310

  19. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  20. Ultra Low Power Full Digital Body Temperature Sensor Operating in Sub-Threshold Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Xuelian; Chen, Lan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we presented a full digital human body temperature sensor with high yield, which was designed in 40 nm CMOS technology. As part of the green BAN, it can measure the body temperature with ultra-low-power in high accuracy by operating in deep sub-threshold regime. The power dissipation is 1.2 nW with a power supply voltage of 0.12 V at 27 °C. The accuracy is 0.047 °C in the temperature range from 25 to 45 °C, and the sensor can operate with the power supply range from 0.12 to 0.40 V and takes ultra-low-power consumption.

  1. Margins in high temperature leak-before-break assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Budden, P.J.; Hooton, D.G.

    1997-04-01

    Developments in the defect assessment procedure R6 to include high-temperature mechanisms in Leak-before-Break arguments are described. In particular, the effect of creep on the time available to detect a leak and on the crack opening area, and hence leak rate, is discussed. The competing influence of these two effects is emphasized by an example. The application to Leak-before-Break of the time-dependent failure assessment diagram approach for high temperature defect assessment is then outlined. The approach is shown to be of use in assessing the erosion of margins by creep.

  2. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  3. Changes in body core and body surface temperatures during prolonged swimming in water of 10°C—a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This case report describes an experienced open-water ultra-endurance athlete swimming in water of 9.9°C for 6 h and 2 min. Methods Before the swim, anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, and body fat were determined. During and after the swim, body core (rectum) and body surface (forearm and calf) temperatures were continuously recorded. Results The swimmer (53 years old, 110.5 kg body mass, 1.76 m body height, 34.9% body fat, and a body mass index of 35.7 kg/m2) achieved a total distance of 15 km while swimming at a mean speed of 2.48 km/h, equal to 0.69 m/s, in water of 9.9°C. Body core temperature was at 37.8°C before the swim, increased to a maximum of 38.1°C after approximately 20 min of swimming, and then decreased continuously to 36.3°C upon finishing the swim. The lowest body core temperature was 36.0°C between 35 and 60 min after finishing the swim. Sixty minutes after the swim, the body core temperature continuously rose to 36.5°C where it remained. At the forearm, the temperature dropped to 19.6°C after approximately 36 min of swimming and decreased to 19.4°C by the end of the swim. The lowest temperature at the forearm was 17.6°C measured at approximately 47 min before the athlete stopped swimming. At the calf, the temperature dropped to 13.0°C after approximately 24 min of swimming and decreased to 11.9°C at the end of the swim. The lowest temperature measured at the calf was 11.1°C approximately 108 min after the start. In both the forearm and the calf, the skin temperature continuously increased after the swim. Conclusions This case report shows that (1) it is possible to swim for 6 h in water of 9.9°C and that (2) the athlete did not suffer from hypothermia under these circumstances. The high body mass index, high body fat, previous experience, and specific preparation of the swimmer are the most probable explanations for these findings. PMID:23849461

  4. Deferoxamine prevents cerebral glutathione and vitamin E depletions in asphyxiated neonatal rats: role of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of body temperature and DF on the antioxidant status of the brain in rats exposed neonatally to critical anoxia. Two-day-old newborn rats were exposed to anoxia in 100% nitrogen atmosphere for 10 min. Rectal temperature was kept at 33 °C (physiological to rat neonates), or elevated to the level typical of healthy adult rats (37 °C), or of febrile adult rats (39 °C). Half of the rats exposed to anoxia under extremely hyperthermic conditions (39 °C) were injected with DF. Cerebral concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation marker) and the levels of GSH and vitamin E were determined post-mortem, (1) immediately after anoxia, (2) 3 days, (3) 7 days, and (4) 2 weeks after anoxia. There were no post-anoxic changes in MDA, GSH and vitamin E concentrations in newborn rats kept at body temperature of 33 °C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at elevated body temperatures intensified oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool in a temperature-dependent manner. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The data support the idea that hyperthermia may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. PMID:26794834

  5. Assessment and Interpretation of Body Composition in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat; Hager, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The physical educator's role is evolving into that of a teacher who is well educated in the areas of teaching, skill acquisition and development, motor learning, exercise physiology, physical conditioning, weight management, health, and lifestyle management. In an era when childhood obesity is at an all-time high, body composition can be one…

  6. Experimental Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux in a High Temperature Black Body Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.

    1998-01-01

    During hypersonic flight, high temperatures and high heat fluxes are generated. The Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL) at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is equipped to calibrate high heat fluxes up to 1100 kW/sq m. There are numerous uncertainties associated with these heat flux calibrations, as the process is transient, there are expected to be interactions between transient conduction, natural and forced convection, radiation, and possibly an insignificant degree of oxidation of the graphite cavity. Better understanding, of these mechanisms during the calibration process, will provide more reliable heat transfer data during either ground testing or flight testing of hypersonic vehicles.

  7. New techniques in nutritional assessment: body composition methods.

    PubMed

    Elia, M; Ward, L C

    1999-02-01

    New techniques in air-displacement plethysmography seem to have overcome many of the previous problems of poor reproducibility and validity. These have made body-density measurements available to a larger range of individuals, including children, elderly and sick patients who often have difficulties in being submerged underwater in hydrodensitometry systems. The BOD POD air-displacement system (BOD POD body composition system; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA, USA) is more precise than hydrodensitometry, is simple and rapid to operate (approximately 1 min measurements) and the results agree closely with those of hydrodensitometry (e.g. +/- 3.4% for estimation of body fat). Body line scanners employing the principles of three-dimensional photography are potentially able to measure the surface area and volume of the body and its segments even more rapidly (approximately 10 s), but the validity of the measurements needs to be established. Advances in i.r. spectroscopy and mathematical modelling for calculating the area under the curve have improved precision for measuring enrichment of 2H2O in studies of water dilution (CV 0.1-0.9% within the range of 400-1000 microliters/l) in saliva, plasma and urine. The technique is rapid and compares closely with mass spectrometry (bias 1 (SD 2) %). Advances in bedside bioelectrical-impedance techniques are making possible potential measurements of skinfold thicknesses and limb muscle mass electronically. Preliminary results suggest that the electronic method is more reproducible (intra- and inter-individual reproducibility for measuring skinfold thicknesses) and associated with less bias (+12%), than anthropometry (+40%). In addition to these selected examples, the 'mobility' or transfer of reference methods between centres has made the distinction between reference and bedside or field techniques less distinct than in the past. PMID:10343337

  8. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H/sub 2/O and /sup 82/Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support.

  9. Extreme negative temperatures and body mass loss in the Siberian salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii, amphibia, hynobiidae).

    PubMed

    Berman, D I; Meshcheryakova, E N; Bulakhova, N A

    2016-05-01

    Frozen Siberian salamander safely tolerates long (45 days) stay at-35°C. Short-term (3 days) cooling down to-50°C was tolerable for 40% of adult individuals; down to-55°C, for 80% of the underyearlings. Generally, the salamanders lose about 28% of the body mass during the pre-hibernating period (before winter, at temperatures as low as 0°C) and during the process of freezing (as low as-5°C). The body weight remained constant upon further cooling (to-35°C). The frozen salamanders have no physiological mechanisms protecting from sublimation. PMID:27411827

  10. The Impact of Gender on the Assessment of Body Checking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Lauren; Bannon, Katie; Walker, Catherine; Walton, Kate E.

    2010-01-01

    Body checking includes any behavior aimed at global or specific evaluations of appearance characteristics. Men and women are believed to express these behaviors differently, possibly reflecting different socialization. However, there has been no empirical test of the impact of gender on body checking. A total of 1024 male and female college students completed two measures of body checking, the Body Checking Questionnaire and the Male Body Checking Questionnaire. Using multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, differential item functioning (DIF) was explored in a composite of these measures. Two global latent factors were identified (female and male body checking severity), and there were expected gender differences in these factors even after controlling for DIF. Ten items were found to be unbiased by gender and provide a suitable brief measure of body checking for mixed gender research. Practical applications for body checking assessment and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21093393

  11. Body temperatures of modern and extinct vertebrates from 13C-18O bond abundances in bioapatite

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Robert A.; Schauble, Edwin A.; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Tütken, Thomas; Hulbert, Richard C.; Eiler, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The stable isotope compositions of biologically precipitated apatite in bone, teeth, and scales are widely used to obtain information on the diet, behavior, and physiology of extinct organisms and to reconstruct past climate. Here we report the application of a new type of geochemical measurement to bioapatite, a “clumped-isotope” paleothermometer, based on the thermodynamically driven preference for 13C and 18O to bond with each other within carbonate ions in the bioapatite crystal lattice. This effect is dependent on temperature but, unlike conventional stable isotope paleothermometers, is independent from the isotopic composition of water from which the mineral formed. We show that the abundance of 13C-18O bonds in the carbonate component of tooth bioapatite from modern specimens decreases with increasing body temperature of the animal, following a relationship between isotope “clumping” and temperature that is statistically indistinguishable from inorganic calcite. This result is in agreement with a theoretical model of isotopic ordering in carbonate ion groups in apatite and calcite. This thermometer constrains body temperatures of bioapatite-producing organisms with an accuracy of 1–2 °C. Analyses of fossilized tooth enamel of both Pleistocene and Miocene age yielded temperatures within error of those derived from similar modern taxa. Clumped-isotope analysis of bioapatite represents a new approach in the study of the thermophysiology of extinct species, allowing the first direct measurement of their body temperatures. It will also open new avenues in the study of paleoclimate, as the measurement of clumped isotopes in phosphorites and fossils has the potential to reconstruct environmental temperatures. PMID:20498092

  12. Weight Loss and Reduced Body Temperature Determine Humane Endpoints in a Mouse Model of Ocular Herpesvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hankenson, F Claire; Ruskoski, Nicholas; van Saun, Marjorie; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Oh, Jaewook; Fraser, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been studied in well-established mouse models to generate latently infected animals for investigations into viral pathogenesis, latency mechanisms, and reactivation. Mice exhibit clinical signs of debilitating infection, during which time they may become severely ill before recovery or die spontaneously. Because the cohort of mice that does survive provides valuable data on latency, there is keen interest in developing methodologies for earlier detection and treatment of severe disease to ultimately increase survival rates. Here, BALB/c mice were inoculated ocularly with either a wildtype (LAT+) or mutant (LAT–) strain of HSV1. Mice were monitored daily through day 30 after infection; trigeminal ganglia were harvested at day 60 to assess viral DNA load. Cages were provided with nesting material, and fluid supplementation was administered to mice with body temperatures of 35 °C or lower, as measured by subcutaneous microchip thermometry. The results showed that infected mice with temperatures less than 34.5 °C did not recover to normothermia and were euthanized or spontaneously died, regardless of infective viral strain. By using a combination of criteria including body temperature (less than 34.5 °C) and weight loss (more than 0.05 g daily) for removal of animals from the study, approximately 98% of mice that died spontaneously could have been euthanized prior to death, without concern of potential recovery to the experimental endpoint (100% specificity). Frequent monitoring of alterations to general wellbeing, body temperature, and weight was crucial for establishing humane endpoints in this ocular HSV model. PMID:23849410

  13. Temperature Profile and Outcomes of Neonates Undergoing Whole Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; McDonald, Scott A.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Tyson, Jon E.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Das, Abhik; Sant’Anna, Guilherme; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Bara, Rebecca; Walsh, Michele C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Decreases below target temperature were noted among neonates undergoing cooling in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network Trial of whole body hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVE To examine the temperature profile and impact on outcome among ≥ 36 week gestation neonates randomized at ≤ 6 hours of age targeting esophageal temperature of 33.5°C for 72 hours. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS Infants with intermittent temperatures recorded < 32.0°C during induction and maintenance of cooling were compared to all other cooled infants and relationship with outcome at 18 months was evaluated. RESULTS There were no differences in stage of encephalopathy, acidosis, or 10 minute Apgar scores between infants with temperatures < 32.0°C during induction (n=33) or maintenance (n=10) and all other infants who were cooled (n=58); however birth weight was lower and need for blood pressure support higher among infants with temperatures < 32.0 °C compared to all other cooled infants. No increase in acute adverse events were noted among infants with temperatures < 32.0 °C and hours spent < 32°C were not associated with the primary outcome of death or moderate/severe disability or the Bayley II Mental Developmental Index at 18 months. CONCLUSION Term infants with a lower birth weight are at risk for decreasing temperatures < 32.0°C while undergoing body cooling using a servo controlled system. This information suggests extra caution during the application of hypothermia as these lower birth weight infants are at risk for overcooling. Our findings may assist in planning additional trials of lower target temperature for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:21499182

  14. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  15. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  16. Interacting effects of water temperature and swimming activity on body composition and mortality of fasted juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Martinez Del Rio, C.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: We assessed changes in proximate body composition, wet mass, and the occurrence of mortality among sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (120-142 mm total length) that were held at 4.0, 7.5, or 15.0 ??C and fasted for 140 days. Warmer water temperatures and swimming activity accentuated declines in lipid mass, but they did not similarly affect lean mass and wet mass. Swimming fish conserved lean mass independent of water temperature. Because lean mass exceeded lipid mass, wet mass was not affected substantially by decreases in lipid mass. Consequently, wet mass did not accurately reflect the effects that water temperature and swimming activity had on mortality of fasted rainbow trout. Rather, lipid mass was more accurate in predicting death from starvation. Juvenile rainbow trout survived long periods without food, and fish that died of starvation appeared to have similar body composition. It appears that the ability of fish to endure periods without food depends on the degree to which lipid mass and lean mass can be utilized as energy sources.

  17. Ambient temperature influences core body temperature response in rat lines bred for differences in sensitivity to 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Andrea C; Seiden, Lewis S

    2003-04-01

    Agonist-induced decrease in core body temperature has commonly been used as a measure of serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor sensitivity in mood disorder. The thermoregulatory basis for 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist-induced temperature responses in humans and rats remains unclear. Therefore, the influence of ambient temperature on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated decreases in core body temperature were measured in rat lines bred for high (HDS) or low (LDS) sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT). HDS and LDS rats were injected with either saline, 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at ambient temperatures of 10.5, 24, 30, or 37.5 degrees C, and core temperature was measured by radiotelemetry. For both lines, the thermic response to acute 8-OH-DPAT was greatest at 10.5 degrees C and decreased in magnitude as ambient temperature increased to 30 degrees C, consistent with hypothermia. HDS rats displayed a greater hypothermic response than LDS rats at 10.5, 24, and 30 degrees C. At 37.5 degrees C, LDS rats showed a lethal elevation of temperature in response to 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT. All thermic responses to 8-OH-DPAT, including the lethality, were effectively blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635, suggesting line differences in thermoregulatory circuits that are influenced by 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Following repeated injection of 8-OH-DPAT, the magnitude of the hypothermic response decreased in both lines at 10.5 degrees C, but increased in HDS rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at 30 and 37.5 degrees C. This pattern was reversed in HDS rats following 8-OH-DPAT challenge at 24 degrees C, suggesting that a compensatory thermoregulatory response accounts for changes in the hypothermic response to chronic 8-OH-DPAT. PMID:12649391

  18. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  19. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. PMID:26185248

  20. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds. PMID:26552381

  1. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Measuring the Body Temperature of the Intertidal Mussel Species, Mytilus californianus using NASA MODIS Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Lakshmi, V.; Menge, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The California mussel, Mytilus californianus, is an ecologically important species in the rocky intertidal ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific coast. During low tides, times of emersion, Mytilus californianus is exposed to aerial conditions and its body temperature can vary drastically depending on the amount of solar radiation they experience. Thermal stress from high temperatures during emersion sometimes can lead to mortality of individuals. Conversely, during high tides, times of submersion, body temperatures depend on the temperature of the water that surrounds them. This study used remotely sensed surface temperature observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra to predict the body temperatures of Mytilus californianus. Mussel body temperatures were provided by the Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) and de-tided. This technique divided the mussel body temperatures into times of emersion and times of submersion. During times of emersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed land surface temperatures (LST) and in-situ air temperatures. During times of submersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed sea surface temperatures (SST) and in-situ water temperatures. To identify spatial variation in temperatures, eight different study sites ranging in latitude along the coast of Oregon were analyzed. Additionally, to better understand the temporal variation in temperatures, fourteen years (2000-2013) were analyzed for each study site. Sea surface temperature collected during the Aqua overpass and Terra overpass were strongly correlated with mussel body temperatures but varied by study site. Our results show that remotely sensed temperature could predict average daily mussel temperature within 1°C on average during times of submersion. Being able to use remotely sensed surface temperatures to predict the body

  2. H2/O2 three-body rates at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, William J.; Kessler, William J.; Piper, Lawrence G.; Rawlins, W. Terry

    1990-01-01

    The extraction of thrust from air breathing hypersonic propulsion systems is critically dependent on the degree to which chemical equilibrium is reached in the combustion process. In the combustion of H2/Air mixtures, slow three-body chemical reactions involving H-atoms, O-atoms, and the OH radical play an important role in energy extraction. A first-generation high temperature and pressure flash-photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence reactor was designed and constructed to measure these important three-body rates. The system employs a high power excimer laser to produce these radicals via the photolysis of stable precursors. A novel two-photon laser-induced fluorescence technique is employed to detect H-atoms without optical thickness or O2 absorption problems. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique the apparatus in the program is designed to perform preliminary measurements on the H + O2 + M reaction at temperatures from 300 to 835 K.

  3. Effect of Dosage of Cloprostenol on Induction of Farrowing and Body Temperature of Sows

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, D.; Connor, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    In an experiment involving 161 farrowings, cloprostenol was injected on day 112 or 113 of gestation at the recommended dosage (175 μg) or a lower dosage (125 μg). Cloprostenol treatment did not result in abnormally high body temperatures of sows at parturition. Farrowing began within 29 hours of injection in 94% and 88% of the sows treated with 175 μg and 125 μg cloprostenol respectively, as compared to 15% of saline-injected controls. The duration of farrowing and number stillborn were not affected by treatment. Sows farrowing within 19 hours of treatment tended to have a large number of piglets and a higher body temperature postpartum. PMID:17422475

  4. Reliability of body size measurements obtained at autopsy: impact on the pathologic assessment of the heart.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Carmen A; Lo Gullo, Roberto; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Louissaint, Abner; Stone, James R

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Assessment of body size at autopsy is important for interpreting organ weight measurements and in some cases body identification. The reliability of post-mortem body size measurements, the causes for perturbations in these measurements from their corresponding pre-mortem values, and the impact of such perturbations on heart weight interpretation have not been fully explored. Methods Autopsy body length and weight measurements and pre-mortem height and body weight measurements were compared in 132 autopsies. Clinical records were evaluated for peripheral edema and serum albumin levels. Causes of death, body cavity fluid collections, and heart weights were obtained from the autopsy reports. A subset of patients underwent quantitative post-mortem computed tomography assessment of anasarca. Results At autopsy, body weight differed from the pre-mortem value by 11 ± 1 %, compared with -0.2 ± 0.3 % for body length (P < 0.0001). The percent change in body weight at autopsy correlated with the presence of peripheral edema (14 ± 2 % vs. 7 ± 2 %, P = 0.01), serum albumin < 3.0 g/dL (16 ± 2 % vs. 7 ± 2 %, P = 0.001), and the degree of anasarca (P = 0.01). In 4 % of autopsies, heart weights were abnormal based on the pre-mortem body weight, but would be classified as normal based on the elevated post-mortem body weight. Conclusions At autopsy, body weight is a less reliable parameter than body length in correlating with the corresponding pre-mortem measurement. Autopsy body weights are elevated in part due to peripheral edema/anasarca. Alterations in body weight at autopsy can confound the interpretation of organ weight measurements. PMID:27020890

  5. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Jamie L.; Byrne, Shane; Langer, Stephen A.

    2015-02-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investigating microcrack propagation. Although these results provide very strong evidence for the significance of thermomechanical processes on airless bodies, more work is needed to quantify crack propagation and rock breakdown rates.

  6. The Effects of Increased Body Temperature on Motor Control during Golf Putting

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, John F.; Grealy, Madeleine A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased core temperature on the performance outcome and movement kinematics of elite golfers during a golf putting task. The study aimed to examine individual differences in the extent to which increased temperature influenced the rate of putting success, whether increased temperature speeded up the timing of the putting downswing and whether elite golfers changed their movement kinematics during times of thermal stress. Six participants performed 20 putts to each of four putt distances (1, 2, 3, and 4 m) under normal temperature conditions and when core body temperature was increased. There was no significant difference in the number of successful putts between the two temperature conditions, but there was an increase in putterhead velocity at ball impact on successful putts to distances of 1 and 4 m when temperature was elevated. This reflected an increase in swing amplitude rather than a reduction in swing duration as hypothesized. There were individual differences in the motor control response to thermal stress as three of the golfers changed the kinematic parameters used to scale their putting movements to achieve putts of different distances at elevated temperatures. Theoretical implications for these findings and the practical implications for elite golfers and future research are discussed.

  7. Responses of sweating and body temperature to sinusoidal exercise in physically trained men.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, F; Fujii, N; Sone, R; Ikegami, H

    1996-02-01

    The effect of physical training on the dynamic responses of sweating to transient exercise is still controversial. We determined the phase response and amplitude response (delta) of sweating rate and body temperature to sinusoidal exercise in physically trained and untrained subjects. Eight trained and seven untrained male subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer with a constant load for 30 min; for the next 28 min, they exercised with a sinusoidal load. The sinusoidal load variation ranged from approximately 10 to 60% of peak O2 uptake with a 4-min period. The ambient temperature and the relative humidity during exercise were 25 degrees C and 35%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups in the phase lags of esophageal temperature (Tes) and mean skin temperature (Tsk), whereas the phase lags of sweating rates for the chest and forearm were significantly shorter in the trained group (P < 0.05). The delta of Tes and Tsk per 1 W of exercise load in the trained group was significantly smaller than that in the untrained group (both, P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference between the groups in the delta of sweating rate for the chest and forearm. We conclude that subjects who have undergone long-term physical training show prompter dynamic characteristics of sweating response compared with untrained subjects and have a higher capacity to maintain constant body temperature during exercise at transient load. PMID:8929589

  8. Measurement of the body surface temperature by the method of laser photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A; Kirillov, V M

    2003-12-31

    The specific features of contactless measurements of the body surface temperature by the method of repetitively pulsed laser photothermal radiometry are considered and the requirements to the parameters of the laser and measurement scheme are formulated. The sensitivity of the method is estimated. The advantages of laser photothermal radiometry over the conventional passive radiometric method are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Body temperature changes during simulated bacterial infection in a songbird: fever at night and hypothermia during the day.

    PubMed

    Sköld-Chiriac, Sandra; Nord, Andreas; Tobler, Michael; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2015-09-01

    Although fever (a closely regulated increase in body temperature in response to infection) typically is beneficial, it is energetically costly and may induce detrimentally high body temperatures. This can increase the susceptibility to energetic bottlenecks and risks of overheating in some organisms. Accordingly, it could be particularly interesting to study fever in small birds, which have comparatively high metabolic rates and high, variable body temperatures. We therefore investigated two aspects of fever and other sickness behaviours (circadian variation, dose dependence) in a small songbird, the zebra finch. We injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the beginning of either the day or the night, and subsequently monitored body temperature, body mass change and food intake for the duration of the response. We found pronounced circadian variation in the body temperature response to LPS injection, manifested by (dose-dependent) hypothermia during the day but fever at night. This resulted in body temperature during the peak response being relatively similar during the day and night. Day-to-night differences might be explained in the context of circadian variation in body temperature: songbirds have a high daytime body temperature that is augmented by substantial heat production peaks during activity. This might require a trade-off between the benefit of fever and the risk of overheating. In contrast, at night, when body temperature is typically lower and less variable, fever can be used to mitigate infection. We suggest that the change in body temperature during infection in small songbirds is context dependent and regulated to promote survival according to individual demands at the time of infection. PMID:26232416

  10. Parent body depth-pressure-temperature relationships and the style of the ureilite anatexis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    2012-02-01

    New analyses of mafic silicates from 14 ureilite meteorites further constrain a strong correlation (Singletary and Grove 2003) between olivine-core Fo ratio and the temperature of equilibration (TE) recorded by the composition of pigeonite. This correlation may be compared with relationships implied by various postulated combinations of Fo and pressure P in models for ureilite genesis by a putative process of anatectic (depth-linked, P-controlled) smelting. In such models, any combination of Fo and P together fixes the temperature of smelting. Agreement between the observed correlation and these models is poor. The anatectic smelting model also carries implausible implications for the depth range at which ureilites of a given composition (Fo) form. Actual ureilites (and polymict ureilite clasts: Downes et al. 2008) show a distribution strongly skewed toward the low-Fo end of the compositional range, with approximately 58% in the range Fo76-81. In contrast, the P-controlled smelting model implies that the Fo76-81 region is a small fraction of the volume of the parent body: not more than 3.2%, in a model consistent with the Fo-TE observations; and even ignoring the Fo-TE evidence not more than 11% (percentages cited require optimal assumptions concerning the size of the parent body). This region also must occur deep within the body, where no straightforward model would imply a strong bias in the impact-driven sampling process. The ureilites did not derive preponderantly from one atypical “largest offspring” disruption survivor, because cooling history evidence shows that after the disruption (whose efficiency was increased by gas jetting), all of the known ureilites cooled in bodies that were tiny (mass of order 10-9) in comparison with the precursor body. The Ca/Al ratio of the ureilite starting matter cannot be 2.5 times chondritic, as has been suggested, unless the part of the body from which ureilites come is at most 50% of the whole body. Published variants

  11. Interpretation of body residues for natural resources damage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubitz, J.A.; Markarian, R.K.; Lauren, D.J.; Dimitry, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    A 28-day caged mussel study using Corbicula sp. was conducted on Sugarland Run and the Potomac River following a spill of No. 2 fuel oil. In addition, resident Corbicula sp. from the Potomac River were sampled at the beginning and end of the study. The summed body residues of 39 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.56 to 41 mg/kg dry weight within the study area. The summed body residues of the 18 PAHs that are routinely measured in the national oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Status and Trends Program (NST) ranged from 0.5 to 20 mg/kg dry weight for mussels in this study. These data were similar to summed PAH concentrations reported in the NST for mussels from a variety of US coastal waters, which ranged from 0.4 to 24.5 mg/kg dry weight. This paper will discuss interpretation of PAH residues in Corbicula sp. to determine the spatial extent of the area affected by the oil spill. The toxicological significance of the PAH residues in both resident and caged mussels will also be presented.

  12. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Krishnamurthy, Durga; Stremnitzer, Caroline; Flaschberger, Ingo; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2016-01-01

    In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i) milk allergy, ii) peanut allergy and iii) egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour. PMID:26963393

  13. Critical roles of nardilysin in the maintenance of body temperature homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Matsuoka, Tatsuhiko; Ohno, Mikiko; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Saijo, Sayaka; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Nishi, Kiyoto; Sakamoto, Jiro; Chen, Po-Min; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishi, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature homoeostasis in mammals is governed centrally through the regulation of shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis and cutaneous vasomotion. Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mediated by sympathetic activation, followed by PGC-1α induction, which drives UCP1. Here we identify nardilysin (Nrd1 and NRDc) as a critical regulator of body temperature homoeostasis. Nrd1−/− mice show increased energy expenditure owing to enhanced BAT thermogenesis and hyperactivity. Despite these findings, Nrd1−/− mice show hypothermia and cold intolerance that are attributed to the lowered set point of body temperature, poor insulation and impaired cold-induced thermogenesis. Induction of β3-adrenergic receptor, PGC-1α and UCP1 in response to cold is severely impaired in the absence of NRDc. At the molecular level, NRDc and PGC-1α interact and co-localize at the UCP1 enhancer, where NRDc represses PGC-1α activity. These findings reveal a novel nuclear function of NRDc and provide important insights into the mechanism of thermoregulation. PMID:24492630

  14. Critical roles of nardilysin in the maintenance of body temperature homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Matsuoka, Tatsuhiko; Ohno, Mikiko; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Saijo, Sayaka; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Nishi, Kiyoto; Sakamoto, Jiro; Chen, Po-Min; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishi, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature homoeostasis in mammals is governed centrally through the regulation of shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis and cutaneous vasomotion. Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mediated by sympathetic activation, followed by PGC-1α induction, which drives UCP1. Here we identify nardilysin (Nrd1 and NRDc) as a critical regulator of body temperature homoeostasis. Nrd1(-/-) mice show increased energy expenditure owing to enhanced BAT thermogenesis and hyperactivity. Despite these findings, Nrd1(-/-) mice show hypothermia and cold intolerance that are attributed to the lowered set point of body temperature, poor insulation and impaired cold-induced thermogenesis. Induction of β3-adrenergic receptor, PGC-1α and UCP1 in response to cold is severely impaired in the absence of NRDc. At the molecular level, NRDc and PGC-1α interact and co-localize at the UCP1 enhancer, where NRDc represses PGC-1α activity. These findings reveal a novel nuclear function of NRDc and provide important insights into the mechanism of thermoregulation. PMID:24492630

  15. Ischemia/reperfusion injury resistance in hibernators is more than an effect of reduced body temperature or winter season

    PubMed Central

    Bogren, Lori K; Drew, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Hibernating mammals are resistant to injury following cardiac arrest. The basis of this protection has been proposed to be due to their ability to lower body temperature or metabolic rate in a seasonally-dependent manner. However, recent studies have shown that neither reduced body temperature nor hibernation season are components this protection.

  16. Evaluating pen-day interactions in body temperature bilogistic mixed model for handling of feedlot heifers during heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily activities consume the energy of heifers, subsequently causing an elevation of body temperature, depending on the ambient conditions. A better understanding of the dynamics of body temperature (Tb) would be helpful when deciding how to process and handle heifers. It would also lead to specific...

  17. 21 CFR 26.67 - Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 26.67 Section 26.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... following procedures shall apply with regard to the suspension of a conformity assessment body (CAB) listed... out in a timely manner by the party in whose territory the body in question is located, but may...

  18. 21 CFR 26.68 - Withdrawal of listed conformity assessment bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 26.68 Section 26.68 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... assessment body (CAB): (a) A party proposing to withdraw a CAB listed in subpart B of this part shall forward... Joint Committee may decide to carry out a joint verification of the body concerned. After the...

  19. Historic Variations in Winter Indoor Domestic Temperatures and Potential Implications for Body Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F.; Ucci, M.; Marmot, A.; Wardle, J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Summerfield, A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that the amount of time spent by humans in thermoneutral environments has increased in recent decades. This paper examines evidence of historic changes in winter domestic temperatures in industrialised countries. Future trajectories for indoor thermal comfort are also explored. Whilst methodological differences across studies make it difficult to compare data and accurately estimate the absolute size of historic changes in indoor domestic temperatures, data analysis does suggest an upward trend, particularly in bedrooms. The variations in indoor winter residential temperatures might have been further exacerbated in some countries by a temporary drop in demand temperatures due to the 1970s energy crisis, as well as by recent changes in the building stock. In the United Kingdom, for example, spot measurement data indicate that an increase of up to 1.3°C per decade in mean dwelling winter indoor temperatures may have occurred from 1978 to 1996. The findings of this review paper are also discussed in the context of their significance for human health and well-being. In particular, historic indoor domestic temperature trends are discussed in conjunction with evidence on the links between low ambient temperatures, body energy expenditure and weight gain. PMID:26321874

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Epidermal Heat Flux Sensors for Measurements of Core Body Temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihui; Webb, Richard Chad; Luo, Hongying; Xue, Yeguang; Kurniawan, Jonas; Cho, Nam Heon; Krishnan, Siddharth; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2016-01-01

    Long-term, continuous measurement of core body temperature is of high interest, due to the widespread use of this parameter as a key biomedical signal for clinical judgment and patient management. Traditional approaches rely on devices or instruments in rigid and planar forms, not readily amenable to intimate or conformable integration with soft, curvilinear, time-dynamic, surfaces of the skin. Here, materials and mechanics designs for differential temperature sensors are presented which can attach softly and reversibly onto the skin surface, and also sustain high levels of deformation (e.g., bending, twisting, and stretching). A theoretical approach, together with a modeling algorithm, yields core body temperature from multiple differential measurements from temperature sensors separated by different effective distances from the skin. The sensitivity, accuracy, and response time are analyzed by finite element analyses (FEA) to provide guidelines for relationships between sensor design and performance. Four sets of experiments on multiple devices with different dimensions and under different convection conditions illustrate the key features of the technology and the analysis approach. Finally, results indicate that thermally insulating materials with cellular structures offer advantages in reducing the response time and increasing the accuracy, while improving the mechanics and breathability. PMID:25953120

  1. Genetically determined differences in ethanol sensitivity influenced by body temperature during intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Alkana, R.L.; Finn, D.A.; Bejanian, M.; Crabbe, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The present study investigated the importance of body temperature during intoxication in mediating differences between five inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J; BALB/cJ; DBA/2J; A/HeJ; 129/J) in their acute sensitivity to the hypnotic effects of ethanol. Mice exposed to 22/degrees/C after ethanol injection became hypothermic and exhibited statistically significant differences between strains in rectal temperatures at the return of the righting reflex (RORR), duration of loss of the righting reflex (LORR), and blood and brain ethanol concentrations at RORR. Exposure to 34/degrees/C after injection offset ethanol-hypothermia and markedly reduced strain-related differences in rectal temperatures and blood and brain ethanol concentrations at RORR. Brain ethanol concentrations at RORR were significantly lower in C57, BALB, DBA and A/He mice exposed to 34/degrees/C compared to mice exposed to 22/degrees/C during intoxication suggesting that offsetting hypothermia increased ethanol sensitivity in these strains. Taken with previous in vitro studies, these results suggest that genetically determined differences in acute sensitivity to the behavioral effects of ethanol reflect differences in body temperature during intoxication as well as differences in sensitivity to the initial actions of ethanol at the cellular level.

  2. Effect of strain and temperature on the threshold displacement energy in body-centered cubic iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, Benjamin; Asta, Mark; Hosemann, Peter; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2016-06-01

    The threshold displacement energy (TDE) is the minimum amount of kinetic energy required to displace an atom from its lattice site. The magnitude of the TDE displays significant variance as a function of the crystallographic direction, system temperature and applied strain, among a variety of other factors. It is critically important to determine an accurate value of the TDE in order to calculate the total number of displacements due to a given irradiation condition, and thus to understand the materials response to irradiation. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to calculate the threshold displacement energy in body-centered cubic iron as a function of strain and temperature. With applied strain, a decrease of the TDE of up to approximately 14 eV was observed. A temperature increase from 300 K to 500 K can result in an increase of the TDE of up to approximately 9 eV.

  3. COMMUNICATION: The effects of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm EMG signals during maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, David; Akay, Yasemin M.; Akay, Metin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm electromyography (EMGdia), the output of the respiratory neural network--using the approximate entropy method. The diaphragm EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) in chronically instrumented rats were recorded at two postnatal ages: 25-35 days age (juvenile, n = 5) and 36-44 days age (early adult, n = 6) groups during control (36-37 °C), mild elevated body temperature (38 °C) and severe elevated body temperature (39-40 °C). Three to five trials of the recordings were performed at normal body temperature before raising the animal's core temperature by 1-4 °C with an electric heating pad. At the elevated temperature, another 3-5 trials were performed. Finally, the animal was cooled to the original temperature, and trials were again repeated. Complexity values of the diaphragm EMG signal were estimated and evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn) over the ten consecutive breaths. Our results suggested that the mean approximate entropy values for the juvenile age group were 1.01 ± 0.01 (standard error) during control, 0.91 ± 0.02 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.81 ± 0.02 during severe elevated body temperature. For the early adult age group, these values were 0.94 ± 0.01 during control, 0.93 ± 0.01 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.92 ± 0.01 during severe elevated body temperature. Our results show that the complexity values and the durations of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) were significantly decreased when the elevated body temperature was shifted from control or mild to severe body temperature (p < 0.05) for the juvenile age group. However, for the early adult age group, an increase in body temperature slightly reduced the complexity measures and the duration of the EMGdia. But, these changes were not statistically significant. These results furthermore

  4. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  5. Assessing necessary nutrient reduction for measurement planning in groundwater bodies.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Ralf; Eisele, Michael; Wendland, Frank

    2008-01-01

    For the Federal State of Lower Saxony, Germany, nitrogen management options are developed and implemented in three pilot areas using new participation approaches and technologies suitable for programs of measures to reduce diffuse pollution from agriculture. As a target value for water protection measures a nitrate concentration in percolation water of 50 mg/l as an average for a larger area defined by the groundwater bodies and their hydrogeological subdivisions has been defined. An integrative emission model is used to simulate the interactions between agricultural practice, nitrogen surpluses and the nitrogen flow through the soil and aquifer to the outflow into surface waters. The actual nitrate concentrations in percolation water are calculated for the entire Federal State of Lower Saxony considering site-characteristics, N-surpluses, water balance and denitrification in the soil. The tolerable N-surpluses needed to meet the environmental target are quantified as averages for each of the hydrogeological subdivisions by "backward" calculation using this model system. The required reduction of N-surpluses was estimated by comparing the tolerable N-surpluses with the actual state of nitrogen emission. For the evaluation of the amount and efficiency of water protection measures, the required reduction of N-surpluses to accomplish the environmental target is quantified, using the current status as a reference. PMID:19092207

  6. Juvenile stress impairs body temperature regulation and augments anticipatory stress-induced hyperthermia responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Plassmann, Kerstin; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2011-09-01

    Clinical studies have implicated adolescence as an important and vulnerable period during which traumatic experiences can predispose individuals to anxiety and mood disorders. As such, a stress model in juvenile rats (age 27-29 d) was previously developed to investigate the long-term effects of stress exposure during adolescence on behavior and physiology. This paradigm involves exposing rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we studied the effects of juvenile stress on long-term core body temperature regulation and acute stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) responses using telemetry. We found no differences between control and juvenile stress rats in anxiety-related behavior on the elevated plus maze, which we attribute to stress associated with surgical implantation of telemetry devices. This highlights the severe impact of surgical stress on the results of subsequent behavioral measurements. Nonetheless, juvenile stress disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of body temperature and decreased circadian amplitude. It also induced chronic hypothermia during the dark phase of the day, when rats are most active. When subjected to acute social defeat stress as adults, juvenile stress had no impact on the SIH response relative to controls. However, 24 h later, juvenile stress rats displayed an elevated SIH response in anticipation of social defeat when re-exposed to the social defeat environment. Taken together, our findings indicate that juvenile stress can induce long-term alterations in body temperature regulation and heighten the increase in temperature associated with anticipation of social defeat. The outcomes of behavioral measurements in these experiments, however, are severely affected by surgical stress. PMID:21557956

  7. Puna Dacite: Likely Temperature, Viscosity, Origin, Size, and Parent Body Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B.; Teplow, W.; Reagan, M.; Sims, K.

    2008-12-01

    This is very likely the first accidental encounter of an in situ live magma within Earth. The importance of this occurrence to the possible ongoing interrogation of an active, docile magma cannot be overemphasized. Here we report on inferences on the nature of the magma and its relation to a parent basaltic body. The Glass: In oil the glass is colorless with 5-8 % euhedral, nonquench crystals of plagioclase, Fe-Ti oxide, orthopyroxene, and apatite. There is no vesiculation and the glass is unstructured except for patches of perhaps incipient spherulite and swirls, which may reflect drilling shear and quenching. Temperature: The temperature is inferred first using the bulk glass composition and matching the visually estimated crystallinity to that computed by MELTS, giving a temperature of 1050 C. Second, from a likely basaltic parent composition (1955 basalt) and matching the glass composition to the residual melt from protracted crystallization in MELTS, also gives a temperature of 1050 C. Comparing the dacite to the observed compositions of interstitial melts from the lava lakes, suggests a slightly higher temperature of 1065 C, reflecting the different parent basalt. One atm melting experiments confirm the former T. Magma Viscosity: The flow up the drill hole (25.88 cm diameter) can be used to estimate viscosity by calculating the time necessary for melt of a given viscosity to flow under a given pressure gradient a given distance up the drill hole. The melt flowed upward approximately 5.5.m in a few minutes. The most elusive part of the calculation involves estimating the pressure gradient driving the flow. The lithostatic load based on the depth (~2.54 km) is about 0.65 kb, which is assumed to act over a characteristic distance of about 2 m (lens size) to give a characteristic pressure gradient. Pipe flow yields a characteristic viscosity of 3.8 x 107 p. An independent calculation from MELTS using only melt composition, temperature, water content (zero), and

  8. Light masking of circadian rhythms of heat production, heat loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.

  9. In situ filtering rates of Cladocera: Effect of body length, temperature, and food concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Mourelatos, S.; Lacroix, G. )

    1990-07-01

    The individual filtering rates of the cladocerans in Creteil Lake were measured in the daytime with {sup 14}C-labeled Chlorella during a seasonal survey. This mesotrophic, shallow, polymictic lake is characterized by small algae (< 25 {mu}m) and cladocerans (< 1.3 mm). Multiple regression models were established for each genus and for all the cladocerans. Body length alone explained from 44 to 57% of the total variance in the filtering rates of Daphnia spp., Ceriodaphnia spp., and Diaphanosoma brachyurum. An additional 23-34% of the variance was attributable to temperature. The inclusion of the Chl {alpha} concentration finally yielded r{sup 2} values ranging between 0.79 and 0.84. On the other hand, body length and temperature explained only 16% of the total variance in filtering rate of Bosmina longirostris. By taking into account the effect of factors other than length of the animal, the fit of the model established for all cladocerans improved considerably (from r{sup 2} = 0.47 to r{sup 2} = 0.83). Species-specific responses and thermal effects in the lake show the difficulty of applying models based solely on body length to obtain sufficiently accurate estimates of cladoceran filtering rates.

  10. Thermo-Sensitive Receptor Protein: Role of TRPVs in Control of Body Temperature under Heat Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Kusuno, Tomoyuki; Hanada, Tsunehisa; Tominaga, Makoto; Tominaga, Tomoko; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamada, Hisao; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-01

    In vertebrate peripheral nervous system, skin heating and cooling are detected by thermo-sensitive neurons tuned to respond over distinct temperature ranges. TRP-family is thermo-sensitive receptor protein which is Ca2+-permeable ion channels expressing in cellular membrane. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat above 42 °C, whereas TRPV3 and TRPV4 are sensitive to moderate temperatures (<34 °C). Although the amino acid sequence and the channel properties have been characterized, the molecular mechanism of temperature sensation remains poorly understood. In environment, mid and far infrared radiation act as physical stimuli. Here we examined the role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in regulation of body temperature (BT) by using infrared laser as mild heat stimuli. In wild type mouse, the laser irradiation which caused the increase in skin temperature up to 55 °C did not induce the change in BT without any treatment of TRPVs. However, desensitization of TRPV1 with capsaicin resulted in the increase in BT by laser irradiation. On the other hand, in TRPV4-knockout mouse, moderate thermal stimulus (skin surface temperature <43 °C) caused the increase in the BT. These results suggest that the processing of noxious and moderate thermal radiation stimuli may depend on the TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of a fast, objective tool for assessing body condition of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Burton, E J; Newnham, R; Bailey, S J; Alexander, L G

    2014-04-01

    There is currently no suitable system available for the assessment of budgerigar body condition. A tool has been developed that uses an algorithmic decision tree of yes-no answers based on physical examination to objectively guide the assessor to a body condition score. The aim of this work was to evaluate the guide. Repeatability and reproducibility were measured by four assessors on three sequential days, using 38 budgerigars of mixed sex, age and weight. Data were analysed using a 3-factor anova, with Person and Bird as variable factors and occasion as a fixed factor. The association between body condition score and body fat was measured using three assessors and 63 dead budgerigars, which were chemically analysed for fat content after assessment. Data were statistically analysed to determine correlation using Spearman's Rank Coefficient. Occasion and person had no significant effect on body condition score (p = 0.988 and 0.347 respectively). Body condition score and percentage body fat were highly significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.768): percentage fat increased with increasing body condition score. The guide would appear to be a repeatable measure of body condition in budgerigars, suitable for use during physical examinations. PMID:23509997

  12. The predicting value of postoperative body temperature on long-term survival in patients with rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huichuan; Luo, Yanxin; Peng, Hui; Kang, Liang; Huang, Meijin; Luo, Shuangling; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Zihuan; Wang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between postoperative body temperature and prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Five hundred and seven patients with stage I to III rectal cancers were enrolled in the current study. Basal body temperature (BBT, measured at 6 am) and maximal body temperature (MBT) on each day after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two equal groups according to the median of BBT and MBT at each day. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with low D0-MBT (<37.4 °C) had lower 3-year DFS [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.56 (95 % CI 1.08-2.24, P = 0.017)] as well as OS [adjusted HR 1.72 (95 % CI 1.05-2.82, P = 0.032)] rate as compared to those with high D0-MBT (>37.4 °C). In the subset of 318 patients with T3 stage tumor and the subgroup of 458 patients without blood transfusion as well, low D0-MBT continues to be an independent predictor of DFS/OS with an adjusted HR equal to 1.48 (95 % CI 1.02-2.24, P = 0.046)/1.68 (95 % CI 1.04-2.99, P = 0.048) and 1.45 (95 % CI 1.02-2.13, P = 0.048)/1.59 (95 % CI 1.01-2.74, P = 0.049), respectively. In addition, we found that patients have higher risk of 1-year recurrence if those were exhibiting low preoperative BBT (<36.6 °C) (17 vs. 10 %, P = 0.034). Low body temperature (D0-MBT < 37.4 °C) after surgery was an independent predictor of poor survival outcomes in patients with rectal cancer. PMID:25976505

  13. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the body flap subsystem FMEA/CIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Body Flap (BF) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter BF hardware. The IOA product for the BF analysis consisted of 43 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 19 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 34 FMEAs and 15 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all CIL items. Based on the Pre 51-L baseline, all non-CIL FMEAs were also in agreement.

  14. Assessment of Tank 241-C-106 temperature response indications

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents an assessment of waste tank 241-C-106 temperature response indications. The results are obtained through evaluation of historical data for FIC surface level data and temperature indication data from thermocouples in risers 8 and 14, contained in the SACS and TMACS databases. Computer analysis is used to augment observations and conclusions about hypothesized mechanisms present in the tank that could explain the data observations. From the historical temperature indications of risers 8 and 14 (neglecting the ventilation outages), several general observational conclusions are drawn that support hypotheses explaining more recently observed behavior.

  15. Digital temperature sensor performance assessment report. [in simulated shuttle environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canniff, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Performance assessment data accumulated during exposure of the digital temperature sensor to simulated shuttle flight type environments are presented. The test parameters were specifically designed to check the sensor for its: (1) ability to resolve temperature relative to the design specifications; (2) ability to maintain accuracy after interchanging the temperature probes with each electronics interface assembly; (3) stability (i.e., satisfactory operation and accuracy during and after exposure to flight environments); and (4) repeatability, or its ability to produce the same output on subsequent exposures to the identical stimulus. Equipment list, test descriptions, data summary, and conclusions are included.

  16. Temperature effects on superfluid phase transition in Bose-Hubbard model with three-body interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeć, T. K.; Szymański, M. W.

    2014-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of the three-body on-site interactions on the Mott-insulator-superfluid transition for ultracold bosonic atoms in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. In particular, we explore the combined effects of three-body interaction and finite temperature on the phase diagram in detail. In order to handle system with strong local interactions a resolvent expansion technique based on the contour integral representation of the partition function has been devised. Subsequently, we derive the Landau-type expansion for the free energy in terms of the superfluid order parameter and find the phase diagrams depicting the relationships between various physical quantities of interest.

  17. Assessing Heterogeneous Student Bodies Using a Methodology that Encourages the Acquisition of Skills Valued by Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdigones, Alicia; Garcia, Jose Luis; Valino, Vanesa; Raposo, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    This work compares the results of three assessment systems used in two Spanish universities (the "Universidad Politecnica de Madrid" and the "Universidad Catolica de Avila"): the traditional system based on final examinations, continuous assessment with periodic tests and a proposed system (specially designed for heterogeneous student bodies)…

  18. Transient temperature distributions in simple conducting bodies steadily heated through a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Hermon M

    1953-01-01

    An analysis is made of the transient heat-conduction effects in three simple semi-infinite bodies: the flat insulated plate, the conical shell, and the slender solid cone. The bodies are assumed to have constant initial temperatures and, at zero time, to begin to move at a constant speed and zero angle of attack through a homogeneous atmosphere. The heat input is taken as that through a laminar boundary layer. Radiation heat transfer and transverse temperature gradients are assumed to be zero. The appropriate heat-conduction equations are solved by an iteration method, the zeroeth-order terms describing the situation in the limit of small time. The method is presented and the solutions are calculated to three orders which are sufficient to give reasonably accurate results when the forward edge has attained one-half the total temperature rise (nose half-rise time). Flight Mach number and air properties occur as parameters in the result. Approximate expressions for the extent of the conduction region and nose half-rise times as functions of the parameters of the problem are presented. (author)

  19. [Massive transfusion with the Rapid Infusion System. Its effect on core body temperature].

    PubMed

    Booke, M; Sielenkämper, A

    2001-12-01

    Extensive blood loss requires adequate volume replacement. However the infused volume cannot be adequately warmed especially when high infusion rates are necessary. Subsequently, hypothermia develops and results in hemodynamic instability and coagulopathy. The Rapid Infusion System (RIS) allows high infusion rates (up to 1.5 l/min) while at the same time guaranteeing sufficient warming. The efficacy of the RIS was investigated in 43 consecutive patients who required a massive transfusion. The average volume transfused in these patients was 31.7 +/- 4.5 l (minimum: 7.8 l; maximum: 165.3 l) which is equal to an average exchange of 6.4 times the circulating blood volume (maximum: 39.4 blood volumes). The replacement of such high blood volumes has not yet been published in a series of patients. Despite these high transfusion rates, the body core temperature was maintained at 35.85 +/- 0.1 degrees C. Only five patients had a body core temperature below 34 degrees C, all were trauma patients and four of these five patients already had a preoperative temperature below 34 degrees C. The mortality in this study was 28%, which is markedly reduced in comparison to previous publications although they all considered at patients with significantly less blood loss. Maintaining normothermia and normovolemia by the use of the RIS may explain the improved outcome. PMID:11824076

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown at both body and elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Priya, Kumutha; Chang, Chien-Yi; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Functional genomics research can give us valuable insights into bacterial gene function. RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq) can generate information on transcript abundance in bacteria following abiotic stress treatments. In this study, we used the RNA-seq technique to study the transcriptomes of the opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 following heat shock. Samples were grown at both the human body temperature (37 °C) and an arbitrarily-selected temperature of 46 °C. In this work using RNA-seq, we identified 133 genes that are differentially expressed at 46 °C compared to the human body temperature. Our work identifies some key P. aeruginosa PAO1 genes whose products have importance in both environmental adaptation as well as in vivo infection in febrile hosts. More importantly, our transcriptomic results show that many genes are only expressed when subjected to heat shock. Because the RNA-seq can generate high throughput gene expression profiles, our work reveals many unanticipated genes with further work to be done exploring such genes products. PMID:27547539

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown at both body and elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Kumutha; Chang, Chien-Yi; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Functional genomics research can give us valuable insights into bacterial gene function. RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq) can generate information on transcript abundance in bacteria following abiotic stress treatments. In this study, we used the RNA-seq technique to study the transcriptomes of the opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 following heat shock. Samples were grown at both the human body temperature (37 °C) and an arbitrarily-selected temperature of 46 °C. In this work using RNA-seq, we identified 133 genes that are differentially expressed at 46 °C compared to the human body temperature. Our work identifies some key P. aeruginosa PAO1 genes whose products have importance in both environmental adaptation as well as in vivo infection in febrile hosts. More importantly, our transcriptomic results show that many genes are only expressed when subjected to heat shock. Because the RNA-seq can generate high throughput gene expression profiles, our work reveals many unanticipated genes with further work to be done exploring such genes products. PMID:27547539

  2. Climate change effects on macrofaunal litter decomposition: the interplay of temperature, body masses and stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Ott, David; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Macrofauna invertebrates of forest floors provide important functions in the decomposition process of soil organic matter, which is affected by the nutrient stoichiometry of the leaf litter. Climate change effects on forest ecosystems include warming and decreasing litter quality (e.g. higher C : nutrient ratios) induced by higher atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. While litter-bag experiments unravelled separate effects, a mechanistic understanding of how interactions between temperature and litter stoichiometry are driving decomposition rates is lacking. In a laboratory experiment, we filled this void by quantifying decomposer consumption rates analogous to predator-prey functional responses that include the mechanistic parameters handling time and attack rate. Systematically, we varied the body masses of isopods, the environmental temperature and the resource between poor (hornbeam) and good quality (ash). We found that attack rates increased and handling times decreased (i) with body masses and (ii) temperature. Interestingly, these relationships interacted with litter quality: small isopods possibly avoided the poorer resource, whereas large isopods exhibited increased, compensatory feeding of the poorer resource, which may be explained by their higher metabolic demands. The combination of metabolic theory and ecological stoichiometry provided critically important mechanistic insights into how warming and varying litter quality may modify macrofaunal decomposition rates. PMID:23007091

  3. Ultrasonic vocalization and body temperature maintenance in infant voles of three species (Rodentia: Arvicolidae).

    PubMed

    Blake, B H

    1992-12-01

    Infant voles thermoregulate poorly and produce ultrasonic vocalizations when cooled. Vocalizing and the ability to maintain body temperature in isolated pups cold-challenged at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C were studied in nestling Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola terrestris. The tendency to vocalize varied with age, since pups vocalized more in their 2nd week than in their 1st or 3rd weeks. Rate of vocalizing was correlated with sound pressure level of vocalizations. Their was no apparent relation between vocalizing rate and deep body temperature. M. agrestis pups vocalized most and A. terrestris pups least, and all three species vocalized more at the lower temperature. Maximal vocalizing occurred in mid aged M. agrestis (at 5 degrees C) with mean of 1291 vocalizations/20 min and mean SPL of 80 dB (decibels re: 20 microN/m2). It is suggested that the vocalizing response is an adaptation related to risk from hypothermia in infant voles. PMID:1487083

  4. Mitochondrial Impairment in Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells is Involved in the Correlation between Body Temperature and Stroke Severity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Heng; Doll, Danielle N.; Sun, Jiahong; Lewis, Sara E.; Wimsatt, Jeffrey H.; Kessler, Matthew J.; Simpkins, James W.; Ren, Xuefang

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The prognostic influence of body temperature on acute stroke in patients has been recently reported; however, hypothermia has confounded experimental results in animal stroke models. This work aimed to investigate how body temperature could prognose stroke severity as well as reveal a possible mitochondrial mechanism in the association of body temperature and stroke severity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compromises mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CVECs) and worsens murine experimental stroke. In this study, we report that LPS (0.1 mg/kg) exacerbates stroke infarction and neurological deficits, in the mean time LPS causes temporary hypothermia in the hyperacute stage during 6 hours post-stroke. Lower body temperature is associated with worse infarction and higher neurological deficit score in the LPS-stroke study. However, warming of the LPS-stroke mice compromises animal survival. Furthermore, a high dose of LPS (2 mg/kg) worsens neurological deficits, but causes persistent severe hypothermia that conceals the LPS exacerbation of stroke infarction. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor, rotenone, replicates the data profile of the LPS-stroke study. Moreover, we have confirmed that rotenone compromises mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in CVECs. Lastly, the pooled data analyses of a large sample size (n=353) demonstrate that stroke mice have lower body temperature compared to sham mice within 6 hours post-surgery; the body temperature is significantly correlated with stroke outcomes; linear regression shows that lower body temperature is significantly associated with higher neurological scores and larger infarct volume. We conclude that post-stroke body temperature predicts stroke severity and mitochondrial impairment in CVECs plays a pivotal role in this hypothermic response. These novel findings suggest that body temperature is prognostic for

  5. Elevational variation in body-temperature response to immune challenge in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Camacho, Francisco Javier; Reguera, Senda; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Immunocompetence benefits animal fitness by combating pathogens, but also entails some costs. One of its main components is fever, which in ectotherms involves two main types of costs: energy expenditure and predation risk. Whenever those costs of fever outweigh its benefits, ectotherms are expected not to develop fever, or even to show hypothermia, reducing costs of thermoregulation and diverting the energy saved to other components of the immune system. Environmental thermal quality, and therefore the thermoregulation cost/benefit balance, varies geographically. Hence, we hypothesize that, in alpine habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms should show no thermal response, given that (1) hypothermia would be very costly, as the temporal window for reproduction is extremely small, and (2) fever would have a prohibitive cost, as heat acquisition is limited in such habitat. However, in temperate habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms might show a febrile response, due to lower cost/benefit balance as a consequence of a more suitable thermal environment. We tested this hypothesis in Psammodromus algirus lizards from Sierra Nevada (SE Spain), by testing body temperature preferred by alpine and non-alpine lizards, before and after activating their immune system with a typical innocuous pyrogen. Surprisingly, non-alpine lizards responded to immune challenge by decreasing preferential body-temperature, presumably allowing them to save energy and reduce exposure to predators. On the contrary, as predicted, immune-challenged alpine lizards maintained their body-temperature preferences. These results match with increased costs of no thermoregulation with elevation, due to the reduced window of time for reproduction in alpine environment. PMID:27168981

  6. Elevational variation in body-temperature response to immune challenge in a lizard

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Senda; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Immunocompetence benefits animal fitness by combating pathogens, but also entails some costs. One of its main components is fever, which in ectotherms involves two main types of costs: energy expenditure and predation risk. Whenever those costs of fever outweigh its benefits, ectotherms are expected not to develop fever, or even to show hypothermia, reducing costs of thermoregulation and diverting the energy saved to other components of the immune system. Environmental thermal quality, and therefore the thermoregulation cost/benefit balance, varies geographically. Hence, we hypothesize that, in alpine habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms should show no thermal response, given that (1) hypothermia would be very costly, as the temporal window for reproduction is extremely small, and (2) fever would have a prohibitive cost, as heat acquisition is limited in such habitat. However, in temperate habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms might show a febrile response, due to lower cost/benefit balance as a consequence of a more suitable thermal environment. We tested this hypothesis in Psammodromus algirus lizards from Sierra Nevada (SE Spain), by testing body temperature preferred by alpine and non-alpine lizards, before and after activating their immune system with a typical innocuous pyrogen. Surprisingly, non-alpine lizards responded to immune challenge by decreasing preferential body-temperature, presumably allowing them to save energy and reduce exposure to predators. On the contrary, as predicted, immune-challenged alpine lizards maintained their body-temperature preferences. These results match with increased costs of no thermoregulation with elevation, due to the reduced window of time for reproduction in alpine environment. PMID:27168981

  7. Energy metabolism and body temperature of barn owls fasting in the cold.

    PubMed

    Thouzeau, C; Duchamp, C; Handrich, Y

    1999-01-01

    Energetic adaptation to fasting in the cold has been investigated in a nocturnal raptor, the barn owl (Tyto alba), during winter. Metabolic rate and body temperature (Tb) were monitored in captive birds, (1) after acute exposure to different ambient temperatures (Ta), and (2) during a prolonged fast in the cold (4 degrees C), to take into account the three characteristic phases of body fuel utilization that occur during a long-term but reversible fast. In postabsorptive birds, metabolic rate in the thermoneutral zone was 4. 1+/-0.1 W kg-1 and increased linearly below a lower critical temperature of 23 degrees C. Metabolic rate was 70% above basal at +4 degrees C Ta. Wet thermal conductance was 0.22 W kg-1 degrees C-1. During fasting in the cold, the mass-specific resting metabolic rate decreased by 16% during the first day (phase I) and remained constant thereafter. The amplitude of the daily rhythm in Tb was only moderately increased during phase II, with a slight lowering (0. 6 degrees C) in minimal diurnal Tb, but rose markedly in phase III with a larger drop (1.4 degrees C) in minimal diurnal Tb. Refeeding the birds ended phase III and reversed the observed changes. These results indicate that diurnal hypothermia may be used in long-term fasting barn owls and could be triggered by a threshold of body lipid depletion, according to the shift from lipid to protein fuel metabolism occurring at the phase II/phase III transition. The high cost of regulatory thermogenesis and the limited use of hypothermia during fasting may contribute to the high mortality of barn owls during winter. PMID:10068620

  8. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  9. The effect of direct heating and cooling of heat regulation centers on body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on 28 rabbits in which puncture instruments were left in the brain for 1-2 days until the calori-puncture hyperthermia had passed and the body temperature was again normal. The instrument remaining in the brain was then used as a galvanic electrode and a second fever was produced, this time due to the electrical stimulus. It was concluded that heat is a centrally acting antipyretic and that cold is a centrally acting stimulus which produces hyperpyrexia cold-induced fever.

  10. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area. PMID:27110820

  11. [Relative validity of self-assessment of silhouette and BMI (body mass index)].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is unquestionable risk factor for pathogenic obesity in adulthood, high mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases and other health disorders, and also may cause the worse social and economical adaptation. Nevertheless, little is yet known about subjective perception of own body, the pathway leading to dissatisfaction of the body, development of chronic stress and behavioural disorders (anorexia, binge eating, bulimia) as a consequence. In Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene the multidimensional investigations of adolescents' health and life style were undertaken, and analysis of association between subjective image of body and real body mass was a part of these investigations. Data were obtained from 672 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 14-15 years attending seventeen public and private schools in Warsaw. Respondents informed about their weight and high for calculation BMI. Simultaneously, they were asked, whether they assess themselves as leaner than their peers, the same or thicker. The study showed that girls in comparison with boys more accurately assessed their silhouette. The boys were more likely than girls to perceive themselves as the same as their peers, despite they had real underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that real mass of body itself account for variance of subjective perceived body in moderate degree, and there are other factors influencing body image at least as real mass of body. PMID:14755858

  12. Measurements of the Influence of Acceleration and Temperature of Bodies on their Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Alexander L.

    2008-01-21

    A brief review of experimental research of the influence of acceleration and temperatures of test mass upon gravitation force, executed between the 1990s and the beginning of 2000 at the St.-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics in cooperation with D. I. Mendeleev's Institute of Metrology is provided. According to a phenomenological notion, the acceleration of a test mass caused by external action, for example electromagnetic forces, results in changes of the gravitational properties of this mass. Consequences are a dependence upon gravity on the size and sign of test mass acceleration, and also on its absolute temperature. Results of weighing a rotor of a mechanical gyroscope with a horizontal axis, an anisotropic crystal with the big difference of the speed of longitudinal acoustic waves, measurements of temperature dependence of weight of metal bars of nonmagnetic materials, and also measurement of restitution coefficients at quasi-elastic impact of a steel ball about a massive plate are given. In particular, a reduction of apparent mass of a horizontal rotor with relative size 3.10{sup -6} at a speed of rotation of 18.6 thousand rev/min was observed. A negative temperature dependence of the weight of a brass core with relative size near 5.10{sup -4} K{sup -1} at room temperature was measured; this temperature factor was found to be a maximum for light and elastic metals. All observably experimental effects, have probably a general physical reason connected with the weight change dependent upon acceleration of a body or at thermal movement of its microparticles. The reduction of mass at high temperatures is of particular interest for propulsion applications.

  13. Measurements of the Influence of Acceleration and Temperature of Bodies on their Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Alexander L.

    2008-01-01

    A brief review of experimental research of the influence of acceleration and temperatures of test mass upon gravitation force, executed between the 1990s and the beginning of 2000 at the St.-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics in cooperation with D. I. Mendeleev's Institute of Metrology is provided. According to a phenomenological notion, the acceleration of a test mass caused by external action, for example electromagnetic forces, results in changes of the gravitational properties of this mass. Consequences are a dependence upon gravity on the size and sign of test mass acceleration, and also on its absolute temperature. Results of weighing a rotor of a mechanical gyroscope with a horizontal axis, an anisotropic crystal with the big difference of the speed of longitudinal acoustic waves, measurements of temperature dependence of weight of metal bars of nonmagnetic materials, and also measurement of restitution coefficients at quasi-elastic impact of a steel ball about a massive plate are given. In particular, a reduction of apparent mass of a horizontal rotor with relative size 3.10-6 at a speed of rotation of 18.6 thousand rev/min was observed. A negative temperature dependence of the weight of a brass core with relative size near 5.10-4 K-1 at room temperature was measured; this temperature factor was found to be a maximum for light and elastic metals. All observably experimental effects, have probably a general physical reason connected with the weight change dependent upon acceleration of a body or at thermal movement of its microparticles. The reduction of mass at high temperatures is of particular interest for propulsion applications.

  14. Loss of circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleh, M. A.; Haro, P. J.; Winget, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    In experiments on male and female ambulatory rats, the effect of bilateral suprachiasmatic lesions on deep body temperature and locomotor activity circadian rhythms was investigated. A L/D:12/12 cycle and 23 C ambient temperature were maintained. One-half of the rats received radiofrequency lesions in the suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN) while the second group were sham operated by lowering the radiofrequency electrode to the SCN without producing electrolytic lesions. Four weeks were allowed for recuperation. Autopsies were conducted to make sure that the lesions were restricted to SCN. The results show the complete disappearance of circadian rhythm in the SCN lesioned rats and only a slight diminution for the sham operated rats.

  15. Geometrical Scaling of an Ablative Bluff Body under Different Outer Flow Velocity and Temperature Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Michael; White, Christopher M.; Dubief, Yves

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results investigating the geometrical scaling and local properties of an eroding low temperature ablator (para-dichlorobenzene) are presented. The bluff body is placed in a heated open-circuit wind tunnel and the effects of incoming outer flow velocity (uniform and spatially varying) and temperature on the ablation process are investigated. Image sequencing of the projected area in the streamwise-spanwise and streamwise-wall normal flow direction are used to quantify the time evolution of the geometrical shape and compute local recession rates and curvature. The geometrical self-similarity and local recession rates are evaluated and compared to Moore et al. and Huang et al. who investigated erosion under the action of fluid shear force and dissolution, respectively. This work is supported by the NSF (CBET-0967224).

  16. Impaired Respiratory and Body Temperature Control Upon Acute Serotonergic Neuron Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Russell; Corcoran, Andrea; Brust, Rachael; Kim, Jun Chul; Richerson, George B.; Nattie, Eugene; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological homeostasis is essential for organism survival. Highly responsive neuronal networks are involved but constituent neurons are just beginning to be resolved. To query brain serotonergic neurons in homeostasis, we used a synthetic GPCR (Di)-based neuronal silencing tool, mouse RC∷FPDi, designed for cell type-specific, ligand (clozapine-N-oxide, CNO)-inducible and reversible suppression of action potential firing. In mice harboring Di-expressing serotonergic neurons, CNO administration by systemic injection attenuated the chemoreflex that normally increases respiration in response to tissue CO2 elevation and acidosis. At the cellular level, CNO suppressed firing rate increases evoked by CO2/acidosis. Body thermoregulation at room temperature was also disrupted following CNO triggering of Di; core temperatures plummeted, then recovered. This work establishes that serotonergic neurons regulate life-sustaining respiratory and thermoregulatory networks, and demonstrates a noninvasive tool for mapping neuron function. PMID:21798952

  17. Acute effects of ozone on heart rate and body temperature in the unanesthetized, unrestrained rat maintained at different ambient temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Watkinson, W.P.; Aileru, A.A.; Dowd, S.M.; Doerfler, D.L.; Tepper, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to investigate the concentration-response characteristics of acute ozone (O3) exposure on the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function of the unanesthetized, unrestrained rat, and to examine the modulating effects produced by changes in ambient temperature (T[sub a]) on the induced toxic response. For all studies, groups of male Fischer 344 rats (n=4-6/group) were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters and allowed to recover overnight. The transmitters permitted continuous monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) and body core temperature (T[sub co]); heart rate (HR) was derived from the ECG signal. Frequency of breathing (f) was obtained in selected experiments by means of a Fenn box. All animals were monitored according to the following protocol: control (filtered air; 0.25 h); exposure (O3; 2 h); recovery (filtered air; 3-18 h). For the concentration-response experiments, O3 concentration was varied from 0.25-1.0 ppm and all exposures were conducted at an T[sub a] of 18-20 C. Significant decreases in HR and T[sub co] were demonstrated at O3 concentrations as low as 0.37 ppm.

  18. The Evaluation of a Circumference-based Prediction Equation to Assess Body Composition Changes in Men

    PubMed Central

    SCHUNA, JOHN M.; HILGERS, SARAH J.; MANIKOWSKE, TRISTA L.; TUCKER, JARED M.; LIGUORI, GARY

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the current U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) circumference-based prediction equation for males to detect body composition changes in comparison to air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Body composition was assessed using ADP and the DOD equation at the beginning and end of an academic school year among 21 male (18–29 years-old) Army ROTC cadets. Body mass significantly increased (+1.8 Kg) after 9 months. Significant method by time interactions for percent body fat (percent body fat), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass were found (p = 0.022, p = 0.023, p = 0.023, respectively) as body composition changes were not tracked equally by the two methods. Regression and Bland-Altman analyses indicated a lack of agreement between methods as the DOD equation underestimated percent body fat and FM changes in comparison to ADP. Results suggest the DOD equation for males cannot adequately detect body composition changes following a small body mass gain. PMID:27182395

  19. Crashworthiness Assessment of Auto-body Members Considering the Fabrication Histories

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Hoon; Song, Jung-Han; Kim, Kee-Poong; Kim, Hyun-Sub

    2005-08-05

    This paper is concerned with crashworthiness of auto-body members considering the effect of fabrication. Most auto-body members are fabricated with sheet metal forming process and welding process that induce fabrication histories such as the plastic work hardening, non-uniform thickness distribution and residual stress. Crash simulation is carried out for auto-body members with LS-DYNA3D in order to identify the fabrication effect on the crashworthiness. The analysis calculated crash mode, the reaction force and the energy absorption for crashworthiness assessment with the forming effect. The result shows that the crash analysis with considering the forming history leads to a different result from that without considering the forming effect. The analysis results demonstrate that the design of auto-body members should be carried out considering the forming history for accurate assessment of the crashworthiness.

  20. Effects of reproductive status and high ambient temperatures on the body temperature of a free-ranging basoendotherm.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Danielle L; Lobban, Kerileigh D; Lovegrove, Barry G

    2014-12-01

    Tenrecs (Order Afrosoricida) exhibit some of the lowest body temperatures (T b) of any eutherian mammal. They also have a high level of variability in both active and resting T bs and, at least in cool temperatures in captivity, frequently employ both short- and long-term torpor. The use of heterothermy by captive animals is, however, generally reduced during gestation and lactation. We present data long-term T b recordings collected from free-ranging S. setosus over the course of two reproductive seasons. In general, reproductive females had slightly higher (~32 °C) and less variable T b, whereas non-reproductive females and males showed both a higher propensity for torpor as well as lower (~30.5 °C) and more variable rest-phase T bs. Torpor expression defined using traditional means (using a threshold or cut-off T b) was much lower than predicted based on the high degree of heterothermy in captive tenrecs. However, torpor defined in this manner is likely to be underestimated in habitats where ambient temperature is close to T b. Our results caution against inferring metabolic states from T b alone and lend support to the recent call to define torpor in free-ranging animals based on mechanistic and not descriptive variables. In addition, lower variability in T b observed during gestation and lactation confirms that homeothermy is essential for reproduction in this species and probably for basoendothermic mammals in general. The relatively low costs of maintaining homeothermy in a sub-tropical environment might help shed light on how homeothermy could have evolved incrementally from an ancestral heterothermic condition. PMID:25155185

  1. Ethnic Variation in Body Composition Assessment in a Sample of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid measure of body composition in a multiethnic sample of adolescent girls, as compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Method Data were from a physical activity intervention study among 276 14–20 year-old sedentary American girls, including 74 whites, 85 blacks, 46 Hispanics, and 71 Asians. Height and weight were objectively measured. Body composition was assessed using a foot-to-foot BIA and a fan-beam DXA. Linear regression models quantified baseline cross-sectional estimates of percent body fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index and their BIA-DXA differences, which we considered an estimate of bias. Variation in BIA-DXA by ethnicity and DXA-assessed adiposity was examined with tests of statistical interaction. Results Compared to DXA measurement, BIA significantly underestimated percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass index, and overestimated fat-free mass and fat-free mass index in each ethnic group. There was significant ethnic variation in BIA-DXA bias: percent body fat was underestimated by between 4.8% in blacks and 8.6% in Asians (p-value, interaction<0.001), as were fat mass (p-value=0.012) and fat mass index (p-value<0.001); fat-free mass index was overestimated (p-value=0.002). The degree of ethnic-specific bias varied according to DXA-assessed body composition values. For example, there was relatively greater ethnic variation in bias estimating percent body fat at lower DXA-assessed percent body fat values. Conclusion Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated measures of adiposity in a multiethnic adolescent sample. Further, BIA-DXA bias varied by ethnicity and across measures of adiposity. PMID:21749194

  2. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  3. Kv4.2 Mediates Histamine Modulation of Preoptic Neuron Activity and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Jasmine; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Tabarean, Iustin V.

    2011-01-01

    Histamine regulates arousal, circadian rhythms, and thermoregulation. Activation of H3 histamine receptors expressed by preoptic GABAergic neurons results in a decrease of their firing rate and hyperthermia. Here we report that an increase in the A-type K+ current in preoptic GABAergic neurons in response to activation of H3 histamine receptors results in decreased firing rate and hyperthermia in mice. The Kv4.2 subunit is required for these actions in spite of the fact that Kv4.2−/− preoptic GABAergic neurons display A-type currents and firing characteristics similar to those of wild-type neurons. This electrical remodeling is achieved by robust upregulation of the expression of the Kv4.1 subunit and of a delayed rectifier current. Dynamic clamp experiments indicate that enhancement of the A-type current by a similar amount to that induced by histamine is sufficient to mimic its robust effect on firing rates. These data indicate a central role played by the Kv4.2 subunit in histamine regulation of body temperature and its interaction with pERK1/2 downstream of the H3 receptor. We also reveal that this pathway provides a mechanism for selective modulation of body temperature at the beginning of the active phase of the circadian cycle. PMID:22220205

  4. Kv4.2 mediates histamine modulation of preoptic neuron activity and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jasmine; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Tabarean, Iustin V

    2011-01-01

    Histamine regulates arousal, circadian rhythms, and thermoregulation. Activation of H3 histamine receptors expressed by preoptic GABAergic neurons results in a decrease of their firing rate and hyperthermia. Here we report that an increase in the A-type K⁺ current in preoptic GABAergic neurons in response to activation of H3 histamine receptors results in decreased firing rate and hyperthermia in mice. The Kv4.2 subunit is required for these actions in spite of the fact that Kv4.2⁻/⁻ preoptic GABAergic neurons display A-type currents and firing characteristics similar to those of wild-type neurons. This electrical remodeling is achieved by robust upregulation of the expression of the Kv4.1 subunit and of a delayed rectifier current. Dynamic clamp experiments indicate that enhancement of the A-type current by a similar amount to that induced by histamine is sufficient to mimic its robust effect on firing rates. These data indicate a central role played by the Kv4.2 subunit in histamine regulation of body temperature and its interaction with pERK1/2 downstream of the H3 receptor. We also reveal that this pathway provides a mechanism for selective modulation of body temperature at the beginning of the active phase of the circadian cycle. PMID:22220205

  5. Effects of head cooling on cardiovascular and body temperature responses during submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Watanuki, S

    1993-11-01

    Cardiovascular and body temperature responses during submaximal exercise (25% and 50% VO2max) were investigated using female subjects (n = 6) in two separate experiments; one with head cooling and heating and the other with torso heating with and without head cooling. To supply the heat load, a liquid conditioned cap and vest were used. In the first experiment, a significant decrease in heart rate, oxygen intake (VO2) and cardiac output (Q) at relative work intensity of 50% VO2max was observed by head cooling. These results show that head cooling is very effective to reduce the physiological strain. In the second experiment, Q as a function of VO2 during torso heating was decreased by head cooling. However, the tympanic membrane temperature during head cooling at 15 degrees C was significantly higher than that at 20 degrees C and it was almost the same level with torso heating without head cooling. The results suggest that excess head cooling is not beneficial in terms of improving the body heat dissipation. PMID:8123182

  6. Many body effects in the temperature dependence of threshold in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, W.W.; Corzine, S.W.; Young, D.B.; Coldren, L.A.

    1995-05-08

    The temperature dependence of the threshold in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is investigated. Comparison of theory with experiment indicates that many-body Coulomb interactions play an important role.

  7. Inland Water Temperature: An Ideal Indicator for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S. J.; Lenters, J. D.; O'Reilly, C.; Healey, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    NASA is a significant contributor to the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), which is a central component of the 2012-2022 U.S. Global Change Research Program Strategic Plan. The NCA has identified the need for indicators that provide a clear, concise way of communicating to NCA audiences about not only the status and trends of physical drivers of the climate system, but also the ecological and socioeconomic impacts, vulnerabilities, and responses to those drivers. We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America for potential use as an indicator for the NCA. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 100 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes

  8. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  9. Gender and Timing during Ontogeny Matter: Effects of a Temporary High Temperature on Survival, Body Size and Colouration in Harmonia axyridis

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Michal; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2013-01-01

    The ambient temperature experienced during development is a crucial factor affecting survival and adult phenotype in ectotherms. Moreover, the exact response of individuals to different temperature regimes is frequently sex-specific. This sex-specific response can result in varying levels of sexual dimorphism according to the experienced conditions. The majority of studies have investigated the effects of temperature on individuals reared under a constant temperature regime throughout their whole preimaginal development, whereas information on stage-dependent variation in temperature effects is scarce. Here we investigate how the stage at which elevated temperature is experienced influences survival, adult body size and colouration in the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis form succinea. The effects of timing of exposure to elevated temperature on the adult phenotype are assessed separately for males and females. Control individuals were reared at a constant temperature of 20°C. Beetles in other treatments were additionally exposed to 33°C for 48 hours during the following developmental stages: egg, 1st to 2nd larval instar, 3rd larval instar, 4th larval instar and pupa. Exposure to an elevated temperature during the early developmental stages resulted in lower survival, but the adult phenotype of survivors was almost unaffected. Exposure to an elevated temperature during the later developmental stages (4th larval instar or pupa) resulted in the decreased melanisation of elytra, decreased structural body size and increased dry mass. Furthermore, the timing of high temperature exposure affected the degree of sexual dimorphism in elytral melanisation and dry mass. We demonstrate that the effects of elevated temperature can vary according to the developmental stage at exposure. Detailed information on how ambient temperature affects the developmental biology of ectotherms is crucial for modeling population growth and predicting the spread of invasive species such

  10. Gender and timing during ontogeny matter: effects of a temporary high temperature on survival, body size and colouration in Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michal; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2013-01-01

    The ambient temperature experienced during development is a crucial factor affecting survival and adult phenotype in ectotherms. Moreover, the exact response of individuals to different temperature regimes is frequently sex-specific. This sex-specific response can result in varying levels of sexual dimorphism according to the experienced conditions. The majority of studies have investigated the effects of temperature on individuals reared under a constant temperature regime throughout their whole preimaginal development, whereas information on stage-dependent variation in temperature effects is scarce. Here we investigate how the stage at which elevated temperature is experienced influences survival, adult body size and colouration in the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis form succinea. The effects of timing of exposure to elevated temperature on the adult phenotype are assessed separately for males and females. Control individuals were reared at a constant temperature of 20 °C. Beetles in other treatments were additionally exposed to 33 °C for 48 hours during the following developmental stages: egg, 1(st) to 2(nd) larval instar, 3(rd) larval instar, 4(th) larval instar and pupa. Exposure to an elevated temperature during the early developmental stages resulted in lower survival, but the adult phenotype of survivors was almost unaffected. Exposure to an elevated temperature during the later developmental stages (4(th) larval instar or pupa) resulted in the decreased melanisation of elytra, decreased structural body size and increased dry mass. Furthermore, the timing of high temperature exposure affected the degree of sexual dimorphism in elytral melanisation and dry mass. We demonstrate that the effects of elevated temperature can vary according to the developmental stage at exposure. Detailed information on how ambient temperature affects the developmental biology of ectotherms is crucial for modeling population growth and predicting the spread of invasive

  11. Assessing the impact of temperature on grape phenolic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Seth D; Tarara, Julie M; Kennedy, James A

    2008-07-21

    This study assessed the impact of fruit temperature on the phenolic metabolism of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) grown under field conditions with controlled exposure to sunlight. Individual cluster temperatures were manipulated in situ. Diurnal temperature fluctuation was damped by daytime cooling and nighttime heating of clusters. Daytime-only and nighttime-only temperature controls were applied for comparison. Berry temperatures were recorded continuously to compare the chemical data. Samples collected at véraison indicated that damping the diurnal temperature fluctuation advanced the onset of ripening. Those berries were larger (double-damped: 0.753+/-0.015gberry(-1) vs control: 0.512+/-0.034gberry(-1)) and more colored than all others. Development of phenolic metabolites was followed by two reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography methods and gel permeation chromatography. These methods provided information on anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavan-3-ol monomers, and polymeric material. Damping the diurnal temperature fluctuation reduced proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (double-damped: 21.8+/-1.0 vs control: 28.0+/-1.7). Proanthocyanidin accumulation at véraison was linearly related to heat summation over the developmental period with nighttime heating yielding the highest concentration and daytime cooling yielding the lowest (night-heat: 1.46+/-0.13mgberry(-1) vs day-cool: 0.97+/-0.09mgberry(-1)). Damping the diurnal temperature fluctuation had a marked effect on the rate of fruit development whereas total heat summation had more of an effect on phenolic metabolism alone. The results provide insight on the direct effect of temperature on phenolic metabolism. PMID:18573371

  12. Zero-Heat-Flux Thermometry for Non-Invasive Measurement of Core Body Temperature in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaowei; Herff, Holger; Annecke, Thorsten; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Böttiger, Bernd W.; Schroeder, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a severe, unpleasant side effect during general anesthesia. Thus, temperature surveillance is a prerequisite in general anesthesia settings during experimental surgeries. The gold standard to measure the core body temperature (Tcore) is placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery, which is a highly invasive procedure. Therefore, Tcore is commonly examined in the urine bladder and rectum. However, these procedures are known for their inaccuracy and delayed record of temperatures. Zero-heat-flux (ZHF) thermometry is an alternative, non-invasive method quantifying Tcore in human patients by applying a thermosensoric patch to the lateral forehead. Since the porcine cranial anatomy is different to the human’s, the optimal location of the patch remains unclear to date. The aim was to compare three different patch locations of ZHF thermometry in a porcine hypothermia model. Hypothermia (33.0°C Tcore) was conducted in 11 anesthetized female pigs (26-30kg). Tcore was measured continuously by an invasive Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery (Tpulm). A ZHF thermometry device was mounted on three different defined locations. The smallest average difference between Tpulm and TZHF during stable temperatures was 0.21 ± 0.16°C at location A, where the patch was placed directly behind the eye. Also during rapidly changing temperatures location A showed the smallest bias with 0.48 ± 0.29°C. Location A provided the most reliable data for Tcore. Therefore, the ZHF thermometry patch should be placed directly behind the left temporal corner of the eye to provide a non-invasive method for accurate measurement of Tcore in pigs. PMID:26938613

  13. The study of many body physics in high temperature superconductors using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Adam

    Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) is an experimental technique that has greatly contributed to our understanding of the electronic structure of the High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC). Over the last few years, it has provided vital information about the electronic structure, the Fermi Surface, gap anisotropy and it's temperature dependence, and a new phenomena known as the pseudogap. In this thesis we apply Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy to the study of electronic interactions in High Temperature Superconductors. The experimental portion of this thesis comprises three main areas, (i) participation in the construction of a new undulator beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center-Madison, Wisconsin, (ii) construction of a new ARPES system and (iii) collection and analysis of the data. The experimental results include precise determination of the Fermi Surface in BISCO 2212 and 2201, first observation of intrinsic ARPES lineshape at the nodal point of the Fermi Surface in BISCO 2212, detailed quantitative study of many body interactions along the nodal direction in normal and superconductive state, precise doping dependence analysis of the lineshape at the antinode.

  14. Body temperature in the mouse, hamster, and rat exposed to radiofrequency radiation: an interspecies comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.; Long, M.D.; Fehlner, K.S.; Stead, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Colonic temperatures of BALB/c and CBA/J mice, golden hamsters, and Sprague-Dawley rats were taken immediately after exposure for 90 min to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Exposures were made in 2450 MHz (mouse and hamster) or 600-MHz (rat) waveguide exposure systems while the dose rate, to specific adsorption rate (SAR), was continuously recorded. Experiments were performed on naive, unrestrained animals at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 20 and 30 C. Body mass and Ta were found to be significant factors in influencing the threshold SAR for the elevation of colonic temperature. The threshold SARs at Ta's of 20 and 30 C were, respectively: 27.5 and 12.1 W/kg for the BALB/c mouse; 40.7 and 8.5 W/kg for the CBA/J mouse; 8.7 and 0.61 W/kg for the golden hamster; and 1.58 and 0.4 W/kg for the Sprague-Dawley rat.

  15. Touch-free measurement of body temperature using close-up thermography of the ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Benjamin; Wagner, Heike; Gmoser, Johanna; Wörner, Anja; Löschberger, Anna; Peters, Laura; Frey, Anna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In experimental animal research body temperature (BT) is measured for the objective determination of an animals' physiological condition. Invasive, probe-based measurements are stressful and can influence experimental outcome. Alternatively BT can be determined touch-free from the emitted heat of the organism at a single spot using infrared thermometers [1]. To get visual confirmation and find more appropriate surfaces for measurement a hand-held thermal imager was equipped with a self-made, cheap, 3D-printable close-up lens system that reproducibly creates eight-time magnified thermal images and improves sensitivity. This setup was used to establish ocular surface temperature (OST), representing the temperature of the brain-heart axis, as a touch-free alternative for measurement of BT in mice, rats, rabbits and humans.OST measurement after isoflurane exposure and myocardial infarction (MI) experiments in mice revealed high physiological relevance and sensitivity, the possibility to discriminate between MI and sham operations in one hour and even long-term outcome-predictive capabilities of OST after MI. Summarized here we present: •Self-made close-up lens for thermal imaging cameras for eight-time magnification•Establishment of OST for touch-free determination of BT in rodents and humans•Short- and long-term predictive capabilities of OST in experimental MI in mice. PMID:27284532

  16. H2/O2 three-body rates at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, William J.; Kessler, William J.; Carleton, Karen L.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms are produced in the presence of excess O2, and the first-order decay are studied as a function of temperature and pressure in order to obtain the rate coefficient for the three-body reaction between H-atoms and O2. Attention is focused on the kinetic scheme employed as well as the reaction cell and photolysis and probe laser system. A two-photon laser-induced fluorescence technique is employed to detect H-atoms without optical-thickness or O2-absorption problems. Results confirm measurements reported previously for the H + O2 + N2 reaction at 300 K and extend these measurements to higher temperatures. Preliminary data indicate non-Arrehenius-type behavior of this reaction rate coefficient as a function of temperature. Measurements of the rate coefficient for H + O2 + Ar reaction at 300 K give a rate coefficient of 2.1 +/- 0.1 x 10 to the -32nd cm exp 6/molecule sec.

  17. 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal assessment program, Colorada

    SciTech Connect

    Cappa, J.A.; Hemborg, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous assessments of Colorado`s low-temperature geothermal resources were completed by the Colorado Geological Survey in 1920 and in the mid- to late-1970s. The purpose of the 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment is to update the earlier physical, geochemical, and utilization data and compile computerized databases of the location, chemistry, and general information of the low-temperature geothermal resources in Colorado. The main sources of the data included published data from the Colorado Geological Survey, the US Geological Survey WATSTOR database, and the files of the State Division of Water Resources. The staff of the Colorado Geological Survey in 1992 and 1993 visited most of the known geothermal sources that were recorded as having temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C. Physical measurements of the conductivity, pH, temperature, flow rate, and notes on the current geothermal source utilization were taken. Ten new geochemical analyses were completed on selected geothermal sites. The results of the compilation and field investigations are compiled into the four enclosed Quattro Pro 4 databases. For the purposes of this report a geothermal area is defined as a broad area, usually less than 3 sq mi in size, that may have several wells or springs. A geothermal site is an individual well or spring within a geothermal area. The 1992-1993 assessment reports that there are 93 geothermal areas in the Colorado, up from the 56 reported in 1978; there are 157 geothermal sites up from the 125 reported in 1978; and a total of 382 geochemical analyses are compiled, up from the 236 reported in 1978. Six geothermal areas are recommended for further investigation: Trimble Hot Springs, Orvis Hot Springs, an area southeast of Pagosa Springs, the eastern San Luis Valley, Rico and Dunton area, and Cottonwood Hot Springs.

  18. Low-temperature resource assessment program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Ross, H.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy - Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Resource Assessment project to update the inventory of the nation`s low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources and to encourage development of these resources. A database of 8,977 thermal wells and springs that are in the temperature range of 20{degrees}C to 150{degrees}C has been compiled for ten western states, an impressive increase of 82% compared to the previous assessments. The database includes location, descriptive data, physical parameters, water chemistry and references for sources of data. Computer-generated maps are also available for each state. State Teams have identified 48 high-priority areas for near-term comprehensive resource studies and development. Resources with temperatures greater than 50{degrees}C located within 8 km of a population center were identified for 271 collocated cities. Geothermal energy cost evaluation software has been developed to quickly identify the cost of geothermally supplied heat to these areas in a fashion similar to that used for conventionally fueled heat sources.

  19. Assessing surface air temperature variability using quantile regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, A. A.; Sterin, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Many researches in climate change currently involve linear trends, based on measured variables. And many of them only consider trends in mean values, whereas it is clear, that not only means, but also whole shape of distribution changes over time and requires careful assessment. For example extreme values including outliers may get bigger, while median has zero slope.Quantile regression provides a convenient tool, that enables detailed analysis of changes in full range of distribution by producing a vector of quantile trends for any given set of quantiles.We have applied quantile regression to surface air temperature observations made at over 600 weather stations across Russian Federation during last four decades. The results demonstrate well pronounced regions with similar values of significant trends in different parts of temperature value distribution (left tail, middle part, right tail). The uncertainties of quantile trend estimations for several spatial patterns of trends over Russia are estimated and analyzed for each of four seasons.For temperature trend estimation over vast territories, quantile regression is an effort consuming approach, but is more informative than traditional instrument, to assess decadal evolution of temperature values, including evolution of extremes.Partial support of ERA NET RUS ACPCA joint project between EU and RBRF 12-05-91656-ЭРА-А is highly appreciated.

  20. A comparison of field methods to assess body composition in a diverse group of sedentary women.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Aluf, Ana; Vincent, Linda; Cooper, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Accurate assessment of body composition is essential in the evaluation of obesity. While laboratory methods are commonly used to assess fat mass, field measures (e.g., skinfold thickness [SKF] and bioelectrical impedance [BIA]) may be more practical for screening large numbers of individuals in intervention studies. In this study, a correlational design was used among 46 racially and ethnically diverse, sedentary women (mean age = 25.73 years) to (a) compare the percentage of body fat as determined by SKF and the upper body BIA and (b) examine the effects of body mass index (BMI), racial/ethnic background, age, and stage of the menstrual cycle on differences in the estimated percentage of body fat obtained using the SKF and BIA. Overall, a significant correlation between SKF and BIA (r = .98, p < .001) was found, with similar findings among Black, Hispanic and White non-Hispanic women. The mean differences between BIA and SKF were not significantly correlated with BMI, age, race/ethnicity or stage of the menstrual cycle. Data from this study suggest that BIA showed similar body fat prediction values compared with SKF and may be a viable alternative to SKF among diverse groups of healthy women. Additional testing and comparison of these field methods with the laboratory methods of hydro-densitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is recommended to further determine whether BIA devices can be routinely recommended as an alternative to the SKF. PMID:19022781

  1. Assessment of SOI Devices and Circuits at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in future NASA space exploration missions are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings. Such missions include planetary surface exploration, bases, rovers, landers, orbiters, and satellites. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to extreme temperatures and to perform properly for the duration of mission. The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electrical devices, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in deep space exploration missions and aerospace environment. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology has been under active consideration in the electronics industry for many years due to the advantages that it can provide in integrated circuit (IC) chips and computer processors. Faster switching, less power, radiationtolerance, reduced leakage, and high temp-erature capability are some of the benefits that are offered by using SOI-based devices. A few SOI circuits are available commercially. However, there is a noticeable interest in SOI technology for different applications. Very little data, however, exist on the performance of such circuits under cryogenic temperatures. In this work, the performance of SOI integrated circuits, evaluated under low temperature and thermal cycling, are reported. In particular, three examples of SOI circuits that have been tested for operation at low at temperatures are given. These circuits are SOI operational amplifiers, timers and power MOSFET drivers. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these circuits for use in space exploration missions at cryogenic temperatures. The findings are useful to mission planners and circuit designers so that proper selection of electronic parts can be made, and risk assessment can be established for such circuits for use in space missions.

  2. Ostracod body size trends do not follow either Bergmann's rule or Cope's rule during periods of constant temperature increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Seshadri, P.; Amin, V.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over time, organisms have adapted to changing environments by evolving to be larger or smaller. Scientists have described body-size trends using two generalized theories. Bergmann's rule states that body size is inversely related to temperature, and Cope's rule establishes an increase over time. Cope's rule has been hypothesized as a temporal manifestation of Bergmann's rule, as the temperature of the Earth has consistently decreased over time and mean body size has increased. However, during times of constant temperature increase, Bergmann's rule and Cope's rule predict opposite effects on body size. Our goal was to clarify this relationship using both accessible proxies of historic temperature - atmospheric CO2 levels and paleo-latitude. We measured ostracod lengths throughout the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras (using the Catalogue of Ostracoda) and utilized ostracod latitudinal information from the Paleobiology Database. By closely studying body-size trends during four time periods of constant CO2 increase across spectrums of time and latitude, we were able to compare the effects of Cope's and Bergmann's rule. The correlation, p-values, and slopes of each of our graphs showed that there is no clear relationship between body size and each of these rules in times of temperature increase, both latitudinally and temporally. Therefore, both Cope's and Bergmann's rule act on marine ostracods and no rule is dominant, though our results more strongly disprove the latitudinal variation in ostracod size.

  3. Baseline body temperatures, heart rates, and respiratory rates of moose in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, A W; Schwartz, C C; Johnson, D C

    1984-10-01

    Baseline body temperatures (BT), heart rates (HR) and respiratory rates (RR) were obtained from Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas Miller) at the Moose Research Center (MRC), Alaska. Excitability, seasons and drugs influenced the values to varying degrees. Excitability was the most influential factor. Safe expected ranges were: BT 38.4 to 38.9 C, HR 70 to 91 beats/min (b/min), and RR 13 to 40 respirations/min (r/min). These ranges incorporated all seasons, a central nervous system depressant drug and a paralyzing drug. Values which may be considered critical and an indication that corrective action should be taken include: BT 40.2 C, HR 102 b/min, and RR 40 r/min. It is recommended that persons trained in monitoring vital signs be on hand during moose capture and immobilization procedures. PMID:6530720

  4. ΔN-TRPV1: A Molecular Co-detector of Body Temperature and Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Zaelzer, Cristian; Hua, Pierce; Prager-Khoutorsky, Masha; Ciura, Sorana; Voisin, Daniel L; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Bourque, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion occur during hyperthermia or hypertonicity to preserve body hydration. These vital responses are triggered when hypothalamic osmoregulatory neurons become depolarized by ion channels encoded by an unknown product of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 gene (Trpv1). Here, we show that rodent osmoregulatory neurons express a transcript of Trpv1 that mediates the selective translation of a TRPV1 variant that lacks a significant portion of the channel's amino terminus (ΔN-TRPV1). The mRNA transcript encoding this variant (Trpv1dn) is widely expressed in the brains of osmoregulating vertebrates, including the human hypothalamus. Transfection of Trpv1dn into heterologous cells induced the expression of ion channels that could be activated by either hypertonicity or by heating in the physiological range. Moreover, expression of Trpv1dn rescued the osmosensory and thermosensory responses of single hypothalamic neurons obtained from Trpv1 knockout mice. ΔN-TRPV1 is therefore a co-detector of core body temperature and fluid tonicity. PMID:26387947

  5. To use or not to use torpor? Activity and body temperature as predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Nereda; Geiser, Fritz

    2007-06-01

    When food is limited and/or environmental conditions are unfavourable, many mammals reduce activity and use torpor to save energy. Nevertheless, reliable predictors for torpor occurrence, especially in the wild, are currently not available. Interrelations between torpor use and other energy conserving strategies are also poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in normothermic body temperature ( T b) and the period of activity before torpor events could be used as predictors for torpor occurrence in sugar gliders, Petaurus breviceps (body mass, ˜125 g), known to display daily torpor in the wild. Occurrence of torpor was preceded by significant (˜10-25%) reductions of the duration of the activity phase. Moreover, the normothermic resting T b fell by an average of 1.2°C over 3 days before a torpor event, relative to individuals that did not display torpor. Our new findings suggest that before entering torpor, sugar gliders, which appear to use torpor as an emergency measure rather than a routine energy saving strategy, systematically reduce activity times and normothermic resting T bs to lower energy expenditure and perhaps to avoid employing torpor. Thus, reduced activity and normothermic T b may provide a predictive tool for the occurrence of daily torpor in the wild.

  6. Use of a novel pediatric body composition technique for assessing body fatness and its changes during the first 6 month of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of infant growth and nutritional status is enhanced by accurate measurement of body composition and its changes over time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of an air-displacement plethysmograph, the PEA POD (Registered Trademark) Infant Body Composition System (Lif...

  7. The effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and other adenine nucleotides on body temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1975-01-01

    1. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), its dibutyryl derivative (Db-cAMP) and other adenine nucleotides have been micro-injected into the hypothalamic region of the unanaesthetized cat and the effects on body temperature, and on behavioural and autonomic thermoregulatory activities observed. 2. Db-cAMP and cAMP both produced hypothermia when applied to the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. With Db-cAMP the hypothermia was shown to be dose dependent between 50 and 500 mug (0-096-0-96 mumole). 3. AMP, ADP and ATP also produced hypothermia when injected into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. 4. The order of relative potencies of the adenine nucleotides with respect both to the hypothermia produced and to the autonomic thermoregulatory effects observed were similar. Db-cAMP was most potent and cAMP least. 5. Micro-injection into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus of many substances including saline produced in most cats a non-specific rise in body temperature apparently the result of tissue damage. Intraperitoneal injection of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol 50 mg/kg) reduced or abolished this febrile response. 6. The hypothermic effect of the adenine nucleotides has been compared with the effects produced in these same cats by micro-injections of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, a mixture of acetylcholine and physostigmine (1:1), EDTA and excess Ca2+ ions. 7. It is concluded that as Db-cAMP and cAMP both produce hypothermia, it is unlikely that endogenous cAMP in the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus mediates the hyperthermic responses to pyrogens and prostaglandins. PMID:170396

  8. The effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and other adenine nucleotides on body temperature.

    PubMed

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1975-08-01

    1. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), its dibutyryl derivative (Db-cAMP) and other adenine nucleotides have been micro-injected into the hypothalamic region of the unanaesthetized cat and the effects on body temperature, and on behavioural and autonomic thermoregulatory activities observed. 2. Db-cAMP and cAMP both produced hypothermia when applied to the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. With Db-cAMP the hypothermia was shown to be dose dependent between 50 and 500 mug (0-096-0-96 mumole). 3. AMP, ADP and ATP also produced hypothermia when injected into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. 4. The order of relative potencies of the adenine nucleotides with respect both to the hypothermia produced and to the autonomic thermoregulatory effects observed were similar. Db-cAMP was most potent and cAMP least. 5. Micro-injection into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus of many substances including saline produced in most cats a non-specific rise in body temperature apparently the result of tissue damage. Intraperitoneal injection of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol 50 mg/kg) reduced or abolished this febrile response. 6. The hypothermic effect of the adenine nucleotides has been compared with the effects produced in these same cats by micro-injections of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, a mixture of acetylcholine and physostigmine (1:1), EDTA and excess Ca2+ ions. 7. It is concluded that as Db-cAMP and cAMP both produce hypothermia, it is unlikely that endogenous cAMP in the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus mediates the hyperthermic responses to pyrogens and prostaglandins. PMID:170396

  9. The Assessment of Ideal Body Size by Subjects and Objective Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Carol R.; Adams, Henry E.

    Research has indicated that bulimics desire to weigh below the minimum healthy weight for their height. In order to examine differences between subjects' and raters' assessment of ideal body size, women participants were separated into four groups, consisting of 11 bulimics and 36 normal-weight females divided into dieters, restrained normals, and…

  10. Longitudinal DXA Studies: Minimum scanning interval for pediatric assessment of body fat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, has led to the increased use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessment of body fat mass (TBF) in pediatric populations. We examined DXA precision, in order to determine suitable scanning intervals for the measurement of change...

  11. 77 FR 31073 - Audit Requirements for Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC,'' ``Commission,'' or ``we'') is issuing a final rule establishing requirements for the periodic audit of third party conformity assessment bodies as a condition of their continuing accreditation. The final rule implements a section of the Consumer Product Safety Act (``CPSA''), as amended by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008......

  12. Lipometer: a potential field method for body fat assessment in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalance of childhood obesity has significantly increased worldwide during the last 20 years. A number of school-based behavioral, dietary, and/or physical-activity interventions have been proposed to reverse this trend. Hence, a safe, quick, noninvasive body composition method for assessing...

  13. 78 FR 15835 - Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC, Commission, or we) is issuing a final rule establishing requirements pertaining to the third party conformity assessment bodies (laboratories) whose accreditations are accepted to test children's products in support of the certification required by the Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA), as amended by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of......

  14. Children, Mathematics, and Videotape: Using Multimodal Analysis to Bring Bodies into Early Childhood Assessment Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increased use of video for data collection, most research using assessment interviews in early childhood education relies solely upon the analysis of linguistic data, ignoring children's bodies. This trend is particularly troubling in studies of marginalized children because transcripts limited to language can make it difficult to…

  15. [Peripuberal development of genetic obesity in beta rats. Daily changes in food intake, body weight, deep body temperature, triglyceridemia and glycemia].

    PubMed

    Calderari, S; Gayol, M C; Elliff, M I; Labourdette, V; Troiano, M F; Romano, G

    1990-01-01

    The moderate quality of beta obesity and its relatively slow evolution make it potentially useful for defining the sequence of events that lead to the overt syndrome. Estimates of food intake, live body weight, deep body temperature, triglyceridemia and glycemia were obtained at several times during the day in beta genetically obese and alpha (alpha) control male rats at peripuberal age, in order to characterize the dynamic phase of this obesity and to attempt the definition of some previous proceedings that eventually produce the full obesity syndrome. Beta higher food intake in the light cycle preceded its whole day hyperphagia. Both genotypes showed the normal pattern of predominantly nocturnal feeding. A lower light phase's weight loss in beta preceded the overweight. Thus, beta rats were not significantly heavier than alpha until the end of the last period studied, when they were 75 days old. A defect in adaptive thermogenesis in beta genotype is suggested, as values on deep body temperature in relation to alpha were significantly lower at all times of day tested. Correlation coefficient value between daily net weight gain versus deep body temperature was: r = -0.601 (p less than 0.01), suggesting a diminished lipolytic stimulation in beta brown adipose tissue. A sustained hypertriglyceridemia in beta at every time of the day studied suggested its endogenous source. Differences in glycemia values were not statistically significant between genotypes, though apparently wider variations in beta could reflect a certain glycemic regulation lability in the obese genotype. PMID:2101545

  16. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in aging BALB/c mice: early and late life span predictors.

    PubMed

    Basso, Andrea; Del Bello, Giovanna; Piacenza, Francesco; Giacconi, Robertina; Costarelli, Laura; Malavolta, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Impairment of one or more parameters of circadian rhythms (CR) of body temperature (BT) and locomotor activity (LMA) are considered among the hallmarks of mammalian aging. These alterations are frequently used as markers for imminent death in laboratory mice. However, there are still contradictory data for particular strains and it is also uncertain which changes might predict senescence changes later in life, including the force of mortality. In the present paper we use telemetry to study LMA and CR of BT during aging of BALB/c mice. At our knowledge this is the first time that CR of BT and LMA are investigated in this strain in a range of age covering the whole lifespan, from young adult up to very old age. CR of BT was analyzed with a cosine model using a cross sectional approach and follow-up measurements. The results show that BT, LMA, amplitude, goodness-of-fit (GoF) to circadian cycle of temperature decrease with different shapes during chronological age. Moreover, we found that the % change of amplitude and BT in early life (5-19 months) can predict the remaining lifespan of the mice. Later in life (22-32 months), best predictors are single measurements of LMA and GoF. The results of this study also offer potential measures to rapidly identifying freely unrestrained mice with the worst longitudinal outcome and against which existing or novel biomarkers and treatments may be assessed. PMID:26820297

  17. Body shape and size in 6-year old children: assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L P; Ong, K K; Day, F; Wells, J C K; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Victora, C G; Barros, A J D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body shape and size are typically described using measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, which predict disease risks in adults. However, this approach may underestimate the true variability in childhood body shape and size. Objective: To use a comprehensive three-dimensional photonic scan approach to describe variation in childhood body shape and size. Subjects/Methods: At age 6 years, 3350 children from the population-based 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study were assessed by three-dimensional photonic scanner, traditional anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on height and 24 photonic scan variables (circumferences, lengths/widths, volumes and surface areas). Results: PCA identified four independent components of children's body shape and size, which we termed: Corpulence, Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths, and Shoulder diameter. Corpulence showed strong correlations with traditional anthropometric and body composition measures (r>0.90 with weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass; r>0.70 with height, lean mass and bone mass); in contrast, the other three components showed weak or moderate correlations with those measures (all r<0.45). There was no sex difference in Corpulence, but boys had higher Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths and Shoulder diameter values than girls. Furthermore, children with low birth weight had lower Corpulence and Height and arm lengths but higher Central:peripheral ratio and Shoulder diameter than other children. Children from high socio-economic position (SEP) families had higher Corpulence and Height and arm lengths than other children. Finally, white children had higher Corpulence and Central:peripheral ratio than mixed or black children. Conclusions: Comprehensive assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning identified components of childhood body shape and size not captured by traditional anthropometry or

  18. Body temperature and evolutionary genomics of vertebrates: a lesson from the genomes of Takifugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Kamel; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2004-05-26

    In this paper, we provide evidence for the body temperature effect on the formation of GC-rich isochores, by analysing genomic sequences from two puffer fishes living at different temperatures. The higher body temperature of Tetraodon nigroviridis compared to Takifugu rubripes (DeltaT approximately 15 degrees C) appears to be the cause of a higher compositional heterogeneity of the former due to the formation of GC-rich regions. Such an effect does not only concern large DNA segments but also coding sequences. PMID:15177693

  19. Seasonal changes in the body size of two rotifer species living in activated sludge follow the Temperature-Size Rule

    PubMed Central

    Kiełbasa, Anna; Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kozłowski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-Size Rule (TSR) is a phenotypic body size response of ectotherms to changing temperature. It is known from the laboratory studies, but seasonal patterns in the field were not studied so far. We examined the body size changes in time of rotifers inhabiting activated sludge. We hypothesize that temperature is the most influencing parameter in sludge environment, leading sludge rotifers to seasonally change their body size according to TSR, and that oxygen content also induces the size response. The presence of TSR in Lecane inermis rotifer was tested in a laboratory study with two temperature and two food-type treatments. The effect of interaction between temperature and food was significant; L. inermis followed TSR in one food type only. The seasonal variability in the body sizes of the rotifers L. inermis and Cephalodella gracilis was estimated by monthly sampling and analyzed by multiple regression, in relation to the sludge parameters selected as the most influential by multivariate analysis, and predicted to alter rotifer body size (temperature and oxygen). L. inermis varied significantly in size throughout the year, and this variability is explained by temperature as predicted by the TSR, but not by oxygen availability. C. gracilis also varied in size, though this variability was explained by both temperature and oxygen. We suggest that sludge age acts as a mortality factor in activated sludge. It may have a seasonal effect on the body size of L. inermis and modify a possible effect of oxygen. Activated sludge habitat is driven by both biological processes and human regulation, yet its resident organisms follow general evolutionary rule as they do in other biological systems. The interspecific response patterns differ, revealing the importance of taking species-specific properties into account. Our findings are applicable to sludge properties enhancement through optimizing the conditions for its biological component. PMID:25558362

  20. Seasonal changes in the body size of two rotifer species living in activated sludge follow the Temperature-Size Rule.

    PubMed

    Kiełbasa, Anna; Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kozłowski, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Temperature-Size Rule (TSR) is a phenotypic body size response of ectotherms to changing temperature. It is known from the laboratory studies, but seasonal patterns in the field were not studied so far. We examined the body size changes in time of rotifers inhabiting activated sludge. We hypothesize that temperature is the most influencing parameter in sludge environment, leading sludge rotifers to seasonally change their body size according to TSR, and that oxygen content also induces the size response. The presence of TSR in Lecane inermis rotifer was tested in a laboratory study with two temperature and two food-type treatments. The effect of interaction between temperature and food was significant; L. inermis followed TSR in one food type only. The seasonal variability in the body sizes of the rotifers L. inermis and Cephalodella gracilis was estimated by monthly sampling and analyzed by multiple regression, in relation to the sludge parameters selected as the most influential by multivariate analysis, and predicted to alter rotifer body size (temperature and oxygen). L. inermis varied significantly in size throughout the year, and this variability is explained by temperature as predicted by the TSR, but not by oxygen availability. C. gracilis also varied in size, though this variability was explained by both temperature and oxygen. We suggest that sludge age acts as a mortality factor in activated sludge. It may have a seasonal effect on the body size of L. inermis and modify a possible effect of oxygen. Activated sludge habitat is driven by both biological processes and human regulation, yet its resident organisms follow general evolutionary rule as they do in other biological systems. The interspecific response patterns differ, revealing the importance of taking species-specific properties into account. Our findings are applicable to sludge properties enhancement through optimizing the conditions for its biological component. PMID:25558362

  1. Satellite Derived Earth Surface Temperatures: a Crop Assessment Tool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosiar, Christy Lynn

    The data for this research consist of the following: 23 days of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data; AgRISTARS enumerator data (or ground truth data) for 26 counties in three midwestern states (Iowa, Nebraska and North Dakota) and radiosonde observations for nine upper air stations, producing an 8 state coverage. The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop a regression model to estimate maximum shelter temperature, (2) to develop a method to assess crop conditions and (3) to determine the variability within a scan line due to changes in optical depth and/or scan angle. The regression model uses three independent variables derived from satellite data to predict maximum shelter temperature. The first independent variable is the satellite's first estimate of temperature, the channel 4 effective temperature. The second independent variable is the difference in the amount of radiation received by the satellite's two thermal channels (4 and 5) serving as a measure of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The third independent variable, path length, uses the pixel position within the scan line to calculate the viewing angle from nadir. This approach resulted in a good R^2 of.65. Three reasons to explain why this R ^2 is not stronger are as follows: (1) a known temperature difference between satellite and shelter temperature, (2) unregistered satellite data--the latitude and longitude of the satellite data are not the location of the shelter and (3) comparison of an area averaged temperature (satellite data) to a point source (shelter) measurement are two different values. The second objective is using satellite data, during the heading and flowering period, combined with the ground truth data or the enumerator data obtained through the AgRISTARS program to determine crop stress. Using two regression models, two satellite temperature indices are used as predictors of a ratio in yield. Statistically significant relationships exist for soybeans and sunflowers. The third

  2. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  3. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    1989-08-01

    The current program represents a joint effort between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the USA, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in Japan, and the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in the UK. The goal is to develop an interim high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for high-temperature reactor components. This is to be accomplished through exploratory experimental and analytical studies of high-temperature crack growth. The state-of-the-art assessment and the fracture mechanics database for both types 304 and 316 stainless steels, completed in 1988, serve as a foundation for the present work. Work in the three participating organizations is progressing roughly on schedule. Results to-date are presented in this document. Fundamental tests results are discussed in Section 2. Section 3 focuses on results of exploratory subcritical crack growth tests. Progress in subcritical crack growth modeling is reported in Section 4. Exploratory failure tests are outlined in Section 5. 21 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    PubMed

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. PMID:26169655

  5. Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Amphiphilic Polyurethane Gel as a New Cell Printing Material near Body Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Li, Suming; Hu, Shiaw-Guang; Chang, Wen-Chi; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-12-23

    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and a second oligodiol containing amphiphilic blocks was synthesized in this study. The microstructure was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurement of the PU dispersion. The surface hydrophilicity measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in solid state. It was observed that the presence of a small amount of amphiphilic blocks in the soft segment resulted in significant changes in microstructure. When 90 mol % PCL diol and 10 mol % amphiphilic blocks of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-PEO) diol were used as the soft segment, the synthesized PU had a water contact angle of ∼24° and degree of crystallinity of ∼14%. The dispersion had a low viscosity below room temperature. As the temperature was raised to body temperature (37 °C), the dispersion rapidly (∼170 s) underwent sol-gel transition with excellent gel modulus (G' ≈ 6.5 kPa) in 20 min. PU dispersions with a solid content of 25-30% could be easily mixed with cells in sol state, extruded by a 3D printer, and deposited layer by layer as a gel. Cells remained alive and proliferating in the printed hydrogel scaffold. We expect that the development of novel thermoresponsive PU system can be used as smart injectable hydrogel and applied as a new type of bio-3D printing ink. PMID:26651013

  6. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling for the analysis of longitudinal body core temperature data in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Ming Chai, Adam Kian; Yuen Fun, David Chiok; Teo, Ya Shi; Sze Tan, Pearl Min; Ang, Wee Hon; Wei Lee, Jason Kai

    2016-04-01

    Many longitudinal studies have collected serial body core temperature (T c) data to understand thermal work strain of workers under various environmental and operational heat stress environments. This provides the opportunity for the development of mathematical models to analyse and forecast temporal T c changes across populations of subjects. Such models can reduce the need for invasive methods that continuously measure T c. This current work sought to develop a nonlinear mixed effects modelling framework to delineate the dynamic changes of T c and its association with a set of covariates of interest (e.g. heart rate, chest skin temperature), and the structure of the variability of T c in various longitudinal studies. Data to train and evaluate the model were derived from two laboratory investigations involving male soldiers who participated in either a 12 (N  =  18) or 15 km (N  =  16) foot march with varied clothing, load and heat acclimatisation status. Model qualification was conducted using nonparametric bootstrap and cross validation procedures. For cross validation, the trajectory of a new subject's T c was simulated via Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation when using only the baseline T c or using the baseline T c as well as measured T c at the end of every work (march) phase. The final model described T c versus time profiles using a parametric function with its main parameters modelled as a sigmoid hyperbolic function of the load and/or chest skin temperature. Overall, T c predictions corresponded well with the measured data (root mean square deviation: 0.16 °C), and compared favourably with those provided by two recently published Kalman filter models. PMID:26963194

  7. Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, M A; Baer, D J; Rumpler, W V; Weindruch, R; Ingram, D K; Tilmont, E M; Cutler, R G; Roth, G S

    1996-01-01

    Many studies of caloric restriction (CR) in rodents and lower animals indicate that this nutritional manipulation retards aging processes, as evidenced by increased longevity, reduced pathology, and maintenance of physiological function in a more youthful state. The anti-aging effects of CR are believed to relate, at least in part, to changes in energy metabolism. We are attempting to determine whether similar effects occur in response to CR in nonhuman primates. Core (rectal) body temperature decreased progressively with age from 2 to 30 years in rhesus monkeys fed ad lib (controls) and is reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C in age-matched monkeys subjected to 6 years of a 30% reduction in caloric intake. A short-term (1 month) 30% restriction of 2.5-year-old monkeys lowered subcutaneous body temperature by 1.0 degrees C. Indirect calorimetry showed that 24-hr energy expenditure was reduced by approximately 24% during short-term CR. The temporal association between reduced body temperature and energy expenditure suggests that reductions in body temperature relate to the induction of an energy conservation mechanism during CR. These reductions in body temperature and energy expenditure are consistent with findings in rodent studies in which aging rate was retarded by CR, now strengthening the possibility that CR may exert beneficial effects in primates analogous to those observed in rodents. PMID:8633033

  8. Body temperature regulation during acclimation to cold and hypoxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Cadena, V; Tattersall, G J

    2014-12-01

    Extreme environmental conditions present challenges for thermoregulation in homoeothermic organisms such as mammals. Such challenges are exacerbated when two stressors are experienced simultaneously and each stimulus evokes opposing physiological responses. This is the case of cold, which induces an increase in thermogenesis, and hypoxia, which suppresses metabolism conserving oxygen and preventing hypoxaemia. As an initial approach to understanding the thermoregulatory responses to cold and hypoxia in a small mammal, we explored the effects of acclimation to these two stressors on the body temperature (Tb) and the daily and ultradian Tb variations of Sprague-Dawley rats. As Tb is influenced by sleep-wake cycles, these Tb variations reflect underlying adjustments in set-point and thermosensitivity. The Tb of rats decreased precipitously during initial hypoxic exposure which was more pronounced in cold (Tb=33.4 ± 0.13) than in room temperature (Tb=35.74 ± 0.17) conditions. This decline was followed by an increase in Tb stabilising at a new level ~0.5°C and ~1.4°C below normoxic values at room and cold temperatures, respectively. Daily Tb variations were blunted during hypoxia with a greater effect in the cold. Ultradian Tb variations exhibited daily rhythmicity that disappeared under hypoxia, independent of ambient temperature. The adjustments in Tb during hypoxia and/or cold are in agreement with the hypothesis that an initial decrease in the Tb set-point is followed by its partial re-establishment with chronic hypoxia. This rebound of the Tb set-point might reflect cellular adjustments that would allow animals to better deal with low oxygen conditions, diminishing the drive for a lower Tb set-point. Cold and hypoxia are characteristic of high altitude environments. Understanding how mammals cope with changes in oxygen and temperature will shed light into their ability to colonize new environments along altitudinal clines and increase our understanding of how

  9. Human adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Selection in species with aggressive social interactions favours the evolution of cognitive mechanisms for assessing physical formidability (fighting ability or resource-holding potential). The ability to accurately assess formidability in conspecifics has been documented in a number of non-human species, but has not been demonstrated in humans. Here, we report tests supporting the hypothesis that the human cognitive architecture includes mechanisms that assess fighting ability—mechanisms that focus on correlates of upper-body strength. Across diverse samples of targets that included US college students, Bolivian horticulturalists and Andean pastoralists, subjects in the US were able to accurately estimate the physical strength of male targets from photos of their bodies and faces. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that subjects were extracting cues of strength that were largely independent of height, weight and age, and that corresponded most strongly to objective measures of upper-body strength—even when the face was all that was available for inspection. Estimates of women's strength were less accurate, but still significant. These studies are the first empirical demonstration that, for humans, judgements of strength and judgements of fighting ability not only track each other, but accurately track actual upper-body strength. PMID:18945661

  10. Core Body Temperature as Adjunct to Endpoint Determination in Murine Median Lethal Dose Testing of Rattlesnake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Charles C; McCabe, James G; Lawson, Gregory W; Couto, Marcelo A

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal dose (LD50) testing in mice is the ‘gold standard’ for evaluating the lethality of snake venoms and the effectiveness of interventions. As part of a study to determine the murine LD50 of the venom of 3 species of rattlesnake, temperature data were collected in an attempt to more precisely define humane endpoints. We used an ‘up-and-down’ methodology of estimating the LD50 that involved serial intraperitoneal injection of predetermined concentrations of venom. By using a rectal thermistor probe, body temperature was taken once before administration and at various times after venom exposure. All but one mouse showed a marked, immediate, dose-dependent drop in temperature of approximately 2 to 6 °C at 15 to 45 min after administration. The lowest temperature sustained by any surviving mouse was 33.2 °C. Surviving mice generally returned to near-baseline temperatures within 2 h after venom administration, whereas mice that did not survive continued to show a gradual decline in temperature until death or euthanasia. Logistic regression modeling controlling for the effects of baseline core body temperature and venom type showed that core body temperature was a significant predictor of survival. Linear regression of the interaction of time and survival was used to estimate temperatures predictive of death at the earliest time point and demonstrated that venom type had a significant influence on temperature values. Overall, our data suggest that core body temperature is a useful adjunct to monitoring for endpoints in LD50 studies and may be a valuable predictor of survival in venom studies. PMID:25527024

  11. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    PubMed Central

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I V; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H J; Deng, M H

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset. PMID:8127888

  12. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    PubMed

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I V; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H J; Deng, M H

    1994-03-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset. PMID:8127888

  13. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  14. Assessing and managing body condition score for the prevention of metabolic disease in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, John R; Kay, Jane K; Friggens, Nic C; Loor, Juan J; Berry, Donagh P

    2013-07-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is an assessment of a cow's body fat (and muscle) reserves, with low values reflecting emaciation and high values equating to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. The BCS at which a cow calves, her nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS lost after calving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Genetics, peripartum nutrition, and management are factors that likely interact with BCS to determine the risk of health disorders. PMID:23809894

  15. Decreases in body temperature and body mass constitute pre-hibernation remodelling in the Syrian golden hamster, a facultative mammalian hibernator

    PubMed Central

    Chayama, Yuichi; Ando, Lisa; Tamura, Yutaka; Miura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy for surviving during periods with little or no food availability, by profoundly reducing the metabolic rate and the core body temperature (Tb). Obligate hibernators (e.g. bears, ground squirrels, etc.) hibernate every winter under the strict regulation of endogenous circannual rhythms, and they are assumed to undergo adaptive remodelling in autumn, the pre-hibernation period, prior to hibernation. However, little is known about the nature of pre-hibernation remodelling. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are facultative hibernators that can hibernate irrespective of seasons when exposed to prolonged short photoperiod and cold ambient temperature (SD-Cold) conditions. Their Tb set point reduced by the first deep torpor (DT) and then increased gradually after repeated cycles of DT and periodic arousal (PA), and finally recovered to the level observed before the prolonged SD-Cold in the post-hibernation period. We also found that, before the initiation of hibernation, the body mass of animals decreased below a threshold, indicating that hibernation in this species depends on body condition. These observations suggest that Syrian hamsters undergo pre-hibernation remodelling and that Tb and body mass can be useful physiological markers to monitor the remodelling process during the pre-hibernation period. PMID:27152216

  16. Decreases in body temperature and body mass constitute pre-hibernation remodelling in the Syrian golden hamster, a facultative mammalian hibernator.

    PubMed

    Chayama, Yuichi; Ando, Lisa; Tamura, Yutaka; Miura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi

    2016-04-01

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy for surviving during periods with little or no food availability, by profoundly reducing the metabolic rate and the core body temperature (T b). Obligate hibernators (e.g. bears, ground squirrels, etc.) hibernate every winter under the strict regulation of endogenous circannual rhythms, and they are assumed to undergo adaptive remodelling in autumn, the pre-hibernation period, prior to hibernation. However, little is known about the nature of pre-hibernation remodelling. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are facultative hibernators that can hibernate irrespective of seasons when exposed to prolonged short photoperiod and cold ambient temperature (SD-Cold) conditions. Their T b set point reduced by the first deep torpor (DT) and then increased gradually after repeated cycles of DT and periodic arousal (PA), and finally recovered to the level observed before the prolonged SD-Cold in the post-hibernation period. We also found that, before the initiation of hibernation, the body mass of animals decreased below a threshold, indicating that hibernation in this species depends on body condition. These observations suggest that Syrian hamsters undergo pre-hibernation remodelling and that T b and body mass can be useful physiological markers to monitor the remodelling process during the pre-hibernation period. PMID:27152216

  17. 24-hour control of body temperature in rats. I. Integration of behavioral and autonomic effectors.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J

    1994-07-01

    Some studies suggest that the nocturnal elevation in core temperature (Tc) of the rat is mediated by an elevation in the set point. The role of set point can be assessed if behavioral effectors are measured simultaneously with other thermoregulatory effectors and Tc over a 24-h period. Selected ambient temperature (STa) and motor activity (MA) were measured in rats housed in a temperature gradient system with a 12:12-h photoperiod (lights on 0600 h). Tc and heart rate (HR) were monitored by telemetry. During the light phase, STa, Tc, HR, and MA were relatively stable with values 29.0 degrees C, 37.1 degrees C, 310 beats/min, and 1-2 m/h, respectively. During the light-to-dark transition there were abrupt elevations in Tc, HR, and MA but no change in STa. STa decreased during the dark phase and reached a nadir of 23 degrees C at 0500 h. All variables recovered to basal levels within 3-4 h after the onset of the light phase. Overall, autonomic effectors control the elevation in Tc during the onset of the dark phase while behavioral effectors have little if any role. Behavioral thermoregulation is important in two ways: 1) the selection of cooler Ta values at night to prevent an excess elevation in Tc and 2) a preference for cooler Ta values before the light phase to facilitate the recovery of Tc. PMID:8048648

  18. Measuring the mechanical efficiency of a working cardiac muscle sample at body temperature using a flow-through calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Taberner, Andrew J; Johnston, Callum M; Pham, Toan; June-Chiew Han; Ruddy, Bryan P; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a new `work-loop calorimeter' that is capable of measuring, simultaneously, the work-done and heat production of isolated cardiac muscle samples at body temperature. Through the innovative use of thermoelectric modules as temperature sensors, the development of a low-noise fluid-flow system, and implementation of precise temperature control, the heat resolution of this device is 10 nW, an improvement by a factor of ten over previous designs. These advances have allowed us to conduct the first flow-through measurements of work output and heat dissipation from cardiac tissue at body temperature. The mechanical efficiency is found to vary with peak stress, and reaches a peak value of approximately 15 %, a figure similar to that observed in cardiac muscle at lower temperatures. PMID:26738140

  19. Using body temperature, food and water consumption as biomarkers of disease progression in mice with Eμ-myc lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J E; Butterworth, J; Perkins, N D; Bateson, M; Richardson, C A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive biomarkers of disease progression in mice with cancer are lacking making it challenging to implement appropriate humane end points. We investigated whether body temperature, food and water consumption could be used to predict tumour burden. Methods: Thirty-six male, wild-type C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with subcutaneous RFID temperature sensors and inoculated with Eμ-myc tumours that infiltrate lymphoid tissue. Results: Decrease in body temperature over the course of the study positively predicted post-mortem lymph node tumour burden (R2=0.68, F(1,22)=44.8, P<0.001). At experimental and humane end points, all mice that had a mean decrease in body temperature of 0.7 °C or greater had lymph nodes heavier than 0.5 g (100% sensitivity), whereas a mean decrease in body temperature <0.7 °C always predicted lymph nodes lighter than 0.5 g (100% specificity). The mean decrease in food consumption in each cage also predicted mean post-mortem lymph node tumour burden at 3 weeks (R2=0.89, F(1,3)=23.2, P=0.017). Conclusion: Temperature, food and water consumption were useful biomarkers of disease progression in mice with lymphoma and could potentially be used more widely to monitor mice with other forms of cancer. PMID:24407190

  20. Body composition assessment and coronary heart disease risk factors among college students of three ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Koutoubi, Samer; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study identified and compared anthropometric measurements, body composition and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors among college students of three ethnic groups. METHODS: Subjects were assessed for cardiovascular risk. Body composition analysis was performed using the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). RESULTS: Black non-Hispanic females (30%) were significantly (p < 0.017) more in the "overweight" category compared to white non-Hispanic females (6.7%). Black non-Hispanic females had significantly (p < 0.044) higher percentages of body fat and lower percentages of body lean, and significantly (p < 0.040) lower percentages of body water than white non-Hispanic females. Significant positive correlations were found between CHD Risk Point Standard (CHDRPS) and percentages of body fat in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.005), Hispanic males (p < 0.016) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001). Significant inverse correlations were found between CHDRPS and percentages of body water in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.004), Hispanic males (p < 0.013) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001): body lean in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.005), Hispanic males (p < 0.016) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001); and lean/fat ratio in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.008), Hispanic males (p < 0.030), black non-Hispanic males (p < 0.020) and Hispanic females (p < 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of overweight justifies a high priority for weight control in young adults in an effort to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) later in life. PMID:16035576

  1. [Microbial risk assessment of urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational uses].

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu; Sha, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Liu, Yan-Hua

    2013-03-01

    With the increasing public access to urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational purposes, it is of critical importance for densely populated urban areas to conduct microbial risk assessment and accordingly implement effective risk management. Based on the methodology of quantitative microbial risk assessment, a case study was conducted on three typical urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational uses in a southern city in China. Exposure assessment was carried out through water quality monitoring, field survey and literature review, and accordingly human health risk was assessed with different dose-response equations based on fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococci (ENT). Microbial risk estimated by different dose-response equations was found consistent with and comparable to each other. Stream B located in a residential area was not suitable for primary- or secondary-contact recreational uses, and its microbial risk to the public mainly came from water abstraction for household miscellaneous uses. Stream C and Lake E, located in a public open space and a scenic area respectively, could meet the current recreational requirements, and their microbial risk to the public was generally attributed to various recreational activities. It was necessary to address the public health risk associated with the unauthorized or inappropriate water uses (e.g. abstraction for household miscellaneous uses) of urban aesthetical and recreational water bodies. PMID:23745397

  2. Axillary and thoracic skin temperatures poorly comparable to core body temperature circadian rhythm: results from 2 adult populations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert; Wang, Shu-Yuann; Lentz, Martha J; Shaver, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Data from 2 separate studies were used to examine the relationships of axillary or thoracic skin temperature to rectal temperature and to determine the phase relationships of the circadian rhythms of these temperatures. In study 1, axillary skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 19 healthy women, 21 to 36 years of age. In study 2, thoracic skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 74 healthy women, 39 to 59 years of age. In both studies, temperatures were recorded continuously for 24 h while subjects carried out normal activities. Axillary and thoracic probes were insulated purposely to prevent ambient effects. Cosinor analysis was employed to estimate circadian rhythm mesor, amplitude, and acrophase. In addition, correlations between temperatures at various measurement sites were calculated and agreement determined. The circadian timing of axillary and skin temperature did not closely approximate that of rectal temperature: the mean acrophase (clock time) for study 1 was 18:57 h for axillary temperature and 16:12 h for rectal; for study 2, it was 03:05 h for thoracic and 15:05 h for rectal. Across individual subjects, the correlations of axillary or thoracic temperatures with rectal temperatures were variable. Results do not support the use of either axillary or skin temperature as a substitute for rectal temperature in circadian rhythm research related to adult women. PMID:14737919

  3. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of <0.4 °C when used to predict the temperature at the seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid

  4. Statistical multi-path exposure method for assessing the whole-body SAR in a heterogeneous human body model in a realistic environment.

    PubMed

    Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the whole-body absorption in a human in a realistic environment requires a statistical approach covering all possible exposure situations. This article describes the development of a statistical multi-path exposure method for heterogeneous realistic human body models. The method is applied for the 6-year-old Virtual Family boy (VFB) exposed to the GSM downlink at 950 MHz. It is shown that the whole-body SAR does not differ significantly over the different environments at an operating frequency of 950 MHz. Furthermore, the whole-body SAR in the VFB for multi-path exposure exceeds the whole-body SAR for worst-case single-incident plane wave exposure by 3.6%. Moreover, the ICNIRP reference levels are not conservative with the basic restrictions in 0.3% of the exposure samples for the VFB at the GSM downlink of 950 MHz. The homogeneous spheroid with the dielectric properties of the head suggested by the IEC underestimates the absorption compared to realistic human body models. Moreover, the variation in the whole-body SAR for realistic human body models is larger than for homogeneous spheroid models. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the tissues and the irregular shape of the realistic human body model compared to homogeneous spheroid human body models. PMID:23124484

  5. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity. PMID:15065708

  6. Body temperature and respiratory dynamics in un-shaded beef cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.

    2014-09-01

    In this study body temperature (BT, °C) and panting score (PS, 0-4.5; where 0 = no panting/no stress and 4.5 = catastrophic stress) data were obtained from 30 Angus steers housed outside over 120 days Steers were implanted with a BT transmitter on day -31, BT was recorded at 30-min intervals to a data logger and downloaded each day to a database. The cattle were housed in ten outdoor un-shaded pens with an earthen floor, eight of which had a pen floor area of 144 m2 (three transmitter steers plus five non-transmitter steers; 18 m2/steer) and two had an area of 168 m2 (three transmitter steers and six non-transmitter steers; 18.7 m2/steer). Only data from the transmitter steers were used in this study. The PS of the steers was obtained daily (± 15 min) at 0600 hours (AM), 1200 hours (MD) and 1600 hours (PM). At the same times climate variables (ambient temperature, black globe temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall) were obtained from an on-site weather station. PS observations were made from outside the pens so as not to influence cattle responses. The two closest BT values to the time when PS was obtained were downloaded retrospectively from a logger and averaged. A total of 8,352 observations were used to generate second order polynomial response curves: (AM) y = 39.08 + 0.009 x + 0.137 x 2 ( R 2 = 0.94; P < 0.001) (MD) y = 39.09 + 0.914 x - 0.080 x 2 ( R 2 = 0.89; P < 0.001) and (PM) y = 39.52 + 0.790 x - 0.068 x 2 ( R 2 = 0.83; P < 0.001) where y = BT (°C) and x PS. These data suggest that PS is a good indicator of body temperature. The BT at MD corresponded to slightly lower PS compared with PM, e.g., for PS 1; BT at MD = 39.1 ± 0.05 °C whereas BT at PM = 39.5 ± 0.05 °C. However during AM, BT was lower ( P < 0.05) at PS 1, 2 and 2.5 compared with MD and PM. For example, when PS was 2.5 the BT at AM was 40.2 ± 0.04 °C, at MD it was 40.9 ± 0.04 °C and at PM BT was 41.1 ± 0.04 °C. When PS was 0 the BT at AM and MD

  7. Body temperature and respiratory dynamics in un-shaded beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L

    2014-09-01

    In this study body temperature (BT, °C) and panting score (PS, 0-4.5; where 0 = no panting/no stress and 4.5 = catastrophic stress) data were obtained from 30 Angus steers housed outside over 120 days Steers were implanted with a BT transmitter on day -31, BT was recorded at 30-min intervals to a data logger and downloaded each day to a database. The cattle were housed in ten outdoor un-shaded pens with an earthen floor, eight of which had a pen floor area of 144 m2 (three transmitter steers plus five non-transmitter steers; 18 m2/steer) and two had an area of 168 m2 (three transmitter steers and six non-transmitter steers; 18.7 m2/steer). Only data from the transmitter steers were used in this study. The PS of the steers was obtained daily (± 15 min) at 0600 hours (AM), 1200 hours (MD) and 1600 hours (PM). At the same times climate variables (ambient temperature, black globe temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall) were obtained from an on-site weather station. PS observations were made from outside the pens so as not to influence cattle responses. The two closest BT values to the time when PS was obtained were downloaded retrospectively from a logger and averaged. A total of 8,352 observations were used to generate second order polynomial response curves: (AM) y = 39.08 + 0.009 x + 0.137x2 (R2 = 0.94; P < 0.001) (MD) y = 39.09 + 0.914x − 0.080x2 (R2 = 0.89; P < 0.001) and (PM) y = 39.52 + 0.790x − 0.068x2 (R2 = 0.83; P < 0.001) where y = BT (°C) and  x PS. These data suggest that PS is a good indicator of body temperature. The BT at MD corresponded to slightly lower PS compared with PM, e.g., for PS 1; BT at MD = 39.1 ± 0.05 °C whereas BT at PM = 39.5 ± 0.05 °C. However during AM, BT was lower (P < 0.05) at PS 1, 2 and 2.5 compared with MD and PM. For example, when PS was 2.5 the BT at AM was 40.2 ± 0.04 °C, at MD it was 40.9

  8. Assessing Body Composition of Children and Adolescents Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfolds, and Electrical Impedance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Angela; Kelsey, Laurel; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; George, James D.; Hager, Ron L.; Myrer, J. William; Vehrs, Pat R.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of percent body fat estimates in 177 boys and 154 girls between 12-17 years of age, percent body fat was assessed once using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and twice using the sum of two skinfolds and three bioelectrical impedance analysis devices. The assessments were repeated on 79 participants on a…

  9. Comparison of two methods of assessing total body water at sea level and increasing high altitude.

    PubMed

    Boos, C J; Holdsworth, D A; Hall, D P; Mellor, A; O'Hara, J; Woods, D R

    2014-11-01

    Fluid retention is a recognized feature of acute mountain sickness. However, accurate assessment of hydration, including the quantification of body water, has traditionally relied on expensive and non-portable equipment limiting its utility in the field setting. We compared the assessment of total body water (TBW) and their relationship to total body weight using two non-invasive methods using the NICas single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SF-BIA) system and the BodyStat QuadScan 4000 multifrequency BIA system (MF-BIA). TBW measurements were performed at rest at sea level and at high altitude (HA) at 3833 m postexercise and at rest and thereafter at rest at 4450 m and 5129 m on 47 subjects. The average age was 34.5 ± 9.3 years with an age range of 21-54 years (70.2% male). There were strong correlations between TBW assessment with both methods at sea level (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.78-0.95: P<0.0001) and at HA (r = 0.92; 0.89-0.94: P<0.0001), however, TBW readings were 0.2 l and 1.91 l lower, respectively, with the NICaS. There was a stronger correlation between TBW and body weight with the QuadScan (r = 0.91; P<0.0001) than with the NICaS (r = 0.83; P<0.0001). The overall agreement between the two TBW methods was good, but the 95% confidence intervals around these agreements were relatively wide. We conclude that there was reasonable agreement between the two methods of BIA for TBW, but this agreement was lower at HA. PMID:24797153

  10. Role of preoptic opioid receptors in the body temperature reduction during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, Carolina da Silveira; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Branco, Luis G S; Bícego, Kênia C

    2009-08-25

    Evidence indicates that endogenous opioids play a role in body temperature (Tb) regulation in mammals but no data exist about the involvement of the specific opioid receptors, mu, kappa and delta, in the reduction of Tb induced by hypoxia. Thus, we investigated the participation of these opioid receptors in the anteroventral preoptic region (AVPO) in hypoxic decrease of Tb. To this end, Tb of unanesthetized Wistar rats was monitored by temperature data loggers before and after intra-AVPO microinjection of the selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine dihydrochloride (nor-BNI; 0.1 and 1.0 microg/100 nL/animal), the selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 cyclic (CTAP; 0.1 and 1.0 microg/100 nL/animal), and the selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist Naltrindole (0.06 and 0.6 microg/100 nL/animal) or saline (vehicle, 100 nL/animal), during normoxia and hypoxia (7% inspired O2). Under normoxia, no effect of opioid antagonists on Tb was observed. Hypoxia induced Tb to reduce in vehicle group, a response that was inhibited by the microinjection intra-AVPO of nor-BNI. In contrast, CTAP and Naltrindole did not change Tb during hypoxia but caused a longer latency for the return of Tb to the normoxic values just after low O2 exposure. Our results indicate the kappa-opioid receptor in the AVPO is important for the reduction of Tb during hypoxia while the mu and delta receptors are involved in the increase of Tb during normoxia post-hypoxia. PMID:19545549

  11. Seasonal Patterns of Body Temperature Daily Rhythms in Group-Living Cape Ground Squirrels Xerus inauris

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E.; Waterman, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in daily and seasonal ambient temperature (Ta). We measured core body temperature (Tb) daily rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal daily Ta provided the greatest explanatory power for mean Tb whereas sunrise had greatest power for Tb acrophase. There were significant changes in mean Tb and Tb acrophase over time with mean Tb increasing and Tb acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in Tb, sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which Tb remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to ‘offload’ heat. In addition, greater Tb amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their Ta-Tb gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on Tb with a lower and less variable Tb in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile Tb which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable environment. PMID:22558324

  12. Effect of ozone on body temperature and heart rate in the unanesthetized, unrestrained rats

    SciTech Connect

    Watkinson, W.P.; Aileru, A.A.; Dowd, S.M.; Tepper, J.T.; Gordon, C.J. )

    1990-02-26

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated the importance of changes in body core temperature (T{sub co}) as both an index and modulator of toxicity. This study examined the effects of ambient temperature (T{sub a}) on the toxicant-induced changes in T{sub co}, heart rate (HR), and other toxicological endpoints following exposure to 1 ppm ozone (O{sub 3}). Two groups of male Fischer 334 rats (n = 6/group) were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters and allowed to recover overnight. The transmitters permitted monitoring of T{sub co} and electrocardiogram (ECG); HR was derived from the ECG signal. All animals were continually monitored according to the following protocol: control (filtered air; .25 hours); exposure (1 ppm O{sub 3}; 2 hours); recovery (filtered air; 18 hours). The first group of rats, maintained at an T{sub a} of 18-20 C, exhibited a 4-5 C drop in T{sub co} accompanied by an average 250 bpm decrease in HR. The decrease and subsequent recovery of HR appeared to precede the T{sub co} response. The second group of rats was subjected to the same experimental protocol but maintained at an T{sub a} of 30-32 C. These rats also showed decreases in T{sub co} and HR; however, these decreases only averaged {approximately}1 C and 100 bpm, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the profound impact of T{sub a} on T{sub co} and the subsequent toxic response in the conscious rat and may have important implications for the study of toxicology.

  13. Basking hamsters reduce resting metabolism, body temperature and energy costs during rewarming from torpor.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Fritz; Gasch, Kristina; Bieber, Claudia; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Ruf, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    Basking can substantially reduce thermoregulatory energy expenditure of mammals. We tested the hypothesis that the largely white winter fur of hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), originating from Asian steppes, may be related to camouflage to permit sun basking on or near snow. Winter-acclimated hamsters in our study were largely white and had a high proclivity to bask when resting and torpid. Resting hamsters reduced metabolic rate (MR) significantly (>30%) when basking at ambient temperatures (Ta) of ∼15 and 0°C. Interestingly, body temperature (Tb) also was significantly reduced from 34.7±0.6°C (Ta 15°C, not basking) to 30.4±2.0°C (Ta 0°C, basking), which resulted in an extremely low (<50% of predicted) apparent thermal conductance. Induced torpor (food withheld) during respirometry at Ta 15°C occurred on 83.3±36.0% of days and the minimum torpor MR was 36% of basal MR at an average Tb of 22.0±2.6°C; movement to the basking lamp occurred at Tb<20.0°C. Energy expenditure for rewarming was significantly reduced (by >50%) during radiant heat-assisted rewarming; however, radiant heat per se without an endogenous contribution by animals did not strongly affect metabolism and Tb during torpor. Our data show that basking substantially modifies thermal energetics in hamsters, with a drop of resting Tb and MR not previously observed and a reduction of rewarming costs. The energy savings afforded by basking in hamsters suggest that this behaviour is of energetic significance not only for mammals living in deserts, where basking is common, but also for P. sungorus and probably other cold-climate mammals. PMID:27207637

  14. Seasonal shifts in body temperature and use of microhabitats by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus)

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, K.; Tracy, C.R.; Porter, W.P.

    1983-06-01

    Seasonal differences in the body temperatures (T/sub b/) of free-ranging Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) were detected by temperature sensitive telemetry transmitters. Midday T/sub b/'s of iguanas average 4.4/sup 0/C lower in the Garua (cool) season than in the Hot season. Measured T/sub b/'s and those predicted from biophysical models permitted the following conclusions: (1) lower T/sub b/'s during the Garua season represent an active shift in thermoregulation by the iguanas rather than a passive result of a cooler season; (2) the average midday T/sub b/ selected by the iguanas in either season is the T/sub b/ that allows maintenance of a constant T/sub b/ for the longest possible portion of the day; (3) by exploiting the warmer microclimate created by a cliff face, the iguanas are able to maintain a constant T/sub b/ for a full hour longer than they could elsewhere in their home range. Census data demonstrated that the iguanas exploited the warmer microclimate created by the cliff extensively during the Garua season, and the cliff face was visited by the iguanas relatively infrequently during the Hot season. Thus, the exploitation of the microclimate created by the cliff results in seasonal differences in the pattern of space utilization within the home ranges of the iguanas. Within the Garua season the iguanas moved away from the cliff more often on sunny days than during cloudy days. It is concluded that the physical environment is an important determinant of patterns of space utilization both within and between seasons.

  15. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly. PMID:23983895

  16. Antibody-producing cells correlated to body weight in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Population-specific effects of developmental temperature on body condition and jumping performance of a widespread European frog.

    PubMed

    Drakulić, Sanja; Feldhaar, Heike; Lisičić, Duje; Mioč, Mia; Cizelj, Ivan; Seiler, Michael; Spatz, Theresa; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-05-01

    All physiological processes of ectotherms depend on environmental temperature. Thus, adaptation of physiological mechanisms to the thermal environments is important for achieving optimal performance and fitness. The European Common Frog, Rana temporaria, is widely distributed across different thermal habitats. This makes it an exceptional model for studying the adaptations to different thermal conditions. We raised tadpoles from Germany and Croatia at two constant temperature treatments (15°C, 20°C), and under natural temperature fluctuations (in outdoor treatments), and tested how different developmental temperatures affected developmental traits, that is, length of larval development, morphometrics, and body condition, as well as jumping performance of metamorphs. Our results revealed population-specific differences in developmental time, body condition, and jumping performance. Croatian frogs developed faster in all treatments, were heavier, in better body condition, and had longer hind limbs and better jumping abilities than German metamorphs. The populations further differed in thermal sensitivity of jumping performance. While metamorphs from Croatia increased their jumping performance with higher temperatures, German metamorphs reached their performance maximum at lower temperatures. These population-specific differences in common environments indicate local genetic adaptation, with southern populations being better adapted to higher temperatures than those from north of the Alps. PMID:27092238

  18. Reducing temperature influence on dry quantitative ultrasound bone assessment with constant temperature control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Xu, Yu-Bing; Zhan, Li-Kui; Ma, Zu-Chang; Sun, Yi-Ning

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays, ultrasonic bone assessment is increasingly being used to assess bone status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to enhance the precision of ultrasonic bone assessment by reducing the influence of temperature in a dry, gel coupled transducer system. A warm airflow generator was designed to make the measurement temperature constant (35±1°C). Thirty people were recruited for the evaluation of in-vivo performance. The short-term precision was performed 10 times with repositioning during a consecutive measurement session within 20min. It was expressed as root-mean square average of coefficient of variation, which is abbreviated for CV(RMS). The CV(RMS) was 3.84% for broadband ultrasound attenuation, and 0.30% for speed of sound. The Pearson correlations between gel coupled transducer system and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were 0.808 (p<0.001) for broadband ultrasound attenuation, and 0.586 (p<0.005) for speed of sound. The result showed the high performance of reproducibility and the significant (p<0.005) correlations with DEXA in the dry, gel coupled transducer system. PMID:21907379

  19. Possibility of passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing of objects placed inside the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2014-06-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. We demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. We discuss some physical experiments, in which a person drinks hot, and warm, and cold water and he eats. After computer processing of images captured by passive THz camera TS4 we may see the pronounced temperature trace on skin of the human body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. Our investigation allows to increase field of the passive THz camera using for the detection of objects concealed in the human body because the difference in temperature between object and parts of human body will be reflected on the human skin. However, modern passive THz cameras have not enough resolution in a temperature to see this difference. That is why, we use computer processing to enhance the camera resolution for this application. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp.

  20. A Proposed Methodology to Control Body Temperature in Patients at Risk of Hypothermia by means of Active Rewarming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Silvia; Cusumano, Alessia; Giaconia, Carlo; Mazzacane, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia is a common complication in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. It has been noted that, during the first hour of surgery, the patient's internal temperature (Tcore) decreases by 0.5–1.5°C due to the vasodilatory effect of anesthetic gases, which affect the body's thermoregulatory system by inhibiting vasoconstriction. Thus a continuous check on patient temperature must be carried out. The currently most used methods to avoid hypothermia are based on passive systems (such as blankets reducing body heat loss) and on active ones (thermal blankets, electric or hot-water mattresses, forced hot air, warming lamps, etc.). Within a broader research upon the environmental conditions, pollution, heat stress, and hypothermia risk in operating theatres, the authors set up an experimental investigation by using a warming blanket chosen from several types on sale. Their aim was to identify times and ways the human body reacts to the heat flowing from the blanket and the blanket's effect on the average temperature Tskin and, as a consequence, on Tcore temperature of the patient. The here proposed methodology could allow surgeons to fix in advance the thermal power to supply through a warming blanket for reaching, in a prescribed time, the desired body temperature starting from a given state of hypothermia. PMID:25485278

  1. Beef cattle body temperature during climatic stress: a genome-wide association study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; Kachman, Stephen D.; Snelling, Warren M.; Pollak, E. John; Ciobanu, Daniel C.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Spangler, Matthew L.

    2014-09-01

    Cattle are reared in diverse environments and collecting phenotypic body temperature (BT) measurements to characterize BT variation across diverse environments is difficult and expensive. To better understand the genetic basis of BT regulation, a genome-wide association study was conducted utilizing crossbred steers and heifers totaling 239 animals of unknown pedigree and breed fraction. During predicted extreme heat and cold stress events, hourly tympanic and vaginal BT devices were placed in steers and heifers, respectively. Individuals were genotyped with the BovineSNP50K_v2 assay and data analyzed using Bayesian models for area under the curve (AUC), a measure of BT over time, using hourly BT observations summed across 5-days (AUC summer 5-day (AUCS5D) and AUC winter 5-day (AUCW5D)). Posterior heritability estimates were moderate to high and were estimated to be 0.68 and 0.21 for AUCS5D and AUCW5D, respectively. Moderately positive correlations between direct genomic values for AUCS5D and AUCW5D (0.40) were found, although a small percentage of the top 5 % 1-Mb windows were in common. Different sets of genes were associated with BT during winter and summer, thus simultaneous selection for animals tolerant to both heat and cold appears possible.

  2. Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R.; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J.; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Rahman, Cheryl V.

    2014-01-01

    Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84 ± 24 μm for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2 min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37 °C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24 h at 37 °C was 0.9 ± 0.1 MPa, and the average Young’s modulus was 9.4 ± 1.2 MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54 ± 38 μm. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. PMID:25152354

  3. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37–38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  4. Biphasic Effect of Melanocortin Agonists on Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M.; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Miller, Nicole R.; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons; these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress. PMID:24981835

  5. Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature.

    PubMed

    Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Rahman, Cheryl V

    2014-12-01

    Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84±24μm for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37°C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24h at 37°C was 0.9±0.1MPa, and the average Young's modulus was 9.4±1.2MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54±38μm. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. PMID:25152354

  6. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    PubMed

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  7. Beef cattle body temperature during climatic stress: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeremy T; Kachman, Stephen D; Snelling, Warren M; Pollak, E John; Ciobanu, Daniel C; Kuehn, Larry A; Spangler, Matthew L

    2014-09-01

    Cattle are reared in diverse environments and collecting phenotypic body temperature (BT) measurements to characterize BT variation across diverse environments is difficult and expensive. To better understand the genetic basis of BT regulation, a genome-wide association study was conducted utilizing crossbred steers and heifers totaling 239 animals of unknown pedigree and breed fraction. During predicted extreme heat and cold stress events, hourly tympanic and vaginal BT devices were placed in steers and heifers, respectively. Individuals were genotyped with the BovineSNP50K_v2 assay and data analyzed using Bayesian models for area under the curve (AUC), a measure of BT over time, using hourly BT observations summed across 5-days (AUC summer 5-day (AUCS5D) and AUC winter 5-day (AUCW5D)). Posterior heritability estimates were moderate to high and were estimated to be 0.68 and 0.21 for AUCS5D and AUCW5D, respectively. Moderately positive correlations between direct genomic values for AUCS5D and AUCW5D (0.40) were found, although a small percentage of the top 5% 1-Mb windows were in common. Different sets of genes were associated with BT during winter and summer, thus simultaneous selection for animals tolerant to both heat and cold appears possible. PMID:24362770

  8. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel J; Russell, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Tibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of using passive-heat maintenance, explosive activity or a combination of both strategies during the post-warmup recovery time on physical performance. After a standardised warmup, 16 professional rugby union players, in a randomised design, completed a counter-movement jump (peak power output) before resting for 20 min and wearing normal-training attire (CON), wearing a passive heat maintenance (PHM) jacket, wearing normal attire and performing 3 × 5 CMJ (with a 20% body mass load) after 12 min of recovery (neuromuscular function, NMF), or combining PHM and NMF (COMB). After 20 min, participants completed further counter-movement jump and a repeated sprint protocol. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured at baseline, post-warmup and post-20 min. After 20 min of recovery, Tcore was significantly lower under CON and NMF, when compared with both PHM and COMB (P < 0.05); PHM and COMB were similar. Peak power output had declined from post-warmup under all conditions (P < 0.001); however, the drop was less in COMB versus all other conditions (P < 0.05). Repeated sprint performance was significantly better under COMB when compared to all other conditions. Combining PHM with NMF priming attenuates the post-warmup decline in Tcore and can positively influence physical performance in professional rugby union players. PMID:25925751

  9. Bioimpedance spectroscopy for clinical assessment of fluid distribution and body cell mass.

    PubMed

    Earthman, Carrie; Traughber, Diana; Dobratz, Jennifer; Howell, Wanda

    2007-08-01

    Body composition assessment has been used to evaluate clinical interventions in research trials, and has the potential to improve patient care in the clinical setting. Body cell mass (BCM) is an important indicator of nutrition status; however, its measurement in the clinic has been limited. BCM can be estimated by the measurement of intracellular water (ICW). The assessment of extracellular water (ECW) is also important because many clinical populations undergo alterations in fluid distribution, particularly individuals with wasting, those receiving dialysis, and obese individuals. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a unique bioimpedance approach that differs in underlying basis from the more readily recognized single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA) in that it does not require the use of statistically derived, population-specific prediction equations. It has the potential advantage of not only measuring total body water (TBW), as does SF-BIA, but also offering the unique capacity to differentiate between ECW and ICW and, thus, to provide an estimate of BCM. This literature review was conducted to compare available BIS devices to multiple dilution for measuring fluid compartments or BCM in a number of populations. Variable results regarding the ability of BIS to measure absolute volumes, as well as the observation of wide limits of variation, make BIS problematic for individual assessment in the clinic, particularly in populations with abnormal fluid distribution or body geometry. BIS has been found to be more accurate for measuring changes in fluid volumes or BCM, particularly in post-surgical and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. It is certainly possible that population-specific adjustments may improve the accuracy of BIS for assessing individuals in the clinical setting; however, additional research and development is needed before the method can be accepted for routine clinical use. PMID:17644693

  10. Mapping water bodies over tropical bassins from SMOS L-band brightness temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrens, Marie; Al-Bitar, Ahmad; Kerr, Yann; Cote, Rémi; Richaume, Philippe; Crétaux, Jean-François; Cherchali, Selma; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands and land surface waters play a crucial role in the global water and biogeochimal cycles. Since the 80's, remote sensing techniques provide quantitative estimates of open water surfaces over land. They appear to be a valuable tool to monitor natural and anthropogenic evolution of this variable over the globe. A large array of frequencies has been used to retrieve surface water over land: visible, infrared, radar and passive microwave. In this work, the passive microwave L-band acquisitions from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are used to retrieve the water fraction. At this frequency, the signal is highly sensitive to surface waters. At L-band, the signal is expected to penetrate deeper in vegetation than signal in other frequency, such as visible and infrared and to some extent C-Band microwave. This asset permits to L-band signal to be more sensitive to open water under dense vegetation. In this study, authors focus on the Amazon and Congo basins. It is shown from a preliminary analysis of multi-angular, full polarized brightness temperature data that the dynamics observed over these study areas are related to the changing water bodies than the change in physical temperature. Based on this conclusion, a simple model had been built to obtain open water maps over the Amazon and Congo basin from SMOS brightness temperature at a coarse spatial resolution (25 km x 25 km) and high temporal frequency (2-days). These maps reveal the potential of L-band to monitor the evolution of open water and inundation over land. This new SMOS product is validated with visible data LandSAT. It is also compared to altimeter data (Jason-2) over the Rio Negro river. It was found that the water fraction estimated by SMOS was highly correlated with water levels measured by Jason-2 (R > 0.98). These maps exhibit also a phase shift of three months in the precipitation regime between the South and the North of the Amazon basin.

  11. The Effects of Temperature and Body Mass on Jump Performance of the Locust Locusta migratoria

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Edward P.; Becker, Christie L.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M0.17±0.08 (95% CI), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (Lf+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, Lf+t = 34.9M0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight. PMID:23967304

  12. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight. PMID:23967304

  13. Standard energy metabolism of a desert harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex rugosus: Effects of temperature, body mass, group size, and humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Lighton, J.R.B.; Bartholomew, G.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Pogonomyrmex rugosus is an important seed predator in the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. Its standard rate of O{sub 2} consumption (Vo{sub 2}) varied significantly with temperature. The ratio of the Vo{sub 2} values at 10{degree}C increments in body temperature, Q{sub 10}, also varied with temperature; methods of calculating Vo{sub 2} from temperature with a shifting Q{sub 10} are described. Vo{sub 2} also varied with body mass. Vo{sub 2} was inversely related to relative humidity and was independent of group size. The rise in Vo{sub 2} at low relative humidities was caused by increased activity and resulted in higher rates of net water loss. The primary metabolic adaptation to xeric conditions in P. rugosus appears to be a lower-than-predicted metabolic rate.

  14. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, S.; Martins, L.; Pontes, E.; Hansen, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation. Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature recording devices that measured vaginal temperature every 15 min for 7 days. Vaginal temperature was affected by time of day ( P < 0.0001) and genotype × time ( P < 0.0001) regardless of whether days in milk and milk yield were used as covariates. Additional analyses indicated that the Swedish Red × Holstein had a different pattern of vaginal temperatures than the other three genotypes (Swedish Red × Holstein vs others × time; P < 0.0001) and that Holstein and Jersey had a different pattern than Jersey × Holstein [(Holstein + Jersey vs Jersey × Holstein) × time, P < 0.0001]. However, Holstein had a similar pattern to Jersey [(Holstein vs Jersey) × time, P > 0.10]. These genotype × time interactions reflect two effects. First, Swedish Red × Holstein had higher vaginal temperatures than the other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon but not after the evening milking. Secondly, Jersey × Holstein had lower vaginal temperatures than other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon and again in the late night and early morning. Results point out that there are effects of specific genotypes and evidence for heterosis on regulation of body temperature of lactating cows maintained under grazing conditions and suggest that genetic improvement for thermotolerance through breed choice or genetic selection is possible.

  15. An ecological momentary assessment of the effects of weight and shape social comparisons on women with eating pathology, high body dissatisfaction, and low body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Crowther, Janis H; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and compensatory cognitions and behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, women with high body dissatisfaction and eating pathology (EPHB), high body dissatisfaction (HB), or low body dissatisfaction (LB) recorded their reactions to appearance-focused social comparisons. EPHB and HB women made more upward appearance comparisons than LB women. All women experienced negative emotions and cognitions after upward comparisons, including increased guilt, body dissatisfaction, and thoughts of dieting. EPHB women were most negatively affected by comparisons; they experienced more intense negative emotions, more thoughts of dieting/exercising, and an increase in eating-disordered behavior after upward comparisons. HB women experienced more negative affective consequences and thoughts of dieting than LB women. Results are consistent with social comparison theory and provide important information that may be used to inform eating disorder treatment and prevention efforts. PMID:21496506

  16. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  17. BODY TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT ACTIONS OF CHLORDIMEFORM ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AND AXONAL TRANSPORT IN OPTIC SYSTEM OF RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs), flash evoked potentials (FEPs), optic nerve axonal transport, and body temperature were measured in hooded rats treated with either saline or the formamidine insecticide/acaricide, chlordimeform (CDM). Rats receiving CDM had low body te...

  18. An Examination of Body Temperature for the Rocky Intertidal Mussel species, Mytilus californianus, Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Liff, H.; Lakshmi, V.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature is considered to be one of the most important physical factors in determining organismal distribution and physiological performance of species in rocky intertidal ecosystems, especially the growth and survival of mussels. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of temperature in intertidal ecosystems or how those patterns affect intertidal mussel species because of limitations in data collection. We collected in situ temperature at Strawberry Hill, Oregon USA using mussel loggers embedded among the intertidal mussel species, Mytilus californianus. Remotely sensed surface temperatures were used in conjunction with in situ weather and ocean data to determine if remotely sensed surface temperatures can be used as a predictor for changes in the body temperature of a rocky intertidal mussel species. The data used in this study was collected between January 2003 and December 2010. The mussel logger temperatures were compared to in situ weather data collected from a local weather station, ocean data collected from a NOAA buoy, and remotely sensed surface temperatures collected from NASA's sun-synchronous Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard the Earth Observing System Aqua and EOS Terra satellites. Daily surface temperatures were collected from four pixel locations which included two sea surface temperature (SST) locations and two land surface temperature (LST) locations. One of the land pixels was chosen to represent the intertidal surface temperature (IST) because it was located within the intertidal zone. As expected, all surface temperatures collected via satellite were significantly correlated to each other and the associated in situ temperatures. Examination of temperatures from the off-shore NOAA buoy and the weather station provide evidence that remotely sensed temperatures were similar to in situ temperature data and explain more variability in mussel logger temperatures than the in situ temperatures. Our

  19. Synthesis of low-temperature, fast, single-firing body for porcelain stoneware tiles with coal gangue.

    PubMed

    Qiangwei Wei; Wenyuan Gao; Xinguo Sui

    2010-10-01

    Coal gangue is a major industrial solid waste in China, causing great environment pollution. According to phase diagram theory, a low-temperature, fast, single-firing body mix for porcelain stoneware tiles was designed in the quaternary system CaO--MgO--Al₂O₃--SiO₂, using coal gangue as the main raw material. The coal gangue was from Baishan city, Jilin province and mainly composed of kaolinite and quartz. Mineralogical compositions and microstructures of some selected samples sintered at different temperatures were identified with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results indicated that the optimal body mix was the one containing 34 wt% coal gangue sintered at 1170°C for about 1 h, with rupture strength of 43 MPa and water absorption of 0.22%. The main crystalline phases of the sintered body were quartz, anorthite and mullite. PMID:19942651

  20. Effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to finishing steers on performance, carcass quality, mobility, and body temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbred steers (n=480) were utilized to study the effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance, carcass quality, mobility, and body temperature (BT). A randomized block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted with four replicates per treatme...

  1. Effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to finishing steers on performance, carcass quality, heat stress, mobility, and body temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steers (n = 480) were used to study the effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance, carcass quality, heat stress, mobility, and body temperature (BT). A randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with 4 replicates per treatment. F...

  2. Comparison of physical characteristics, body temperature and resting metabolic rate at 30‡C between subtropical and temperate natives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, S.; Ihzuka, H.

    1986-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements, measurements of skin temperatures, rectal temperature, heart rate and metabolic rate at 30‡C were made on 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa (group O) and 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland but moved to Okinawa less than 2 years before the test (group M) in summer. Group O showed significantly shorter height, lighter body weight, and slender body shape than group M. Group O showed thinner skinfold thickness and smaller percentage of body fat content than group M. Skin temperatures for group O were higher than those for group M, and rectal temperature for group O was slightly lower than that for group M. Group O showed, less metabolic rate per body surface area and slower heart rate than group M. It is concluded that physical characteristics of subtropical natives is favorable for heat dissipation, and subtropical natives have superior capacity for non-evaporative heat dissipation than migrants of temperate natives to a subtropical zone.

  3. A high-resolution thermoelectric module-based calorimeter for measuring the energetics of isolated ventricular trabeculae at body temperature.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Han, June-Chiew; Ruddy, Bryan P; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J

    2015-07-15

    Isolated ventricular trabeculae are the most common experimental preparations used in the study of cardiac energetics. However, the experiments have been conducted at subphysiological temperatures. We have overcome this limitation by designing and constructing a novel calorimeter with sufficiently high thermal resolution for simultaneously measuring the heat output and force production of isolated, contracting, ventricular trabeculae at body temperature. This development was largely motivated by the need to better understand cardiac energetics by performing such measurements at body temperature to relate tissue performance to whole heart behavior in vivo. Our approach uses solid-state thermoelectric modules, tailored for both temperature sensing and temperature control. The thermoelectric modules have high sensitivity and low noise, which, when coupled with a multilevel temperature control system, enable an exceptionally high temperature resolution with a noise-equivalent power an order of magnitude greater than those of other existing muscle calorimeters. Our system allows us to rapidly and easily change the experimental temperature without disturbing the state of the muscle. Our calorimeter is useful in many experiments that explore the energetics of normal physiology as well as pathophysiology of cardiac muscle. PMID:26001412

  4. Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for Extreme Transient Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high temperature flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room temperature compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. Temperature measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little temperature

  5. Assessment of Precision in Temperatures from the Microwave Sounding Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring the earth system has traditionally focused on measurements at the earth's surface because this is where we live and perform our most obvious life sustaining functions. In just the past few decades, however, efforts have been initiated to assess the character of the atmosphere above the surface. Regular upper-air measurements by balloon ascents in scattered locations began in the 1940's and observations from satellites generally began in 1979. The upper air is important in the climate context because changes in these higher levels may offer more discernible relationships to such phenomena as global warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect than seen at other levels. The probability that climate-change trends in the mid-troposphere (5-8 km) will be more clearly evident against the background of natural variability than at, for example, the surface. Indeed, results from coupled ocean-atmosphere models indicate that in terms of a global mean quantity the troposphere will actually warm at a rate greater than that of the surface temperature. At higher elevations, above 12 km, the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1990 indicates there is a high degree of certainty that a greenhouse-gas induced decrease in stratospheric temperatures will occur. The measure of change in these upper atmospheric layers, in combination with quantities observed at the surface, provide an ensemble of information to give the most robust opportunity for climate change detection.

  6. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure. PMID:21772085

  7. Homeostatic versus circadian effects of melatonin on core body temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    Cagnacci, A; Kräuchi, K; Wirz-Justice, A; Volpe, A

    1997-12-01

    Evidence obtained in animals has suggested a link of the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin with the regulation of core body temperature (CBT). Depending on the species considered, melatonin intervenes in generating seasonal rhythms of daily torpor and hibernation, in heat stress tolerance, and in setting the CBT set point. In humans, the circadian rhythms of melatonin is strictly associated with that of CBT, the nocturnal decline of CBT being inversely related to the rise of melatonin. Whereas there is inconsistent evidence for the suggestion that the decline of CBT may prompt the release of melatonin, conversely, stringent data indicate that melatonin decreases CBT. Administration of melatonin during the day, when it is not normally secreted, decreases CBT by about 0.3 to 0.4 degree C, and suppression of melatonin at night enhances CBT by about the same magnitude. Accordingly, the nocturnal rise of melatonin contributes to the circadian amplitude of CBT. The mechanisms through which melatonin decreases CBT are unclear. It is known that melatonin enhances heat loss, but a reduction of heat production cannot be excluded. Besides actions on peripheral vessels aimed to favor heat loss, it is likely that the effect of melatonin to reduce CBT is exerted mainly in the hypothalamus, where thermoregulatory centers are located. Recent observations have shown that the acute thermoregulatory effects induced by melatonin and bright light are independent of their circadian phase-shifting effects. The effect of melatonin ultimately brings a saving of energy and is reduced in at least two physiological situations: aging and the luteal menstrual phase. In both conditions, melatonin does not exert its CBT-lowering effects. Whereas in older women this effect may represent an age-related alteration, in the luteal phase this modification may represent a mechanism of keeping CBT higher at night to promote a better embryo implantation and survival. PMID:9406024

  8. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Alters Core Body Temperature and Corticosterone Rhythms in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Robert J.; Zuloaga, Damian G.; McGivern, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol’s effects on the developing brain include alterations in morphological and biochemistry of the hypothalamus. In order to examine the potential functional consequences of ethanol’s interference with hypothalamic differentiation, we studied the long-term effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on basal circadian rhythms of core body temperature (CBT) and heart rate (HR). We also examined the late afternoon surge in corticosterone (CORT). CBT and HR rhythms were studied in separate groups of animals at 4 months, 8 months and 20 months of age. The normal late-afternoon rise in plasma corticosterone was examined in freely-moving male rats at 6 months of age via an indwelling right-atrial cannula. Results showed that the CBT circadian rhythm exhibited an earlier rise following the nadir of the rhythm in fetal alcohol exposed (FAE) males at all ages compared to controls. At 8 months of age, the amplitude of the CBT circadian rhythm in FAE males was significantly reduced to the level observed in controls at 20 months. No significant effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed on basal HR rhythm at any age. The diurnal rise in corticosterone secretion was blunted and prolonged in 6-month-old FAE males compared to controls. Both control groups exhibited a robust surge in corticosterone secretion around the onset of the dark phase of the light cycle, which peaked at 1930 hours. Instead, FAE males exhibited a linear rise beginning in mid afternoon, which peaked at 2130 hours. These results indicate that exposure to ethanol during the period of hypothalamic development can alter the long-term regulation of circadian rhythms in specific physiological systems. PMID:18047910

  9. Sensitivity of central chemoreceptors controlling blood glucose and body temperature during glucose deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, A; Müller, E E

    1975-01-01

    1. The rise in blood glucose and the fall in body temperature which follows the injection of a glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) into the lateral cerebral ventricle (I.C.V) of unanaesthetized rats were studied and found to be dose-dependent. These 2-DG induced responses are elicited by the impairment of glucose metabolism within central "glucoreceptors'. 2. 2DG induced hyperglycaemia and hypothermia were completely prevented and even the converse effects occurred when fivefold equimolar amounts of D-fructose were simultaneously injected I.C.V.; fructose, at equimolar doses, did not modify the effects of 2-DG. 3. D-xylose and D-ribose, even at high doses, did not influence 2-DG hyperglycaemia, but increased slightly the 2-DG induced hypothermia. This suggests that the pentose phosphate pathway is unable to support the metabolism within the glucoreceptors. 4. Pyruvate suppressed the 2-DG induced hyperglycaemia with a marked delay, while acetate (as ethyl ester) and a mixture of malate plus oxaloacetate did not prevent 2-DG induced effects. These results may be accounted for by the low dosage used. 5. Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate did not prevent 2-DG hypothermia and hyperglycaemia. 6. An effective prevention of the 2-DG induced hyperglycaemia and hypothermia was achieved with fumarate and glutamate, indicating that the stimulation of the Krebs cycle within "glucoreceptors' removes the glucoprivic effects. 7. The results indicate that prevention of 2-DG induced effects occurred only with alternate source of metabolic fuel which can support high respiratory rates in brain tissue. It is concluded that central chemoreceptors are not specifically responsive to glucose, or hexoses, but to the rate of oxidative metabolism. PMID:1151783

  10. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, F.

    1997-04-01

    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  11. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  12. Nicotine and elevated body temperature reduce the complexity of the genioglossus and diaphragm EMG signals in rats during early maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, David; Akay, Yasemin M.; Akay, Metin

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we examined the effect of nicotine exposure and increased body temperature on the complexity (dynamics) of the genioglossus muscle (EMGg) and the diaphragm muscle (EMGdia) to explore the effects of nicotine and hyperthermia. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of the EMGdia and EMGg signals was performed using the approximate entropy method on 15 (7 saline- and 8 nicotine-treated) juvenile rats (P25-P35) and 19 (11 saline- and 8 nicotine-treated) young adult rats (P36-P44). The mean complexity values were calculated over the ten consecutive breaths using the approximate entropy method during mild elevated body temperature (38 °C) and severe elevated body temperature (39-40 °C) in two groups. In the first (nicotine) group, rats were treated with single injections of nicotine enough to produce brain levels of nicotine similar to those achieved in human smokers (2.5 (mg kg-1)/day) until the recording day. In the second (control) group, rats were treated with injections of saline, beginning at postnatal 5 days until the recording day. Our results show that warming the rat by 2-3 °C and nicotine exposure significantly decreased the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg for the juvenile age group. This reduction in the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg for the nicotine group was much greater than the normal during elevated body temperatures. We speculate that the generalized depressive effects of nicotine exposure and elevated body temperature on the respiratory neural firing rate and the behavior of the central respiratory network could be responsible for the drastic decrease in the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg signals, the outputs of the respiratory neural network during early maturation.

  13. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  14. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  15. Human Body Parts Tracking and Kinematic Features Assessment Based on RSSI and Inertial Sensor Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Luttwak, Ami

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN), capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts' displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs. PMID:23979481

  16. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  17. Exposure to thermoneutral conditions following acute heat stress reduces skin temperature and increase core body temperature in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new methods of assessing livestock welfare is a growing area of research. Non-invasive methods of assessment such as infrared thermography are valuable for quick and accurate observations and could be utilized to monitor the thermal status of swine without direct contact. The objectives ...

  18. The effects of temperature, desiccation, and body mass on the locomotion of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio laevis.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Tara M; Claussen, Dennis L; Ladd, Gregory B; Buckner, Shizuka T

    2009-06-01

    Locomotion in terrestrial isopods is strongly influenced by body size and by abiotic factors. We determined the speeds of isopods of differing masses within a linear racetrack at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C. We also predicted maximum speeds based on the Froude number concept as originally applied to vertebrates. In addition we used a circular thermal gradient to examine the temperature preferences of isopods, and we measured the effects of desiccation on locomotion. Measured speeds of the isopods progressively increased with temperature with an overall Q(10) of 1.64 and scaling exponents ranging from 0.38 to 0.63. The predicted maximum speeds were remarkably close to the measured speeds at the highest test temperature although the scaling exponents were closer to 0.15. The isopods did not exhibit a strong thermal preference within the gradient; however, they did generally avoid temperatures above 25 degrees C. Moderate desiccation had no apparent effect on locomotor performance, but there was a progressive decrease in speed once animals had lost more than 10% of their initial body mass. Though largely restricted to moist habitats, P. laevis can easily withstand short exposures to desiccating conditions, and they are capable of effective locomotion over a wide range of temperatures. Since they are nonconglobating, active escape appears to be their primary defense when threatened under exposed conditions. Although their maximum speeds may be limited both by temperature and by their inability to change gait, these speeds are clearly adequate for survival. PMID:19535030

  19. Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft System Noise Assessment with Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Olson, Erik D.

    2010-01-01

    A system noise assessment of a hybrid wing body configuration was performed using NASA s best available aircraft models, engine model, and system noise assessment method. A propulsion airframe aeroacoustic effects experimental database for key noise sources and interaction effects was used to provide data directly in the noise assessment where prediction methods are inadequate. NASA engine and aircraft system models were created to define the hybrid wing body aircraft concept as a twin engine aircraft with a 7500 nautical mile mission. The engines were modeled as existing technology high bypass ratio turbofans. The baseline hybrid wing body aircraft was assessed at 22 dB cumulative below the FAA Stage 4 certification level. To determine the potential for noise reduction with relatively near term technologies, seven other configurations were assessed beginning with moving the engines two fan nozzle diameters upstream of the trailing edge and then adding technologies for reduction of the highest noise sources. Aft radiated noise was expected to be the most challenging to reduce and, therefore, the experimental database focused on jet nozzle and pylon configurations that could reduce jet noise through a combination of source reduction and shielding effectiveness. The best configuration for reduction of jet noise used state-of-the-art technology chevrons with a pylon above the engine in the crown position. This configuration resulted in jet source noise reduction, favorable azimuthal directivity, and noise source relocation upstream where it is more effectively shielded by the limited airframe surface, and additional fan noise attenuation from acoustic liner on the crown pylon internal surfaces. Vertical and elevon surfaces were also assessed to add shielding area. The elevon deflection above the trailing edge showed some small additional noise reduction whereas vertical surfaces resulted in a slight noise increase. With the effects of the configurations from the

  20. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  1. Influence of the circadian rhythm of body temperature on the physiological response to microwaves: Day versus night exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.

    1981-10-01

    The results of this study demonstrate an influence of the circadian rhythm on the effects of microwave exposure on plasma cortisol and rectal temperature. The lower rectal temperature during night exposures was presumably due to the lower sham-condition temperature at night, since the temperature increase over sham levels was similar for either day or night exposures. The absence of a cortisol response during night exposures may be simply related to the absolute body temperature reached, although more complex circadian influences cannot be eliminated by these data. Although the results were insufficient to provide a clear understanding of the mechanisms involved, it was shown conclusively that the responses studied depended not only on the independent variables of microwave exposure selected, but also on the baseline levels of the normal physiological state that existed at the time of exposure.

  2. Design and Implementation of an Assessment Model for Students Entering Vocational Education Programs in the State of Colorado. Auto Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This basic vocational related skills assessment module in auto body is one of sixteen modules designed to help teachers assess and identify some of the areas in which special needs students may encounter learning difficulties. The materials in the module allow for informal assessment in three basic areas: academic skills, motor skills, and…

  3. The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann Christopher; Greenway, Kate; Opar, David; Livingstone, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron James

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the precision of pencil and fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices for assessing body composition in professional Australian Football players. Thirty-six professional Australian Football players, in two groups (fan DXA, N = 22; pencil DXA, N = 25), underwent two consecutive DXA scans. A whole body phantom with known values for fat mass, bone mineral content and fat-free soft tissue mass was also used to validate each DXA device. Additionally, the criterion phantom was scanned 20 times by each DXA to assess reliability. Test-retest reliability of DXA anthropometric measures were derived from repeated fan and pencil DXA scans. Fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content from both DXA units showed strong correlations with, and trivial differences to, the criterion phantom values. Fat mass from both DXA showed moderate correlations with criterion measures (pencil: r = 0.64; fan: r = 0.67) and moderate differences with the criterion value. The limits of agreement were similar for both fan beam DXA and pencil beam DXA (fan: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1650 ± 179 g, fat mass = -357 ± 316 g, bone mineral content = 289 ± 122 g; pencil: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1701 ± 257 g, fat mass = -359 ± 326 g, bone mineral content = 177 ± 117 g). DXA also showed excellent precision for bone mineral content (coefficient of variation (%CV) fan = 0.6%; pencil = 1.5%) and fat-free soft tissue mass (%CV fan = 0.3%; pencil = 0.5%) and acceptable reliability for fat measures (%CV fan: fat mass = 2.5%, percent body fat = 2.5%; pencil: fat mass = 5.9%, percent body fat = 5.7%). Both DXA provide precise measures of fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content in lean Australian Football players. DXA-derived fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content are suitable for assessing body composition in lean team sport athletes. PMID:24914773

  4. Skin rubdown with a dry towel, 'kanpu-masatsu' is an aerobic exercise affecting body temperature, energy production, and the immune and autonomic nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Takano, Osamu; Tomiyama, Chikako; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Abo, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Skin rubdown using a dry towel (SRDT) to scrub the whole body is a traditional therapy for health promotion. To investigate its mechanism, 24 healthy male volunteers were studied. Body temperature, pulse rate, red blood cells (RBCs), serum levels of catecholamines and cortisol, blood gases (PO(2), sO(2), PCO(2) and pH), lactate and glucose, and the ratio and number of white blood cells (WBCs) were assessed before and after SRDT. After SRDT, pulse rate and body temperature were increased. PO(2), sO(2) and pH were also increased and there was no Rouleaux formation by RBCs. Lactate level tended to increase, whereas that of glucose did not. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels increased, indicating sympathetic nerve (SN) dominance with increase in granulocytes. WBC number and ratio were divided into two groups according to granulocyte ratio (≤ or < 60%) before SRDT: a normal group and a SN group. Only in the SN group did the granulocyte ratio decrease and the lymphocyte ratio and number increase after SRDT. It is suggested that SRDT is a mild aerobic, systemic exercise that might affect the immune system via the autonomic nervous system. PMID:22975635

  5. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  6. Body Temperature at the Emergency Department as a Predictor of Mortality in Patients With Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shungo; Yamazaki, Shin; Shimizu, Tsunehiro; Takeshima, Taro; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Tochitani, Kentaro; Tsuchido, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Koh; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypothermia is a risk factor for death in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. In the present study, we investigated the association between body temperature (BT) on arrival at the emergency department (ED) and mortality in patients with bacterial infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in consecutive ED patients over 15 years of age with bacterial infection who were admitted to an urban teaching hospital in Japan between 2010 and 2012. The main outcome measure was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Each patient was assigned to 1 of 6 categories based on BT at ED admission. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to adjust for predictors of death. A total of 913 patients were enrolled in the study. The BT categories were <36, 36 to 36.9, 37 to 37.9, 38 to 38.9, 39 to 39.9, and ≥40 °C, with respective mortalities of 32.5%, 14.1%, 8.7%, 8.2%, 5.7%, and 5.3%. Multivariable analysis showed that the risk of death was significantly low in patients with BT 37 to 37.9 °C (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1–0.6, P = 0.003), 38–38.9 °C (AOR: 0.2; 95% CI 0.1–0.6, P = 0.002), 39–39.9 °C (AOR: 0.2; 95% CI 0.1–0.5, P = 0.001), and ≥40 °C (AOR: 0.1; 95% CI 0.02–0.4, P = 0.001), compared with hypothermic patients (BT <36 °C). The higher BT on arrival at ED, the better the outcomes observed in patients with bacterial infection were. PMID:27227924

  7. Hypocretin deficiency in narcolepsy with cataplexy is associated with a normal body core temperature modulation.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Agati, Patrizia; Pierangeli, Giulia; Franceschini, Christian; Guaraldi, Pietro; Barletta, Giorgio; Vandi, Stefano; Cevoli, Sabina; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Montagna, Pasquale; Cortelli, Pietro

    2010-09-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of the hypothalamic neurons producing hypocretin. The clinical hallmarks of the disease are excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, other rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phenomena, and a fragmented wake-sleep cycle. Experimental data suggest that the hypocretin system is involved primarily in the circadian timing of sleep and wakefulness but also in the control of other biological functions such as thermoregulation. The object of this study was to determine the effects of the hypocretin deficit and of the wake-sleep cycle fragmentation on body core temperature (BcT) modulation in a sample of drug-free NC patients under controlled conditions. Ten adult NC patients with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin levels (9 men; age: 38 ± 12 yrs) were compared with 10 healthy control subjects (7 men; age: 44.9 ± 12 yrs). BcT and sleep-wake cycle were continuously monitored for 44 h from 12:00 h. During the study, subjects were allowed to sleep ad libitum, living in a temperature- and humidity-controlled room, lying in bed except when eating, in a light-dark schedule (dark [D] period: 23:00-07:00 h). Sleep structure was analyzed over the 24-h period, the light (L) and the D periods. The wake-sleep cycle fragmentation was determined by calculating the frame-shift index (number of 30-s sleep stage shifts occurring every 15 min) throughout the 44-h study. The analysis of BcT circadian rhythmicity was performed according to the single cosinor method. The time-course changes in BcT and in frame-shift index were compared between narcoleptics and controls by testing the time × group (controls versus NC subjects) interaction effect. The state-dependent analysis of BcT during D was performed by fitting a mixed model where the factors were wake-sleep phases (wake, NREM stages 1 and 2, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep) and group. The results showed that NC patients slept significantly more than

  8. Superficial cooling does not decrease core body temperature before, during, or after exercise in an American football uniform.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of superficial cooling on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. Nine male and female subjects wore a superficial cooling garment while in a cooling (CS) experimental condition or a no cooling (NCS) control condition during an exercise task consisting of warm-up (WU), exercise (EX), and recovery (R). The exercise task simulated an American football conditioning session with subjects wearing a full American football uniform and performing anaerobic and aerobic exercises in a hot humid environment. Subjects were allowed to drink water ad libitum during rest breaks. During the WU, EX, and R periods, core body temperature (T(c)) was measured to assess the effect of the cooling garment. Neither baseline resting before warm-up T(c) nor after warm-up T(c) was significantly different between trials. No significant differences in exercise T(c) between conditions were found. Time to return to baseline T(c) revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions. The authors found that the volume of fluid consumed was 34% less in the experimental condition (711.1 ± 188.0 ml) compared with the control condition (1,077.8 ± 204.8 ml). The findings indicate that the cooling garment was not effective in blunting the rise in T(c) during warm-up, attenuating a rise in T(c) during intermittent exercise, or in increasing a return to baseline T(c) during a resting recovery period in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. PMID:23007493

  9. Tribute to R. G. Boutilier: skin colour and body temperature changes in basking Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956).

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Eterovick, Paula C; de Andrade, Denis V

    2006-04-01

    In amphibians solar basking far from water sources is relatively uncommon since the highly permeable amphibian skin does not represent a significant barrier to the accompanying risk of losing water by evaporation. A South American frog, Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), however, spends a significant amount of the day exposed to full sun and relatively high temperatures. The means by which this frog copes with potentially high rates of evaporative water loss and high body temperatures are unknown. Thus, in this study, skin colour changes, body surface temperature, and evaporative water loss rates were examined under a mixture of field and laboratory conditions to ascertain whether changes in skin reflectivity play an important role in this animal's thermal and hydric balance. Field data demonstrated a tight correlation between the lightness of skin colour and frog temperature, with lighter frogs being captured possessing higher body temperatures. Laboratory experiments supported this relationship, revealing that frogs kept in the dark or at lower temperatures (20 degrees C) had darker skin colours, whereas frogs kept in the light or higher temperatures (30 degrees C) had skin colours of a lighter hue. Light exhibited a stronger influence on skin colour than temperature alone, suggesting that colour change is triggered by the increase in incident solar energy and in anticipation of changes in body temperature. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation that cold, darkly coloured frogs placed in the sun rapidly became lighter in colour during the initial warming up period (over the first 5 min), after which they warmed up more slowly and underwent a further, albeit slower, lightening of skin colour. Surprisingly, despite its natural disposition to bask in the sun, this species does not possess a ;waterproof' skin, since its rates of evaporative water loss were not dissimilar from many hylid species that live in arboreal or semi-aquatic environments

  10. Body-composition assessment in infancy: Air-displacement plethysmography compared with a reference 4-compartment model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A better understanding of the associations of early infant nutrition and growth with adult health requires accurate assessment of body composition in infancy. Objective: This study evaluated the performance of an infant-sized air-displacement plethysmograph (PEA POD Infant Body Compositi...

  11. Psychometric properties of a French version of a Dutch scale for assessing breast and body image (BBIS) in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic testing among women for BRCA1/2 mutation can have various psychological effects, such as those focusing on body image. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a generic scale assessing breast and body image (BBIS) in healthy women tested for BRCA1/2 mutations. Methods A Dutch body image scale focusing on both general and breast-related body image was translated into French. It was presented to a French cohort of female cancer-free BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers (N = 568). The psychometric properties of the scale were studied by assessing its dimensional and factorial structure, internal consistency, construct-related validity, and external validity. Results The scale was found to be a satisfactory psychometric tool for assessing both body image and breast image. The three main dimensions which emerged were classified under the headings “values attached to body image”, “satisfaction with body image and perceived attractiveness”, and “satisfaction with breasts”. The BBIS scores were not significantly associated with the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics or their BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status, but significant associations were observed between these scores and the women’s medical and behavioural characteristics. Conclusions The BBIS is a generic tool which can be used to assess body image in either affected or unaffected women. The scale will have to be administered to other populations in order to confirm its validity. PMID:23680028

  12. Flaw assessment procedure for high temperature reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, R.A. . Berkeley Nuclear Labs.); Ruggles, M.B. ); Takahashi, Y. . Komae Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    An interim high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the USA, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the UK. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack growth laws may be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. Some of these limitations are to be addressed in an extension of the current collaborative program. 20 refs.

  13. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  14. Comparison of DXA and CT in the assessment of body composition in premenopausal women with obesity and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bredella, Miriam A; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Thomas, Bijoy J; Torriani, Martin; Brick, Danielle J; Gerweck, Anu V; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2010-11-01

    Accurate methods for assessing body composition in subjects with obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) are important for determination of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and to monitor therapeutic interventions. The purpose of our study was to assess the accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring abdominal and thigh fat, and thigh muscle mass in premenopausal women with obesity, AN, and normal weight compared to computed tomography (CT). In addition, we wanted to assess the impact of hydration on DXA-derived measures of body composition by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We studied a total of 91 premenopausal women (34 obese, 39 with AN, and 18 lean controls). Our results demonstrate strong correlations between DXA- and CT-derived body composition measurements in AN, obese, and lean controls (r = 0.77-0.95, P < 0.0001). After controlling for total body water (TBW), the correlation coefficients were comparable. DXA trunk fat correlated with CT visceral fat (r = 0.51-0.70, P < 0.0001). DXA underestimated trunk and thigh fat and overestimated thigh muscle mass and this error increased with increasing weight. Our study showed that DXA is a useful method for assessing body composition in premenopausal women within the phenotypic spectrum ranging from obesity to AN. However, it is important to recognize that DXA may not accurately assess body composition in markedly obese women. The level of hydration does not significantly affect most DXA body composition measurements, with the exceptions of thigh fat. PMID:20111013

  15. Effects of tracheostomy breathing on brain and body temperatures in hyperthermic sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Laburn, H P; Mitchell, D; Mitchell, G; Saffy, K

    1988-01-01

    1. We measured rectal and hypothalamic temperature in sheep breathing nasally and via a tracheostomy, during hyperthermia resulting from exposure to a hot environment, exercise and fever. 2. In normothermic and hyperthermic sheep hypothalamic temperature was up to 1.0 degree C lower than rectal temperature when the sheep breathed nasally. Tracheostomy breathing abolished the rectal-hypothalamic temperature difference. 3. In sheep breathing via the tracheostomy and exposed to a dry-bulb temperature of 45-50 degrees C for 2 h, hypothalamic temperature exceeded rectal temperature by about 0.4 degrees C, and was significantly higher than that in sheep breathing nasally in the same environment. 4. During exercise on a treadmill and in the post-exercise period, the difference between hypothalamic and rectal temperature was abolished in the sheep while breathing through the tracheostomy, and rectal temperature rose to higher levels compared to those evident in the same activity while breathing nasally. 5. After an I.V. injection of 0.4 micrograms/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the difference between hypothalamic and rectal temperature again was abolished in the sheep when breathing through the tracheostomy, but rectal temperature rose significantly less compared to when breathing nasally. 6. Our results indicate that selective brain cooling depends on upper respiratory tract cooling in normo- and hyperthermic states in sheep. PMID:3254414

  16. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on body temperatures and thermal comfort - an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to cold temperatures is, often, a neglected problem in prehospital care. One of the leading influences of the overall sensation of cold discomfort is the cooling of the back. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on body temperatures and thermal comfort in an experimental study. Method Data were collected during four days in November, 2011 inside and outside of a cold chamber. All participants (n = 23) participated in two trials each. In one trial, they were lying on a stretcher with a supplied heated mattress and in the other trial without a heated mattress. Outcomes were back temperature, finger temperature, core body temperature, Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), four statements from the state-trait anxiety – inventory (STAI), and short notes of their experiences of the two mattresses. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effect of the two mattresses. Results A statistical difference between the regular mattress and the heated mattress was found in the back temperature. In the heated mattress trial, the statement “I am tense” was fewer whereas the statements “I feel comfortable”, “I am relaxed” and “I feel content” were higher in the heated mattress trial. The qualitative analyses of the short notes showed that the heated mattress, when compared to the unheated mattress, was experienced as warm, comfortable, providing security and was easier to relax on. Conclusions Heat supply from underneath the body results in increased comfort and may prevent hypothermia which is important for injured and sick patients in ambulance care. PMID:25103366

  17. Assessing Women's Negative Commentary on Their Own Bodies: A Psychometric Investigation of the Negative Body Talk Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee; Salk, Rachel H.; Miller, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Our article details the development of the self-report Negative Body Talk (NBT) scale and five studies (all conducted with samples of U.S. undergraduate women) supporting the psychometric soundness of scores on this measure. The NBT scale measures women's tendency to engage in negatively valenced commentary about the weight and shape of their own…

  18. Deferoxamine improves antioxidative protection in the brain of neonatal rats: The role of anoxia and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2016-08-15

    After hypoxic-ischemic insult iron deposited in the brain catalyzes formation of reactive oxygen species. Newborn rats, showing reduced physiological body temperature and their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF), a chelator of iron, are protected both against iron-mediated neurotoxicity and against depletion of low-molecular antioxidants after perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of DF on activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, glutathione peroxidase-GPx and catalase-CAT) in the brain of rats exposed neonatally to a critical anoxia at body temperatures elevated to 39°C. Perinatal anoxia under hyperthermic conditions intensified oxidative stress and depleted the pool of antioxidant enzymes. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The present paper evidenced that deferoxamine may act by recovering of SOD, GPx and CAT activity to reduce anoxia-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27297770

  19. Cryptococcus neoformans Thermotolerance to Avian Body Temperature Is Sufficient For Extracellular Growth But Not Intracellular Survival In Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Simon A.; Voelz, Kerstin; May, Robin C.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fatal fungal pathogen of humans that efficiently parasitises macrophages. Birds can be colonised by cryptococci and can transmit cryptococcosis to humans via inhalation of inoculated bird excreta. However, colonisation of birds appears to occur in the absence of symptomatic infection. Here, using a pure population of primary bird macrophages, we demonstrate a mechanism for this relationship. We find that bird macrophages are able to suppress the growth of cryptococci seen in mammalian cells despite C. neoformans being able to grow at bird body temperature, and are able to escape from bird macrophages by vomocytosis. A small subset of cryptococci are able to adapt to the inhibitory intracellular environment of bird macrophages, exhibiting a large cell phenotype that rescues growth suppression. Thus, restriction of intracellular growth combined with survival at bird body temperature explains the ability of birds to efficiently spread C. neoformans in the environment whilst avoiding systemic disease. PMID:26883088

  20. Application of two-colour pyrometry for measuring the surface temperature of a body activated by laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillov, V M; Skvortsov, L A

    2006-08-31

    The features of contactless measurements of the surface temperature of bodies by the method of two-colour pyrometry of samples activated by periodic laser pulses are considered. The requirements imposed on the parameters of laser radiation and a measuring circuit are formulated. It is shown experimentally that surface temperatures close to room temperature can be measured with an error not exceeding 3% after elimination of the superfluous static component of the excess temperature. The sensitivity of the method is estimated. Advantages of laser photothermal radiometry with repetitively pulsed excitation of surfaces over the case when samples are subjected to harmonic amplitude-modulated laser radiation are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  1. Body image, shape, and volumetric assessments using 3D whole body laser scanning and 2D digital photography in females with a diagnosed eating disorder: preliminary novel findings.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Arthur D; Klein, Susan; Young, Julie; Simpson, Susan; Lee, Amanda J; Harrild, Kirstin; Crockett, Philip; Benson, Philip J

    2012-05-01

    We piloted three-dimensional (3D) body scanning in eating disorder (ED) patients. Assessments of 22 ED patients (including nine anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, 12 bulimia nervosa (BN) patients, and one patient with eating disorder not otherwise specified) and 22 matched controls are presented. Volunteers underwent visual screening, two-dimensional (2D) digital photography to assess perception and dissatisfaction (via computerized image distortion), and adjunctive 3D full-body scanning. Patients and controls perceived themselves as bigger than their true shape (except in the chest region for controls and anorexia patients). All participants wished to be smaller across all body regions. Patients had poorer veridical perception and greater dissatisfaction than controls. Perception was generally poorer and dissatisfaction greater in bulimia compared with anorexia patients. 3D-volume:2D-area relationships showed that anorexia cases had least tissue on the torso and most on the arms and legs relative to frontal area. The engagement of patients with the scanning process suggests a validation study is viable. This would enable mental constructs of body image to be aligned with segmental volume of body areas, overcoming limitations, and errors associated with 2D instruments restricted to frontal (coronal) shapes. These novel data could inform the design of clinical trials in adjunctive treatments for eating disorders. PMID:22506746

  2. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. H.; Leonhardt, S.

    2013-04-01

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  3. Evaluation of the Microsoft Kinect as a clinical assessment tool of body sway.

    PubMed

    Yeung, L F; Cheng, Kenneth C; Fong, C H; Lee, Winson C C; Tong, Kai-Yu

    2014-09-01

    Total body center of mass (TBCM) is a useful kinematic measurement of body sway. However, expensive equipment and high technical requirement limit the use of motion capture systems in large-scale clinical settings. Center of pressure (CP) measurement obtained from force plates cannot accurately represent TBCM during large body sway movement. Microsoft Kinect is a rapidly developing, inexpensive, and portable posturographic device, which provides objective and quantitative measurement of TBCM sway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Kinect as a clinical assessment tool for TBCM sway measurement. The performance of the Kinect system was compared with a Vicon motion capture system and a force plate. Ten healthy male subjects performed four upright quiet standing tasks: (1) eyes open (EOn), (2) eyes closed (ECn), (3) eyes open standing on foam (EOf), and (4) eyes closed standing on foam (ECf). Our results revealed that the Kinect system produced highly correlated measurement of TBCM sway (mean RMSE=4.38 mm; mean CORR=0.94 in Kinect-Vicon comparison), as well as comparable intra-session reliability to Vicon. However, the Kinect device consistently overestimated the 95% CL of sway by about 3mm. This offset could be due to the limited accuracy, resolution, and sensitivity of the Kinect sensors. The Kinect device was more accurate in the medial-lateral than in the anterior-posterior direction, and performed better than the force plate in more challenging balance tasks, such as (ECf) with larger TBCM sway. Overall, Kinect is a cost-effective alternative to a motion capture and force plate system for clinical assessment of TBCM sway. PMID:25047828

  4. Bioelectrical impedance is an accurate method to assess body composition in obese but not severely obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Verney, Julien; Metz, Lore; Chaplais, Elodie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and segmental body composition results between bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and to test the reproducibility of BIA in obese adolescents. We hypothesized that BIA offers an accurate and reproducible method to assess body composition in adolescents with obesity. Whole-body and segmental body compositions were assessed by BIA (Tanita MC-780) and DXA (Hologic) among 138 (110 girls and 28 boys) obese adolescents (Tanner stage 3-5) aged 14±1.5years. The BIA analysis was replicated on 3 identical occasions in 32 participants to test the reproducibility of the methods. Whole-body fat mass percentage was significantly higher using the BIA method compared with DXA (40.6±7.8 vs 38.8±4.9%, P<.001), which represents a 4.8% overestimation of the BIA technique compared with DXA. Similarly, fat mass expressed in kilograms is overestimated by 2.8% using BIA (35.8±11.7kg) compared with the DXA measure (34.3±8.7kg) (P<.001), and fat-free mass is underestimated by -6.1% using BIA (P<.001). Except for the right arm and leg percentage of fat mass, all the segmental measures of body composition are significantly different between the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Lin coefficient showed great agreement and concordance between both methods in assessing whole-body composition. Intraclass correlation coefficient between the 3 BIA measures ranged from 0.99 to 1 for body weight, body fat, and fat-free mass. Bioimpedance analysis offers an acceptable and reproducible alternative to assess body composition in obese adolescents, with however a loss of correlation between BIA and DXA with increasing body fat; its validity remains uncertain for segmental analysis among obese youth. PMID:27333957

  5. Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based facial convective coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan

    2014-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.

  6. Effects of a single low-dose acetaminophen on body temperature and running performance in the heat: a pilot project

    PubMed Central

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Philippe, Marc; Krüsmann, Philipp; Kernbeiss, Stefanie; Frontull, Veronica; Kofler, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of a single low-dose (500 mg) acetaminophen on body temperature and running performance in the heat (30 °C). Methods: This is a randomized, cross-over pilot study performed in a climatic chamber at the Department of Sport Science of the University of Innsbruck. Seven male sport students (age, 25.9 ± 2.3 years; VO2max, 67.3 ± 7.1 mL/min/kg) participated in the study. Each participant performed two prolonged exercise tests at a constant intensity on a treadmill at a temperature of 30 °C at an individual intensity corresponding to 70 % VO2max. Two hours before exercising participants were randomly assigned to receive acetaminophen (500 mg) or placebo and performed the same test 2 weeks later with reverse pre-treatment. Results: After 20 min of running in the heat core temperature increase was less under acetaminophen (P = 0.004) and heart rates were higher (P = 0.02) compared to placebo. At the end of exercise neither running time nor body temperature nor ratings of perceived exertion differed between groups. Conclusion: Although the increase in core temperature was slightly reduced by acetaminophen after 20 minutes of running in the heat running performance remained unaffected after pre-treatment with a single low-dose of acetaminophen. PMID:24044039

  7. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Candice M; Starkweather, Peter L; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad (Bufo (Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature (T(b)) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T(b) range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T(b) as low as 3.1 degrees C and as high as 39.1 degrees C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested. PMID:18357398

  8. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Candice M.; Starkweather, Peter L.; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad ( Bufo ( Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature ( T b) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T b range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T b as low as 3.1°C and as high as 39.1°C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  9. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Alawi, Khadija M.; Aubdool, Aisah A.; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D.; Keeble, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed α-/β-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders.—Alawi, K. M., Aubdool, A. A., Liang, L., Wilde, E., Vepa, A., Psefteli, M.-P., Brain, S. D., Keeble, J. E. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature. PMID:26136480

  10. Mathematical model of non-stationary temperature distribution in the metal body produced by induction heating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Josef

    2016-03-01

    An induction heating problem can be described by a parabolic differential equation. For this equation, specific Joule looses must be computed. It can be done by solving the Fredholm Integral Equation of the second kind for the eddy current of density. When we use the Nyström method with the singularity subtraction, the computation time is rapidly reduced. This paper shows the method for finding non-stationary temperature distribution in the metal body with illustrative examples.

  11. Purifying selection drives the evolution of surfactant protein C (SP-C) independently of body temperature regulation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sally; Orgeig, Sandra; Donnellan, Stephen; Daniels, Christopher B

    2007-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant system of heterothermic mammals must be capable of dealing with the effect of low body temperatures on the physical state of the lipid components. We have shown previously that there is a modest increase in surfactant cholesterol during periods of torpor, however these changes do not fully explain the capacity of surfactant to function under the wide range of physical conditions imposed by torpor. Here we examine indirectly the role of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in adapting to variable body temperatures by testing for the presence of positive (adaptive) selection during evolutionary transitions between heterothermy and homeothermy. We sequenced SP-C from genomic DNA of 32 mammalian species from groups of closely related heterothermic and homeothermic species (contrasts). We used phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood estimates of rates of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions and fully Bayesian inference of these sequences to determine whether the mode of body temperature regulation exerts a selection pressure driving the molecular adaptation of SP-C. The protein sequence of SP-C is highly conserved with synonymous or highly conservative amino acid substitutions being predominant. The evolution of SP-C among mammals is characterised by high codon usage bias and high rates of transition/transversion. The only contrast to show evidence of positive selection was that of the bears (Ursus americanus and U. maritimus). The significance of this result is unclear. We show that SP-C is under strong evolutionary constraints, driven by purifying selection, presumably to maintain protein function despite variation in the mode of body temperature regulation. PMID:20483290

  12. Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; García-Lafuente, Francisca; García-Royo, Carmen; Tomás-Rojas, Inmaculada

    2011-10-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body's energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS. PMID:21821642

  13. Effect of acute low body temperature on predatory behavior and prey-capture efficiency in a plethodontid salamander.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Glenn A; Davis, Kayla; Dawson, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    The low-temperature limit for feeding in some salamander species (Desmognathus, Plethodontidae) has been inferred from field studies of seasonal variation in salamander activity and gut contents, which could not determine whether feeding is more dependent on environmental conditions influencing salamander foraging behavior or prey availability and movement. We performed two controlled laboratory experiments to examine the effect of short-term (acute) low body temperature on predatory behavior and prey-capture efficiency in a semiaquatic plethodontid salamander (Desmognathus conanti). In the first experiment, we quantified variation in the feeding responses of cold salamanders (at 1, 3, 5 and 7°C) to a video recording of a walking, warm (15°C) cricket to determine the lower thermal limit for predatory behavior, independent of any temperature effect on movement of prey. Experimental-group salamanders exhibited vigorous feeding responses at 5 and 7°C, large variation in feeding responses both among and within individuals (over time) at 3°C, and little to no feeding response at 1°C. Feeding responses at both 1 and 3°C were significantly less than at each higher temperature, whereas responses of control-group individuals at 15°C did not vary over time. In the second experiment, we quantified feeding by cold salamanders (at 3, 5, 7 and 11°C) on live, warm crickets to examine thermal effects on prey-capture ability. The mean feeding response to live crickets was significantly less at 3°C than at higher temperatures; however, 50% of salamanders captured and ingested prey with high efficiency at this temperature. We conclude that many individuals stalk and capture prey at very low temperatures (down to 3°C). Our results support a growing body of data that indicate many plethodontid salamanders feed at temperatures only a few degrees above freezing. PMID:26939728

  14. Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-03-01

    Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

  15. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Alawi, Khadija M; Aubdool, Aisah A; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D; Keeble, Julie E

    2015-10-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed α-/β-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders. PMID:26136480

  16. The effect of rearing temperature on development, body size, energetics and fecundity of the diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Garrad, R; Booth, D T; Furlong, M J

    2016-04-01

    Temperature is arguably the most important abiotic factor influencing the life history of ectotherms. It limits survival and affects all physiological and metabolic processes, including energy and nutrient procurement and processing, development and growth rates, locomotion ability and ultimately reproductive success. However, the influence of temperature on the energetic cost of development has not been thoroughly investigated. We show that in the diamondback moth [Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)] rearing temperature (range 10-30°C) affected growth and development rates, the energetic cost of development and fecundity. Rearing at lower temperatures increased development times and slowed growth rate, but resulted in larger adult mass. Fecundity was lowest at 10°C, highest at 15°C and intermediate at temperatures of 20°C and above. At a given rearing temperature fecundity was correlated with pupal mass and most eggs were laid on the first day of oviposition, there was no correlation between total eggs laid and adult longevity. The highest production cost was incurred at 10°C; this decreased with increasing temperature, was minimized in the range 20-25°C, and then increased again at 30°C. These minimized production costs occurred at temperatures close to the intrinsic optimum temperature for this species and may reflect the rearing temperature for optimal fitness. Thus at sub-optimal temperatures greater food resources are required during the development period. Predicted increased temperatures at the margins of the current core distribution of P. xylostella could ameliorate current seasonal effects on fecundity, thereby increasing the probability of winter survival leading to more resilient range expansion and an increased probability of pest outbreaks. PMID:26696587

  17. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

    2011-10-31

    Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select

  18. Replication of Boid Inclusion Body Disease-Associated Arenaviruses Is Temperature Sensitive in both Boid and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kipar, Anja; Korzyukov, Yegor; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Vapalahti, Olli; Hetzel, Udo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Boid inclusion body disease (BIDB) is a fatal disease of boid snakes, the etiology of which has only recently been revealed following the identification of several novel arenaviruses in diseased snakes. BIBD-associated arenaviruses (BIBDAV) are genetically divergent from the classical Old and New World arenaviruses and also differ substantially from each other. Even though there is convincing evidence that BIBDAV are indeed the etiological agent of BIBD, the BIBDAV reservoir hosts—if any exist besides boid snakes themselves—are not yet known. In this report, we use University of Helsinki virus (UHV; a virus that we isolated from a Boa constrictor with BIBD) to show that BIBDAV can also replicate effectively in mammalian cells, including human cells, provided they are cultured at 30°C. The infection induces the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IB), comprised mainly of viral nucleoprotein (NP), similar to those observed in BIBD and in boid cell cultures. Transferring infected cells from 30°C to 37°C ambient temperature resulted in progressive declines in IB formation and in the amounts of viral NP and RNA, suggesting that BIBDAV growth is limited at 37°C. These observations indirectly indicate that IB formation is linked to viral replication. In addition to mammalian and reptilian cells, UHV infected arthropod (tick) cells when grown at 30°C. Even though our findings suggest that BIBDAV have a high potential to cross the species barrier, their inefficient growth at mammalian body temperatures indicates that the reservoir hosts of BIBDAV are likely species with a lower body temperature, such as snakes. IMPORTANCE The newly discovered boid inclusion body disease-associated arenaviruses (BIBDAV) of reptiles have drastically altered the phylogeny of the family Arenavirus. Prior to their discovery, known arenaviruses were considered mainly rodent-borne viruses, with each arenavirus species having its own reservoir host. BIBDAV have so far been

  19. Variation in the daily rhythm of body temperature of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): does water limitation drive heterothermy?

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the limits of homeothermy, has been advanced as a key adaptation of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) to their arid-zone life. We measured body temperature using implanted data loggers, for a 1-year period, in five oryx free-living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, during hot months compared to cooler months, not only were maximum daily body temperatures higher (41.1 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.1°C, P = 0.0002) but minimum daily body temperatures also were lower (36.1 ± 0.3 vs. 36.8 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.04), resulting in a larger daily amplitude of the body temperature rhythm (5.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.0007), while mean daily body temperature rose by only 0.4°C. The maximum daily amplitude of the body temperature rhythm reached 7.7°C for two of our oryx during the hot-dry period, the largest amplitude ever recorded for a large mammal. Body temperature variability was influenced not only by ambient temperature but also water availability, with oryx displaying larger daily amplitudes of the body temperature rhythm during warm-dry months compared to warm-wet months (3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3°C, P = 0.005), even though ambient temperatures were the same. Free-living Arabian oryx therefore employ heterothermy greater than that recorded in any other large mammal, but water limitation, rather than high ambient temperature, seems to be the primary driver of this heterothermy. PMID:20502901

  20. Comparison of different methods to assess natural backgrond levels in groundwater bodies in southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Parrone, Daniele; Ghergo, Stefano; Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Oliveira, Juana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the natural background levels (NBLs) of a substance or element is important to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in groundwater bodies. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. Rainfall composition, water-rock interactions in both vadose and saturated zone, exchanges with other water bodies and residence time also contribute to determine the groundwater natural composition. Nowadays there are different methods to assess NBLs but the main concern is that they may provide different results. In the European legislative context, the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) requests to EU Member States to derive appropriate threshold values (TV) for several potentially harmful substances, taking into account NBLs when necessary, in order to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies. In the framework of a common project between Italy (CNR) and Portugal (FCT), several groundwater bodies were taken into account in different regions of Italy (Latium and Campania) and Portugal. The general objective is the definition of a sound comprehensive methodology for NBL assessment at groundwater body scale, suitable to different hydrogeological settings through comparing diverse case studies and different approaches. The Italian case studies are located in volcanic or volcano-sedimentary geological contexts, where high concentrations of substances such as As, F, Fe, Mn among others in groundwater are well known. The Portuguese case studies are located in carbonate and porous media aquifers. Several data sets were explored with the use of statistical as well as mathematical procedures in order to determine a threshold between natural and anthropogenic concentration. Today essentially two groups of methods are proposed, the first ascribed to the probability plots (PP method), the second based on the selection of the

  1. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid red...

  2. Regional and total body active heating and cooling of a resting diver in water of varied temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardy, Erik; Mollendorf, Joseph; Pendergast, David

    2008-02-01

    Passive insulations alone are not sufficient for maintaining underwater divers in thermal balance or comfort. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the active heating and cooling requirements to keep a diver at rest in thermal balance and comfort in water temperatures between 10 and 40 °C. A diver wearing a prototype tubesuit and a wetsuit (3 or 6.5 mm foam neoprene) was fully submersed (0.6 m) in water at a specified temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 °C). During immersion, the tubesuit was perfused with 30 °C water at a flow rate of 0.5 L min-1 to six individual body regions. An attempt was made to keep skin temperatures below 42 °C in hot water (>30 °C) and elevated but below 32 °C in cold water (<20 °C). A skin temperature of 32 °C is the threshold for maximal body thermal resistance due to vasoconstriction. Skin temperatures and core temperature were monitored during immersion to ensure they remained within set thermal limits. In addition skin heat flux, oxygen consumption and the thermal exchange of the tubesuit were measured. In both wetsuit thicknesses there was a linear correlation between the thermal exchange of the tubesuit and ambient water temperature. In the 6.5 mm wetsuit -214 W to 242 W of heating (-) and cooling (+) was necessary in 10 °C to 40 °C water, respectively. In the 3 mm wetsuit -462 to 342 W was necessary in 10 °C to 40 °C water, respectively. It was therefore concluded that a diver at rest can be kept in thermal balance in 10-40 °C water with active heating and cooling.

  3. Computer program simplifies transient and steady-state temperature prediction for complex body shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giebler, K. N.

    1966-01-01

    Computer program evaluates heat transfer modes and calculates either the transient or steady-state temperature distributions throughout an object of complex shape when heat sources are applied to specified points on the object. It uses an electrothermal model to simulate the conductance, heat capacity, and temperature potential of the object.

  4. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chin-Lung; Zheng, Gou-Tsun

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C. PMID:26610508

  5. Hf-W thermochronometry: Closure temperature and constraints on the accretion and cooling history of the H chondrite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, Thorsten; Touboul, Mathieu; Van Orman, James A.; Bourdon, Bernard; Maden, Colin; Mezger, Klaus; Halliday, Alex N.

    2008-06-01

    We obtained Hf-W metal-silicate isochrons for several H chondrites of petrologic types 4, 5, and 6 to constrain the accretion and high-temperature thermal history of the H chondrite parent body. The silicate fractions have 180Hf/184W ratios up to ˜ 51 and 182W/184W ratios up to ˜ 33 ɛ units higher than the whole-rock. These high 180Hf/184W and radiogenic W isotope ratios result in highly precise Hf-W ages. The Hf-W ages of the H chondrites become younger with increasing metamorphic grade and range from ΔtCAI = 1.7 ± 0.7 Ma for the H4 chondrite Ste. Marguerite to ΔtCAI = 9.6 ± 1.0 Ma for the H6 chondrites Kernouvé and Estacado. Closure temperatures for the Hf-W system in H chondrites were estimated from numerical simulations of W diffusion in high-Ca pyroxene, the major host of radiogenic 182W in H chondrites, and range from 800 ± 50 °C for H4 chondrites to 875 ± 75 °C for H6 chondrites. Owing to these high closure temperatures, the Hf-W system closed early and dates processes associated with the earliest evolution of the H chondrite parent body. Consequently, the high-temperature interval of ˜ 8 Ma as defined by the Hf-W ages is much shorter than intervals obtained from Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb dating. For H4 chondrites, heating on the parent body probably was insufficient to cause W diffusion in high-Ca pyroxene, such that the Hf-W age of ΔtCAI = 1.7 ± 0.7 Ma for Ste. Marguerite was not reset and most likely dates chondrule formation. This is consistent with Al-Mg ages of ˜ 2 Ma for L and LL chondrules and indicates that chondrules from all ordinary chondrites formed contemporaneously. The Hf-W ages for H5 and H6 chondrites of ΔtCAI = 5.9 ± 0.9 Ma and ΔtCAI = 9.6 ± 1.0 Ma correspond closely to the time of the thermal peak within the H chondrite parent body. Combined with previously published chronological data the Hf-W ages reveal an inverse correlation of cooling rate and metamorphic grade: shortly after their thermal peak H6 chondrites cooled at ˜ 10

  6. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators. PMID:27387899

  7. Pharmacology of modality-specific transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 antagonists that do not alter body temperature.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Regina M; McDonald, Heath A; Puttfarcken, Pamela S; Joshi, Shailen K; Lewis, LaGeisha; Pai, Madhavi; Franklin, Pamela H; Segreti, Jason A; Neelands, Torben R; Han, Ping; Chen, Jun; Mantyh, Patrick W; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Turner, Teresa M; Voight, Eric A; Daanen, Jerome F; Schmidt, Robert G; Gomtsyan, Arthur; Kort, Michael E; Faltynek, Connie R; Kym, Philip R

    2012-08-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel is involved in the development and maintenance of pain and participates in the regulation of temperature. The channel is activated by diverse agents, including capsaicin, noxious heat (≥ 43°C), acidic pH (< 6), and endogenous lipids including N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA). Antagonists that block all modes of TRPV1 activation elicit hyperthermia. To identify efficacious TRPV1 antagonists that do not affect temperature antagonists representing multiple TRPV1 pharmacophores were evaluated at recombinant rat and human TRPV1 channels with Ca(2+) flux assays, and two classes of antagonists were identified based on their differential ability to inhibit acid activation. Although both classes of antagonists completely blocked capsaicin- and NADA-induced activation of TRPV1, select compounds only partially inhibited activation of the channel by protons. Electrophysiology and calcitonin gene-related peptide release studies confirmed the differential pharmacology of these antagonists at native TRPV1 channels in the rat. Comparison of the in vitro pharmacological properties of these TRPV1 antagonists with their in vivo effects on core body temperature confirms and expands earlier observations that acid-sparing TRPV1 antagonists do not significantly increase core body temperature. Although both classes of compounds elicit equivalent analgesia in a rat model of knee joint pain, the acid-sparing antagonist tested is not effective in a mouse model of bone cancer pain. PMID:22570364

  8. Effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mizuno, Koh

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans. The subjects were eight healthy males, from whom informed consent had been obtained. The experiments were carried out under three different sets of conditions: a control climate [air temperature (Ta)=26°C, relative humidity (RH)=50%] (C); a humid heat climate (Ta=32°C, RH=80%) (H); and a humid heat exposure in later sleep segments (C for the first 3 h 45 min, followed by a 30-min transition to H, which was then maintained for the last 3 h 45 min) (C H). Electroencephalogram, EOG, and mental electromyogram, rectal temperature (Tre), and skin temperature (Tsk) were continuously measured. The total amount of wakefulness was significantly increased in H compared to C H or C. Compared to C, wakefulness in C H and H was significantly increased during later sleep segments. Tre and mean Tsk were significantly higher in H than in C H or C. In C H, Tsk and Tre increased to levels equal to those observed in H after Ta and RH increase. Whole body sweat loss was significantly lower in C H and C than in H. These results suggest that humid heat exposure in the later sleep segment reduces thermal load as compared to full-night humid heat exposure. In daily life, the use of air conditioning in the initial sleep hours can protect sleep and thermoregulation.

  9. Ecotoxicological endpoints, are they useful tools to support ecological status assessment in strongly modified water bodies?

    PubMed

    Palma, P; Ledo, L; Alvarenga, P

    2016-01-15

    Although man-made reservoirs represent an important water supply source in countries where water scarcity has become a problem, little work has been done on the evaluation of their ecological status. Taking this in account, the general aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of ecotoxicological endpoints in the potential ecological status characterization of water reservoirs, with the purpose of their possible integration in evaluation programs developed under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). To achieve this purpose, a group of bioassays were selected to evaluate both water and sediment compartments at the Alqueva reservoir (the biggest from the Iberian Peninsula), with representative species from different taxonomic and functional groups: Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens. The ecotoxicological assessment showed that sublethal endpoints (e.g., luminescence, growth or reproduction), would be more useful and sensitive to identify toxicity patterns in this type of water body. In general, the results from this ecotoxicological toolbox agreed with the potential ecological status established according to the WFD, which indicates that the bioassays complement the ecological assessment. Furthermore, the use of an ecotoxicological approach can be extremely useful, especially in cases where the biotic indices are difficult to establish, such as in man-made reservoirs. However, when pollutant concentrations are very low, and/or when nutrients and organic matter concentrations are high, the two approaches do not fit, requiring further research to determine which organisms are more sensitive and the best biotic indices to use under those conditions. PMID:26402482

  10. Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.

  11. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  12. Usb Spectrometers and the Temperature of the Sun: Measuring Black Body Radiation in the Palm of your Hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Horrocks, Benjamin R.; Walker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    A new experiment appropriate for both general chemistry and physical chemistry students will be described. The experiment utilizes "pocket size" USB spectrometers (operating in the UV/vis region) coupled with fiber optic cables to record a solar spectrum. A further extension of the experiment involves recording spectra of a light bulb at several voltages (and thus resistances). Using provided software, students can fit black body distributions to their obtained spectra. The software will display the acquired spectrum, a simulation based on their guess temperature, a simulation based on their fit, and OMC2 for both. Students can then compare their results to the known temperature of the sun and the known temperature vs resistance curve of tungsten.

  13. The relationship between specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in anatomically based human body models for plane wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Oizumi, Takuya; Hanatani, Ryuto; Chan, Kwok Hung; Wiart, Joe

    2013-02-01

    According to the international safety guidelines/standard, the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (Poljak et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 45 141-5) and the peak spatial average SAR are used as metrics for human protection from whole-body and localized exposures, respectively. The IEEE standard (IEEE 2006 IEEE C95.1) indicates that the upper boundary frequency, over which the whole-body-averaged SAR is deemed to be the basic restriction, has been reduced from 6 to 3 GHz, because radio-wave energy is absorbed around the body surface when the frequency is increased. However, no quantitative discussion has been provided to support this description especially from the standpoint of temperature elevation. It is of interest to investigate the maximum temperature elevation in addition to the core temperature even for a whole-body exposure. In the present study, using anatomically based human models, we computed the SAR and the temperature elevation for a plane-wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz, taking into account the thermoregulatory response. As the primary result, we found that the ratio of the core temperature elevation to the whole-body-averaged SAR is almost frequency independent for frequencies below a few gigahertz; the ratio decreases above this frequency. At frequencies higher than a few gigahertz, core temperature elevation for the same whole-body averaged SAR becomes lower due to heat convection from the skin to air. This lower core temperature elevation is attributable to skin temperature elevation caused by the power absorption around the body surface. Then, core temperature elevation even for whole-body averaged SAR of 4 W kg-1 with the duration of 1 h was at most 0.8 °C, which is smaller than a threshold considered in the safety guidelines/standard. Further, the peak 10 g averaged SAR is correlated with the maximum body temperature elevations without extremities and pinna over the frequencies considered. These findings were confirmed

  14. The hierarchy of multiple many-body interaction scales in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Meevasana, W.

    2010-05-03

    To date, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been successful in identifying energy scales of the many-body interactions in correlated materials, focused on binding energies of up to a few hundred meV below the Fermi energy. Here, at higher energy scale, we present improved experimental data from four families of high-T{sub c} superconductors over a wide doping range that reveal a hierarchy of many-body interaction scales focused on: the low energy anomaly ('kink') of 0.03-0.09eV, a high energy anomaly of 0.3-0.5eV, and an anomalous enhancement of the width of the LDA-based CuO{sub 2} band extending to energies of {approx} 2 eV. Besides their universal behavior over the families, we find that all of these three dispersion anomalies also show clear doping dependence over the doping range presented.

  15. Hierarchy of multiple many-body interaction scales in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Meevasana, W.; Zhou, X.J.; Sahrakorpi, S.; Lee, W.S.; Yang, W.L.; Tanaka, K.; Mannella, N.; Yoshida, T.; Lu, D.H.; Chen, Y.L.; He, R.H.; Lin, Hsin; Komiya, S.; Ando, Y.; Zhou, F.; Ti, W.X.; Xiong, J.W.; Zhao, Z.X.; Sasagawa, T.; Kakeshita, T.; Fujita, K.; Uchida, S.; Eisaki, H.; Fujimori, A.; Hussain, Z.; Markiewicz, R.S.; Bansil, A.; Nagaosa, N.; Zaanen, J.; Devereaux, T.P.; Shen, Z.X.

    2006-12-21

    To date, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been successful in identifying energy scales of the many-body interactions in correlated materials, focused on binding energies of up to a few hundred meV below the Fermi energy. Here, at higher energy scale, we present improved experimental data from four families of high-T{sub c} superconductors over a wide doping range that reveal a hierarchy of many-body interaction scales focused on: the low energy anomaly ('kink') of 0.03-0.09eV, a high energy anomaly of 0.3-0.5eV, and an anomalous enhancement of the width of the LDA-based CuO{sub 2} band extending to energies of {approx} 2 eV. Besides their universal behavior over the families, we find that all of these three dispersion anomalies also show clear doping dependence over the doping range presented.

  16. Effects of Met-enkephalin on body temperature of normal and morphine-tolerant rats.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Arrigo Reina, R; Santagostino, A; Scoto, G M; Spadaro, C

    1978-07-19

    The endogenous opioid met-enkephalin intraventricularly adminstered to the rat at the dose of 100 microgram raised rectal temperature, whereas 400 microgram of the pentapeptide caused a diphasic effect, i.e., hypothermia followed by hyperthermia. Met-enkephalin was ineffective when administered i.p. The effects on temperature were substantially similar to those elicited, for both routes of administration, by morphine, which may either raise or lower rat temperature depending on the dose. More naloxone was required to antagonize thermic effects of met-enkephalin than morphine. Finally, there was a lack of effects on temperature for met-enkephalin centrally administered to morphine-tolerant animals, thus providing further evidence, in vivo, of cross tolerance between opiates and naturally occurring ligands of opiate receptors. PMID:98798

  17. Mortality Attributable to Excess Body Mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Peykari, Niloofar; Kasaeian, Amir; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita; Mohammadi, Younes; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25–65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), stroke, hypertensive heart diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), colon cancer, cancer of the body of the uterus, breast cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Results: In 2011, in adults of 25–65 years old, at the national level, excess BMI was responsible for 39.5% of total deaths that were attributed to 9 BMI paired outcomes. From them, 55.0% were males. The highest mortality was attributed to IHD (55.7%) which was followed by stroke (19.3%), and DM (12.0%). Based on the population attributed fractions estimations of 2011, except for colon cancer, the remaining 6 common outcomes were higher for women than men. Conclusions: Despite the priority of the problem, there is currently no comprehensive program to prevention or control obesity in Iran. The present results show a growing need to comprehensive implications for national and sub-national health policies and interventional programs in Iran. PMID:26644906

  18. Does the technique employed for skin temperature assessment alter outcomes? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Minett, Geoffrey M; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-09-01

    Skin temperature is an important physiological measure that can reflect the presence of illness and injury as well as provide insight into the localised interactions between the body and the environment. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse the agreement between conductive and infrared means of assessing skin temperature which are commonly employed in in clinical, occupational, sports medicine, public health and research settings.Full-text eligibility was determined independently by two reviewers. Studies meeting the following criteria were included in the review: (1) the literature was written in English, (2) participants were human (in vivo), (3) skin surface temperature was assessed at the same site, (4) with at least two commercially available devices employed-one conductive and one infrared-and (5) had skin temperature data reported in the study.A computerised search of four electronic databases, using a combination of 21 keywords, and citation tracking was performed in January 2015. A total of 8,602 were returned.Methodology quality was assessed by two authors independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.A total of 16 articles (n = 245) met the inclusion criteria.Devices are classified to be in agreement if they met the clinically meaningful recommendations of mean differences within  ±0.5 °C and limits of agreement of  ±1.0 °C.Twelve of the included studies found mean differences greater than  ±0.5 °C between conductive and infrared devices. In the presence of external stimulus (e.g. exercise and/or heat) five studies found exacerbated measurement differences between conductive and infrared devices.This is the first review that has attempted to investigate presence of any systemic bias between infrared and conductive measures by collectively evaluating the current evidence base. There was also a consistently high risk of bias across the studies, in terms of sample size, random sequence generation, allocation

  19. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.

    PubMed

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane W; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature affect the physiology and metabolism and thus the distribution of fish. In this study we used intermittent flow respirometry to determine the effect of temperature (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20°C) and wet body mass (BM) (~30-460g) on standard metabolic rate (SMR, mgO2h(-1)), maximum metabolic rate (MMR, mgO2h(-1)) and metabolic scope (MS, mgO2h(-1)) of juvenile Atlantic cod. SMR increased with BM irrespectively of temperature, resulting in an average scaling exponent of 0.87 (0.82-0.92). Q10 values were 1.8-2.1 at temperatures between 5 and 15°C but higher (2.6-4.3) between 2 and 5°C and lower (1.6-1.4) between 15 and 20°C in 200 and 450g cod. MMR increased with temperature in the smallest cod (50g) but in the larger cod MMR plateaued between 10, 15 and 20°C. This resulted in a negative correlation between the optimal temperature for MS (Topt) and BM, Topt being respectively 14.5, 11.8 and 10.9°C in a 50, 200 and 450g cod. Irrespective of BM cold water temperatures resulted in a reduction (30-35%) of MS whereas the reduction of MS at warm temperatures was only evident for larger fish (200 and 450g), caused by plateauing of MMR at 10°C and above. Warm temperatures thus seem favourable for smaller (50g) juvenile cod, but not for larger conspecifics (200 and 450g). PMID:25281351

  20. Characterization of a Therapeutic Model of Inhalational Anthrax Using an Increase in Body Temperature in New Zealand White Rabbits as a Trigger for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Bryan D.; Henning, Lisa N.; Stark, Gregory V.; Barnewall, Roy E.; Mott, Jason M.; Meister, Gabriel T.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an appropriate animal therapeutic model is essential to assess the potential efficacy of therapeutics for use in the event of a Bacillus anthracis exposure. We conducted a natural history study that showed New Zealand White rabbits exhibited a significant increase in body temperature (SIBT), changes in hematologic parameters, and increases in C-reactive protein and succumbed to disease with an average time to death of approximately 73 h following aerosol challenge with B. anthracis Ames spores. The SIBT was used as a trigger to treat with a fully human monoclonal antibody directed at protective antigen (PA). Ninety percent (9/10) of the treated rabbits survived the lethal inhalational challenge of B. anthracis. Further characterization investigated the protective window of opportunity for anti-PA antibody administration up to 12 h post-onset of SIBT. Eighty-three percent (5/6) of the rabbits treated at SIBT and 100% (6/6) of those treated at 6 h after SIBT survived challenge. Only 67% (4/6) of the rabbits treated at 12 h after SIBT survived. The increase in body temperature corresponded with both bacteremia and antigenemia (PA in the blood), indicating that SIBT is a suitable trigger to initiate treatment in a therapeutic model of inhalational anthrax. PMID:22837095

  1. Temperature Assessment of Heating Stage for a Thermoforming Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Ghazali, F. A.; Ahmad, M. N.; Rahim, M. F. Ab; Jaafar, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Thermoforming is a well-known manufacturing process in the productions of various plastic household and industrial solutions. The heating of a plastic sheet allows the plastic to soften and within its forming window temperature the sheet can replicate a required shape when pressed against a mould. Hence, the heating process is an important thermoforming stage that determine uniformity of the material distribution. This article proposed an experimental approach to investigate the thermal characteristics of the heating section of a low cost thermoforming equipment designed for teaching and research purposes. The temperatures of air and a model of a stretched heated plastic sheet were measured and analysed. The experimental data indicates that the spatial temperatures distribution was not localised and the temperature history of the infrared heating agrees well with those given by fast response thermocouples. The findings suggest that the spatial uniformity of temperature can be reasonably evaluated by using the proposed method.

  2. Physiological response of wild rainbow trout to angling: Impact of angling duration, fish size, body condition, and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meka, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the immediate physiological response of wild rainbow trout to catch-and-release angling in the Alagnak River, southwest Alaska. Information was recorded on individual rainbow trout (n = 415) captured by angling including landing time and the time required to remove hooks (angling duration), the time to anesthetize fish in clove oil and withdraw blood, fish length and weight, and water temperature at capture locations. Plasma cortisol, glucose, ions (sodium, potassium, chloride), and lactate were analyzed to determine the effects of angling duration, fish size, body condition, and temperature. Levels of plasma ions did not change significantly during the observed physiological response and levels of plasma glucose were sometimes influenced by length (2000, 2001), body condition (2001), or temperature (2001). Levels of plasma cortisol and lactate in extended capture fish (angling duration greater than 2 min) were significantly higher than levels in rapid capture fish (angling duration less than 2 min). Rapid capture fish were significantly smaller than extended capture fish, reflecting that fish size influenced landing and handling times. Fish size was related to cortisol and lactate in 2002, which corresponded to the year when larger fish were captured and there were longer landing times. Body condition (i.e., weight/length regression residuals index), was significantly related to lactate in 2000 and 2001. Water temperatures were higher in 2001 (mean temperature ± S.E., 13 ± 2oC) than in 2002 (10 ± 2oC), and fish captured in 2001 had significantly higher cortisol and lactate concentrations than fish captured in 2002. The pattern of increase in plasma cortisol and lactate was due to the amount of time fish were angled, and the upper limit of the response was due to water temperature. The results of this study indicate the importance of minimizing the duration of angling in order to reduce the sublethal physiological disturbances in wild

  3. Body temperature and physical activity correlates of the menstrual cycle in Chacma Baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus).

    PubMed

    Nyakudya, Trevor T; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the temporal relationship between abdominal temperature, physical activity, perineal swelling, and urinary progesterone and estradiol concentrations over the menstrual cycle in unrestrained captive baboons. Using a miniature temperature-sensitive data logger surgically implanted in the abdominal cavity and an activity data logger implanted subcutaneously on the trunk, we measured, continuously over 6 months at 10-min intervals, abdominal temperature and physical activity patterns in four female adult baboons Papio hamadryas ursinus (12.9-19.9 kg), in cages in an indoor animal facility (22-25°C). We monitored menstrual bleeding and perineal swelling changes, and measured urinary progesterone and estradiol concentrations, daily for up to 6 months, to ascertain the stage and length of the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle was 36 ± 2 days (mean ± SD) long and the baboons exhibited cyclic changes in perineal swellings, abdominal temperature, physical activity, urinary progesterone, and estradiol concentrations over the cycle. Mean 24-hr abdominal temperature during the luteal phase was significantly higher than during the periovulatory phase (ANOVA, F((2, 9)) = 4.7; P = 0.04), but not different to that during the proliferative phase. Physical activity followed a similar pattern, with mean 24-hr physical activity almost twice as high in the luteal than in the periovulatory phase (ANOVA, P = 0.58; F((2, 12)) = 5.8). We have characterized correlates of the menstrual cycle in baboons and shown, for the first time, a rhythm of physical activity and abdominal temperature over the menstrual cycle, with a nadir of temperature and activity at ovulation. PMID:22930453

  4. Circannual rhythm in body temperature, torpor, and sensitivity to A₁ adenosine receptor agonist in arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jasmine M; Jinka, Tulasi R; Larson, Lindy K; Danielson, Jeffrey J; Moore, Jeanette T; Carpluck, Joanna; Drew, Kelly L

    2013-06-01

    A₁ adenosine receptor (A₁AR) activation within the central nervous system induces torpor, but in obligate hibernators such as the arctic ground squirrel (AGS; Urocitellus parryii), A₁AR stimulation induces torpor only during the hibernation season, suggesting a seasonal increase in sensitivity to A₁AR signaling. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body temperature (Tb) and sensitivity to an adenosine A1 receptor agonist in AGS. We tested the hypothesis that increased sensitivity in A₁AR signaling would lead to lower Tb in euthermic animals during the hibernation season when compared with the summer season. We further predicted that if a decrease in euthermic Tb reflects increased sensitivity to A₁AR activation, then it should likewise predict spontaneous torpor. We used subcutaneous IPTT-300 transponders to monitor Tb in AGS housed under constant ambient conditions (12:12 L:D, 18 °C) for up to 16 months. These animals displayed an obvious rhythm in euthermic Tb that cycled with a period of approximately 8 months. Synchrony in the Tb rhythm within the group was lost after several months of constant L:D conditions; however, individual rhythms in Tb continued to show clear sine wave-like waxing and waning. AGS displayed spontaneous torpor only during troughs in euthermic Tb. To assess sensitivity to A₁AR activation, AGS were administered the A₁AR agonist N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA, 0.1 mg/kg, ip), and subcutaneous Tb was monitored. AGS administered CHA during a seasonal minimum in euthermic Tb showed a greater drug-induced decrease in Tb (1.6 ± 0.3 °C) than did AGS administered CHA during a peak in euthermic Tb (0.4 ± 0.3 °C). These results provide evidence for a circannual rhythm in Tb that is associated with increased sensitivity to A₁AR signaling and correlates with the onset of torpor. PMID:23735499

  5. Circannual Rhythm in Body Temperature, Torpor, and Sensitivity to A1 Adenosine Receptor Agonist in Arctic Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Jasmine M.; Jinka, Tulasi R.; Larson, Lindy K.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Moore, Jeanette T.; Carpluck, JoAnna; Drew, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) activation within the central nervous system induces torpor, but in obligate hibernators such as the arctic ground squirrel (AGS; Urocitellus parryii), A1AR stimulation induces torpor only during the hibernation season, suggesting a seasonal increase in sensitivity to A1AR signaling. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body temperature (Tb) and sensitivity to an adenosine A1 receptor agonist in AGS. We tested the hypothesis that increased sensitivity in A1AR signaling would lead to lower Tb in euthermic animals during the hibernation season when compared with the summer season. We further predicted that if a decrease in euthermic Tb reflects increased sensitivity to A1AR activation, then it should likewise predict spontaneous torpor. We used subcutaneous IPTT-300 transponders to monitor Tb in AGS housed under constant ambient conditions (12:12 L:D, 18 °C) for up to 16 months. These animals displayed an obvious rhythm in euthermic Tb that cycled with a period of approximately 8 months. Synchrony in the Tb rhythm within the group was lost after several months of constant L:D conditions; however, individual rhythms in Tb continued to show clear sine wave–like waxing and waning. AGS displayed spontaneous torpor only during troughs in euthermic Tb. To assess sensitivity to A1AR activation, AGS were administered the A1AR agonist N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA, 0.1 mg/kg, ip), and subcutaneous Tb was monitored. AGS administered CHA during a seasonal minimum in euthermic Tb showed a greater drug-induced decrease in Tb (1.6 ± 0.3 °C) than did AGS administered CHA during a peak in euthermic Tb (0.4 ± 0.3 °C). These results provide evidence for a circannual rhythm in Tb that is associated with increased sensitivity to A1AR signaling and correlates with the onset of torpor. PMID:23735499

  6. Chronic central serotonin depletion attenuates ventilation and body temperature in young but not adult Tph2 knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Kara; Echert, Ashley E; Massat, Ben; Puissant, Madeleine M; Palygin, Oleg; Geurts, Aron M; Hodges, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Genetic deletion of brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in mice leads to ventilatory deficits and increased neonatal mortality during development. However, it is unclear if the loss of the 5-HT neurons or the loss of the neurochemical 5-HT led to the observed physiologic deficits. Herein, we generated a mutant rat model with constitutive central nervous system (CNS) 5-HT depletion by mutation of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene in dark agouti (DA(Tph2-/-)) rats. DA(Tph2-/-) rats lacked TPH immunoreactivity and brain 5-HT but retain dopa decarboxylase-expressing raphe neurons. Mutant rats were also smaller, had relatively high mortality (∼50%), and compared with controls had reduced room air ventilation and body temperatures at specific postnatal ages. In adult rats, breathing at rest and hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoreflexes were unaltered in adult male and female DA(Tph2-/-) rats. Body temperature was also maintained in adult DA(Tph2-/-) rats exposed to 4°C, indicating unaltered ventilatory and/or thermoregulatory control mechanisms. Finally, DA(Tph2-/-) rats treated with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) partially restored CNS 5-HT and showed increased ventilation (P < 0.05) at a developmental age when it was otherwise attenuated in the mutants. We conclude that constitutive CNS production of 5-HT is critically important to fundamental homeostatic control systems for breathing and temperature during postnatal development in the rat. PMID:26869713

  7. Thermoregulation during flight: body temperature and sensible heat transfer in free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Fellows, Spenser R; Frank, Alexander J; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Bat wings are important for thermoregulation, but their role in heat balance during flight is largely unknown. More than 80% of the energy consumed during flight generates heat as a by-product, and thus it is expected that bat wings should dissipate large amounts of heat to prevent hyperthermia. We measured rectal (T(r)) and surface (T(s)) temperatures of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as they emerged from and returned to their daytime roosts and calculated sensible heat transfer for different body regions (head, body, wings, and tail membrane). Bats' T(r) decreased from 36.8°C during emergence flights to 34.4°C during returns, and T(s) scaled positively with ambient temperature (T(a)). Total radiative heat loss from bats was significantly greater for a radiative sink to the night sky than for a sink with temperature equal to T(a). We found that free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, on average, do not dissipate heat from their wings by convection but instead dissipate radiative heat (L) to the cloudless night sky during flight ([Formula: see text] W). However, within the range of T(a) measured in this study, T. brasiliensis experienced net heat loss between evening emergence and return flights. Regional hypothermia reduces heat loss from wings that are exposed to potentially high convective fluxes. Additional research is needed to establish the role of wings in evaporative cooling during flight in bats. PMID:21034204

  8. Effects of i.v. amino acids on human splanchnic and whole body oxygen consumption, blood flow, and blood temperatures.

    PubMed

    Brundin, T; Wahren, J

    1994-03-01

    The thermic effect of amino acid administration was examined in healthy subjects. Pulmonary and splanchnic oxygen uptake, cardiac output, splanchnic blood flow, and blood temperatures were measured in eight healthy men before and during 2.5 h of intravenous infusion of 600 kJ of a mixture of 19 amino acids. Indirect calorimetry and catheter techniques were used, including thermometry in arterial and a hepatic venous blood. During the infusion, pulmonary oxygen uptake rose progressively from a basal value of 269 +/- 6 to 321 +/- 8 ml/min after 2.5 h. The splanchnic oxygen consumption increased from a basal level of 64 +/- 4 to a peak value of 91 +/- 7 ml/min after 2 h of infusion. The 2.5 h average splanchnic proportion of the amino acid-induced whole body thermogenesis was 51 +/- 11%. Cardiac output increased from 6.2 +/- 0.3 in the basal state to 7.3 +/- 0.4 l/min, whereas the splanchnic blood flow remained unchanged during the infusion period. The arteriohepatic venous oxygen difference increased from 51 +/- 4 in the basal state to 65 +/- 5 ml/l after 2 h of amino acid infusion. The blood temperature rose by approximately 0.25 degrees C during the amino acid infusion, reflecting an increased heat accumulation in the body. It is concluded that the splanchnic tissues account for approximately one-half of the amino acid-induced whole body thermogenesis, that amino acid infusion augments blood flow in the extrasplanchnic but not in the splanchnic tissues, and stimulates the accumulation of heat in the body most likely via a resetting of the central thermosensors. PMID:8166259

  9. A Study on the Body Insulators for the Bushing for HTS Devices at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Shin, H. S.; Kim, S. H.

    A bushing for high temperature superconducting devices (HTS bushing) is important because of applying high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. It is cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2) and is insulated with various insulators. For the development of the HTS bushing, it is necessary to know the fundamental characteristics of various insulators at cryogenic temperature. The electrical characteristics of the breakdown were studied under AC and impulse voltages. Also, the mechanical characteristics such as tensile strength in air and LN2 were studied. It was confirmed that GFRP is excellent not only electrical characteristics but also mechanical characteristics in LN2.

  10. The Effect of Paracetamol on Core Body Temperature in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Manoj K.; Taylor, Colman; Billot, Laurent; Bompoint, Severine; Gowardman, John; Roberts, Jason A.; Lipman, Jeffery; Myburgh, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Strategies to prevent pyrexia in patients with acute neurological injury may reduce secondary neuronal damage. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the routine administration of 6 grams/day of intravenous paracetamol in reducing body temperature following severe traumatic brain injury, compared to placebo. Methods A multicentre, ran